WorldWideScience

Sample records for industrial steam systems

  1. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator is replaced by a steam expander. With this steam expander, the pressure will be transformed into mechanical energy and extracted during the expansion process. A new type of isothermal steam expander for an industrial steam supplying system will be presented in the paper. The isothermal steam expander will improve the energy efficiency of a traditional steam expander by replacing the isentropic process with an isothermal expansion process. With this, steam condensation will decrease, energy will increase, and steam quality will be improved. Moreover, the mathematical model of the isothermal steam expander will be established by using the Schmidt theory, the same principle used to analyze Stirling engines. Consequently, by verifying the correctness of the theoretical model for the isothermal steam expander using experimental data, a prototype of 100 c.c. isothermal steam expander is constructed.

  2. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Kuang Lin; Guang-Jer Lai; Yoshiyuki Kobayashi; Masahiro Matsuo; Min-Chie Chiu

    2015-01-01

    Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure) is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator i...

  3. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Williams

    2011-03-30

    Thermal losses in industrial steam distribution systems account for 977 trillion Btu/year in the US, more than 1% of total domestic energy consumption. Aspen Aerogels worked with Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program to specify, develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and deliver Pyrogel XT®, an aerogel-based pipe insulation, to market to reduce energy losses in industrial steam systems. The product developed has become Aspen’s best selling flexible aerogel blanket insulation and has led to over 60 new jobs. Additionally, this product has delivered more than ~0.7 TBTU of domestic energy savings to date, and could produce annual energy savings of 149 TBTU by 2030. Pyrogel XT’s commercial success has been driven by it’s 2-4X better thermal performance, improved durability, greater resistance to corrosion under insulation (CUI), and faster installation times than incumbent insulation materials.

  4. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-02-23

    This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

  5. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  6. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition (Book) (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-10-01

    Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry was developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), formerly the Industrial Technologies Program. AMO undertook this project as a series of sourcebook publications. Other topics in this series include: compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, process heating and motor and drive systems. For more information about program resources, see AMO in the Where to Find Help section of this publication.

  7. Comparison of Integrated Gasifier-Combined Cycle and AFB-steam turbine systems for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Abbott, J. M.; Burns, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    In the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS) a number of advanced coal fired systems were examined and systems using a integrated coal gasifier IGCC or a fluid bed combustor AFB were found to yield attractive cogeneration results in industrial cogeneration applications. A range of site requirements and cogeneration sizing strategies using ground rules based on CTAS were used in comparing an IGCC and an AFB. The effect of time variations in site requirements and the sensitivity to fuel and electricity price assumptions are examined. The economic alternatives of industrial or utility ownership are also considered. The results indicate that the IGCC system has potentially higher fuel and emission savings and could be an attractive option for utility ownership. The AFB steam turbine system has a potentially higher return on investment and could be attractive assuming industrial ownership.

  8. Comparison of Integrated Gasifier-Combined Cycle and AFB-steam turbine systems for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Abbott, J. M.; Burns, R. K.

    In the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS) a number of advanced coal fired systems were examined and systems using a integrated coal gasifier IGCC or a fluid bed combustor AFB were found to yield attractive cogeneration results in industrial cogeneration applications. A range of site requirements and cogeneration sizing strategies using ground rules based on CTAS were used in comparing an IGCC and an AFB. The effect of time variations in site requirements and the sensitivity to fuel and electricity price assumptions are examined. The economic alternatives of industrial or utility ownership are also considered. The results indicate that the IGCC system has potentially higher fuel and emission savings and could be an attractive option for utility ownership. The AFB steam turbine system has a potentially higher return on investment and could be attractive assuming industrial ownership.

  9. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  10. Computerized operating cost model for industrial steam generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, T.D.

    1983-02-01

    Pending EPA regulations, establishing revised emission levels for industrial boilers are perceived to have an effect on the relative costs of steam production technologies. To aid in the comparison of competitive boiler technologies, the Steam Cost Code was developed which provides levelized steam costs reflecting the effects of a number of key steam cost parameters. The Steam Cost Code is a user interactive FORTRAN program designed to operate on a VAX computer system. The program requires the user to input a number of variables describing the design characteristics, capital costs, and operating conditions for a specific boiler system. Part of the input to the Steam Cost Code is the capital cost of the steam production system. The capital cost is obtained from a program called INDCEPT, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center sponsorship.

  11. Design of Multi Cleaning System Using Steam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeetsinh v Makwana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The multi cleaning system is supposed to be system that uses steam which can clean up things that are used by human in day to day life. The commercial detergent washers are compared with the system and it was found that the washing is very convenient and soapy forms are not produced that made the washing very clumsy. The removal of bacterial populations formed on surface of any material would be totally eradicated. The surface to be cleaned are given bath with steam with high pressure from 3 bar to 7 bar by which removal of dirt and stain particles were washed off very comfortably. High pressure steam would be generated by heat the water in the tank which will mounted on the system itself. The reason behind using the steam for washing purpose is the less wastage of water and also its availability. The development of steam based cleaning system has revolutionized the process of washing. One can choose an appropriate type of high power steam cleaners for challenging cleaning applications in office, commercial and industrial settings. The steam does that thing that commercial washing system cannot do. A steam can remove grease and grime while for normal cleaning requires expensive detergents. The multi cleaning system cannot be only used for industrial use but also for the housework stuff. So our prime focus is to use the steam and make multiple cleaning

  12. Co-generation on steam industrial systems with disks turbines; Co-geracao em sistemas industriais de vapor com turbinas de discos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezsovits, Ferenc [Universidad de Tecnologia y Economia de Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-03-15

    The disk turbine, also called Tesla turbine, being of simple construction and low cost, can be used as steam pressure reduction on industrial systems, generating simultaneously electric power, becoming the co-generation even at lower levels. Can be used for various operational parameters and mass flux ratios.This paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the turbines under various operation conditions.

  13. Experiences with industrial solar process steam generation in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Dirk; Berger, Michael; Mokhtar, Marwan; Willwerth, Lisa; Zahler, Christian; Al-Najami, Mahmoud; Hennecke, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    At the Jordanian pharmaceuticals manufacturing company RAM Pharma a solar process heat supply has been constructed by Industrial Solar GmbH in March 2015 and operated since then (Figure 1). The collector field consists of 394 m² of linear Fresnel collectors supplying saturated steam to the steam network at RAM Pharma at about 6 bar gauge. In the frame of the SolSteam project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) the installation has been modified introducing an alternative way to separate water and steam by a cyclone. This paper describes the results of experiments with the cyclone and compares the operation with a steam drum. The steam production of the solar plant as well as the fuel demand of the steam boiler are continuously monitored and results are presented in this paper.

  14. An optimization model for the operations of steam production in industrial boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Rocco,Cleber Damião; Morabito, Reinaldo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a mixed integer linear programming model is presented to support some of the key decisions in the steam production system with industrial boilers. The model approaches the fuel management decisions (fuel replenishment and its inventory control), boiler operational decisions (start-up, warm-up, and shutdown operations), and which boiler should produce steam. The model adjustments and its validation were carried out through a case study in a large food industry. In face of the go...

  15. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  16. Solar production of industrial process steam for the Lone Star Brewery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deffenbaugh, D.M.; Watkins, P.V.; Hugg, S.B.; Kulesz, J.J.; Decker, H.E.; Powell, R.C.

    1979-06-29

    This report outlines the detailed design and system analysis of a solar industrial process steam system for the Lone Star Brewery. The industrial plant has an average natural gas usage of 12.7 MMcf per month. The majority of this energy goes to producing process steam of 125 psi and 353/sup 0/F at about 50,000 lb/h, with this load dropping to about 6000 lb/h on the weekends. The maximum steam production of the solar energy system is about 1700 lb/h. The climatic conditions at the industrial site give 50% of the possible amount of sunshine during the winter months and more than 70% during the summer months. The long-term yearly average daily total radiation on a horizontal surface is 1574 Btu/day-ft/sup 2/, the long-term yearly average daytime ambient temperature is 72/sup 0/F, and the percentage of clear day insolation received on the average day of the year is 62%. The solar steam system will consist of 9450 ft/sup 2/ of Solar Kinetics T-700 collectors arranged in fifteen 90-ft long rows through which 67.5 gpm of Therminol T-55 is pumped. This hot Therminol then transfers the heat collected to a Patterson-Kelley Series 380 unfired steam boiler. The solar-produced steam is then metered to the industrial process via a standard check valve. The thermal performance of this system is projected to produce about 3 million lbs of steam during an average weather year, which is approximately 3 billion Btu's. As with any prototype system, this steam system cannot be justified for purely economic reasons. It is estimated, however, that if the cost of the collectors can be reduced to a mass production level of $3 per lb then this type of system would be cost effective in about six years with the current government incentives and a fuel escalation rate of 10%. This period can be shortened by a combination of an increased investment tax credit and an accelerated depreciation.

  17. Challenges and Strength of Current Industrial Energy Efficiency Management Practices in Steam Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, S. B.; Pretorius, J. H. C.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to achieve greater output by examining the existing way of coordinating the determined attempts of Steam Industries in South Africa to successfully reach a sustainable industrial development by using energy source adequately in a more competent way. Furthermore into the study we look at obstacles that prevent and those that leads to maximum utilization of energy management measures and also highlights the effects of implementing cheap available energy source in South Africa. The investigation and analysis have shown that energy is not well managed in Steam Industries and that the use of energy is minimized and not fully utilized due to poor management and lack of knowledge. Another detection was that lack of government structured and strategic measures of implementing and motivating the use of energy effectively. The effective and rational use of available power by Steam Industries in South Africa is a key player in developing a sustainable industrial development. The use of energy efficiency management strategies has contributed an increase in economic and improve environmentally friendly in the industrial sector. The slow pace adoption of energy saving and cost effective management programmes are negatively impacting on the benefits to Steam Industries in South Africa. In conclusion the study finds that the economy can be boosted by implementing energy efficiency management programmes and environmentally friendly. These will also stabilize the negative impact of energy raising prices.

  18. Optimizing steam flood performance utilizing a new and highly accurate two phase steam measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, B. D.; Warren, P. B. [CalResources LLC (Canada); Whorff, F. [ITT Barton (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The development of a two phase steam measurement system was documented. The system consists of a `V` cone differential pressure device and a vortex meter velocity device in series through which the steam flows. Temperature and pressure sensors are electronically interfaced with a data logging system. The design was described as being very simple and rugged, consequently, well suited to monitoring in the field.. Steam quality measurements were made in the Kern River Field and the Coalinga Field thermal projects using a surface steam separator. In steam flood operations, steam cost is very high, hence appropriate distribution of the steam can result in significant cost reduction. This technology allows the measurement of steam flow and quality at any point in the steam distribution system. The metering system`s orifice meter was found to have a total average error of 45%, with 25% of that attributable to `cold leg` problem. Installation of the metering system was expected to result in a steam use reduction of 8%, without any impact on production. Steam re-distribution could result in a potential oil production increase of 10%. 12 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Experimental performance evaluation of heat pump-based steam supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, T.; Sakuraba, I.; Hashimoto, K.; Hasegawa, H.

    2015-08-01

    Heat pumps have become increasingly important as a technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse effect gas emission. They are presently used mainly on residential air-conditioning and domestic hot water and are expected to spread to industrial heating processes. In 2011, Kobe Steel, Ltd. developed and commercialized two heat pump- based steam supply systems; the high efficiency steam supply system with a steam temperature of 120°C (SGH120) and the system which enables a steam temperature of 165°C (sGh165). For promoting the spread of these industrial heat pumps and enhancing the reliability of them, we investigate experimentally steam generation rate, energy efficiency and controlled performance of the SGH165 under various operating conditions on the assumption of actual different industrial processes, and evaluate technical possibilities for better performance.

