WorldWideScience

Sample records for industry alternative spent-fuel

  1. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  2. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere

  3. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  4. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables

  5. Comparison of spent fuel management fee collection alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.K.; Engel, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Five alternative methods for recovering the costs of spent fuel management were evaluated. These alternatives consist of collecting the fee for various components of spent fuel management cost (AFR basin storage, transportation from AFR basin to the repository, packaging, repository, R and D, and government overhead) at times ranging from generation of power to delivery of the spent fuel to the government. The five fee collection mechanisms were analyzed to determine how well they serve the interests of the public and the electricity ratepayer

  6. Transport of oxide spent fuel. Industrial experience of COGEMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1985-01-01

    COGEMA, the world leading Company in the reprocessing industry who is also involved in the transport activity, is ruling all transports of spent fuel to La Hague reprocessing plant. The paper summarizes some aspects of the experience gained in this field (road, rail and sea transports) and describes the standards defined by COGEMA as regards transport casks. These standards are as follows: - casks of dry type, - casks of the maximum size compatible with rail transports, - capability to be unloaded with standardized equipment and following standard procedures. Considering: 1) the extremely large experience of COGEMA for all transport modes and, 2) the fact that all these transports are performed in full compliance with the IAEA recommendations, COGEMA is convinced that its experience could serve to help countries or utilities willing to undertake to establish a transport system within their own country COGEMA is prepared to contribute to this task on terms to be agreed [fr

  7. The comparison of alternatives for nuclear spent fuel management using multi-attribute utility function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J. W.; Kang, C. S.

    1999-01-01

    It is necessary to find a solution immediately to nuclear spent fuel management that is temporarily stored in on-site spent fuel storage before the saturation of the storage. However the choice of alternative for nuclear spent fuel management consists of complex process that are affected by economic, technical and social factors. And it is not easy to quantify these factors; public opinion, probability of diplomatic problem and contribution to development of nuclear technology. Therefore the analysis of the affecting factors and assessment of alternatives are required. This study performed the comparison of the alternatives for nuclear spent fuel management using MAU (Multi-Attribute Utility Function) and AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process)

  8. Retrofitting a spent fuel pool spray system for alternative cooling as a strategy for beyond design basis events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Christoph; Vujic, Zoran [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Due to requirements for nuclear power plants to withstand beyond design basis accidents, including events such as happened in 2011 in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, alternative cooling of spent fuel is needed. Alternative spent fuel cooling can be provided by a retrofitted spent fuel pool spray system based on the AP1000 plant design. As part of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant's Safety Upgrade Program, Krsko Nuclear Power Plant decided on, and Westinghouse successfully designed a retrofit of the AP1000 {sup registered} plant spent fuel pool spray system to provide alternative spent fuel cooling.

  9. Transport of oxide spent fuel. Industrial experience of COGEMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1983-01-01

    COGEMA is ruling all transports of spent fuel to La Hague reprocessing plant. The paper summarizes some aspects of the experience gained in this field (road, rail and sea transports) and describes the standards defined by COGEMA as regards transport casks. These standards are as follows: - casks of dry type, - casks of the maximum size compatible with rail transports, - capability to be unloaded with standardized equipment and following standard procedures

  10. Some alternatives for DOE acceptance and storage of spent fuel in 1998 and 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.W.; Smith, R.I.; Johnson, E.R.; McLeod, N.B.

    1990-05-01

    Under the Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Fuel and High-Level Waste (10 CFR 961), the Department of Energy (DOE) will accept spent fuel for disposal from current owners. Current projections (DOE 1989a) suggest 2010 as the earliest date for the availability of a geologic repository for the disposal of spent fuel. In addition, DOE (1989a) suggests that a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility with full hot cell capabilities could not be in full service until 2000. As a result, there is a period of about two years wherein DOE is expected to receive and store spent fuel, but during which none of the proposed Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) facilities would be fully functional. During early 1990, a study was initiated to identify, describe, and provide a preliminary evaluation of some short-term alternatives that would permit DOE to accept and store spent fuel during this period. This paper summarizes some key results of this study. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  11. Preliminary estimates of the impacts of alternative spent fuel acceptance rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, L.L.; McKee, R.W.; Short, S.M.

    1986-02-01

    The rate at which spent fuel is accepted by the federal waste management system is an important interface between the private nuclear power sector and the federal government, which will assume responsibility for spent fuel disposal. An analysis of alternative rates based on minimum age criteria indicates substantial incentives to limit acceptance rates so as to result in minimum 10 to 15 year fuel ages for repository acceptance [1500 to 2500 metric tons of uranium (MTU) per year]. These incentives include lower heat generation rates and systems costs

  12. Alternatives for implementing burnup credit in the design and operation of spent fuel transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Lake, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    It is possible to develop an optimal strategy for implementing burnup credit in spent fuel transport casks. For transport, the relative risk is rapidly reduced if additional pre-transport controls such as a cavity dryness verifications are conducted prior to transport. Some other operational and design features that could be incorporated into a burnup credit cask strategy are listed. These examples represent many of the system features and alternatives already available for use in developing a broadly based criticality safety strategy for implementing burnup credit in the design and operation of spent fuel transport casks. 4 refs., 1 tab

  13. The Alternate Technology Program for Aluminum Research Reactor Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the program for disposition of aluminum-based RRSNF, including the requirements for road-ready dry storage and repository disposal and the criteria to be considered in selecting among the alternative technologies

  14. Evaluation of treatment alternatives for wastes from both spent fuel rod consolidation and miscellaneous commercial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Oma, K.H.; Smith, R.I.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1986-07-01

    Alternative treatments were considered for both existing commercial transuranic wastes and future wastes from spent fuel rod consolidation. Waste treatment was assumed to occur at a hypothetical central treatment facility (a Monitored Retrieval Storage [MRS] facility was used as a reference). Disposal of the waste in a geologic repository was also assumed. The waste form charcteristics, process characteristics, and costs were evaluated for each waste treatment alternative. The evaluation indicated that selection of a high volume reduction alternative can save almost $1 billion in life-cycle costs for the management of transuranic and high-activity wastes from 70,000 MTU of spent fuel compared to the reference MRS waste treatment processes. The supercompaction, arc pyrolysis and melting, and maximum volume reduction alternatives are recommended for further consideration; the latter two are recommended for further testing and demonstration

  15. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables

  16. Intermodal transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.

    1983-09-01

    Concepts for transportation of spent fuel in rail casks from nuclear power plant sites with no rail service are under consideration by the US Department of Energy in the Commercial Spent Fuel Management program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report identifies and evaluates three alternative systems for intermodal transfer of spent fuel: heavy-haul truck to rail, barge to rail, and barge to heavy-haul truck. This report concludes that, with some modifications and provisions for new equipment, existing rail and marine systems can provide a transportation base for the intermodal transfer of spent fuel to federal interim storage facilities. Some needed land transportation support and loading and unloading equipment does not currently exist. There are insufficient shipping casks available at this time, but the industrial capability to meet projected needs appears adequate

  17. Alternative concepts for spent fuel storage basin expansion at Morris Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, W.A. Jr.; King, C.E.; Miller, G.P.; Shadel, F.H.; Sloat, R.J.

    1980-08-01

    Alternative concepts for increasing basin capabilities for storage of spent fuel at the Morris Operation have been defined in a series of simplified flow diagrams and equipment schematics. Preliminary concepts have been outlined for (1) construction alternatives for an add-on basin, (2) high-density baskets for storage of fuel bundles or possible consolidated fuel rods in the existing or add-on basins, (3) modifications to the existing facility for increasing cask handling and fuel receiving capabilities and (4) accumulation, treatment and disposal of radwastes from storage operations. Preliminary capital and operating costs have been prepared and resource and schedule requirements for implementing the concepts have been estimated. The basin expansion alternatives would readily complement potential dry storage projects at the site in an integrated multi-stage program that could provide a total storage capacity of up to 7000 tonnes of spent fuel

  18. Estimated routine radiation doses to transportation workers in alternative spent-fuel transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Smith, R.I.; Daling, P.M.; Ross, W.A.; McNair, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The federal system for the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste includes the acceptance by the US Department of Energy (DOE) of the spent fuel or waste loaded in casks at the reactor or other waste generators, its transportation to a repository, and its handling and final emplacement in the repository. The DOE plans to implement a transportation system that is safe, secure, efficient, and cost-effective and will meet applicable regulatory safety and security requirements. The DOE commissioned the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to develop estimates of the routine radiation doses that would result from the operation of a system postulated using current designs and practices. From that evaluation, PNL identified activities/operations that result in the higher fraction of doses, proposed conceptual alternatives that would effectively reduce such exposures, and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of such alternatives. The study is one of a series used in making overall system design and operational decisions in the development of the DOE's spent-fuel/high-level waste transportation system. This paper contains the highlights from the PNL study of the estimated radiation doses to the transportation workers in a postulated reference transportation system and potential alternatives to that system

  19. Alternatives for water basin spent fuel storage: executive summary and comparative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viebrock, J.M.

    1979-09-01

    A five part report identifies and evaluates alternatives to conventional methods for water basin storage of irradiated light water reactor fuel assemblies (spent fuel). A recommendation is made for development or further evaluation of one attractive alternative: Proceed to develop fuel disassembly with subsequent high density storage of fuel pins (pin storage). The storage alternatives were evaluated for emplacement at reactor, in existing away-from-reactor storage facilities and in new away-from-reactor facilities. In the course of the study, the work effort necessarily extended beyond the pool wall in scope to properly assess the affects of storage alternatives on AFT systems

  20. Alternatives for implementing burnup credit in the design and operation of spent fuel transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Lake, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The traditional assumption used in evaluating criticality safety of spent fuel cask is that the spent fuel is as reactive as when it was fresh (new). This is known as the fresh fuel assumption. It avoids a number of calculational and verification difficulties, but could take a heavy toll in decreased efficiency. The alternative to the fresh fuel assumption is called burnup credit. That is, the reduced reactivity of spent fuel that comes about from depletion of fissile radionuclides and net increase in neutron absorbers (poisons) is taken into account. It is recognizable that the use of burnup credit will in fact increase the percentage of unacceptable or non-specification fuel available for misloading. This could reduce individual cask safety margins if current practices with respect to loading procedures are maintained. As such, additional operational, design, analysis, and validation requirements should be established that, as a minimum, compensate for any potential reduction in fuel loading safety margin. This method is based on a probabilistic (PRA) approach and is called a relative risk comparison. The method assumes a linear risk model, and uses a selected probability function to compare the system of interest and an acceptable reference system by varying the features of each to assess effects on system safety. While risk is the product of an event probability and its consequence, the consequences of criticality in a cask are considered to be both unacceptable and the same, regardless of the initiating sequence. Therefore, only the probability of the event is considered in a relative risk evaluation

  1. Spent fuel management - two alternatives at the FiR 1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmenhaara, S.E.J.

    2001-01-01

    The FiR 1 -reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The reactor with its subsystems has experienced a large renovation work in 1996-97. The main purpose of the upgrading was to install the new Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) irradiation facility. The BNCT work dominates the current utilization of the reactor: four days per week for BNCT purposes and only one day per week for neutron activation analysis and isotope production. The Council of State (government) granted for the reactor a new operating license for twelve years starting from the beginning of the year 2000. There is however a special condition in the new license. We have to achieve a binding agreement between our Research Centre and the domestic Nuclear Power Plant Companies about the possibility to use the final disposal facility of the Nuclear Power Plants for our spent fuel, if we want to continue the reactor operation beyond the year 2006. In addition to the choosing of one of the spent fuel management alternatives the future of the reactor will also depend strongly on the development of the BNCT irradiations. If the number of patients per year increases fast enough and the irradiations of the patients will be economically justified, the operation of the reactor will continue independently of the closing of the USDOE alternative in 2006. Otherwise, if the number of patients will be low, the funding of the reactor will be probably stopped and the reactor will be shut down. (author)

  2. Projections of spent fuel to be discharged by the U.S. nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.W.; Kee, C.W.; Croff, A.G.; Blomeke, J.O.

    1977-10-01

    Calculated properties of spent fuel projected to be discharged and accumulated by the U.S. nuclear power industry through the year 2031 A.D. are presented. The projections are based on installed nuclear capacities of 380 and 543 GW(e) in the year 2000 and 2030, respectively. They include compilations of the grams of the elements, curies of radioactivity, thermal decay power, photon and neutron emission rates, and radiotoxicities of the assemblies that are accumulated at a Spent Unreprocessed Fuel Facility (SURFF), allowing for delays of 5 and 10 years before shipment to SURFF

  3. Projections of spent fuel to be discharged by the U. S. nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, C.W.; Kee, C.W.; Croff, A.G.; Blomeke, J.O.

    1977-10-01

    Calculated properties of spent fuel projected to be discharged and accumulated by the U.S. nuclear power industry through the year 2031 A.D. are presented. The projections are based on installed nuclear capacities of 380 and 543 GW(e) in the year 2000 and 2030, respectively. They include compilations of the grams of the elements, curies of radioactivity, thermal decay power, photon and neutron emission rates, and radiotoxicities of the assemblies that are accumulated at a Spent Unreprocessed Fuel Facility (SURFF), allowing for delays of 5 and 10 years before shipment to SURFF.

  4. Searching for Methods on Evaluation Alternatives and Studying Decision Making System Regarding Enhancing Publicity of Nuclear Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung; Choi, Seungho; Kim, Hyerim; Song, Jiyeon; Lee, Yoonsup; Sohn, Seohyun

    2013-01-01

    This study was done in order to anticipate the aspect of publicity enhancement on nuclear spent fuel so that it can find the evaluation methods of alternative ways of management which could applied actually and make the decision making system of Publicity Enhancement Committee in advance. In Korea, the nuclear spent fuel is temporarily stored inside of the nuclear facility field, and it is expected that Gori nuclear facility is going to be saturated since 2016 but the solutions are still incomplete. The problem of management of nuclear spent fuel is an important issue in terms of not only the nuclear power policy but also of safe management of the already made nuclear spent fuel. This study has its meaning to draw the evaluation criteria of the management alternatives on nuclear spent fuel which can be applied in Korean case, and to find the necessity of verifying the evaluation of management alternatives through Publicity Enhancement because of different stands according to the interests. As a result, rather than technological engineering safety evaluation, qualitative analysis in terms of social costs, quantitative evaluation in terms of economic costs, this study advises the methods of public hearings and citizen juries which are effective, which makes it meaningful

  5. Tunnel boring an alternative method in construction of spent fuel repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Jukka

    1984-05-01

    In projecting of the final disposal of nuclear waste in geological formations a great importance should be paid to the selection of the tunneling method. The environment of the chosen repository area should not be exposed to any but as minor disturbances as possible by the excavation method applied. This study approaches full face tunneling methods as an alternative to conventional drill-and-blast methods in the construction of spent fuel repository tunnels. According to experiences up till now it is obvious, that tunnelboring today is fully capable technically competing with conventional tunneling methods, even in the hardest granitic rocks. The most important advantages, it provides for the construction of repositories, are: The methods does not produce any damage in the surrounding rock. Possibility to use placement techniques, which do not require preparing of additive repository holes for the fuel elements. Saving in the use of expensive filling material. The fact, that tunnel boring in hard rock is an expensive alternative, is still valid. Constuction of straight lined tunnels in unfractured rocks by tunnel boring would cost about 30-40% more than by conventional methods. The lay out arrangement of bored tunnels still have a great influence on tunnel boring machine's economy. Due to this it would be round 40-70% more expensive method in the construction of spent fuel repositories. However intensive development w is being carried out to eliminate these limitations and to make machines more flexible. Future trends in tunnel boring look good at the moment. The number of sold units has been increasing and new applications have widen out during last ten years. Harder and more abrasive rocks can now be bored than ever before and the trend seems to continue. It also looks like the cost difference in the hardest rocks is firmly getting smaller and smaller all the time. (author)

  6. Alternative Concept to Enhance the Disposal Efficiency for CANDU Spent Fuel Disposal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Cho, Dong Geun; Kook, Dong Hak; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo

    2011-01-01

    There are two types of nuclear reactors in Korea and they are PWR type and CANDU type. The safe management of the spent fuels from these reactors is very important factor to maintain the sustainable energy supply with nuclear power plant. In Korea, a reference disposal system for the spent fuels has been developed through a study on the direct disposal of the PWR and CANDU spent fuel. Recently, the research on the demonstration and the efficiency analyses of the disposal system has been performed to make the disposal system safer and more economic. PWR spent fuels which include a lot of reusable material can be considered being recycled and a study on the disposal of HLW from this recycling process is being performed. CANDU spent fuels are considered being disposed of directly in deep geological formation, since they have little reusable material. In this study, based on the Korean Reference spent fuel disposal System (KRS) which was to dispose of both PWR type and CANDU type, the more effective CANDU spent fuel disposal systems were developed. To do this, the disposal canister for CANDU spent fuels was modified to hold the storage basket for 60 bundles which is used in nuclear power plant. With these modified disposal canister concepts, the disposal concepts to meet the thermal requirement that the temperature of the buffer materials should not be over 100 .deg. C were developed. These disposal concepts were reviewed and analyzed in terms of disposal effective factors which were thermal effectiveness, U-density, disposal area, excavation volume, material volume etc. and the most effective concept was proposed. The results of this study will be used in the development of various wastes disposal system together with the HLW wastes from the PWR spent fuel recycling process.

  7. Estimated effects on radiation doses from alternatives in a spent fuel transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Ross, W.A.; Smith, R.I.

    1988-07-01

    This paper contains the results of a study of estimated radiation doses to the public and workers from the transport of spent fuel from commercial nuclear power reactors to a geologic repository. A postulated reference rail/legal-weight truck transportation system is defined that would use current transportation technology, and provide a breakdown of activities and time/distance/dose-rate estimates for each activity within the system. Collective doses are estimated for each of the major activities at the reactor site, in transit, and at the repository receiving facility. Annual individual doses to the maximally exposed individuals or groups of individuals are also estimated. The dose-reduction potentials and costs are estimated for a total of 17 conceptual alternatives and subalternatives to the postulated reference system. Most of the alternatives evaluated are estimated to provide both cost and dose reductions. The major conclusion is that the potential exists for significant future reductions in radiation doses to the public and workers and for reductions in costs compared to those based on a continuation of past practices in the US

  8. Estimated effects on radiation doses from alternatives in a spent fuel transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Ross, W.A.; Smith, R.I.

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains the results of a study of estimated radiation doses to the public and workers from the transport of spent fuel from commercial nuclear power reactors to a geologic repository. A postulated reference rail/legal-weight truck transportation system is defined that would use current transportation technology, and provide a breakdown of activities and time/distance/dose-rate estimates for each activity within the system. Collective doses are estimated for each of the major activities at the reactor site, in transit, and at the repository receiving facility. Annual individual doses to the maximally exposed individuals or groups of individuals also estimated. The dose-reduction potentials and costs are estimated for a total of 17 conceptual alternatives and subalternatives to the postulated reference system. Most of the alternatives evaluated are estimated to provide both cost and dose reductions. The major conclusion is that the potential exists for significant future reductions in radiation doses to the public and workers and for reductions in costs compared to those based on a continuation of past practices in the U.S

  9. Evaluation of alternative spent fuel waste package concepts for a repository in Basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, G.V.B.; Nair, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    The United States government has established a program for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 requires the first nuclear waste repository to begin receiving high-level radioactive waste in 1998. One of the potentially acceptable sites currently being evaluated is the Hanford Site in the Pasco Basin in the state of Washington where the host rock is basalt. Under the direction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Rockwell International's Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO) has initiated the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). The BWIP must design waste packages for emplacement in the repository. As part of the BWIP waste package development program, several alternative designs were considered for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. This paper describes the concepts that were evaluated, the criteria that was developed for judging their relative merits, and the methodology that was employed. The results of the evaluation show that a Pipe-In-Tunnel design, which uses a long carbon steel pipe for the containment barrier for multiple packages of consolidated spent fuel, has the highest rating. Other designs which had high ratings are also discussed

  10. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  11. A Review and Analysis of European Industrial Experience in Handling LWR Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    2001-07-10

    The industrial facilities that have been built or are under construction in France, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and West Germany to handle light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and canisters of vitrified high-level waste before ultimate disposal are described and illustrated with drawings and photographs. Published information on the operating performance of these facilities is also given. This information was assembled for consideration in planning and design of similar equipment and facilities needed for the Federal Waste Management System in the United States.

  12. Overview of spent fuel management and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.; Ernst, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    Results compiled in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel worldwide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialized and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. Some projections of spent fuel inventories to the year 2006 are presented and discussed. (author)

  13. Radioactive characteristics of spent fuels and reprocessing products in thorium fueled alternative cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Mitsuru

    1978-09-01

    In order to provide one fundamental material for the evaluation of Th cycle, compositions of the spent fuels were calculated with the ORIGEN code on following fuel cycles: (1) PWR fueled with Th- enriched U, (2) PWR fueled with Th-denatured U, (3) CANDU fueled with Th-enriched U and (4) HTGR fueled with Th-enriched U. Using these data, product specifications on radioactivity for their reprocessing were calculated, based on a criterion that radioactivities due to foreign elements do not exceed those inherent in nuclear fuel elements, due to 232 U in bred U or 228 Th in recovered Th, respectively. Conclusions are as the following: (1) Because of very high contents of 232 U and 228 Th in the Th cycle fuels from water moderated reactors, especially from PWR, required decontamination factors for their reprocessing will be smaller by a factor of 10 3 to 10 4 , compared with those from U-Pu fueled LWR cycle. (2) These less stringent product specifications on the radioactivity of bred U and recovered Th will justify introduction of some low decontaminating process, with additional advantage of increased proliferation resistance. (3) Decontamination factors required for HTGR fuel will be 10 to 30 times higher than for the other fuels, because of less 232 U and 228 Th generation, and higher burn-up in the fuel. (author)

  14. Analysis of alternative transportation methods for radioactive materials shipments including the use of special trains for spent fuel and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Luna, R.E.; Taylor, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Two studies were completed which evaluate the environmental impact of radioactive material transport. The first was a generic study which evaluated all radioactive materials and all transportation modes; the second addressed spent fuel and fuel-cycle wastes shipped by truck, rail and barge. A portion of each of those studies dealing with the change in impact resulting from alternative shipping methods is presented in this paper. Alternatives evaluated in each study were mode shifts, operational constraints, and, in generic case, changes in material properties and package capabilities. Data for the analyses were obtained from a shipper survey and from projections of shipments that would occur in an equilibrium fuel cycle supporting one hundred 1000-MW(e) reactors. Population exposures were deduced from point source radiation formulae using separation distances derived for scenarios appropriate to each shipping mode and to each exposed population group. Fourteen alternatives were investigated for the generic impact case. All showed relatively minor changes in the overall radiological impact. Since the radioactive material transport is estimated to be fewer than 3 latent cancer fatalities (LCF) for each shipment year (compared to some 300,000 yearly cancer fatalities or 5000 LCF's calculated for background radiation using the same radiological effects model), a 15% decrease caused by shifting from passenger air to cargo air is a relatively small effect. Eleven alternatives were considered for the fuel cycle/special train study, but only one produced a reduction in total special train baseline LCF's (.047) that was larger than 5%

  15. Spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.

    1982-06-01

    Spent fuel storage requirements, as projected through the year 2000 for U.S. LWRs, were calculated using information supplied by the utilities reflecting plant status as of December 31, 1981. Projections through the year 2000 combined fuel discharge projections of the utilities with the assumed discharges of typical reactors required to meet the nuclear capacity of 165 GWe projected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the year 2000. Three cases were developed and are summarized. A reference case, or maximum at-reactor (AR) capacity case, assumes that all reactor storage pools are increased to their maximum capacities as estimated by the utilities for spent fuel storage utilizing currently licensed technologies. The reference case assumes no transshipments between pools except as currently licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This case identifies an initial requirement for 13 MTU of additional storage in 1984, and a cumulative requirement for 14,490 MTU additional storage in the year 2000. The reference case is bounded by two alternative cases. One, a current capacity case, assumes that only those pool storage capacity increases currently planned by the operating utilities will occur. The second, or maximum capacity with transshipment case, assumes maximum development of pool storage capacity as described above and also assumes no constraints on transshipment of spent fuel among pools of reactors of like type (BWR, PWR) within a given utility. In all cases, a full core discharge capability (full core reserve or FCR) is assumed to be maintained for each reactor, except that only one FCR is maintained when two reactors share a common pool. For the current AR capacity case the indicated storage requirements in the year 2000 are indicated to be 18,190 MTU; for the maximum capacity with transshipment case they are 11,320 MTU

  16. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases

  17. Spent fuels program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of this task is to support the Domestic Spent Fuel Storage Program through studies involving the transport of spent fuel. A catalog was developed to provide authoritative, timely, and accessible transportation information for persons involved in the transport of irradiated reactor fuel. The catalog, drafted and submitted to the Transportation Technology Center, Sandia National Laboratories, for their review and approval, covers such topics as federal, state, and local regulations, spent fuel characteristics, cask characteristics, transportation costs, and emergency response information

  18. Research reactor spent fuel in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimenko, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the research reactors in Ukraine, their spent fuel facilities and spent fuel management problems. Nuclear sciences, technology and industry are highly developed in Ukraine. There are 5 NPPs in the country with 14 operating reactors which have total power capacity of 12,800 MW

  19. Spent fuel storage at Prairie Island: January 1995 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closs, J.; Kress, L.

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been an issue for the US since the inception of the commercial nuclear power industry. In the past decade, it has become a critical factor in the continued operation of some nuclear power plants, including the two units at Prairie Island. As the struggles and litigation over storage alternatives wage on, spent fuel pools continue to fill and plants edge closer to premature shutdown. Due to the delays in the construction of a federal repository, many nuclear power plants have had to seek interim storage alternatives. In the case of Prairie Island, the safest and most feasible option is dry cask storage. This paper discusses the current status of the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) Project at Prairie Island. It provides a historical background to the project, discusses the notable developments over the past year, and presents the projected plans of the Northern States Power Company (NSP) in regards to spent fuel storage

  20. Status and prospects for spent fuel management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portal, R.; L'Epine, P. de

    1996-01-01

    The spent fuel arisings and storage capacities, the interface between fuel storage and transportation activities, the spent fuel storage technology, the reprocessing and recycling industrial activities in France are described in the paper. (author). 6 figs, 8 tabs

  1. Alternative approaches to assessing the performance and suitability of Yucca Mountain for spent fuel disposal. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, R.; Smith, G.; Klos, R.

    1998-11-01

    Significant resources and effort have been expended by EPRI over the past few years in modeling and understanding issues related to high-level radioactive waste disposal. Previous reports have documented the general model used in the EPRI work and specific inputs to that model for examination of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Modeling of the potential Yucca Mountain site is an on-going process, and new data are being collected with which to evaluate and modify models of physical processes. This report is divided into two parts. The first part presents results from specific calculational cases of repository performance, updated for the most recent data and conceptual models. The second part discusses possible alternatives for the components of the assessment context for a repository at Yucca Mountain. Part 2 also presents additional information on time frames and a interaction matrix method of documenting TSPA model interactions. The main purposes of Part of this report is to describe the subsystem and total system performance models and present results and analysis of the results. Part 1 includes presentation of new models of waste container failure that accounts for new container material, a new model of the effect of hydrothermal activity and heterogeneous groundwater flow in the unsaturated zone on temperatures and the distribution of groundwater capable of dripping into the repository drifts. Part 1 also: identifies the key technical components of the candidate spent fuel and HLW disposal facility at Yucca Mountain using IMARC Phase 4; makes recommendations regarding the prioritization of the technical development work remaining; and provides an assessment of the overall technical suitability of the candidate HLW disposal facility at Yucca Mountain

  2. Radioactive waste management decommissioning spent fuel storage. V. 3. Waste transport, handling and disposal spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    As part of the book entitled Radioactive waste management decommissioning spent fuel storage, vol. 3 dealts with waste transport, handling and disposal, spent fuel storage. Twelve articles are presented concerning the industrial aspects of nuclear waste management in France [fr

  3. Remote technology applications in spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    Spent fuel management has become a prospective area for application of remote technology in recent years with a steadily growing inventory of spent fuel arising from nuclear power production. A remark that could be made from the review of technical information collected from the IAEA meetings was that remote technology in spent fuel management has matured well through the past decades of industrial experiences. Various remote technologies have been developed and applied in the past for facility operation and maintenance work in spent fuel examination, storage, transportation, reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment, among others, with significant accomplishments in dose reduction to workers, enhancement of reliability, etc. While some developmental activities are continuing for more advanced applications, industrial practices have made use of simple and robust designs for most of the remote systems technology applications to spent fuel management. In the current state of affairs, equipment and services in remote technology are available in the market for applications to most of the projects in spent fuel management. It can be concluded that the issue of critical importance in remote systems engineering is to make an optimal selection of technology and equipment that would best satisfy the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) requirements in terms of relevant criteria like dose reduction, reliability, costs, etc. In fact, good selection methodology is the key to efficient implementation of remote systems applications in the modern globalized market. This TECDOC gives a review of the current status of remote technology applications for spent fuel management, based on country reports from some Member States presented at the consultancy meetings, of which updated reports are attached in the annex. The scope of the review covers the series of spent fuel handling operations involved in spent fuel management, from discharge from reactor to reprocessing or

  4. The impact of spent fuel reprocessing facilities deployment rate on transuranics inventory in alternative fuel cycle strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquien, A.; Kazimi, M.; Hejzlar, P.

    2007-01-01

    The depletion rate of transuranic inventories from spent fuel depends on both the deployment of advanced reactors that can be loaded with recycled transuranics, and on the deployment of the facilities that separate and reprocess spent fuel. In addition to tracking the mass allocation of TRU in the system and calculating a system cost, the fuel cycle simulation tool CAFCA includes a flexible recycling plant deployment model. This study analyses the impact of different recycling deployment schemes for various fuel cycle strategies in the US over the next hundred years under the assumption of a demand for nuclear energy growing at a rate of 2,4%. Recycling strategies explored in this study fall under two categories: recycling in thermal light water reactors using combined non-fertile and UO 2 fuel (CONFU) and recycling in fast reactors (either fertile-free actinide burner reactors, or self-sustaining gas-cooled fast reactors). Preliminary results show that the earlier deployment of recycling in the thermal reactors will limit the stored levels of TRU below those of fast reactors. However, the avoided accumulation of spent fuel interim storage depends on the deployment rate of the recycling facilities. In addition, by the end of the mid century, the TRU in cooling storage will exceed that in interim storage. (authors)

  5. Spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The production of nuclear electricity results in the generation of spent fuel that requires safe, secure and efficient management. Appropriate management of the resulting spent fuel is a key issue for the steady and sustainable growth of nuclear energy. Currently about 10,000 tonnes heavy metal (HM) of spent fuel are unloaded every year from nuclear power reactors worldwide, of which 8,500 t HM need to be stored (after accounting for reprocessed fuel). This is the largest continuous source of civil radioactive material generated, and needs to be managed appropriately. Member States have referred to storage periods of 100 years and even beyond, and as storage quantities and durations extend, new challenges arise in the institutional as well as in the technical area. The IAEA gives high priority to safe and effective spent fuel management. As an example of continuing efforts, the 2003 International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors gathered 125 participants from 35 member states to exchange information on this important subject. With its large number of Member States, the IAEA is well-positioned to gather and share information useful in addressing Member State priorities. IAEA activities on this topic include plans to produce technical documents as resources for a range of priority topics: spent fuel performance assessment and research, burnup credit applications, cask maintenance, cask loading optimization, long term storage requirements including records maintenance, economics, spent fuel treatment, remote technology, and influence of fuel design on spent fuel storage. In addition to broader topics, the IAEA supports coordinated research projects and technical cooperation projects focused on specific needs

  6. Rock cavern storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Kyung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Ki [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The rock cavern storage for spent fuel has been assessed to apply in Korea with reviewing the state of the art of the technologies for surface storage and rock cavern storage of spent fuel. The technical feasibility and economic aspects of the rock cavern storage of spent fuel were also analyzed. A considerable area of flat land isolated from the exterior are needed to meet the requirement for the site of the surface storage facilities. It may, however, not be easy to secure such areas in the mountainous region of Korea. Instead, the spent fuel storage facilities constructed in the rock cavern moderate their demands for the suitable site. As a result, the rock cavern storage is a promising alternative for the storage of spent fuel in the aspect of natural and social environments. The rock cavern storage of spent fuel has several advantages compared with the surface storage, and there is no significant difference on the viewpoint of economy between the two alternatives. In addition, no great technical difficulties are present to apply the rock cavern storage technologies to the storage of domestic spent fuel.

  7. Spent fuel storage facility, Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shreekumar, B.; Anthony, S.

    2017-01-01

    Spent Fuel Storage Facility (SFSF), Kalpakkam is designed to store spent fuel arising from PHWRs. Spent fuel is transported in AERB qualified/authorized shipping cask by NPCIL to SFSF by road or rail route. The spent fuel storage facility at Kalpakkam was hot commissioned in December 2006. All systems, structures and components (SSCs) related to safety are designed to meet the operational requirements

  8. Spent fuel storage and isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensky, M.S.; Kurzeka, W.J.; Bauer, A.A.; Carr, J.A.; Matthews, S.C.

    1979-02-01

    The principal spent fuel activities conducted within the commercial waste and spent fuel within the Commercial Waste and Spent Fuel Packaging Program are: simulated near-surface (drywell) storage demonstrations at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site; surface (sealed storage cask) and drywell demonstrations at the Nevada Test Site; and spent fuel receiving and packaging facility conceptual design. These investigations are described

  9. Spent fuel workshop'2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2002 spent fuel workshop: Session 1 - Research Projects: Overview on the IN CAN PROCESSES European project (M. Cowper), Overview on the SPENT FUEL STABILITY European project (C. Poinssot), Overview on the French R and D project on spent fuel long term evolution, PRECCI (C. Poinssot); Session 2 - Spent Fuel Oxidation: Oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals (F. Garrido), Experimental results on SF oxidation and new modeling approach (L. Desgranges), LWR spent fuel oxidation - effects of burn-up and humidity (B. Hanson), An approach to modeling CANDU fuel oxidation under dry storage conditions (P. Taylor); Session 3 - Spent Fuel Dissolution Experiments: Overview on high burnup spent fuel dissolution studies at FZK/INE (A. Loida), Results on the influence of hydrogen on spent fuel leaching (K. Spahiu), Leaching of spent UO 2 fuel under inert and reducing conditions (Y. Albinsson), Fuel corrosion investigation by electrochemical techniques (D. Wegen), A reanalysis of LWR spent fuel flow through dissolution tests (B. Hanson), U-bearing secondary phases formed during fuel corrosion (R. Finch), The near-field chemical conditions and spent fuel leaching (D. Cui), The release of radionuclides from spent fuel in bentonite block (S.S. Kim), Trace actinide behavior in altered spent fuel (E. Buck, B. Hanson); Session 4 - Radiolysis Issues: The effect of radiolysis on UO 2 dissolution determined from electrochemical experiments with 238 Pu doped UO 2 M. Stroess-Gascoyne (F. King, J.S. Betteridge, F. Garisto), doped UO 2 studies (V. Rondinella), Preliminary results of static and dynamic dissolution tests with α doped UO 2 in Boom clay conditions (K. Lemmens), Studies of the behavior of UO 2 / water interfaces under He 2+ beam (C. Corbel), Alpha and gamma radiolysis effects on UO 2 alteration in water (C. Jegou), Behavior of Pu-doped pellets in brines (M. Kelm), On the potential catalytic behavior of

  10. WWER spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, C C; Lettington, C [GEC Alsthom Engineering Systems Ltd., Whetstone (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs.

  11. WWER spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.C.; Lettington, C.

    1994-01-01

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs

  12. The cost of spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C.; Badillo, V.; Alonso, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments, constructing repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution?, or What is the best technology for an specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while others works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However currently, the plants are under a process for extended power up-rate to 20% of original power and also there are plans to extended operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. (Author)

  13. Guidebook on spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Guidebook summarizes the experience and information in various areas related to spent fuel storage: technological aspects, the transport of spent fuel, economical, regulatory and institutional aspects, international safeguards, evaluation criteria for the selection of a specific spent fuel storage concept, international cooperation on spent fuel storage. The last part of the Guidebook presents specific problems on the spent fuel storage in the United Kingdom, Sweden, USSR, USA, Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland

  14. Disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Ferguson, D.E.; Croff, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Based on preliminary analyses, spent fuel assemblies are an acceptable form for waste disposal. The following studies appear necessary to bring our knowledge of spent fuel as a final disposal form to a level comparable with that of the solidified wastes from reprocessing: 1. A complete systems analysis is needed of spent fuel disposition from reactor discharge to final isolation in a repository. 2. Since it appears desirable to encase the spent fuel assembly in a metal canister, candidate materials for this container need to be studied. 3. It is highly likely that some ''filler'' material will be needed between the fuel elements and the can. 4. Leachability, stability, and waste-rock interaction studies should be carried out on the fuels. The major disadvantages of spent fuel as a disposal form are the lower maximum heat loading, 60 kW/acre versus 150 kW/acre for high-level waste from a reprocessing plant; the greater long-term potential hazard due to the larger quantities of plutonium and uranium introduced into a repository; and the possibility of criticality in case the repository is breached. The major advantages are the lower cost and increased near-term safety resulting from eliminating reprocessing and the treatment and handling of the wastes therefrom

  15. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Lizana, F.

    2015-01-01

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  16. HTGR spent fuel storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgoyne, R.M.; Holder, N.D.

    1979-04-01

    This report documents a study of alternate methods of storing high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) spent fuel. General requirements and design considerations are defined for a storage facility integral to a fuel recycle plant. Requirements for stand-alone storage are briefly considered. Three alternate water-cooled storage conceptual designs (plug well, portable well, and monolith) are considered and compared to a previous air-cooled design. A concept using portable storage wells in racks appears to be the most favorable, subject to seismic analysis and economic evaluation verification

  17. A review and analysis of European industrial experience in handling LWR [light water reactor] spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1988-06-01

    The industrial facilities that have been built or are under construction in France, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and West Germany to handle light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and canisters of vitrified high-level waste before ultimate disposal are described and illustrated with drawings and photographs. Published information on the operating performances of these facilities is also given. This information was assembled for consideration in planning and design of similar equipment and facilities needed for the Federal Waste Management System in the United States. 79 refs., 71 figs., 10 tabs

  18. Spent-fuel transportation - a success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, C.P.; Schoonen, D.H.; Wakeman, B.H.

    1986-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel research and development (R and D) demonstrations and associated transportation activities are being performed as a part of the storage cask performance testing programs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These spent-fuel programs support the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and US Department of Energy (DOE) objectives for cooperative demonstrations with the utilities, testing at federal sites, and alternatives for viable transportation systems. A cooperative demonstration program with the private sector to develop dry storage technologies that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) can generically approve is in place as well as cost-shared dry storage R and D program at a federal facility to collect the necessary licensing data. In addition to the accomplishments in the cask performance and testing demonstrations, the long-distance transportation of a large number of spent-fuel assemblies is considered a success story. The evaluation and implementation of applicable requirements, industry perspective, and extensive planning all contributed to this achievement

  19. Spent fuel dissolution mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1993-11-01

    This study is a literature survey on the dissolution mechanisms of spent fuel under disposal conditions. First, the effects of radiolysis products on the oxidative dissolution mechanisms and rates of UO 2 are discussed. These effects have mainly been investigated by using electrochemical methods. Then the release mechanisms of soluble radionuclides and the dissolution of the UO 2 matrix including the actinides, are treated. Experimental methods have been developed for measuring the grain-boundary inventories of radionuclides. The behaviour of cesium, strontium and technetium in leaching tests shows different trends. Comparison of spent fuel leaching data strongly suggests that the release of 90 Sr into the leachant can be used as a measure of the oxidation/dissolution of the fuel matrix. Approaches to the modelling UO 2 , dissolution are briefly discussed in the next chapter. Lastly, the use of natural material, uraninite, in the evaluation of the long-term performance of spent fuel is discussed. (orig.). (81 ref., 37 figs., 8 tabs.)

  20. Development and engineering plan for graphite spent fuels conditioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, C.L.; Fillmore, D.L.; Kirkham, R.J.; Lord, D.L.; Phillips, M.B.; Pinto, A.P.; Staiger, M.D.

    1993-09-01

    Irradiated (or spent) graphite fuel stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) includes Fort St. Vrain (FSV) reactor and Peach Bottom reactor spent fuels. Conditioning and disposal of spent graphite fuels presently includes three broad alternatives: (1) direct disposal with minimum fuel packaging or conditioning, (2) mechanical disassembly of spent fuel into high-level waste and low-level waste portions to minimize geologic repository requirements, and (3) waste-volume reduction via burning of bulk graphite and other spent fuel chemical processing of the spent fuel. A multi-year program for the engineering development and demonstration of conditioning processes is described. Program costs, schedules, and facility requirements are estimated

  1. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  2. Acceptance of spent fuel of varying characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.M.

    1990-03-01

    This paper is a preliminary overview of a study with the primary objective of establishing a set of acceptance selection criteria and corresponding spent fuel characteristics to be incorporated as a component of requirements for the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). A number of alternative acceptance allocations and selection rules were analyzed to determine the operational sensitivity of each element of the FWMS to the resultant spent fuel characteristics. Preliminary recommendations of the study include three different sets of selection rules to be included in the FWMS design basis. 2 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Spent fuel interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif C.

    2003-01-01

    The official inauguration of the spent fuel interim storage took place on Monday July 28, 2003 at Cernavoda NNP. The inaugural event was attended by local and central public authority representatives, a Canadian Government delegation as well as newsmen from local and central mass media and numerous specialists from Cernavoda NPP compound. Mr Andrei Grigorescu, State Secretary with the Economy and Commerce Ministry, underlined in his talk the importance of this objective for the continuous development of nuclear power in Romania as well as for Romania's complying with the EU practice in this field. Also the excellent collaboration between the Canadian contractor AECL and the Romanian partners Nuclear Montaj, CITON, UTI, General Concret in the accomplishment of this unit at the planned terms and costs. On behalf of Canadian delegation, spoke Minister Don Boudria. He underlined the importance which the Canadian Government affords to the cooperation with Romania aiming at specific objectives in the field of nuclear power such as the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and spent fuel interim storage. After traditional cutting of the inaugural ribbon by the two Ministers the festivities continued on the Cernavoda NPP Compound with undersigning the documents regarding the project completion and a press conference

  4. Spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hideaki; Kumagaya, Naomi; Oda, Masashi; Matsuda, Masami; Maruyama, Hiromi; Yamanaka, Tsuneyasu.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of a spent fuel storage rack is determined by the material, thickness, size of square cylindrical tubes (the gap between spent fuel assemblies and the square cylindrical tubes) and pitch of the arrangement (the gap between each of the square cylindrical tubes). In the present invention, the thickness and the pitch of the arrangement of the square tubes are optimized while evaluating subcriticality. Namely, when the sum of the thickness of the water gap at the outer side (the pitch of arrangement of the cylindrical tubes) and the thickness of the cylindrical tubes is made constant, the storage rack is formed by determining the thickness of the cylindrical tubes which is smaller than the optimum value among the combination of the thickness of the water gap at the outer side and that of the cylindrical tube under the effective multiplication factor to be performed. Then, the weight of the rack can be reduced, and the burden of the load on the bottom of the pool can be reduced. Further, the amount of the constitutional materials of the rack itself can be reduced thereby capable of reducing the cost for the materials of the rack. (T.M.)

  5. Spent fuel: prediction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almassy, M.Y.; Bosi, D.M.; Cantley, D.A.

    1979-07-01

    The need for spent fuel disposal performance modeling stems from a requirement to assess the risks involved with deep geologic disposal of spent fuel, and to support licensing and public acceptance of spent fuel repositories. Through the balanced program of analysis, diagnostic testing, and disposal demonstration tests, highlighted in this presentation, the goal of defining risks and of quantifying fuel performance during long-term disposal can be attained

  6. Final report of INFCE Working Group 6, (INFCE/WG.6/16). ''Spent fuel management'' and executive summary (INFCE/WG.6/17)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report analyses the technical and economic aspects of the current spent fuel storage and transport experiencing present and future requirements, and alternative spent fuel management concepts. Institutional and legal matters are discussed in relation to the present status, present and future requirements and alternative spent fuel management concepts. Special attention is paid to impact factors as there are technical aspects, environmental and physical protection, safeguards, costs, legal and institutional matters, non-proliferation and licensing aspects. Special needs of developing countries and industrialized countries with a limited nuclear power programme are analysed specifically

  7. Spent fuel management in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredell, P.J.; Stott, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    Eskom, the South African utility, operates one of the largest electricity networks in the world. However, only 6% of the South African generating capacity is nuclear; the remainder is coal fired and hydroelectric. The nuclear component consists of the Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant, comprising two French supplied PWRs of 920 MWe each, situated approximately 45 kilometres from cape Town. Construction started in 1976 and the two reactors reached criticality in 1984 and 1985 respectively. South Africa also has an Oak Ridge type research reactor, called SAFARI, operated by the South African Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) at their Pelindaba site near Pretoria. This research reactor was commissioned in 1965, and has been in operation ever since. South Africa has a National Radioactive Waste Disposal facility called Vaalputs, some 600 km north of Cape Town. The facility, operated by AEC, is presently licensed only for the disposal of low and intermediate radioactive level wastes. Vaalputs offers unique features as a potential interim spent fuel storage and final disposal site, such as favorable geology (granite), low seismicity, low population density, remoteness from industrial centres and and conditions. Therefore, this site has been investigated by the AEC as a potential interim spent fuel storage site, but has not yet been licensed for this purpose. Hence, all spent fuel is currently stored on the two sites at Koeberg and Pelindaba respectively. The spent fuel storage pools at Koeberg have recently been enlarged to accommodate the lifetime spent fuel arisings of the plant. Since late 1997, the Safari spent fuel is stored in a pipe storage facility, constructed away from the reactor on the Pelindaba site. (author)

  8. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  9. The utility industry's perspective on OCRWM's plans for developing the system for transporting spent fuel under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodnick, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The electric utility industry has a vital interest in the transport program to be developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The industry's interest stems in part from the fact that the DOE's transportation program is financed by the Nuclear Waste Fund which is made up of ratepayer funds. However, the industry is also vitally interested in the DOE's transportation program because it could impact the ongoing transportation operations of all nuclear utilities, and, perhaps most importantly, without the utility industry's input, DOE is not able to develop an optimal transportation program. The NWPA contemplates that the DOE conducts its transportation program in accordance with the existing federal and state regulatory structure. DOE has significant discretion, however, in creating and implementing the business, operational and institutional aspects of its NWPA transportation program. The utility industry intends to ensure that the DOE meets the challenge to develop a safe, efficient and economically sound program to transport spent fuel and high-level waste to the appropriate federal facilities

  10. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineo, H.; Nomura, Y.; Sakamoto, K.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan 52 commercial nuclear power units are now operated, and the total power generation capacity is about 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising is about 13,500 tU as of March 1997. Spent fuel is reprocessed, and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. In February 1997 short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, backend measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away from reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Research and development on spent fuel storage has been carried out, particularly on dry storage technology. Fundamental studies are also conducted to implement the burnup credit into the criticality safety design of storage and transportation casks. Rokkasho reprocessing plant is being constructed towards its commencement in 2003, and Pu utilization in LWRs will be started in 1999. Research and development of future recycling technology are also continued for the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  11. Spent fuel management overview: a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonne, A.; Crijns, M.J.; Dyck, P.H.; Fukuda, K.; Mourogov, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper defines the main spent fuel management strategies and options, highlights the challenges for spent fuel storage and gives an overview of the regional balances of spent fuel storage capacity and spent fuel arising. The relevant IAEA activities in the area of spent fuel management are summarised. (author)

  12. The spent fuel safety experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmms, G.A.; Davis, F.J.; Ford, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy is conducting an ongoing investigation of the consequences of taking fuel burnup into account in the design of spent fuel transportation packages. A series of experiments, collectively called the Spent Fuel Safety Experiment (SFSX), has been devised to provide integral benchmarks for testing computer-generated predictions of spent fuel behavior. A set of experiments is planned in which sections of unirradiated fuel rods are interchanged with similar sections of spent PWR fuel rods in a critical assembly. By determining the critical size of the arrays, one can obtain benchmark data for comparison with criticality safety calculations. The integral reactivity worth of the spent fuel can be assessed by comparing the measured delayed critical fuel loading with and without spent fuel. An analytical effort to model the experiments and anticipate the core loadings required to yield the delayed critical conditions runs in parallel with the experimental effort

  13. Containing method for spent fuel and spent fuel containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi; Hanada, Yoshine.

    1996-01-01

    Upon containing spent fuels, a metal vessel main body and a support spacer having fuel containing holes are provided. The support spacer is disposed in the inside of the metal vessel main body, and spent fuel assemblies are loaded in the fuel containing holes. Then, a lid is welded at the opening of the metal vessel main body to provide a sealing state. In this state, heat released from the spent fuel assemblies is transferred to the wall of the metal vessel main body via the support spacer. Since the support spacer has a greater heat conductivity than gases, heat of the spent fuel assemblies tends to be released to the outside, thereby capable of removing heat of the spent fuel assemblies effectively. In addition, since the surfaces of the spent fuel assemblies are in contact with the inner surface of the fuel containing holes of the support spacer, impact-resistance and earthquake-resistance are ensured, and radiation from the spent fuel assemblies is decayed by passing through the layer of the support spacer. (T.M.)

  14. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air: Volume 1: Design and operation of a spent fuel oxidation test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornhill, C.K.; Campbell, T.K.; Thornhill, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the design and operation and technical accomplishments of a spent-fuel oxidation test facility at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of the experiments conducted in this facility was to develop a data base for determining spent-fuel dry storage temperature limits by characterizing the oxidation behavior of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuels in air. These data are needed to support licensing of dry storage in air as an alternative to spent-fuel storage in water pools. They are to be used to develop and validate predictive models of spent-fuel behavior during dry air storage in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). The present licensed alternative to pool storage of spent fuel is dry storage in an inert gas environment, which is called inerted dry storage (IDS). Licensed air storage, however, would not require monitoring for maintenance of an inert-gas environment (which IDS requires) but does require the development of allowable temperature limits below which UO 2 oxidation in breached fuel rods would not become a problem. Scoping tests at PNL with nonirradiated UO 2 pellets and spent-fuel fragment specimens identified the need for a statistically designed test matrix with test temperatures bounding anticipated maximum acceptable air-storage temperatures. This facility was designed and operated to satisfy that need. 7 refs

  15. Spent fuel reprocessing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Hirokazu; Mizuguchi, Koji; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki.