  20. Dehumidification System with Steam Permeability Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikwa, Masaaki; Sekimori, Souji; Ogiwara, Shigeaki; Ochiai, Tetsunari; Hirata, Tetsuo

    In a factory with a clean room facility in cold regions, dew-condensation on walls of the facility is one of the most serious problems in winter. In this study, a new dehumidification system in which a steam permeability film is located between humid air in a clean room and dry air from outside to exchange steam is proposed. This system can treat a lot of humid air with small energy only for driving fans to flow air. Some films are examined in two kinds of steam exchangers; double tube type and flat p1ate type. Steam permeability resistance and therma1 resistance of each film are first obtained in a double tube type exchanger. An analytica1 model for a flat plate type exchanger is then proposed, which shows good agreement with experimental data. Steam and heat transfer characteristics of a flat plate type exchanger are also evaluated experimentally. One film on a flat plate type exchanger shows dehumidification capacity of 0.033g/s(=120g/h )with its area of 2.232m2.

  1. Model-based process management and process optimisation of industrial steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaestner, Wolfgang; Hampel, Rainer; Foerster, Tom; Freund, Matthias [Univ. of Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz, Zittau (Germany). IPM; Haake, Dietmar; Kanisch, Heiko [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG, Cottbus (Germany); Altmann, Ulrich-Steffen; Mueller, Frank [CombTec GmbH, Zittau (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Within the framework of a joint project sponsored by BMBF the development of algorithms for the optimal process management of industrial steam generators was carried out. The research work was focussed on the reduction of high-temperature corrosion at the membrane walls of lignite-fired steam generators. In the result a system for demonstration of technology was installed successfully in a Vattenfall power plant in 2009. During the operation of the power plant the capability of the system to guarantee a stable and symmetric fire position was demonstrated. Current work is focussed on the further development and retrofitting of the system to apply it under real condition in a Vattenfall power plant. (orig.)

  2. Steam generators, industrial power plants, and cogeneration plants. Lectures; Dampferzeuger, Industrie- und Heizkraftwerke 2010. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The proceedings of the meeting on steam generators, industrial power plants, and cogeneration plants include the following lectures: Assignments and scopes of the VGB working group ''industry and thermal power plants, BHKW''. Combustion power and process control - application of feed grate firing in industrial technology - experiences and perspectives. A new possibility of biomass co-combustion. Biomass co-combustion in Vattenfall Waerme AG. Biomass plant with optimized control. The new energy supply concept for the paper plant in Plattling. Efficient steam boiler facilities for industry and thermal power plants - case studies. Adaptation of flue gas purification for co-combustion with experiences of prototype plants. Modern risk and insurance management for power plants. Reliability oriented maintenance. Surrogate fuel IHKW Gersthofen - planning, construction and preliminary operational experiences. Assignments and scopes of the VGB working group ''steam generators''. New developments in process safety management of E.ON UK coal-fired power plants. Station-supply reduction by power drive reconstruction to frequency control - modern injection technology at high plant parameters. Self-optimizing control of fuel/air regulation. CO{sub 2} reduction by automatic power plant modeling. Virtual reality as QA tool in 3D planning. Thermodynamic studies in power plants using VDI 2048. Heating surface cleaning with explosion generators - an alternative to soot blowers. results of laboratory study on urgent material questions.

  3. Mathematical modeling of control system for the experimental steam generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podlasek Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A steam generator is an essential unit of each cogeneration system using steam machines. Currently one of the cheapest ways of the steam generation can be application of old steam generators came from army surplus store. They have relatively simple construction and in case of not so exploited units – quite good general conditions, and functionality of mechanical components. By contrast, electrical components and control systems (mostly based on relay automatics are definitely obsolete. It is not possible to use such units with cooperation of steam bus or with steam engines. In particular, there is no possibility for automatically adjustment of the pressure and the temperature of the generated steam supplying steam engines. Such adjustment is necessary in case of variation of a generator load. The paper is devoted to description of improvement of an exemplary unit together with construction of the measurement-control system based on a PLC. The aim was to enable for communication between the steam generator and controllers of the steam bus and steam engines in order to construction of a complete, fully autonomic and maintenance-free microcogeneration system.

  4. Mathematical modeling of control system for the experimental steam generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlasek, Szymon; Lalik, Krzysztof; Filipowicz, Mariusz; Sornek, Krzysztof; Kupski, Robert; Raś, Anita

    2016-03-01

    A steam generator is an essential unit of each cogeneration system using steam machines. Currently one of the cheapest ways of the steam generation can be application of old steam generators came from army surplus store. They have relatively simple construction and in case of not so exploited units - quite good general conditions, and functionality of mechanical components. By contrast, electrical components and control systems (mostly based on relay automatics) are definitely obsolete. It is not possible to use such units with cooperation of steam bus or with steam engines. In particular, there is no possibility for automatically adjustment of the pressure and the temperature of the generated steam supplying steam engines. Such adjustment is necessary in case of variation of a generator load. The paper is devoted to description of improvement of an exemplary unit together with construction of the measurement-control system based on a PLC. The aim was to enable for communication between the steam generator and controllers of the steam bus and steam engines in order to construction of a complete, fully autonomic and maintenance-free microcogeneration system.

  5. System for Steam Leak Detection by using CCTV Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Chul; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Hui Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Ki Sung; Jeon, Hyeong Seop [SAEAN.Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    There are many pipes in the secondary cooling systems of nuclear power plants and coal-fired power plants. In these pipes, high pressure fluids are moving with at high velocity, which can cause steam leakage due to pipe thinning. Steam leakage is one of the major issues for the structural fracture of pipes. Therefore, a method to inspect a large area of piping systems quickly and accurately is needed. Steam leakage is almost invisible, because the flow has very high velocity and pressure. Therefore, it is very difficult to detect a steam leakage. In this paper, we proposed the method for detecting steam leakage using image signal processing. Our basic idea comes from a heat shimmer, which shines with a soft light that looks as if it is being shaken slightly. To test the performance of this technique, experiments have been performed for a steam generator. Results show that the proposed technique is quite powerful for steam leak detection

  6. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE DRUM BOILER SUPERHEATED STEAM TEMPERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  7. Steam Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Turbonetics Energy, Inc.'s steam turbines are used as power generating systems in the oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceuticals, metals and mining, and pulp and paper industries. The Turbonetics line benefited from use of NASA research data on radial inflow steam turbines and from company contact with personnel of Lewis Research Center, also use of Lewis-developed computer programs to determine performance characteristics of turbines.

  8. Modelling of Steam Generating Paraboloidal dish Solar Thermal Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siangsukone, P.; Lovegrove, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Australian National University (ANU) has a 400m2 Paraboloidal dish solar concentrator system, informally named the Big Dish that produces superheated steam via a receiver mounted monotube boiler connected to 50kWe steam engine for electricity generation. This paper describes an investigation of the system and its components modelled using the TRNYSYS transient system simulation package. The system was modelled in the context of performance assessment for multiple dishes, central generation Rankine cycle power plants. Five new custom components; paraboloidal dish collector, steam cavity receiver, steam line or feedwater line, steam engine, and pressure drop calculator, were developed for the TRNSYS deck file constructed for this study. Validation tests were performed by comparing with the latest experimental results measured with a 1-minute time step and good agreement, with errors less than 10%, has been found. (Author)

  9. On synthesis and optimization of steam system networks. 1. Sustained boiler efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majozi, T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional steam system comprises a steam boiler and the associated heat exchanger network (HEN). Most research published in literature tends to address both the elements of the steam system as separate entities instead of analyzing...

  10. LMFBR steam generator systems development program progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    The intent of this program is to investigate methods of producing 2-1/4 Cr-1Mo duplex tubing to meet the structural, thermal/hydraulic and leak detection design requirements of the duplex tube leak detection concept for application on the Demonstration Plant and/or prototype steam generator. The leak detection concept as envisioned for LMFBR steam generator application will be analyzed regarding response to credible leak situations. The results of testing will be used for this analysis. The third fluid system will be conceptually designed including the two plena design adaptations being considered and the advantages and disadvantages of each will be assessed. The test program for the single-tube steam generator model will be developed in accordance with the technical and schedular objectives of the LMFBR duplex tube steam generator development program. A conceptual steam generator configuration will be established for use as a reference in the on-going feasibility studies and Demo Plant system development.

  11. Industrial energy systems and assessment opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Frank Leonard, III

    Industrial energy assessments are performed primarily to increase energy system efficiency and reduce energy costs in industrial facilities. The most common energy systems are lighting, compressed air, steam, process heating, HVAC, pumping, and fan systems, and these systems are described in this document. ASME has produced energy assessment standards for four energy systems, and these systems include compressed air, steam, process heating, and pumping systems. ASHRAE has produced an energy assessment standard for HVAC systems. Software tools for energy systems were developed for the DOE, and there are software tools for almost all of the most common energy systems. The software tools are AIRMaster+ and LogTool for compressed air systems, SSAT and 3E Plus for steam systems, PHAST and 3E Plus for process heating systems, eQUEST for HVAC systems, PSAT for pumping systems, and FSAT for fan systems. The recommended assessment procedures described in this thesis are used to set up an energy assessment for an industrial facility, collect energy system data, and analyze the energy system data. The assessment recommendations (ARs) are opportunities to increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems. A set of recommended assessment procedures and recommended assessment opportunities are presented for each of the most common energy systems. There are many assessment opportunities for industrial facilities, and this thesis describes forty-three ARs for the seven different energy systems. There are seven ARs for lighting systems, ten ARs for compressed air systems, eight ARs for boiler and steam systems, four ARs for process heating systems, six ARs for HVAC systems, and four ARs for both pumping and fan systems. Based on a history of past assessments, average potential energy savings and typical implementation costs are shared in this thesis for most ARs. Implementing these ARs will increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems in

  12. A Numerical Study on the Supersonic Steam Ejector Use in Steam Turbine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic steam ejector is widely used in steam energy systems such as refrigeration, wood drying equipment, papermaking machine, and steam turbine. In this paper the Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD method was employed to simulate a supersonic steam ejector, SST k-w turbulence model was adopted, and both real gas model and ideal gas model for fluid property were considered and compared. The mixing chamber angle, throat length, and nozzle exit position (NXP primary pressure and temperature effects on entrainment ratio were investigated. The results show that performance of the ejector is underestimated using ideal gas model, and the entrainment ratio is 20%–40% lower than that when using real gas model. There is an optimum mixing chamber angel and NXP makes the entrainment ratio achieve its maximum; as throat length is decreased within a range, the entrainment ratio remains unchanged. Primary fluid pressure has a critical value, and the entrainment ratio reaches its peak at working critical pressure; when working steam superheat degree increases, the entrainment ratio is increased.

  13. Optimizing the Heat Exchanger Network of a Steam Reforming System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Korsgaard, Anders Risum; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    gas steam reformer along with gas purification reactors to generate clean hydrogen suited for a PEM stack. The temperatures in the various reactors in the fuel processing system vary from around 1000°C to the stack temperature at 80°C. Furthermore, external heating must be supplied to the endothermic...... steam reforming reaction and steam must be generated. The dependence of the temperature profiles on conversion in shift reactors for gas purification is also significant. The optimum heat integration in the system is thus imperative in order to minimize the need for hot and cold utilities. A rigorous 1D...

  14. System Identification of a Nonlinear Multivariable Steam Generator Power Plant Using Time Delay and Wavelet Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Khalilzadeh Ganjali-khani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most effective strategies for steam generator efficiency enhancement is to improve the control system. For such an improvement, it is essential to have an accurate model for the steam generator of power plant. In this paper, an industrial steam generator is considered as a nonlinear multivariable system for identification. An important step in nonlinear system identification is the development of a nonlinear model. In recent years, artificial neural networks have been successfully used for identification of nonlinear systems in many researches. Wavelet neural networks (WNNs also are used as a powerful tool for nonlinear system identification. In this paper we present a time delay neural network model and a WNN model in order to identify an industrial steam generator. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed models in the system identification and demonstrate that the WNN model is more precise to estimate the plant outputs.