    1996-01-01

    Spent oxide fuels containing oxides of uranium and transuranium elements are dismantled and sheared, then oxide fuels are reduced into metals of uranium and transuranium elements in a molten salt with or without mechanical removal of coatings. The reduced metals of uranium and transuranium elements and the molten salts are subjected to phase separation. From the metals of uranium and transuranium elements subjected to phase separation, uranium is separated to a solid cathode and transuranium elements are separated to a cadmium cathode by an electrolytic method. Molten salts deposited together with uranium to the solid cathode, and uranium and transuranium elements deposited to the cadmium cathode are distilled to remove deposited molten salts and cadmium. As a result, TRU oxides (solid) such as UO 2 , Pu 2 in spent fuels can be reduced to U and TRU by a high temperature metallurgical method not using an aqueous solution to separate them in the form of metal from other ingredients, and further, metal fuels can be obtained through an injection molding step depending on the purpose. (N.H.)

  16. Spent fuel treatment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    In Japan, 52 nuclear power reactors are operating with a total power generation capacity of 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising, as of March 1998, is about 14,700 W. Spent fuel is reprocessed and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. Pu utilization in LWRs will commence in 1999. In January 1997, short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of the reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, back-end measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away-from-reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Valuable experience was been accumulated at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), from the start of hot operation in 1977 up to now. The role of the TRP will be changed from an operation-oriented to a more R and D oriented facility, when PNC is reorganized into the new organization JNC. The Rokkasho reprocessing plant is under construction and is expected to commence operation in 2003. R and D of future recycling technologies is also continued for the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  17. Closure of the Spent Fuel Repository in Forsmark - Studies of alternative concepts for sealing of ramp, shafts and investigation boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gylling, Bjoern [SKB AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Luterkort, David [SGI, Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Roland [Miljoe- och Energikonsult AB, Ekeroe (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    good sealing. Such a solution, which could be based on crushed rock with the right grain size distribution, might also be more robust to control and verify with respect to long-term durability. However, relaxing the design premises in this way would require additional sensitivity analyses. Further, the assessment in SR-Site indicates that the reference design is appropriate for the purpose. However, if the the design premises are relaxed, more robust designs might be worth investigating. This has been studied and the results are presented in this report. Research and development specifically focused on technology for repository closure has not yet been carried out. On the other hand, SKB and other organisations have for many years studied and conducted considerable research on backfilling and sealing of deposition tunnels, including full-scale tests. SKB has also developed and tested technology for sealing of investigation boreholes. Experience and results from these efforts comprise an important basis for this project. The work has focused on sealing of shafts, ramp and investigation boreholes. Alternatives for top sealing and sealing of the central area have not been studied, since their impact on the flow through the repository is judged to be marginal. Nor have alternative concepts for sealing of main and transport tunnels been developed, since it is believed that filling with blocks and pellets of swelling clay is the only alternative that ensures sufficiently low hydraulic conductivity.

  18. Assessment of spent fuel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, J.G.; Jones, W.R.; Lanik, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the methodology, the findings, and the conclusions of a study that was done by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) on loss of spent fuel pool cooling. The study involved an examination of spent fuel pool designs, operating experience, operating practices, and procedures. AEOD's work was augmented in the area of statistics and probabilistic risk assessment by experts from the Idaho Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. Operating experience was integrated into a probabilistic risk assessment to gain insight on the risks from spent fuel pools

  19. Japanese perspectives and research on packaging, transport and storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, T.; Ito, C.; Yamakawa, H.; Shirai, K.

    2004-01-01

    The Japanese policy on spent fuel is reprocessing. Until, reprocessed, spent fuel shall be stored properly. This paper overviews current status of transport and storage of spent fuel with related research in Japan. The research was partly carried out under a contract of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of the Japanese government

  20. Final environmental impact statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Charge for spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The United States Government policy relating to nuclear fuel reprocessing, which was announced by President Carter on April 7, 1977, provides for an indefinite deferral of reprocessing, and thus commits light water reactor (LWR) plants to a once-through fuel cycle during that indefinite period. In a subsequent action implementing that policy, the Department of Energy (DOE) on October 18, 1977 announced a spent fuel policy which would enable domestic, and on a selective basis, foreign utilities to deliver spent fuel to the US Government for interim storage and final geologic disposal, and pay the Government a fee for such services. This volume addresses itself to whether the fee charged for these services, by its level or its structure, would have any effect on the environmental impacts of implementing the Spent Fuel Policy itself. This volume thus analyzes the fee and various alternatives to determine the interaction between the fee and the degree of participation by domestic utilities and foreign countries in the proposed spent fuel program for implementing the Spent Fuel Policy. It also analyzes the effect, if any, of the fee on the growth of nuclear power

  1. Backfilling techniques and materials in underground excavations: Potential alternative backfill materials in use in Posiva's spent fuel repository concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.A.; Keto, P.

    2009-05-01

    and mechanical properties that should allow their use in limited quantities in a repository (e.g. grouts, shotcrete or concrete plugs/seals). Widespread use of cemented backfill materials is still not a viable option for backfilling of Posiva's repository although some of the technologies developed for materials placement in the mining industry have potential for repository application. Extensive work has been done in order to identify a range of potentially suitable claybased backfilling materials and technologies that could be used to install them in a repository environment. As a result of these efforts a suite of materials and technologies are available for backfilling of repository openings and although many have not yet been demonstrated at full-scale in an underground environment there is considerable confidence that one, or more of these options will prove suitable. (orig.)

  2. Spent fuel disposal problem in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanov, M; Stefanova, I [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika

    1994-12-31

    The internationally agreed basic safety principles and criteria for spent fuel (SF) and high level waste (HLW) disposal are outlined. In the framework of these principles the specific problems of Bulgaria described in the `National Concept for Radioactive Waste Management and Disposal in Republic of Bulgaria` are discussed. The possible alternatives for spent fuel management are: (1) sending the spent fuel for disposal in other country; (2) once-through cycle and (3) closed fuel cycle. A mixed solution of the problem is implemented in Bulgaria. According to the agreement between Bulgaria and former Soviet Union a part of the spent fuel has been returned to Russia. The once-through and closed-fuel cycle are also considered. The projected cumulated amount of spent fuel is estimated for two cases: (1) the six units of Kozloduy NPP are in operation till the end of their lifetime (3300 tHM) and (2) low estimate (2700 tHM) - only units 5 and 6 are operated till the end of their lifetime. The reprocessing of the total amount of 3300 tHM will lead to the production of about 370 m{sup 3} vitrified high level wastes. Together with the HLW about 1850 m{sup 3} cladding hulls and 7800 m{sup 3} intermediate-level wastes will be generated, which should be disposed off in deep geological repository. The total production of radioactive waste in once-through cycle is 181 000 m{sup 3}, and in closed cycle - 190 000 m{sup 3}. Geological investigations are performed resulting in categorization of the territory of the country based on geological, geotechnical and hydrogeological conditions. This will facilitate the choice of the most suitable location for deep geological repository. 7 figs., 11 refs.

  3. Storage of spent fuel from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkenhauer, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of possible inadequate nuclear fuel reprocessing capability upon a public utility, Washington Public Power Supply System, are studied. The possible alternatives for storing spent fuel are reviewed

  4. Spent fuel element storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukaji, Hideo; Yamashita, Rikuo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To always keep water level of a spent fuel cask pit equal with water level of spent fuel storage pool by means of syphon principle. Constitution: The pool water of a spent fuel storage pool is airtightly communicated through a pipe with the pool water of a spent fuel cask, and a gate is provided between the pool and the cask. Since cask is conveyed into the cask pit as the gate close while conveying, the pool water level is raised an amount corresponding to the volume of the cask, and water flow through scattering pipe and the communication pipe to the storage pool. When the fuel is conveyed out of the cask, the water level is lowered in the amount corresponding to the volume in the cask pit, and the water in the pool flow through the communication pipe to the cask pit. (Sekiya, K.)

  5. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  6. Spent fuel management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Pattantyus, P.

    1999-01-01

    The current status of the Canadian spent fuel storage is presented. This includes wet and dry interim storage. Extension of wet interim storage facilities is nor planned, as dry technologies have found wide acceptance. The Canadian nuclear program is sustained by commercial Ontario Hydro CANDU type reactors, since 1971, representing 13600 MW(e) of installed capacity, able to produce 9200 spent fuel bundles (1800 tU) every year, and Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick CANDU reactors each producing 685 MW(e) and about 100 tU of spent fuel annually. The implementation of various interim (wt and dry) storage technologies resulted in simple, dense and low cost systems. Economical factors determined that the open cycle option be adopted for the CANDU type reactors rather that recycling the spent fuel. Research and development activities for immobilization and final disposal of nuclear waste are being undertaken in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

  7. Swedish approach to spent fuel management as regards intermediate storage and reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.

    1980-01-01

    The cost of spent fuel management has been calculated to be between SEK 0.006 and 0.015 per kWh, depending upon what assumptions are made. Assuming that spent fuel from 12 reactors is reprocessed and that the radioactive waste is conditioned, transported, temporarily stored, and finally disposed of, the alternative cost SEK 0.006/kWh results from a low estimate of the costs incurred for the waste and a high estimate of credits allowed for recovered uranium and plutonium. This, in turn, assumes a certain real price increase for uranium and a value for plutonium corresponding to the quantity of energy represented by the material. The high alternative is based on a high estimate of the costs incurred for the waste and a low estimate of the credits allowed for recovered uranium and plutonium. This, in turn, assumes today's price for uranium and no credits at all for plutonium. Swedish power producers are now reserving SEK 0.01/kWh for future investment requirements for spent fuel management and waste disposal. The total allocation up to the current year amounts to about SEK 1000 million. Capacity for the temporary storage of spent fuel exists at the Swedish nuclear power plants. As a result of the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel (CLAB) in Sweden, this buffer capacity will be increased to accommodate fuel from approximately 12 years of operation. The CLAB has a design capacity of 3000 tons of spent fuel. Construction of the facility, which is basically a rock cavern containing water-filled pools, started in May 1980 with operation planned in early 1985. Expansion of capacity for an additional 6000 tons is possible if it is needed. As a result of planned domestic measures, freedom of action with respect to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle will be obtained; a high degree of independence from industrial and political developments abroad will also be obtained

  8. Dry spent fuel storage licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturz, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the US, at-reactor-site dry spent fuel storage in independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSI) has become the principal option for utilities needing storage capacity outside of the reactor spent fuel pools. Delays in the geologic repository operational date at or beyond 2010, and the increasing uncertainty of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) being able to site and license a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility by 1998 make at-reactor-site dry storage of spent nuclear fuel increasingly desirable to utilities and DOE to meet the need for additional spent fuel storage capacity until disposal, in a repository, is available. The past year has been another busy year for dry spent fuel storage licensing. The licensing staff has been reviewing 7 applications and 12 amendment requests, as well as participating in inspection-related activities. The authors have licensed, on a site-specific basis, a variety of dry technologies (cask, module, and vault). By using certified designs, site-specific licensing is no longer required. Another new cask has been certified. They have received one new application for cask certification and two amendments to a certified cask design. As they stand on the brink of receiving multiple applications from DOE for the MPC, they are preparing to meet the needs of this national program. With the range of technical and licensing options available to utilities, the authors believe that utilities can meet their need for additional spent fuel storage capacity for essentially all reactor sites through the next decade

  9. Nuclear spent fuel management. Experience and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel can be stored safely for long periods at relatively low cost, but some form of permanent disposal will eventually be necessary. This report examines the options for spent fuel management, explores the future prospects for each stage of the back-end of the fuel cycle and provides a thorough review of past experience and the technical status of the alternatives. Current policies and practices in twelve OECD countries are surveyed

  10. Dry spent fuel storage in the 1990's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In the US, for the decade of the 1990's, at-reactor-site dry spent fuel storage has become the predominant option outside of reactor spent fuel pools. This development has resulted from failure, in the 1980's, of a viable reprocessing option for commercial power reactors, and delay in geologic repository development to an operational date at or beyond the year 2010. Concurrently, throughout the 1980's, aggressive technical and regulatory efforts by the Federal Government, coordinated with nuclear industry, have led to successful evolution of dry spent fuel storage as a utility option

  11. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A.; Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant

  12. Labeling of the spent fuel waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbreth, W.G.; Chagari, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the containers used to store spent fuel in an underground repository must meet federal guidelines that call for unique labels that identify the contents and processing history. Existing standards in the nuclear power industry and relevant ASME/ANSI codes have been reviewed for possible application to the spent-fuel container labeling. An Array of labeling techniques were found that include recommendations for: fonts, word spacing, color combinations, label materials and mounting methods, placement, and content. The use of bar code, optical character recognition, and RF labels were also studied to meet the requirement that the container labels be consistent with the methods used to maintain the repository records

  13. Container for spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    The container of the present invention comprises a container main body having a body portion which can contain spent fuel assemblies and a lid, and heat pipes having an evaporation portion disposed along the outer surface of the spent fuel assemblies to be contained and a condensation portion exposed to the outside of the container main body. Further, the heat pipe is formed spirally at the evaporation portions so as to surround the outer circumference of the spent fuel assemblies, branched into a plurality of portions at the condensation portion, each of the branched portion of the condensation portion being exposed to the outside of the container main body, and is tightly in contact with the periphery of the slit portions disposed to the container main body. Then, since released after heat is transferred to the outside of the container main body from the evaporation portion of the heat pipe along the outer surface of the spent fuel assemblies by way of the condensation portion of the heat pipes exposed to the outside of the container main body, the efficiency of the heat transfer is extremely improved to enhance the effect of removing heat of spent fuel assemblies. Further, cooling effect is enhanced by the spiral form of the evaporation portion and the branched condensation portion. (N.H.)

  14. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handier exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. A study of the movement of spent fuel casks through ports, including the loading and unloading of containers from cargo vessels, afforded an opportunity to estimate the radiation doses to those individuals handling the spent fuels with doses to the public along subsequent transportation routes of the fuel. A number of states require redundant inspections and for escorts over long distances on highways; thus handlers, inspectors, escort personnel, and others who are not normally classified as radiation workers may sustain doses high enough to warrant concern about occupational safety. This paper addresses the question of radiation safety for these workers. Data were obtained during, observation of the offloading of reactor spent fuel (research reactor spent fuel, in this instance) which included estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Exposure times and distance were also for other workers, including crane operators, scale operators, security personnel and truck drivers. RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values then facilitated estimation of the dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel

  15. Spent fuel storage requirements, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel and Department of Energy (DOE) estimates of future discharges from US commercial nuclear reactors are presented for the next 20 years, through the year 2007. The eventual needs for additional spent fuel storage capacity are estimated. These estimates are based on the maximum capacities within current and planned at-reactor facilities and on any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Historical data through December 1987 and projected discharges through the end of reactor life are used in this analysis. The source data was supplied by the utilities to DOE through the 1988 RW-859 data survey and by DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges. 12 refs., 3 figs., 28 tabs

  16. Towards a Swedish repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroem, P.-E.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear power is producing electricity for the benefit of society but is also leaving radioactive residues behind. It is our responsibility to handle these residues in a safe and proper manner. The development of a system for handling spent fuel from nuclear power plants has proceeded in steps. The same is true for the actual construction of facilities and will continue to be the case for the final repository for spent fuel and other types of long-lived wastes. The primary objective in constructing the repository will be to isolate and contain the radioactive waste. In case the isolation fails for some reason the multibarrier system should retain and retard the radionuclides that might come into contact with the groundwater. A repository is now planned to be built in two steps where the first step will include deposition of about 400 canisters with spent fuel. This first step should be finished in about 20 years from now and be followed by an extensive evaluation of the results from not only this particular step but also from the development of alternative routes before deciding on how to proceed. A special facility to encapsulate the spent fuel is also required. Such an encapsulation plant is proposed to be constructed as an extension of the existing interim storage CLAB. Finding a site for the repository is a critical issue in the implementation of any repository. The siting process started a few years ago and made some progress but is by no means yet completed. It will go on at least into the early part of the next decade. When the present nuclear power plants begin to be due for retirement there should also be some facilities in place to take permanent care of the long-lived radioactive residues. Progress in siting will be a prerequisite for success in our responsibility to make progress towards a safe permanent solution of the waste issue. (orig.)

  17. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago, J.A.; Gravalos, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    There are presently nine Light Water Reactors in operation, representing around a 34% of the overall electricity production. In the early years, a small amount of spent fuel was sent to be reprocessed, although this policy was cancelled in favor of the open cycle option. A state owned company, ENRESA, was created in 1984, which was given the mandate to manage all kinds of radioactive wastes generated in the country. Under the present scenario, a rough overall amount of 7000 tU of spent fuel will be produced during the lifetime of the plants, which will go into final disposal. (author)

  18. Transport device of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takashi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a transport device of spent fuel particularly used in a fast breeder, which can enhance accessibility to travelling mechanism portions and exchangeability thereof to facilitate maintenance in the event of failure. Structure: On a travelling floor, which has a function to shield radioactive rays, extending in a direction of transporting spent fuel and being formed with a break passing through in a direction wall thickness, a travelling body is moved along the break. The travelling body has a support rod member mounted thereon, and the support rod member is moved within the break, the support rod member having a fuel support pocket suspended therefrom. (Furukawa, Y.)

  19. US spent fuel research and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machiels, A [EPRI and USDOE (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The structural performance of high-burnup spent fuel cladding during dry storage and transportation has been the subject of research and evaluation at EPRI for several years. The major issues addressed in this research program have included the following: Characterization and development of predictive models for damage mechanisms perceived to be potentially active during dry storage; Modeling and analysis of deformation processes during long-term dry storage; Development of cladding failure models and failure criteria, considering cladding material and physical conditions during dry storage and transportation; Failure analysis, considering end-of-dry-storage conditions, of spent fuel systems subjected to normal and accident conditions of transport, prescribed in Part 71 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR71) While issues related to dry storage have largely been resolved, transportation issues have not, at least for spent fuel with discharge burnups greater than 45 GWd/MTU. A research program was launched in late 2002 following two NRC-industry meetings held on September 6, 2002 and October 23, 2002. The aim of the research program was to assess the performance of high-burnup spent fuel cladding under normal and accident conditions of transportation, as prescribed by 10CFR71, considering the physical characteristics and mechanical properties of cladding at the end of dry storage. The objective is to present a synthesis of the information that collectively forms a part of a technical basis intended to facilitate resolution of regulatory issues associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel characterized by discharge burnups greater than 45 GWd/MTU.

  20. Comparison of concepts for independent spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Ch.; Hintermayer, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    The design and the construction costs of independent spent fuel storage facilities show significant differences, reflecting the fuel receiving rate (during the lifetime of the power plant or within a very short period), the individual national policies and the design requirements in those countries. Major incremental construction expenditures for storage facilities originate from the capacity and the type of the facilities (casks or buildings), the method of fuel cooling (water or air), from the different design of buildings, the redundancy of equipment, an elaborate quality assurance program, and a single or multipurpose design (i.e. interim or long-term storage of spent fuel, interim storage of high level waste after fuel storage). The specific costs of different designs vary by a factor of 30 to 60 which might in the high case increase the nuclear generating costs remarkably. The paper also discusses the effect of spent fuel storage on fuel cycle alternatives with reprocessing or disposal of spent fuel. (author)

  1. Summary of the transportation of spent fuel attitude survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, E.; Price, D.L.; Paquet, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    The proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada will increase highway and railway transportation of spent fuel and high level nuclear wastes. The purpose of the survey was to determine the attitudes and differences in attitudes of important actors in the transportation of spent fuel. The three major areas of investigation were 1) perceived risks associated with the transportation of spent fuel, 2) confidence in the government and others responsible for transporting spent fuel, and 3) certain transportation requirements. Response was 34.3% of the original mailing and included: 193 safety personnel, 141 employees of the nuclear industry, 260 government employees, 34 native Americans, and 9 employees of environmental organizations. This paper summarizes overall and group attitudes and opinions for the three areas mentioned above. (author)

  2. Spent fuel management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattantyus, P.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of the Canadian Spent Fuel Management is described. This includes wet and dry interim storage, transportation issues and future plans regarding final disposal based on deep underground emplacement in stable granite rock. Extension of wet interim storage facilities is not planned, as dry storage technologies have found wide acceptance. (author)

  3. Worldwide spent fuel transportation logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.E.; Garrison, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the worldwide transportation requirements for spent fuel. Included are estimates of numbers and types of shipments by mode and cask type for 1985 and the year 2000. In addition, projected capital and transportation costs are presented. For the year 1977 and prior years inclusive, there is a cumulative worldwide requirement for approximately 300 MTU of spent fuel storage at away-from-reactor (AFR) facilities. The cumulative requirements for years through 1985 are projected to be nearly 10,000 MTU, and for the years through 2000 the requirements are conservatively expected to exceed 60,000 MTU. These AFR requirements may be related directly to spent fuel transportation requirements. In total nearly 77,000 total cask shipments of spent fuel will be required between 1977 and 2000. These shipments will include truck, rail, and intermodal moves with many ocean and coastal water shipments. A limited number of shipments by air may also occur. The US fraction of these is expected to include 39,000 truck shipments and 14,000 rail shipments. European shipments to regional facilities are expected to be primarily by rail or water mode and are projected to account for 16,000 moves. Pacific basin shipments will account for 4500 moves. The remaining are from other regions. Over 400 casks will be needed to meet the transportation demands. Capital investment is expected to reach $800,000,000 in 1977 dollars. Cumulative transport costs will be a staggering $4.4 billion dollars

  4. Status and trends in spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The management of spent fuel arising from nuclear power production is a crucial issue for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. The IAEA has issued several publications in the past that provide technical information on the global status and trends in spent fuel reprocessing and associated topics, and one reason for this present publication is to provide an update of this information which has mostly focused on the conventional technology applied in the industry. However, the scope of this publication has been significantly expanded in an attempt to make it more comprehensive and by including a section on emerging technologies applicable to future innovative nuclear systems, as are being addressed in such international initiatives as INPRO, Gen IV and MICANET. In an effort to be informative, this publication attempts to provide a state-of-the-art review of these technologies, and to identify major issues associated with reprocessing as an option for spent fuel management. It does not, however, provide any detailed information on some of the related issues such as safety or safeguards, which are addressed in other relevant publications. This report provides an overview of the status of reprocessing technology and its future prospects in terms of various criteria in Section 2. Section 3 provides a review of emerging technologies which have been attracting the interest of Member States, especially in the international initiatives for future development of innovative nuclear systems. A historical review of IAEA activities associated with spent fuel reprocessing, traceable back to the mid-1970s, is provided in Section 4, and conclusions in Section 5. A list of references is provided at the end the main text for readers interested in further information on the related topics. Annex I summarizes the current status of reprocessing facilities around the world, including the civil operational statistics of Purex-based plants, progress with decommissioning and

  5. Cask operation and maintenance for spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Interim storage is an essential platform for any option to be chosen later as an endpoint for spent fuel management. In view of such a circumstance, the most imminent service required for the spent fuel management worldwide is to provide adequate storage for the future spent fuel inventory arising either from the continued operation of nuclear power plants or from the removal of spent fuel in preparation for plant decommissioning. While the bulk of the global inventory of spent fuel are still stored in AR pools, dry storage has become a prominent alternative especially for newly built AFR facilities, with more than 17,000 t HM already stored in dry storage facilities worldwide. Storage in cask under inert conditions has become the preferred option, given the advantages including passive cooling features and modular mode of capacity increase. In terms of economics, dry storage is particularly propitious for long-term storage in that operational costs are minimized by the passive cooling features. The trend toward dry storage, especially in cask type, is likely to continue with an implication that and the supply will closely follow the increasing demand for storage by incremental additions of casks to the effect of minimizing cost penalty of the idle capacities typical of pool facilities. A variety of storage systems have been developed to meet specific requirements of different reactor fuels and a large number of designs based on these generic technologies are now available for the spent fuel containers (horizontal, vertical etc) and storage facilities. Multi-purpose technologies (i.e. a single technology for storage, transportation and disposal) have also been studied. Recent concern on security measures for protection of spent fuel has prompted a consideration on the possibility of placing storage facility underground. The future evolution of requirements and technologies will bring important impacts on cask operation and maintenance for spent fuel storage.

  6. Cask operation and maintenance for spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    Interim storage is an essential platform for any option to be chosen later as an endpoint for spent fuel management. In view of such a circumstance, the most imminent service required for the spent fuel management worldwide is to provide adequate storage for the future spent fuel inventory arising either from the continued operation of nuclear power plants or from the removal of spent fuel in preparation for plant decommissioning. While the bulk of the global inventory of spent fuel are still stored in AR pools, dry storage has become a prominent alternative especially for newly built AFR facilities, with more than 17,000 t HM already stored in dry storage facilities worldwide. Storage in cask under inert conditions has become the preferred option, given the advantages including passive cooling features and modular mode of capacity increase. In terms of economics, dry storage is particularly propitious for long-term storage in that operational costs are minimized by the passive cooling features. The trend toward dry storage, especially in cask type, is likely to continue with an implication that and the supply will closely follow the increasing demand for storage by incremental additions of casks to the effect of minimizing cost penalty of the idle capacities typical of pool facilities. A variety of storage systems have been developed to meet specific requirements of different reactor fuels and a large number of designs based on these generic technologies are now available for the spent fuel containers (horizontal, vertical etc) and storage facilities. Multi-purpose technologies (i.e. a single technology for storage, transportation and disposal) have also been studied. Recent concern on security measures for protection of spent fuel has prompted a consideration on the possibility of placing storage facility underground. The future evolution of requirements and technologies will bring important impacts on cask operation and maintenance for spent fuel storage

  7. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs

  8. An overview on the nuclear spent fuel management in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, M.

    2001-01-01

    The sources of radioactive waste in Romania are users of radiation and radioactive materials in industry (including nuclear electricity generation), medicine, agriculture and research and also the processing of materials that are naturally radioactive, such as uranium ores. The different types of radioactive waste are classified into four categories of waste: excepted waste, low level waste, medium level waste and high level waste. A spent fuel management sub-programme as a part of the Radioactive Waste Management programme was initiated by the former Romanian Electricity Company (RENEL) in 1992. Within the frame of R and D of the Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management Programme, the topics cover investigations, studies and research to identify the sites and the conceptual designs for a Spent Fuel Interim Storage Facility (SFISF) and also a Spent Fuel Disposal Facility (SFDF). Changes in the organization of the nuclear activities of RENEL, involving both responsibilities and financing aspects, led to interruption of the programme. The programme includes study of the main methods and the existing technologies for the design, operation and safety of an interim storage facility (including transport aspects). It also includes analysis of details on the site selection for this facility and for a spent fuel final disposal facility. The achievement of the spent fuel interim storage facility is proceeding. The results from the studies performed in the last years will permit us to prepare the feasibility study next year and the documentation required by our regulatory body for starting the process to obtain a license for a SFISF at Cernavoda. A second phase is the assessment of a long term strategy to select and adopt a proven disposal technology for spent fuel, corresponding with a selected site. The status of the work performed in the frame of this programme and also the situation of the spent fuel from research reactors are presented. (author)

  9. Collective processing device for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Noboru.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a sealing vessel, a transporting device for transporting spent fuels to the sealing vessel, a laser beam cutting device for cutting the transported spent fuels, a dissolving device for dissolving the cut spent fuels, and a recovering device for recovering radioactive materials from the spent fuels during processing. Reprocessing treatments comprising each processing of dismantling, shearing and dissolving are conducted in the sealing vessel can ensure a sealing barrier for the radioactive materials (fissionable products and heavy nuclides). Then, since spent fuels can be processed in a state of assemblies, and the spent fuels are easily placed in the sealing vessel, operation efficiency is improved, as well as operation cost is saved. Further, since the spent fuels can be cut by a remote laser beam operation, there can be prevented operator's exposure due to radioactive materials released from the spent fuels during cutting operation. (T.M.)

  10. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B S; Park, Y S; Oh, S C; Kim, S H; Cho, M W; Hong, D H

    1997-12-01

    Since the nation`s policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  11. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B. S.; Park, Y. S.; Oh, S. C.; Kim, S. H.; Cho, M. W.; Hong, D. H.

    1997-12-01

    Since the nation's policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  12. Modular dry storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Long term uncertainties in US spent fuel reprocessing and storage policies and programs are forcing the electric utilities to consider means of storing spent fuel at the reactor site in increasing quantitities and for protracted periods. Utilities have taken initial steps in increasing storage capacity. Existing wet storage pools have in many cases been reracked to optimize their capacity for storing spent fuel assemblies

  13. Spent fuel storage process equipment development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Jae Sol; Yoo, Jae Hyung

    1990-02-01

    Nuclear energy which is a major energy source of national energy supply entails spent fuels. Spent fuels which are high level radioactive meterials, are tricky to manage and need high technology. The objectives of this study are to establish and develop key elements of spent fuel management technologies: handling equipment and maintenance, process automation technology, colling system, and cleanup system. (author)

  14. The spent fuel disposal program in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.K.

    1994-01-01

    It is important, especially for countries with plan to develop nuclear power, to recognize that two key factors to the future prosperity of nuclear power are the safety of nuclear power plants and the appropriate management of backend activities. This paper described the financial, managerial, technical, and political status of the spent fuel disposal program in a newly industrialized country. It is concluded that the R ampersand D works and operational practices associated with the backend activities must be carried out in parallel with the development of nuclear power

  15. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahashi, K.; Maeda, M.; Nakai, T.

    1996-01-01

    Japan has scarce energy resources and depends on foreign resources for 84% of its energy needs. Therefore, Japan has made efforts to utilize nuclear power as a key energy source since mid-1950's. Today, the nuclear energy produced from 49 nuclear power plants is responsible for about 31% of Japan's total electricity supply. The cumulative amount of spent fuel generated as of March 1995 was about 11,600 Mg U. Japan's policy of spent fuel management is to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and recycle recovered plutonium and uranium as nuclear fuel. The Tokai reprocessing plant continues stable operation keeping the annual treatment capacity or around 90 Mg U. A commercial reprocessing plant is under construction at Rokkasho, northern part of Japan. Although FBR is the principal reactor to use plutonium, LWR will be a major power source for some time and recycling of the fuel in LWRs will be prompted. (author). 3 figs

  16. TMI-2 spent fuel shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.; Burton, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    TMI-2 failed fuel will be shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for use in the DOE Core Examination Program. The fuel debris will be loaded into three types of canisters during defueling and dry loaded into a spent fuel shipping cask. The cask design accommodates seven canisters per cask and has two separate containment vessels with ''leaktight'' seals. Shipments are expectd to begin in early 1986

  17. Spent fuel receipt scenarios study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, L.B.; Montan, D.N.; Revelli, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during the fall of 1988. Subsequently, the scope of work was expanded and additional analyses were conducted in 1989. This report combines the results of the two phases of the activity. This study is a part of a broader effort to investigate the options available to the DOE and the nuclear utilities for selection of spent fuel for acceptance into the Federal Waste Management System for disposal. Each major element of the system has evaluated the effects of various options on its own operations, with the objective of providing the basis for performing system-wide trade-offs and determining an optimum acceptance scenario. Therefore, this study considers different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel by the repository only from the narrow perspective of their effect on the very-near-field temperatures in the repository following permanent closure. This report is organized into three main sections. The balance of this section is devoted to a statement of the study objective, a summary of the assumptions. The second section of the report contains a discussion of the major elements of the study. The third section summarizes the results of the study and draws some conclusions from them. The appendices include copies of the waste acceptance schedule and the existing and projected spent fuel inventory that were used in the study. 10 refs., 27 figs

  18. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Near surface spent fuel storage: environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, I.C.; Shipler, D.B.; McKee, R.W.; Glenn, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Interim storage of spent fuel appears inevitable because of the lack of reprocessing plants and spent fuel repositories. This paper examines the environmental issues potentially associated with management of spent fuel before disposal or reprocessing in a reference scenario. The radiological impacts of spent fuel storage are limited to low-level releases of noble gases and iodine. Water needed for water basin storage of spent fuel and transportation accidents are considered; the need to minimize the distance travelled is pointed out. Resource commitments for construction of the storage facilities are analyzed

  20. Trunnions for spent fuel element shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, B.

    1989-01-01

    Trunnions are used on spent fuel element shipping casks for one or more of a combination of lifting, tilting or securing to a transport vehicle. Within the nuclear transportation industry there are many different philosophies on trunnions, concerning the shape, manufacture, attachment, inspection, maintenance and repair. With the volume of international transport of spent fuel now taking place, it is recognized that problems are occurring with casks in international traffic due to the variance of the philosophies, national standards, and the lack of an international standard. It was agreed through the ISO that an international standard was required to harmonize. It was not possible to evolve an international standard. It was only possible to evolve an international guide. To evolve a standard would mean superseding any existing national standards which already cover particular aspects of trunnions i.e. deceleration forces imposed on trunnions used as tie down features. Therefore the document is a guide only and allows existing national standards to take precedence where they exist. The guide covers design, manufacture, maintenance, repair and quality assurance. The guide covers trunnions used on spent fuel casks transported by road, rail and sea. The guide details the considerations which should be taken account of by cask designers, i.e. stress intensity, design features, inspection and test methods etc. Manufacture, attachment and pre-service testing is also covered. The guide details user requirements which should also be taken account of, i.e. servicing frequency, content, maintenance and repair. The application of quality assurance is described separately although the principles are used throughout the guide

  1. Expanded spent fuel storage project at Yankee Atomic Electric Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed discussion on the project at the Yankee Rowe power reactor for expanding the capacity of the at-reactor storage pool by building double-tier storage racks. Various alternatives for providing additional capacity were examined by the operators. Away-from-reactor alternatives included shipment to existing privately owned facilities, a regional independent storage facility, and transshipments to other New England nuclear power plant pools. At-reactor alternatives evaluated included a new pool modification of the existing structure and finally, modification of the spent fuel pit. The establishment of a federal policy precluding transshipment of spent fuel prohibited the use of off-site alternatives. The addition of another pool was too expensive. The possibility of modifying an existing on-site structure required a new safety evaluation by the regulatory group with significant cost and time delays. Therefore, the final alternative - utilizing the existing spent fuel pool with some modification - was chosen due to cost, licensing possibility, no transport requirements, and the fact that the factors involved were mainly under the control of the operator. Modification of the pool was accomplished in phases. In the first phase, a dam was installed in the center of the pool (after the spent fuel was moved to one end). In the second phase, the empty end of the pool was drained and lined with stainless steel and the double-tier rack supports were added. In the third phase, the pool was refilled and the dam was removed. Then the spent fuel was moved into the completed end. In the fourth phase, the dam was replaced and the empty part of the pool was drained. The liner and double-tier rack supports were installed, the pool was refilled, and the dam was removed.The project demonstrated that the modification of existing spent fuel fuel pools for handling double-tier fuel racks is a viable solution for increasing the storage capacity at the reactor

  2. Storage of spent fuel from power reactors. 2003 conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    An International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The conference gave an opportunity to exchange information on the state of the art and prospects of spent fuel storage, to discuss the worldwide situation and the major factors influencing the national policies in this field and to identify the most important directions that national efforts and international co-operation in this area should take. The conference confirmed that the primary spent fuel management solution for the next decades will be interim storage. While the next step can be reprocessing or disposal, all spent fuel or high level waste from reprocessing must sooner or later be disposed of. The duration of interim storage is now expected to be much longer than earlier projections (up to 100 years and beyond). The storage facilities will have to be designed for these longer storage times and also for receiving spent fuel from advanced fuel cycle practices (i.e. high burnup and MOX spent fuel). It was noted that the handling and storage of spent fuel is a mature technology and meets the stringent safety requirements applicable in the different countries. The changes in nuclear policy and philosophy across the world, and practical considerations, have made storage a real necessity in the nuclear power industry. Utilities, vendors and regulators alike are addressing this adequately. The IAEA wishes to express appreciation to all chairs and co-chairs as well as all authors for their presentations to the conference and papers included in these proceedings.

  3. Storage of spent fuel from power reactors. 2003 conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    An International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The conference gave an opportunity to exchange information on the state of the art and prospects of spent fuel storage, to discuss the worldwide situation and the major factors influencing the national policies in this field and to identify the most important directions that national efforts and international co-operation in this area should take. The conference confirmed that the primary spent fuel management solution for the next decades will be interim storage. While the next step can be reprocessing or disposal, all spent fuel or high level waste from reprocessing must sooner or later be disposed of. The duration of interim storage is now expected to be much longer than earlier projections (up to 100 years and beyond). The storage facilities will have to be designed for these longer storage times and also for receiving spent fuel from advanced fuel cycle practices (i.e. high burnup and MOX spent fuel). It was noted that the handling and storage of spent fuel is a mature technology and meets the stringent safety requirements applicable in the different countries. The changes in nuclear policy and philosophy across the world, and practical considerations, have made storage a real necessity in the nuclear power industry. Utilities, vendors and regulators alike are addressing this adequately. The IAEA wishes to express appreciation to all chairs and co-chairs as well as all authors for their presentations to the conference and papers included in these proceedings

  4. Status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide: Database summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    Results complied in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialized and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. (author). 4 refs, 17 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Joon; Cho, S. H.; You, G. S.

    2001-04-01

    Currently, the economic advantage of any known approach to the back end fuel cycle of a nuclear power reactor has not been well established. Thus the long term storage of the spent fuel in a safe manner is one of the important issues to be resolved in countries where the nuclear power has a relatively heavy weight in power production of that country. At KAERI, as a solution to this particular issue midterm storage of the spent fuel, an alternative approach has been developed. This approach includes the decladding and pulverization process of the spent PWR fuel rod, the reducing process from the uranium oxide to a metallic uranium powder using Li metal in a LiCl salt, the continuous casting process of the reduced metal, and the recovery process of Li from mixed salts by the electrolysis. We conducted the laboratory scale tests of each processes for the technical feasibility and determination for the operational conditions for this approach. Also, we performed the theoretical safety analysis and conducted integral tests for the equipment integration through the Mock-up facility with non-radioactive samples. There were no major issues in the approach, however, material incompatibility of the alkaline metal and oxide in a salt at a high temperature and the reactor that contains the salt became a show stopper of the process. Also the difficulty of the clear separation of the salt with metals reduced from the oxide became a major issue

  6. Dry storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, R.

    1993-01-01

    Scottish Nuclear's plans to build and operate dry storage facilities at each of its two nuclear power station sites in Scotland are explained. An outline of where waste materials arise as part of the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power stations, the volumes for each category of high-, intermediate-and low-level wastes and the costs involved are given. The present procedure for the spent fuels from Hunterston-B and Torness stations is described and Scottish Nuclear's aims of driving output up and costs down are studied. (UK)

  7. Spent fuel storage requirements 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel and utility estimates of future discharges from US commercial nuclear reactors are presented through the year 2005. The ultimate needs for additional storage capacity are estimated. These estimtes are based on the maximum capacities within current and planned at-reactor facilities and on any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Historical data through December, 1986, and projected discharges through the end of reactor life are used in this analysis. The source data was supplied by the utilities to the DOE Energy Information Administration (EIA) through the 1987 RW-859 data survey. 14 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Development of the nuclear ship MUTSU spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, M.; Umeda, M.; Nawata, Y.; Sato, H.; Honami, M.; Nomura, T.; Ohashi, M.; Higashino, A.

    1989-01-01

    After the planned trial voyage (4700 MWD/MTU) of the nuclear ship MUTSU in 1990, her spent fuel assemblies, initially made of two types of enriched UO 2 (3.2wt% and 4.4wt%), will be transferred to the reprocessing plant soon after cooling down in the ship reactor for more than one year. For transportation, the MUTSU spent fuel shipping casks will be used. Prior to transportation to the reprocessing plant, the cooled spent fuel assemblies will be removed from the reactor to the shipping casks and housed at the spent fuel storage facility on site. In designing the MUTSU spent fuel shipping cask, considerations were given to make the leak-tightness and integrity of the cask confirmable during storage. The development of the cask and the storage function demonstration test were performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI). One prototype cask for the storage demonstration test and licensed thirty-five casks were manufactured between 1987 and 1988

  9. International safeguards concerns of Spent Fuel Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to stimulate discussions on the subjects of safeguarding large quantities of plutonium contained in spent fuels to be disposed of in geologic respositories. All the spent fuel disposal scenarios examined here pose a variety of safeguards problems, none of which are adequately addressed by the international safeguards community. The spent fuels from once-through fuel cycles in underground repositories would become an increasingly attractive target for diversion because of their plutonium content and decreasing radioactivity. Current design of the first geologic repository in the US will have the capacity to accommodate wastes equivalent to 70,000 Mt of uranium from commercial and defense fuel cycles. Of this, approximately 62,000 Mt uranium equivalent will be commerical spent fuel, containing over 500 Mt of plutonium. International safeguards commitments may require us to address the safeguards issues of disposing of such large quanities of plutonium in a geologic repository, which has the potential to become a plutonium mine in the future. This paper highlights several issues that should be addressed in the near term by US industries and the DOE before geologic repositories for spent fuels become a reality

  10. Spent fuel cask handling at an operating nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of spent fuel handling at operating nuclear power plants cannot be overstated. Because of its highly radioactive nature, however, spent fuel must be handled in thick, lead-lined containers or casks. Thus, all casks for spent fuel handling are heavy loads by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's definition, and any load-drop must be evaluated for its potential to damage safety-related equipment. Nuclear Regulatory Guide NUREG-0612 prescribes the regulatory requirements of alternative heavy-load-handling methodologies such as (a) by providing cranes that meet the requirements of NUREG-0554, which shall be called the soft path, or (b) by providing protective devices at all postulated load-drop areas to prevent any damage to safety-related equipment, which shall be called the hard path. The work reported in this paper relates to cask handling at New York Power Authority's James A. FitzPatrick (JAF) plant

  11. Overview of the spent fuel management policy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, Jussi

    1985-01-01

    The basic factors affecting the spent fuel management policy are highlighted: small size of the nuclear programme in the worldwide scale, no recycling of plutonium envisaged, no governmental organizations for back-end operations foreseen. The prinsiple objective of the policy permanent disposal of high-level wastes irrevocably outside the domestic territory, and the limited success in its implementation are discussed. The preparations of the implementation of the back-up alternative, direct disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock are described. The basic philosophy behind the system of funding the future waste management costs is clarified. (author)

  12. Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Current inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive wastes were compiled through December 31, 1983, based on the most reliable information available from government sources and the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Future waste and spent fuel to be generated over the next 37 years and characteristics of these materials are also presented, consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) or projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related and private industrial and institutional activities. Materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, airborne waste, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated, based on reported or calculated isotopic compositions. 48 figures, 107 tables

  13. Government--utility interaction on spent fuel disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    The question of the needs of the electrical power industry for spent fuel storage in light of the moratorium on fuel reprocessing is addressed. The author feels that since the Federal government has assumed the responsibility for spent fuel storage, it is imperative that a firm plan, program, legislation, and funding be forthcoming immediately. Designation of an existing government site with existing nuclear activities in order to expedite the establishment of a storage facility is recommended. It is felt that the timing for such a site should be ''at the earliest possible date.'' Without storage facilities being provided by the government, utilities will be forced to build storage facilities at the reactor sites. This course of action is not considered cost effective but certainly preferable to shutting down the reactors. It is emphasized that spent fuel storage must be an interim solution and certainly not a final solution to the fuel reprocessing and waste disposal aspects of nuclear technology

  14. RTR spent fuel treatment and final waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomasson, J.

    2000-01-01

    A number of RTR operators have chosen in the past to send their spent fuel to the US in the framework of the US take back program. However, this possibility ends as of May 12th, 2006. 3 different strategies are left for managing RTR spent fuel: extended storage, direct disposal and treatment-conditioning through reprocessing. Whilst former strategies raise a number of uncertainties, the latter already offers a management solution. It features two advantages. It benefits from the long experience of existing flexible industrial facilities from countries like France. Secondly, it offers a dramatic volume reduction of the ultimate waste to be stored under well-characterized, stable and durable forms. RTR spent fuel management through reprocessing-conditioning offers a durable management solution that can be fully integrated in whatever global radioactive waste management policy, including ultimate disposal

  15. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10 -7 spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10 -9 /mile

  16. Sealed can of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a seal plug cover with a gripping portion fitted to a canning machine and a gripping portion fitted to a gripper of the same configuration as a fuel body for handling the fuel body so as to facilitate the handling work. Structure: A sealed can comprises a vessel and a seal plug cover, said cover being substantially in the form of a bottomed cylinder, which is slipped on the vessel and air-tightly secured by a fastening bolt between it and a flange. The spent fuel body is received into the vessel together with coolant during the step of canning operation. Said seal plug cover has two gripping portions, one for opening and closing the plug cover of the canning machine as an exclusive use member, the other being in the form of a hook-shaped peripheral groove, whereby the gripping portions may be effectively used using the same gripper when the spent fuel body is transported while being received in the sealed can or when the fuel body is removed from the sealed can. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. Spent fuel storage criticality safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, E M; Elmessiry, A M [National center of nuclear safety and radiation control atomic energy authority, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The safety aspects of the spent fuel storage pool of the Egyptian test and research reactor one (ET-R R-1) has to be assessed as part of a general overall safety evaluation to be included in a safety analysis report (SAR) for this reactor. The present work treats the criticality safety of the spent fuel storage pool. Conservative calculations based on using fresh fuel has been performed, as well as less conservative using burned fuel. The calculations include cross library generation for burned and fresh fuel for the ET-R R-1 fuel type. The WIMS-D 4 code has been used in library generation and burn up calculation the critically calculations are performed using the one dimensional transport code (ANISN) and the two dimensional diffusion code (DIXY2). The possibility of increasing the storage efficiency either by insertion of absorber sheets of soluble boron salts or by reduction of fuel rod separation has been studied. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Spent Fuel Working Group Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Toole, T.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy is storing large amounts of spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials (herein referred to as RINM). In the past, the Department reprocessed RINM to recover plutonium, tritium, and other isotopes. However, the Department has ceased or is phasing out reprocessing operations. As a consequence, Department facilities designed, constructed, and operated to store RINM for relatively short periods of time now store RINM, pending decisions on the disposition of these materials. The extended use of the facilities, combined with their known degradation and that of their stored materials, has led to uncertainties about safety. To ensure that extended storage is safe (i.e., that protection exists for workers, the public, and the environment), the conditions of these storage facilities had to be assessed. The compelling need for such an assessment led to the Secretary's initiative on spent fuel, which is the subject of this report. This report comprises three volumes: Volume I; Summary Results of the Spent Fuel Working Group Evaluation; Volume II, Working Group Assessment Team Reports and Protocol; Volume III; Operating Contractor Site Team Reports. This volume presents the overall results of the Working Group's Evaluation. The group assessed 66 facilities spread across 11 sites. It identified: (1) facilities that should be considered for priority attention. (2) programmatic issues to be considered in decision making about interim storage plans and (3) specific vulnerabilities for some of these facilities

  19. Spent fuel storage criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, E.M.; Elmessiry, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The safety aspects of the spent fuel storage pool of the Egyptian test and research reactor one (ET-R R-1) has to be assessed as part of a general overall safety evaluation to be included in a safety analysis report (SAR) for this reactor. The present work treats the criticality safety of the spent fuel storage pool. Conservative calculations based on using fresh fuel has been performed, as well as less conservative using burned fuel. The calculations include cross library generation for burned and fresh fuel for the ET-R R-1 fuel type. The WIMS-D 4 code has been used in library generation and burn up calculation the critically calculations are performed using the one dimensional transport code (ANISN) and the two dimensional diffusion code (DIXY2). The possibility of increasing the storage efficiency either by insertion of absorber sheets of soluble boron salts or by reduction of fuel rod separation has been studied. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values for describing dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel. Data obtained during observation of the offloading of research reactor spent fuel at Newport News Terminal in the Port of Hampton Roads, Virginia, are described. These data include estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors, and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Other workers include crane operators, scale operators, security personnel, and truck drivers. The data are compared to the default data in RADTRAN 4, and the latter are found to be conservative. The casks were loaded under IAEA supervision at their point of origin, and three separate radiological inspections of each cask were performed at the entry to the port (Hampton Roads) by the U.S. Coast Guard, the state of Virginia, and the shipping firm. As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handler exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. (author)

  1. An Indian perspective for transportation and storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    The spent fuel discharged from the reactors are temporarily stored at the reactor pool. After a certain cooling time, the spent fuel is moved to the storage locations either on or off reactor site depending on the spent fuel management strategy. As India has opted for a closed fuel cycle for its nuclear energy development, reprocessing of the spent fuel, recycling of the reprocessed plutonium and uranium and disposal of the wastes from the reprocessing operations forms the spent fuel management strategy. Since the reprocessing operations are planned to match the nuclear energy programme, storage of the spent fuel in ponds are adopted prior to reprocessing. Transport of the spent fuel to the storage locations are carried out adhering to international and national guide lines. India is having 14 operating power reactors and three research reactors. The spent fuel from the two safeguarded BWRs are stored at-reactor (AR) storage pond. A separate wet storage facility away-from-reactor (AFR) has been designed, constructed and made operational since 1991 for additional fuel storage. Storage facilities are provided in ARs at other reactor locations to cater to 10 reactor-years of operation. A much lower capacity spent fuel storage is provided in reprocessing plants on the same lines of AR fuel storage design. Since the reprocessing operations are carried out on a need basis, to cater to the increased storage needs two new spent fuel storage facilities (SFSF) are being designed and constructed near the existing nuclear plant sites. India has mastered the technology for design, construction and operation of wet spent fuel storage facility meeting all the international standards Wet storage of the spent fuel is the most commonly adopted mode all over the world. Recently an alternate mode viz. dry storage has also been considered. India has designed, constructed and operated lead shielded dry storage casks and is operational at one site. A dry storage cask made of concrete

  2. Overview on spent fuel management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on spent fuel management strategies which range from reprocessing to interim storage in a centralised facility followed by final disposal in a repository. In either case, more spent fuel storage capacity (wet or dry, at-reactor or away-from-reactor, national or regional) is required as spent fuel is continuously accumulated while most countries prefer to defer their decision to choose between these two strategies. (author)

  3. Spent fuels transportation coming from Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Maritime transportation of spent fuels from Australia to France fits into the contract between COGEMA and ANSTO, signed in 1999. This document proposes nine information cards in this domain: HIFAR a key tool of the nuclear, scientific and technological australian program; a presentation of the ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization; the HIFAR spent fuel management problem; the COGEMA expertise in favor of the research reactor spent fuel; the spent fuel reprocessing at La Hague; the transports management; the transport safety (2 cards); the regulatory framework of the transports. (A.L.B.)