  15. Ecotaxes and their impact in the cost of steam and electric energy generated by a steam turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, Gisela [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico). Instituto de Ingenieria; Pulido, Ricardo; Pineda, Carlos; Rivero, Ricardo [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-12-15

    Ecotaxes allow the internalization of costs that are considered externalities associated with polluting industrial process emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, ecotaxes internalize polluting emissions negative impacts that are added to electricity and steam generated costs of a steam turbine and heat recovery systems from a utilities refinery plant. Steam costs were calculated by means of an exergy analysis tool and Aspen Plus simulation models. Ecotaxes were calculated for specific substances emitted in the refinery flue gases, based on a toxicity and pollution scale. Ecotaxes were generated from a model that includes damages produced to biotic and abiotic resources and considers the relative position of those substances in a toxicity and pollution scale. These ecotaxes were internalized by an exergoeconomic analysis resulting in an increase in the cost per kWh produced. This kind of ecotax is not applied in Mexico. The values of ecotaxes used in the cost determination are referred to the values currently applied by some European countries to nitrogen oxides emissions. (author)

  16. Development of data management system for steam generator inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yong Moo; Im, Chang Jae; Lee, Yoon Sang; Kang, Soon Joo; An, Jong Kwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    The data communications environment for transferring Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generator Eddy Current testing data was investigated and after connecting LAN to Hinet-F network, the remote data transfer with the speed of 56 kbps was tested successfully. Data management system for Steam Generator Eddy current testing was also developed by using HP-UX, RMB (Rock Mountain Basic) 21 figs, 13 tabs, 5 refs. (Author).

  17. Development of data management system for steam generator inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yong Moo; Im, Chang Jae; Lee, Yoon Sang; Kang, Soon Joo; An, Jong Kwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    The data communications environment for transferring Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generator Eddy Current testing data was investigated and after connecting LAN to Hinet-F network, the remote data transfer with the speed of 56 kbps was tested successfully. Data management system for Steam Generator Eddy current testing was also developed by using HP-UX, RMB (Rock Mountain Basic) 21 figs, 13 tabs, 5 refs. (Author).

  18. Optimizing the Heat Exchanger Network of a Steam Reforming System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Korsgaard, Anders Risum; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) based combined heat and power production systems are highly integrated energy systems. They may include a hydrogen production system and fuel cell stacks along with post combustion units optionally coupled with gas turbines. The considered system is based on a natural...... steam reforming reaction and steam must be generated. The dependence of the temperature profiles on conversion in shift reactors for gas purification is also significant. The optimum heat integration in the system is thus imperative in order to minimize the need for hot and cold utilities. A rigorous 1D...... gas steam reformer along with gas purification reactors to generate clean hydrogen suited for a PEM stack. The temperatures in the various reactors in the fuel processing system vary from around 1000°C to the stack temperature at 80°C. Furthermore, external heating must be supplied to the endothermic...

  19. Ethanol production from industrial hemp: effect of combined dilute acid/steam pretreatment and economic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Prade, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, combined steam (140-180 °C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis and etha......In the present study, combined steam (140-180 °C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis...... pretreated at the optimal conditions showed positive economic results. The type of hemp cultivation (organic or conventional) did not influence significantly the effectiveness of the pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation....

  20. Steam pretreatment of dry and ensiled industrial hemp for ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Sipos, Bálint; Kreuger, Emma; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Réczey, Kati; Björnsson, Lovisa; Zacchi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Biomass can be converted into liquid and gaseous biofuels with good efficiency. In this study, the conversion of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), a biomass source that can be cultivated with a high biomass yield per hectare, was used. Steam pretreatment of dry and ensiled hemp was investigated prior to ethanol production. The pretreatment efficiency was evaluated in terms of sugar recovery and polysaccharide conversion in the enzymatic hydrolysis step. For both materi...

  1. Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-07

    The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)

  2. 石化企业蒸汽动力系统短期优化调度%Optimal short-term operational planning of steam power systems of petrochemical industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴文智; 尹洪超; 张一夫

    2011-01-01

    参数的不确定性贯穿于蒸汽动力系统运行操作的整个过程,它是蒸汽动力系统的重要特征,参数不确定性的处理相对于参数确定性条件要困难很多.针对参数不确定性问题处理困难的特点,建立了蒸汽动力系统短期多周期运行优化模型.运用改进的粒子群优化算法对建立的模型进行优化求解,得到了经济性和可操作性都较好的运行计划方案,进一步为企业运行计划人员提供定量的计划调度指导.%Uncertainty is an important characteristic of the steam power system and exists in the whole process. It is very difficult to separate the uncertainty factor from the certainty factors and to solve the operational planning problem under uncertainty. A short-term multi-period optimization model for the steam power systems was established and solved by using the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm. The feasibility and rationality of the model was solved based on the IPSO method. A better operational planning was attained to provide guidance quantificationally for the operating plan.

  3. Bio-syngas production from agro-industrial biomass residues by steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacioni, Tatiana Ramos; Soares, Diniara; Domenico, Michele Di; Rosa, Maria Fernanda; Moreira, Regina de Fátima Peralta Muniz; José, Humberto Jorge

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the steam gasification potential of three residues from Brazilian agro-industry by assessing their reaction kinetics and syngas production at temperatures from 650 to 850°C and a steam partial pressure range of 0.05 to 0.3bar. The transition temperature between kinetic control and diffusion control regimes was identified. Prior to the gasification tests, the raw biomasses, namely apple pomace, spent coffee grounds and sawdust, were pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed quartz tubular reactor under controlled conditions. Gasification tests were performed isothermally in a magnetic suspension thermobalance and the reaction products were analyzed by a gas chromatograph with TCD/FID detectors. According to the characterization results, the samples presented higher carbon and lower volatile matter contents than the biomasses. Nevertheless, all of the materials had high calorific value. Syngas production was influenced by both temperature and steam partial pressure. Higher concentrations of H2 and CO were found in the conversion range of 50-80% and higher concentrations of CO2 in conversions around 10%, for all the gasified biochars. The H2/CO decreased with increasing temperature, mainly in kinetic control regime, in the lower temperature range. The results indicate the gasification potential of Brazilian biomass residues and are an initial and important step in the development of gasification processes in Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of Steam Turbine Inlet Control Valve for Supercritical Pressure at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB

    OpenAIRE

    Sors, Felix; Holm, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    The development in the steam turbine business is heading for applications with much higher steam parameters since this enables a raised efficiency. Steam parameters refer to the pressure and the temperature of the steam. The aim of this study was to generate concepts for steam turbine inlet control valves designed for higher pressure and temperature in comparison with the present design. Future steam power plants using solar energy, based on tower technology, request this kind of performance ...

  5. Energy balance for steam generation system with biomass dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Pedro A.R. [Instituto Superior Politecnico Jose Antonio Echeverria (CUJAE), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba). Facultad Ingenieria Mecanica]. E-mail: pedro@economia.cujae.edu.cu; Lombardi, Geraldo; Santos, Antonio Moreira dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia]. E-mails: lombardi@sc.usp.br; asantos@sc.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    Water content is a major drainer of the energy available in the biomass, which justifies the proposal of a drying system with the potential to increase 80% of the biomass low heating value, also increasing the production of steam in the boiler and cogeneration of electricity. An example of biomass is the sugar cane bagasse of an alcohol mill producing 120,000 liters of alcohol per day, whose humidity from the extraction section is usually 50%. The present paper determines the increases in the mass flow rates of steam in the boiler, in the cogeneration of electricity and in the pay back time of the drying system and of the alcohol mill, as a consequence of the bagasse drying from 50 to 35%, considering 30% of air excess over the stoichiometric value admitted in the boiler for the bagasse burning. It also provides subsidies for the development and deployment of a drying system for the current boilers. (author)

  6. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  7. Design of fault tolerant control system for steam generator using

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Ki; Seo, Mi Ro [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A controller and sensor fault tolerant system for a steam generator is designed with fuzzy logic. A structure of the proposed fault tolerant redundant system is composed of a supervisor and two fuzzy weighting modulators. A supervisor alternatively checks a controller and a sensor induced performances to identify which part, a controller or a sensor, is faulty. In order to analyze controller induced performance both an error and a change in error of the system output are chosen as fuzzy variables. The fuzzy logic for a sensor induced performance uses two variables : a deviation between two sensor outputs and its frequency. Fuzzy weighting modulator generates an output signal compensated for faulty input signal. Simulations show that the proposed fault tolerant control scheme for a steam generator regulates well water level by suppressing fault effect of either controllers or sensors. Therefore through duplicating sensors and controllers with the proposed fault tolerant scheme, both a reliability of a steam generator control and sensor system and that of a power plant increase even more. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  8. Equation of state for steam for systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muneer, T.

    1985-01-01

    For engineers involved in the analysis of thermal systems, it may be desirable to compute thermodynamic properties using an equation of state rather than tables or charts. In this work, a pressure explicit equation of state for steam is developed by curve fitting of P-V-T data. An efficient optimization method was used for the least-squares minimization. The five-constant, Beattie-Bridgeman equation developed here was found to perform well in computation of a property when the other two were provided. The equation is inherently simple in form, and therefore, computation of other thermodynamic properties such as enthalpy and entropy will be an easy matter. Thus, the equation will be invaluable in design and optimization of steam-based thermal systems.

  9. On synthesis and optimization of steam system networks. 3. Pressure drop consideration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Price, T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat exchanger networks in steam systems are traditionally designed to operate in parallel. Coetzee and Majozi (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2008, 47, 4405-4413) found that by reusing steam condensate within the network the steam flow rate could be reduced...

  10. Synthesis and optimization of steam system networks. 2. Multiple steam levels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Price, T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of steam in heat exchanger networks (HENs) can be reduced by the application of heat integration with the intention of debottlenecking the steam boiler and indirectly reducing the water requirement [Coetzee and Majozi. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res...

  11. Influence of feedwater and blowdown systems on the mineral distribution in WWER steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, L. [Inst. of Material Engineering, Ostrava (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    After modification of Dukovany NPP steam generator (SG) feedwater system, the increased concentration of minerals was measured in the cold leg of modified SG. Some modifications were performed on operating WWER 1000 steam generators with aim to optimize the water chemistry in the collectors area. Since the distribution of minerals can substantially affect on corrosion processes in steam generators, VITKOVICE, as a producer of WWER steam generators has focused the attention to the optimizing of these systems. To predict the mineral distribution on the secondary side of steam generators for considered feedwater/blowdown systems, the simple model of the flow distribution in the secondary side of SG was developed.

  12. Energy and Exergy Efficiency Analysis of Sealing Steam Condenser in Propulsion System of LNG Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Medica-Viola

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In ship propulsion systems today diesel engines are dominant, but steam propulsion systems prevail in one type of ships and that are LNG carriers. Such steam propulsion systems consist of many different components. One interesting component of these systems is sealing steam condenser analysed in this paper. Measurements of all necessary operating parameters for analysed sealing steam condenser were performed during the ship exploitation and they were used for calculating the energy and exergy efficiency of this device. Except the displayed movement of both efficiencies the reasons for those changes and proposals for possible improvements were presented. Also, it was displayed all operating parameters of sealing steam condenser that has an impact on its performance and efficiency. During the ship exploitation, improvements related to the sealing steam condenser efficiency are hard to expect because improvements would cause an increase in the steam propulsion system operating costs.

  13. Application of imitation steam'' systems to hot water district heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, P.J.; Chen, D.B.

    1991-10-01

    Pequod Associates, Inc. and District Energy St. Paul, Inc. installed a pilot project of an innovative District Heating technology through a contract with the US DOE. This applied research was funded by the Energy Research and Development Act (94--163) for District Heating and Cooling Research. The experimental design is an intervention technique that permits hot water district heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems. This method can substantially reduce conversion costs in many older buildings. The method circulates Imitation Steam, which is moist hot air, as a heating medium in standard steam radiators and steam heating coils. Based on the operation of the system during the 1989--90 and 1990--91 winter heating seasons, we conclude the following: the basic concept of using Imitation Steam was proved feasible. The performance of the system can be improved beyond the levels achieved in this installation. Imitation Steam did not cause significant corrosion in the piping system. The technology can be used by other district heating systems to lower conversion costs and increase market penetration. Among the additional benefits from this technology are: eliminating old, inefficient boilers; lower maintenance costs; improved fuel efficiency; reduced emissions.

  14. Solar production of industrial process steam for the Lone Star Brewery. 80% review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deffenbaugh, D.M.; Watkins, P.V.; Hugg, S.B.; Kulesz, J.J.; Decker, H.E.; Powell, R.C.