  4. Safety analysis of spent fuel packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Hiroshi; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Tai, Hideto

    1987-01-01

    Many types of spent fuel packagings have been manufactured and been used for transport of spent fuels discharged from nuclear power plant. These spent fuel packagings need to be assesed thoroughly about safety transportation because spent fuels loaded into the packaging have high radioactivity and generation of heat. This paper explains the outline of safety analysis of a packaging, Safety analysis is performed for structural, thermal, containment, shielding and criticality factors, and MARC-CDC, TRUMP, ORIGEN, QAD, ANISN, KENO, etc computer codes are used for such analysis. (author)

  5. Surveillance instrumentation for spent-fuel safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, J.M.; Holmes, J.P.; Gillman, L.K.; Schmitz, J.A.; McDaniel, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The movement, in a facility, of spent reactor fuel may be tracked using simple instrumentation together with a real time unfolding algorithm. Experimental measurements, from multiple radiation monitors and crane weight and position monitors, were obtained during spent fuel movements at the G.E. Morris Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. These data and a preliminary version of an unfolding algorithm were used to estimate the position of the centroid and the magnitude of the spent fuel radiation source. Spatial location was estimated to +-1.5 m and source magnitude to +-10% of their true values. Application of this surveillance instrumentation to spent-fuel safeguards is discussed

  6. Nuclear fuel transport and particularly spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear material transport is an essential activity for COGEMA linking the different steps of the fuel cycle transport systems have to be safe and reliable. Spent fuel transport is more particularly examined in this paper because the development of reprocessing plant. Industrial, techmical and economical aspects are reviewed [fr

  7. Spent fuel. Dissolution and oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.

    1989-03-01

    Data from studies of the low temperature air oxidation of spent fuel were retrieved in order to provide a basis for comparison between the mechanism of oxidation in air and corrosion in water. U 3 O 7 is formed by diffusion of oxygen into the UO 2 lattice. A diffusion coefficient of oxygen in the fuel matric was calculated for 25 degree C to be in the range of 10 -23 to 10 -25 m 2 /s. The initial rates of U release from spent fuel and from UO 2 appear to be similar. The lowest rates (at 25 degree c >10 -4 g/(m 2 d)) were observed under reducing conditions. Under oxidizing conditions the rates depend mainly of the nature and concentraion of the oxidant and/or on corbonate. In contact with air, typical initial rates at room temperature were in the range between 0.001 and 0.1 g/(m 2 d). A study of apparent U solubility under oxidizing conditions was performed and it was suggested that the controlling factor is the redox potential at the UO 2 surface rather than the E h of the bulk solution. Electrochemical arguments were used to predict that at saturation, the surface potential will eventually reach a value given by the boundaries at either the U 3 O 7 /U 3 O 8 or the U 3 O 7 /schoepite stability field, and a comparison with spent fuel leach data showed that the solution concentration of uranium is close to the calculated U solubility at the U 3 O 7 /U 3 O 8 boundary. The difference in the cumulative Sr and U release was calculated from data from Studsvik laboratory. The results reveal that the rate of Sr release decreases with the square root of time under U-saturated conditions. This time dependence may be rationalized either by grain boundary diffusion or by diffusion into the fuel matrix. Hence, there seems to be a possibility of an agreement between the Sr release data, structural information and data for oxygen diffusion in UO 2 . (G.B.)

  8. Conceptual development of a test facility for spent fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.W.; Lee, H.H.; Lee, J.Y.; Lee, J.S.; Ro, S.G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Spent fuel management is an important issue for nuclear power program, requiring careful planning and implementation. With the wait-and-see policy on spent fuel management in Korea, research efforts are directed at KAERI to develop advanced technologies for safer and more efficient management of the accumulating spent fuels. In support of these research perspectives, a test facility of pilot scale is being developed with provisions for integral demonstration of a multitude of technical functions required for spent fuel management. The facility, baptized SMART (Spent fuel MAnagement technology Research and Test facility), is to be capable of handling full size assembly of spent PWR fuel (as well as CANDU fuel) with a maximum capacity of 10 MTU/y (about 24 assemblies of PWR type). Major functions of the facility are consolidation of spent PWR fuel assembly into a half-volume package and optionally transformation of the fuel rod into a fuel of CANDU type (called DUPIC). Objectives of these functions are to demonstrate volume reduction of spent fuel (for either longer-term dry storage or direct disposal ) in the former case and direct refabrication of the spent PWR fuel into CANDU-type DUPIC fuel for reuse in CANDU reactors in the latter case, respectively. In addition to these major functions, there are other associated technologies to be demonstrated : such as waste treatment, remote maintenance, safeguards, etc. As the facility is to demonstrate not only the functional processes but also the safety and efficiency of the test operations, engineering criteria equivalent to industrial standards are incorporated in the design concept. The hot cell structure enclosing the radioactive materials is configured in such way to maximize costs within the given functional and operational requirements. (author). 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Conceptual development of a test facility for spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.W.; Lee, H.H.; Lee, J.Y.; Lee, J.S.; Ro, S.G.

    1997-01-01

    Spent fuel management is an important issue for nuclear power program, requiring careful planning and implementation. With the wait-and-see policy on spent fuel management in Korea, research efforts are directed at KAERI to develop advanced technologies for safer and more efficient management of the accumulating spent fuels. In support of these research perspectives, a test facility of pilot scale is being developed with provisions for integral demonstration of a multitude of technical functions required for spent fuel management. The facility, baptized SMART (Spent fuel MAnagement technology Research and Test facility), is to be capable of handling full size assembly of spent PWR fuel (as well as CANDU fuel) with a maximum capacity of 10 MTU/y (about 24 assemblies of PWR type). Major functions of the facility are consolidation of spent PWR fuel assembly into a half-volume package and optionally transformation of the fuel rod into a fuel of CANDU type (called DUPIC). Objectives of these functions are to demonstrate volume reduction of spent fuel (for either longer-term dry storage or direct disposal ) in the former case and direct refabrication of the spent PWR fuel into CANDU-type DUPIC fuel for reuse in CANDU reactors in the latter case, respectively. In addition to these major functions, there are other associated technologies to be demonstrated : such as waste treatment, remote maintenance, safeguards, etc. As the facility is to demonstrate not only the functional processes but also the safety and efficiency of the test operations, engineering criteria equivalent to industrial standards are incorporated in the design concept. The hot cell structure enclosing the radioactive materials is configured in such way to maximize costs within the given functional and operational requirements. (author). 3 tabs., 4 figs

  10. Multi-purpose container technologies for spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The management of spent nuclear fuel is an integral part of the nuclear fuel cycle. Spent fuel management resides in the back end of the fuel cycle, and is not revenue producing as electric power generation is. It instead results in a cost associated power generation. It is a major consideration in the nuclear power industry today. Because technologies, needs and circumstances vary from country to country, there is no single, standardized approach to spent fuel management. The projected cumulative amount of spent fuel generated worldwide by 2010 will be 330 000 t HM. When reprocessing is accounted for, that amount is likely to be reduced to 215 000 t HM, which is still more than twice as much as the amount now in storage. Considering the limited capacity of at-reactor (AR) storage, various technologies are being developed for increasing storage capacities. At present, many countries are developing away-from-reactor (AFR) storage in the form of pool storage or as dry storage. Further these AFR storage systems may be at-reactor sites or away-from-reactor sites (e.g. centrally located interim storage facilities, serving several reactors). The dry storage technologies being developed are varied and include vaults, horizontal concrete modules, concrete casks, and metal casks. The review of the interim storage plans of several countries indicates that the newest approaches being pursued for spent fuel management use dual-purpose and multi-purpose containers. These containers are envisaged to hold several spent fuel assemblies, and be part of the transport, storage, and possibly geological disposal systems of an integrated spent fuel management system

  11. Research reactor spent fuel management in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audero, M.A.; Bevilacqua, A.M.; Mehlich, A.M.; Novara, O.

    2002-01-01

    The research reactor spent fuel (RRSF) management strategy will be presented as well as the interim storage experience. Currently, low-enriched uranium RRSF is in wet interim storage either at reactor site or away from reactor site in a centralized storage facility. High-enriched uranium RRSF from the centralized storage facility has been sent to the USA in the framework of the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program. The strategy for the management of the RRSF could implement the encapsulation for interim dry storage. As an alternative to encapsulation for dry storage some conditioning processes are being studied which include decladding, isotopic dilution, oxidation and immobilization. The immobilized material will be suitable for final disposal. (author)

  12. Spent fuel management: reprocessing or storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Soares, M.L. de; Oliveira Lopes, M.J. de

    1986-01-01

    A review of the spent fuel management concepts generally adopted in several countries is presented, including an analysis of the brazilian situation. The alternatives are the reprocessing, the interim storage and the final disposal in a repository after appropriate conditioning. The commercial operating reprocessing facilities in the Western World are located in France and in the United Kingdom. In the USA the anti-reprocessing policy from 1977 changed in 1981, when the government supported the resumption of commercial reprocessing and designated the private sector as responsible for providing these services. Small scale facilities are operating in India, Italy, Japan and West Germany. Pilot plants for LWR fuel are being planned by Spain, Pakistan and Argentina. (Author) [pt

  13. Spent fuel management: reprocessing or storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Soares, M.L. de; Oliveira Lopes, M.J. de.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the spent fuel management concepts generally adopted in several countries is presented, including an analysis of the brazilian situation. The alternatives are the reprocessing, the interim storage and the final disposal in a repository after appropriate conditioning. The commercial operating reprocessing facilities in the Western World are located in France and in the United Kingdom. In the USA the anti-reprocessing policy from 1977 changed in 1981, when the Government supported the resumption of commercial reprocessing and designated the private sector as responsible for providing these services. Small scale facilities are operating in India, Italy, Japan and West Germany. Pilot plant for LWR fuel are being planned by Spain, Pakistan and Argentina. (Author) [pt

  14. Reprocessing method for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujie, Makoto; Shoji, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki.

    1997-01-01

    After reducing oxides of uranium (U), plutonium (Pu) and miner actinides in spent fuels by magnesium (Mg) in a molten salt, rear earth element oxides and salts of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals contained in the molten salt phase are separated and removed. Further, the Mg phase containing the reduced metals is evaporated to separate and remove Mg, thereby recovering U, Pu and minor actinides. In a lithium (Li) process, Li 2 O also generated in the reduction step is regenerated to Li simultaneously, and the reduction is conducted while suppressing the Li 2 O concentration in the molten salt low. This can improve the reduction rate of oxides of U, Pu and minor actinides compared with conventional cases. Since Li 2 O is regenerated into Li in the reduction step of the Li process, deposited Li 2 O is not carried to an electrolysis purification step, and recovering rate of U, Pu and minor actinides is not lowered. (T.M.)

  15. Method of decladding spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutome, Kazuyuki; Kitagawa, Kazuo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to safety and easy decladding of nuclear fuels thereby reduce the processing cost. Constitution: Upon dismantling of a spent fuel rod, the fuel rod is heated at least to such a temperature that the ductility of a fuel can is recovered, then transported by using seizing rollers, by which the fuel rod is pressurized from the outer circumference to break the nuclear fuels at the inside thereof. Then, the destructed fuels are recovered from both ends of the fuel can. With such a constitution, since the ductility of the fuel can is recovered by heating, when the fuel rod is passed through the rollers in this state, the fuel can is deformed to destroy the nuclear fuels at the inside thereof. Since the nuclear fuels are destroyed into small pieces, they can be taken out easily from both ends of the fuel can. (Kawakami, Y.)

  16. Calculating the plutonium in spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnham, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Many members of the public are concerned about plutonium. They are worried about its environmental, health and proliferation risks. Fundamental to all such considerations are two related questions: how much plutonium do nuclear reactors produce ? and how accurately do the relevant authorities know these production figures ? These two questions have been studied with particular reference to the UK civil Magnox reactors. In 1990 these were still the only UK civil reactors whose spent fuel had been reprocessed to extract plutonium in routine production. It has not been possible to conclude that the relevant government industry and safeguard authorities are aware of how much plutonium these reactors produce and that the figures are known to the highest achievable accuracy. To understand why, this chapter will outline some of the history of the attempts to get answers to these two questions. (author)

  17. Disposal of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants - paper work or technology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, R.; Filbert, W.

    2006-01-01

    The reference concept 'direct disposal of spent fuel' was developed as an alternative to spent fuel reprocessing and vitrified HLW disposal. The technical facilities necessary for the implementation of this reference concept - the so called POLLUX-concept, e.g. interim storages for casks containing spent fuel, a pilot conditioning facility, and a special cask 'POLLUX' for final disposal have been built. With view to a geological salt formation all handling procedures for the repository were tested aboveground in a test facility at a 1:1 scale. To optimise the concept all operational steps are reviewed for possible improvement. Most promising are a concept using canisters (BSK 3) instead of POLLUX casks, and the direct disposal of transport and storage casks (DIREGT-concept) which is the most recent one and has been designed for the direct disposal of large transport and storage casks. The final exploration of the pre-selected repository site is still pending, from the industries point of view due to political reasons only. The present paper describes the main concepts and their status as of today. (author)

  18. A central spent fuel storage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Hagberth, R.

    1978-01-01

    A planned central spent fuel storage facility in Sweden is described. The nuclear power program and quantities of spent fuel generated in Sweden is discussed. A general description of the facility is given with emphasis on the lay-out of the buildings, transport casks and fuel handling. Finally a possible design of a Swedish transportation system is discussed. (author)

  19. Spent fuel storage for ISER plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takasuke; Kimura, Yuzi

    1987-01-01

    ISER is an intrinsically safe reactor basing its safety only on physical laws, and uses a steel reactor vessel in order to be economical. For such a new type reactor, it is essentially important to be accepted by the society by showing that the reactor is more profitable than conventional reactors to the public in both technical and economic viewpoint. It is also important that the reactor raises no serious problem in the total fuel cycle. Reprocessing seems one of the major worldwide fuel cycle issues. Spent fuel storage is also one of the key technologies for fuel cycle back end. Various systems for ISER spent fuel storages are examined in the present report. Spent fuel specifications of ISER are similar to those of LWR and therefore, most of LWR spent fuel technologies are basically applicable to ISER spent fuel. Design requirements and examples of storage facilities are also discussed. Dry storage seems to be preferable for the relatively long cooling time spent fuel like ISER's one from economical viewpoint. Vault storage will possibly be the most advantageous for large storage capacity. Another point for discussion is the location and international collaboration for spent fuel storages: ISER expected to be a worldwide energy source and therefore, international spent fuel management seems to be fairly attractive way for an energy recipient country. (Nogami, K.)

  20. Development of spent fuel dry storage technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruoka, Kunio; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Kunishima, Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    The spent fuels are the recycle fuel resources, and it is very important to store the spent fuels in safety. There are two types of the spent fuel interim storage system. One is wet storage system and another is dry storage system. In this study, the dry storage technology, dual purpose metal cask storage and canister storage, has been developed. For the dual purpose metal cask storage, boronated aluminum basket cell, rational cask body shape and shaping process have been developed, and new type dual purpose metal cask has been designed. For the canister storage, new type concrete cask and high density vault storage technology have been developed. The results of this study will be useful for the spent fuel interim storage. Safety and economical spent fuel interim storage will be realized in the near future. (author)

  1. Spent fuel characterization for the commercial waste and spent fuel packaging program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, R.L.; Davis, R.B.; Pasupathi, V.; Klingensmith, R.W.

    1980-03-01

    This document presents the rationale for spent fuel characterization and provides a detailed description of the characterization examinations. Pretest characterization examinations provide quantitative and qualitative descriptions of spent fuel assemblies and rods in their irradiated conditions prior to disposal testing. This information is essential in evaluating any subsequent changes that occur during disposal demonstration and laboratory tests. Interim examinations and post-test characterization will be used to identify fuel rod degradation mechanisms and quantify degradation kinetics. The nature and behavior of the spent fuel degradation will be defined in terms of mathematical rate equations from these and laboratory tests and incorporated into a spent fuel performance prediction model. Thus, spent fuel characterization is an essential activity in the development of a performance model to be used in evaluating the ability of spent fuel to meet specific waste acceptance criteria and in evaluating incentives for modification of the spent fuel assemblies for long-term disposal purposes

  2. Nuclear Spent Fuel Management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.

    2015-01-01

    The radioactive waste management policy is established by the Spanish Government through the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce. This policy is described in the Cabinet-approved General Radioactive Waste Plan. ENRESA is the Spanish organization in charge of radioactive waste and nuclear SFM and nuclear installations decommissioning. The priority goal in SFM is the construction of the centralized storage facility named Almacén Temporal Centralizado (ATC), whose generic design was approved by the safety authority, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. This facility is planned for some 6.700 tons of heavy metal. The ATC site selection process, based on a volunteer community’s scheme, has been launched by the Government in December 2009. After the selection of a site in a participative and transparent process, the site characterization and licensing activities will support the construction of the facility. Meanwhile, extension of the on-site storage capacity has been implemented at the seven nuclear power plants sites, including past reracking at all sites. More recent activities are: reracking performed at Cofrentes NPP; dual purpose casks re-licensing for higher burnup at Trillo NPP; transfer of the spent fuel inventory at Jose Cabrera NPP to a dry-storage system, to allow decommissioning operations; and licence application of a dry-storage installation at Ascó NPP, to provide the needed capacity until the ATC facility operation. For financing planning purposes, the long-term management of spent fuel is based on direct disposal. A final decision about major fuel management options is not made yet. To assist the decision makers a number of activities are under way, including basic designs of a geological disposal facility for clay and granite host rocks, together with associated performance assessment, and supported by a R&D programme, which also includes research projects in other options like advanced separation and transmutation. (author)

  3. Spent fuel canister docking station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.

    2006-01-01

    The working report for the spent fuel canister docking station presents a design for the operation and structure of the docking equipment located in the fuel handling cell for the spent fuel in the encapsulation plant. The report contains a description of the basic requirements for the docking station equipment and their implementation, the operation of the equipment, maintenance and a cost estimate. In the designing of the equipment all the problems related with the operation have been solved at the level of principle, nevertheless, detailed designing and the selection of final components have not yet been carried out. In case of defects and failures, solutions have been considered for postulated problems, and furthermore, the entire equipment was gone through by the means of systematic risk analysis (PFMEA). During the docking station designing we came across with needs to influence the structure of the actual disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel, too. Proposed changes for the structure of the steel lid fastening screw were included in the report. The report also contains a description of installation with the fuel handling cell structures. The purpose of the docking station for the fuel handling cell is to position and to seal the disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel into a penetration located on the cell floor and to provide suitable means for executing the loading of the disposal canister and the changing of atmosphere. The designed docking station consists of a docking ring, a covering hatch, a protective cone and an atmosphere-changing cap as well as the vacuum technology pertaining to the changing of atmosphere and the inert gas system. As far as the solutions are concerned, we have arrived at rather simple structures and most of the actuators of the system are situated outside of the actual fuel handling cell. When necessary, the equipment can also be used for the dismantling of a faulty disposal canister, cut from its upper end by machining. The

  4. Situation and perspective of spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Garcia, A.

    2009-01-01

    Between september 2006 and september 2007, the Foundation for Energy Studies carried out the study Radioactive Waste Management: Situation, Analysis and Perspectives. This study focuses specially on spent fuel and high level radioactive waste management. The different aspects covered in this study are as follows: -Description of the different applicable technologies -Analysis and comparison of the different options of spent fuel management, including the strategic and economic aspects. - Situation, strategies and forecasts in the main countries. -Analysis of the situation and alternatives for the spent fuel management in spain. Although the report focuses principally pn the technological and environmental aspects other issues related with the management of these materials were considered, such as the strategic, economic and institutional aspects as well as the social acceptation. In answer to the request of the SNE publication, the article enclosed is a summary of one of the chapters of this study, and more particularly the one dedicated to the situation of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste management in Spain. (Author)

  5. Spent fuel management in China: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the development of nuclear power in China, its status of operating nuclear power plants and progress of on-going NPP projects are described. With the arising of spent fuel from NPPs, a national policy of a closed nuclear fuel cycle has been determined. Following storage at reactor sites for at least 5 years (generally maximum 10 years), spent fuel will be transferred to an away-from-reactor pool type centralized storage facility. Adjacent to the storage facility, a multi-purpose reprocessing pilot plant will be set up by the end of this century. An industrial scale reprocessing plant would be succeeded around the year 2020. China's spent fuel management activities include at-reactor storage, transportation, away-from-reactor storage and reprocessing. Relatively detailed description of the work done up to now on spent fuel management and plans for the future are described. It should be noted that activities related to the management of high level radioactive waste are not included here. (author)

  6. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Nuclear spent fuel transportation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Maier, J.B.

    1979-11-01

    Currently, there are a number of institutional problems associated with the shipment of spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear power plants: new and conflicting regulations, embargoing of certain routes, imposition of transport safeguards, physical security in-transit, and a lack of definition of when and where the fuel will be moved. This report presents a summary of these types and kinds of problems. It represents the results of evaluations performed relative to fuel receipt at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. Case studies were made which address existing reactor sites with near-term spent fuel transportation needs. Shipment by either highway, rail, water, or intermodal water-rail was considered. The report identifies the impact of new regulations and uncertainty caused by indeterminate regulatory policy and lack of action on spent fuel acceptance and storage. This stagnant situation has made it impossible for industry to determine realistic transportation scenarios for business planning and financial risk analysis. A current lack of private investment in nuclear transportation equipment is expected to further prolong the problems associated with nuclear spent fuel and waste disposition. These problems are expected to intensify in the 1980's and in certain cases will make continuing reactor plant operation difficult or impossible

  7. Immobilization of radioactive waste sludge from spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Plecas, I.

    1998-01-01

    In the last forty years, in FR Yugoslavia, as result of the research reactors' operation and radionuclides application in medicine, industry and agriculture, radioactive waste materials of the different categories and various levels of specific activities were generated. As a temporary solution, these radioactive waste materials are stored in the two hanger type interim storages for solid waste and some type of liquid waste packed in plastic barrels, and one of three stainless steal underground containers for other types of liquid waste. Spent fuel elements from nuclear reactors in the Vinca Institute have been temporary stored in water filled storage pool. Due to the fact that the water in the spent fuel elements storage pool have not been purified for a long time, all metallic components submerged in the water have been hardly corroded and significant amount of the sludge has been settled on the bottom of the pool. As a first step in improving spent fuel elements storage conditions and slowing down corrosion in the storage spent fuel elements pool we have decided to remove the sludge from the bottom of the pool. Although not high, but slightly radioactive, this sludge had to be treated as radioactive waste material. Some aspects of immobilisation, conditioning and storage of this sludge are presented in this paper. (author

  8. Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    Current inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy radioactive wastes were compiled through December 31, 1982, based on the most reliable information available from government sources and the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Future waste and spent fuel to be generated over the next 40 years and characteristics of these materials are also presented, based on the latest DOE/EIA projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related and industrial and institutional activities. Materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter bases, are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, active uranium mill tailings, airborne waste, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated, based on reported or calculated isotopic compositions. One chapter gives broad, summary data on the costs of spent fuel and radioactive waste management and disposal to provide an economic perspective. This chapter is not intended as a definitive guide, but it is a source of reasonable, order-of-magnitude costs and also provides references to more-detailed and scenario-specific studies. An appendix on generic flowsheets and source terms used for the projections is also included

  9. Spent fuel and radioactive-waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    Current inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy radioactive wastes were compiled, based on the most reliable information available from government sources and the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Future waste and spent fuel to be generated over the next 40 years, and characteristics of these materials are also presented, based on a present DOE/EIA projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related and industrial and institutional activities. Materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, remedial action waste, active uranium mill tailings, airborne waste, and decommissioning. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020. The land usage requirements are given for storage/disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes, and for the present inventories of inactive uranium mill tailings. For each waste category the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated. Isotopic compositions and cost data are given for each waste type and for spent fuel

  10. Spent fuel management in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.

    1998-01-01

    From Indian point of view, the spent fuel management by the reprocessing and plutonium recycle option is considered to be a superior and an inevitable option. The nuclear energy programme in Indian envisages three stages of implementation involving installation of thermal reactors in the first phase followed by recycling of plutonium from reprocessed fuel in fast breeder reactors and in the third phase utilization of its large thorium reserves in reactor system based on U-233-Th cycle. The Indian programme for Waste Management envisages disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in near surface disposal facilities and deep geological disposal for high level and alpha bearing wastes. A Waste Immobilization Plant (WHIP), employing metallic melter for HLW vitrification is operational at Tarapur. Two more WIPs are being set up at Kalpakkam and Tarapur. A Solid waste Storage Surveillance Facility (SSSF) is also set up for interim storage of vitrified HLW. Site investigations are in progress for selecting site for ultimate disposal in igneous rock formations. R and D works is taken up on partitioning of HLW. Solvent extraction and extraction chromatographic studies are in progress. Presently emphasis is on separation of heat generating short lived nuclides like strontium and alpha emitters. (author)

  11. Modeling the highway transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, I.G.

    1986-01-01

    There will be a substantial increase in the number of spent fuel shipments on the nation's highway system in the next thirty years. Most of the spent fuel will be moving from reactors to a spent fuel repository. This study develops two models that evaluate the risk and cost of moving the spent fuel. The Minimum Total Transport Risk Model (MTTRM) seeks an efficient solution for this problem by finding the minimum risk path through the network and sending all the spent fuel shipments over this one path. The Equilibrium Transport Risk Model (ETRM) finds an equitable solution by distributing the shipments over a number of paths in the network. This model decreases the risk along individual paths, but increases society's risk because the spent fuel shipments are traveling over more links in the network. The study finds that there is a trade off between path risk and societal risk. As path risk declines, societal risk rises. The cost of shipping also increases as the number of paths expand. The cost and risk of shipping spent fuel from ten reactors to four potential repository sites are evaluated using the MTTRM. The temporary monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility in Tennessee is found to be the minimum cost and minimum risk solution. When direct shipment to the permanent sites is considered, Deaf Smith, Texas is the least cost and least incident free transport risk location. Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the least risk location when the focus is placed on the potential consequences of an accident

  12. German Approach to Spent Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jussofie, A.; Graf, R.; Filbert, W.

    2010-01-01

    The management of spent fuel was based on two powerful columns until 30 June 2005, i. e. reprocessing and direct disposal. After this date any delivery of spent fuel to reprocessing plants was prohibited so that the direct disposal of unreprocessed spent fuel is the only available option in Germany today. The main steps of the current concept are: (i) Intermediate storage of spent fuel, which is the only step in practice. After the first cooling period in spent fuel storage pools it continues into cask-receiving dry storage facilities. Identification of casks, 'freezing' of inventories in terms of continuity of knowledge, monitoring the access to spent fuel, verifying nuclear material movements in terms of cask transfers and ensurance against diversion of nuclear material belong to the fundamental safeguards goals which have been achieved in the intermediate storage facilities by containment and surveillance techniques in unattended mode. (ii) Conditioning of spent fuel assemblies by separating the fuel rods from structural elements. Since the pilot conditioning facility in Gorleben has not yet come into operation, the underlying safeguards approach which focuses on safeguarding the key measurement points - the spent fuel related way in and out of the facility - has not been applied yet. (iii) Disposal in deep geological formations, but no decision has been made so far neither regarding the location of a geological repository nor regarding the safeguards approach for the disposal concept of spent fuel. The situation was complicated by a moratorium which suspended the underground exploration of the Gorleben salt dome as potential geological repository for spent fuel. The moratorium expires in October 2010. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made in the development of disposal concepts. According to the basic, so-called POLLUX (registered) -concept spent fuel assemblies are to be conditioned after dry storage and reloaded into the POLLUX (registered) -cask

  13. The Canadian research reactor spent fuel situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the present research reactor spent fuel situation in Canada. The research reactors currently operating are listed along with the types of fuel that they utilize. Other shut down research reactors contributing to the storage volume are included for completeness. The spent fuel storage facilities associated with these reactors and the methods used to determine criticality safety are described. Finally the current inventory of spent fuel and where it is stored is presented along with concerns for future storage. (author). 3 figs

  14. Spent fuel management newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This issue of the newsletter consists of two parts. The first part describes the IAEA Secretariat activities - work and programme of the Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Technology Section of the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management, recent and planned meetings and publications, Technical Co-operation projects, Co-ordinated Research programmes. The second part contains country reports - national programmes on spent fuel management: current and planned storage and reprocessing capacities, spent fuel arisings, safety, transportation, storage and treatment of spent fuel

  15. Thermal model of spent fuel transport cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.E.M.; Rahman, F.A.; Sultan, G.F.; Khalil, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    The investigation provides a theoretical model to represent the thermal behaviour of the spent fuel elements when transported in a dry shipping cask under normal transport conditions. The heat transfer process in the spent fuel elements and within the cask are modeled which include the radiant heat transfer within the cask and the heat transfer by thermal conduction within the spent fuel element. The model considers the net radiant method for radiant heat transfer process from the inner most heated element to the surrounding spent elements. The heat conduction through fuel interior, fuel-clad interface and on clad surface are also presented. (author) 6 figs., 9 refs

  16. Spent fuel critical masses and supportive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffer, H.; Wells, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Critical masses for spent fuel are larger than for green fuel and therefore use of the increased masses could result in improved handling, storage, and transport of such materials. To apply spent fuel critical masses requires an assessment of fuel exposure and the corresponding isotopic compositions. The paper discusses several approaches at the Hanford N Reactor in establishing fuel exposure, including a direct measurement of spent to green fuel critical masses. The benefits derived from the use of spent fuel critical masses are illustrated for cask designs at the Nuclear Assurance Corporation. (author)

  17. Spent fuel management newsletter. No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-04-01

    This issue of the newsletter consists of two parts. The first part describes the IAEA Secretariat activities - work and programme of the Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Technology Section of the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management, recent and planned meetings and publications, Technical Co-operation projects, Co-ordinated Research programmes. The second part contains country reports - national programmes on spent fuel management: current and planned storage and reprocessing capacities, spent fuel arisings, safety, transportation, storage and treatment of spent fuel.

  18. Long Term Management of Spent Fuel from NEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegel, L.; Zeleznik, N.; Lokner, V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 Slovenian national agency for radioactive waste management ARAO started together with Croatian sister organization APO elaboration of a new revision of Decommissioning, Radioactive waste and Spent fuel management program for NPP Krsko. In scope of this work also new studies for spent fuel storage and disposal were prepared in which technical solutions were analyzed and proposed for specific spent fuel (SF) from NPP Krsko. Time schedules for main activities of SF disposal development were elaborated for two alternative scenarios which correspond to normal NPP Krsko operation and 20 - year lifetime extension. All technical activities were financially assessed and costs estimates of SF storage and geological disposal development provided. The prepared studies were verified by international experts in order to confirm the correctness of technical inputs, proposed solutions, time schedules of activities and costs evaluations. The calculated nominal and discounted costs of spent fuel management served for the recalculation of annuities in the integral scenarios of interrelated activities on NPP Krsko decommissioning, LILW and SF management. Besides new first proposal of long-term management of spent fuel from NPP Krsko the joint work also opened additional questions. One of this is time schedule of proposed activities for long term SF management - what were the criteria used in the determination of actions and are they optimal for both countries. How the process of site selection for SF storage or disposal should be prepared having in mind that it will bring many questions in both countries? Is direct disposal of SF still the best solution in current development of nuclear prospects? The paper will present the current development and solutions for SF management from NPP Krsko and will try to answer questions which need to be solved and future development in the SF management.(author).

  19. Spent fuel management options for research reactors in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    Research reactors (RRs) have been operated in Latin America since the late 1950s, and a total of 23 RRs have been built in the region. At the time of writing (November 2005), 18 RRs are in operation, 4 have been shut down and 1 has been decommissioned. The number of operating RRs in Latin America represents around 6% of the existing operational RRs worldwide and around 21% of the RRs operating in developing countries. Common to all RRs in the region is a consistent record of safe and successful operation. With the purpose of carrying out a collaborative study of different aspects of the management of spent fuel from RRs, some countries from the region proposed to the IAEA in 2000 the organization of a Regional Project. The project (IAEA TC Regional Project RLA/4/018) that was approved for the biennium 2001-2002 and extended for 2003-2004 included the participation of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Peru. The main objectives of this project were: (a) to define the basic conditions for a regional strategy for managing spent fuel that will provide solutions compatible with the economic and technological realities of the countries involved; and (b) to determine what is needed for the temporary wet and dry storage of spent fuel from the research reactors in the countries of the Latin American region that participated in the project. This TECDOC is based on the results of TC Regional Project RLA/4/018. This project was successful in identifying and assessing a number of viable alternatives for RRSF management in the Latin American region. Options for operational and interim storage, spent fuel conditioning and final disposal have been carefully considered. This report presents the views of Latin American experts on RR spent fuel management and will be useful as reference material for the Latin American RR community, decision making authorities in the region and the public in general

  20. Suggestion on the safety classification of spent fuel dry storage in China’s pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Qu, Yunhuan; Meng, De; Zhang, Qiaoer; Lu, Xinhua

    2018-01-01

    China’s spent fuel storage in the pressurized water reactors(PWR) is stored with wet storage way. With the rapid development of nuclear power industry, China’s NPPs(NPPs) will not be able to meet the problem of the production of spent fuel. Currently the world’s major nuclear power countries use dry storage as a way of spent fuel storage, so in recent years, China study on additional spent fuel dry storage system mainly. Part of the PWR NPP is ready to apply for additional spent fuel dry storage system. It also need to safety classificate to spent fuel dry storage facilities in PWR, but there is no standard for safety classification of spent fuel dry storage facilities in China. Because the storage facilities of the spent fuel dry storage are not part of the NPP, the classification standard of China’s NPPs is not applicable. This paper proposes the safety classification suggestion of the spent fuel dry storage for China’s PWR NPP, through to the study on China’s safety classification principles of PWR NPP in “Classification for the items of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants (GB/T 17569-2013)”, and safety classification about spent fuel dry storage system in NUREG/CR - 6407 in the United States.

  1. Spent fuel interim management: 1995 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    The problems of interim away-from-reactor spent fuel storage and storage in spent fuel pools at the reactor site are discussed. An overview of the state-of-the-art in the USA, Europe, and Japan is presented. The technical facilities for away-from-reactor storage are briefly described, including wet storage pools, interactive concrete systems, metallic containers, and passive concrete systems. Reprocessing technologies are mostly at the design stage only. It is predicted that during the 20 years to come, about 50 000 tonnes of spent fuel will be stored at reactor sites regardless of the advance of spent fuel reprocessing or interim storage projects. (J.B.). 4 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Spent fuel management of NPPs in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, D.E.; Lee Gonzalez, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    There are two Nuclear Power Plants in operation in Argentina: 'Atucha I' (unique PHWR design) in operation since 1974, and 'Embalse' (typical Candu reactor) which started operation in 1984. Both NPPs are operated by 'Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A' which is responsible for the management and interim storage of spent fuel till the end of the operative life of the plants. A third NPP, 'Atucha II' is under construction, with a similar design of Atucha I. The legislative framework establishes that after final shutdown of a NPP the spent fuel will be transferred to the 'National Atomic Energy Commission', which is also responsible for the decommissioning of the Plants. In Atucha I, the spent fuel is stored underwater, until another option is implemented meanwhile in Embalse the spent fuel is stored during six years in pools and then it is moved to a dry storage. A decision about the fuel cycle back-end strategy will be taken before year 2030. (authors)

  3. International experience in conditioning spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, P.

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile and present in a clear form international experience (USA, Canada, Sweden, FRG, UK, Japan, Switzerland) gained to date in conditioning spent fuel elements. The term conditioning is here taken to mean the handling and packaging of spent fuel elements for short- or long-term storage or final disposal. Plants of a varying nature fall within this scope, both in terms of the type of fuel element treated and the plant purpose eg. experimental or production plant. Emphasis is given to plants which bear some similarity to the concept developed in Germany for direct disposal of spent fuel elements. Worldwide, however, relatively few conditioning plants are in existence or have been conceived. Hence additional plants have been included where aspects of the experience gained are also of relevance eg. plants developed for the consolidation of spent fuel elements. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Spent fuel storage requirements 1993--2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements through the year 2040. The needs are estimated for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the reactor storage pools. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of spent fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. The nuclear utilities provide historical data through December 1992 on the end of reactor life are based on the DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges

  5. Choosing a spent fuel interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.; Hunter, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Transnucleaire Group has developed different modular solutions to address spent fuel interim storage needs of NPP. These solutions, that are present in Europe, USA and Asia are metal casks (dual purpose or storage only) of the TN 24 family and the NUHOMS canister based system. It is not always simple for an operator to sort out relevant choice criteria. After explaining the basic designs involved on the examples of the TN 120 WWER dual purpose cask and the NUHOMS 56 WWER for WWER 440 spent fuel, we shall discuss the criteria that govern the choice of a given spent fuel interim storage system from the stand point of the operator. In conclusion, choosing and implementing an interim storage system is a complex process, whose implications can be far reaching for the long-term success of a spent fuel management policy. (author)

  6. Spent fuel transportation in the United States: commercial spent fuel shipments through December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    This report has been prepared to provide updated transportation information on light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel in the United States. Historical data are presented on the quantities of spent fuel shipped from individual reactors on an annual basis and their shipping destinations. Specifically, a tabulation is provided for each present-fuel shipment that lists utility and plant of origin, destination and number of spent-fuel assemblies shipped. For all annual shipping campaigns between 1980 and 1984, the actual numbers of spent-fuel shipments are defined. The shipments are tabulated by year, and the mode of shipment and the casks utilized in shipment are included. The data consist of the current spent-fuel inventories at each of the operating reactors as of December 31, 1984. This report presents historical data on all commercial spent-fuel transportation shipments have occurred in the United States through December 31, 1984

  7. Cost and risk tradeoff for routing nuclear spent fuel movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    In the transportation industry, much effort has been devoted to finding the least cost routes for shipping goods from their production sites to the market areas. In addition to cost, the decision maker must take the risk of an incident into consideration for transportation routing involving hazardous materials. The transportation of spent nuclear fuel from reactor sites to repositories is an example. Given suitable network information, existing routing methods can readily determine least cost or least risk routes for any shipment. These two solutions, however, represent the extremes of a large number of alternatives with different combinations of risk and cost. In the selection of routes and also in the evaluation of alternative storage sites it is not enough to know which is the lease cost or lowest risk. Intelligent decision-marking requires knowledge of how much it will cost to lower risk by a certain amount. The objective of this study is to develop an automated system to evaluate the tradeoff between transportation cost and potential population at risk under different nuclear spent fuel transportation strategies

  8. Probable leaching mechanisms for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.; Katayama, Y.B.

    1981-01-01

    At the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, researchers in the Waste/Rock Interaction Technology Program are studying spent fuel as a possible waste form for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation. This paper presents probable leaching mechanisms for spent fuel and discusses current progress in identifying and understanding the leaching process. During the past year, experiments were begun to study the complex leaching mechanism of spent fuel. The initial work in this investigation was done with UO 2 , which provided the most information possible on the behavior of the spent-fuel matrix without encountering the very high radiation levels associated with spent fuel. Both single-crystal and polycrystalline UO 2 samples were used for this study, and techniques applicable to remote experimentation in a hot cell are being developed. The effects of radiation are being studied in terms of radiolysis of water and surface activation of the UO 2 . Dissolution behavior and kinetics of UO 2 were also investigated by electrochemical measurement techniques. These data will be correlated with those acquired when spent fuel is tested in a hot cell. Oxidation effects represent a major area of concern in evaluating the stability of spent fuel. Dissolution of UO 2 is greatly increased in an oxidizing solution because the dissolution is then controlled by the formation of hexavalent uranium. In solutions containing very low oxygen levels (i.e., reducing solutions), oxidation-induced dissolution may be possible via a previously oxidized surface, through exposure to air during storage, or by local oxidants such as O 2 and H 2 O 2 produced from radiolysis of water and radiation-activated UO 2 surfaces. The effects of oxidation not only increase the dissolution rate, but could lead to the disintegration of spent fuel into fine fragments

  9. Spent fuel management in France: Programme status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudat, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    France's programme is best characterized as a closed fuel cycle including reprocessing, Plutonium recycling in PWR and use of breeder reactors. The current installed nuclear capacity is 52.5 GWe from 55 units. The spent fuel management scheme chosen is reprocessing. This paper describes the national programme, spent nuclear fuel storage, reprocessing and contracts for reprocessing of spent fuel from various countries. (author). 5 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Nuclear criticality safety studies applicable to spent fuel shipping cask designs and spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.S.

    1980-11-01

    Criticality analyses of water-moderated and reflected arrays of LWR fresh and spent fuel assemblies were carried out in this study. The calculated results indicate that using the assumption of fresh fuel loading in spent fuel shipping cask design leads to assembly spacings which are about twice the spacings of spent fuel loadings. Some shipping cask walls of composite lead and water are more effective neutron reflectors than water of 30.48 cm

  11. Automatic spent fuel ID number reader (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, S.; Kawamoto, H.; Fujimaki, K.; Kobe, A.

    1991-01-01

    An effective and efficient technique has been developed for facilitating identification works of LWR spent fuel stored in large scale spent fuel storage pools of such as processing plants. Experience shows that there are often difficulties in the implementation of operator's nuclear material accountancy and control works as well as safeguards inspections conducted on spent fuel assemblies stored in deep water pool. This paper reports that the technique is realized as an automatic spent fuel ID number reader system installed on fuel handling machine. The ID number reader system consists of an optical sub-system and an image processing sub-system. Thousands of spent fuel assemblies stored in under water open racks in each storage pool could be identified within relatively short time (e.g. within several hours) by using this combination. Various performance tests were carried out on image processing sub-system in 1990 using TV images obtained from different types of spent fuel assemblies stored in various storage pools of PWR and BWR power stations

  12. Spent fuel dry storage in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buday, G.; Szabo, B.; Oerdoegh, M.; Takats, F.

    1999-01-01

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant is the only NPP in Hungary. It has four WWER-440 type reactor units. Since 1989, approximately 40-50% of the total annual electricity generation of the country has been supplied by this plant. The fresh fuel is imported from Russia. Most of the spent fuel assemblies have been shipped back to Russia. Difficulties with spent fuel transportation to Russia have begun in 1992. Since that time, some of the shipments were delayed, some of them were completely cancelled, thus creating a backlog of spent fuel filling all storage positions of the plant. To provide assurance of the continued operation, Paks NPPs management decided to implement an independent spent fuel storage facility and chose GEC-Althom's MVDS design. The construction of the facility started in February 1995 and the first spent fuel assembly was placed in the store in September 1997. The paper gives an overview of the situation, describing the conditions leading to the construction of the dry storage facility at Paks and its implementation. Finally, some information is given about the new Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management established this year and responsible for managing the issues related to spent fuel management. (author)

  13. Spent Fuel Management Newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This Newsletter has been prepared in accordance with the recommendations of the International Regular Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management and the Agency's programme (GC XXXII/837, Table 76, item 14). The main purpose of the Newsletter is to provide Member States with new information about the state-of-the-art in one of the most important parts of the nuclear fuel cycle - Spent Fuel Management. The contents of this publication consists of two parts: (1) IAEA Secretariat contribution -work and programme of the Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Technology Section of the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management, recent and planned meetings and publications, Technical Co-operation projects, Co-ordinated Research programmes, etc. (2) Country reports - national programmes on spent fuel management: current and planned storage and reprocessing capacities, spent fuel arisings, safety, transportation, storage, treatment of spent fuel, some aspects of uranium and plutonium recycling, etc. The IAEA expects to publish the Newsletter once every two years between the publications of the Regular Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management. Figs and tabs

  14. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Won; Shin, Y. J.; Cho, S. H.

    2004-03-01

    The research on spent fuel management focuses on the maximization of the disposal efficiency by a volume reduction, the improvement of the environmental friendliness by the partitioning and transmutation of the long lived nuclides, and the recycling of the spent fuel for an efficient utilization of the uranium source. In the second phase which started in 2001, the performance test of the advanced spent fuel management process consisting of voloxidation, reduction of spent fuel and the lithium recovery process has been completed successfully on a laboratory scale. The world-premier spent fuel reduction hot test of a 5 kgHM/batch has been performed successfully by joint research with Russia and the valuable data on the actinides and FPs material balance and the characteristics of the metal product were obtained with experience to help design an engineering scale reduction system. The electrolytic reduction technology which integrates uranium oxide reduction in a molten LiCl-Li 2 O system and Li 2 O electrolysis is developed and a unique reaction system is also devised. Design data such as the treatment capacity, current density and mass transfer behavior obtained from the performance test of a 5 kgU/batch electrolytic reduction system pave the way for the third phase of the hot cell demonstration of the advanced spent fuel management technology

  15. Spent fuel storage options: a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Bale, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The delayed decisions on nuclear fuel reprocessing strategies in the USA and other countries have forced the development of new long-term irradiated fuel storage techniques, to allow a larger volume of fuel to be held on the nuclear station site after removal from the reactor. The nuclear power industry has responded to the challenge by developing several viable options for long-term onsite storage, which can be employed individually or in tandem. They are: densification of storage in the existing spent fuel pool; building another fuel pool facility at the plant site; onsite cask park, and on site vault clusters. Desirable attributes of a storage option are: Safety: minimise the number of fuel handling steps; Economy: minimise total installed, and O and M cost; Security: protection from anti-nuclear protesters; Site adaptability: available site space, earthquake characteristics of the region and so on; Non-intrusiveness: minimise required modifications to existing plant systems; Modularisation: afford the option to adapt a modular approach for staged capital outlays; and Maturity: extent of industry experience with the technology. A critical appraisal is made of each of the four aforementioned storage options in the light of these criteria. (2 figures, 1 table, 4 references) (Author)

  16. A cost-benefit analysis of spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamorlette, G.

    2001-01-01

    The back end of the fuel cycle is an area of economic risk for utilities having nuclear power plants to generate electricity. A cost-benefit analysis is a method by which utilities can evaluate advantages and drawbacks of alternative back end fuel cycle strategies. The present paper analyzes how spent fuel management can influence the risks and costs incurred by a utility over the lifetime of its power plants and recommends a recycling strategy. (author)

  17. Operation and maintenance of spent fuel storage and transportation casks/containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Member States have a growing need for casks for spent fuel storage and transportation. A variety of casks has been developed and is in use at an increasing number of sites. This has resulted in an accumulation of experience that will provide valuable information for other projects in spent fuel management. This publication provides a comprehensive review of information on the cask operation and maintenance associated with spent fuel storage. It draws upon generic knowledge from industrial experience and applications and is intended to serve as a basis for better planning and implementation in future projects

  18. Regeneration of ammonia borane spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Andrew David; Davis, Benjamin L.; Gordon, John C.

    2009-01-01

    A necessary target in realizing a hydrogen (H 2 ) economy, especially for the transportation sector, is its storage for controlled delivery, presumably to an energy producing fuel cell. In this vein, the U.S. Department of Energy's Centers of Excellence (CoE) in Hydrogen Storage have pursued different methodologies, including metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and sorbents, for the expressed purpose of supplanting gasoline's current > 300 mile driving range. Chemical H 2 storage has been dominated by one appealing material, ammonia borane (H 3 N-BH 3 , AB), due to its high gravimetric capacity of H 2 (19.6 wt %) and low molecular weight (30.7 g mol -1 ). In addition, AB has both hydridic and protic moieties, yielding a material from which H 2 can be readily released in contrast to the loss of H 2 from C 2 H 6 which is substantially endothermic. As such, a number of publications have described H 2 release from amine boranes, yielding various rates depending on the method applied. The viability of any chemical H 2 storage system is critically dependent on efficient recyclability, but reports on the latter subject are sparse, invoke the use of high energy reducing agents, and suffer from low yields. Our group is currently engaged in trying to find and fully demonstrate an energy efficient regeneration process for the spent fuel from H 2 depleted AB with a minimum number of steps. Although spent fuel composition depends on the dehydrogenation method, we have focused our efforts on the spent fuel resulting from metal-based catalysis, which has thus far shown the most promise. Metal-based catalysts have produced the fastest rates for a single equivalent of H 2 released from AB and up to 2.5 equiv. of H 2 can be produced within 2 hours. While ongoing work is being carried out to tailor the composition of spent AB fuel, a method has been developed for regenerating the predominant product, polyborazylene (PB) which can be obtained readily from the decomposition of borazine

  19. Features and safety aspects of spent fuel storage facility, Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Sanjay; Dubey, K.; Qureshi, F.T.; Lokeswar, S.P.

    2017-01-01

    Spent Fuel Storage Facility (SFSF), Tarapur is designed to store spent fuel arising from PHWRs in different parts of the country. Spent fuel is transported in AERB qualified/authorized shipping cask by NPCIL to SFSF by road or rail route. The spent fuel storage facility at Tarapur was hot commissioned after regulatory clearances

  20. Spent fuel workshop'2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, Ch

    2002-07-01

    This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2002 spent fuel workshop: Session 1 - Research Projects: Overview on the IN CAN PROCESSES European project (M. Cowper), Overview on the SPENT FUEL STABILITY European project (C. Poinssot), Overview on the French R and D project on spent fuel long term evolution, PRECCI (C. Poinssot); Session 2 - Spent Fuel Oxidation: Oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals (F. Garrido), Experimental results on SF oxidation and new modeling approach (L. Desgranges), LWR spent fuel oxidation - effects of burn-up and humidity (B. Hanson), An approach to modeling CANDU fuel oxidation under dry storage conditions (P. Taylor); Session 3 - Spent Fuel Dissolution Experiments: Overview on high burnup spent fuel dissolution studies at FZK/INE (A. Loida), Results on the influence of hydrogen on spent fuel leaching (K. Spahiu), Leaching of spent UO{sub 2} fuel under inert and reducing conditions (Y. Albinsson), Fuel corrosion investigation by electrochemical techniques (D. Wegen), A reanalysis of LWR spent fuel flow through dissolution tests (B. Hanson), U-bearing secondary phases formed during fuel corrosion (R. Finch), The near-field chemical conditions and spent fuel leaching (D. Cui), The release of radionuclides from spent fuel in bentonite block (S.S. Kim), Trace actinide behavior in altered spent fuel (E. Buck, B. Hanson); Session 4 - Radiolysis Issues: The effect of radiolysis on UO{sub 2} dissolution determined from electrochemical experiments with {sup 238}Pu doped UO{sub 2} M. Stroess-Gascoyne (F. King, J.S. Betteridge, F. Garisto), doped UO{sub 2} studies (V. Rondinella), Preliminary results of static and dynamic dissolution tests with {alpha} doped UO{sub 2} in Boom clay conditions (K. Lemmens), Studies of the behavior of UO{sub 2} / water interfaces under He{sup 2+} beam (C. Corbel), Alpha and gamma radiolysis effects on UO{sub 2} alteration in water (C. Jegou), Behavior of Pu-doped pellets in brines

  1. Final environmental impact statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The analysis of the environmental impacts for storage of domestic fuel shows that the impacts for the full range of alternatives considered are relatively small compared with available resources or background exposure of the population from natural radiation sources. The differences in impacts of storage of domestic fuel are attributed to the amount of fuel stored in Independent Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS) facilities, the storage time, and, to a lesser degree, the differences in spent fuel transportation. The differences between comparable alternatives of implementing the policy or not implementing the policy are small. The difference in impacts of storage of foreign fuel are attributed to the amount of fuel received under the policy and to the disposition mode analyzed. The impact of storage of foreign fuel (a small fraction of the amount of domestic fuel considered) is also small. As a result of the small differences in environmental impacts of all cases considered for foreign fuel, environmental impacts probably will not strongly influence the selection of the case that best meets US nonproliferation goals. Proliferation benefits of the various cases analyzed vary significantly. The structure and level of fee charged for storage of spent fuel will affect the degree of participation in the spent fuel storage program by utilities. However, the range of participation is within the range of alternatives analyzed in the draft EISs on storage of US and foreign fuels, for which the environmental effects were found to be relatively small. The fee computed on the basis of full recovery of government costs should not significantly affect the cost of generating nuclear power

  2. Burnup credit demands for spent fuel management in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medun, V.

    2001-01-01

    In fact, till now, burnup credit has not be applied in Ukrainian nuclear power for spent fuel management systems (storage and transport). However, application of advanced fuel at VVER reactors, arising spent fuel amounts, represent burnup credit as an important resource to decrease spent fuel management costs. The paper describes spent fuel management status in Ukraine from viewpoint of subcriticality assurance under spent fuel storage and transport. It also considers: 1. Regulation basis concerning subcriticality assurance, 2. Basic spent fuel and transport casks characteristics, 3. Possibilities and demands for burnup credit application at spent fuel management systems in Ukraine. (author)

  3. Development of metal cask for nuclear spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, T.; Kuri, S.; Ohsono, K.; Hode, S.