    1979-05-15

    The solar steam system for the Lone Star Brewery is described in detail. It consists of a roof-mounted parabolic trough collector field heating Monsanto's Therminol T-55 heat transfer fluid, a solar-fired boiler, a heat transfer fluid circulation pump, and all the associated piping. The comparison of various collectors and heat transfer fluids surveyed is reviewed. Also included are discussions of the system performance analysis, economic analysis, safety analysis, data collection, and environmental impact assessment. Numerous drawings illustrate the system, particularly the parallel trough collectors. (LEW)

  15. Optimization of cold end system of steam turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHAO; Ling LIU; Wenbing ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    An optimization of the movement character-istic of the cold end system of the steam turbine was con-ducted from an overall consideration of the condenser and the circulation water pump. An analysis method based on thermodynamics theory that fixes coupling characteristic between the best vacuum and the best circulation dis-charge of water was proposed. The proposed method was applied to the optimized analysis of the operating mode of the cold end system of a 300 MW unit in a power plant.

  16. Steam pretreatment of dry and ensiled industrial hemp for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipos, Balint; Reczey, Kati [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Applied Biotechnology and Food Science, Szt. Gellert ter 4., H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Kreuger, Emma; Bjoernsson, Lovisa [Lund University, Department of Biotechnology, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svensson, Sven-Erik [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agriculture - Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, P.O. Box 104, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden); Zacchi, Guido [Lund University, Department of Chemical Engineering, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    Biomass can be converted into liquid and gaseous biofuels with good efficiency. In this study, the conversion of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), a biomass source that can be cultivated with a high biomass yield per hectare, was used. Steam pretreatment of dry and ensiled hemp was investigated prior to ethanol production. The pretreatment efficiency was evaluated in terms of sugar recovery and polysaccharide conversion in the enzymatic hydrolysis step. For both materials, impregnation with 2% SO{sub 2} followed by steam pretreatment at 210 C for 5 min were found to be the optimal conditions leading to the highest overall yield of glucose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments carried out with optimised pretreatment conditions resulted in ethanol yields of 163 g kg{sup -1} ensiled hemp (dry matter) (71% of the theoretical maximum) and 171 g kg{sup -1} dry hemp (74%), which corresponds to 206-216 l Mg{sup -1} ethanol based on initial dry material. (author)

  17. State-of-the-art steam generator on-line chemistry monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Koul, L.J.; Mc Clendon, M.E.; Richards, J.E.; Wozniak, S.M.

    1986-04-01

    Recent understanding of corrosion mechanisms has changed the industry's approach to one of establishing and maintaining proper water chemistry conditions to increase steam generator life and availability. A rigorous sampling and analysis program, along with management's commitment to proper water chemistry, are integral to the success of this approach. This paper describes Virginia Power's recent commitment to better maintenance of secondary side water chemistry conditions at its nuclear power stations through an on-line, comprehensive, state-of-the-art chemistry monitoring system.

  18. Ethanol production from industrial hemp: effect of combined dilute acid/steam pretreatment and economic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Prade, Thomas; Johansson, Eva; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, combined steam (140-180°C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis and ethanol yields was also evaluated. Pretreatment with 1% sulfuric acid at 180°C resulted in the highest glucose yield (73-74%) and ethanol yield of 75-79% (0.38-0.40 g-ethanol/g-glucose). Taking into account the costs of biomass processing, from field to ethanol facility storage, the field-dried hemp pretreated at the optimal conditions showed positive economic results. The type of hemp cultivation (organic or conventional) did not influence significantly the effectiveness of the pretreatment as well as subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation.

  19. Multi-Sector General Permit Annual Industrial Storm Water Training, TA-3-22 Power and Steam Plant (Sector 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendo, Marwin Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-12

    This report offers training for employees who work at TA-3-22, the Power and Steam Plant that move product, metal, and other pollutants like oil, fuel, equipment, pumps, etc. outside or that work outside with industrial materials exposed to storm water.

  20. VOCs Speciation From Steam Boiler Stacks of Industries Located in Naucalpan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, G. M.; Tejeda, D. D.; Bremauntz, M. P.; Valdez, A.; Montufar, P. C.; Martinez, M. A.; Sierra, M. J.; Gonzalez, C. A.

    2007-05-01

    Results of VOCs speciation from industrial steam boiler stacks located in Naucalpan are presented and discussed. This municipality is located north of the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico (MZVM). Speciation of VOCs is important to generate information about sources of pollution, to update emission inventories, to study the dynamics of pollutants in the atmosphere, and to estimate possible risks of population exposure. This information is valuable for decision making on air pollution control strategies. Samples from 35 steam boilers form industries burning Diesel, LPG, or CNG were taken using the US-EPA Method 18. Selected samples from the use of different fuels were analyzed using gas chromatography and flame ionization detection (GC-FID) according to US-EPA protocol TO-14. The VOCs analyzed included alkanes of 9 carbons or less, alkenes of 7 carbons or less and aromatics (families of benzene). The results show consistency on the VOCs detected on Diesel samples. The main compounds found were 1- Butene+iButylene, m/p-Xylene, Ethane, Propene, Propane, Acetylene, 2Me-1Butene, and Toluene. The average concentrations of these compounds were in the range of 130 to 385 ppbC. The results of LPG samples did not show a definite pattern of VOCs, although light components predominate and, in some samples, Toluene and Xylene. These last components were not expected for industries reporting the use of LPG, perhaps due to the use of a combination of fuels and mistakes in the reports of fuel used at the time of sampling. The analysis of CNG samples show predominance of light VOCs, in the range of 90 to 300 ppbC. As in the case of LPG, some aromatics showed high concentrations in some samples analyzed perhaps due to the use of different fuels in the boiler. The results of this study are the first results of VOCs speciation obtained form exhaust gases from stacks of Mexican industries. The data reported are valuable to analyze emission inventories of VOCs and to better

  1. Water and steam sampling systems; Provtagningssystem foer vatten och aanga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats

    2009-10-15

    The supervision of cycle chemistry can be divided into two parts, the sampling system and the chemical analysis. In modern steam generating plants most of the chemical analyses are carried out on-line. The detection limits of these analyzers are pushed downward to the ppt-range (parts per trillion), however the analyses are not more correct than the accuracy of the sampling system. A lot of attention has been put to the analyzers and the statistics to interpret the results but the sampling procedures has gained much less attention. This report aims to give guidance of the considerations to be made regarding sampling systems. Sampling is necessary since most analysis of interesting parameters cannot be carried out in- situ on-line in the steam cycle. Today's on-line instruments for pH, conductivity, silica etc. are designed to meet a water sample at a temperature of 10-30 deg C. This means that the sampling system has to extract a representative sample from the process, transport and cool it down to room temperature without changing the characteristics of the fluid. In the literature research work, standards and other reports can be found. Although giving similar recommendations in most aspects there are some discrepancies that may be confusing. This report covers all parts in the sampling system: Sample points and nozzles; Sample lines; Valves, regulating and on-off; Sample coolers; Temperature, pressure and flow rate control; Cooling water; and Water recovery. On-line analyzers connecting to the sampling system are not covered. This report aims to clarify what guidelines are most appropriate amongst the existing ones. The report should also give guidance to the design of the sampling system in order to achieve representative samples. In addition to this the report gives an overview of the fluid mechanics involved in sampling. The target group of this report is owners and operators of steam generators, vendors of power plant equipment, consultants working in

  2. A Rule-Based Industrial Boiler Selection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. F.; Khalil, S. N.; Karjanto, J.; Tee, B. T.; Wahidin, L. S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.; Sivarao, S.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Boiler is a device used for generating the steam for power generation, process use or heating, and hot water for heating purposes. Steam boiler consists of the containing vessel and convection heating surfaces only, whereas a steam generator covers the whole unit, encompassing water wall tubes, super heaters, air heaters and economizers. The selection of the boiler is very important to the industry for conducting the operation system successfully. The selection criteria are based on rule based expert system and multi-criteria weighted average method. The developed system consists of Knowledge Acquisition Module, Boiler Selection Module, User Interface Module and Help Module. The system capable of selecting the suitable boiler based on criteria weighted. The main benefits from using the system is to reduce the complexity in the decision making for selecting the most appropriate boiler to palm oil process plant.

  3. Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taler, J.; Taler, D. [Cracow University of Technology, Krakow (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    The computer-based boiler performance system presented in this article has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure, and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate is calculated taking into the account water flow rate in attemperators. Comparing the calculated and the measured superheated steam mass flow rate, the effectiveness of the combustion chamber water walls is determined in an on-line mode. Soot-blower sequencing can be optimized based on actual cleaning requirements rather than on fixed time cycles contributing to lowering of the medium usage in soot blowers and increasing of the water-wall lifetime.

  4. Steam Methane Reforming System for Hydrogen Production: Advanced Exergetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Morosuk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Steam methane reforming (SMR is one of the most promising processes for the production of hydrogen. Therefore, the overall thermodynamic efficiency of this process is of particular importance. The thermodynamic inefficiencies in a thermal system are related to exergy destruction and exergy loss. However, a conventional exergetic analysis cannot evaluate the mutual interdependencies among the system components nor the real potential for improving the energy conversion system being considered. One of the tools under development for the improvement of energy conversion systems from the thermodynamic viewpoint is the advanced exergetic analysis. In this paper, the avoidable part of the exergy destruction is estimated and the interactions among components of the overall system are evaluated in terms of endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction. The assumptions required for these calculations are discussed in detail, especially for those components that are typically used in chemical processes. Results of this paper suggest options for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of hydrogen production by steam-methane reforming.

  5. Measure Guideline. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jayne [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Ludwig, Peter [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, Larry [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This guideline provides building owners, professionals involved in multifamily audits, and contractors insights for improving the balance and tuning of steam systems. It provides readers an overview of one-pipe steam heating systems, guidelines for evaluating steam systems, typical costs and savings, and guidelines for ensuring quality installations. It also directs readers to additional resources for details not included here. Measures for balancing a distribution system that are covered include replacing main line vents and upgrading radiator vents. Also included is a discussion on upgrading boiler controls and the importance of tuning the settings on new or existing boiler controls. The guideline focuses on one-pipe steam systems, though many of the assessment methods can be generalized to two-pipe steam systems.

  6. Industrial systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, José Manuel; Nielsen, Jens

    2010-02-15

    The chemical industry is currently undergoing a dramatic change driven by demand for developing more sustainable processes for the production of fuels, chemicals, and materials. In biotechnological processes different microorganisms can be exploited, and the large diversity of metabolic reactions represents a rich repository for the design of chemical conversion processes that lead to efficient production of desirable products. However, often microorganisms that produce a desirable product, either naturally or because they have been engineered through insertion of heterologous pathways, have low yields and productivities, and in order to establish an economically viable process it is necessary to improve the performance of the microorganism. Here metabolic engineering is the enabling technology. Through metabolic engineering the metabolic landscape of the microorganism is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of the raw material, typically glucose, to the product of interest. This process may involve both insertion of new enzymes activities, deletion of existing enzyme activities, but often also deregulation of existing regulatory structures operating in the cell. In order to rapidly identify the optimal metabolic engineering strategy the industry is to an increasing extent looking into the use of tools from systems biology. This involves both x-ome technologies such as transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and fluxome analysis, and advanced mathematical modeling tools such as genome-scale metabolic modeling. Here we look into the history of these different techniques and review how they find application in industrial biotechnology, which will lead to what we here define as industrial systems biology.

  7. Steam savings of 33% provided by vacuum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslam, J.

    1979-04-01

    Abbott Laboratories needed a vacuum system for a batch distillation process used in the manufacture of an anticonvulsant known as Depakene. The system was to handle 10 lb/hr of air at a suction pressure of 2 torr. A vacuum system that was reliable and also one that used a minimum amount of energy was required. Another requirement was a low-level installation, and if possible, availability from one vendor so to achieve single-source responsibility. After considering various alternatives, the plant installed a 4-stage combination system consisting of a liquid-ring vacuum pump and a 2-stage steam-jet ejector unit. Materials of construction were all 316 stainless steel. The liquid ring vacuum pump provides the initial and major reduction in pressure down to 28'' Hg vacuum. The two ejector stages further decrease this pressure to 2 torr. This combination system has been shown to have a utility cost only 2/3 as great as one in which a conventional 4-stage ejector system is used. Hence, utility cost is reduced by 33%. No significant maintenance has been needed on vacuum system since it was installed in June 1978.