    2001-01-01

    It is one of the realistic solutions against increasing demand on interim storage of spent fuel assemblies arising from nuclear power plants in Japan to apply dual purpose (transport and storage) metal casks. Since 1980's Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been contributing to develop metal cask technologies for utilities, etc. in Japan, and have established transport and storage cask design ''MSF series'' which realizes higher payload and reliability for long term storage. MSF series transport and storage casks use various new design concepts and materials to improve thermal performance of the cask, structural integrity of the basket, durability of the neutron shielding material and so on. This paper summarizes an outline of the cask design that can accommodate BWR spent fuel assemblies as well as the new technologies applied to the design and fabrication. (author)

  4. Transportation of spent fuel from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, H.

    1993-01-01

    The French 'Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires' - COGEMA - is involved in the whole nuclear fuel cycle about 20 years. Among the different parts of the cycle, the Transport of Radioactive Materials, acting as a link between the differents plants has a great importance. As nuclear material transportation is the only fuel cycle step to be performed on public grounds, the industrial task has to be performed with the utmost stringent safety criteria. COGEMA and associates is now operating a fully mature commercial activity, with some 300 spent fuel shipments per year from its reprocessing customer's reactors to the LA HAGUE plant, either by rail, road or sea. The paper will review the organization of COGEMA transportation business, the level of technology with an update of the casks used for spent fuel, and the operational experience, with a particular view of the maintenance policy. (author)

  5. Spent fuel receipt and lag storage facility for the spent fuel handling and packaging program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.E.; King, F.D.

    1979-01-01

    Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is participating in the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging Program for retrievable, near-surface storage of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. One of SRL's responsibilities is to provide a technical description of the wet fuel receipt and lag storage part of the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging (SFHP) facility. This document is the required technical description

  6. Fact sheet on spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA gives high priority to safe and effective spent fuel management. As an example of continuing efforts, the 2003 International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors gathered 125 participants from 35 member states to exchange information on this important subject. With its large number of Member States, the IAEA is well-positioned to gather and share information useful in addressing Member State priorities. IAEA activities on this topic include plans to produce technical documents as resources for a range of priority topics: spent fuel performance assessment and research, burnup credit applications, cask maintenance, cask loading optimization, long term storage requirements including records maintenance, economics, spent fuel treatment, remote technology, and influence of fuel design on spent fuel storage. In addition to broader topics, the IAEA supports coordinated research projects and technical cooperation projects focused on specific needs. The proceedings of the 2003 IAEA conference on storage of spent fuel from power reactors has been ranked in the top twenty most accessed IAEA publications. These proceedings are available for free downloads at http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PubDetails.asp?pubId=6924]. The IAEA organized and held a 2004 meeting focused on long term spent fuel storage provisions in Central and Eastern Europe, using technical cooperation funds to support participation by these Member States. Over ninety percent of the participants in this meeting rated its value as good or excellent, with participants noting that the IAEA is having a positive effect in stimulating communication, cooperation, and information dissemination on this important topic. The IAEA was advised in 2004 that results from a recent coordinated research project (IAEA-TECDOC-1343) were used by one Member State to justify higher clad temperatures for spent fuel in dry storage, leading to more efficient storage and reduced costs. Long term

  7. Spent fuel reprocessing past experience and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.

    1983-09-01

    A large experience has been gathered from the early fifties till now in the field of spent fuel reprocessing. As the main efforts in the world have been made for developping the reactors and the fuel fabrication industry to feed them, the spent fuel reprocessing activities came later and have not yet reached the industrial maturity existing to day for plants such as PWRs. But in the principal nuclear countries spent fuel reprocessing is to day considered as a necessity with two simultaneous targets: 1. Recovering the valuable materials, uranium and plutonium. 2. Conditionning the radioactive wastes to ensure safe definitive storage. The paper reviews the main steps: 1. Reprocessing for thermal reactor fuels: large plants are already operating or in construction, but in parallel a large effort of R and D is still under way for improvements. 2. The development of fast breeder plants implies associated fuel reprocessing facilities: pilot plants have demonstrated the closing of the cycle. The main difficulties encountered will be examined and particularly the importance of taking into account the problems of effluents processing and wastes storage [fr

  8. Spent fuel storage requirements 1989--2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the US to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements over the next 32 years, through the year 2020. The needs for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the pools are estimated. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Historical data through December 1988 are derived from the 1989 Form RW-859 data survey of nuclear utilities. Projected discharges through the end of reactor life are based on DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges. 14 refs., 3 figs., 28 tabs

  9. Evolution of spent fuel dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standring, Paul Nicholas [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology; Takats, Ferenc [TS ENERCON KFT, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-11-15

    Around 10,000 tHM of spent fuel is discharged per year from the nuclear power plants in operation. Whilst the bulk of spent fuel is still held in at reactor pools, 24 countries have developed storage facilities; either on the reactor site or away from the reactor site. Of the 146 operational AFR storage facilities about 80 % employ dry storage; the majority being deployed over the last 20 years. This reflects both the development of dry storage technology as well as changes in politics and trading relationships that have affected spent fuel management policies. The paper describes the various approaches to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle for power reactor fuels and provides data on deployed storage technologies.

  10. Geomechanics of the Spent Fuel Test: Climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Three years of geomechanical measurements were made at the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) 1400 feet underground in fractured granitic rock. Heating of the rock mass resulted from emplacement of spent fuel as well as the heating by electrical heaters. Cooldown of the rock occurred after the spent fuel was removed and the heaters were turned off. The measurements program examines both gross and localized responses of the rock mass to thermal loading, to evaluate the thermomechanical response of sheared and fractured rock with that of relatively unfractured rock, to compare the magnitudes of displacements during mining with those induced by extensive heating of the rock mass, and to check assumptions regarding symmetry and damaged zones made in numerical modeling of the SFT-C. 28 refs., 113 figs., 10 tabs

  11. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M.S.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a laser system and have used it with a simulated BWR assembly. The reflected signal from the zircaloy rods depends on the position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of background with no assembly

  12. Spent fuel storage and transportation - ANSTO experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, Tony

    2002-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has operated the 10 MW DIDO class High Flux Materials Test Reactor (HIFAR) since 1958. Refuelling the reactor produces about 38 spent fuel elements each year. Australia has no power reactors and only one operating research reactor so that a reprocessing plant in Australia is not an economic proposition. The HEU fuel for HIFAR is manufactured at Dounreay using UK or US origin enriched uranium. Spent fuel was originally sent to Dounreay, UK for reprocessing but this plant was shutdown in 1998. ANSTO participates in the US Foreign Research Reactor Spent Fuel Return program and also has a contract with COGEMA for the reprocessing of non-US origin fuel

  13. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M.S.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures

  14. TRIGA Mark II Ljubljana - spent fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravnik, M.; Dimic, V.

    2008-01-01

    The most important activity in 1999 was shipment of the spent fuel elements back to the United States for final disposal. This activity started already in 1998 with some governmental support. In July 1999 all spent fuel elements (219 pieces) from the TRIGA research reactor in Ljubljana were shipped back to the United Stated by the ship from the port Koper in Slovenia. At the same time shipment of the spent fuel from the research reactor in Pitesti, Romania, and the research reactor in Rome, Italy, was conducted. During the loading the radiation exposure to the workers was rather low. The loading and shipment of the spent nuclear fuel went very smoothly and according the accepted time table. During the last two years the TRIGA research reactor in Ljubljana has been in operation about 1100 hours per year and without any undesired shut-down. (authors)

  15. Spent fuel storage requirements, 1991--2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with US Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements over the next 50 years, through the year 2040. The needs for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the pools are estimated. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. Historical data through December 1990 are derived from the 1991 Form RW-859 data survey of nuclear utilities. Projected discharges through the end of reactor life are based on DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges

  16. Spent fuel storage requirements, 1990--2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, R.; Bierschbach, M.

    1990-11-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with US Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements over the next 51 years, through the year 2040. The needs for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the pools are estimated. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. Historical data through December 1989 are derived from the 1990 Form RW-859 data survey of nuclear utilities. Projected discharges through the end of reactor life are based on DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges. 15 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  17. Thirty years of transport package development for spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cory, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    By June 2005, when shipments of spent fuel for reprocessing from Germany are concluded, BNFL flask types will have been responsible for transporting more than 2000 tonnes of heavy metal in Europe in the form of spent fuel. Several thousand more tonnes of spent fuel have been transported by sea from Japan over the last thirty years. The design of spent fuel packages has not stood still for that time. In order to anticipate the changing needs of the nuclear power generation industry, advances have been made both in package design and analysis. Thirty years ago spent fuel burnup and initial enrichment were considerably lower, which was reflected in the different demands placed on the shielding design of packages, and in the design of the internal basket to separate the fuel assemblies. Technical development of both 'wet' (water-filled cavity) and 'dry' packages has progressed in parallel, and the relative merits and peculiarities of each type is explored. BNFL has considerable experience in the operation of both types, and is well placed to comment on practical and functional issues associated with both types. While there have been certain evolutionary changes affecting package design, there have also been more significant changes in the Design Safety Case. These have sometimes been necessary to meet changes in IAEA Regulations, or the challenges posed by the regulators themselves. In other cases advantage has been taken of improvements in analytical techniques to demonstrate increased margins of operational safety. Where possible these margins have also been increased by other means, such as taking advantage of commercial trends to reduce package thermal loads. A key factor over the last thirty years has been the increasing influence of the Regulating Authorities and the development of the IAEA Regulations. The various Competent Authorities now tend to have a higher proportion of technical experts, often recruited from the nuclear industry, and are thus more able to

  18. Methodology for determining criteria for storing spent fuel in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, C.R.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1986-11-01

    Dry storage in an air atmosphere is a method being considered for spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel as an alternative to storage in an inert gas environment. However, methods to predict fuel integrity based on oxidation behavior of the fuel first must be evaluated. The linear cumulative damage method has been proposed as a technique for defining storage criteria. Analysis of limited nonconstant temperature data on nonirradiated fuel samples indicates that this approach yields conservative results for a strictly decreasing-temperature history. On the other hand, the description of damage accumulation in terms of remaining life concepts provides a more general framework for making predictions of failure. Accordingly, a methodology for adapting remaining life concepts to UO 2 oxidation has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Both the linear cumulative damage and the remaining life methods were used to predict oxidation results for spent fuel in which the temperature was decreased with time to simulate the temperature history in a dry storage cask. The numerical input to the methods was based on oxidation data generated with nonirradiated UO 2 pellets. The calculated maximum allowable storage temperatures are strongly dependent on the temperature-time profile and emphasize the conservatism inherent in the linear cumulative damage model. Additional nonconstant temperature data for spent fuel are needed to both validate the proposed methods and to predict temperatures applicable to actual spent fuel storage

  19. Digital mock-up for the spent fuel disassembly processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Song, T. G.; Kim, Y. H.; Hong, D. H.; Yoon, J. S.

    2000-12-01

    In this study, the graphical design system is developed and the digital mock-up is implemented for designing the spent fuel handling and disassembly processes. The system consists of a 3D graphical modeling system, a devices assembling system, and a motion simulation system. This system is used throughout the design stages from the conceptual design to the motion analysis. By using this system, all the process involved in the spent fuel handling and disassembly processes are analyzed and optimized. Also, this system is used in developing the on-line graphic simulator which synchronously simulates the motion of the equipment in a real time basis by connecting the device controllers with the graphic server through the TCP/IP network. This simulator can be effectively used for detecting the malfunctions of the process equipment which is remotely operated. Thus, the simulator enhances the reliability and safety of the spent fuel handling process by providing the remote monitoring function of the process. The graphical design system and the digital mock-up system can be effectively used for designing the process equipment, as well as the optimized process and maintenance process. And the on-line graphic simulator can be an alternative of the conventional process monitoring system which is a hardware based system

  20. Technical considerations associated with spent fuel acceptance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supko, E.M.

    1996-06-01

    This study was initiated by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to identify technical considerations associated with spent fuel acceptance and implementation of a waste management system that includes the use of transportable storage systems, and to serve as an opening dialogue among Standard Contract Holders and the department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste management (OCRWM) prior to the development of waste acceptance criteria or issuance of a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking by OCRWM to amend the Standard Contract. The original purpose of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking was to address changes to the Standard Contract to implement a multi-purpose canister based system and to address other issues that were not adequately addressed in the standard contract. Even if DOE does not develop a multi-purpose canister based system for waste acceptance, it will still be necessary to develop waste acceptance criteria in order to accept spent fuel in transportable storage systems that are being deployed for at-reactor storage. In this study, technical issues associated with spent fuel acceptance will be defined and potential options and alternatives for resolution of technical considerations will be explored

  1. Handling encapsulated spent fuel in a geologic repository environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, L.B.

    1983-02-01

    In support of the Spent Fuel Test-Climate at the U.S. Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site, a spent-fuel canister handling system has been designed, deployed, and operated successfully during the past five years. This system transports encapsulated commercial spent-fuel assemblies between the packaging facility and the test site (approx. 100 km), transfers the canisters 420 m vertically to and from a geologic storage drift, and emplaces or retrieves the canisters from the storage holes in the floor of the drift. The spent-fuel canisters are maintained in a fully shielded configuration at all times during the handling cycle, permitting manned access at any time for response to any abnormal conditions. All normal operations are conducted by remote control, thus assuring as low as reasonably achievable exposures to operators; specifically, we have had no measurable exposure during 30 canister transfer operations. While not intended to be prototypical of repository handling operations, the system embodies a number of concepts, now demonstrated to be safe, reliable, and economical, which may be very useful in evaluating full-scale repository handling alternatives in the future. Among the potentially significant concepts are: Use of an integral shielding plug to minimize radiation streaming at all transfer interfaces. Hydraulically actuated transfer cask jacking and rotation features to reduce excavation headroom requirements. Use of a dedicated small diameter (0.5 m) drilled shaft for transfer between the surface and repository workings. A wire-line hoisting system with positive emergency braking device which travels with the load. Remotely activated grapples - three used in the system - which are insensitive to load orientation. Rail-mounted underground transfer vehicle operated with no personnel underground

  2. Considerations for a national program on spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Perez, B.; Melches-Serrano, C.

    1980-01-01

    The spent fuel discharged from the two LWR's that are in operation (Zorita, 160 MW PWR, and Santa Maria de Garona, 460 MW BWR) is being reprocessed under contracts with BNFL; these contracts will expire in the next few years. The fuel discharged from Vandelos (50 MW GCR) is being reprocessed by Cogema under a long-term contract. No new reprocessing contracts for LWR's in operation, under construction, or planned have been signed or are being considered for the near future. The plutonium and the residual uranium contained in LWR spent fuel are considered important potential energy resources. They are especially valuable for countries such as Spain, which is short of energy resources, and they might be used in the future in fast breeder or thermal reactors. This is the reason that, until reprocessing is justified and appropriate solutions to make reprocessing available are developed, Spain has decided to build the appropriate capacity for the temporary storage of spent fuel. The capacity is being achieved, on short term, by the extension of AR storage capacity. It is being achieved, at medium or longer term, by the construction of centralized AFR facilities to serve all Spanish nuclear power plants. Spanish utilities are undertaking the expansion of reactor storage capacities, using densified racks, to increment capacity to at least 8 to 10 reloads, in addition to full core discharge capacity. Spain has the time and the financial and technical resources to implement a national solution for spent fuel storage. Financial strategy, technology choice, and licensing considerations are under examination in order to make a decision for medium- and long-term storage alternatives

  3. Criticality safety of spent fuel casks considering water inleakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osgood, N.L.; Withee, C.J.; Easton, E.P.

    2004-01-01

    A fundamental safety design parameter for all fissile material packages is that a single package must be critically safe even if water leaks into the containment system. In addition, criticality safety must be assured for arrays of packages under normal conditions of transport (undamaged packages) and under hypothetical accident conditions (damaged packages). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has revised the review protocol for demonstrating criticality safety for spent fuel casks. Previous review guidance specified that water inleakage be considered under accident conditions. This practice was based on the fact that the leak tightness of spent fuel casks is typically demonstrated by use of structural analysis and not by physical testing. In addition, since a single package was shown to be safe with water inleakage, it was concluded that this analysis was also applicable to an array of damaged packages, since the heavy shield walls in spent fuel casks neutronically isolate each cask in the array. Inherent in this conclusion is that the fuel assembly geometry does not change significantly, even under drop test conditions. Requests for shipping fuel with burnup exceeding 40 GWd/MTU, including very high burnups exceeding 60 GWD/MTU, caused a reassessment of this assumption. Fuel cladding structural strength and ductility were not clearly predictable for these higher burnups. Therefore the single package analysis for an undamaged package may not be applicable for the damaged package. NRC staff developed a new practice for review of spent fuel casks under accident conditions. The practice presents two methods for approval that would allow an assessment of potential reconfiguration of the fuel assembly under accident conditions, or, alternatively, a demonstration of the water-exclusion boundary through physical testing

  4. USA: energy policy and spent fuel and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroll, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    The new US administration under President Bush has shifted political weights in the country's energy policy. The policy pursued by the Clinton administration, which had been focused strongly on energy efficiency and environmental protection, will be revoked in a number of points, and the focus instead will now be on economics and continuity of supply, also against the backdrop of the current power supply crisis in California. However, it is more likely that fossil-fired generating capacity will be expanded or added than new nuclear generating capacity. As far as the policy of managing radioactive waste is concerned, no fast and fundamental changes are expected. Low-level waste arising in medicine, research, industry, and nuclear power plants will be stored in a number of shallow ground burial facilities also involving more than one federal state. The Yucca Mountain repository project will be advanced with a higher budget, and WIPP (Waste Isolation Plant) in the state of New Mexico has been in operation since 1998. Plans for the management of spent fuel elements include interim stores called ISFSIs (Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations) both near and independent of nuclear power sites. Nineteen sites have been licensed, another eighteen are ready to be licensed. In addition, also international spent fuel and nuclear waste management approaches are being discussed in the United States which, inter alia, are meant to offer comprehensive solutions to countries running only a small number of nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  5. Advances in HTGR spent fuel treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, N.D.; Lessig, W.S.

    1984-08-01

    GA Technologies, Inc. has been investigating the burning of spent reactor graphite under Department of Energy sponsorship since 1969. Several deep fluidized bed burners have been used at the GA pilot plant to develop graphite burning techniques for both spent fuel recovery and volume reduction for waste disposal. Since 1982 this technology has been extended to include more efficient circulating bed burners. This paper includes updates on high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel cycle options and current results of spent fuel treatment testing for fluidized and advanced circulating bed burners

  6. Neutron intensity of fast reactor spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Misao; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    Neutron intensity of spent fuel of the JOYO Mk-II core with a burnup of 62,500 MWd/t and cooling time of 5.2 years was measured at the spent fuel storage pond. The measured data were compared with the calculated values based on the JOYO core management code system `MAGI`, and the average C/E approximately 1.2 was obtained. It was found that the axial neutron intensity didn`t simply follow the burnup distribution, and the neutron intensity was locally increased at the bottom end of the fuel region due to an accumulation of {sup 244}Cm. (author)

  7. Array Detector Modules for Spent Fuel Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey

    2018-05-07

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) proposes to evaluate the arrays of position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid (VFG) detectors for passive gamma-ray emission tomography (ET) to verify the spent fuel in storage casks before storing them in geo-repositories. Our primary objective is to conduct a preliminary analysis of the arrays capabilities and to perform field measurements to validate the effectiveness of the proposed array modules. The outcome of this proposal will consist of baseline designs for the future ET system which can ultimately be used together with neutrons detectors. This will demonstrate the usage of this technology in spent fuel storage casks.

  8. Significance of campaigned spent fuel shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doman, J.W.; Tehan, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    Operational experience associated with spent fuel or irradiated hardware shipments to or from the General Electric Morris Facility is presented. The following specific areas are addressed: Problems and difficulties associated with meeting security and safeguard requirements of 10 CFR Part 73; problems associated with routing via railroad; problems associated with scheduling and impact on affected parties when a shipment is delayed or cancelled; and impact on training when shipments spread over many years. The lessons learned from these experiences indicate that spent fuel shipments are best conducted in dedicated open-quotes campaignsclose quotes that concentrate as much consecutive shipping activity as possible into one continuous time frame

  9. Spent fuel's behavior under dynamic drip tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Buck, E.C.; Hoh, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    In the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, failure of the waste package container and the cladding of the spent nuclear fuel would expose the fuel to water under oxidizing conditions. To simulate the release behavior of radionuclides from spent fuel, dynamic drip and vapor tests with spent nuclear fuel have been ongoing for 2.5 years. Rapid alteration of the spent fuel has been noted with concurrent release of radionuclides. Colloidal species containing americium and plutonium have been found in the leachate. This observation suggests that colloidal transport of radionuclides should be included in the performance assessment of a potential repository

  10. Potential exposures and health effects from spent fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Rogers, V.C.

    1986-01-01

    The radiation exposures and consequent health effects associated with normal operations and accidents during transportation of spent fuel have been analyzed and evaluated. This study was performed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as contributory data for response to specific public inquires regarding the Draft Environmental Assessments issued by DOE in 1984. Large quantities of spent fuel from power reactors will be shipped by truck and/or rail from the site of generation or temporary storage to nuclear waste repositories. This transportation activity has the potential for increasing radiation exposures and risks above normal background levels in the vicinity of the transportation route. For normal, accident-free transport of spent fuel, radiation exposures arise from both gamma and neutron sources within the spent fuel cask. U.S. regulations limit the radiation dose equivalent rate to 10 millirem per hour at any point 2 meters from the outer lateral surfaces of the transport vehicle. Computer program PATHRAE-T was developed and employed to determine the total, combined dose field. PATHRAE-T was used to estimate the maximum individual doses from rail cask accidents. The maximum individual exposure, primarily due to inhalation, is about 10 rem and occurs about 70 meters downwind. Ground deposited nuclides account for 99 percent of the population dose. The maximum population dose accident could result in about 22 latent health effects for the urban population. The same case rail cask accidents were also evaluated for a maximum water pathway contamination scenario. The nuclide contaminated plume was assumed to be transported over a large reservoir used for domestic and agricultural water. This accident could result in a 63,000 person-rem dose causing about 13 latent health effects in the absence of any natural and industrial processes for nuclide removal from the water

  11. Experience and prospects of WWER-1000 reactor spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyev, A.N.; Yershov, V.N.; Kozlov, Yu.V.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Ilyin, Yu.V.; Pavlov, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the USSR experience in shipping the commercial WWER-1000 reactor spent fuel in TK-10 and TK-13 casks. The cask designs, their basic characteristics and the WWER-1000 spent fuel features are described. An example of calculational/experimental approach in the design of a basket (one of the most important components) for spent fuel assembly (SFA) accommodation in a cask is given. The main problems of future development works are presented in brief. A concept of development of nuclear power industry with the closed fuel cycle is assumed in the Soviet Union, hence the spent nuclear fuel is to be transported from NPPs to reprocessing plants. To transport WWER-1000 spent fuel, the casks of two types were developed. These are: a pilot TK-10 cask of 3t capacity in fuel; a commercial TK-13 cask of ∼6t capacity in fuel. The pilot TK-10 cask is thick-walled (360mm) cylindrical vessel manufactured of steel shells and a bottom welded to each other. The material of the body is carbon steel. There is a steel jacket on the outer side of the cask body and at 120 mm distance off the bottom. On its cylindrical part between the jacket and the body there are T-shaped circular ribs acting as shock-absorbers. The space between the jacket and the body is filled with ethylene glycol solution of 65 degree C crystallization temperature, which functions as a neutron shielding. The TK-10 cask coolant is water or air (nitrogen) at minor excess pressure resulted from FA heatup after the cask sealing

  12. Development of advanced spent fuel management process. System analysis of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, S.G.; Kang, D.S.; Seo, C.S.; Lee, H.H.; Shin, Y.J.; Park, S.W.

    1999-03-01

    The system analysis of an advanced spent fuel management process to establish a non-proliferation model for the long-term spent fuel management is performed by comparing the several dry processes, such as a salt transport process, a lithium process, the IFR process developed in America, and DDP developed in Russia. In our system analysis, the non-proliferation concept is focused on the separation factor between uranium and plutonium and decontamination factors of products in each process, and the non-proliferation model for the long-term spent fuel management has finally been introduced. (Author). 29 refs., 17 tabs., 12 figs

  13. Spent fuel surveillance and monitoring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on ''Spent Fuel Surveillance and Monitoring Methods'' (27-30 October 1987) has been organized in accordance with recommendations of the International Standing Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management during its second meeting in 1986. The aim of the meeting was to discuss the above questions with emphasis on current design and operation criteria, safety principles and licensing requirements and procedures in order to prevent: inadvertent criticality, undue radiation exposure, unacceptable release of radioactivity as well as control for loss of storage pool water, crud impact, water chemistry, distribution and behaviour of particulates in cooling water, oxidation of intact and failed fuel rods as a function of temperature and burnup; distribution of radiation and temperature through dry cask wall, monitoring of leakages from pools and gas escapes from dry storage facilities, periodical integrity tests of the containment barriers, responsibilities of organizations for the required operation, structure, staff and subordination, etc. The presentations of the Meeting were divided into two sessions: Spent fuel surveillance programmes and practice in Member States (4 papers); Experimental methods developed in support of spent fuel surveillance programmes (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Spent fuel and waste inventories and projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, W.L.; Finney, B.C.; Alexander, C.W.; Blomeke, J.O.; McNair, J.M.

    1980-08-01

    Current inventories of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy radioactive wastes were compiled, based on judgments of the most reliable information available from Government sources and the open literature. Future waste generation rates and quantities to be accumulated over the remainder of this century are also presented, based on a present projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related activities. Spent fuel projections are based on the current DOE/EIA estimate of nuclear growth, which projects 180 GW(e) in the year 2000. It is recognized that the calculated spent fuel discharges are probably high in view of recent reactor cancellations; hence adjustments will be made in future updates of this report. Wastes considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, low-level wastes, mill tailings (active sites), and remedial action wastes. The latter category includes mill tailings (inactive sites), surplus facilities, formerly utilized sites, and the Grand Junction Project. For each category, waste volume inventories and projections are given through the year 2000. The land usage requirements are given for storage/disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes, and for present inventories of mill tailings

  15. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, J. S.; Hong, H. D.; Kim, S. H.

    2004-02-01

    In this research, the remote handling technology is developed for the advanced spent fuel conditioning process which gives a possible solution to deal with the rapidly increasing spent fuels. In detail, a fuel rod slitting device is developed for the decladding of the spent fuel. A series of experiments has been performed to find out the optimal condition of the spent fuel voloxidation which converts the UO 2 pellet into U 3 O 8 powder. The design requirements of the ACP equipment for hot test is established by analysing the modular requirement, radiation hardening and thermal protection of the process equipment, etc. The prototype of the servo manipulator is developed. The manipulator has an excellent performance in terms of the payload to weight ratio that is 30 % higher than that of existing manipulators. To provide reliability and safety of the ACP, the 3 dimensional graphic simulator is developed. Using the simulator the remote handling operation is simulated and as a result, the optimal layout of ACP is obtained. The supervisory control system is designed to control and monitor the several different unit processes. Also the failure monitoring system is developed to detect the possible accidents of the reduction reactor

  16. Regional spent fuel storage facility (RSFSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the meetings held on the technology and safety aspects of regional spent fuel storage facilities. The questions of technique, economy and key public and political issues will be covered as well as the aspects to be considered for implementation of a regional facility. (author)

  17. Casette for storage of spent fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, S.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a design of a casette for spent fuel storage in a fuelstorage pool. The new design, based on flexible spacers, allows the fuel assemblies to be packed more compact and the fuel storage pool used in a more economic way

  18. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, J. S.; Hong, H. D.; Kim, Y. H.

    2001-03-01

    Since the amount of the spent fuel rapidly increases, the current R and D activities are focused on the technology development related with the storage and utilization of the spent fuel. In this research, to provide such a technology, the mechanical head-end process has been developed. In detail, the swing and shock-free crane and the RCGLUD(Remote Cask Grappling and Lid Unbolting Device) were developed for the safe transportation of the spent fuel assembly, the LLW drum and the transportation cask. Also, the disassembly devices required for the head-end process were developed. This process consists of an assembly downender, a rod extractor, a rod cutter, a fuel decladding device, a skeleton compactor, a force-rectifiable manipulator for the abnormal spent fuel disassembly, and the gantry type telescopic transporter, etc. To provide reliability and safety of these devices, the 3 dimensional graphic design system is developed. In this system, the mechanical devices are modelled and their operation is simulated in the virtual environment using the graphic simulation tools. So that the performance and the operational mal-function can be investigated prior to the fabrication of the devices. All the devices are tested and verified by using the fuel prototype at the mockup facility

  19. Total quality in spent fuel pool reracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranston, J.S.; Bradbury, R.B.; Cacciapouti, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear utility environment is one of strict cost control under prescriptive regulations and increasing public scrutiny. This paper presents the results of A Total Quality approach, by a dedicated team, that addresses the need for increased on-site spent fuel storage in this environment. Innovations to spent fuel pool reracking, driven by utilities' specific technical needs and shrinking budgets, have resulted in both product improvements and lower prices. A Total Quality approach to the entire turnkey project is taken, thereby creating synergism and process efficiency in each of the major phases of the project: design and analysis, licensing, fabrication, installation and disposal. Specific technical advances and the proven quality of the team members minimizes risk to the utility and its shareholders and provides a complete, cost effective service. Proper evaluation of spent fuel storage methods and vendors requires a full understanding of currently available customer driven initiatives that reduce cost while improving quality. In all phases of a spent fuel reracking project, from new rack design and analysis through old rack disposal, the integration of diverse experts, at all levels and throughout all phases of a reracking project, better serves utility needs. This Total Quality environment in conjunction with many technical improvements results in a higher quality product at a lower cost

  20. Spent-fuel-stabilizer screening studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynhoff, N.; Girault, S.E.; Fish, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    A broad range of potential stabilizer materials was identified and screened for packaging spent fuel assemblies for underground storage. The screening took into consideration the thermal gradient, stress, differential thermal expansion, nuclear criticality, radiation shielding, cost, and availability. Recommended stabilizer materials for further testing include silica, quartz, mullite, zircon, bentonite, graphite, gases, lead, Zn alloys, Cu alloys, etc

  1. Operation of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the IAEA's programme on safety of spent fuel storage. This is for interim spent fuel storage facilities that are not integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. Following the introduction, Section 2 describes key activities in the operation of spent fuel storage facilities. Section 3 lists the basic safety considerations for storage facility operation, the fundamental safety objectives being subcriticality, heat removal and radiation protection. Recommendations for organizing the management of a facility are contained in Section 4. Section 5 deals with aspects of training and qualification; Section 6 describes the phases of the commissioning of a spent fuel storage facility. Section 7 describes operational limits and conditions, while Section 8 deals with operating procedures and instructions. Section 9 deals with maintenance, testing, examination and inspection. Section 10 presents recommendations for radiation and environmental protection. Recommendations for the quality assurance (QA) system are presented in Section 11. Section 12 describes the aspects of safeguards and physical protection to be taken into account during operations; Section 13 gives guidance for decommissioning. 15 refs, 5 tabs

  2. Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in Spent Fuel Management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation in this area, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to elaborate the general recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. This report which is a result of the third IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (the first and second were held in 1984 and 1986) is intended to provide the reader with an overview of the status of spent fuel management programmes in a number of leading countries, with a description of the past and present IAEA activities in this field of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and with the Agency's plans for the next years, based on the proposals and recommendations of Member States. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 14 papers presented at the advisory group meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. High density aseismic spent fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvat, J.P.

    1985-05-01

    After the reasons of the development of high density aseismic spent fuel racks by FRAMATOME and LEMER, a description is presented, as also the codes, standards and regulations used to design this FRAMATOME storage rack. Tests have been carried out concerning criticality, irradiation of Cadminox, corrosion of the cell, and the seismic behaviour

  4. The psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, J.; Eraenen, L.

    1999-03-01

    In this report the potential psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal to inhabitants of a community are assessed on the basis of earlier research. In studying the situation, different interpretations and meanings given to nuclear power are considered. First, spent fuel disposal is studied as fear-arousing and consequently stressful situation. Psychosomatic effects of stress and coping strategies used by an individual are presented. Stress as a collective phenomenon and coping mechanisms available for a community are also assessed. Stress reactions caused by natural disasters and technological disasters are compared. Consequences of nuclear power plant accidents are reviewed, e.g. research done on the accident at Three Mile Island power plant. Reasons for the disorganising effect on a community caused by a technological disaster are compared to the altruistic community often seen after natural disasters. The potential reactions that a spent fuel disposal plant can arouse in inhabitants are evaluated. Both short-term and long-term reactions are evaluated as well as reactions under normal functioning, after an incident and as a consequence of an accident. Finally an evaluation of how the decision-making system and citizens' opportunity to influence the decision-making affect the experience of threat is expressed. As a conclusion we see that spent fuel disposal can arouse fear and stress in people. However, the level of the stress is probably low. The stress is at strongest at the time of the starting of the spent fuel disposal plant. With time people get used to the presence of the plant and the threat experienced gets smaller. (orig.)

  5. Disposal of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants - 16028

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Reinhold; Brammer, Klaus-Juergen; Filbert, Wolfgang; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    The 'direct disposal of spent fuel' as a part of the current German reference concept was developed as an alternative to spent fuel reprocessing and vitrified HLW disposal. The technical facilities necessary for the implementation of this part of the reference concept, the so called POLLUX R concept, i.e. interim storage buildings for casks containing spent fuel, a pilot conditioning facility, and a special cask 'POLLUX' for final disposal have been built. With view to a geological salt formation all handling procedures for the direct disposal of spent fuel were tested aboveground in full-scale test facilities. To optimise the reference concept, all operational steps have been reviewed for possible improvements. The two additional concepts for the direct disposal of SF are the BSK 3 concept and the DIREGT concept. Both concepts rely on borehole emplacement technology, vertical boreholes for the BSK 3 concept und horizontal boreholes for the DIREGT concept. Supported by the EU and the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), DBE TECHNOLOGY built an aboveground full-scale test facility to simulate all relevant handling procedures for the BSK 3 disposal concept. GNS (Company for Nuclear Service), representing the German utilities, provided the main components and its know-how concerning cask design and manufacturing. The test program was concluded recently after more than 1.000 emplacement operations had been performed successfully. The BSK 3 emplacement system in total comprises an emplacement device, a borehole lock, a transport cart, a transfer cask which will shuttle between the aboveground conditioning facility and the underground repository, and the BSK 3 canister itself, designed to contain the fuel rods of three PWR-fuel assemblies with a total of about 1.6 tHM. The BSK 3 concept simplifies the operation of the repository because the handling procedures and techniques can also be applied for the disposal of reprocessing residues. In addition

  6. Developing Spent Fuel Assembly for Advanced NDA Instrument Calibration - NGSI Spent Fuel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianwei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gauld, Ian C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Banfield, James [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, NC (United States); Skutnik, Steven [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the application of modeling and simulation to support the performance assessment and calibration of the advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments developed under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) Project. Advanced NDA instrument calibration will likely require reference spent fuel assemblies with well-characterized nuclide compositions that can serve as working standards. Because no reference spent fuel standard currently exists, and the practical ability to obtain direct measurement of nuclide compositions using destructive assay (DA) measurements of an entire fuel assembly is prohibitive in the near term due to the complexity and cost of spent fuel experiments, modeling and simulation will be required to construct such reference fuel assemblies. These calculations will be used to support instrument field tests at the Swedish Interim Storage Facility (Clab) for Spent Nuclear Fuel.

  7. The Spent Fuel Management in Finland and Modifications of Spent Fuel Storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maaranen, Paeivi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to share the Finnish regulator's (STUK) experiences on regulatory oversight of the enlargement of a spent fuel interim storage. An overview of the current situation of spent fuel management in Finland will also be given. In addition, the planned modifications and requirements set for spent fuel storages due to the Fukushima accident are discussed. In Finland, there are four operating reactors, one under construction and two reactors that have a Council of State's Decision-in-Principle to proceed with the planning and licensing of a new reactor. In Olkiluoto, the two operating ASEA-Atom BWR units and the Areva EPR under construction have a shared interim storage for the spent fuel. The storage was designed and constructed in 1980's. The option for enlarging the storage was foreseen in the original design. Considering three operating units to produce their spent fuel and the final disposal to begin in 2022, extra space in the spent fuel storage is estimated to be needed in around 2014. The operator decided to double the number of the spent fuel pools of the storage and the construction began in 2010. The capacity of the enlarged spent fuel storage is considered to be sufficient for the three Olkiluoto units. The enlargement of the interim storage was included in Olkiluoto NPP 1 and 2 operating license. The licensing of the enlargement was conducted as a major plant modification. The operator needed the approval from STUK to conduct the enlargement. Prior to the construction of this modification, the operator was required to submit the similar documentation as needed for applying for the construction license of a nuclear facility. When conducting changes in an old nuclear facility, the new safety requirements have to be followed. The major challenge in the designing the enlargement of the spent fuel storage was to modify it to withstand a large airplane crash. The operator chose to cover the pools with protecting slabs and also to

  8. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage: A Review of Issues and Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs.

  9. Shipping cask demand associated with United States Government storage of commercial spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Engel, R.L.

    1983-05-01

    There were primarily two objectives of this study. The first was to develop estimates of the shipping cask fleet size that will be needed in the United States in the near future. These estimates were compared with current US spent fuel cask fleet size to determine its adequacy to provide the transportation services. The second objective was to develop estimates of the transportation costs associated with future movements of spent fuel. The results of this study were based on assumptions that were made prior to passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 which authorizes the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide Federal Interim Storage of spent fuel from commercial reactors. The Act requires that the DOE is responsible for transportation of the fuel, although private industry is to provide these services. This paper examined the impacts of various spent fuel management strategies on spent fuel transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs. Conclusions related to optimization of the spent fuel transportation system can be drawn from the results of this study. The conclusions can be affected by changing the given set of assumptions used in this analysis. 3 tables

  10. International safeguards relevant to geologic disposal of high-level wastes and spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Spent fuels from once-through fuel cycles placed in underground repositories have the potential to become attractive targets for diversion and/or theft because of their valuable material content and decreasing radioactivity. The first geologic repository in the US, as currently designed, will contain approximately 500 Mt of plutonium, 60,000 Mt of uranium and a host of other fissile and strategically important elements. This paper identifies some of the international safeguards issues relevant to the various proposed scenarios for disposing of the spent fuel. In the context of the US program for geologic disposal of spent fuels, this paper highlights several issues that should be addressed in the near term by US industries, the Department of Energy, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission before the geologic repositories for spent fuels become a reality. Based on US spent fuel discharges, an example is presented to illustrate the enormity of the problem of verifying spent fuel inventories. The geologic disposal scenario for high-level wastes originating from defense facilities produced a ''practicably irrecoverable'' waste form. Therefore, safeguards issues for geologic disposal of high-level waste now in the US are less pressing. 56 refs. , 2 figs

  11. Status and current spent fuel storage practices in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Brief discussions are presented on the history and state of spent fuel generation by utilities that comprise the United States commercial nuclear power industry, the current situation regarding the Federal government's nuclear waste policy, and evolving spent fuel storage practices. These evolving spent fuel storage practices are the result of private sector initiatives, but appear to be influenced by various external factors. The paper is not intended to provide a comprehensive appraisal of the storage initiatives being conducted by the private sector. The focus, instead, is on the Federal government's role and activities related to spent fuel management. Although the Federal government has adopted a policy calling for deep geological disposal of spent fuel, the US Congress has recently begun to consider expanding that policy to include a centralized interim storage facility. In the absence of such an expanded policy, the Department of Energy has performed some preliminary activities that would expedite development of a centralized interim storage facility, if Congress were to enact such a policy. The Department's current activities with regard to developing a centralized interim storage facility, which are consistent with the current policy, are described in the paper. The paper also describes two important technical development activities that have been conducted by the Department of Energy to support improved efficiency in spent fuel management. The Department's activities regarding development of a burnup credit methodology, and a dry transfer system are summarized. (author)

  12. Management and storage of spent fuel from CEA research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, F.

    1996-01-01

    CEA research reactors and their interim spent fuel storage facilities are described. Long-term solutions for spent fuel storage problems, involving wet storage at PEGASE or dry storage at CASCAD, are outlined in some detail. (author)

  13. Centralized disassembly and packaging of spent fuel in the DOE spent fuel management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    In October 1984, E.R. Johnson Associates, Inc. (JAI) initiated a study of the prospective use of a centralized facility for the disassembly and packaging of spent fuel to support the various elements of the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) spent fuel management system, including facilities for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and repositories. It was DOE's original plan to receive spent fuel at each repository where it would be disassembled and packaged (overpacked) for disposal purposes. Subsequently, DOE considered the prospective use of MRS of spent fuel as an option for providing safe and reliable management of spent fuel. This study was designed to consider possible advantages of the use of centralized facilities for disassembly and packaging of spent fuel at whose location storage facilities could be added as required. The study was divided into three principal technical tasks that covered: (a) development of requirements and criteria for the central disassembly and packaging facility and associated systems. (2) Development of conceptual designs for the central disassembly and packaging facility and associated systems. (3) Estimation of capital and operating costs involved for all system facilities and determination of life cycle costs for various scenarios of operation - for comparison with the reference system

  14. Past and future IAEA spent fuel management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, A.

    1993-01-01

    The main objectives and strategies of the Agency's activities in the area of spent fuel management are to promote the exchange of information between Member States on technical, safety, environmental and economic aspects of spent fuel management technology, including storage, transport and treatment of spent fuel, and to provide assistance to Member States in the planning, implementation and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This paper give a list of the meetings held since the last issue of the Spent Fuel Management Newsletter

  15. Compact approach to monitored retrievable storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.W.

    1984-09-01

    Recent federal waste-management legislation has raised national interest in monitored retrievable storage (MRS) of unprocessed spent fuel from civilian nuclear power plants. We have reviewed the current MRS design approaches, and we have examined an alternative concept that is extremely compact in terms of total land use. This approach may offer substantial advantages in the areas of monitoring and in safeguards against theft, as well as in reducing the chances of groundwater contamination. Total facility costs are roughly estimated and found to be generally competitive with other MRS concepts. 4 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  16. Development of on-site spent fuel transfer system designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, R.W.; Pennington, C.W.; Guerra, G.V.

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) of the United States has sponsored development of conceptual designs for accomplishing spent fuel transfer from spent fuel pools to casks and from one cask to another. Under an EPRI research contract, transnuclear has developed several concepts for spent fuel transfer systems. (J.P.N.)

  17. A spent fuel assemblies monitoring device by nondestructive analysis 'PYTHON'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.; Broeskamp, M.; Hahn, H.; Bignan, G.; Boisset, M.; Silie, P.

    1995-01-01

    The monitoring of spent fuel assemblies (16 x 16 UOX) in KWG-reactor pool with the use of non-destructive methods (total Gamma and neutron counting) allow the control of average burn-up and the extremity burn-up. The measurements allow a safety-criticality control before loading the fuel assemblies into the transport casks. A device called PYTHON has been tested and qualified in France. This paper presents a description of the industrial PYTHON device and the results of the measurements. (orig.)

  18. Historical overview of domestic spent fuel shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Wankerl, M.W.; Armstrong, S.; Hamberger, C.; Schmid, S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide available historical data on most commercial and research reactor spent fuel shipments that have been completed in the United States between 1964 and 1989. This information includes data on the sources of spent fuel that has been shipped, the types of shipping casks used, the number of fuel assemblies that have been shipped, and the number of shipments that have been made. The data are updated periodically to keep abreast of changes. Information on shipments is provided for planning purposes; to support program decisions of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM); and to inform interested members of the public, federal, state, and local government, Indian tribes, and the transportation community. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Method of processing spent fuel cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Ouchi, Atsuhiro; Imahashi, Hiromichi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the residual activity of spent fuel cladding tubes in a short period of time and enable safety storage with simple storage equipments. Constitution: Spent fuel cladding tubes made of zirconium alloys discharged from a nuclear fuel reprocessing step are exposed to a grain boundary embrittling atmosphere to cause grain boundary destruction. This causes grain boundary fractures to the zirconium crystal grains as the matrix of nuclear fuels and then precipitation products precipitated to the grain boundary fractures are removed. The zirconium constituting the nuclear fuel cladding tube and other ingredient elements contained in the precipitation products are separated in this removing step and they are separately stored respectively. As a result, zirconium constituting most part of the composition of the spent nuclear fuel cladding tubes can be stored safely at a low activity level. (Takahashi, M.)

  20. Spent fuel container alignment device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stewart D.; Chapek, George V.

    1996-01-01

    An alignment device is used with a spent fuel shipping container including a plurality of fuel pockets for spent fuel arranged in an annular array and having a rotatable cover including an access opening therein. The alignment device includes a lightweight plate which is installed over the access opening of the cover. A laser device is mounted on the plate so as to emit a laser beam through a laser admittance window in the cover into the container in the direction of a pre-established target associated with a particular fuel pocket. An indexing arrangement on the container provides an indication of the angular position of the rotatable cover when the laser beam produced by the laser is brought into alignment with the target of the associated fuel pocket.

  1. Status of spent fuel shipping cask development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, I.K.; Hinschberger, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how several new-generation shopping cask systems are being developed for safe and economical transport of commercial spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive wastes for the generating sites to a federal geologic repository or monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. Primary objectives of the from-reactor spent fuel cask development work are: to increase cask payloads by taking advantage of the increased at-reactor storage time under the current spent fuel management scenario, to facilitate more efficient cask handling operations with reduced occupational radiation exposure, and to promote standardization of the physical interfaces between casks and the shipping and receiving facilities. Increased cask payloads will significantly reduce the numbers of shipments, with corresponding reductions in transportation costs and risks to transportation workers, cask handling personnel, and the general public

  2. Cost analysis methodology of spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report deals with the cost analysis of interim spent fuel storage; however, it is not intended either to give a detailed cost analysis or to compare the costs of the different options. This report provides a methodology for calculating the costs of different options for interim storage of the spent fuel produced in the reactor cores. Different technical features and storage options (dry and wet, away from reactor and at reactor) are considered and the factors affecting all options defined. The major cost categories are analysed. Then the net present value of each option is calculated and the levelized cost determined. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted taking into account the uncertainty in the different cost estimates. Examples of current storage practices in some countries are included in the Appendices, with description of the most relevant technical and economic aspects. 16 figs, 14 tabs

  3. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Shin, Y. J.; Do, J. B.; You, G. S.; Seo, J. S.; Lee, H. G.

    1998-03-01

    This study is to develop an advanced spent fuel management process for countries which have not yet decided a back-end nuclear fuel cycle policy. The aims of this process development based on the pyroreduction technology of PWR spent fuels with molten lithium, are to reduce the storage volume by a quarter and to reduce the storage cooling load in half by the preferential removal of highly radioactive decay-heat elements such as Cs-137 and Sr-90 only. From the experimental results which confirm the feasibility of metallization technology, it is concluded that there are no problems in aspects of reaction kinetics and equilibrium. However, the operating performance test of each equipment on an engineering scale still remain and will be conducted in 1999. (author). 21 refs., 45 tabs., 119 figs

  4. International safeguards for spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzer, M.; Wonder, E.; Immerman, W.; Crane, F.