  8. Industrialized Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havn, Erling; Bansler, Jørgen P.

    1996-01-01

    with such generic products, instead of custom made software. We discuss how the move away from traditional in-house development and the increasing use of generic software is likely to transform IS development in the near future. We conclude that these developments will make new demands on the information systems......The production of application software is rapidly being industrialized. Computer manufacturers and software houses produce a rapidly growing number of generic software applications and systems, and more and more user companies choose to build their computer-based information systems...

  9. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse and medium coal size fractions for clean coal from heavy media vessels, amounts 68.9 μg/kg, and most of the results lay below the mean value, while for rejects it amounts 95.5 μg/kg. It means that it is for around 25 μg/kg greater than in the clean coal. The arithmetic mean mercury content in raw coal smalls amounts around 118 mg/kg. The cleaning of smalls in jigs results in clean coal and steam coal blends characterized by mean mercury content 96.8 μg/kg and rejects with mean mercury content 184.5 μg/kg.

  10. Boiler tube failures in industrial drum-type steam generators. Pt. 3: Alternative cycle chemistry treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursik, A. [University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    This part (the third part of a four-part publication) discusses the applicability of amine-based plant cycle treatments which are covered neither by the VGB Guideline for Boiler Feedwater, Boiler Water, and Steam of Steam Generators with a Permissible Operating Pressure of >6.8 MPa nor by the set of EPRI Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Fossil Plants. (orig.)

  11. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  12. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor nuclear steam supply system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memmott, M. J.; Harkness, A. W.; Van Wyk, J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 600 Cranberry Woods Drive, Cranberry Twp. PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the first in a series of four papers which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. Also described in this series are the key drivers influencing the design of the Westinghouse SMR and the unique passive safety features of the Westinghouse SMR. Several critical motivators contributed to the development and integration of the Westinghouse SMR design. These design driving motivators dictated the final configuration of the Westinghouse SMR to varying degrees, depending on the specific features under consideration. These design drivers include safety, economics, AP1000{sup R} reactor expertise and experience, research and development requirements, functionality of systems and components, size of the systems and vessels, simplicity of design, and licensing requirements. The Westinghouse SMR NSSS consists of an integral reactor vessel within a compact containment vessel. The core is located in the bottom of the reactor vessel and is composed of 89 modified Westinghouse 17x17 Robust Fuel Assemblies (RFA). These modified fuel assemblies have an active core length of only 2.4 m (8 ft) long, and the entirety of the core is encompassed by a radial reflector. The Westinghouse SMR core operates on a 24 month fuel cycle. The reactor vessel is approximately 24.4 m (80 ft) long and 3.7 m (12 ft) in diameter in order to facilitate standard rail shipping to the site. The reactor vessel houses hot and cold leg channels to facilitate coolant flow, control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM), instrumentation and cabling, an intermediate flange to separate flow and instrumentation and facilitate simpler refueling, a pressurizer, a straight tube, recirculating steam

  13. Steam explosion and new production processes for pulping industry: technical and economical feasibility; Steam explosion e nuovi processi di produzione cartaria: fattibilita` tecnico-economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viggiano, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Bramanti, O. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1998-05-01

    Pulping and paper industry traditionally uses wood as the main raw material for its production processes. Thus, the global increasing of paper and pulp yield has causes so a depletion work of natural wood resources that the environment balances are weakened. About conversion technologies, the most important developments are carried out by the Companies from Sweden, Finland, Norway and Canada, where industrial management has chosen production processes anti pollution (soda-sulphate) in the place of those more dangerous (bi-sulphate). The international research and development activities are focused, at the same time, on new conversion processes and renewable resources in the last time shows to meet three different needs: 1. anti pollution laws; 2. public opinion for the environment policy; 3. market competitors. The present work offers a technical and economical assessment of industrial application of steam-explosion process and non-wood biomass (C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}). Then, the authors propose the introduction of the steam-explosion technology in pulping industry in order to obtain technical and economical advantages. [Italiano] Il comparto industriale cartario impiega per tradizione secolare il legno come principale materia prima all`interno dei cicli tecnologici di produzione. Cio` ha determinato un incremento produttivo di paste e di carta a cui si e` accompagnata una crescente opera di deforestazione ed una serie di conseguenti squilibri ecologici. A fronte di tali interventi di distruzione `programmata`, dal punto di vista delle tecnologie di trasformazione, va rilevato che i processi produttivi hanno subito una reale evoluzione nei Paesi maggiormente sensibili ai problemi ambientali come Svezia, Finlandia, Norvegia e Canada, ove gli imprenditori del setttore hanno abbandonato i processi a maggior impatto ambientale, come quelli al bisolfito, per adottarne alcuni meno inquinanti, come quello alla soda-solfato. Negli ultimi anni gli sforzi della ricerca

  14. Assessment of steam-injected gas turbine systems and their potential application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Results were arrived at by utilizing and expanding on information presented in the literature. The results were analyzed and compared with those for simple gas turbine and combined cycles for both utility power generation and industrial cogeneration applications. The efficiency and specific power of simple gas turbine cycles can be increased as much as 30 and 50 percent, respectively, by the injection of steam into the combustor. Steam-injected gas turbines appear to be economically competitive with both simple gas turbine and combined cycles for small, clean-fuel-fired utility power generation and industrial cogeneration applications. For large powerplants with integrated coal gasifiers, the economic advantages appear to be marginal.

  15. THERMODYNAMICAL ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PRESSURE FEED WATER HEATER IN STEAM PROPULSION SYSTEM DURING EXPLOITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poljak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays diesel engines prevail as ship propulsion. However, steam propulsion is still primary drive for LNG carriers. In the presented paper high-pressure feed water heater was analyzed, as one of the essential components in LNG carrier steam propulsion system. Measurements of all operating parameters (fluid streams at the analyzed heat exchanger inlets and outlets were performed. Change of the operating parameters was measured at different steam system loads, not at full load as usual. Through these measurements was enabled the insight into the behaviour of the heat exchanger operating parameters during the whole exploitation. The numerical analysis was performed, based on the measured data. The changes in energy and exergy efficiency of the heat exchanger were analyzed. Energetic and exergetic power inputs and outputs were also calculated, which enabled an insight into the change of energetic and exergetic power losses of the heat exchanger at different steam system loads. Change in energetic and exergetic power losses and operating parameters, which have the strongest influence on the high-pressure feed water heater losses, were described. Analyzed heat exchanger was compared with similar heat exchangers in the base loaded conventional steam power plants. From the conducted analysis, it is concluded that the adjustment and control modes of these high-pressure heat exchangers are equal, regardless of whether they were mounted in the base loaded conventional steam power plants or marine steam systems, while their operating parameters and behaviour patterns differ greatly.

  16. Industrial robot's vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iureva, Radda A.; Raskin, Evgeni O.; Komarov, Igor I.; Maltseva, Nadezhda K.; Fedosovsky, Michael E.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the improved economic situation in the high technology sectors, work on the creation of industrial robots and special mobile robotic systems are resumed. Despite this, the robotic control systems mostly remained unchanged. Hence one can see all advantages and disadvantages of these systems. This is due to lack of funds, which could greatly facilitate the work of the operator, and in some cases, completely replace it. The paper is concerned with the complex machine vision of robotic system for monitoring of underground pipelines, which collects and analyzes up to 90% of the necessary information. Vision Systems are used to identify obstacles to the process of movement on a trajectory to determine their origin, dimensions and character. The object is illuminated in a structured light, TV camera records projected structure. Distortions of the structure uniquely determine the shape of the object in view of the camera. The reference illumination is synchronized with the camera. The main parameters of the system are the basic distance between the generator and the lights and the camera parallax angle (the angle between the optical axes of the projection unit and camera).

  17. Multi-objective optimal strategy for steam power system in steel industry based on electricity equivalent calculation%基于等效电法的钢铁企业蒸汽系统多目标运行优化策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈骏; 周伟国; 王海; 李苏

    2016-01-01

    The steam power system in steel industries is featured by a variety of energy and various energy producers. In this paper, a method to convert energy into electricity equivalent is introduced to analyze the efficiency of energy conversion in the system, and mathematical programming and optimization are employed to improve energy management based on the background of steam power system in a large iron and steel company. With the establishment of mixed integer nonlinear programming model which is multi-objective, the global optimal solution will be achieved by solve the multi-objective-constrained model by LINGO step by step on condition that the objectives, the minimum cost of energy hourly and the maximum exergy efficiency, and the constraints including the capacity of power plants, energy demand and operating cost are set. Pareto front is to be achieved by solving the objective function-the maximum exergy efficiency-with cost constraint by the minimum cost of energy hourly multiplying an over-relaxation which is little bigger than 1. Rationality, feasibility and efficiency of ultimate optimization solution by stepwise multi-objective optimization is to be demonstrated in comparison with solutions by single-objective optimization and multi-objective genetic algorithm. The schedule of effective operation at low cost of steam power system is to be well-founded in theory in accordance with the optimal solution.%针对钢铁企业蒸汽系统汽源设备多、能源品种多的特点,以某大型钢铁企业实际运行的蒸汽系统为背景,运用等效电方法对蒸汽系统的能量转换作出科学分析,采用数学规划方法,建立多目标的混合整数非线性规划模型(MINLP)。采用分步优化方法,先以蒸汽系统小时能源总成本最低为目标,将得到的结果乘以松弛系数建立成本约束并以㶲效率最高为目标,利用LINGO软件求得多目标-约束优化模型的全局最优解,再通过改变松弛

  18. Mapping of combined heat and power systems in cane sugar industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, M.S.; Rajkumar, N. [Central Power Research Institute, Sreekariyam (India). Energy Research Centre

    2001-12-01

    Cogenerating systems based on steam turbines (1-20 MWt) are indispensable when the source of energy is a solid fuel such as bagasse as in a sugar industry. These systems provide a wide range of heat to power ratios from 0 to as high as 100. The energy productivity of sugar plants differ vastly because of variations in equipment efficiency, system configuration and operating steam conditions. In this paper a mapping of the entire operating range of steam based combined heat and power plants spanning pure back pressure to pure condensing environments, based on standard steam conditions in installations and efficiencies which are currently being achieved experimentally, is presented. This will enable the rational choice of combinations, which will yield the best economic advantage. As the operating steam pressure is increased (and consequently the matching superheated temperatures) the in-house steam requirement reduces drastically and simultaneously the exportable power increases. Improvements in the systems by the use of advanced designs of steam turbines and introduction of information technologies and associated supervision control and data acquisition, energy management system, multi-media interaction, etc., is also briefly highlighted. The maximum exportable electrical power from a sugar mill after meeting the internal requirement is around 146 kW h/t of cane. The maximum exportable of steam (no power export) is around 0.65 t/t of cane. (author)

  19. Efficiency Evaluation of Construction of Steam-Turbine Power Plants at Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Starzhinsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that application of own power stations at an industrial enterprise is considered as an expedient one if there is an availability of thermal power sources because value of an optimization criterion exceeds corresponding optimization criterion by 2.1-4.6 fold when an enterprise is supplied with power only from power system networks.

  20. Three years of experience with polyamines in the high pressure steam system of a naphtha cracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lier, Roy van; Janssen, Gerard [SABIC Europe BV, Geleen (Netherlands). Site Improvement, Competence Center Manufacturing; Savelkoul, Jo

    2008-12-15

    The design and operation of the high pressure steam system of a naphtha cracker pose specific problems which in some cases cannot be satisfactorily resolved with conventional water/steam treatment programs. Following a decade of operational experience with polyamine products at lower pressures at the Geleen (petro)chemical site in the Netherlands, the ammonia/morpholine treatment of the 12.5 MPa steam system of one of SABIC Europe's naphtha crackers was converted to a polyamine program in November 2005. In this paper, the characteristics of the cracker's steam system are first described. Particular aspects of the conversion are then discussed. Finally, the experience gained and insights obtained into the polyamine treatment during the first three years are elaborated. (orig.)

  1. Steam/fuel system optimization report: 6000-tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakil, T.D.

    1983-07-01

    The design and configuration of the steam and fuel system for the 6000-ton-per-day (tpd) SRC-I Demonstration plant have been optimized, based on requirements for each area of the plant that were detailed in Area Baseline Designs of December 1982. The system was optimized primarily for the two most likely modes of plant operation, that is, when the expanded-bed hydrocracker (EBH) is operating at either high or low conversion, with all other units operating. However, the design, as such, is also operable under four other anticipated operating modes. The plant is self-sufficient in fuel except when the coker/calciner unit is not operating; then the required fuel oil import ranges from 80 to 125 MM Btu/h, lower heating value (LHV). The system affords stable operation under varying fuel gas availability and is reliable, flexible, and efficient. The optimization was based on maximizing overall efficiency of the steam system. The system was optimized to operate at five different steam-pressure levels, which are justifiable based on the plant's team requirements for process, heat duty, and power. All identified critical equipment drives will be run by steam turbines. Also part of the optimization was elimination of the steam evaporator in the wastewater treatment area. This minimized the impact on the steam system of operating in either the discharge of zero-discharge mode; the steam system remains essentially the same for either mode. Any further optimization efforts should be based on overall cost-effectiveness.

  2. Steam Methane Reformation Testing for Air-Independent Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwara, Kamwana N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, NASA has been looking into utilizing landers that can be propelled by LOX-CH (sub 4), to be used for long duration missions. Using landers that utilize such propellants, also provides the opportunity to use solid oxide fuel cells as a power option, especially since they are able to process methane into a reactant through fuel reformation. One type of reformation, called steam methane reformation, is a process to reform methane into a hydrogen-rich product by reacting methane and steam (fuel cell exhaust) over a catalyst. A steam methane reformation system could potentially use the fuel cell's own exhaust to create a reactant stream that is hydrogen-rich, and requires less internal reforming of the incoming methane. Also, steam reformation may hold some advantages over other types of reforming, such as partial oxidation (PROX) reformation. Steam reformation does not require oxygen, while up to 25 percent can be lost in PROX reformation due to unusable CO (sub 2) reformation. NASA's Johnson Space Center has conducted various phases of steam methane reformation testing, as a viable solution for in-space reformation. This has included using two different types of catalysts, developing a custom reformer, and optimizing the test system to find the optimal performance parameters and operating conditions.

  3. The development of a control system for a small high speed steam microturbine generator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, A.; Nichol, P.; Saunders, M.; Frisby, B.

    2015-08-01

    Steam is a widely used energy source. In many situations steam is generated at high pressures and then reduced in pressure through control valves before reaching point of use. An opportunity was identified to convert some of the energy at the point of pressure reduction into electricity. To take advantage of a market identified for small scale systems, a microturbine generator was designed based on a small high speed turbo machine. This machine was packaged with the necessary control valves and systems to allow connection of the machine to the grid. Traditional machines vary the speed of the generator to match the grid frequency. This was not possible due to the high speed of this machine. The characteristics of the rotating unit had to be understood to allow a control that allowed export of energy at the right frequency to the grid under the widest possible range of steam conditions. A further goal of the control system was to maximise the efficiency of generation under all conditions. A further complication was to provide adequate protection for the rotating unit in the event of the loss of connection to the grid. The system to meet these challenges is outlined with the solutions employed and tested for this application.

  4. Instantaneous determination of heat transfer coefficients in a steam generator for an alternative energy upgrade system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo, S.S.; Romero, R.J. [Univ. Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico). Centro di Investigacion en Ingeneria y Ciencias Aplicadas; Best, R. [Univ. Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion en Energie

    2009-07-01

    A mathematical model was used to characterize the thermal behaviour of a steam generator in an alternative energy upgrade system. A thermodynamic cycle was used to increase the temperatures produced by solar, geothermal, and waste heat from industrial processes. The absorption heat transformer (AHT) process can be used in industrial processes where low temperature heat flows occur. Alternative energy was supplied to the generator where the working fluid was condensed and then transported to the evaporator through an expansion valve. Vapor was then transported to the absorber in order to deliver heat at a higher temperature. The solution was then returned to the generator in order to start the cycle again. A heat exchanger was placed between the absorber and the generator in order to preheat incoming solutions from the generator. The mathematical model was used to simulate heat transfer in the generator in order to determine optimal operating conditions. Heat transfer coefficients were calculated using equations reported for single phase flow. It was concluded that the highest heat transfer coefficients were obtained for a Reynolds number of 2300 with an alternative energy source of 90 degrees C at mass flows of 4 L/m. 33 refs., 14 figs.

  5. Performance comparison between partial oxidation and methane steam for SOFC micro-CHP systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Olesen, Anders Christian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research work is to describe in qualitative and quantitative form the performance of a micro Combined Heat and Power system for residential application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell fueled by natural gas with two different types of pre-reforming systems, namely Steam Reforming...... and Partial Oxidation and recirculation of anode and cathode gas. The comparative analysis among the different configurations will lead us to conclude that maximum efficiency is achieved when cathode and anode gas recirculation are used along with steam methane reforming. Further Steam Methane Reforming...... process produces a higher electrical system efficiency compared to Partial oxidation reforming process. Efficiency is affected when running the system in part load mode mainly due to heat loss, additional natural gas supplied to the burner to satisfy the required heat demand inside the system, and ejector...

  6. Experience in adjusting of the level regulation system of steam generators of the Rovno NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patselyuk, S.N.; Sokolov, A.G.; Kazakov, V.I.; Dorosh, Yu.A.

    1984-07-01

    A system of feed water level control in steam generators at the Rovno NPP with WWER-440 reactors which comprises start-up as well as main regulators is described. The start-up regulator (single-pulsed with a signal by the level) keeps the level in the steam generator at loadings up to 30% of the nominal reactor power Nsub(nom.). The main regulator is connected in the three-pulsed circuit and it receives signals by steam and water flow rate and by the level in the steam generator. The main regulator has been started only at loadings above 40% Nsub(nom.). After reconstruction it was used in the 15-100% Nsub(nom.) range. Characteristics of the level control system in the steam generator at perturbations intoduced by the main circulating pump (MCP) and turbine disconnection as well as change in feed water flow rate have been studied. The studies have revealed that the system ensures necessary quality of control in stationary modes. The system operates stably at perturbations of feed water flow rate up to 50% Nsub(nom.). Perturbations by MCP connections and disconnections is most difficult for control system.

  7. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2013-08-01

    Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources. Building on previous research, CNT Energy identified 10 test buildings in Chicago and conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing. A package of common steam balancing measures was assembled and data were collected on the buildings before and after these retrofits were installed to investigate the process, challenges, and the cost effectiveness of improving steam systems through improved venting and control systems. The test buildings that received venting upgrades and new control systems showed 10.2% savings on their natural gas heating load, with a simple payback of 5.1 years. The methodologies for and findings from this study are presented in detail in this report. This report has been updated from a version published in August 2012 to include natural gas usage information from the 2012 heating season and updated natural gas savings calculations.

  8. Development of a Nuclear Hydrogen Production System by Dimethyl Ether (DME) Steam Reforming and Related Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kimichika; Oota, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Kazuya; Makino, Shinichi; Yagyu, Motoshige; Ikeda, Tatsumi; Asayama, Masahiro; Ogawa, Takashi; Yoshino, Masato

    Targeting a hydrogen production system using heat produced by a nuclear reactor at about 300°C, we are developing a dimethyl ether (DME) steam reformer and hydrogen purification systems as well as catalysts for DME reforming. The use of heat from a nuclear reactor suppresses the CO2 concentration change in the atmosphere. In our developments, a catalyst, consisting of mixed oxides, produced hydrogen at a rate of about 1.9 Nm3/h per catalyst volume (m3) at about 300°C. Subsequently, the DME steam reformer achieved a hydrogen production rate of approximately, at least, 1.4 Nm3/h at about 300°C, by absorbing heat from the supplied steam. The aforementioned hydrogen production system via DME steam reforming is to be demonstrated using a thermal power plant. DME steam reforming by using waste heat and the utilization of the produced hydrogen within a combined cycle power plant can reduce fuel consumption, for instance, by about 17% compared to the case of direct DME combustion. The total system, with the use of DME, was compared with the methane case. If necessary, the byproduced CO2 may be injected into coal seams, increasing CH4 production via the substitution of CO2 for CH4 on coal, where CO2 adsorption is expected to be stronger than the CH4 adsorption.

  9. Steam turbine governor modeling and parameters testing for power system simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying LI; Chufeng PENG; Zenghui YANG

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical modeling, parameters test and model correction for a steam turbine (ST) governor are discussed. A set of ST Governor system model for power system simulation is created based on this research. A power system simulation for an actual power grid accident is conducted using this new model and the comparison between the simulation and actual data show that the results are satisfactory.

  10. Brush Seals for Improved Steam Turbine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnquist, Norman; Chupp, Ray; Baily, Fred; Burnett, Mark; Rivas, Flor; Bowsher, Aaron; Crudgington, Peter

    2006-01-01

    GE Energy has retrofitted brush seals into more than 19 operating steam turbines. Brush seals offer superior leakage control compared to labyrinth seals, owing to their compliant nature and ability to maintain very tight clearances to the rotating shaft. Seal designs have been established for steam turbines ranging in size from 12 MW to over 1200 MW, including fossil, nuclear, combined-cycle and industrial applications. Steam turbines present unique design challenges that must be addressed to ensure that the potential performance benefits of brush seals are realized. Brush seals can have important effects on the overall turbine system that must be taken into account to assure reliable operation. Subscale rig tests are instrumental to understanding seal behavior under simulated steam-turbine operating conditions, prior to installing brush seals in the field. This presentation discusses the technical challenges of designing brush seals for steam turbines; subscale testing; performance benefits of brush seals; overall system effects; and field applications.

  11. Linux in Industrial Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Riesco, T

    2001-01-01

    Today the Linux operating system has become a real alternative for industrial control systems. Linux supports all layers in control systems starting with Real-Time or embedded systems for data acquisition, following with treatment, storage, communication and data adaptation, and finally, with supervision and user interfaces. In the last years the Linux development has grown being incorporated in several industrial systems demonstrating high performance, availability and stability for complex processes in chemical, automobile or petrol industries. In many of these industries Linux architectures have been tested and validated successfully. The new CERN policy supporting Linux, as well as the emergence of cheap and robust Linux solutions, motivates its implementation in our safety control and supervision systems in the near future.

  12. System and method for coproduction of activated carbon and steam/electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasachar, Srivats [Sturbridge, MA; Benson, Steven [Grand Forks, ND; Crocker, Charlene [Newfolden, MN; Mackenzie, Jill [Carmel, IN

    2011-07-19

    A system and method for producing activated carbon comprising carbonizing a solid carbonaceous material in a carbonization zone of an activated carbon production apparatus (ACPA) to yield a carbonized product and carbonization product gases, the carbonization zone comprising carbonaceous material inlet, char outlet and carbonization gas outlet; activating the carbonized product via activation with steam in an activation zone of the ACPA to yield activated carbon and activation product gases, the activation zone comprising activated carbon outlet, activation gas outlet, and activation steam inlet; and utilizing process gas comprising at least a portion of the carbonization product gases or a combustion product thereof; at least a portion of the activation product gases or a combustion product thereof; or a combination thereof in a solid fuel boiler system that burns a solid fuel boiler feed with air to produce boiler-produced steam and flue gas, the boiler upstream of an air heater within a steam/electricity generation plant, said boiler comprising a combustion zone, a boiler-produced steam outlet and at least one flue gas outlet.

  13. Nonlinear variable structure excitation and steam valving controllers for power system stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben WANG; Zongyuan MAO

    2009-01-01

    A set of novel nonlinear variable structure excitation and steam-valving controllers are proposed in this paper.On the basis of the classical dynamic equations of a generator,excitation control and steam valving control are si-multaneously considered.Design of these controllers combines the differential geometry theory with the variable structure controlling theory.The mathematical model in the form of "an affine nonlinear system" is set up for the control design of a large-scale power plant.The dynamic performance of the nonlinear variable structure controllers proposed for a single ma-chine connected to an infinite bus power system is simulated.Simulation results show that the nonlinear variable structure excitation and steam-valving controllers give satisfactory dynamic performance and good robustness.