    1981-08-01

    This report analyzes the nonproliferation effectiveness and political and economic acceptability of prospective improvements in international safeguard techniques for LWR spent fuel storage. Although the applicability of item accounting considerably eases the safeguarding of stored spent fuel, the problem of verification is potentially serious. A number of simple gamma and neutron nondestructive assay techniques were found to offer considerable improvements, of a qualitative rather than quantitative nature, in verification-related data and information, and possess the major advantage of intruding very little on facility operations. A number of improved seals and monitors appear feasible as well, but improvements in the timeliness of detection will not occur unless the frequency of inspection is increased or a remote monitoring capability is established. Limitations on IAEA Safeguards resources and on the integration of results from material accounting and containment and surveillance remain problems

  5. Design of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Guide is for interim spent fuel storage facilities that are not integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. Following the introduction, Section 2 describes the general safety requirements applicable to the design of both wet and dry spent fuel storage facilities; Section 3 deals with the design requirements specific to either wet or dry storage. Recommendations for the auxiliary systems of any storage facility are contained in Section 4; these are necessary to ensure the safety of the system and its safe operation. Section 5 provides recommendations for establishing the quality assurance system for a storage facility. Section 6 discusses the requirements for inspection and maintenance that must be considered during the design. Finally, Section 7 provides guidance on design features to be considered to facilitate eventual decommissioning. 18 refs

  6. Spent-fuel transport: available as needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, L.

    1976-01-01

    As a result of the general uncertainty as to when commercial reprocessing will actually take place in the United States (U.S.) and the long lead times now required before bringing a spent-fuel cask system in operation, it appears that serious problems can arise by 1979-1980 in cask capacity availability. Compounding the uncertainty with respect to cask capacity availability is the position taken by some of the U.S. railroad systems and some state and local governmental agencies in imposing restraints in the movement of spent fuel. By utility companies taking risk in committing to casks in advance of the actual requirement dates and by cask suppliers assuming the risks of licensing, costs, and delivery schedules, this potential bottleneck could be minimized

  7. Storage method for spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajiri, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    In the present invention, spent fuel assemblies are arranged at a dense pitch in a storage rack by suppressing the reactivity of the assemblies, to increase storage capacity for the spent fuel assemblies. That is, neutron absorbers are filled in the cladding tube of an absorbing rod, and the diameter thereof is substantially equal with that of a fuel rod. A great amount of the absorbing rods are arranged at the outer circumference of the fuel assembly. Then, they are fixed integrally to the fuel assembly and stored in a storage rack. In this case, the storage rack may be constituted only with angle materials which are inexpensive and installed simply. With such a constitution, in the fuel assembly having absorbing rods wound therearound, neutrons are absorbed by absorbing rods and the reactivity is lowered. Accordingly, the assembly arrangement pitch in the storage rack can be made dense. As a result, the storage capacity for the assemblies is increased. (I.S.)

  8. Impact analysis of spent fuel jacket assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramayo, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the analyses performed in support of the reracking of the High Flux Isotope Reactor pool, it became necessary to prove the structural integrity of the spent fuel jacket assemblies subjected to gravity drop that result from postulated accidents associated with the handling of these assemblies while submerged in the pool. The spent fuel jacket assemblies are an integral part of the reracking project, and serve to house fuel assemblies. The structure integrity of the jacket assemblies from loads that result from impact from a height of 10 feet onto specified targets has been performed analytically using the computer program LS-DYNA3D. Nine attitudes of the assembly at the time of impact have been considered. Results of the analyses show that there is no failure of the assemblies as a result of the impact scenarios considered

  9. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Michael James; Bean, Thomas E.; Brower, Jeffrey O.; Luke, Dale E.; Patterson, M. W.; Robb, Alan K.; Sindelar, Robert; Smith, Rebecca E.; Tonc, Vincent F.; Tripp, Julia L.; Winston, Philip L.

    2017-01-01

    options for fulfilling the capability gap. This management options analysis is not an alternatives analysis as defined by DOE Order 413.3B; rather, it is an evaluation of near-term, mid term and long-term actions needed to fulfill the capability gap. The actions are described in sufficient detail to inform stakeholders and DOE decision makers regarding a potential path forward. The recommended path forward will inform Fiscal Year 2019 budget formulation, support potential National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analyses, and may or may not include capital asset projects.

  10. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Michael James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bean, Thomas E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brower, Jeffrey O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Luke, Dale E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Patterson, M. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, Alan K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Rebecca E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonc, Vincent F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tripp, Julia L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    options for fulfilling the capability gap. This management options analysis is not an alternatives analysis as defined by DOE Order 413.3B; rather, it is an evaluation of near-term, mid term and long-term actions needed to fulfill the capability gap. The actions are described in sufficient detail to inform stakeholders and DOE decision makers regarding a potential path forward. The recommended path forward will inform Fiscal Year 2019 budget formulation, support potential National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analyses, and may or may not include capital asset projects.

  11. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B. S.; Yoon, J. S.; Hong, H. D. (and others)

    2007-02-15

    In this research, the remote handling technology was developed for the ACP application. The ACP gives a possible solution to reduce the rapidly cumulative amount of spent fuels generated from the nuclear power plants in Korea. The remote technologies developed in this work are a slitting device, a voloxidizer, a modified telescopic servo manipulator and a digital mock-up. A slitting device was developed to declad the spent fuel rod-cuts and collect the spent fuel UO{sub 2} pellets. A voloxidizer was developed to convert the spent fuel UO{sub 2} pellets obtained from the slitting process in to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder. Experiments were performed to test the capabilities and remote operation of the developed slitting device and voloxidizer by using simulated rod-cuts and fuel in the ACP hot cell. A telescopic servo manipulator was redesigned and manufactured improving the structure of the prototype. This servo manipulator was installed in the ACP hot cell, and the target module for maintenance of the process equipment was selected. The optimal procedures for remote operation were made through the maintenance tests by using the servo manipulator. The ACP digital mockup in a virtual environment was established to secure a reliability and safety of remote operation and maintenance. The simulation for the remote operation and maintenance was implemented and the operability was analyzed. A digital mockup about the preliminary conceptual design of an enginnering-scale ACP was established, and an analysis about a scale of facility and remote handling was accomplished. The real-time diagnostic technique was developed to detect the possible fault accidents of the slitting device. An assessment of radiation effect for various sensors was also conducted in the radiation environment.

  12. Safety assessment for spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Practice has been prepared as part of the IAEA's programme on the safety assessment of interim spent fuel storage facilities which are not an integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. This report provides general guidance on the safety assessment process, discussing both deterministic and probabilistic assessment methods. It describes the safety assessment process for normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences and also related to accident conditions. 10 refs, 2 tabs

  13. Spent fuel packaging and its safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Kimitaka; Nakaoki, Kozo; Tamamura, Tadao; Matsuda, Fumio; Fukudome, Kazuyuki

    1983-01-01

    An all stainless steel B(U) type packaging is proposed to transport spent fuels discharged from research reactors and other radioactive materials. The package is used dry and provided with surface fins to absorb drop shock and to dissipate decay heat. Safety was analyzed for structural, thermal, containment shielding and criticality factors, and the integrity of the package was confirmed with the MARC-CDC, TRUMP, ORIGEN, QAD, ANISN, and KENO computer codes. (author)

  14. Spent fuel shipping cask accident evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, S.R.

    1975-12-01

    Mathematical models have been developed to simulate the dynamic behavior, following a hypothetical accident and fire, of typical casks designed for the rail shipment of spent fuel from nuclear reactors, and to determine the extent of radioactive releases under postulated conditions. The casks modeled were the IF-300, designed by the General Electric Company for the shipment of spent LWR fuel, and a cask designed by the Aerojet Manufacturing Company for the shipment of spent LMFBR fuel

  15. The cascad spent fuel dry storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guay, P.; Bonnet, C.

    1991-01-01

    France has a wide variety of experimental spent fuels different from LWR spent fuel discharged from commercial reactors. Reprocessing such fuels would thus require the development and construction of special facilities. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has consequently opted for long-term interim storage of these spent fuels over a period of 50 years. Comparative studies of different storage concepts have been conducted on the basis of safety (mainly containment barriers and cooling), economic, modular design and operating flexibility criteria. These studies have shown that dry storage in a concrete vault cooled by natural convection is the best solution. A research and development program including theoretical investigations and mock-up tests confirmed the feasibility of cooling by natural convection and the validity of design rules applied for fuel storage. A facility called CASCAD was built at the CEA's Cadarache Nuclear Research Center, where it has been operational since mid-1990. This paper describes the CASCAD facility and indicates how its concept can be applied to storage of LWR fuel assemblies

  16. New developments in dry spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, C.; Chevalier, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    As shown in various new examples, HABOG facility (Netherlands), CERNAVODA (Candu - Romania), KOZLODUY (WWER - Bulgaria), CHERNOBYL ( RMBK - Ukraine), MAYAK (Spent Fuel from submarine and Icebreakers - Russia), recent studies allow to confirm the flexibility and performances of the CASCAD system proposed by SGN, both in safety and operability, for the dry storage of main kinds of spent fuel. The main features are: A multiple containment barrier system: as required by international regulation, 2 independent barriers are provided (tight canister and storage pit); Passive cooling, while the Fuel Assemblies are stored in an inert atmosphere and under conditions of temperature preventing from degradation of rod cladding; Sub-criticality controlled by adequate arrangements in any conditions; Safe facility meeting ICPR 60 Requirements as well as all applicable regulations (including severe weather conditions and earthquake); Safe handling operations; Retrievability of the spent fuel either during storage period or at the end of planned storage period (100 years); Future Decommissioning of the facility facilitated through design optimisation; Construction and operating cost-effectiveness. (author)

  17. Safeguardability of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T. K. (Tien K.); Lee, S. Y. (Sang Yoon); Burr, Tom; Russo, P. A. (Phyllis A.); Menlove, Howard O.; Kim, H. D.; Ko, W. I. (Won Il); Park, S. W.; Park, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) is an electro-metallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent nuclear fuel into a metallic form. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing this technology since 1977 for the purpose of spent fuel management and is planning to perform a lab-scale demonstration in 2006. By using of this technology, a significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel is expected, which would lighten the burden of final disposal in terms of disposal size, safety and economics. In the framework of collaboration agreement to develop the safeguards system for the ACP, a joint study on the safeguardability of the ACP technology has been performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the KAERI since 2002. In this study, the safeguardability of the ACP technology was examined for the pilot-scale facility. The process and material flows were conceptually designed, and the uncertainties in material accounting were estimated with international target values.

  18. Spent fuel performance in geologic repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    The performance assessment of the waste package is a current area of study in the United States program to develop a geologic repository for nuclear waste isolation. The waste package is presently envisioned as the waste form and its surrounding containers and possibly a packing material composed of crushed host rock or mixtures of that rock with clays. This waste package is tied to performance criteria set forth in recent legislation. It is the goal of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to obtain the necessary information on the waste package, in several geologic environments, to show that the waste package provides reasonable assurance of meeting established performance criteria. This paper discusses the United States program directed toward managing high-level radioactive waste, with emphasis on the current effort to define the behavior of irradiated spent fuel in repository groundwaters. Current studies are directed toward understanding the rate and nature (such as valence state, colloid form if any, solid phase controlling solubility) of radionuclide release from the spent fuel. Due to the strong interactive effect of radiation, thermal fields, and waste package components on this release, current spent fuel studies are being conducted primarily in the presence of waste package components over a wide range of potential environments

  19. Spent fuel assembly source term parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, P.R.; Foadian, H.; Rashid, Y.R.; Seager, K.D.; Gianoulakis, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    Containment of cask contents by a transport cask is a function of the cask body, one or more closure lids, and various bolting hardware, and seals associated with the cavity closure and other containment penetrations. In addition, characteristics of cask contents that impede the ability of radionuclides to move from an origin to the external environment also provide containment. In essence, multiple release barriers exist in series in transport casks, and the magnitude of the releasable activity in the cask is considerably lower than the total activity of its contents. A source term approach accounts for the magnitude of the releasable activity available in the cask by assessing the degree of barrier resistance to release provided by material characteristics and inherent barriers that impede the release of radioactive contents. Standardized methodologies for defining the spent-fuel transport packages with specified regulations have recently been developed. An essential part of applying the source term methodology involves characterizing the response of the spent fuel under regulatory conditions of transport. Thermal and structural models of the cask and fuel are analyzed and used to predict fuel rod failure probabilities. Input to these analyses and failure evaluations cover a wide range of geometrical and material properties. An important issue in the development of these models is the sensitivity of the radioactive source term generated during transport to individual parameters such as temperature and fluence level. This paper provides a summary of sensitivity analyses concentrating on the structural response and failure predictions of the spent fuel assemblies

  20. Spent Fuel Storage Operation - Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    Experience gained in planning, constructing, licensing, operating, managing and modifying spent fuel storage facilities in some Member States now exceeds 50 years. Continual improvement is only achieved through post-project review and ongoing evaluation of operations and processes. This publication is aimed at collating and sharing lessons learned. Hopefully, the information provided will assist Member States that already have a developed storage capability and also those considering development of a spent nuclear fuel storage capability in making informed decisions when managing their spent nuclear fuel. This publication is expected to complement the ongoing Coordinated Research Project on Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research (SPAR-III); the scope of which prioritizes facility operational practices in lieu of fuel and structural components behaviour over extended durations. The origins of the current publication stem from a consultants meeting held on 10-12 December 2007 in Vienna, with three participants from the IAEA, Slovenia and USA, where an initial questionnaire on spent fuel storage was formulated (Annex I). The resultant questionnaire was circulated to participants of a technical meeting, Spent Fuel Storage Operations - Lessons Learned. The technical meeting was held in Vienna on 13-16 October 2008, and sixteen participants from ten countries attended. A consultants meeting took place on 18-20 May 2009 in Vienna, with five participants from the IAEA, Slovenia, UK and USA. The participants reviewed the completed questionnaires and produced an initial draft of this publication. A third consultants meeting took place on 9-11 March 2010, which six participants from Canada, Hungary, IAEA, Slovenia and the USA attended. The meeting formulated a second questionnaire (Annex II) as a mechanism for gaining further input for this publication. A final consultants meeting was arranged on 20-22 June 2011 in Vienna. Six participants from Hungary, IAEA, Japan

  1. Investigation of novel spent fuel verification system for safeguard application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radioactive waste, especially spent fuel, is generated from the operation of nuclear power plants. The final stage of radioactive waste management is disposal which isolates radioactive waste from the accessible environment and allows it to decay. The safety, security, and safeguard of a spent fuel repository have to be evaluated before its operation. Many researchers have evaluated the safety of a repository. These researchers calculated dose to public after the repository is closed depending on their scenario. Because most spent fuel repositories are non-retrievable, research on security or safeguards of spent fuel repositories have to be performed. Design based security or safeguard have to be developed for future repository designs. This study summarizes the requirements of future spent fuel repositories especially safeguards, and suggests a novel system which meets the safeguard requirements. Applying safeguards to a spent fuel repository is becoming increasingly important. The future requirements for a spent fuel repository are suggested by several expert groups, such as ASTOR in IAEA. The requirements emphasizes surveillance and verification. The surveillance and verification of spent fuel is currently accomplished by using the Cerenkov radiation detector while spent fuel is being stored in a fuel pool. This research investigated an advanced spent fuel verification system using a system which converts spent fuel radiation into electricity. The system generates electricity while it is conveyed from a transportation cask to a disposal cask. The electricity conversion system was verified in a lab scale experiment using an 8.51GBq Cs-137 gamma source.

  2. Fabrication of the Spent Fuel Elements Rack on the ISFSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slamet Wiranto; Sigit Purwanto; Safrul, H.

    2004-01-01

    The Interim Storage For Spent Fuel elements (ISFSF) was designed to be able to store the 33 spent fuel element racks with capacity of 1386 of normal spent fuel elements and 2 racks for 36 of defected ones. Until now, only 9 out of 33 racks of normal spent fuel elements and lout of 2 racks of defected fuel elements are available. Five of them have suffered from corrosion so that they are not fulfilled the requirements of the spent fuel elements storage anymore. Meanwhile, the spent fuel storage racks in the reactor are almost full. It means, the transfer of the spent fuel from reactor spent fuel storage to the ISFSF pool are compulsory needed. Therefore, it is necessary to provide the new ISFSF spent fuel storage rack with better material and fabrication method than the old one. In this design all materials consist of SS 316 L that are welded with the Argon TIG-welding. Right now there has been one new spent fuel storage rack fabricated with capacity of 42 normal spent fuel elements. (author)

  3. Investigation of novel spent fuel verification system for safeguard application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste, especially spent fuel, is generated from the operation of nuclear power plants. The final stage of radioactive waste management is disposal which isolates radioactive waste from the accessible environment and allows it to decay. The safety, security, and safeguard of a spent fuel repository have to be evaluated before its operation. Many researchers have evaluated the safety of a repository. These researchers calculated dose to public after the repository is closed depending on their scenario. Because most spent fuel repositories are non-retrievable, research on security or safeguards of spent fuel repositories have to be performed. Design based security or safeguard have to be developed for future repository designs. This study summarizes the requirements of future spent fuel repositories especially safeguards, and suggests a novel system which meets the safeguard requirements. Applying safeguards to a spent fuel repository is becoming increasingly important. The future requirements for a spent fuel repository are suggested by several expert groups, such as ASTOR in IAEA. The requirements emphasizes surveillance and verification. The surveillance and verification of spent fuel is currently accomplished by using the Cerenkov radiation detector while spent fuel is being stored in a fuel pool. This research investigated an advanced spent fuel verification system using a system which converts spent fuel radiation into electricity. The system generates electricity while it is conveyed from a transportation cask to a disposal cask. The electricity conversion system was verified in a lab scale experiment using an 8.51GBq Cs-137 gamma source

  4. Gamma-ray mirror technology for NDA of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descalle, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ruz-Armendariz, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Decker, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alameda, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brejnholt, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soufli, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Robinson, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dreyer, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pivovaroff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ziock, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chichester, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Trellue, H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Direct measurements of gamma rays emitted by fissile material have been proposed as an alternative to measurements of the gamma rays from fission products. From a safeguards applications perspective, direct detection of uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) K-shell fluorescence emission lines and specific lines from some of their isotopes could lead to improved shipper-receiver difference or input accountability at the start of Pu reprocessing. However, these measurements are difficult to implement when the spent fuel is in the line-of-sight of the detector, as the detector is exposed to high rates dominated by fission product emissions. To overcome the combination of high rates and high background, grazing incidence multilayer mirrors have been proposed as a solution to selectively reflect U and Pu hard X-ray and soft gamma rays in the 90 to 420 keV energy into a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector shielded from the direct line-of-sight of spent fuel. Several groups demonstrated that K-shell fluorescence lines of U and Pu in spent fuel could be detected with Ge detectors. In the field of hard X-ray optics the performance of reflective multilayer coated reflective optics was demonstrated up to 645 keV at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Initial measurements conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with sealed sources and scoping experiments conducted at the ORNL Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) with spent nuclear fuel further demonstrated the pass-band properties of multilayer mirrors for reflecting specific emission lines into 1D and 2D HPGe detectors, respectively.

  5. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Badillo A, V.; Palacios H, J.; Celis del Angel, L.

    2010-10-01

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  6. Overview of symposium on storage of spent fuel from power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonne, A.; Crijns, M.J.; Dyck, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    An International Symposium on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors was held in Vienna from 9-13 November 1998. The Symposium was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Of the one hundred sixty participants registered, one hundred twenty-five (including 3 observers) representing 35 countries and 4 international organizations, attended the Symposium. 20 participants from developing countries received Agency's grants. During 4 main Sessions, 44 oral presentations of papers were made and subsequent discussions held. At a poster session 13 papers were presented. This paper will give an overview of the Symposium. The Symposium gave an opportunity to exchange information on the state of art and prospects of spent fuel storage, to discuss the worldwide situation and the major factors influencing the national policies in this field and to identify the most important directions that national efforts and international co-operation in this area should take. It was obvious from the papers presented and the discussions that the handling and storage of spent fuel is continuously taking place safely. Dominant messages retrieved from the Symposium are that the primary spent fuel management solution for the next decades will be interim storage, the duration time of interim storage becomes longer than earlier anticipated and the storage facilities will have to be designed for receiving also spent fuel from advanced fuel cycle practices (i.e. high burnup and MOX spent fuel). It was noted that the handling and storage of spent fuel is a mature technology and meets the stringent safety requirements applicable in the different countries. The changes in nuclear policy and philosophy across the world, and practical considerations, have made interim storage a real necessity in the nuclear power industry. (author)

  7. A study on the safety of spent fuel management. A scenario study on spent fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo; Ahn, Jin Soo; Hwang, Joo Ho; Choi, Jong Won; Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Ju Hwan; Chung, Choong Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-01

    In order to produce data applicable for the long-term policy making of spent fuel management and to suggest a basic scenario suitable to domestic situation, the pre-conceptual design of reference disposal facilities for the spent fuel and the vitrified high level radioactive waste from its reprocessing, has been performed. From the results of the pre-conceptual study, further research and development areas to accumulate the disposal technology are suggested. In addition, the physico-chemical properties and functional characteristics of domestic bentonite are analyzed to assess its applicability as a buffer material which would play a major role for the safe disposal of highly active waste including spent fuels. (Author).

  8. Selection of away-from-reactor facilities for spent fuel storage. A guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    term issues involved in spent fuel storage, including long term caretaking/refurbishment of facilities or transition from one option to another in consideration of fuel technology evolution, changes in long term policies, market-based influences, as well as changes in regulatory criteria, deserve careful consideration. Although it can be said that competitive services for AFR storage are currently available from the market, it is often not evident how to choose the suitable option or technology for storage because of the complex issues involved in the decision, including a range of future uncertainties. Furthermore, focal issues in selecting an AFR storage facility can shift with time as spent fuel management policies, strategies and technologies advance and can change from one country to another due to considerations particular to those countries. In addition, as some common issues such as the trend toward privatization of former public enterprises in this sector, together with the issue of public involvement, some profound impacts on the nuclear industry in general and spent fuel management in particular may be expected. This TECDOC attempts to provide information in the approach to select AFR facilities for spent fuel storage. This TECDOC is an output of a series of meetings, which started with an Advisory Group Meeting in 2000, and was followed by three consultants meetings in 2001, 2002 and 2003

  9. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 4. Pacific basin spent fuel logistics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the conceptual framework for a Pacific Basin Spent Fuel Logistics System (PBSFLS); and preliminarily describes programatic steps that might be taken to implement such a system. The PBSFLS concept is described in terms of its technical and institutional components. The preferred PBSFLS concept embodies the rationale of emplacing a fuel cycle system which can adjust to the technical and institutional non-proliferation solutions as they are developed and accepted by nations. The concept is structured on the basis of initially implementing a regional spent fuel storage and transportation system which can technically and institutionally accommodate downstream needs for energy recovery and long-term waste management solutions

  10. Multinational approaches relevant to spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellaud, B.

    2007-01-01

    The storage of spent fuel is a suitable candidate for a multilateral approach, primarily at the regional level. Small countries with only a few nuclear power plants would benefit economically from large joint facilities. The storage of special nuclear materials in a few safe and secure facilities would also enhance safeguards and physical protection. However, the final disposal of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste is the best candidate for a multilateral approach. It would offer major economic benefits and substantial non-proliferation benefits in spite of the legal, political and public acceptance challenges to be expected in most countries. The transfer of nuclear waste from the exporting country to the host country of an interim storage facility or of a final repository would be done under bilateral or multilateral agreements at the commercial and governmental levels, in accordance with the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Bilateral or international oversight of joint facilities should be arranged, as needed, to achieve the confidence of the partners as to the safety and physical security of the proposed facility. Such monitoring should cover the adequacy of the technical design, its safety features, its environmental impact, the physical security of nuclear materials and possibly the financial management of the joint venture. After the initial choice of bilateral arrangements, some kind of international monitoring may become appropriate. Various organizations could fulfil such a function, in particular, the IAEA. Such monitoring would have nothing to do with nuclear safeguards; repository monitoring would be a parallel but independent activity of the IAEA. (author)

  11. Preliminary Calculation on a Spent Fuel Pool Accident using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaehwan; Choi, Yu Jung; Hong, Tae Hyub; Kim, Hyeong-Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The probability of an accident happening at the spent fuel pool was believed to be quite low until the 2011 Fukushima accident occurred. Notably, large amount of spent fuel are normally stored in the spent fuel pool for a long time compared to the amount of fuel in the reactor core and the total heat released from the spent fuel is high enough to boil the water of the spent fuel pool when the cooling system does not operate. In addition, the enrichment and the burnup of the fuel have both increased in the past decade and heat generation from the spent fuel thereby has also increased. The failure of the cooling system at the spent fuel pool (hereafter, a loss-of-cooling accident) is one of the principal hypothetical causes of an accident that could occur at the spent fuel pool. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of-cooling accident was performed. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of cooling accident was performed with GOTHIC. The calculation results show boiling away of water in the spent fuel pool due to the loss-of-cooling accident and similar thermal performance of the spent fuel pool with previous research results.

  12. Spent fuel strategy for the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.; Collard, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Belgian MTR reactor is fuelled with HEU UAl x elements and the fuel cycle was normally closed by reprocessing consecutively in Belgium (Eurochemic), France (Marcoule) and finally in the U.S.A. (Idaho Falls and Savannah River). When the acceptance of spent fuel by the U.S. was terminated, the facility was left with a huge backlog of used elements stored under water. After a few years, urgent and mandatory actions were required to maintain the BR2 facility operating. Later the accent was put on the evaluation of an optimum long term solution for the BR2 spent fuel during the projected 15 years life extension after the refurbishment executed between 1995 and 1997. The paper gives an overview of these successive actions taken during the last years as well as the handled various criteria for comparing and evaluating the available long-term alternatives. After commitment to reprocessing in existing facilities operated for aluminum fuels the focus of the BR2 fuel cycle strategy is now moving to the procurement of the necessary HEU fuel for securing the long-term operation of the facility. (author)

  13. Recovery of decommissioning and spent fuel charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermanis, G.

    1982-01-01

    The licensing and financial aspects of NPP decommissioning, deactivation and dismantling of radioactive equipment in the USA are considered. Data on the costs of spent fuel transport and conservation are given. The state of the problem development in other countries is briefly described. It is pointed out that the technical aspect of the problem is much better studied than that of license-financial problem. At the same time in contrast to TPP NPP use is connected with considerable expenses after the end of a power plant sevice time

  14. Reracking to increase spent fuel storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    Many utilities have already increased their spent fuel pool storage capacity by replacing aluminum racks having storage densities as low as 0.2 MTU/ft 2 with stainless steel racks which can more than double storage densities. Use of boron-stainless steel racks or thin stainless steel cans containing reassembled fuel rods allows even higher fuel storage densities (up to approximately 1.25 MTU/ft 2 ). This report evaluates the economics of smaller storage gains that occur if pools, already converted to high density storage, are further reracked

  15. Release of segregated nuclides from spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Tait, J.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Laboratories

    1997-10-01

    The potential release of fission and activation products from spent nuclear fuel into groundwater after container failure in the Swedish deep repository is discussed. Data from studies of fission gas release from representative Swedish BWR fuel are used to estimate the average fission gas release for the spent fuel population. Information from a variety of leaching studies on LWR and CANDU fuel are then reviewed as a basis for estimating the fraction of the inventory of key radionuclides that could be released preferentially (the Instant Release Fraction of IRF) upon failure of the fuel cladding. The uncertainties associated with these estimates are discussed. 33 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs.

  16. Storage of spent fuel from power reactors. Proceedings of a symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The symposium gave an opportunity to exchange information on the state of the art and prospects of spent fuel storage, to discuss the worldwide situation and the major factors influencing the national policies in this field and to identify the most important directions that national efforts an international cooperation in this area should take. Dominant message retrieved from the symposium are that the primary spent fuel management solution for the next decades will be interim storage, the duration of time of interim storage becomes longer than earlier anticipated and the storage facilities will have to be designed for receiving also spent fuel from advanced fuel cycle practices (i.e. high burnup and MOX spent fuel). It was noted that the handling and storage of spent fuel is a mature technology and meets the stringent safety requirements applicable in different countries. The changes in nuclear policy and philosophy across the world, and practical considerations, have made interim storage a real necessity in the nuclear power industry. This is being addressed adequately by utilities, vendors and regulators alike Refs, figs, tabs

  17. Feasibility study on utilization of radiation from spent fuel in storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataru, Masumi; Sakamoto, Kazuaki; Saegusa, Toshiari; Sakaya, Tadatsugu; Fujiwara, Hiroaki.

    1997-01-01

    Spent fuels of nuclear power plant are stored safely until reprocessing because they are radioactive in addition to energy resources. It is foreseen that the amount of the stored spent fuel increases in the long term. Therefore, in the government, discussion on the storage away from reactor is in progress as well as one at reactor. Spent fuel emits a radioactive ray for a long time. In the storage facility, radiation is shielded not to have a detrimental influence upon the health and environment. If radioactive ray is incorrectly handled, it is hazardous for the health and the environment. But, it is very useful if it is properly utilized under a careful management. In the industry, radioactive ray by isotopes (e.g. Co-60) is used widely. In a view of the effective utilization of energy, the promotion of the siting, the regional development and the creation of employment opportunities of local inhabitants, it is preferable to make use of radiation from the spent fuel. In this study, feasibility of utilization of radiation energy from the spent fuel in a storage facility was evaluated. (author)

  18. Storage of spent fuel from power reactors. Proceedings of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The symposium gave an opportunity to exchange information on the state of the art and prospects of spent fuel storage, to discuss the worldwide situation and the major factors influencing the national policies in this field and to identify the most important directions that national efforts an international cooperation in this area should take. Dominant message retrieved from the symposium are that the primary spent fuel management solution for the next decades will be interim storage, the duration of time of interim storage becomes longer than earlier anticipated and the storage facilities will have to be designed for receiving also spent fuel from advanced fuel cycle practices (i.e. high burnup and MOX spent fuel). It was noted that the handling and storage of spent fuel is a mature technology and meets the stringent safety requirements applicable in different countries. The changes in nuclear policy and philosophy across the world, and practical considerations, have made interim storage a real necessity in the nuclear power industry. This is being addressed adequately by utilities, vendors and regulators alike

  19. Reexamining the Dissolution of Spent Fuel: A Comparison of Different Methods for Calculating Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, Brady D.; Stout, Ray B.

    2004-01-01

    Dissolution rates for spent fuel have typically been reported in terms of a rate normalized to the surface area of the specimen. Recent evidence has shown that neither the geometric surface area nor that measured with BET accurately predicts the effective surface area of spent fuel. Dissolution rates calculated from results obtained by flowthrough tests were reexamined comparing the cumulative releases and surface area normalized rates. While initial surface area is important for comparison of different rates, it appears that normalizing to the surface area introduces unnecessary uncertainty compared to using cumulative or fractional release rates. Discrepancies in past data analyses are mitigated using this alternative method

  20. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2. GSFLS visit findings and evaluations. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This report describes a global framework that evaluates spent fuel disposition requirements, influencing factors and strategies. A broad sampling of foreign governmental officials, electric utility spokesmen and nuclear power industry officials responsible for GSFLS policies, plans and programs were surveyed as to their views with respect to national and international GSFLS related considerations. The results of these GSFLS visit findings are presented herein. These findings were then evaluated in terms of technical, institutional and legal/regulatory implications. The GSFLS evaluations, in conjunction with perceived US spent fuel objectives, formed the basis for selecting a set of GSFLS strategies which are reported herein

  1. Development of the spent fuel disassembling process by utilizing the 3D graphic design technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T. K.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Yun, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    For developing the spent fuel disassembling process, the 3D graphic simulation has been established by utilizing the 3D graphic design technology which is widely used in the industry. The spent fuel disassembling process consists of a downender, a rod extraction device, a rod cutting device, a pellet extracting device and a skeleton compaction device. In this study, the 3D graphical design model of these devices is implemented by conceptual design and established the virtual workcell within kinematics to motion of each device. By implementing this graphic simulation, all the unit process involved in the spent fuel disassembling processes are analyzed and optimized. The 3D graphical model and the 3D graphic simulation can be effectively used for designing the process equipment, as well as the optimized process and maintenance process

  2. Dry spent fuel storage experience at overseas nuclear stations focus USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, T. L.; Kumar, S.; Marcelli, D. G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of US dry spent fuel storage experience, including application of this experience outside the United States. Background information on the US nuclear and spent fuel storage industry is provided as a basis for discussing the various types of options and systems available. An overview of technology options is presented, including systems being used and/or considered by the US government and private sector, as well as a discussion of overall system design, licensing and operation. Factors involved in selecting the best available technology option for a specific site or group of sites are presented, along with a typical timeline for project implementation. Cross-geographical use of technologies under different regulatory and technological regimes is also discussed. The paper concludes that dry storage is safe and reliable based on a successful ten year period. The information presented may be considered for use in the development of dry spent fuel storage in Korea and other countries. (author)

  3. Loss of cooling accident simulation of nuclear power station spent-fuel pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.; Liang, K-S., E-mail: mlee@ess.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: ksliang_1@hotmail.com [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lin, K-Y., E-mail: syrup760914@gmail.com [Taiwan Power Company, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    The core melt down accident of Fukushima Nuclear Power Station on March 11th, 2011 alerted nuclear industry that the long term loss of cooling of spent fuel pool may need some attention. The target plant analyzed is the Chinshan Nuclear Power Station of Taiwan Power Company. The 3-Dimensional RELAP5 input deck of the spent fuel pool of the station is built. The results indicate that spent fuel of Chinshan Nuclear Power Station is uncovered at 6.75 days after an accident of loss cooling takes place and cladding temperature rises above 2,200{sup o}F around 8 days. The time is about 13 hours earlier than the results predicted using simple energy balance method. The results also show that the impact of Counter Current Flow Limitation (CCFL) and radiation heat transfer model is marginal. (author)

  4. Reference spent fuel and its characteristics for the concept development of a deep geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C. H.; Choi, J. W.; Ko, W. I.; Lee, Y. M.; Park, J. H.; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, S. K.

    1997-09-01

    The total amount of spent fuel arisen from the nuclear power plant to be planned by 2010 at the basis of the long-term power development plan announced by MOTIE (Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy Resource) in 1995 is estimated to derive the disposal capacity of a deep geological repository is derived. The reference spent fuel whose characteristics could be planned is selected by analysing the characteristic data such as initial enrichment, discharge burnup, geometry, dimension, gross weight, etc. Also isotopic concentration, radioactivity, decay heat, hazard index and radiation intensity of a reference spent fuel are quantitatively identified and summarized in order to apply in the concept developing works of a deep geological disposal system. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 14 figs

  5. Reference spent fuel and its characteristics for the concept development of a deep geological disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, C. H.; Choi, J. W.; Ko, W. I.; Lee, Y. M.; Park, J. H.; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, S. K.

    1997-09-01

    The total amount of spent fuel arisen from the nuclear power plant to be planned by 2010 at the basis of the long-term power development plan announced by MOTIE (Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy Resource) in 1995 is estimated to derive the disposal capacity of a deep geological repository is derived. The reference spent fuel whose characteristics could be planned is selected by analysing the characteristic data such as initial enrichment, discharge burnup, geometry, dimension, gross weight, etc. Also isotopic concentration, radioactivity, decay heat, hazard index and radiation intensity of a reference spent fuel are quantitatively identified and summarized in order to apply in the concept developing works of a deep geological disposal system. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 14 figs.

  6. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2. GSFLS visit findings and evaluations. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This report describes a global framework that evaluates spent fuel disposition requirements, influencing factors and strategies. A broad sampling of foreign governmental officials, electric utility spokesmen and nuclear power industry officials responsible for GSFLS policies, plans and programs were surveyed as to their views with respect to national and international GSFLS related considerations. The results of these GSFLS visit findings are presented herein. These findings were then evaluated in terms of technical, institutional and legal/regulatory implications. The GSFLS evaluations, in conjunction with perceived US spent fuel objectives, formed the basis for selecting a set of GSFLS strategies which are reported herein.

  7. The global nuclear energy partnership and the spent fuel take-back provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresee, James C.

    2007-01-01

    spectrum reactors originated in the United States but both activities have been terminated while the same capabilities have been expanded internationally. Spent fuel reprocessing and fast spectrum reactor fissioning of transuranics will also be beneficial if applied to domestic nuclear waste management. This fact when combined with potential international benefits argues in favor of U.S. implementation of GNEP. However, since long-term administration and Congressional support and active participation by industry will also be required, GNEP's future remains uncertain. Public discussion leading to a better understanding of GNEP's advantages and disadvantages, such as the forum provided by Global 2007, will be necessary to obtain the needed commitments to proceed. The taking back of foreign spent fuel by fuel cycle nations is perhaps the most controversial part of GNEP and is seen by many as a disadvantage. Although previous examples of such take-back can be cited, the basic concept is contrary to an underlying assumption generally adopted by nations using nuclear power. That assumption has been that a nation benefiting from nuclear power should dispose of its waste within its borders. Even those countries that have sent their spent fuel to another country for reprocessing have accepted a contractual responsibility to receive back essentially all spent fuel components in the form of separated materials. GNEP would involve an entirely new approach, in that a fuel cycle nation would not only process the spent fuel but use some fraction of it as fuel for its own fast power reactors. Under GNEP, the fuel cycle country would obviously be responsibility for the safe management of the waste from both the reprocessing of the returned spent fuel from the non-fuel cycle country's power reactors and the later recycle of fast spectrum fuel to achieve high TRU burnup. However, the ultimate disposition of that waste has been the subject of considerable discussion and is the focus of this

  8. Development of Spent Fuel Examination Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Dong; Park, K. J.; Shin, H. S.

    2007-04-01

    For the official operation of ACPF Facility Attachment based on facility declared DIQ was issued by IAEA and officialized upon ROK government approval. This procedure gives an essential ground to negotiate Joint Determination between governments of ROK and US. For ACPF process material accountability a neutron coincidence counting system was developed and calibrated with Cf-252 source. Its performance test demonstrated that over-all counting efficiency was about 21% with random error, 1.5% against calibration source, which found to be satisfactory to the expected design specification. A calibration curve derived by MCNP code with relationship between ASNC doublet counts vs. neutron activity of Cm-244 showed calibration constant to be 2.78x10E5 counts/s.g which would be used for initial ACP hot operation test. Nuclear material transportation and temporary storage system was established for active demonstration of advanced spent fuel management process line and would be directly applied to the effective management of wastes arising from active demonstration and would later contribute as a base data to development of inter hot-cell movement system in pyro-processing line. In addition, an optimal spent fuel for the ACP demonstration was selected and a computer code was developed as a tool to estimate the expected source term at each key measurement point of ACP

  9. Considerations for the transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    In our society today the transportation of radioactive materials, and most particularly spent reactor fuel, is surrounded by considerable emotion and a wealth of information, good and bad. The transportation of these materials is viewed as unique and distinct from the transportation of other hazardous materials and as a particularly vulnerable component of the nuclear power activities of this nation. Added to this is the concept, widely held, that almost everyone is an expert on the transportation of radioactive materials. One significant contribution to this level of emotion is the notion that all roads (rail and highway), on which these goods will be transported, somehow traverse everyone's backyard. The issue of the transportation of spent fuel has thus become a political battleground. Perhaps this should not be surprising since it has all of the right characteristics for such politicization in that it is pervasive, emotional, and visible. In order that those involved in the discussion of this activity might be able to reach some rational conclusions, this paper offers some background information which might be useful to a broad range of individuals in developing their own perspectives. The intent is to address the safety of transporting spent fuel from a technical standpoint without the emotional content which is frequently a part of this argument

  10. Japan's spent fuel and plutonium management challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuta, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2011-01-01

    Japan's commitment to plutonium recycling has been explicitly stated in its long-term program since 1956. Despite the clear cost disadvantage compared with direct disposal or storage of spent fuel, the Rokkasho reprocessing plant started active testing in 2006. Japan's cumulative consumption of plutonium has been only 5 tons to date and its future consumption rate is still uncertain. But once the Rokkasho reprocessing plant starts its full operation, Japan will separate about 8 tons of plutonium annually. Our analysis shows that, with optimum use of available at-reactor and away-from-reactor storage capacity, there would be no need for reprocessing until the mid-2020s. With an additional 30,000 tons of away-from-reactor (AFR) spent-fuel storage capacity reprocessing could be avoided until 2050. Deferring operation of the Rokkasho plant, at least until the plutonium stockpile had been worked down to the minimum required level, would also minimize international concern about Japan's plutonium stockpile. The authors are happy to acknowledge Frank von Hippel, Harold Feiveson, Jungming Kang, Zia Mian, M.V. Ramana, and other IPFM members, as well as the generous grant from the MacArthur Foundation for helping make this research possible.

  11. European experience with spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, I.A.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Transport Ltd has transported 5000 tonnes of spent fuel from 35 reactors in 8 European countries since 1972. Transport management is governed by the Quality Plan for: transport administration, packaging and shipment procedures at the shipping plant, operations at the power plant, and packaging and shipment organization at the power plant. Selection of a suitable carrier device is made with regard to the shipping plant requirements, physical limitations of the reactor, fuel characteristics, and transport route constraints. The transport plan is set up taking into account exploitation of the casks, reactor shut-down requirements, fuel acceptance plans at the reprocessing plant, and cask maintenance periods. A transport cycle involving spent fuel shipment to La Hague or to Sellafield takes typically two or four weeks, respectively. Most transports through Europe are by rail. A special-design railway ferry boat serves transports to the United Kingdom. Both wet or dry casks are employed. Modern casks are designed for high burnups and for oxide fuels. (J.B.)

  12. Apparatus for lifting spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Yoshinari; Sato, Isao; Yoneda, Yoshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To increase the efficiency of cooling of a used fuel assembly being moved within a guide tube in the axial direction thereof by directly cooling the assembly with cooling gas fed into the guide tube, thus facilitating the handling of the spent fuel assembly. Structure: An end of a lock portion is inserted into the top portion of a spent fuel assembly, the assembly being hooked on the lock portion. The lock portion is provided on its outer periphery with a seal member and a centering member and at its tip with a pawl capable of being projected and retracted in the radial direction. Thus, when the lock portion is moved along the guide tube, the used fuel assembly can be moved along the guide tube by maintaining the concentric relation thereto. Meanwhile, when cooling gas is fed into the guide tube, it is blown into the used fuel assembly to directly cool the same. Thus, the cooling efficiency can be increased. (Moriyama, M.)

  13. Burnup degree measuring device for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hideo; Imaizumi, Hideki; Endo, Yasumi; Itahara, Kuniyuki.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a small-sized and convenient device for measuring a burnup degree of spent fuels, which can be installed without remodelling an existent fuel storage pool. Namely, a gamma-ray detecting portion incorporates a Cd-Te detector for measuring intensity ratio of gamma-rays. A neutron detecting portion incorporates a fission counter tube. The Cd-Te detector comprises a neutron shielding member for reducing radiation damages and a background controlling plate for reducing low energy gamma-rays entering from a collimator. Since the Cd-Td detector for use in a gamma-ray spectroscopy can be used at a normal temperature and can measure even a relatively strong radiation field, it can measure the intensity of gamma-rays from Cs-137 and Cs-134 in spent fuels accurately at a resolving power of less than 10 keV. Further, in a case where a cooling period is less than one year, gamma-rays from Rh-106 and Nb-95 can also be measured. (I.S.)

  14. Development of Spent Fuel Examination Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Dong; Park, K. J.; Shin, H. S. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    For the official operation of ACPF Facility Attachment based on facility declared DIQ was issued by IAEA and officialized upon ROK government approval. This procedure gives an essential ground to negotiate Joint Determination between governments of ROK and US. For ACPF process material accountability a neutron coincidence counting system was developed and calibrated with Cf-252 source. Its performance test demonstrated that over-all counting efficiency was about 21% with random error, 1.5% against calibration source, which found to be satisfactory to the expected design specification. A calibration curve derived by MCNP code with relationship between ASNC doublet counts vs. neutron activity of Cm-244 showed calibration constant to be 2.78x10E5 counts/s.g which would be used for initial ACP hot operation test. Nuclear material transportation and temporary storage system was established for active demonstration of advanced spent fuel management process line and would be directly applied to the effective management of wastes arising from active demonstration and would later contribute as a base data to development of inter hot-cell movement system in pyro-processing line. In addition, an optimal spent fuel for the ACP demonstration was selected and a computer code was developed as a tool to estimate the expected source term at each key measurement point of ACP.

  15. Spent fuel pool cleanup and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Each of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford had a large water-filled spent fuel pool to provide interim storage of irradiated fuel while awaiting shipment to the separation facilities. After cessation of reactor operations the fuel was removed from the pools and the water levels were drawn down to a 5- to 10-foot depth. The pools were maintained with the water to provide shielding and radiological control. What appeared to be a straightforward project to process the water, remove the sediments from the basin, and stabilize the contamination on the floors and walls became a very complex and time consuming operation. The sediment characteristics varied from pool to pool, the ion exchange system required modification, areas of hard-pack sediments were discovered on the floors, special arrangements to handle and package high dose rate items for shipment were required, and contract problems ensued with the subcontractor. The original schedule to complete the project from preliminary engineering to final stabilization of the pools was 15 months. The actual time required was about 25 months. The original cost estimate to perform the work was $2,651,000. The actual cost of the project was $5,120,000, which included $150,000 for payment of claims to the subcontractor. This paper summarizes the experiences associated with the cleanup and radiological stabilization of the 100-B, -C, -D, and -DR spent fuel pools, and discusses a number of lessons learned items

  16. Present status of JMTR spent fuel shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Masataka; Watanabe, Masao; Yokokawa, Makoto; Sato, Hiroshi; Ito, Haruhiko

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been consistently making the enrichment reduction of reactor fuels in cooperation with RERTR Program and FRR SNF Acceptance Program both conducted along with the U.S. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy and JMTR, 50 MW test reactor in Oarai Research Establishment, has achieved core conversion, from its initial 93% enriched UAl alloy to 45% enriched uranium-aluminide fuel, and then to the current 19.8% enriched uranium-silicide fuel. In order to return all of JMTR spent fuels, to be discharged from the reactor by May 12, 2006, to the U.S.A. by May 12, 2009, JAERI is planning the transportation schedule based on one shipment per year. The sixth shipment of spent fuels to U.S. was carried out as scheduled this year, where the total number of fuels shipped amounts to 651 elements. All of the UAl alloy elements have so far been shipped and now shipments of 45% enriched uranium-aluminide type fuels are in progress. Thus far the JMTR SFs have been transported on schedule. From 2003 onward are scheduled more then 850 elements to be shipped. In this paper, we describe our activities on the transportation in general and the schedule for the SFs shipments. (author)

  17. Public sector's research programme on spent fuel management in Finland supporting the authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, S.; Rasilainen, K.

    2000-01-01

    A multiphase research program launched in 1989 to support Finnish authorities in their activities concerning spent fuel management is reviewed. The Finnish program for spent fuel management has so far managed to keep its original time schedule at least partly due to clearly defined responsibilities between the nuclear energy producing industry and the authorities. It appears that the public sector's research programme has been successful in its supporting role, because authorities have had good possibilities to adjust the emphasis and volume of the research programme from the very beginning. (author)

  18. The NRC activities concerning Boraflex use in spent-fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, L.I.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued several generic communications to the nuclear industry identifying two issues with respect to using Boraflex in spent-fuel storage racks. The first issue related to gamma-radiation-induced shrinkage of Boraflex and the potential to develop tears or gaps in the material. This phenomenon is typically accounted for in criticality analyses of spent-fuel storage racks. The second issue concerned long-term Boraflex performance throughout the intended service life of the racks as a result of both gamma irradiation and exposure to the wet pool environment

  19. The risks of the Taiwan research reactor spent fuel project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The proposed action is to transport up to 118 spent fuel rods, to include canned spent fuel rod particulates immobilized on filters, from a research reactor in Taiwan by sea to Hampton Roads, Virginia, and then overland by truck to the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At SRS, the spent fuel will be reprocessed to recover uranium and plutonium. 55 refs., 8 tabs

  20. Expansion of capacity of spent fuel pools and associated problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, J.L. De; Lopez-Cotarelo, J.; Ramos, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Expanding the spent fuel storage pool capacity is a good solution for utilities facing the current shortage in fuel reprocessing capacity. The problems more likely to be found when expanding a spent fuel storage facility by using high density storage racks are reviewed. Basically three types of problems arise: 1) Problems related with the characteristics of the new facility. 2) Problems related with the works of expansion. 3) Problems related with the long term storage of large quantities of spent fuel. (author)

  1. Safe transport of spent fuels after long-term storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, M.; Takeda, T.; Ozaki, S.