  14. Effect of the industrial steaming on the toxicity, estimated by LC-MS/MS, of mussels exposed for a long time to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Juan; Arévalo, Fabiola; Correa, Jorge; Porro, M Corina; Cabado, Ana G; Vieites, Juan M; Moroño, Angeles

    2015-06-15

    The effect of industrial steaming on mussels that had been naturally exposed to DSP toxins for a long time was studied using LC-MS/MS. The estimated toxicity increased with steaming by a percentage that cannot be explained by weight loss. The estimated toxin content per mussel increased substantially with the treatment, which can only be explained by an incorrect estimation by the technique (at the extraction or analytical level) or by the presence of unknown derivatives or analogues. Direct alkaline hydrolysis of the mussel meat yielded more toxin than the standard hydrolysis (hydrolysis of the methanolic extracts), suggesting that extraction was, at least in part, responsible for the increase of toxin content. In situations as the one described in this work, it can be expected that mussels with toxicities well below the regulatory limit could easily surpass that level after industrial steaming, thus producing important losses for food processors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increasing reliability of system water heaters for steam-turbine installations at the design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Brezgin, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    A system for designing water heaters of steam-turbine installations based on uniting standards, reference information, and some numerical procedures with design procedures via wide use of parameterization is considered. The developed design system is based on extensive application of modern information technologies.

  16. Efficient industrial burner control of a flexible burner management system; Effiziente industrielle Brennertechnik durch Einsatz flexibler Feuerungsautomaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Ulrich; Saenger, Peter [Siemens AG, Rastatt (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Compactness and flexibility of a burner control system is a very important issue. With a few types a wide range in different industrial applications should be covered. This paper presents different applications of a new burner control system: heating of cooling lines in glass industry, steam generation and air heating for a pistachio roastery and in grain dryers. (orig.)

  17. System analysis of a piston steam engine employing the uniflow principle, a study in optimized performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported which were obtained from a mathematical model of a generalized piston steam engine configuration employing the uniflow principal. The model accounted for the effects of clearance volume, compression work, and release volume. A simple solution is presented which characterizes optimum performance of the steam engine, based on miles per gallon. Development of the mathematical model is presented. The relationship between efficiency and miles per gallon is developed. An approach to steam car analysis and design is presented which has purpose rather than lucky hopefulness. A practical engine design is proposed which correlates to the definition of the type engine used. This engine integrates several system components into the engine structure. All conclusions relate to the classical Rankine Cycle.

  18. 46 CFR 167.45-1 - Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accepted in lieu of the inert gas system for the protection of cargo holds, paint lockers, and similar... to each cargo-oil deep tank, lamp locker, oil room, and like compartments, which lamp locker, oil... lamp lockers, oil rooms, and like compartments may be taken from the nearest steam supply...

  19. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jayne [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Ludwig, Peter [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, Larry [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Older heating systems often suffer from mis-investment--multiple contractors upgrading parts of systems in inadequate or inappropriate ways that reduce system functionality and efficiency--or from a lack of proper maintenance. This technical report addresses these barriers to information, contractor resources, and cost-savings. Building off of previous research, CNT Energy conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing.

  20. Industrial Inspection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    ACTIS+ is a smaller, personal computer version of ACTIS, a computed tomography system which finds its origins in the Apollo lunar landing research. It is used to identify imperfections in aerospace structures and components. Designed to be added to an existing real time radiography system, its components include a high precision rotation/elevation manipulator, color image monitor, graphical user interface monitor, and PC compatible workstation. Cross-sectional CT images are more detailed than radiographic images and the high speed scanning feature offers the capability for 100 percent inspection in a production environment. Bio-Imaging Research, Inc. (BIR) originally developed ACTIS for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and commercial units were sold to aerospace manufacturers. The technology was refined for ACTIS+, which is principally used in non-destructive testing.

  1. Protection of industrial power systems

    CERN Document Server

    DAVIES, T

    2006-01-01

    The protection which is installed on an industrial power system is likely to be subjected to more difficult conditions than the protection on any other kind of power system. Starting with the many simple devices which are employed and covering the whole area of industrial power system protection, this book aims to help achieve a thorough understanding of the protection necessary.Vital aspects such as the modern cartridge fuse, types of relays, and the role of the current transformer are covered and the widely used inverse definite-minimum time overcurrent relay, the theory of the M

  2. Methanol steam reforming in a fuel cell drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, W.; Emonts, B.; Peters, R.

    Within the framework of the Joule III project a compact methanol reformer (CMR) with a specific weight of 2 kg/kW (lower heating value of H 2) was developed. This CMR contains a methanol and water vaporizer, a steam reformer, a heat carrier circuit and a catalytic burner unit. A laboratory fixed-bed reactor consisting of four tubes which could be filled with different amounts of catalyst was used to investigate the catalyst performance and the ageing behaviour. A hydrogen yield of 10 m N3/(h l Cat) can be achieved at 280°C. In this case, the methanol conversion rate is 95% and the dry product gas contains 0.9% CO. A linear decrease of the catalyst activity was observed which can be described by a loss of active catalyst mass of 5.5 mg/h. The catalyst was operated for more than 1000 h without having exhibited activity losses that made a catalyst change necessary. Besides, the stationary behaviour of the reforming reactor, the dynamic behaviour was studied. The time needed for start-up procedures has to be improved for reformers of a next generation. Moreover, the hydrogen production during reformer load changes will be discussed. Simulations of the power train in driving cycles show the different states of a reformer during dynamic operation.

  3. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 11: Advanced steam systems. [energy conversion efficiency for electric power plants using steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric analysis was made of three types of advanced steam power plants that use coal in order to have a comparison of the cost of electricity produced by them a wide range of primary performance variables. Increasing the temperature and pressure of the steam above current industry levels resulted in increased energy costs because the cost of capital increased more than the fuel cost decreased. While the three plant types produced comparable energy cost levels, the pressurized fluidized bed boiler plant produced the lowest energy cost by the small margin of 0.69 mills/MJ (2.5 mills/kWh). It is recommended that this plant be designed in greater detail to determine its cost and performance more accurately than was possible in a broad parametric study and to ascertain problem areas which will require development effort. Also considered are pollution control measures such as scrubbers and separates for particulate emissions from stack gases.

  4. Role-play and the Industrial Revolution: an STS approach to the teaching of steam engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabka, Diego; Pereira de Pereira, Alexsandro; Lima Junior, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    Role-play is an interesting, although underexplored, way of teaching physics in high school. This paper presents a science-technology-society (STS) approach to the teaching of heat engines based on a role-play of the Industrial Revolution. Enacting the role-play, students are presented not only to scientific concepts, but also to the social and technological controversies of industrial development.

  5. A 400-kWe high-efficiency steam turbine for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced state-of-the-art steam turbine-generator developed to serve as the power conversion subsystem for the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories' Solar Total-Energy Project (STEP) is described. The turbine-generator, which is designed to provide 400-kW of net electrical power, represents the largest turbine-generator built specifically for commercial solar-powered cogeneration. The controls for the turbine-generator incorporate a multiple, partial-arc entry to provide efficient off-design performance, as well as an extraction control scheme to permit extraction flow regulation while maintaining 110-spsig pressure. Normal turbine operation is achieved while synchronized to a local utility and in a stand-alone mode. In both cases, the turbine-generator features automatic load control as well as remote start-up and shutdown capability. Tests totaling 200 hours were conducted to confirm the integrity of the turbine's mechanical structure and control function. Performance tests resulted in a measured inlet throttle flow of 8,450 pounds per hour, which was near design conditions.

  6. Recommender systems in industrial contexts

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of four parts: - An analysis of the core functions and the prerequisites for recommender systems in an industrial context: we identify four core functions for recommendation systems: Help do Decide, Help to Compare, Help to Explore, Help to Discover. The implementation of these functions has implications for the choices at the heart of algorithmic recommender systems. - A state of the art, which deals with the main techniques used in automated recommendation system: the two most commonly used algorithmic methods, the K-Nearest-Neighbor methods (KNN) and the fast factorization methods are detailed. The state of the art presents also purely content-based methods, hybridization techniques, and the classical performance metrics used to evaluate the recommender systems. This state of the art then gives an overview of several systems, both from academia and industry (Amazon, Google ...). - An analysis of the performances and implications of a recommendation system developed during this thesis: ...

  7. Measure Guideline: Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2013-04-01

    This report was written as a resource for professionals involved in multifamily audits, retrofit delivery, and program design, as well as for building owners and contractors. It is intended to serve as a guide for those looking to evaluate and improve the efficiency and operation of one-pipe steam heating systems. In centrally heated multifamily buildings with steam or hydronic systems, the cost of heat for tenants is typically absorbed into the owner's operating costs. Highly variable and rising energy costs have placed a heavy burden on landlords. In the absence of well-designed and relevant efficiency efforts, increased operating costs would be passed on to tenants who often cannot afford those increases. Misinvestment is a common problem with older heating systems -- multiple contractors may inadequately or inappropriately upgrade parts of systems and reduce system functionality and efficiency, or the system has not been properly maintained.

  8. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Marta; Salazar, Margarita; Nielsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The field of industrial biotechnology is expanding rapidly as the chemical industry is looking towards more sustainable production of chemicals that can be used as fuels or building blocks for production of solvents and materials. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocesses, it is a major challenge to design and develop efficient cell factories that can ensure cost efficient conversion of the raw material into the chemical of interest. This is achieved through metabolic engineering, where the metabolism of the cell factory is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of sugars, the typical raw materials in the fermentation industry, into the desired product. However, engineering of cellular metabolism is often challenging due to the complex regulation that has evolved in connection with adaptation of the different microorganisms to their ecological niches. In order to map these regulatory structures and further de-regulate them, as well as identify ingenious metabolic engineering strategies that full-fill mass balance constraints, tools from systems biology can be applied. This involves both high-throughput analysis tools like transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies. It is in fact expected that systems biology may substantially improve the process of cell factory development, and we therefore propose the term Industrial Systems Biology for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.

  9. Systems Biology of Industrial Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Marta; Salazar, Margarita; Nielsen, Jens

    The field of industrial biotechnology is expanding rapidly as the chemical industry is looking towards more sustainable production of chemicals that can be used as fuels or building blocks for production of solvents and materials. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocesses, it is a major challenge to design and develop efficient cell factories that can ensure cost efficient conversion of the raw material into the chemical of interest. This is achieved through metabolic engineering, where the metabolism of the cell factory is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of sugars, the typical raw materials in the fermentation industry, into the desired product. However, engineering of cellular metabolism is often challenging due to the complex regulation that has evolved in connection with adaptation of the different microorganisms to their ecological niches. In order to map these regulatory structures and further de-regulate them, as well as identify ingenious metabolic engineering strategies that full-fill mass balance constraints, tools from systems biology can be applied. This involves both high-throughput analysis tools like transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies. It is in fact expected that systems biology may substantially improve the process of cell factory development, and we therefore propose the term Industrial Systems Biology for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.

  10. Design of a Programmable System for Failure Modes and Effect Analysis of Steam-Power Plant Based on the Fault Tree Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Zuhair I. Ahmad Al- Dauod

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the system of the power plant has been investigated as a special type of industrial systems, which has a significant role in improving societies since the electrical energy has entered all kinds of industries, and it is considered as the artery of modern life. The aim of this research is to construct a programming system, which could be used to identify the most important failure modes that are occur in a steam type of power plants. Also the effects and reasons of each failure mode could be analyzed through the usage of this programming system reaching to the basic events (main reasons that causing each failure mode. The construction of this system for FMEA is depending on the logical relationships of the fault tree analysis for the systems that contained in the power station. The designing of such system could be used as an assistance tool for the specialist user (the power engineer in identifying of all reasons and effects for any type of failures. So this is help to fastening the repairing operation of the identified failure mode to improve the efficiency of operating system as represented by the maintainability, which is a function of system reliability. The selection of the steam type of power generation systems for the application of this study, because this type is the most common type of Iraqi power plants. While such the designed system could be programmed to be use in another types of industrial systems.