    2004-01-01

    Considering the scarcity of energy resources in Japan, a nuclear energy policy pertaining to the spent fuel storage has been adopted. The nuclear energy policy sets the rules that spent fuels generated from LWRs shall be reprocessed and that plutonium and unburnt uranium shall be recovered and reused. For this purpose, a reprocessing plant, which has a reprocessing capability of 800 ton/yr, is under construction at Rokkasho Village. However, it is anticipated that the start of its operation will be delayed. In addition, the amount of spent fuels generated from nuclear power plants exceeds its reprocessing capability. Therefore, the establishment of storage technology for spent fuels becomes an urgent problem in Japan in order to continue smoothly the LWR operations. In this paper, the background of nuclear power generation in Japan is introduced at first. Next, the policy of spent fuel storage in Japan and circumstances surrounding the spent fuels in Japan are mentioned. Furthermore, the major subjects for discussions to settle and improve 'Standard for Safety Design and Inspection of Metal Casks for Spent Fuel Interim Storage Facility' in Atomic Energy Society of Japan are discussed, such as the integrity of fuel cladding, basket, shielding material and metal gasket for the long term storage for achieving safe transport of spent fuels after the storage. Finally, solutions to the unsolved subject in establishing the spent fuel interim storage technologies ase introduced accordingly

  2. Spent fuel heatup following loss of water during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, A.S.; McCloskey, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Spent fuel assemblies from light water reactors are typically stored for one year or more in the reactor spent fuel pool and then transported for long-term storage at an off-site location. Because of the design, construction, and operation features of spent fuel storage pools, an accident that might drain most of the water from a pool is assessed as being extremely improbable. As a limiting case, however, a hypothetical incident involving instantaneous draining of all the water from a storage pool has been postulated, and the subsequent heatup of the spent fuel elements has been evaluated. The model is analyzed, and results are summarized

  3. Remarks on the transportation of spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1992-01-01

    Information and data are provided on several aspects of the transportation of spent fuel elements. These aspects include contract, transportation, reprocessing batch size, and economical considerations. (author)

  4. Status of Away From Reactor spent fuel storage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.D.

    1979-07-01

    The Away From Reactor (AFR) Spent Fuel Program that the US Department of Energy established in 1977 is intended to preclude the shutting down of commercial nuclear power reactors because of lack of storage space for spent fuel. Legislation now being considered by Congress includes plans to provide storage space for commercial spent fuel beginning in 1983. Utilities are being encouraged to provide as much storage space as possible in their existing storage facilities, but projections indicate that a significant amount of AFR storage will be required. The government is evaluating the use of both existing and new storage facilities to solve this forecasted storage problem for commercial spent fuel

  5. Legal questions concerning the termination of spent fuel element reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The thesis on legal aspects of the terminated spent fuel reprocessing in Germany is based on the legislation, jurisdiction and literature until January 2004. The five chapters cover the following topics: description of the problem; reprocessing of spent fuel elements in foreign countries - practical and legal aspects; operators' responsibilities according to the atomic law with respect to the reprocessing of Geman spent fuel elements in foreign countries; compatibility of the prohibition of Geman spent fuel element reprocessing in foreign countries with international law, European law and German constitutional law; results of the evaluation

  6. Status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.

    2004-01-01

    Results compiled in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialised and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. (author)

  7. Evaluation of potential for MSRE spent fuel and flush salt storage and treatment at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ougouag, A.M.; Ostby, P.A.; Nebeker, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    The potential for interim storage as well as for treatment of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment spent fuel at INEL has been evaluated. Provided that some minimal packaging and chemical stabilization prerequisites are satisfied, safe interim storage of the spent fuel at the INEL can be achieved in a number of existing or planned facilities. Treatment by calcination in the New Waste Calcining Facility at the INEL can also be a safe, effective, and economical alternative to treatment that would require the construction of a dedicated facility. If storage at the INEL is chosen for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) spent fuel salts, their transformation to the more stable calcine solid would still be desirable as it would result in a lowering of risks. Treatment in the proposed INEL Remote-Handled Immobilization Facility (RHIF) would result in a waste form that would probably be acceptable for disposal at one of the proposed national repositories. The cost increment imputable to the treatment of the MSRE salts would be a small fraction of the overall capital and operating costs of the facility or the cost of building and operating a dedicated facility. Institutional and legal issues regarding shipments of fuel and waste to the INEL are summarized. The transfer of MSRE spent fuel for interim storage or treatment at the INEL is allowed under existing agreements between the State of idaho and the Department of energy and other agencies of the Federal Government. In contrast, current agreements preclude the transfer into Idaho of any radioactive wastes for storage or disposal within the State of Idaho. This implies that wastes and residues produced from treating the MSRE spent fuel at locations outside Idaho would not be acceptable for storage in Idaho. Present agreements require that all fuel and high-level wastes stored at the INEL, including MSRE spent fuel if received at the INEL, must be moved to a location outside Idaho by the year 2035

  8. Survey of wet and dry spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    Spent fuel storage is one of the important stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and stands among the most vital challenges for countries operating nuclear power plants. Continuous attention is being given by the IAEA to the collection, analysis and exchange of information on spent fuel management. Its role in this area is to provide a forum for exchanging information and for coordinating and encouraging closer co-operation among Member States. Spent fuel management is recognized as a high priority IAEA activity. In 1997, the annual spent fuel arising from all types of power reactors worldwide amounted to about 10,500 tonnes heavy metal (t HM). The total amount of spent fuel accumulated worldwide at the end of 1997 was about 200,000 t HM of which about 130,000 t HM of spent fuel is presently being stored in at-reactor (AR) or away-from-reactor (AFR) storage facilities awaiting either reprocessing or final disposal and 70,000 t HM has been reprocessed. Projections indicate that the cumulative amount generated by 2010 may surpass 340,000 t HM and by the year 2015 395,000 t HM. Part of the spent fuel will be reprocessed and some countries took the option to dispose their spent fuel in a repository. Most countries with nuclear programmes are using the deferral of a decision approach, a 'wait and see' strategy with interim storage, which provides the ability to monitor the storage continuously and to retrieve the spent fuel later for either direct disposal or reprocessing. Some countries use different approaches for different types of fuel. Today the worldwide reprocessing capacity is only a fraction of the total spent fuel arising and since no final repository has yet been constructed, there will be an increasing demand for interim storage. The present survey contains information on the basic storage technologies and facility types, experience with wet and dry storage of spent fuel and international experience in spent fuel transport. The main aim is to provide spent fuel

  9. NAC international dry spent fuel transfer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, Thomas A.; Malone, James P.; Patterson, John R.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: For more than ten years NAC International (NAC) has designed, fabricated, tested and operated a variety of Dry Transfer Systems (DTS's) to transfer spent nuclear fuel from facilities with limited crane capabilities, limited accesses or limiting features to IAEA and USNRC licensed spent fuel transport casks or vice-versa. These DTS's have been operated in diverse environments in the United States and throughout the world and have proven to be a significant enhancement in transferring fuel between spent fuel pools, dry storage and hot cell facilities and spent fuel transport casks. Over the years, NAC has successfully and safely transferred more than two thousand fuel assemblies in DTS's. Our latest generation DTS incorporates years of extensive design and operating experience. It consists of a transfer cask with integrated fuel canister grapple, fuel canisters, and facility and cask adapters as well as a complement of related tools and equipment. The transfer cask is used to move irradiated HEU and LEU MTR fuel onsite in those instances where direct loading or unloading of the shipping cask is not possible due to dimensional, weight or other restrictions. The transfer cask is used to move canisters of fuel from the fuel storage location to the shipping cask. Adapters are employed to ensure proper interfacing of the transfer cask with fuel storage locations and shipping casks (NAC-LWT and NLI-1/2). Our existing fuel storage location adapter is designed for use with a storage pool; however, site or equipment specific adapters can easily be developed to allow interfacing with virtually any storage facility. Prior to movement of the first fuel canister in the transfer cask, the shipping cask is prepared for loading by proper set up of the base plate, shipping cask and shipping cask adapter. The fuel canisters are loaded with fuel and then retracted into the transfer cask via the fuel storage location adapter. The transfer cask is then moved to the shipping

  10. Spent fuel shipping cask sealing concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnier, C.S.

    1989-05-01

    In late 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requested the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) to provide a study which examined sealing concepts for application to spent fuel shipping casks. This request was approved, and assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia). In the course of this study, discussions were held with personnel in the International Safeguards Community who were familiar with the shipping casks used in their States. A number of shipping casks were examined, and discussions were held with two shipping cask manufacturers in the US. As a result of these efforts, it was concluded that the shipping casks provided an extremely good containment, and that many of the existing casks can be effectively sealed by applying the seal to the cask closure bolts/nuts

  11. Spent fuel cladding containment credit test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    As an initial step in addressing the effectiveness of breached cladding as a barrier to radionuclide release from the repository during the post-containment period, preliminary scoping tests have been initiated which compare radionuclide releases from spent fuel specimens with artificially induced cladding defects of various severities. The artificially induced defects are all more severe than the typical in-reactor type breaches which are expected to be the principal type of breach entering the repository for terminal storage. These preliminary scoping tests being conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Waste Package Development Program in support of the Tuff repository project at the Nevada Test Site are described. Also included in this presentation are selected initial results from these tests. 22 figures

  12. Radiation Templates of Spent Fuel in Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier, Peter

    2018-05-07

    BNL and INL propose to perform a scoping study, using heavily collimated gamma and fast neutron detectors, to obtain passive radiation templates of dry storage casks containing spent fuel. The goal is to demonstrate sufficient spatial resolution and sensitivity to detect a missing fuel assembly. Such measurements, combined with detailed modeling and decay corrections should provide confidence that the cask contents have not been altered, despite loss of continuity of knowledge (CoK). The concept relies on the leakage of high energy gammas and neutrons through the shielding of the casks. Tests will emphasize organic scintillators with pulse shape discrimination, but baseline comparisons will be made to high purity germanium (HPGe) and collimated moderated 3He detectors deployed in the same locations. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) detectors and data acquisition electronics will be used with custom-built collimators and shielding.

  13. Potential Interface Issues in Spent Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    This publication is an output of a series of meetings to identify and evaluate issues and opportunities associated with interfaces in the back end of the fuel cycle (BEFC) and to describe effective management approaches based on the experience of Member States. During the meetings, participants from Member States and other international organizations shared and evaluated the main interfaces and potential interface issues among the spent fuel storage, transport, reprocessing and disposal of the BEFC, and also reviewed the national approaches to addressing these issues. The aim of this publication is to provide an approach to identify the interfaces in the BEFC as well as the potential issues that should be addressed. It also aims at responding to the solutions Member States most often find to be effective and, in some cases, were adjusted or revisited to reach the fixed target. Most of the interfaces and issues are country specific, as evidenced by the variety and diversity of examples provided in this publication

  14. Corrosion surveillance in spent fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    In mid-1991, corrosion of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel was observed in the light-water filled basins at the Savannah River site. A corrosion surveillance program was initiated in the P, K, L-Reactor basins and in the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This program verified the aggressive nature of the pitting corrosion and provided recommendations for changes in basin operations to permit extended longer term interim storage. The changes were implemented during 1994--1996 and have resulted in significantly improved basin water quality with conductivity in the 1--3 microS/cm range. Under these improved conditions, no new pitting has been observed over the last three years. This paper describes the corrosion surveillance program at SRS and what has been learned about the corrosion of aluminum-clad in spent fuel storage pools

  15. BR-100 spent fuel shipping cask development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuinn, E.J.; Childress, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    Continued public acceptance of commercial nuclear power is contingent to a large degree on the US Department of Energy (DOE) establishing an integrated waste management system for spent nuclear fuel. As part of the from-reactor transportation segment of this system, the B ampersand W Fuel Company (BWFC) is under contract to the DOE to develop a spent-fuel cask that is compatible with both rail and barge modes of transportation. Innovative design approaches were the keys to achieving a cask design that maximizes payload capacity and cask performance. The result is the BR-100, a 100-ton rail/barge cask with a capacity of 21 PWR or 52 BWR ten-year cooled, intact fuel assemblies. 3 figs

  16. Contingency strategy for insufficient full core off load capability in spent fuel pool for Chinshan nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Pinghue

    2012-01-01

    The spent fuel pool (SFP) at Taiwan Power Company's (TUC's) Chinshan plant lost the full core off load (FCO) capability in 2010, even with the second SFP repacking project to expand the capacity as reported in 12PBNC. The TEPC had originally planned to move some spent fuel assemblies from SFP to dry storage facility, however, the dry storage project had seriously fell behind. Thus, it is required to address insufficient FCO capability, and the following contingency measures have been employed: The first step was to explore whether there was a specific regulatory requirement for FCO capability, and none were identified. Also, the industrial experiences were explored. The refueling strategy is changed from FCO to in-core shuffling. A feasibility evaluation performed indicates the Technical Specifications require: alternate method of decay heat removal, and verification of shutdown margin for each in vessel fuel movement. Specific methods have been successfully established. A safety evaluation for operation without FCO capability was performed, and no safety concerns were identified. The risk for operation without FCO capability was assessed. The previous operational experiences were identified. Moreover, such works are not expected in subsequent cycles. The new fuel vault is used to store new fuel assemblies. The criticality analysis has been performed and some new approaches are proposed to enhance the storage flexibility as reported in 17PBNC. An inter-unit transfer cask has been designed to transfer spent fuel from the SFP of one unit to the other. The FCO capability can be effectively extended for three more years with this consideration. The TPC discussed the contingency strategy with the ROCAEC in May 2006, and the ROCAEC's concurrence was attained. With the proposed strategy, Chinshan units have been operating smoothly

  17. Contingency strategy for insufficient full core off load capability in spent fuel pool for Chinshan nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Pinghue [Taiwan Power Company, Taipei (China)

    2012-03-15

    The spent fuel pool (SFP) at Taiwan Power Company's (TUC's) Chinshan plant lost the full core off load (FCO) capability in 2010, even with the second SFP repacking project to expand the capacity as reported in 12PBNC. The TEPC had originally planned to move some spent fuel assemblies from SFP to dry storage facility, however, the dry storage project had seriously fell behind. Thus, it is required to address insufficient FCO capability, and the following contingency measures have been employed: The first step was to explore whether there was a specific regulatory requirement for FCO capability, and none were identified. Also, the industrial experiences were explored. The refueling strategy is changed from FCO to in-core shuffling. A feasibility evaluation performed indicates the Technical Specifications require: alternate method of decay heat removal, and verification of shutdown margin for each in vessel fuel movement. Specific methods have been successfully established. A safety evaluation for operation without FCO capability was performed, and no safety concerns were identified. The risk for operation without FCO capability was assessed. The previous operational experiences were identified. Moreover, such works are not expected in subsequent cycles. The new fuel vault is used to store new fuel assemblies. The criticality analysis has been performed and some new approaches are proposed to enhance the storage flexibility as reported in 17PBNC. An inter-unit transfer cask has been designed to transfer spent fuel from the SFP of one unit to the other. The FCO capability can be effectively extended for three more years with this consideration. The TPC discussed the contingency strategy with the ROCAEC in May 2006, and the ROCAEC's concurrence was attained. With the proposed strategy, Chinshan units have been operating smoothly.

  18. Geophysical borehole logging. Final disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhiainen, P.

    1984-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (Industrial Power Company Ltd.) will take precautions for final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. The first stage of the site selection studies includes drilling of a deep borehole down to approximately 1000 meters in the year 1984. The report deals with geophysical borehole logging methods, which could be used for the studies. The aim of geophysical borehole logging methods is to descripe specially hydrogeological and structural features. Only the most essential methods are dealt with in this report. Attention is paid to the information produced with the methods, derscription of the methods, interpretation and limitations. The feasibility and possibilities for the aims are evaluated. The evaluations are based mainly on the results from Sweden, England, Canada and USA as well as experiencies gained in Finland

  19. An approach to meeting the spent fuel standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhijani, A. [Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Takoma Park, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The idea of the spent fuel standard is that there should be a high surface gamma radiation to prevent theft. For purposes of preventing theft, containers should be massive, and the plutonium should be difficult to extract. This report discusses issues associated with the spent fuel standard.

  20. Anticipated corrosion in the Vermont Yankee spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.R.

    1977-06-01

    The report provides additional information relating to a proposed modification to the spent fuel pool at the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VYNPS) and addresses corrosion of spent fuel pool storage materials and zircaloy, and provides an analysis of the effectiveness of the Boral sealing

  1. Monitoring instrumentation spent fuel management program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary monitoring system methodologies are identified as an input to the risk assessment of spent fuel management. Conceptual approaches to instrumentation for surveillance of canister position and orientation, vault deformation, spent fuel dissolution, temperature, and health physics conditions are presented. In future studies, the resolution, reliability, and uncertainty associated with these monitoring system methodologies will be evaluated

  2. Radwaste management and spent fuel management in JAVYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozik, M.; Strazovec, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work authors present radwaste management and spent fuel management in JAVYS, a.s. Processing of radioactive wastes (RAW) in the Bohunice Radioactive Waste Processing Center and surface storage of RAW in National RAW Repository as well as Interim Spent fuel storage in Jaslovske Bohunice are presented.

  3. Extension technology of store ability of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    It is the introduction of the extension technology of store ability of spent fuel including metal store cask, transport and store cask, concrete cask, NUHOMS and MVDS. It explains of technology of recombination of spent fuel including the purpose and real application, demonstration, presumption of expense, major interesting issue and the present condition of relevant licences permit and approvals.

  4. The development of spent fuel storage process equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki; Kim, Ho Dong; Kim, Ki Joon; Kim, Bum Hoe

    1992-02-01

    A nuclear material accounting system were designed to track the transitions of nuclear materials at the spent-fuel technology research facility. It is embedded in a distributed control system real-time structure of the system gives timely on-line accountancy. And performance of AC servo motor with fuzzy logic control and its applicability to spent fuel management were experimentally evaluated. (Author)

  5. Reracking Possibilities of the NPP Krsko Spent Fuel Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bace, M.; Pevec, D.; Smuc, T.

    1998-01-01

    Using the SCALE-4 code package reracking possibilities of the NPP Krsko spent fuel pool were analyzed. Two cases were considered: the first case assuming the 40 years lifetime of the plant, and the second case assuming the 50 years lifetime of the plant. It was shown that it is possible to design the additional racks in free space of the spent fuel pool with the sufficient total capacity to store all the spent fuel generated during the 40 years lifetime of the plant. In the case of 50 years plant lifetime, completely new racks (capacity of 1890 spent fuel assemblies), containing 4mm boral in storage cell walls, were proposed for the NPP Krsko spent fuel pool. The effective multiplication factor of the spent fuel pool fully loaded with new racks containing spent fuel assemblies of initial enrichment 4.3 w/o, burned to 40 GWd/tU and cooled 2 years is lower than the value required by standard. It showed the possibility of the safe disposal of all spent fuel accumulated during more than 50 years lifetime of the plant. (author)

  6. IEA-R1 reactor - Spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, J.R.L. De

    1996-01-01

    Brazil currently has one Swimming Pool Research Reactor (IEA-R1) at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - Sao Paulo. The spent fuel produced is stored both at the Reactor Pool Storage Compartment and at the Dry Well System. The present situation and future plans for spent fuel storage are described. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  7. An approach to meeting the spent fuel standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhijani, A.

    1996-01-01

    The idea of the spent fuel standard is that there should be a high surface gamma radiation to prevent theft. For purposes of preventing theft, containers should be massive, and the plutonium should be difficult to extract. This report discusses issues associated with the spent fuel standard

  8. Background and planning requirements for spent fuel shipments to DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravenscroft, Norman [Edlow International Company, 1666 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 201, Washington, DC 20009 (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Information is provided on the planning required and the factors that must be included in the planning process for spent fuel shipments to DOE. A summary is also provided on the background concerning renewal of the DOE spent fuel acceptance policy in May 1996. (author)

  9. APPLICATIONS OF CURRENT TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF SPENT FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drayer, R.

    2013-06-09

    Advancements in technology have opened many opportunities to improve upon the current infrastructure surrounding the nuclear fuel cycle. Embedded devices, very small sensors, and wireless technology can be applied to Security, Safety, and Nonproliferation of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Security, separate of current video monitoring systems, can be improved by integrating current wireless technology with a variety of sensors including motion detection, altimeter, accelerometer, and a tagging system. By continually monitoring these sensors, thresholds can be set to sense deviations from nominal values. Then alarms or notifications can be activated as needed. Safety can be improved in several ways. First, human exposure to ionizing radiation can be reduced by using a wireless sensor package on each spent fuel cask to monitor radiation, temperature, humidity, etc. Since the sensor data is monitored remotely operator stay-time is decreased and distance from the spent fuel increased, so the overall radiation exposure is reduced as compared to visual inspections. The second improvement is the ability to monitor continuously rather than periodically. If changes occur to the material, alarm thresholds could be set and notifications made to provide advanced notice of negative data trends. These sensor packages could also record data to be used for scientific evaluation and studies to improve transportation and storage safety. Nonproliferation can be improved for spent fuel transportation and storage by designing an integrated tag that uses current infrastructure for reporting and in an event; tracking can be accomplished using the Iridium satellite system. This technology is similar to GPS but with higher signal strength and penetration power, but lower accuracy. A sensor package can integrate all or some of the above depending on the transportation and storage requirements and regulations. A sensor package can be developed using off the shelf technology and applying it to each

  10. Applications of current technology for continuous monitoring of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drayer, R.

    2013-01-01

    Advancements in technology have opened many opportunities to improve upon the current infrastructure surrounding the nuclear fuel cycle. Embedded devices, very small sensors, and wireless technology can be applied to Security, Safety, and Nonproliferation of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Security, separate of current video monitoring systems, can be improved by integrating current wireless technology with a variety of sensors including motion detection, altimeter, accelerometer, and a tagging system. By continually monitoring these sensors, thresholds can be set to sense deviations from nominal values. Then alarms or notifications can be activated as needed. Safety can be improved in several ways. First, human exposure to ionizing radiation can be reduced by using a wireless sensor package on each spent fuel cask to monitor radiation, temperature, humidity, etc. Since the sensor data is monitored remotely operator stay-time is decreased and distance from the spent fuel increased, so the overall radiation exposure is reduced as compared to visual inspections. The second improvement is the ability to monitor continuously rather than periodically. If changes occur to the material, alarm thresholds could be set and notifications made to provide advanced notice of negative data trends. These sensor packages could also record data to be used for scientific evaluation and studies to improve transportation and storage safety. Nonproliferation can be improved for spent fuel transportation and storage by designing an integrated tag that uses current infrastructure for reporting and in an event; tracking can be accomplished using the Iridium satellite system. This technology is similar to GPS but with higher signal strength and penetration power, but lower accuracy. A sensor package can integrate all or some of the above depending on the transportation and storage requirements and regulations. A sensor package can be developed using off the shelf technology and applying it to each

  11. Existing and near future practices of spent fuel storage in Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizov, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper existing and near future practices of spent fuel storage in Slovak Republic are discussed: (1) Reactor operation and spent fuel production; (2) Past policy in spent fuel storage; (3) Away-from-reactor (AFR) storage facility at Bohunice NPP site; (4) Present policy in spent fuel storage; (5) Final disposal of spent fuel

  12. Spent fuel storage practices and perspectives for WWER fuel in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takats, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture the general issues and options in spent fuel management and storage are reviewed. Quantities of spent fuel world-wide and spent fuel amounts in storage as well as spent fuel capacities are presented. Selected examples of typical spent fuel storage facilities are discussed. The storage technologies applied for WWER fuel is presented. Description of other relevant storage technologies is included

  13. Preparation of the National Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management Programme in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralj, M.; Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.; Veselic, M.

    2006-01-01

    spent fuel: nuclear power plant, research reactor, small producers in the industry, medicine, research and army, uranium mine in decommissioning, storage facilities and naturally occurring radioactive material with a considerable radiation. ARAO identified the existing and possible future problems and proposed the technical solutions and action plans for two distinctive periods: 2005-2008 and 2009-2013. The necessary financial, technical and human resources were evaluated and the requirements to fulfil the programme were described. The core activities of the radioactive waste management in this period is siting and construction of the LILW repository, the final closure and decommissioning of the uranium mine, providing the complete control over the institutional waste, identification of TENORM sources and harmonisation of nuclear legislation with the environmental, spatial and construction legislation. (author)

  14. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Bosler, G.E.; Eccleston, G.W.; Halbig, J.K.; Hatcher, C.R.; Hsue, S.T.

    1982-04-01

    This is an interim report of a study concerning the potential application of nondestructive measurements on irradiated light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels at spent-fuel storage facilities. It describes nondestructive measurement techniques and instruments that can provide useful data for more effective in-plant nuclear materials management, better safeguards and criticality safety, and more efficient storage of spent LWR fuel. In particular, several nondestructive measurement devices are already available so that utilities can implement new fuel-management and storage technologies for better use of existing spent-fuel storage capacity. The design of an engineered prototype in-plant spent-fuel measurement system is approx. 80% complete. This system would support improved spent-fuel storage and also efficient fissile recovery if spent-fuel reprocessing becomes a reality

  16. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts

  17. Some factors to consider in handling and storing spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1985-11-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Wet storage experience has been summarized earlier in several other reports. This report summarizes pertinent items noted during FY 1985 concerning recent developments in the handling and storage of spent fuel and associated considerations. The subjects discussed include recent publications, findings, and developments associated with: (1) storage of water reactor spent fuel in water pools, (2) extended-burnup fuel, (3) fuel assembly reconstitution and reinsertion, (4) rod consolidation, (5) variations in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's definition of failed fuel, (6) detection of failed fuel rods, and (7) extended integrity of spent fuel. A list of pertinent publications is included

  18. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts.

  19. Spent fuel management fee methodology and computer code user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, R.L.; White, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology and computer model described here were developed to analyze the cash flows for the federal government taking title to and managing spent nuclear fuel. The methodology has been used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the spent fuel disposal fee that will provide full cost recovery. Although the methodology was designed to analyze interim storage followed by spent fuel disposal, it could be used to calculate a fee for reprocessing spent fuel and disposing of the waste. The methodology consists of two phases. The first phase estimates government expenditures for spent fuel management. The second phase determines the fees that will result in revenues such that the government attains full cost recovery assuming various revenue collection philosophies. These two phases are discussed in detail in subsequent sections of this report. Each of the two phases constitute a computer module, called SPADE (SPent fuel Analysis and Disposal Economics) and FEAN (FEe ANalysis), respectively

  20. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs

  1. Transport of HIFAR spent fuel from Lucas Heights Research Establishment to the United Kingdom for reprocessing. Public Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-27

    The normal operations of HIFAR produce thirty-eight spent fuel elements annually. Since 1958, when operations began, 1,660 spent fuel elements have been accumulated and are stored in ANSTO`s engineered interim storage facilities at Lucas Heights. In the light of the limited size of these storage facilities and following the Research Reactor Review (1993) and an Inter-Agency Review, the Commonwealth Government announced its decision to reduce the number of spent fuel elements stored at the site. Therefore, ANSTO has been authorised to negotiate the terms for shipment of spent fuel elements of United Kingdom (UK) origin to the Dounreay reprocessing plant in Scotland. This Public Environment Report, prepared under the Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974, describes the potential impacts and risks of a proposed initial shipment of 120 spent fuel elements to the Dounreay reprocessing plant. It describes the intended packaging and transport procedures and considers possible alternative methods of dealing with the continued production of spent fuel rods and the limited storage capacity at LHRL. The exhaustive analysis of every phase of operations involved in the shipping of a cask of spent HIFAR fuel elements from Lucas Heights to Dounreay, for reprocessing, has shown that there are no significant environmental or public health impacts from such a shipment conducted in accordance with standard, internationally established procedures. 18 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Transport of HIFAR spent fuel from Lucas Heights Research Establishment to the United Kingdom for reprocessing. Public Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The normal operations of HIFAR produce thirty-eight spent fuel elements annually. Since 1958, when operations began, 1,660 spent fuel elements have been accumulated and are stored in ANSTO's engineered interim storage facilities at Lucas Heights. In the light of the limited size of these storage facilities and following the Research Reactor Review (1993) and an Inter-Agency Review, the Commonwealth Government announced its decision to reduce the number of spent fuel elements stored at the site. Therefore, ANSTO has been authorised to negotiate the terms for shipment of spent fuel elements of United Kingdom (UK) origin to the Dounreay reprocessing plant in Scotland. This Public Environment Report, prepared under the Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974, describes the potential impacts and risks of a proposed initial shipment of 120 spent fuel elements to the Dounreay reprocessing plant. It describes the intended packaging and transport procedures and considers possible alternative methods of dealing with the continued production of spent fuel rods and the limited storage capacity at LHRL. The exhaustive analysis of every phase of operations involved in the shipping of a cask of spent HIFAR fuel elements from Lucas Heights to Dounreay, for reprocessing, has shown that there are no significant environmental or public health impacts from such a shipment conducted in accordance with standard, internationally established procedures. 18 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Development of advanced spent fuel management process. The fabrication and oxidation behavior of simulated metallized spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Shin, Y.J.; You, G.S.; Joo, J.S.; Min, D.K.; Chun, Y.B.; Lee, E.P.; Seo, H.S.; Ahn, S.B

    1999-03-01

    The simulated metallized spent fuel ingots were fabricated and evaluated the oxidation rates and the activation energies under several temperature conditions to develop an advanced spent fuel management process. It was also checked the alloying characteristics of the some elements with metal uranium. (Author). 3 refs., 1 tab., 36 figs.

  4. Radionuclide release from research reactor spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtius, H., E-mail: h.curtius@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Energieforschung, IEF-6 Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik, Geb. 05.3, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Kaiser, G.; Mueller, E.; Bosbach, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Energieforschung, IEF-6 Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik, Geb. 05.3, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    Numerous investigations with respect to LWR fuel under non oxidizing repository relevant conditions were performed. The results obtained indicate slow corrosion rates for the UO{sub 2} fuel matrix. Special fuel-types (mostly dispersed fuels, high enriched in {sup 235}U, cladded with aluminium) are used in German research reactors, whereas in German nuclear power plants, UO{sub 2}-fuel (LWR fuel, enrichment in {sup 235}U up to 5%, zircaloy as cladding) is used. Irradiated research reactor fuels contribute less than 1% to the total waste volume. In Germany, the state is responsible for fuel operation and for fuel back-end options. The institute for energy research (IEF-6) at the Research Center Juelich performs investigation with irradiated research reactor spent fuels under repository relevant conditions. In the study, the corrosion of research reactor spent fuel has been investigated in MgCl{sub 2}-rich salt brine and the radionuclide release fractions have been determined. Leaching experiments in brine with two different research reactor fuel-types were performed in a hot cell facility in order to determine the corrosion behaviour and the radionuclide release fractions. The corrosion of two dispersed research reactor fuel-types (UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al) was studied in 400 mL MgCl{sub 2}-rich salt brine in the presence of Fe{sup 2+} under static and initially anoxic conditions. Within these experimental parameters, both fuel types corroded in the experimental time period of 3.5 years completely, and secondary alteration phases were formed. After complete corrosion of the used research reactor fuel samples, the inventories of Cs and Sr were quantitatively detected in solution. Solution concentrations of Am and Eu were lower than the solubility of Am(OH){sub 3}(s) and Eu(OH){sub 3}(s) solid phases respectively, and may be controlled by sorption processes. Pu concentrations may be controlled by Pu(IV) polymer species, but the presence of Pu(V) and Pu

  5. Achieving increased spent fuel storage capacity at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.; Chang, S.J.; Dabs, R.D.; Freels, J.D.; Morgan, K.A.; Rothrock, R.B.; Griess, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The HFIR facility was originally designed to store approximately 25 spent cores, sufficient to allow for operational contingencies and for cooling prior to off-site shipment for reprocessing. The original capacity has now been increased to 60 positions, of which 53 are currently filled (September 1994). Additional spent cores are produced at a rate of about 10 or 11 per year. Continued HFIR operation, therefore, depends on a significant near-term expansion of the pool storage capacity, as well as on a future capability of reprocessing or other storage alternatives once the practical capacity of the pool is reached. To store the much larger inventory of spent fuel that may remain on-site under various future scenarios, the pool capacity is being increased in a phased manner through installation of a new multi-tier spent fuel rack design for higher density storage. A total of 143 positions was used for this paper as the maximum practical pool capacity without impacting operations; however, greater ultimate capacities were addressed in the supporting analyses and approval documents. This paper addresses issues related to the pool storage expansion including (1) seismic effects on the three-tier storage arrays, (2) thermal performance of the new arrays, (3) spent fuel cladding corrosion concerns related to the longer period of pool storage, and (4) impacts of increased spent fuel inventory on the pool water quality, water treatment systems, and LLLW volume

  6. A software tool integrated risk assessment of spent fuel transpotation and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Hyun Gook [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Christian, Robby [Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo Gyung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon [Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    When temporary spent fuel storage pools at nuclear power plants reach their capacity limit, the spent fuel must be moved to an alternative storage facility. However, radioactive materials must be handled and stored carefully to avoid severe consequences to the environment. In this study, the risks of three potential accident scenarios (i.e., maritime transportation, an aircraft crashing into an interim storage facility, and on-site transportation) associated with the spent fuel transportation process were analyzed using a probabilistic approach. For each scenario, the probabilities and the consequences were calculated separately to assess the risks: the probabilities were calculated using existing data and statistical models, and the consequences were calculated using computation models. Risk assessment software was developed to conveniently integrate the three scenarios. The risks were analyzed using the developed software according to the shipment route, building characteristics, and spent fuel handling environment. As a result of the risk analysis with varying accident conditions, transportation and storage strategies with relatively low risk were developed for regulators and licensees. The focus of this study was the risk assessment methodology; however, the applied model and input data have some uncertainties. Further research to reduce these uncertainties will improve the accuracy of this mode.

  7. A software tool integrated risk assessment of spent fuel transpotation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Hyun Gook; Christian, Robby; Kim, Bo Gyung; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2017-01-01

    When temporary spent fuel storage pools at nuclear power plants reach their capacity limit, the spent fuel must be moved to an alternative storage facility. However, radioactive materials must be handled and stored carefully to avoid severe consequences to the environment. In this study, the risks of three potential accident scenarios (i.e., maritime transportation, an aircraft crashing into an interim storage facility, and on-site transportation) associated with the spent fuel transportation process were analyzed using a probabilistic approach. For each scenario, the probabilities and the consequences were calculated separately to assess the risks: the probabilities were calculated using existing data and statistical models, and the consequences were calculated using computation models. Risk assessment software was developed to conveniently integrate the three scenarios. The risks were analyzed using the developed software according to the shipment route, building characteristics, and spent fuel handling environment. As a result of the risk analysis with varying accident conditions, transportation and storage strategies with relatively low risk were developed for regulators and licensees. The focus of this study was the risk assessment methodology; however, the applied model and input data have some uncertainties. Further research to reduce these uncertainties will improve the accuracy of this mode

  8. Spent-fuel storage - MRS and/or on-site?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuierer, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The US government through the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is seeking by the use of an authorized negotiator a site for a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. Based on a public information document provided by the office of the negotiator, the MRS will be an integral part of the federal system for safe and permanent disposal of the nation's high-level radioactive wastes. It is planned that the MRS will accept and store spent fuel above ground until a repository opens and spent fuel that has been stored is shipped from the MRS to the repository. Additional spent fuel stored at reactor sites will be shipped to the MRS, which will be used as a staging area to assemble dedicated trains for shipment to the repository. The intent of the MRS is to reduce utilities' needs to expand on-site storage of spent fuel. A utility viewpoint may emphasize an alternate set of priorities. The waste management system must be considered as an overall system involving both the utility and DOE that begins with the first discharge of spent nuclear fuel from a commercial reactor and ends with high-level waste in a final repository. Many studies have been made on individual components of a waste system. This study, with the benefit of past hands-on experience as a guide, looks at costs and reliability for a total system concept with particular emphasis on the interface between the utility and Department of Energy

  9. Calibration of spent fuel measurement assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koleska, Michal; Viererbl, Ladislav; Marek, Milan

    2014-01-01

    The LVR-15 research reactor (Czech Republic) had been converted from the highly enriched IRT-2M to the low enriched IRT-4M fuel. For the possibility of the independent pre-transport evaluation of IRT-2M burnup, a spectrometric system was developed. This spectrometric system consists of the fuel holder, the collimator and the portable Canberra Big MAC HPGe (High Purity Germanium) detector. In order to have well reproducible and reliable experimental data for modeling of the measurement system, calibration with the 110m Ag isotope with known activity was performed. This isotope was chosen for having energies similar to isotopes measured in fuel assemblies. The 110m Ag isotope was prepared by irradiating of the silver foil in LVR-15 research reactor; its activity was evaluated in the LVR-15's spectrometric laboratory. From the measured data, an efficiency curve of the spectrometric system has been determined. The experimental data were compared to the calculation results with the MCNPX model of the spectrometric system. - Highlights: • Calibration of research reactor spent fuel measurement assembly. • On-site prepared 110m Ag isotope used for the measurement. • Calculated self-shielding factor for the IRT-2M fuel. • Applicable to other research reactor fuel geometries

  10. Spent fuel shipping cask development status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, K.H.; Lattin, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to establish a national system for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial power generation, and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) within the DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) to carry out these duties. A 1985 presidential decision added the disposal of high-level radioactive waste generated by defense programs to the national disposal system. A primary element of the disposal program is the development and operation of a transportation system to move the waste from its present locations to the facilities that will be included in the waste management system. The primary type of disposal facility to be established is a geologic repository; a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility may also be included as an intermediate step in the nuclear waste disposal process. This paper focuses on the progress and status of one facet of the transportation program--the development of a family of shipping casks for transporting spent fuel from nuclear power reactor sites to the repository of MRS facility

  11. Spent fuel transport in fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrousse, M.

    1977-01-01

    The transport of radioactive substances is a minor part of the fuel cycle because the quantities of matter involved are very small. However the length and complexity of the cycle, the weight of the packing, the respective distances between stations, enrichment plants and reprocessing plants are such that the problem is not negligible. In addition these transports have considerable psychological importance. The most interesting is spent fuel transport which requires exceptionally efficient packaging, especially where thermal and mechanical resistance are concerned. To meet the safety criteria necessary for the protection of both public and users it was decided to use the maximum capacity consistent with rail transport and to avoid coolant fluids under pressure. Since no single type of packing is suitable for all existing stations an effort has been made to standardise handling accessories, and future trands are towards maximum automation. A discussion on the various technical solutions available for the construction of these packing systems is followed by a description of those used for the two types of packaging ordered by COGEMA [fr

  12. Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chung Seok; Choi, I. K.; Kwon, S. G. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    As a part of research efforts to develop an advanced spent fuel management process, this project focused on the electrochemical reduction technology which can replace the original Li reduction technology of ANL, and we have successfully built a 20 kgHM/batch scale demonstration system. The performance tests of the system in the ACPF hot cell showed more than a 99% reduction yield of SIMFUEL, a current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} and a current efficiency of 80%. For an optimization of the process, the prevention of a voltage drop in an integrated cathode, a minimization of the anodic effect and an improvement of the hot cell operability by a modulation and simplization of the unit apparatuses were achieved. Basic research using a bench-scale system was also carried out by focusing on a measurement of the electrochemical reduction rate of the surrogates, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism, collecting data on the partition coefficients of the major nuclides, quantitative measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients of oxygen and metal ions in molten salts. When compared to the PYROX process of INL, the electrochemical reduction system developed in this project has comparative advantages in its application of a flexible reaction mechanism, relatively short reaction times and increased process yields.

  13. Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Chung Seok; Choi, I. K.; Kwon, S. G.

    2007-06-01

    As a part of research efforts to develop an advanced spent fuel management process, this project focused on the electrochemical reduction technology which can replace the original Li reduction technology of ANL, and we have successfully built a 20 kgHM/batch scale demonstration system. The performance tests of the system in the ACPF hot cell showed more than a 99% reduction yield of SIMFUEL, a current density of 100 mA/cm 2 and a current efficiency of 80%. For an optimization of the process, the prevention of a voltage drop in an integrated cathode, a minimization of the anodic effect and an improvement of the hot cell operability by a modulation and simplization of the unit apparatuses were achieved. Basic research using a bench-scale system was also carried out by focusing on a measurement of the electrochemical reduction rate of the surrogates, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism, collecting data on the partition coefficients of the major nuclides, quantitative measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients of oxygen and metal ions in molten salts. When compared to the PYROX process of INL, the electrochemical reduction system developed in this project has comparative advantages in its application of a flexible reaction mechanism, relatively short reaction times and increased process yields

  14. Software to improve spent fuel measurements using the FDET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, P.; Beddingfield, D.; Lestone, J.; Pelowitz, D.; Sprinkle, J.; Bytchkov, V.; Starovich, Z.; Harizanov, I.; Vellejo-Luna, J.; Lavender, C.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Vast quantities of spent fuel are available for safeguard measurements, primarily in Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) of the former Soviet Union. This spent fuel, much of which consists of long cooling time material, is going to become less unique in the world safeguards arena as reprocessing projects or permanent repositories continue to be delayed or postponed. The long cooling time of many of the spent fuel assemblies in the CIS countries being prepared for intermediate term storage promotes the possibility of increased accuracy in spent fuel assays. An important point to consider for the future that could advance safeguards measurements for re-verification and inspection measurements would be to determine what safeguards requirements should be imposed upon this 'new' class of spent fuel. Improvements in measurement capability will obviously affect the safeguards requirements. What most significantly enables this progress in spent fuel measurements is the improvement in computer processing power and software enhancements leading to user-friendly Graphical User Interfaces (GUI's). The software used for these projects significantly reduces the IAEA inspector's time both learning and operating computer and data acquisition systems. While at the same time by standardizing the spent fuel measurements it is possible to increase reproducibility and reliability of the measurement data. The inclusion of various analysis algorithms into the operating environment, which can be performed in real time upon the measurement data, can also lead to increases in safeguard reliability and improvements in efficiency to plant operations. (author)

  15. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 x 10 -5 and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 x 10 -3 . Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible

  16. Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Spent fuel management has always been one of the most important stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and it is still one of the most vital problems common to all countries with nuclear reactors. It begins with the discharge of spent fuel from a power or a research reactor and ends with its ultimate disposition, either by direct disposal or by reprocessing of the spent fuel. Two options exist at present - an open, once-through cycle with direct disposal of the spent fuel and a closed cycle with reprocessing of the spent fuel and recycling of plutonium and uranium in new mixed oxide fuels. The selection of a spent fuel strategy is a complex procedure in which many factors have to be weighed, including political, economic and safeguards issues as well as protection of the environment. Continuous attention is being given by the IAEA to the collection, analysis and exchange of information on spent fuel management. Its role in this area is to provide a forum for the exchange of information and to co-ordinate and to encourage closer co-operation among Member States in certain research an development activities that are of common interest. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. A Non-Proliferating Fuel Cycle: No Enrichment, Reprocessing or Accessible Spent Fuel - 12375

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Frank L. [Vanderbilt University (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Current fuel cycles offer a number of opportunities for access to plutonium, opportunities to create highly enriched uranium and access highly radioactive wastes to create nuclear weapons and 'dirty' bombs. The non-proliferating fuel cycle however eliminates or reduces such opportunities and access by eliminating the mining, milling and enrichment of uranium. The non-proliferating fuel cycle also reduces the production of plutonium per unit of energy created, eliminates reprocessing and the separation of plutonium from the spent fuel and the creation of a stream of high-level waste. It further simplifies the search for land based deep geologic repositories and interim storage sites for spent fuel in the USA by disposing of the spent fuel in deep sub-seabed sediments after storing the spent fuel at U.S. Navy Nuclear Shipyards that have the space and all of the necessary equipment and security already in place. The non-proliferating fuel cycle also reduces transportation risks by utilizing barges for the collection of spent fuel and transport to the Navy shipyards and specially designed ships to take the spent fuel to designated disposal sites at sea and to dispose of them there in deep sub-seabed sediments. Disposal in the sub-seabed sediments practically eliminates human intrusion. Potential disposal sites include Great Meteor East and Southern Nares Abyssal Plain. Such sites then could easily become international disposal sites since they occur in the open ocean. It also reduces the level of human exposure in case of failure because of the large physical and chemical dilution and the elimination of a major pathway to man-seawater is not potable. Of course, the recovery of uranium from sea water and the disposal of spent fuel in sub-seabed sediments must be proven on an industrial scale. All other technologies are already operating on an industrial scale. If externalities, such as reduced terrorist threats, environmental damage (including embedded

  18. Economics of National Waste Terminal Storage Spent Fuel Pricing Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    The methodology for equitably pricing commercial nuclear spent fuel management is developed, and the results of four sample calculations are presented. The spent fuel management program analyzed places encapsulated spent fuel in bedded salt while maintaining long-term retrievability. System design was reasonable but not optimum. When required, privately-owned Away From Reactor (AFR) storage is provided and the spent fuel placed in AFR storage is eventually transported to final storage. Applicable Research and Development and Government Overhead are included. The cost of each component by year was estimated from the most recent applicable data source available. These costs were input to the pricing methodology to establish a one-time charge whose present value exactly recovered the present value of the expenditure flow. The four cases exercised were combinations of a high and a low quantity of spent fuel managed, with a single repository (venture) or a multiple repository (campaign) approach to system financial structure. The price for spent fuel management calculated ranged from 116 to 152 dollars (1978) per kilogram charged initially to the reactor. The effect of spent fuel receiving rate on price is illustrated by the fact that the extremes of price did not coincide with the cases having the extremes of undiscounted cost. These prices for spent fuel management are comparable in magnitude to other fuel cycle costs. The range of variation is small because of compensating effects, i.e., additional costs for high early deliveries (AFR and transportation) versus lower present value of future revenue for later delivery cases. The methodology contains numerous conservative assumptions, provisions for contingencies, and covers the complete set of spent fuel management expenses

  19. Transportation 2000. Spent fuel transportation trends in the new millenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blee, David; Viebrock, James; Patterson, John

    1999-01-01

    The paper will provide a comparison of foreign research reactor spent fuel transportation today verses the assumptions used by the Department of Energy in the Environmental Impact Statement. In addition, it will suggest changes that are likely to occur in transportation logistics through the remainder of the U.S. spent fuel returns program. Cask availability, certification status, shipment strategy, cost issues, and public acceptance are among the topical areas that will be examined. Transportation requirements will be assessed in light of current participation in the returns program and the tendency for shipment plans to shift toward spent fuel return toward the end of the 13 year period of eligibility. (author)

  20. Analysis of near-term spent fuel transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Engel, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A computer model was developed to quantify the transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs associated with shipping spent fuel in the commercial nucler fuel cycle in the near future. Results from this study indicate that alternative spent fuel shipping systems (consolidated or disassembled fuel elements and new casks designed for older fuel) will significantly reduce the transportation hardware requirements and costs for shipping spent fuel in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle, if there is no significant change in their operating/handling characteristics. It was also found that a more modest cost reduction results from increasing the fraction of spent fuel shipped by truck from 25% to 50%. Larger transportation cost reductions could be realized with further increases in the truck shipping fraction. Using the given set of assumptions, it was found that the existing spent fuel cask fleet size is generally adequate to perform the needed transportation services until a fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) begins to receive fuel (assumed in 1987). Once the FRP opens, up to 7 additional truck systems and 16 additional rail systems are required at the reference truck shipping fraction of 25%. For the 50% truck shipping fraction, 17 additional truck systems and 9 additional rail systems are required. If consolidated fuel only is shipped (25% by truck), 5 additional rail casks are required and the current truck cask fleet is more than adequate until at least 1995. Changes in assumptions could affect the results. Transportation costs for a federal interim storage program could total about $25M if the FRP begins receiving fuel in 1987 or about $95M if the FRP is delayed until 1989. This is due to an increased utilization of federal interim storage facility from 350 MTU for the reference scenario to about 750 MTU if reprocessing is delayed by two years

  1. Review of the Effects of Normal Conditions of Transport on Spent Fuel Integrity in Transportation Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junggoo; Yoo, Youngik; Lee, Seongki; Lim, Chaejoon [Korea Nuclear Fuel Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Spent fuel(SF) storage capacity of each domestic nuclear power plant will reach a saturated state in the near future. Although there are several methods of SF disposal, interim storage is suggested as the most realistic and promising alternative. SF integrity evaluation is a regulatory requirement that is described in Part 71 of Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 of the U..S. NRC licensing requirement. In this paper, the report is reviewed written by EPRI in US and it is helpful to a development of domestic SF integrity evaluation technology. EPRI report about integrity evaluation method on normal conditions of high burn-up spent fuel transport is reviewed. First, dynamic forces occurred in one-foot side drop are calculated. And deformation patterns and fuel rods responses by dynamic forces calculated from spent fuel and cask model are analyzed. It is shown that the damage of fuel rods is not occurred by the dynamic forces on normal conditions. Assembly distortion is not predicted, by virtue of the facts that the spacer grids do not experience significant permanent deformation. Axial forces, bending moments and pinch forces of fuel rods are calculated and compared with the results under the hypothetical accident conditions. No occurrence of transverse tearing mode that is the most serious damage mode in side drop case is predicted. Till now, in Korea, regulatory requirements related with structural integrity of spent fuel are not specified such as 10CFR71. To establish own regulation standards, producing and analyzing sufficient experimental data must be performed preferentially. Based on this, failure analysis and criteria establishment are necessary through modeling and analyzing of spent fuel.

  2. DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY SPENT FUEL CLADDING HULLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T; John Mickalonis, J

    2006-01-01

    The reprocessing of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) generates a Zircaloy cladding hull waste which requires disposal as a high level waste in the geologic repository. The hulls are primarily contaminated with fission products and actinides from the fuel. During fuel irradiation, these contaminants are deposited in a thin layer of zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) which forms on the cladding surface at the elevated temperatures present in a nuclear reactor. Therefore, if the hulls are treated to remove the ZrO 2 layer, a majority of the contamination will be removed and the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a low level waste (LLW). Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant savings due to the high costs associated with geologic disposal. To assess the feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls, two treatment processes developed for dissolving fuels containing zirconium (Zr) metal or alloys were evaluated. Small-scale dissolution experiments were performed using the ZIRFLEX process which employs a boiling ammonium fluoride (NH 4 F)/ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ) solution to dissolve Zr or Zircaloy cladding and a hydrofluoric acid (HF) process developed for complete dissolution of Zr-containing fuels. The feasibility experiments were performed using Zircaloy-4 metal coupons which were electrochemically oxidized to produce a thin ZrO 2 layer on the surface. Once the oxide layer was in place, the ease of removing the layer using methods based on the two processes was evaluated. The ZIRFLEX and HF dissolution processes were both successful in removing a 0.2 mm (thick) oxide layer from Zircaloy-4 coupons. Although the ZIRFLEX process was effective in removing the oxide layer, two potential shortcomings were identified. The formation of ammonium hexafluorozirconate ((NH 4 ) 2 ZrF 6 ) on the metal surface prior to dissolution in the bulk solution could hinder the decontamination process by obstructing the removal of

  3. Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister System Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    In 1978 and 1979, a total of 72 blanket fuel assemblies (BFAs), irradiated during the operating cycles of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station's Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 from April 1965 to February 1974, were transferred to the Hanford Site and stored in underwater storage racks in Cell 2R at the 221-T Canyon (T-Plant). The initial objective was to recover the produced plutonium in the BFAs, but this never occurred and the fuel assemblies have remained within the water storage pool to the present time. The Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister (SSFC) is a confinement system that provides safe transport functions (in conjunction with the TN-WHC cask) and storage for the BFAs at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The current plan is for these BFAs to be retrieved from wet storage and loaded into SSFCs for dry storage. The sealed SSFCs containing BFAs will be vacuum dried, internally backfilled with helium, and leak tested to provide suitable confinement for the BFAs during transport and storage. Following completion of the drying and inerting process, the SSFCs are to be delivered to the CSB for closure welding and long-term interim storage. The CSB will provide safe handling and dry storage for the SSFCs containing the BFAs. The purpose of this document is to describe the SSFC system and interface equipment, including the technical basis for the system, design descriptions, and operations requirements. It is intended that this document will be periodically updated as more equipment design and performance specification information becomes available

  4. Spent fuel transportation accident: a state's involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuweg, M.

    1978-01-01

    On February 9, 1978 at 8:20 p.m., the duty officer for the Illinois Radiological Assistance Team was notified that a shipment containing uranium and plutonium was involved in an accident near Gibson City, Illinois on Route 54. It was reported that a pig containing an unknown amount of uranium and plutonium was involved. The Illinois District 6A State Police were called to the scene and secured the area. The duty officer in the meantime learned after numerous telephone calls, approximately 1 hour after the first notice was received, that the pig actually was a 48,000 pound cask containing 6 spent fuel rods and the tractor-trailer had split apart and was blocking one lane of the highway. The shipment had departed from Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Morris, Illinois, enroute to Babcox and Wilcox in Lynchburg, Virginia. Initial reports indicated the vehicle had split apart. Actually, the semi-trailer bed had buckled beneath the cask due to apparent excess stress. The cask remained entirely intact and was not damaged, but the state highway was closed to traffic. The State Radiological Assistance Team was dispatched and arrived on the scene at 12:45 a.m. Immediate radiation monitoring revealed a reading of 4 milliroentgen per hour at 10 feet from the cask. No contamination existed nor was anyone exposed to radiation unnecessarily. The cask was transferred to a Tri-State semi-trailer vehicle the following morning at approximately 6:30 a.m. At 9:30 a.m., February 10, the new vehicle was again enroute to its destination. This incident demonstrated typical occurrences involving transportation radiation accident: misinformation and/or lack of information on the initial response notification, inaccuracies of radiation monitorings at the scene of the accident, inconsistencies concerning the occurrences of the accident and unfamiliar terminology utilized by personnel first on the scene, i.e., pig, cask, vehicle split apart, etc

  5. Techniques for laser processing, assay, and examination of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Mitchell, R.C.; Rogell, M.L.

    1981-11-01

    Fuel examination studies were performed which have application to interim spent fuel storage. These studies were in three areas, i.e., laser drilling and rewelding demonstration, nondestructive assay techniques survey, and fuel examination techniques survey

  6. Spent-fuel verification with the Los Alamos fork detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.; Bosler, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Los Alamos fork detector for the verification of spent-fuel assemblies has generated precise, reproducible data. The data analyses have now evolved to the point of placing tight restrictions on a diverter's actions

  7. Behaviour of spent fuel assemblies during extended storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    This report is the final report of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Behaviour of Spent Fuel Assemblies During Extended Storage (BEFAST, Phase I, 1981-86). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 11 institutes (10 countries: Austria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Japan, Sweden, USA and USSR) participating in the BEFAST CRP during the time period 1981-86. Names of participating institutes and chief investigators are given. The interim spent fuel storage has been recognized as an important independent step in the nuclear fuel cycle. Due to the delay in commercial reprocessing of spent fuel in some cases it should be stored up to 30-50 years or more before reprocessing or final disposal. This programme was evaluated by all its participants and observers as very important and helpful for the nuclear community and it was decided to continue it further (1986-91) as BEFAST, Phase II

  8. Current status of IAEA activities in spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danker, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    Spent fuel storage is a common issue in all IAEA Member States with nuclear reactors. Whatever strategy is selected for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, the storage of spent fuel will be an increasingly significant consideration. Notwithstanding considerable efforts to increase the efficient use of nuclear fuel and to optimize storage capacity, delays in plans for geological repositories or in implementing reprocessing result in increased spent fuel storage capacity needs in combination with longer storage durations over the foreseeable future. As storage inventories and durations increase, issues associated with long term storage compel more attention...monitoring for potential degradation mechanisms, records retention, maintenance, efficiencies through burnup credit. Since the IAEA contribution to ICNC'99 focused exclusively on IAEA burnup credit activities including requirements and methods, this paper provides a broader perspective on IAEA activities in response to the above trends in spent fuel management, while also describing efforts to disseminate information regarding burnup credit applications. (author)

  9. Growing dimensions. Spent fuel management at research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    More than 550 nuclear research reactors are operating or shout down around the world. At many of these reactors, spent fuel from their operations is stored, pending decisions on its final disposition. In recent years, problems associated with this spent fuel storage have loomed larger in the international nuclear community. In efforts to determine the overall scope of problems and to develop a database on the subject, the IAEA has surveyed research reactor operators in its Member States. Information for the Research Reactor Spent Fuel Database (RRSFDB) so far has been obtained from a limited but representative number of research reactors. It supplements data already on hand in the Agency's more established Research Reactor Database (RRDB). Drawing upon these database resources, this article presents an overall picture of spent fuel management and storage at the world's research reactors, in the context of associated national and international programmes in the field

  10. The Analysis Of Spent Fuel Utilization For A Gamma Irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MS, Pudjijanto; Setiyanto

    2002-01-01

    The gamma irradiator using RSG-GAS spent fuels was analyzed. The cylindrical geometry of the irradiator was designed by locating the spent fuels the cylindrical periphery. The analysis was focused to evaluate the feasibilities of the irradiator as a fruits and vegetables irradiator. The spent fuels activities were calculated using Origen2 code, while the dose rate at the irradiation positions was determined by linear attenuation model with transport coefficient. The evaluated results showed that the cylindrical geometry of irradiators with diameter around 1-1.5 m gave the effective dose rate for fruits and vegetables preservation. It can be concluded that one can use the RSG-GAS spent fuels effectively as a gamma irradiator for certain applications

  11. An economic analysis of spent fuel management and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji

    1998-01-01

    Spent fuel management is becoming a key issue not only in the countries that have already experienced years of nuclear operation but also in the Asian countries that started nuclear utilization rather lately. This paper summarizes the key aspects that essentially determine optimal conditions for desired spent fuel management strategies from the engineering-economic point of view, in both national and regional perspectives. The term 'desired' is intended to highlight positive and beneficial aspects of such strategies, namely mobile and timely exploitation of spent fuel storage. Among all, the economy of scale, the economy of scope, the learning-by-doing effect, and benefits of R and D are reviewed theoretically and empirically, and the paper overviews to what extent these factors are implemented in solving spent fuel management strategy optimization problem. (author)

  12. Improving of spent fuel monitoring in condition of Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklos, M.; Krsjak, V.; Bozik, M.; Vasina, D.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring of WWER fuel assemblies condition in Slovakia is presented in the paper. The leak tightness results of fuel assemblies used in Slovak WWER units in last 20 years are analyzed. Good experiences with the 'Sipping system' are described. The Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility in NPP Jaslovske Bohunice was build and put in operation in 1986. Since 1999, leak tests of WWER-440 fuel assemblies are provided by special leak tightness detection system 'Sipping in Pool' delivered by Framatome-ANP facility with external heating for the precise detection of active specimens. Another system for monitoring of fuel assemblies condition was implemented in December 2006 under the name 'SVYPP-440'. First non-active tests started at February 2007 and are described in the paper. Although those systems seems to be very effective, the detection time of all fuel assemblies in one storage pool is too long (several months). Therefore, a new 'on-line' detection system, based on new sorbent KNiFC-PAN for effective 134 Cs and 137 Cs activity was developed. This sorbent was compared with another type of sorbent NIFSIL and results are presented. The design of this detection system and its possible application in the Slovak wet spent fuel storage facility is discussed. For completeness, the initial results of the new system are also presented. (authors)

  13. Optimization of spent fuel pool weir gate driving mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Du, Lin; Tao, Xinlei; Wang, Shijie; Shang, Ertao; Yu, Jianjiang

    2018-04-01

    Spent fuel pool is crucial facility for fuel storage and nuclear safety, and the spent fuel pool weir gate is the key related equipment. In order to achieve a goal of more efficient driving force transfer, loading during the opening/closing process is analyzed and an optimized calculation method for dimensions of driving mechanism is proposed. The result of optimizing example shows that the method can be applied to weir gates' design with similar driving mechanism.

  14. Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels. Technical appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Baker, M.P.

    1982-04-01

    Six technical appendixes are presented that provide important supporting technical information for the study of the application of nondestructive measurements to spent-fuel storage. Each appendix addresses a particular technical subject in a reasonably self-contained fashion. Appendix A is a comparison of spent-fuel data predicted by reactor operators with measured data from reprocessors. This comparison indicates a rather high level of uncertainty in previous burnup calculations. Appendix B describes a series of nondestructive measurements at the GE-Morris Operation Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. This series of experiments successfully demonstrated a technique for reproducible positioning of fuel assemblies for nondestructive measurement. The experimental results indicate the importance of measuring the axial and angular burnup profiles of irradiated fuel assemblies for quantitative determination of spent-fuel parameters. Appendix C is a reasonably comprehensive bibliography of reports and symposia papers on spent-fuel nondestructive measurements to April 1981. Appendix D is a compendium of spent-fuel calculations that includes isotope production and depletion calculations using the EPRI-CINDER code, calculations of neutron and gamma-ray source terms, and correlations of these sources with burnup and plutonium content. Appendix E describes the pulsed-neutron technique and its potential application to spent-fuel measurements. Although not yet developed, the technique holds the promise of providing separate measurements of the uranium and plutonium fissile isotopes. Appendix F describes the experimental program and facilities at Los Alamos for the development of spent-fuel nondestructive measurement systems. Measurements are reported showing that the active neutron method is sensitive to the replacement of a single fuel rod with a dummy rod in an unirradiated uranium fuel assembly

  15. Methods for expanding the capacity of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    At the beginning of 1989 more than 55,000 metric tonnes of heavy metal (MTHM) of spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) fuel had been discharged worldwide from nuclear power plants. Only a small fraction of this fuel has been reprocessed. The majority of the spent fuel assemblies are currently held at-reactor (AR) or away-from-reactor (AFR) in storage awaiting either chemical processing or final disposal depending on the fuel concept chosen by individual countries. Studies made by NEA and IAEA have projected that annual spent fuel arising will reach about 10,000 t HM in the year 2000 and cumulative arising will be more than 200,000 t HM. Taking into account the large quantity of spent fuel discharged from NPP and that the first demonstrations of the direct disposal of spent fuel or HLW are expected only after the year 2020, long-term storage will be the primary option for management of spent fuel until well into the next century. There are several options to expand storage capacity: (1) to construct new away-from-reactor storage facilities, (2) to transport spent fuel from a full at-reactor pool to another site for storage in a pool that has sufficient space to accommodate it, (3) to expand the capacity of existing AR pools by using compact racks, double-tierce, rod consolidation and by increasing the dimensions of existing pools. The purpose of the meeting was: to exchange new information on the international level on the subject connected with the expansion of storage capacities for spent fuel; to elaborate the state-of-the-art of this problem; to define the most important areas for future activity; on the basis of the above information to give recommendations to potential users for selection and application of the most suitable methods for expanding spent fuel facilities taking into account the relevant country's conditions. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. LSDS Development for Isotopic Fissile Assay in Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Park, Chang Je; Park, Geun Il; Lee, Jung Won; Song, Kee Chan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    As an option to reduce a spent fuel and reuse an existing fissile material in spent fuel, sodium fast reactor SFR program linked with pyro-processing is under development in KAERI. A uranium-TRU mixture through a pyro-process is used to fabricate SFR fuel. An assay of isotopic fissile content plays an important role in an optimum design of storage site and reuse of fissile materials of spent fuel. Lead slowing down spectrometer LSDS is being developed in KAERI to analyze isotopic fissile material content. LSDS has several features: direct fissile assay, near real time fissile assay, no influence from radiation background, fissile isotopic assay and applicable to spent fuel and recycled fuel. Based on the designed geometry, neutron energy resolution was investigated. The neutron energy spectrum was analyzed as well. Spent fuel emits large number of neutrons by spontaneous fission. Neutron generator must overcome the neutron background to get the pure fission signals from fissile materials. Neutron generator is planned to have compact system with one section electron linac which is easy maintenance, less cost and high neutron yield. The LSD has the power to resolve the fission characteristics from each fissile material. This feature can analyze the content of isotopic fissile. From 1keV to 0.1eV energy range, the energy resolution is enough to get the individual fissile fission signatures. The dominant fission signature is shown below 1eV for each fissile isotope. The neutron generation system with target was designed to get fission signals by fissile materials. The system was decided to overcome neutron backgrounds and to get good counting statistics. Finally, an accurate fissile material content will contribute to safety of spent fuel reuse in future nuclear energy system and optimum design of spent fuel storage site. Additionally, an accurate fissile material content will increase international transparence and credibility for the reuse of PWR spent fuel.

  17. Thermal Cooling Limits of Sbotaged Spent Fuel Pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Thomas G. Hughes; Dr. Thomas F. Lin

    2010-09-10

    To develop the understanding and predictive measures of the post “loss of water inventory” hazardous conditions as a result of the natural and/or terrorist acts to the spent fuel pool of a nuclear plant. This includes the thermal cooling limits to the spent fuel assembly (before the onset of the zircaloy ignition and combustion), and the ignition, combustion, and the subsequent propagation of zircaloy fire from one fuel assembly to others

  18. Materials behavior in interim storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Bailey, W.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Inman, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    Interim storage has emerged as the only current spent-fuel management method in the US and is essential in all countries with nuclear reactors. Materials behavior is a key aspect in licensing interim-storage facilities for several decades of spent-fuel storage. This paper reviews materials behavior in wet storage, which is licensed for light-water reactor (LWR) fuel, and dry storage, for which a licensing position for LWR fuel is developing

  19. LSDS Development for Isotopic Fissile Assay in Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Park, Chang Je; Park, Geun Il; Lee, Jung Won; Song, Kee Chan

    2011-01-01

    As an option to reduce a spent fuel and reuse an existing fissile material in spent fuel, sodium fast reactor SFR program linked with pyro-processing is under development in KAERI. A uranium-TRU mixture through a pyro-process is used to fabricate SFR fuel. An assay of isotopic fissile content plays an important role in an optimum design of storage site and reuse of fissile materials of spent fuel. Lead slowing down spectrometer LSDS is being developed in KAERI to analyze isotopic fissile material content. LSDS has several features: direct fissile assay, near real time fissile assay, no influence from radiation background, fissile isotopic assay and applicable to spent fuel and recycled fuel. Based on the designed geometry, neutron energy resolution was investigated. The neutron energy spectrum was analyzed as well. Spent fuel emits large number of neutrons by spontaneous fission. Neutron generator must overcome the neutron background to get the pure fission signals from fissile materials. Neutron generator is planned to have compact system with one section electron linac which is easy maintenance, less cost and high neutron yield. The LSD has the power to resolve the fission characteristics from each fissile material. This feature can analyze the content of isotopic fissile. From 1keV to 0.1eV energy range, the energy resolution is enough to get the individual fissile fission signatures. The dominant fission signature is shown below 1eV for each fissile isotope. The neutron generation system with target was designed to get fission signals by fissile materials. The system was decided to overcome neutron backgrounds and to get good counting statistics. Finally, an accurate fissile material content will contribute to safety of spent fuel reuse in future nuclear energy system and optimum design of spent fuel storage site. Additionally, an accurate fissile material content will increase international transparence and credibility for the reuse of PWR spent fuel

  20. Studies and research concerning BNFP: LWR spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallo, F.A.

    1978-08-01

    This report describes potential spent fuel storage expansion programs using the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant--Fuel Receiving and Storage Station (BNFP-FRSS) as a model. Three basic storage arrangements are evaluated with cost and schedule estimates being provided for each configuration. A general description of the existing facility is included with emphasis on the technical and equipment requirements which would be necessary to achieve increased spent fuel storage capacity at BNFP-FRSS

  1. Spent Fuel Transfer to Dry Storage Using Unattended Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hwan; Park, Soo Jin

    2009-01-01

    There are 4 CANDU reactors at Wolsung site together with a spent fuel dry storage associated with unit 1. These CANDU reactors, classified as On-Load Reactor (OLR) for Safeguards application, change 16- 24 fuel bundles with fresh fuel in everyday. Especially, the spent fuel bundles are transferred from spent fuel bays to dry storage throughout a year because of the insufficient capacity of spent fuel pond. Safeguards inspectors verify the spent fuel transfer to meet safeguards purposes according to the safeguards criteria by means of inspector's presence during the transfer campaign. For the verification, 60-80 person-days of inspection (PDIs) are needed during approximately 3 months for each unit. In order to reduce the inspection effort and operators' burden, an Unattended Monitoring System (UMS) was designed and developed by the IAEA for the verification of spent fuel bundles transfers from wet storage to dry storage. Based on the enhanced cooperation of CANDU reactors between the ROK and the IAEA, the IAEA installed the UMS at Wolsung unit 2 in January 2005 at first. After some field trials during the transfer campaign, this system is being replaced the traditional human inspection since September 1, 2006 combined with a Short Notice Inspection (SNI) and a near-real time Mailbox Declaration

  2. A safety study on the wet storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Whang, Joo Ho; Lee, Hoo Kun; Choi, Jong Won; Lee, Jong Geun

    1989-02-01

    This study is to provide data related with a basic design of the spent fuel storage facility in the field of radiation and to establish the safety assessment methodology of away from reactor spent fuel storage facility. This is in progress and continue upto the year of 1991. The mathematical model which predict the quantity of environmental release of fission and corrosion products from spent fuel received and stored in wet storage facility operated in normal conditions was prepared. The decay characteristic of domestic spent fuels are analysed and then the coefficients for the prediction of the decay heat by simple formular was determined. This correlations could predict decay heat of spent fuel with ±10% difference from ORIGEN2 results. The release factor of cobalt out of PWR spent fuel in PIE pool is 7.97 x 10-12∼8.49 x 10-11 Ci/ sec-rod, which appears to be linear without being connected with the types of fuel defects, but that of cesium varies with the defect type and the exposure time in water. In water condition, release factor of uranium out of CANDU fuel pellets appears to be about 5 x 10-8/day, whose tendency is similar to that of cesium of the latter half of the exposure time of water. (Author)

  3. Management of spent fuel in Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Hyun-Soo; Seo, In-Seok; Pak, Sang-Ki.

    1989-01-01

    At present in Republic of Korea, 8 PWR and 1 CANDU power plants are in operation or under construction, and the total capacity of power generation facilities has become 7.6 GWe. In addition, two PWRs of more than 900 MWe each are expected to be constructed by mid 1990s. More than 50 % of the electric power demand was supplied by nuclear power generation since 1987, but the spent fuel generated in nuclear power plants is stored in storage water tanks in respective reactor sites. The total capacity of spent fuel to be stored in the AR facilities of 9 nuclear power plants is about 2730 MTU, and the spent fuel released from these reactors since 1980 is about 810 MTU. The present capacity of AR storage pools seems to be used up by mid 1990s. According to the revised Atomic Energy Acts in May, 1986, the government is to take the responsibility of spent fuel management, and the policy of constructing the storage facilities outside reactor sites by the end of 1997 was established by the Atomic Energy Commission. The responsibility of the management of spent fuel that exceeds the present capacity of AR pools is to be taken by KEPCO, therefore the preliminary analysis of the feasible option on the extension of AR facilities and the comprehensive management plan for spent fuel placing emphasis on the research and development of away-from-reactor storage were decided. (Kako, I.)

  4. The united kingdom's changing requirements for spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, Z.; Hambley, D.I.; Gregg, R.; Ross, D.N.

    2013-01-01

    The UK is adopting an open fuel cycle, and is necessarily moving to a regime of long term storage of spent fuel, followed by geological disposal once a geological disposal facility (GDF) is available. The earliest GDF receipt date for legacy spent fuel is assumed to be 2075. The UK is set to embark on a programme of new nuclear build to maintain a nuclear energy contribution of 16 GW. Additionally, the UK are considering a significant expansion of nuclear energy in order to meet carbon reduction targets and it is plausible to foresee a scenario where up to 75 GW from nuclear power production could be deployed in the UK by the mid 21. century. Such an expansion, could lead to spent fuel storage and its disposal being a dominant issue for the UK Government, the utilities and the public. If the UK were to transition a closed fuel cycle, then spent fuel storage should become less onerous depending on the timescales. The UK has demonstrated a preference for wet storage of spent fuel on an interim basis. The UK has adopted an approach of centralised storage, but a 16 GW new build programme and any significant expansion of this may push the UK towards distributed spent fuel storage at a number of reactors station sites across the UK

  5. Development of compaction technique for spent fuel skeletons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Kim, Young Hwan; Jung, Jae Hoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    To increase the utilization of uranium resources contained in the spent fuel, the spent fuel is reused. For this, the spent fuel is dismantled or spent fuel rod is extracted from the spent fuel assembly. When the rod is extracted, the remaining components of spent fuel assembly, so called a NFBC(Non-Fuel Bearing Components), should be compacted for the final disposal. To this end, several companies developed the NFBC compactors. German company, named as GNS has developed the direct compression devices of the NFBCs for the rod consolidation and installed it at the PKA(2) of pilot conditioning plant. B and W (Babcock and Wilcox) in USA adopted cutting method rather than the compression method and developed the special cutting devices of NFBC which can be applied underwater environment. In this study the characteristics of these two methods was investigated, in terms of fabrication cost of devices, maintainability in a high radioactive environment, required power and work volume for operation. Also, the optimal power source is selected by comparing the maximum power versus the work volume for operation. In addition to these, the reduction ratio of the bulk volume is obtained while varying the cutting length of the NFBC through a series of experiments. Based on the results of analysis and experiments, the cutting method after compression is selected as an optimal volume reduction method and its design specification is obtained. 8 refs., 62 figs., 32 tabs. (Author)

  6. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1987-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, R.C.; Heeb, C.M.; Purcell, W.L.

    1988-03-01

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from U.S. commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water eactors (BWR), and one existing high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the U.S. reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: No New Orders (assumes increasing burnup), No New Orders with No Increased Burnup, Upper Reference (assumes increasing burnup), Upper Reference with No Increased Burnup, and Lower Reference (assumes increasing burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections: 1985 to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Walling, R.C.; Purcell, W.L.

    1986-09-01

    The creation of four spent-fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from US commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent-fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the US reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Agency (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: (1) No New Orders with Extended Burnup, (2) No New Orders with Constant Burnup, (3) Middle Case with Extended Burnup, and (4) Middle Case with Constant Burnup. Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel

  8. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections: 1986 to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.; Walling, R.C.; Purcell, W.L.

    1987-03-01

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from US commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent-fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the US reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Agency (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: (1) No new orders with extended burnup, (2) No new orders with constant burnup, (3) Upper reference (which assumes extended burnup), (4) Upper reference with constant burnup, and (5) Lower reference (which assumes extended burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 6 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  9. Life cycle assessment of geological repositories for the final disposal of spent fuel in Finland and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhrer, A.; Bauer, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the geological repositories for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland and Sweden. A separate LCA has been performed for the geological spent fuel repository in each country and the results have been compared. A further benchmark comparison has been made with the LCA of the Swiss geological repository for high-level waste and spent fuel. The life cycle inventory (LCI) product system boundaries include the spent fuel repository and encapsulation facility in each country. All materials, processes, consumed utilities and transport associated with the construction, operation and closure of the repositories for spent fuel are included in the LCI. The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is performed using two methods: IPCC 2007 Climate Change and ReCiPe. These assessment methods return results pertaining to global warming potential (GWP) as well as a number of environmental impact categories such as human toxicity and natural land transformation. Results indicate that the use of copper for disposal canister fabrication and bentonite for repository backfilling are the causes for most of the environmental impact of the spent fuel repositories in Finland and Sweden. Alternate, less bentonite-intensive backfilling scenarios may mitigate this impact. While the Swiss bentonite consumption is lower and no copper is used for canister fabrication, the Swiss electricity and fuel consumption associated with final disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel is significantly higher than in Finland or Sweden. Approximately 1 g CO 2 -eq is emitted due to the final disposal of spent fuel and HLW per kWh of nuclear generated electricity. This represents some 10% of the emissions due to the entire nuclear energy chain and is practically negligible in the context of GHG emissions of other energy technologies. (authors)

  10. Radioactive wastes and spent fuels management in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maset, Elvira R.

    2006-01-01

    CNEA was created in 1950 and since then has carried out research and development activities, production of radioisotopes, medical and industrial applications, and those activities related with the nuclear fuel cycle, including the operation of two nuclear power stations. More ever, different public and private institutions use radioactive materials in medical, industrial and research activities. These activities generate different types of radioactive waste, desuse sealed sources and spent fuel. The management of radioactive waste of all types produced in the country, as the spent nuclear fuel of power and research reactors and the used radioactive sources was always and it is at present a CNEA's responsibility. In February 2003, according to the Law No. 25.018, called 'Management of Radioactive Waste Regimen', the 'Radioactive Waste Management National Programme' was created by CNEA to fulfill the institutional functions and responsibilities established in the Law, in order to guarantee the safe management of radioactive waste according to the regulations established by the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Agency and to the legislation in force. (author) [es

  11. Results on Technical and Consultants Service Meetings on Lessons Learned from Operating Experience in Wet and Dry Spent Fuel Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.; Zou, X.

    2015-01-01

    Spent fuel storage has been and will continue to be a vital portion of the nuclear fuel cycle, regardless of whether a member state has an open or closed nuclear fuel cycle. After removal from the reactor core, spent fuel cools in the spent fuel pool, prior to placement in dry storage or offsite transport for disposal or reprocessing. Additionally, the inventory of spent fuel at many reactors worldwide has or will reach the storage capacity of the spent fuel pool; some facilities are alleviating their need for additional storage capacity by utilizing dry cask storage. While there are numerous differences between wet and dry storage; when done properly both are safe and secure. The nuclear community shares lessons learned worldwide to gain knowledge from one another’s good practices as well as events. Sharing these experiences should minimize the number of incidents worldwide and increase public confidence in the nuclear industry. Over the past 60 years, there have been numerous experiences storing spent fuel, in both wet and dry mediums, that when shared effectively would improve operations and minimize events. These lessons learned will also serve to inform countries, who are new entrants into the nuclear power community, on designs and operations to avoid and include as best practices. The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a technical and several consultants’ meetings to gather these experiences and produce a technical document (TECDOC) to share spent fuel storage lessons learned among member states. This paper will discuss the status of the TECDOC and briefly discuss some lessons learned contained therein. (author)

  12. Conceptual design of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor spent-fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Diggs, J.M.

    1982-04-01

    Details of a baseline conceptual design of a spent fuel shipping cask for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) are presented including an assessment of shielding, structural, thermal, fabrication and cask/plant interfacing problems. A basis for continued cask development and for new technological development is established. Alternates to the baseline design are briefly presented. Estimates of development schedules, cask utilization and cost schedules, and of personnel dose commitments during CRBR in-plant handling of the cask are also presented

  13. Treatment of wastes from a central spent-fuel rod consolidation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The consolidation of commercial spent-fuel rods at a central treatment facility (such as the proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility) will generate several types of waste, which may require treatment and disposal. Eight alternatives for the treatment of the wastes have been evaluated as part of DOE's Nuclear Waste Treatment Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The evaluation considered the system costs, potential waste form requirements, and processing characteristics

  14. Thermal dimensioning of spent fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, K.

    2009-09-01

    This report contains the temperature dimensioning of the KBS-3V type nuclear fuel repository in Olkiluoto for the BWR, VVER and EPR fuel canisters, which are disposed at vertical position in the horizontal tunnels in a rectangular geometry according to the preliminary Posiva plan. This report concerns only the temperature dimensioning of the repository and does not take into account the possible restrictions caused by the stresses induced in the rock. The maximum temperature on the canister-bentonite interface is limited to the design temperature of +100 deg C. However, due to uncertainties in thermal analysis parameters (like scattering in rock conductivity or in predicted decay power) the allowable calculated maximum canister temperature is set to 90 deg C causing a safety margin of 10 deg C. The allowable temperature is controlled by adjusting the space between adjacent canisters, adjacent tunnels and the pre-cooling time affecting on power of the canisters. The temperature of canister surfaces can be determined by superposing analytic line heat source models much more efficiently than by numerical analysis, if the analytic model is first calibrated by numerical analysis (by control volume method). This was done by comparing the surface temperatures of a single canister calculated numerically and analytically. For the Olkiluoto repository of one panel having 900 canisters of BWR, VVER and EPR spent fuel was analyzed. The analyses were performed with an initial canister power of 1 700 W, 1 370 W and 1 830 W, respectively. These decay heats are obtained when the pre-cooling times of the fuels are 32.9, 29.6 and 50.3 years (the burn-up values 40, 40 and 50 MWd/kgU, respectively). The analyses gave as a result the canister spacing (6.0-10.8 m), when the tunnel spacing was 25 m, 30 m or 40 m. On the edge areas of the panel with constant canister spacing the temperatures of the canisters are lower than in the middle area of the repository. Thus it is possible to pack

  15. A drying system for spent fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.; Warinowski, M.; Nieminen, J.

    2007-06-01

    The report presents a proposed drying apparatus for spent fuel assemblies. The apparatus is used for removing the moisture left in fuel assemblies during intermediate storage and transport. The apparatus shall be installed in connection with the fuel handling cell of an encapsulation plant. The report presents basic requirements for and implementation of the drying system, calculation of the drying process, operation, service and maintenance of the equipment, as well as a cost estimate. Some aspects of the apparatus design are quite specified, but the actual detailed planning and final selection of components have not been included. The report also describes actions for possible malfunction and fault conditions. An objective of the drying system for fuel assemblies is to remove moisture from the assemblies prior to placing the same in a disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel. Drying is performed as a vacuum drying process for vaporizing and draining the moisture present on the surface of the assemblies. The apparatus comprises two pieces of drying equipment. One of the chambers is equipped to take up Lo1-2 fuel assemblies and the other OL1-2 fuel assemblies. The chambers have an internal space sufficient to accommodate also OL3 fuel assemblies, but this requires replacing the internal chamber structure for laying down the assemblies to be dried. The drying chambers can be closed with hatches facing the fuel handling cell. Water vapour pumped out of the chamber is collected in a controlled manner, first by condensing with a heat exchanger and further by freezing in a cold trap. For reasons of safety, the exhaust air of vacuum pumps is further delivered into the ventilation outlet duct of a controlled area. The adequate drying result is ascertained by a low final pressure of about 100 Pa, as well as by a sufficient holding time. The chamber is built for making its cleaning as easy as possible in the event of a fuel rod breaking during a drying, loading or unloading

  16. Current state and perspectives of spent fuel storage in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnosov, V.A.; Tichonov, N.S.; Makarchuk, T.F.

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-nine power units at nine nuclear power plants, having a total installed capacity of 22 GW(e), are now in operation in the Russian Federation. They produce approximately 12% of the generated electricity in the country. The annual spent fuel arising is approximately 790 tU. The concept of the closed fuel cycle was adopted as the basis for nuclear power development in the Russian Federation, but until now this concept is only implemented for the fuel cycles of WWER-440 and BN-600 reactors. The WWER-1000 spent fuel is planned to be reprocessed at the reprocessing plant RT-2 which is under construction near Krasnoyarsk. The RBMK-1000 spent fuel is not reprocessed. It is meant to be stored in intermediate storage facilities at the NPP sites. The status of the spent fuel (SF) stored in the storage facilities is given in the paper. The principal characteristics of the fuel cycles of the Russian NPPs in the period up to 2015 is also given in the report. The key variant of the current spent fuel management at RBMK-1000 NPPs is storage in at-reactor and in away-from-reactor wet storage facilities at the power plant site with a capacity of 2,000 W. The storage capacity at the operating RBMKs (including the increase due to denser fuel assembly arrangement) will provide SF reception from the NPPs only up to 2005. For RBMK spent fuel, intermediate dry storage is foreseen at power plant sites in metallic concrete casks and thereafter transportation to the central storage facility at the RT-2 plant for long-term storage. The SF will be reprocessing after completion of the reprocessing plant at RT-2. In the Programme of Nuclear Power Development in the Russian Federation for the period 1998 to 2005 and for the period until 2010 year, provisions are made for the construction of a central dry storage facility before 2010. The facility will have a design capacity of 30,000 tU for WWER-1000 and RBMK-1000 spent fuel and is part of the reprocessing plant RT-2. The paper considers

  17. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 3A. GSFLS technical analysis (appendix). Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. The technical and financial considerations underlying a global spent fuel logistics systems have been studied and are reported. The Pacific Basin is used as a model throughout this report; however the stated methodology and, in many cases, considerations and conclusions are applicable to other global regions. Spent fuel discharge profiles for Pacific Basin Countries were used to determine the technical systems requirements for alternative concepts. Functional analyses and flows were generated to define both system design requirements and logistics parameters. A technology review was made to ascertain the state-of-the-art of relevant GSFLS technical systems. Modular GSFLS facility designs were developed using the information generated from the functional analysis and technology review. The modular facility designs were used as a basis for siting and cost estimates for various GSFLS alternatives. Various GSFLS concepts were analyzed from a financial and economic perspective in order to provide total concepts costs and ascertain financial and economic sensitivities to key GSFLS variations. Results of the study include quantification of GSFLS facility and hardware requirements; drawings of relevant GSFLS facility designs; system cost estimates; financial reports - including user service charges; and comparative analyses of various GSFLS alternatives

  18. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 3. GSFLS technical and financial analysis. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. The technical and financial considerations underlying a global spent fuel logistics systems have been studied and are reported herein. The Pacific Basin is used as a model throughout this report; however the stated methodology and, in many cases, considerations and conclusions are applicable to other global regions. Spent fuel discharge profiles for Pacific Basin Countries were used to determine the technical systems requirements for alternative concepts. Functional analyses and flows were generated to define both system design requirements and logistics parameters. A technology review was made to ascertain the state-of-the-art of relevant GSFLS technical systems. Modular GSFLS facility designs were developed using the information generated from the functional analysis and technology review. The modular facility designs were used as a basis for siting and cost estimates for various GSFLS alternatives. Various GSFLS concepts were analyzed from a financial and economic perspective in order to provide total concepts costs and ascertain financial and economic sensitivities to key GSFLS variations. Results of the study include quantification of GSFLS facility and hardware requirements; drawings of relevant GSFLS facility designs; system cost estimates; financial reports - including user service charges; and comparative analyses of various GSFLS alternatives

  19. A study for providing additional storage spaces to ET-RR-1 spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kady, A.; Ashoub, N.; Saleh, H.G.

    1995-01-01

    The ET-RR-1 reactor spent fuel storage pool is a trapezoidal aluminum tank concrete shield and of capacity 10 m 3 . It can hold up to 60 fuel assemblies. The long operation history of the ET-RR-1 reactor resulted in a partially filled spent fuel storage with the remaining spaces not enough to host a complete load from the reactor. This work have been initiated to evaluate possible alternative solutions for providing additional storage spaces to host the available EK-10 fuel elements after irradiation and any foreseen fuel in case of reactor upgrading. Several alternate solutions have been reviewed and decision on the most suitable one is under study. These studies include criticality calculation of some suggested alternatives like reracking the present spent fuel storage pool and double tiering by the addition of a second level storage rack above the existing rack. The two levels may have different factor. Criticality calculation of the double tiering possible accident was also studied. (author)

  20. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 3A. GSFLS technical analysis (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriger, A.

    1978-01-31

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. The technical and financial considerations underlying a global spent fuel logistics systems have been studied and are reported. The Pacific Basin is used as a model throughout this report; however the stated methodology and, in many cases, considerations and conclusions are applicable to other global regions. Spent fuel discharge profiles for Pacific Basin Countries were used to determine the technical systems requirements for alternative concepts. Functional analyses and flows were generated to define both system design requirements and logistics parameters. A technology review was made to ascertain the state-of-the-art of relevant GSFLS technical systems. Modular GSFLS facility designs were developed using the information generated from the functional analysis and technology review. The modular facility designs were used as a basis for siting and cost estimates for various GSFLS alternatives. Various GSFLS concepts were analyzed from a financial and economic perspective in order to provide total concepts costs and ascertain financial and economic sensitivities to key GSFLS variations. Results of the study include quantification of GSFLS facility and hardware requirements; drawings of relevant GSFLS facility designs; system cost estimates; financial reports - including user service charges; and comparative analyses of various GSFLS alternatives.

  1. The role of the public sector's research programme in support of the authorities and in building confidence on the safety of spent fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, S.; Rasilainen, K.

    2002-01-01

    A multiphase research programme was launched in 1989 to support the Finnish authorities in their activities concerning spent fuel management. The Finnish programme for spent fuel management has so far managed to keep its original time schedule at least partly due to clearly defined responsibilities between the nuclear energy producing industry and the authorities. It appears that the public sector's research programme has been successful in its supporting role by providing research results both on technical/ natural science and social science issues. In addition, the research programme has contributed directly and indirectly in building confidence on the post-closure and operational safety of a spent fuel disposal facility. (authors)

  2. Safety aspects of dry spent fuel storage and spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botsch, W.; Smalian, S.; Hinterding, P.; Voelzke, H.; Wolff, D.; Kasparek, E.

    2014-01-01

    The storage of spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must conform to safety requirements. Safety aspects like safe enclosure of radioactive materials, safe removal of decay heat, nuclear criticality safety and avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure must be achieved throughout the storage period. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. In Germany dual purpose casks for SF or HLW are used for safe transportation and interim storage. TUV and BAM, who work as independent experts for the competent authorities, present the storage licensing process including sites and casks and inform about spent nuclear fuel management and issues concerning dry storage of spent nuclear fuel, based on their long experience in these fields (authors)

  3. Examination of spent fuel radiation energy conversion for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung, E-mail: msyim@kaist.ac.kr

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Utilizing conversion of radiation energy of spent fuel to electric energy. • MCNPX modeling and experiment were used to estimate energy conversion. • The converted energy may be useful for nuclear security applications. • The converted energy may be utilized for safety applications through energy storage. - Abstract: Supply of electricity inside nuclear power plant is one of the most important considerations for nuclear safety and security. In this study, generation of electric energy by converting radiation energy of spent nuclear fuel was investigated. Computational modeling work by using MCNPX 2.7.0 code along with experiment was performed to estimate the amount of electric energy generation. The calculation using the developed modeling work was validated through comparison with an integrated experiment. The amount of electric energy generation based on a conceptual design of an energy conversion module was estimated to be low. But the amount may be useful for nuclear security applications. An alternative way of utilizing the produced electric energy could be considered for nuclear safety application through energy storage. Further studies are needed to improve the efficiency of the proposed energy conversion concept and to examine the issue of radiation damage and economic feasibility.

  4. Stand for visual ultrasonic testing of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajkowski, W.; Borek-Kruszewska, E.

    2001-01-01

    A stand for visual and ultrasonic testing of spent fuel, constructed under Strategic Governmental Programme for management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, is presented in the paper. The stand, named 'STEND-1', built up at the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swjerk, is appointed for underwater visual testing of spent fuel elements type MR6 and WWR by means of TV-CCD camera and image processing system and for ultrasonic scanning of external surface of these elements by means of video scan immersion transducer and straight UHT connector. 'STEND-1' is built using flexible in use, high-tensile, anodized aluminum profiles. All the profiles feature longitudinal grooves to accommodate connecting elements and for the attachment of accessories at any position. They are also characterised by straight-through core bores for use with standard fastening elements and to accommodate accessory components. Stand, equipped with automatic control and processing system based on personal computer, may be manually or automatically controlled. Control system of movements of the camera in the vertical axis and rotational movement of spent fuel element permits to fix chosen location of fuel element with accuracy better than 0.1 mm. High resolution of ultrasonic method allows to record damages of outer surface of order 0.1 mm. The results of visual testing of spent fuel are recorded on video tape and then may be stored on the hard disc of the personal computer and presented in shape of photo or picture. Only selected damage surfaces of spent fuel elements are tested by means of ultrasonic scanning. All possibilities of the stand and results of visual testing of spent fuel type WWR are presented in the paper. (author)

  5. Spent Fuel Long Term Interim Storage: The Spanish Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Lopez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    ENRESA is the Spanish organization responsible for long-term management of all categories of radioactive waste and nuclear spent fuel and for decommissioning nuclear installations. It is also in charge of the management of the funds collected from waste producers and electricity consumers. The national policy about radioactive waste management is established at the General Radioactive Waste Plan by the Government upon proposal of the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. Now the Plan in force is the Sixth Plan approved in 2006. The policy on spent nuclear fuel, after description of the current available options, is set up as a long term interim storage at a Centralized Temporary Storage facility (CTS, or ATC in Spanish acronym) followed by geologic disposal, pending technological development on other options being eligible in the future. After a site selection process launched in 2009, the site for the ATC has been chosen at the end of 2011. The first steps for the implementation of the facility are described in the present paper. (authors)

  6. Some global aspects regarding nuclear spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru; Postoaca, Marius Marcel

    2002-01-01

    The globalization means the worldwide extension of certain aspects of social or economic processes, structural or environmental changes, or concerning working methodologies, technical activity, industrial production, etc. At present the emergence of global aspects is more frequently observed, being determined by the rapid development of computerized systems and of transfer of information, by the development of big transnational companies and due to the increasing international co-operation. Some of the manifested global aspects could be beneficial for the development of the human society, other could be not. It is necessary to perform an adequate analysis from this view point and to promote appropriate measures to enhance the positive global aspects and to mitigate the negative global aspects. These measures can have a good efficiency only if they are pursued at global level, but for this it is necessary to build an adequate international coordinating body, having the corresponding instruments for action. The global aspects identified in the field of nuclear power may be divided into two categories, namely: - related to the main features of nuclear power; - regarding the specific features of some subdivisions of the field, as for example, spent fuel management. In the paper both categories are discussed. The influence of the global aspects on the development of nuclear power and particularly on the back end activities of the fuel cycle, is also presented. At the same time, some possible actions for enhancing nuclear power development are proposed

  7. Cost targets for at-reactor spent fuel rod consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macnabb, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    The high-level nuclear waste management system in the US currently envisions the disposal of spent fuel rods that have been removed from their assemblies and reconfigured into closely packed arrays. The process of fuel rod removal and packaging, referred to as rod consolidation, can occur either at reactors or at an integrated packaging facility, monitored retrievable storage (MRS). Rod consolidation at reactors results in cost savings down stream of reactors by reducing needs for additional storage, reducing the number of shipments, and reducing (eliminating, in the extreme) the amount of fuel handling and consolidation at the MRS. These savings accrue to the nuclear waste fund. Although private industry is expected to pay for at-reactor activities, including rod consolidation, it is of interest to estimate cost savings to the waste system if all fuel were consolidated at reactors. If there are savings, the US Department of Energy (DOE) may find it advantageous to pay for at-reactor rod consolidation from the nuclear waste fund. This paper assesses and compares the costs of rod consolidation at reactors and at the MRS in order to determine at what levels the former could be cost competitive with the latter

  8. Concept of automated system for spent fuel utilization ('Reburning') from compact nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianovski, V.V.; Lozhkin, O.V.; Nesterov, M.M.; Tarasov, N.A.; Uvarov, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    On the basic concept of an automated system of nuclear power installation safety is developed the utilization project of spent fuel from compact nuclear reactors. The main features of this project are: 1. design and creation of the mobile model-industrial installation; 2. development of the utilization and storage diagram of the spent fuel from compact nuclear reactors, with the specific recommendation for the natatorial means using both for the nuclear fuel reburning, for its transportation in places of the storage; 3. research of an opportunity during the utilization process to obtain additional power resources, ozone and others to increase of justifying expenses at the utilization; 4. creation of new generation engineering for the automation of remote control processes in the high radiation background conditions. 7 refs., 1 fig

  9. Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories and projections as of December 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Current inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy radioactive wastes were compiled, based on the most reliable information available from Government sources and the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Future waste generation rates and characteristics of these materials to be accumulated over the remainder of this century are also presented, based on a present DOE/EIA projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related and industrial and institutional activities. Materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level wastes, transuranic waste, low-level waste, remedial action waste, active uranium mill tailings, and airborne waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2000. The land usage requirements are given for storage/disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes, and for the present inventories of inactive uranium mill tailings

  10. Microstructure Changes in a high burn up Spent Fuel (57,900 MWd/tU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Soon; Kwon, Hyoung Mun; Seo, Hang Seok; Ha, Yeong Keong; Song, Kyuseok

    2009-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, an increase in the burn up and the residence time of fuels is being considered because of the advantages in the fuel cycle cost and the spent fuel management. But, it leads to structural changes in an outer zone (rim) of a UO 2 pellet within a few hundreds of micrometers in thickness. Despite its thin layer, this rim would determine the thermal behavior of a fuel. Therefore, to identify a rim zone effect, the microstructures such as the pores, the grains and the UO 2 lattice size have been investigated by many researchers. In this study, the microstructure changes in the rim of a UO 2 spent fuel, the corrosion layer of a Zry-4 cladding and the interface between a fuel and a cladding were investigated by a micro-XRD and a SEM

  11. Lanthanide based conversion coatings for long term wet storage of aluminium-clad spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, S.M.C.; Correa, O.V.; De Souza, J.A.; Ramanathan, L.V.

    2010-01-01

    Spent fuels from research reactors are stored in basins with water of less than desirable quality at many facilities around the world and instances of cladding failure caused by pitting corrosion have been reported. Conversion coatings have been used in many industries to protect different metals, including aluminium alloys. This paper presents the results of an ongoing investigation in which the corrosion resistance of lanthanide (cerium, lanthanum and praseodymium) based conversion coated RR fuel cladding alloys has been studied. Electrochemical tests in the laboratory revealed higher corrosion resistance of CeO 2 , La 2 O 3 and Pr 2 O 3 coated AA 1100 and AA 6061 alloys in NaCl solutions. Uncoated and CeO 2 coated coupons of these alloys exposed for 50 days to the spent fuel basin of the IEA-R1 research reactor in IPEN, Brazil, revealed marked reductions in the extent of pitting corrosion. (author)

  12. Dealing with the current permissibility application for constructing a spent fuel DGR in Sweden. SKB's license applications for a spent fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Olle

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear power utilities in Sweden were in 1976 obliged to demonstrate a safe method for final disposal of spent fuel in order to start operation of new reactors. This initiated a comprehensive research, development and demonstration programme and the development of the KBS-method for final disposal. A new Nuclear Activities Act in 1984 gave the reactor owners full technical and financial responsibility for the waste. They gave in turn SKB the responsibility for all nuclear waste management. Reprocessing was no longer required and direct disposal of the spent fuel has, since then, been the main alternative. Alternative methods for final disposal have been evaluated and compared to the KBS-3-method but it has remained the preferred alternative. A comprehensive research, development and demonstration programme to strengthen the scientific basis and to refine the KBS-3-method has been operated by SKB since then. The site selection process for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel was initiated in 1992. The work included general siting studies at the national and the municipal level and in 2002, SKB initiated site investigations for siting of a final repository on two sites: the Simpevarp and Laxemar areas and the Forsmark area. At the same time, the work on preparing license applications to construct and operate an encapsulation plant and a final repository for spent fuel was started. In June 2009, SKB announced Forsmark as the selected site for the final repository. This paper reviews the applicable legislation and describes the license application, the licensing review and the preparations for implementation

  13. Foreign travel report: Visits to UK, Belgium, Germany, and France to benchmark European spent fuel and waste management technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermold, L.F.; Knecht, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    The ICPP WINCO Spent Fuel and Waste Management Development Program recently was funded by DOE-EM to develop new technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels, sodium-bearing liquid waste, and calcine to a form suitable for disposal. European organizations are heavily involved, in some cases on an industrial scale in areas of waste management, including spent fuel disposal and HLW vitrification. The purpose of this trip was to acquire first-hand European efforts in handling of spent reactor fuel and nuclear waste management, including their processing and technical capabilities as well as their future planning. Even though some differences exist in European and U.S. DOE waste compositions and regulations, many aspects of the European technologies may be applicable to the U.S. efforts, and several areas offer potential for technical collaboration

  14. Foreign travel report: Visits to UK, Belgium, Germany, and France to benchmark European spent fuel and waste management technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermold, L.F.; Knecht, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    The ICPP WINCO Spent Fuel and Waste Management Development Program recently was funded by DOE-EM to develop new technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels, sodium-bearing liquid waste, and calcine to a form suitable for disposal. European organizations are heavily involved, in some cases on an industrial scale in areas of waste management, including spent fuel disposal and HLW vitrification. The purpose of this trip was to acquire first-hand European efforts in handling of spent reactor fuel and nuclear waste management, including their processing and technical capabilities as well as their future planning. Even though some differences exist in European and U.S. DOE waste compositions and regulations, many aspects of the European technologies may be applicable to the U.S. efforts, and several areas offer potential for technical collaboration.

  15. Development of information management system on LWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B. D.; Lee, S. H.; Song, D. Y.; Jeon, I.; Park, S. J.; Seo, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    LWRs in Korea should manage all the information of spent fuel to implement the obligations under Korea-IAEA safeguards agreement and to perform the nuclear material accountancy work at the facility level. The information management system on LWR spent fuel was developed to manage all movement records from receipt to shipment of LWR fuels, and to get the necessary information such as nuclear fuel inventory lists and status, maps of fresh fuel storage, reactor and spent fuel pool, receipt and shipment records and so on. This information management system has a function to setup the system environments to cover the various kinds of storage types for all LWRs ; reactor, spent fuel pool and fresh fuel storage. The movements of nuclear fuel between the storages can be easily done by double click of the mouse to the destination. It also has a several error checking routines for maintaining the correct accounting data. Using this information management system of LWR spent fuel, facility operators can perform efficiently and effectively the safeguards related works including nuclear material accountancy at each facility

  16. Capabilities for processing shipping casks at spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.H.; Arnett, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Spent fuel is received at a storage facility in heavily shielded casks transported either by rail or truck. The casks are inspected, cooled, emptied, decontaminated, and reshipped. The spent fuel is transferred to storage. The number of locations or space inside the building provided to perform each function in cask processing will determine the rate at which the facility can process shipping casks and transfer spent fuel to storage. Because of the high cost of construction of licensed spent fuel handling and storage facilities and the difficulty in retrofitting, it is desirable to correctly specify the space required. In this paper, the size of the cask handling facilities is specified as a function of rate at which spent fuel is received for storage. The minimum number of handling locations to achieve a given throughput of shipping casks has been determined by computer simulation of the process. The simulation program uses a Monte Carlo technique in which a large number of casks are received at a facility with a fixed number of handling locations in each process area. As a cask enters a handling location, the time to process the cask at that location is selected at random from the distribution of process time. Shipping cask handling times are based on experience at the General Electric Storage Facility, Morris, Illinois. Shipping cask capacity is based on the most recent survey available of the expected capability of reactors to handle existing rail or truck casks

  17. Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) spent fuel pool conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Tonny Lanyau; Ahmad Nabil Ab Rahim

    2010-01-01

    Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is the one and only research reactor in Malaysia that has been safely operated and maintained since 1982. In order to enhance technical capabilities and competencies especially in nuclear reactor engineering a feasibility study on RTP power upgrading was proposed to serve future needs for advance nuclear science and technology in the country with the capability of designing and develop reactor system. The need of a Spent Fuel Pool begins with the discharge of spent fuel elements from RTP for temporary storage that includes all activities related to the storage of fuel until it is either sent for reprocessed or sent for final disposal. To support RTP power upgrading there will be major RTP systems replacement such as reactor components and a new temporary storage pool for fuel elements. The spent fuel pool is needed for temporarily store the irradiated fuel elements to accommodate a new reactor core structure. Spent fuel management has always been one of the most important stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and considered among the most common problems to all countries with nuclear reactors. The output of this paper will provide sufficient information to show the Spent Fuel Pool can be design and build with the adequate and reasonable safety assurance to support newly upgraded TRIGA PUSPATI TRIGA Research Reactor. (author)

  18. Development of Experimental Facilities for Advanced Spent Fuel Management Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, G. S.; Jung, W. M.; Ku, J. H. [and others

    2004-07-01

    The advanced spent fuel management process(ACP), proposed to reduce the overall volume of the PWR spent fuel and improve safety and economy of the long-term storage of spent fuel, is under research and development. This technology convert spent fuels into pure metal-base uranium with removing the highly heat generating materials(Cs, Sr) efficiently and reducing of the decay heat, volume, and radioactivity from spent fuel by 1/4. In the next phase(2004{approx}2006), the demonstration of this technology will be carried out for verification of the ACP in a laboratory scale. For this demonstration, the hot cell facilities of {alpha}-{gamma} type and auxiliary facilities are required essentially for safe handling of high radioactive materials. As the hot cell facilities for demonstration of the ACP, a existing hot cell of {beta}-{gamma} type will be refurbished to minimize construction expenditures of hot cell facility. In this study, the design requirements are established, and the process detail work flow was analysed for the optimum arrangement to ensure effective process operation in hot cell. And also, the basic and detail design of hot cell facility and process, and safety analysis was performed to secure conservative safety of hot cell facility and process.

  19. Integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation using developed software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Christian, Robby; Kim, Bo Gyung; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Gook Hyun; Lee, Sang hoon

    2016-01-01

    As on-site spent fuel storage meets limitation of their capacity, spent fuel need to be transported to other place. In this research, risk of two ways of transportation method, maritime transportation and on-site transportation, and interim storage facility were analyzed. Easier and integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation will be possible by applying this software. Risk assessment for spent fuel transportation has not been researched and this work showed a case for analysis. By using this analysis method and developed software, regulators can get some insights for spent fuel transportation. For example, they can restrict specific region for preventing ocean accident and also they can arrange spend fuel in interim storage facility avoiding most risky region which have high risk from aircraft engine shaft. Finally, they can apply soft material on the floor for specific stage for on-site transportation. In this software, because we targeted Korea, we need to use Korean reference data. However, there were few Korean reference data. Especially, there was no food chain data for Korean ocean. In MARINRAD, they used steady state food chain model, but it is far from reality. Therefore, to get Korean realistic reference data, dynamic food chain model for Korean ocean need to be developed

  20. Current state of spent fuel management in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarchuk, T.F.; Spichev, V.V.; Tikhonov, N.S.; Simanovsky, V.M.; Tokarenko, A.I.; Bespalov, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty nine power units of nine nuclear power plants of total installed capacity 22 GW(e) are now in operation in the Russian Federation. They produce approximately 12% of electric power in the country. The annual spent fuel arising is about 790 tU. The spent fuel from VVER-440 and BN-600 is reprocessed at the RT-1 plant near Chelyabinsk. The VVER-1000 spent fuel is planned to be reprocessed at the reprocessing plant RT-2 which is under construction near Krasnoyarsk. The RBMK-1000 spent fuel is not reprocessed because of its low fissile content. It is meant to be stored in intermediate storage facilities at the NPP sites and in a centralized storage facility during a period not less than 50 years and then to be disposed of in geological formations. State of the art of spent fuel reprocessing, storage and transportation is considered in the paper. Problems of nuclear fuel cycle back-end in Russia are taken into account. (author)

  1. Integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation using developed software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Christian, Robby; Kim, Bo Gyung; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Gook Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang hoon [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As on-site spent fuel storage meets limitation of their capacity, spent fuel need to be transported to other place. In this research, risk of two ways of transportation method, maritime transportation and on-site transportation, and interim storage facility were analyzed. Easier and integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation will be possible by applying this software. Risk assessment for spent fuel transportation has not been researched and this work showed a case for analysis. By using this analysis method and developed software, regulators can get some insights for spent fuel transportation. For example, they can restrict specific region for preventing ocean accident and also they can arrange spend fuel in interim storage facility avoiding most risky region which have high risk from aircraft engine shaft. Finally, they can apply soft material on the floor for specific stage for on-site transportation. In this software, because we targeted Korea, we need to use Korean reference data. However, there were few Korean reference data. Especially, there was no food chain data for Korean ocean. In MARINRAD, they used steady state food chain model, but it is far from reality. Therefore, to get Korean realistic reference data, dynamic food chain model for Korean ocean need to be developed.

  2. West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-11-01

    The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Development of information management system on LWR spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B. D.; Lee, S. H.; Song, D. Y.; Jeon, I.; Park, S. J.; Seo, D. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    LWRs in Korea should manage all the information of spent fuel to implement the obligations under Korea-IAEA safeguards agreement and to perform the nuclear material accountancy work at the facility level. The information management system on LWR spent fuel was developed to manage all movement records from receipt to shipment of LWR fuels, and to get the necessary information such as nuclear fuel inventory lists and status, maps of fresh fuel storage, reactor and spent fuel pool, receipt and shipment records and so on. This information management system has a function to setup the system environments to cover the various kinds of storage types for all LWRs ; reactor, spent fuel pool and fresh fuel storage. The movements of nuclear fuel between the storages can be easily done by double click of the mouse to the destination. It also has a several error checking routines for maintaining the correct accounting data. Using this information management system of LWR spent fuel, facility operators can perform efficiently and effectively the safeguards related works including nuclear material accountancy at each facility.

  4. A scheme of better utilization of PWR spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bum Jin; Kang, Chang Soon

    1991-01-01

    The recycle of PWR spent fuels in a CANDU reactor, so called the tandem fuel cycle is investigated in this study. This scheme of utilizing PWR spent fuels will ease the shortage of spent fuel storage capacity as well as will improve the use of uranium resources. The minimum modification the design of present CANDU reactor is seeked in the recycle. Nine different fuel types are considered in this work and are classified into two categories: refabrication and reconfiguration. For refabrication, PWR spent fuels are processed and refabricated into the present 37 rod lattice structure of fuel bundle, and for reconfiguration, meanwhile, spent fuels are simply disassembled and rods are cut to fit into the present grid configuration of fuel bundle without refabrication. For each fuel option, the neutronics calculation of lattice was conducted to evaluate the allowable burn up and distribution. The fuel cycle cost of each option was also computed to assess the economic justification. The results show that most tandem fuel cycle option considered in this study are technically feasible as well as economically viable. (Author)

  5. Initiation of depleted uranium oxide and spent fuel testing for the spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molecke, M.A.; Gregson, M.W.; Sorenson, K.B. [Sandia National Labs. (United States); Billone, M.C.; Tsai, H. [Argonne National Lab. (United States); Koch, W.; Nolte, O. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin (Germany); Pretzsch, G.; Lange, F. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (Germany); Autrusson, B.; Loiseau, O. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (France); Thompson, N.S.; Hibbs, R.S. [U.S. Dept. of Energy (United States); Young, F.I.; Mo, T. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2004-07-01

    We provide a detailed overview of an ongoing, multinational test program that is developing aerosol data for some spent fuel sabotage scenarios on spent fuel transport and storage casks. Experiments are being performed to quantify the aerosolized materials plus volatilized fission products generated from actual spent fuel and surrogate material test rods, due to impact by a high energy density device, HEDD. The program participants in the U.S. plus Germany, France, and the U.K., part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC have strongly supported and coordinated this research program. Sandia National Laboratories, SNL, has the lead role for conducting this research program; test program support is provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. WGSTSC partners need this research to better understand potential radiological impacts from sabotage of nuclear material shipments and storage casks, and to support subsequent risk assessments, modeling, and preventative measures. We provide a summary of the overall, multi-phase test design and a description of all explosive containment and aerosol collection test components used. We focus on the recently initiated tests on ''surrogate'' spent fuel, unirradiated depleted uranium oxide, and forthcoming actual spent fuel tests. The depleted uranium oxide test rodlets were prepared by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, in France. These surrogate test rodlets closely match the diameter of the test rodlets of actual spent fuel from the H.B. Robinson reactor (high burnup PWR fuel) and the Surry reactor (lower, medium burnup PWR fuel), generated from U.S. reactors. The characterization of the spent fuels and fabrication into short, pressurized rodlets has been performed by Argonne National Laboratory, for testing at SNL. The ratio of the aerosol and respirable particles released from HEDD-impacted spent

  6. Nuclear spent fuel dry storage in the EWA reactor shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieleszczenko, W.; Moldysz, A.; Hryczuk, A.; Matysiak, T.

    2001-01-01

    The EWA reactor was in operation from 1958 until February 1995. Then it was subjected to the decommissioning procedure. Resulting from a prolonged operation of Polish research reactors a substantial amount of nuclear spent fuel of various types, enrichment and degree of burnup have been accumulated. The technology of storage of spent nuclear fuel foresees the two stages of wet storing in a water pool (deferral period from tens to several dozens years) and dry storing (deferral period from 50 to 80 years). In our case the deferral time in the water environment is pretty significant (the oldest fuel elements have been stored in water for more than 40 years). Though the state of stored fuel elements is satisfactory, there is a real need for changing the storage conditions of spent fuel. The paper is covering the description of philosophy and conceptual design for construction of the spent fuel dry storage in the decommissioned EWA reactor shaft. (author)

  7. Manufacture of spent fuel chopper (Paper No. 26)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan Rao, A.; Suthar, R.L.; Mahajan, C.P.

    1987-02-01

    In-house manufacture of spent fuel chopper was the most significant step towards indigenisation of vital equipment needed in a spent fuel reprocessing plant. The chopper used in such a plant receives the highly radioactive spent fuel rods for chopping and distributing the cut pieces into desired online chemical processing equipment. Its design, engineering and manufacture has to be carefully planned and executed to ensure the reliability of the equipment for continuous safe operation, as well as the simplicity from the point of view of maintenance, which essentially has to be done using remote handling equipment. In this paper an attempt has been made to explain briefly the preparation of engineering details, manufacturing layouts and the problems encountered during the manufacture of some of the critical parts of the chopper. (author). 5 figs

  8. Handling of spent fuel from research reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, K.

    1997-01-01

    In Japan eleven research reactors are in operation. After the 19th International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research Reactors and Test Reactors (RERTR) on October 6-10, 1996, Seoul, Korea, the Five Agency Committee on Highly Enriched Uranium, which consists of Science and Technology Agency, the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) met on November 7,1996, to discuss the handling of spent fuel from research reactors in Japan. Advantages and disadvantages to return spent fuel to the USA in comparison to Europe were discussed. So far, a number of spent fuel elements in JAERI and KURRI are to be returned to the US. The first shipment to the US is planned for 60 HEU elements from JMTR in 1997. The shipment from KURRI is planned to start in 1999. (author)

  9. Development of nuclear spent fuel Maritime transportation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Min; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2014-01-01

    Spent fuel transportation of South Korea is to be conducted through near sea because it is able to ship a large amount of the spent fuel far from the public comparing to overland transportation. The maritime transportation is expected to be increased and its risk has to be assessed. For the risk assessment, this study utilizes the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method and the notions of the combined event. Risk assessment of maritime transportation of spent fuel is not well developed in comparison with overland transportation. For the assessment, first, the transportation scenario should be developed and categorized. Categories are assorted into the locations, release aspects and exposure aspects. This study deals with accident that happens on voyage and concentrated on ship-ship collision. The collision accident scenario is generated with event tree analysis. The scenario will be exploited for the maritime transportation risk model which includes consequence and accident probability

  10. Information handbook on independent spent fuel storage installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddatz, M.G.; Waters, M.D.

    1996-12-01

    In this information handbook, the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes (1) background information regarding the licensing and history of independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), (2) a discussion of the licensing process, (3) a description of all currently approved or certified models of dry cask storage systems (DCSSs), and (4) a description of sites currently storing spent fuel in an ISFSI. Storage of spent fuel at ISFSIs must be in accordance with the provisions of 10 CFR Part 72. The staff has provided this handbook for information purposes only. The accuracy of any information herein is not guaranteed. For verification or for more details, the reader should refer to the respective docket files for each DCSS and ISFSI site. The information in this handbook is current as of September 1, 1996

  11. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigerman, S.

    1988-06-01

    The subject of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste storage, is bibliographically reviewed. The review shows that in the majority of the countries, spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes are planned to be stored for tens of years. Sites for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes have not yet been found. A first final disposal facility is expected to come into operation in the United States of America by the year 2010. Other final disposal facilities are expected to come into operation in Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and Japan by the year 2020. Meanwhile , stress is placed upon the 'dry storage' method which is carried out successfully in a number of countries (Britain and France). In the United States of America spent fuels are stored in water pools while the 'dry storage' method is still being investigated. (Author)

  12. Projection of US LWR spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.F.; Cole, B.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Rau, R.G.

    1982-11-01

    The spent fuel storage requirements projection is based on data supplied for each operating or planned nuclear power power plant by the operting utilities. The data supplied by the utilities encompassed details of plant operating history, past records of fuel discharges, current inventories in reactor spent fuel storage pools, and projections of future discharge patterns. Data on storage capacity of storage pools and on characterization of the discharged fuel are also included. The data supplied by the utilities, plus additional data from other appropriate sources, are maintained on a computerized data base by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The spent fuel requirements projection was based on utility data updated and verified as of December 31, 1981

  13. Decision nearing on final disposal of spent fuel in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vira, J.

    2000-01-01

    The programme for final disposal of spent fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants is entering into important phase: in the year 2000 the Finnish Government is expected to decide whether the proposal made by Posiva Oy on the spent fuel disposal is in line with the overall good of society. Associated with the decision is also Posiva's proposal on siting the disposal facility at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki municipality on the western coast of Finland. An important document underlying Posiva's application for this principle decision is the report of the environmental impact assessment, which was completed in 1999. Safety considerations play an important role in the application. New assessments have, therefore, been made on both the operational and long-term safety as well as on safety of spent fuel transportation. (author)

  14. Spent fuel characteristics provided by the CDB: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Salmon, R.; Welch, T.D.; Reich, W.J.; Moore, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Characteristics Data Base (CDB) task provides OCRWM with the detailed technical characteristics of potential repository wastes, which consist primarily of commercial spent nuclear fuel, but also includes other spent fuel (and also high-level and miscellaneous wastes). A major revision of the original CDB report and PC data bases has just been completed under formal QA peer review guidelines and Revision 1 is ready to be issued. This paper describes the classification scheme developed for LWR fuel assemblies and the five PC data bases for LWR spent fuel, which provide data on quantities, assemblies, radiological properties, non-fuel assembly hardware, and serial numbers. The future role of other (i.e., non-LWR) spent fuel is also cited

  15. Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2004-10-04

    This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

  16. New Technology For Fissile Assay In Spent Fuel Using LSDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yongdeok; Park, Changje; Park, Geunil; Lee, Jungwon; Song, Keechan

    2012-01-01

    The principle of LSDS is very simple. The interrogated neutron induces energy dependent characteristic fission from fissile materials in spent fuel. The fission threshold detector screens the prompt fast fission neutrons from background and fissionable materials. However, intense source neutron is necessary to overcome radiation background. The detected signals have a direct relationship to the content of each fissile material. The isotopic fissile assay using LSDS is applicable for optimum design of spent fuel storage and management, quality assurance of recycled nuclear material, maximization of burnup credit. Another important application is verity burnup code and provide correction factor for improving the fissile material content, fission product correction factor for improving the fissile material content, fission product content and theoretical burnup. Additionally, the isotopic fissile content assay will increase the transparence and credibility for spent fuel storage and its re-utilization, as internationally demanded

  17. Development of nuclear spent fuel Maritime transportation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Min; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Spent fuel transportation of South Korea is to be conducted through near sea because it is able to ship a large amount of the spent fuel far from the public comparing to overland transportation. The maritime transportation is expected to be increased and its risk has to be assessed. For the risk assessment, this study utilizes the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method and the notions of the combined event. Risk assessment of maritime transportation of spent fuel is not well developed in comparison with overland transportation. For the assessment, first, the transportation scenario should be developed and categorized. Categories are assorted into the locations, release aspects and exposure aspects. This study deals with accident that happens on voyage and concentrated on ship-ship collision. The collision accident scenario is generated with event tree analysis. The scenario will be exploited for the maritime transportation risk model which includes consequence and accident probability.

  18. Initiation of depleted uranium oxide and spent fuel testing for the spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.; Gregson, M.W.; Sorenson, K.B.

    2004-01-01

    We provide a detailed overview of an on-going, multinational test programme that is developing aerosol data for some spent fuel sabotage scenarios on spent fuel transport and storage casks. Experiments are being performed to quantify the aerosolised materials plus volatilised fission products generated from actual spent fuel and surrogate material test rods, due to impact by a high-energy/density device. The programme participants in the United States plus Germany, France and the United Kingdom, part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks (WGSTSC) have strongly supported and coordinated this research programme. Sandia National Laboratories has the lead role for conducting this research programme; test programme support is provided by both the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We provide a summary of the overall, multiphase test design and a description of all explosive containment and aerosol collection test components used. We focus on the recently initiated tests on 'surrogate' spent fuel, unirradiated depleted uranium oxide and forthcoming actual spent fuel tests. We briefly summarise similar results from completed surrogate tests that used non-radioactive, sintered cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rods. (author)

  19. Fissile Content Assay of Spent Fuel Using LSDS System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Ju Young; Lee, Yong Deok; Park, Chang Je

    2016-01-01

    About 1.5 % fissile materials still exist in the spent fuel. Therefore, for reutilization of fissile materials in spent fuel at SFR, resource material is produced through the pyro process. Fissile material contents in the resource material must be analyzed before fabricating SFR fuel for reactor safety and economics. The new technology for an isotopic fissile material content assay is under development at KAERI using a lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS). LSDS is very sensitive to distinguish fission signals from each fissile isotope in spent and recycled fuel. In an assay of fissile content of spent fuel and recycled fuel, an intense radiation background gives limits the direct analysis of fissile materials. However, LSDS is not influenced by such a radiation background in a fissile assay. Based on the decided LSDS geometry set up, a self shielding parameter was calculated at the fuel assay zone by introducing spent fuel or pyro produced nuclear material. When nuclear material is inserted into the assay area, the spent fuel assembly or pyro recycled fuel material perturbs the spatial distribution of slowing down neutrons in lead and the prompt fast fission neutrons produced by fissile materials are also perturbed. The self shielding factor is interpreted as how much of the absorption is created inside the fuel area when it is in the lead. The self shielding effect provides a non-linear property in the isotopic fissile assay. When the self shielding is severe, the assay system becomes more complex and needs a special parameter to treat this non linear effect. Additionally, an assay of isotopic fissile content will contribute to an accuracy improvement of the burn-up code and increase the transparency and credibility for spent fuel storage and usage, as internationally increasing demand. The fissile contents result came out almost exactly with relative error ∼ 2% in case of Pu239, Pu241 for two different plutonium contents. In this study, meaningful results were

  20. Analysis of the impact of retrievable spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, E.T.; White, M.K.; Fleischman, R.M.

    1978-03-01

    The impact of retrievably storing spent fuel is measurable in terms of the contribution the stored spent fuel makes to implementing the fuel management option selected. For the case of a decision to recycle LWR fuel in LWRs, a useful indicator of impact is the ratio of energy production with varying degrees of spent fuel retrievability to that achievable with total spent fuel retrievability. For a decision made in the year 2000, this ratio varies from 0.81 (10 yr storage in reactor basins) to 0.97 (retrievable storage for 25 years after fuel discharge). An earlier decision to recycle in LWRs results in both of these ratios being nearer to 1.0. If a decision is reached to implement a breeder reactor economy, the chosen comparison is the installed breeder capacity achievable with varying degrees of spent fuel retrievability. If a decision to build breeder reactors is reached in the year 2000, the maximum possible installed breeder capacity in 2040 varies from 490 GWe (10 yr storage in reactor basins) to 660 GWe (all fuel retrievably stored). If all fuel is retrievably stored 25 years, 635 GWe of breeder capacity is achievable by 2040. For an earlier decision date, such as 1985, the maximum possible installed breeder capacity in 2040 ranges from 740 GWe (no retrievable storage) to 800 GWe (all fuel retrievably stored). As long as a decision to reprocess is reached before 2000, most of the potential benefit of retrievable storage may be realized by implementing retrievable storage after such a decision is made. Neither providing retrievable spent fuel storage prior to a decision to reprocess, nor designing such storage for more than 25 years of retrievability appear to offer significant incremental benefit

  1. Safeguards approach for conditioning facility for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younkin, J.M.; Barham, M.; Moran, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    A safeguards approach has been developed for conditioning facilities associated with the final disposal of spent fuel in geologic repositories. The proposed approach is based on a generic conditioning facility incorporating common features of conditioning facility designs currently proposed. The generic facility includes a hot cell for consolidation of spent fuel pins and repackaging of spent fuel items such as assemblies and cans of pins. The consolidation process introduces safeguards concerns which have not previously been addressed in traditional safeguards approaches. In developing the safeguards approach, diversion of spent fuel was assessed in terms of potential target items, operational activities performed on the items, containment of the items, and concealment activities performed on the items. The combination of these factors defines the potential diversion pathways. Diversion pathways were identified for spent fuel pellets, pins, assemblies, canisters, and casks. Diversion activities provide for opportunities of detection along the diversion paths. Potential detection methods were identified at several levels of diversion activities. Detection methods can be implemented through safeguards measures. Safeguards measures were proposed for each of the primary safeguards techniques of design information verification (DIV), containment and surveillance (C/S), and material accountancy. Potential safeguards approaches were developed by selection of appropriate combinations of safeguards measures. For all candidate safeguards approaches, DIV is a fundamental component. Variations in the approaches are mainly in the degree of C/S measures and in the types and numbers of material accountancy verification measures. The candidate safeguards approaches were evaluated toward the goal of determining a model safeguards approach. This model approach is based on the integrated application of selected safeguards measures to use International Atomic Energy Agency resources

  2. Conceptual design study of a concrete canister spent-fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidfors, E.D.; Tabe, T.; Johnson, H.M.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for the interim storage of CANDU spent fuel in concrete canisters. The canisters will be concrete flasks, which contain fuel prepackaged in double steel containment, and will be cooled by natural air convection. This is one of the methods proposed as a potential alternative to water pool storage. A preliminary study of this concept was done by CAFS (Committee Assessing Fuel Storage), and WNRE (Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment) is currently conducting a development and demonstration program. This study of a central facility for the storage of all Canadian spent fuel arisings to the year 2000 was completed in 1975. A brief description of the facilities required and the operations involved, a summary of costs, a survey of the monitoring requirements and a prediction of the personnel exposures associated with this method of storing spent fuel are reported here. The estimated total cost of interim storage in cylindrical canisters at a central site is $6.02/kg U (1975 dollars). Approximately half of this cost is incurred in the shipment of fuel from the reactors to the storage facility. (author)

  3. Cna 1 spent fuel element interim dry storage system thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilal, R. E; Garcia, J. C; Delmastro, D. F

    2006-01-01

    At the moment, the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant (Cnea-I) located in the city of Lima, has enough room to store its spent fuel (Sf) in their two pools spent fuel until about 2015.In case of life extension a spend fuel element interim dry storage system is needed.Nucleolectrica Argentina S.A. (N A-S A) and the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Cnea), have proposed different interim dry storage systems.These systems have to be evaluated in order to choose one of them.The present work's objective is the thermal analysis of one dry storage alternative for the Sf element of Cna 1.In this work a simple model was developed and used to perform the thermal calculations corresponding to the system proposed by Cnea.This system considers the store of sealed containers with 37 spent fuels in concrete modules.Each one of the containers is filled in the pool houses and transported to the module in a transference cask with lead walls.Fulfill the maximum cladding temperature requirement ( [es

  4. Design considerations for on-site spent-fuel transfer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Jones, C.R.

    1989-06-01

    Studies on spent fuel shipping logistics and operation make it clear that the use of large casks, i.e., 100--125 tons, is superior to smaller casks of similar construction. This superiority manifests itself in both transportation and/or shipping economics and safety as well as reduced personnel exposure in the processing of the casks. An on-site system for the transfer of spent fuel from the storage pool to a large shipping or storage cask, as well as the transfer of spent fuel directly from a storage cask to a shipping cask, could bring the large cask benefits to those restricted reactors. Sensing the need to look more closely at this opportunity, EPRI contracted with S. Levy, Incorporated of Campbell, CA to develop a set of design considerations for such transfer systems. Rather then embark on another design study, EPRI decided to first identify the system considerations that must be factored into any design. The format for this effort presents both the Consideration and the Rationale for the consideration. The resulting work identified thirty-six General Considerations and two Special Considerations. The Considerations are in the form of mandatory requirements and desirable but nonmandatory requirements. Additionally, a brief economic study was performed to get a feel for the cost considerations of on-site transfers. The study results suggest a relatively narrow set of scenarios where on-site transfers are economically superior to alternatives. These scenarios generally involve the use of concrete casks as on-site storage devices

  5. Spent Fuel Ratio Estimates from Numerical Models in ALE3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margraf, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunn, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-02

    Potential threat of intentional sabotage of spent nuclear fuel storage facilities is of significant importance to national security. Paramount is the study of focused energy attacks on these materials and the potential release of aerosolized hazardous particulates into the environment. Depleted uranium oxide (DUO2) is often chosen as a surrogate material for testing due to the unreasonable cost and safety demands for conducting full-scale tests with real spent nuclear fuel. To account for differences in mechanical response resulting in changes to particle distribution it is necessary to scale the DUO2 results to get a proper measure for spent fuel. This is accomplished with the spent fuel ratio (SFR), the ratio of respirable aerosol mass released due to identical damage conditions between a spent fuel and a surrogate material like depleted uranium oxide (DUO2). A very limited number of full-scale experiments have been carried out to capture this data, and the oft-questioned validity of the results typically leads to overly-conservative risk estimates. In the present work, the ALE3D hydrocode is used to simulate DUO2 and spent nuclear fuel pellets impacted by metal jets. The results demonstrate an alternative approach to estimate the respirable release fraction of fragmented nuclear fuel.

  6. Management of the acceptance process of RTR aluminide type spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auziere, P.; Thomasson, J.

    2002-01-01

    A wide range of Research Test Reactor aluminide type spent fuel is already received for treatment conditioning at the La Hague reprocessing complex. Such a diversity calls for an utmost attention to be paid to all safety-related systems and technical aspects, to all regulatory and administrative constraints. Despite of such multiple data inputs and rigid constraints, a close cooperation between the Research Reactor operator and COGEMA enables to reach adequate and cost effective solutions also relevant to spent fuel having had an uneven history. The acceptance process is primarily based on the client descriptive data and status declaration issued by the Research Reactor (RR) operator under QA. This acceptance process is a key step, to be keenly scheduled as it is directly interactive with the RR evacuation plans and the La Hague industrial plant program. It is also governed by the reviews conducted by the French Safety Authority and generally translated into operational authorisations. Concerned by maintaining high safety standards, reliable and proven operational levels of its nuclear services performed in the La Hague facilities COGEMA includes, all through this acceptance process, the operating, regulatory and administrative requirements. This paper sets forth an overview of the approach implemented in the COGEMA organisation for the management of the acceptance process of RTR aluminide type spent fuel. (author)

  7. Integrated data base for 1988: Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1987. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected defense-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reportd for miscellaneous, highly radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 89 refs., 46 figs., 104 tabs

  8. Integrated data base for 1986: spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive wastes through December 31, 1985, based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. Current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the expected defense-related and private industrial and institutional activities and the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth. The materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, remedial action waste, and decommissioning waste. For each category, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or calculated isotopic compositions

  9. Integrated Data Base for 1989: Spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1988. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected defense-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, remedial action waste, commercial reactor and fuel cycle facility decommissioning waste, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous, highly radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 45 figs., 119 tabs

  10. The role of spent fuel test facilities in the fuel cycle strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S. T.; Gross, D. L.; Snyder, N. W.; Woods, W. D.

    1988-01-01

    Disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuels in the major industrialized countries may be categorized into two broad approaches: a once-through policy which will dispose of spent fuels and recycle fissile materials. Within reprocess spent fuels and recycle fissile materials. Within each policy, various technical, licensing, institutional and public issues exist. These issues tend to complicate the formulation of an effective and acceptable fuel cycle strategy which will meet various cost, schedule, and legislative constraints. This paper examines overall fuel cycle strategies from the viewpoint of these underlying technical issues and assesses the roles of spent fuel test facilities in the overall fuel cycles steps. Basic functions of such test facilities are also discussed. The main emphasis is placed on the once-through policy although the reprocessing / recycle policy is also discussed. Benefits of utilizing test facilities in the fuel cycle strategies are explored. The results indicate that substantial benefits may be obtained in terms of minimizing programmatic risks, increasing public confidence, and more effective utilization of overall budgetary resources by structuring and highlighting the test facilities as an important element in the overall strategy

  11. Integrated data base for 1990: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1989. These data are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 22 refs., 48 figs., 109 tabs

  12. Integrated Data Base for 1991: US spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program has compiled current data on inventories and characteristics of commercial spent fuel and both commercial and US government-owned radioactive wastes through December 31, 1990. These data are based on the most reliable information available form government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The current projections of future waste and spent fuel to be generated generally through the year 2020 and characteristics of these materials are also presented. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest US Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) projections of US commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional (I/I) activities. The radioactive materials considered are spent fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, commercial reactor and fuel cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the year 2020, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions. In addition, characteristics and current inventories are reported for miscellaneous radioactive materials that may require geologic disposal. 160 refs., 61 figs., 142 tabs

  13. Calculation of spent fuel pool severe accident with MELCOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jian; Xiang Qing'an; Zhou Kefeng

    2014-01-01

    A calculation model was established for spent fuel pool (SFP) using MELCOR code to study the severe accident phenomena caused by the long term station black-out (SBO), including spent fuel heatup, zirconium cladding oxidation, and the injection into SFP to mitigate the severe accident. The results show that the severe accident progression is slow and relates directly with the initial water level in SFP. It is illustrated that the injection into SFP is one of the best mitigated measures for the SFP severe accident. (authors)

  14. Development of code SFINEL (Spent fuel integrity evaluator)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Min, Chin Young; Ohk, Young Kil; Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Dong Ju; Kim, Nam Ku [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    SFINEL code, an integrated computer program for predicting the spent fuel rod integrity based on burn-up history and major degradation mechanisms, has been developed through this project. This code can sufficiently simulate the power history of a fuel rod during the reactor operation and estimate the degree of deterioration of spent fuel cladding using the recently-developed models on the degradation mechanisms. SFINEL code has been thoroughly benchmarked against the collected in-pile data and operating experiences: deformation and rupture, and cladding oxidation, rod internal pressure creep, then comprehensive whole degradation process. (author). 75 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Structural analysis of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, J. H.; Jung, W. M.; Jo, I. J.; Gug, D. H.; Yoo, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    An advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) is developing for the safe and effective management of spent fuels which arising from the domestic nuclear power plants. And its demonstration facility is under design. This facility will be prepared by modifying IMEF's reserve hot cell facility which reserved for future usage by considering the characteristics of ACP. This study presents a basic structural architecture design and analysis results of ACP hot cell including modification of the IMEF. The results of this study will be used for the detail design of ACP demonstration facility, and utilized as basic data for the licensing of the ACP facility

  16. The EBR-II spent fuel treatment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; McFarlane, H.F.

    1995-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for demonstrating a high-temperature electrometallurgical process for treating spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-11. Two waste forms will be produced and qualified for geologic disposal of the fission and activation products. Relatively pure uranium will be separated for storage. Following additional development, transuranium elements will be blended into one of the high-level waste streams. The spent fuel treatment program will help assess the viability of electrometallurgical technology as a spent fuel management option

  17. Spent fuel heatup following loss of water during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, A.S.; McCloskey, D.J.; Powers, D.A.; Dupree, S.A.

    1979-03-01

    An analysis of spent fuel heatup following a hypothetical accident involving drainage of the storage pool is presented. Computations based upon a new computer code called SFUEL have been performed to assess the effect of decay time, fuel element design, storage rack design, packing density, room ventilation, drainage level, and other variables on the heatup characteristics of the spent fuel and to predict the conditions under which clad failure will occur. Possible storage pool design modifications and/or onsite emergency action have also been considered

  18. International management and storage of plutonium and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The first part of this study discusses certain questions that may arise from the disseminated production and storage of plutonium and, in the light of the relevant provisions of the Agency's Statute, examines possible arrangements for the storage of separated plutonium under international auspices and its release to meet energy or research requirements. The second part of the study deals similarly with certain problems presented by growing accumulations of spent fuel from light-water reactors in various countries and examines possible solutions, including the establishment of regional or multinational spent fuel storage facilities

  19. Impact Analysis for Fuel Assemblies in Spent Fuel Storage Rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jinho

    2013-01-01

    The design and structural integrity evaluation of a spent fuel storage rack (SFSR) utilized for storing and protecting the spent fuel assemblies generated during the operation of a reactor are very important in terms of nuclear safety and waste management. The objective of this study is to show the validity of the SFSR design as well as fuel assembly through a structural integrity evaluation based on a numerical analysis. In particular, a dynamic time history analysis considering the gaps between the fuel assemblies and the walls of the storage cell pipes in the SFSR was performed to check the structural integrity of the fuel assembly and storage cell pipe

  20. Spent-fuel storage: a private sector option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.A.; Ross, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    The investigation was performed to delineate the legal and financial considerations for establishing private sector support for the planning and development of an independent spent-fuel storage facility (ISFSF). The preferred institutional structure was found to be one in which a not-for-profit corporation contracts with a limited partnership to handle the spent fuel. The limited partnership acquires the necessary land and constructs the ISFSF facility and then leases the facility to the not-for-profit corporation, which acquires spent-fuel rods from the utilities. The DOE must agree to purchase the spent-fuel rods at the expiration of term and warrant continued operation of the facility if policy changes at the federal level force the removal of the rods prior to completion of the contracted storage cycle. The DOE planning base estimate of spent-fuel storage requirements indicates a market potential adequate to support 10,000 MTU or more of spent-fuel storage prior to the time a government repository is available to accept spent fuel around the turn of the century. The estimated construction cost of a 5000-MTU water basin facility is $552 million. The total capital requirements to finance such a facility are estimated to be $695 million, based on an assumed capital structure of 70 percent debt and 30 percent equity. The estimated total levelized cost of storage, including operating costs, for the assumed 17-year life of the facility is $223 per kilogram of uranium. This is equivalent to a slightly less than one mill per kilowatt-hour increase in nuclear fuel costs at the nuclear power station that was the source of the spent fuel. In conclusion, within the context of the new Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the study points to both the need for and the advantages of private sector support for one or more ISFSFs and establishes a workable mechanism for the recovery of the costs of owning and operating such facilities. 3 figures, 4 tables

  1. Spent fuel dissolution studies FY 1991 to 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.J.; Wilson, C.N.

    1995-12-01

    Dissolution and transport as a result of groundwater flow are generally accepted as the primary mechanisms by which radionuclides from spent fuel placed in a geologic repository could be released to the biosphere. To help provide a source term for performance assessment calculations, dissolution studies on spent fuel and unirradiated uranium oxides have been conducted over the past few years at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This report describes work for fiscal years 1991 through 1994. The objectives of these studies and the associated conclusions, which were based on the limited number of tests conducted so far, are described in the following subsections

  2. Shielding Performance Measurements of Spent Fuel Transportation Container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Hong-chao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The safety supervision of radioactive material transportation package has been further stressed and implemented. The shielding performance measurements of spent fuel transport container is the important content of supervision. However, some of the problems and difficulties reflected in practice need to be solved, such as the neutron dose rate on the surface of package is too difficult to measure exactly, the monitoring results are not always reliable, etc. The monitoring results using different spectrometers were compared and the simulation results of MCNP runs were considered. An improvement was provided to the shielding performance measurements technique and management of spent fuel transport.

  3. The burnup dependence of light water reactor spent fuel oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Over the temperature range of interest for dry storage or for placement of spent fuel in a permanent repository under the conditions now being considered, UO 2 is thermodynamically unstable with respect to oxidation to higher oxides. The multiple valence states of uranium allow for the accommodation of interstitial oxygen atoms in the fuel matrix. A variety of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric phases is therefore possible as the fuel oxidizers from UO 2 to higher oxides. The oxidation of UO 2 has been studied extensively for over 40 years. It has been shown that spent fuel and unirradiated UO 2 oxidize via different mechanisms and at different rates. The oxidation of LWR spent fuel from UO 2 to UO 2.4 was studied previously and is reasonably well understood. The study presented here was initiated to determine the mechanism and rate of oxidation from UO 2.4 to higher oxides. During the early stages of this work, a large variability in the oxidation behavior of samples oxidized under nearly identical conditions was found. Based on previous work on the effect of dopants on UO 2 oxidation and this initial variability, it was hypothesized that the substitution of fission product and actinide impurities for uranium atoms in the spent fuel matrix was the cause of the variable oxidation behavior. Since the impurity concentration is roughly proportional to the burnup of a specimen, the oxidation behavior of spent fuel was expected to be a function of both temperature and burnup. This report (1) summarizes the previous oxidation work for both unirradiated UO 2 and spent fuel (Section 2.2) and presents the theoretical basis for the burnup (i.e., impurity concentration) dependence of the rate of oxidation (Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5), (2) describes the experimental approach (Section 3) and results (Section 4) for the current oxidation tests on spent fuel, and (3) establishes a simple model to determine the activation energies associated with spent fuel oxidation (Section 5)

  4. Compacted spent-fuel storage--designs and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, H.J.; Gilcrest, J.D.; Kendall, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    Typical rack designs, licensing, contracting methods, installation and operational problems are described. Due to the lack of reprocessing and independent fuel storage facilities, new plants built in the United States will continue to install high-density spent-fuel storage racks. As to the rack designs, the most significant feature is the introduction of freestanding rack designs. The trends in spent-fuel storage appear to be toward the use of high-density racks, either with or without absorber, for all plants in the design, construction, or operation phase; the use of freestanding rack designs; and the separation of engineering and fabrication during procurement

  5. Impact Analysis for Fuel Assemblies in Spent Fuel Storage Rack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jinho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The design and structural integrity evaluation of a spent fuel storage rack (SFSR) utilized for storing and protecting the spent fuel assemblies generated during the operation of a reactor are very important in terms of nuclear safety and waste management. The objective of this study is to show the validity of the SFSR design as well as fuel assembly through a structural integrity evaluation based on a numerical analysis. In particular, a dynamic time history analysis considering the gaps between the fuel assemblies and the walls of the storage cell pipes in the SFSR was performed to check the structural integrity of the fuel assembly and storage cell pipe.

  6. Behavior of high-density spent-fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1986-08-01

    Included in this report is a summary of information on neutron-absorbing materials such as B 4 C in an aluminum matrix or organic binder material, stainless steel-boron and aluminum-boron alloys, and stainless steetl-clad cadmium that are used in high-density spent fuel storage racks. A list of the types of neutron-absorbing materials being used in spent fuel storage racks at domestic commercial plants is provided. Recent cases at several domestic plants where swelling of rack side plates (where the B 4 C in an aluminum matrix and B 4 C in an organic binder material were located) occurred are reviewed

  7. A proposed Regulatory Guide basis for spent fuel decay heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, O.W.; Parks, C.V.; Renier, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    A proposed revision to Regulatory Guide 3.54, ''Spent Fuel Heat Generation in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation'' has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed revision includes a data base of decay heat rates calculated as a function of burnup, specific power, cooling time, initial fuel 235 U enrichment and assembly type (i.e., PWR or BWR). Validation of the calculational method was done by comparison with existing measured decay heat rates. Procedures for proper use of the data base, adjustment formulae accounting for effects due to differences in operating history and initial enrichment, and a defensible safety factor were derived. 15 refs., 6 tabs

  8. Dry vault for spent fuel depository. Basic outsets, operating results and safety of the CASCAD plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardelle, P.

    1997-01-01

    Reprocessing and recycling of fissile materials is the preferred approach to spent fuel management in France. However, a number of spent fuel elements from prototype and experimental nuclear reactors cannot be reprocessed in the existing industrial facilities, either because such facilities are booked to full capacity, or due to technical factors such as non standard nature of fuel or limited series of fuel. The CEA therefore built a facility in which spent fuel can be stored for a few decades (50 years), until favourable conditions prevail for its disposal. The main features of this project consist in a dry repository, which presents a low cost of working, against a wet one which is more expensive due to the circulation and the continuous control of the water. Therefore, this is a fair solution because the experimental fuels will present a rather low residual heat power after decay in the nuclear reactor. At this stage, it becomes possible to cool the fuel elements by a fully passive air circulation. This process allows a good efficiency without mechanical equipment and works all the better as the amount of heat to exhaust is great, in the limits of the design. However, we will see that this concept may be extended to a repository of standard spent fuel elements. This facility, known as 'CASCAD' (= CASemate CADarache) started up in 1990, and received its first canister of fuel on May 29, 1990. This paper reviews the basic design data of the facility, outlines the main techniques used for its construction, draws the safety concept and presents the first results determined by a looking-back over 4 years of working. (author)

  9. Dry vault for spent fuel depository, basic outsets, operating results and safety of the ''CASCAD'' plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, J.P.; Bardelle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Reprocessing and recycling of fissile materials is the preferred approach to spent fuel management in France. However, a number of spent fuel elements from prototype and experimental nuclear reactors cannot be reprocessed in the existing industrial facilities, either because such facilities are booked to full capacity, or due to technical factors such as non standard nature of fuel or limited series of fuel. The CEA therefore built a facility in which spent fuel can be stored for a few decades (50 years), until favourable conditions prevail for its disposal. The main features of this project consist of a dry depository, which presents a low cost of operation, against a wet on which is more expensive due to the circulation and the continuous controls of the water. Therefore, this is a fair solution because the experimental fuels will present a rather low residual heat power after decay in the nuclear reactor. At this stage, it becomes possible to cool the fuel elements by a fully passive air circulation. This process allows a good efficiency without mechanical equipment and works all the better as the amount of heat to exhaust is great, in the limits of the design. However, we will see that this concept may be extended to a depository of standard spent fuel elements. This facility, known as ''CASCAD'' (shortening for CASemate (=vault) CADarache) started up in 1990, and received its first canister of fuel on May 29th 1990. This paper reviews the basic design data of the facility, outlines the main techniques used for its construction, draws the safety concepts and presents the first results determined by a looking-back over 4 years of working. (author). 1 fig

  10. Dry vault for spent fuel depository. Basic outsets, operating results and safety of the ''CASCAD'' plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardelle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Reprocessing and recycling of fissile materials is the preferred approach to spent fuel management in France. However, a number of spent fuel elements from prototype and experimental nuclear reactors cannot be reprocessed in the existing industrial facilities, either because such facilities are booked to full capacity, or due to technical factors such as non standard nature of fuel or limited series of fuel. The CEA therefore built a facility in which spent fuel can be stored for a few decades (50 years), until favourable conditions prevail for its disposal. The main features of this project consist in a dry depositary, which presents a low cost of working, against a wet one which is more expensive due to the circulation and the continuous controls of the water. Therefore, this is a fair solution because the experimental fuels will present a rather low residual heat power after decay in the nuclear reactor. At this stage, it becomes possible to cool the fuel elements by a fully passive air circulation. This process allows a good efficiency without mechanical equipment and works all the better as the amount of heat to exhaust is great, in the limits of the design. However, we will see that this concept may be extended to a depository of standard spent fuel elements. This facility, known as ''CASCAD'' (shortening for CASemate (=vault) CADarache) started up in 1990, and received its first canister of fuel on May 29 th 1990. This paper reviews the basic design data of the facility, outlines the main techniques used for its construction, draws the safety concepts and presents the first results determined by a looking-back over 4 years of working. (author)

  11. The management status of the spent fuel in HANARO(1995-2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ho Young; Lim, Kyeng Hwan; Kim, Hyung Wook; Lee, Choong Sung; Ahn, Guk Hoon

    2009-11-01

    In HANARO, the spent fuels are stored in the spent fuel storage pool of the reactor hall. The capacity of the spent fuel storage pool was designed to store 600 bundles for 36 rods fuel, 432 bundles for 18 rods fuel, 315 rods for TRIGA reactor fuel and the fuels loaded in the reactor core. The spent fuel storage pool can store spent fuels discharged from the reactor core for 20 years normal operation. As for July 2009, the spent fuel 337 bundles are stored in the spent fuel storage pool. There are 217 bundles of 36 rods fuel and 120 bundles of 18 rods fuel. In this report, the information of the spent fuel about the loading date in the reactor core, discharged date, burnup, invisible inspection results and loading position in the spent fuel storage pool are described

  12. Conditioning of spent fuel for interim and final storage in the pilot conditioning plant (PKA) at Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahr, H.; Willax, H.O.; Spilker, H.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, due to the change of the nuclear law in Germany, the concept of direct final disposal for spent fuel was developed as an equivalent alternative to the waste management with reprocessing. Since 1979, tests for the direct final disposal of spent fuel have been conducted in Germany. In 1985, the State and the utilities came to an agreement to develop this concept of waste management to technical maturity. Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service (GNS) was commissioned by the utilities with the following tasks: to develop and test components with regard to conditioning technology, to construct and operate the pilot conditioning plant (PKA), and to develop casks suitable for final disposal. Since 1990, the construction of the PKA has taken place at the Brennelementlager Gorleben site. The PKA has been designed as a multipurpose facility and can thus fulfil various tasks within the framework of the conditioning and management of spent fuel assemblies and radioactive waste. The pilot character of the plant allows for development and testing in the field of spent fuel assembly conditioning. The objectives of the PKA may be summarized as follows: to condition spent fuel assemblies, to reload spent fuel assemblies and waste packages, to condition radioactive waste, and to do maintenance work on transport and storage casks as well as on waste packages. Currently, the buildings of the PKA are constructed and the technical facilities are installed. The plant will be ready for service in the middle of 1999. It is the first plant of its kind in the world. (author)

  13. Feasibility and incentives for the consideration of spent fuel operating histories in the criticality analysis of spent fuel shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Westfall, R.M.; Jones, R.H.

    1987-08-01

    Analyses have been completed that indicate the consideration of spent fuel histories (''burnup credit'') in the design of spent fuel shipping casks is a justifiable concept that would result in cost savings and public risk benefits in the transport of spent nuclear fuel. Since cask capacities could be increased over those of casks without burnup credit, the number of shipments necessary to transport a given amount of fuel could be reduced. Reducing the number of shipments would increase safety benefits by reducing public and occupational exposure to both radiological and nonradiological risks associated with the transport of spent fuel. Economic benefits would include lower in-transit shipping, reduced transportation fleet capital costs, and reduced numbers of cask handling operations at both shipping and receiving facilities. 44 refs., 66 figs., 28 tabs

  14. A Study of Integrity Evaluation System for Spent Fuel and Selection of the Representative Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. G.; Lee, S. K.; Lim, C. J.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Spent fuel (SF) integrity evaluation is a regulatory requirement that is described in 10 CFR 71(transportation) and 10 CFR 72(storage) of the U. S. NRC licensing requirement. NRC regulation states that retrievability of SF after storage should be ensured and SF integrity under the normal condition must be guaranteed during transportation and handling process that is entailed before/during/after the interim storage. And SF integrity evaluation under the hypothetical accident condition is a core technology element for an assessment of critical, shielding, and containment. In this paper, SF integrity evaluation system which is suitable for domestic situation is suggested, and necessity of representative SF selection and its method is described. The ultimate goal of the SF integrity evaluation is to evaluate a safety margin in case of transportation/ handling/storage of SFs. It means that retrievability of SF after storage should be assured and SF integrity must be guaranteed at normal condition in the process of transportation/handling accompanied before/during/after interim storage. In Korea, SF integrity evaluation system is not established up to date. Especially, representative SF selection technology that is essential to SF integrity evaluation has not been fulfilled. To overcome this situation effectively, the methodology and technology of an overseas agency need to be benchmarked. In this paper, an overseas SF integrity evaluation system is analyzed, and an evaluation system suitable for domestic situation is suggested. Also, necessity of representative SF selection and its method is described

  15. Spent fuel metal storage cask performance testing and future spent fuel concrete module performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, M.A.; Creer, J.M.

    1988-10-01

    REA-2023 Gesellshaft fur Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR-V/21, Transnuclear TN-24P, and Westinghouse MC-10 metal storage casks, have been performance tested under the guidance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine their thermal and shielding performance. The REA-2023 cask was tested under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship at General Electric's facilities in Morris, Illinois, using BWR spent fuel from the Cooper Reactor. The other three casks were tested under a cooperative agreement between Virginia Power Company and DOE at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EGandG Idaho, Inc., using intact spent PWR fuel from the Surry reactors. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made contributions to both programs. A summary of the various cask designs and the results of the performance tests is presented. The cask designs include: solid and liquid neutron shields; lead, steel, and nodular cast iron gamma shields; stainless steel, aluminum, and copper baskets; and borated materials for criticality control. 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Considerations for increasing unit 1 spent fuel pool capacity at the Laguna Verde station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, A.

    1992-01-01

    To increase the spent fuel storage capacity at the Laguna Verde Station in a safe and economical manner and assure a continuous operation of the first Mexican Nuclear Plant, Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), the Nation's Utility, seeked alternatives considering the overall world situation, the safety and licensing aspects, as well as the economics and the extent of the nuclear program of Mexico. This paper describes the alternatives considered, their evaluation and how the decision taken by CFE in this field, provides the Laguna Verde Station with a maximum of 37 years storage capacity plus full core reserve

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) spent fuel transportation and handling facility models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.B.; Bower, J.C.; Burnett, R.A.; Engel, R.L.; Rolland, C.W.

    1979-09-01

    A spent fuel logistics study was conducted in support of the US DOE program to develop facilities for preparing spent unreprocessed fuel from commercial LWRs for geological storage. Two computerized logistics models were developed. The first one was the site evaluation model. Two studies of spent fuel handling facility and spent fuel disposal facility siting were completed; the first postulates a single spent fuel handling facility located at any of six DOE laboratory sites, while the second study examined siting strategies with the spent fuel repository relative to the spent fuel handling facility. A second model to conduct storage/handling facility simulations was developed

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) spent fuel transportation and handling facility models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, W.B.; Bower, J.C.; Burnett, R.A.; Engel, R.L.; Rolland, C.W.

    1979-09-01

    A spent fuel logistics study was conducted in support of the US DOE program to develop facilities for preparing spent unreprocessed fuel from commercial LWRs for geological storage. Two computerized logistics models were developed. The first one was the site evaluation model. Two studies of spent fuel handling facility and spent fuel disposal facility siting were completed; the first postulates a single spent fuel handling facility located at any of six DOE laboratory sites, while the second study examined siting strategies with the spent fuel repository relative to the spent fuel handling facility. A second model to conduct storage/handling facility simulations was developed. (DLC)

  19. Recent developments in spent fuel management in Norway - 59260

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Peter J.; Oberlaender, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) in Norway has arisen from irradiation of fuel in the NORA, Jeep I and Jeep II reactors at Kjeller, and in the Heavy Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) in Halden. In total there is some 16 tonnes of SNF, with 12 tons of aluminium-clad fuel, of which 10 tonnes is metallic uranium fuel and the remainder oxide (UO 2 ). The portion of this fuel that is similar to commercial fuel (UO 2 clad in Zircaloy) may be suitable for direct disposal on the Swedish model or in other repository designs. However, metallic uranium and/or fuels clad in aluminium are chemically reactive and there would be risks associated with direct disposal. Two committees were established by the Government of Norway in January 2009 to make recommendati