  11. Towards a sustainable industrial system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Steve; Gregory, Mike; Ryan, Chris

    urgently. Some businesses are already engaged in reducing their impact through the introduction of new products, processes and business models. Academics concerned with the industrial system have a responsibility to study these emerging models, to interact with them and to synthesise and spread...... the knowledge. Whilst it is important to address the impact of each product of the industrial system and to pursue aggressive reduction of the effects of specific activities, we must also examine the operation of the whole system. Only in this way can we hope to bring the benefits of industrialisation to those...... who have not yet experienced them without exceeding the limits of our planet. This paper presents cases where industry is already taking action, and argues that: • dramatic improvements can be made by deploying existing expertise at the level of individual businesses • relying on technology alone...

  12. Solar process steam for a pharmaceutical company in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M.; Mokhtar, M.; Zahler, C.; Al-Najami, M. M. R.; Krüger, D.; Hennecke, K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents details of the recent installation of a linear Fresnel collector to provide saturated steam for process heat usage through Direct Steam Generation (DSG) for industrial use in the Jordanian pharmaceuticals manufacturing company RAM Pharma, where first solar steam has been provided in March 2015. This commercial DSG project also represents the first solar DSG plant in MENA. During sunshine, the system achieves a solar fraction of 100 %, and the conventional steam boiler is not needed. In the evening the fossil fired backup takes over automatically and replaces the solar collector in operation. Operational experience, details of the control strategy, and measurement data are presented in the paper.

  13. Reno Industrial Park geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    Ten miles south of Reno, on U.S. 395 near the junction of the road to historic Virginia City, is Steamboat Hot Springs, a popular stop for travelers since the mid-1800s. Legend has it that Mark Twain named the geothermal area because it looked and sounded like a chugging Mississippi River paddle-wheeler. It is said when he first saw the steam rising from the ground he exclaimed, {open_quotes}Behold! A Steamboat in the desert.{close_quotes} Over the years, the area has been used for its relaxing and curative qualities by Indians, settlers, and geothermal experts. Since the mid-1980s five geothermal power plants have been built at Steamboat Springs and in December 1996 it was announced that the proposed largest geothermal district heating system in the U.S. would supply an industrial park in the area. The active geothermal area is located within the north-south trending graben like trough between the Carson and Virginia Ranges at the southern end of Truckee Meadows. Hot springs and other geothermal features occur over an area of about one square mile. The mid-basin location is controlled by faulting more or less parallel to the major mountain-front faults. It is believed that the heat source for the system is a cooling magmatic body at depth. The Steamboat geothermal area consists of a deep, high-temperature (215{degrees}C to 240{degrees} C) geothermal system, a shallower, moderate-temperature (160{degrees}C to 18{degrees} C) system, and a number of shallow low-temperature (30{degrees}C to 80{degrees}C) subsystems. The higher temperature systems are used for electric-power generation. It is proposed that the exit fluids from the electric power plants be used for the geothermal district heating system.

  14. Design of nonlinear adaptive steam valve controllers for a turbo-generator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiaris-Liberis, N.K.; Paraskevopoulos, P.N. [National Technical Univ. of Athens Zographou, Athens (Greece); Boglou, A.K. [Technology Education Inst. of Kavala Agios Loukas, Kavala (Greece); Arvanitis, K.G.; Pasgianos, G.D. [Agricultural Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that investigated the control of power systems consisting of interconnected networks of transmission lines linking generators and loads. Improving both small and large perturbation stability and dynamic performance is important because power systems have become less stable in the past 15 years due to the use of controllers that have been designed on the basis of linearized synchronous generators and turbine models. The high nonlinear nature of power system models and the resulting disturbances render conventional linear controller design techniques obsolete for use in power systems control. Power system engineers are becoming aware of the role of turbine steam valves in improving the dynamic stability of power systems and damping low frequency oscillations. Advanced nonlinear control strategies are needed since the conventional steam valve control theory cannot guarantee transient stability in cases where operational conditions and parameters vary considerably. A design approach to a nonlinear adaptive control system with unknown parameters was developed and applied to the turbine main steam valve control of a power system. A fourth order machine model was used along with an adaptive backstepping method to construct the Lyapunov function in order to obtain a nonlinear adaptive controller to solve the turbine fast valving nonlinear control problem. The newly designed nonlinear adaptive controller can make the resulting adaptive system asymptotically stable. The proposed controller is accompanied by a dynamic estimator of parameters and includes nonlinear damping terms, which guarantee input-output stability even without the use of the adaptive law. Simulation results showed that the proposed nonlinear adaptive controller performs better than other turbine main steam valve control techniques. It can face large parametric uncertainty and results in a closed-loop system that is able to face large and smaller disturbances, providing a

  15. TCR industrial system integration strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolomé, R; Sollander, P; Martini, R; Vercoutter, B; Trebulle, M

    1999-01-01

    New turnkey data acquisition systems purchased from industry are being integrated into CERN's Technical Data Server. The short time available for system integration and the large amount of data per system require a standard and modular design. Four different integration layers have been defined in order to easily 'plug in' industrial systems. The first layer allows the integration of the equipment at the digital I/O port or fieldbus (Profibus-DP) level. A second layer permits the integration of PLCs (Siemens S5, S7 and Telemecanique); a third layer integrates equipment drivers. The fourth layer integrates turnkey mimic diagrams in the TCR operator console. The second and third layers use two new event-driven protocols based on TCP/IP. Using this structure, new systems are integrated in the data transmission chain, the layer at which they are integrated depending only on their integration capabilities.

  16. Investigation of a combined gas-steam system with flue gas recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielniak Tadeusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents changes in the operating parameters of a combined gas-steam cycle with a CO2 capture installation and flue gas recirculation. Parametric equations are solved in a purpose-built mathematical model of the system using the Ebsilon Professional code. Recirculated flue gases from the heat recovery boiler outlet, after being cooled and dried, are fed together with primary air into the mixer and then into the gas turbine compressor. This leads to an increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the flue gases fed into the CO2 capture installation from 7.12 to 15.7%. As a consequence, there is a reduction in the demand for heat in the form of steam extracted from the turbine for the amine solution regeneration in the CO2 capture reactor. In addition, the flue gas recirculation involves a rise in the flue gas temperature (by 18 K at the heat recovery boiler inlet and makes it possible to produce more steam. These changes contribute to an increase in net electricity generation efficiency by 1%. The proposed model and the obtained results of numerical simulations are useful in the analysis of combined gas-steam cycles integrated with carbon dioxide separation from flue gases.

  17. Thermodynamic and chemical kinetic analysis of a 5 kw, compact steam reformer - PEMFC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, Luis Evelio Garcia; Oliveira, Amir Antonio Martins [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: evelio@labcet.ufsc.br, e-mail: amirol@emc.ufsc.br

    2006-07-01

    Here we present a thermodynamic and chemical kinetic analysis of the methane steam reforming for production of 5 kw of electrical power in a PEM fuel cell. The equilibrium analysis is based on the method of element potentials to find the state of minimum Gibbs free energy for the system and provides the equilibrium concentration of the reforming products. The objective of this analysis is to obtain the range of reforming temperature, pressure and steam-methane molar ratio that results in maximum hydrogen production subjected to low carbon monoxide production and negligible coke formation. The thermal analysis provides the heat transfer rates associated with the individual processes of steam production, gas-phase superheating and reforming necessary to produce 5 kw of electrical power in a PEM fuel cell and allows for the calculation of thermal efficiencies. Then, the chemical reaction pathways for hydrogen production in steam reforming are discussed and the available chemical, adsorption and equilibrium constants are analyzed in terms of thermodynamic consistency. This analysis provides the framework for the reactor sizing and for establishing the adequate operation conditions. (author)

  18. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof; Pyka Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse ...

  19. The performance of a temperature cascaded cogeneration system producing steam, cooling and dehumidification

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2013-02-01

    This paper discusses the performance of a temperature-cascaded cogeneration plant (TCCP), equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The TCCP, also called a cogeneration system, produces four types of useful energy-namely, (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling and (iv) dehumidification-by utilizing single fuel source. The TCCP comprises a Capstone C-30 micro-turbine that generates nominal capacity of 26 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste-heat-activated devices, namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption chiller and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The performance analysis was conducted under different operation conditions such as different exhaust gas temperatures. It was observed that energy utilization factor could be as high as 70% while fuel energy saving ratio was found to be 28%. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  20. Thermal gain of CHP steam generator plants and heat supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshina, S. K.; Kudinov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Heating calculation of the surface condensate heat recovery unit (HRU) installed behind the BKZ-420-140 NGM boiler resulting in determination of HRU heat output according to fire gas value parameters at the heat recovery unit inlet and its outlet, heated water quantity, combustion efficiency per boiler as a result of installation of HRU, and steam condensate discharge from combustion products at its cooling below condensing point and HRU heat exchange area has been performed. Inspection results of Samara CHP BKZ-420-140 NGM power boilers and field tests of the surface condensate heat recovery unit (HRU) made on the bimetal calorifier base KCk-4-11 (KSk-4-11) installed behind station no. 2 Ulyanovsk CHP-3 DE-10-14 GM boiler were the basis of calculation. Integration of the surface condensation heat recovery unit behind a steam boiler rendered it possible to increase combustion efficiency and simultaneously decrease nitrogen oxide content in exit gases. Influence of the blowing air moisture content, the excess-air coefficient in exit gases, and exit gases temperature at the HRU outlet on steam condensate amount discharge from combustion products at its cooling below condensing point has been analyzed. The steam condensate from HRU gases is offered as heat system make-up water after degasification. The cost-effectiveness analysis of HRU installation behind the Samara CHP BKZ-420-140 NGM steam boiler with consideration of heat energy and chemically purified water economy has been performed. Calculation data for boilers with different heat output has been generalized.

  1. Post-scram Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) neat transport system dynamics and steam generator control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukx, J. F. L. M.

    1982-06-01

    Loop type LMFBR heat transport system dynamics after reactor shutdown and during subsequent decay heat removal are considered with emphasis on steam generator dynamics including the development and evaluation of various post-scram steam generator control systems, and natural circulation of the sodium coolant, including the influence of superimposed free convection on forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop. The normal operating and decay heat removal functions of the overall heat transport system are described.

  2. Steam trap importance at the energy efficiency industrial program; Importancia do purgador de vapor nos programas de conservacao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Francisco E. de C. [ASCA Equipamentos Industriais Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Belchor, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-07-01

    The work approach a historical of problems connected to the steam traps losses, solutions in the past time and the actual reality. We started it reporting the worry with the correct drainage of equipment against to the steam pipes drain. We discoursed about the two basic types traps that are used. The first one and more traditional refers to the thermodynamic disk steam trap. We detailed its operational principle with steam losses. After that we presented the calorimetric test set, a device which values can be compared by thermal balance confirming steam losses. The second one, as a new tendency in petrochemical market, is the inverted bucket trap, more efficient than thermodynamic type, but working by mechanical and intermittent principles, not appropriated to this kind of drainage. After that we presented the definition of the steam traps and their waited characteristics inclusively the necessary deaeration that the two types listed above do not realize. We emphasized that Steam is a thermal fluid and must be controlled by thermal devices. We presented some alternates products that execute the correct drainage, e.g. thermal traps and thermal-thermodynamic traps. Finally, we propose to the market a reconsideration of the used concepts at the steam pipes. (author)

  3. Advanced feed water distributing system for WWER 440 steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J. [Energovyzkum Ltd, Brno (Switzerland); Grazl, K. [Vitkovice s.c., Ostrava (Switzerland); Tischler, J.; Mihalik, M. [SEP Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1995-12-31

    The original designed feed water distributing system was replaced by an advanced one. The characteristics of both feed water distributing systems have been measured and evaluated. The paper deals with the problems of measurement and evaluation of both feed water distributing system characteristics and comparison of statistical data obtained. (orig.). 3 refs.

  4. High Efficiency - Reduced Emissions Boiler Systems for Steam, Heat, and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    replacement of the existing butterfly valve assembly with a servomotor-driven valve assembly for both the fuel and air linkages. This process is...monitoring of flue gas concentrations of O2 and CO to improve the boiler fuel-to-steam efficiency by means of regulation of the burner inlet fuel valve ...to upgrading the combustion control systems consists of substituting the mechanical linkage between the air inlet damper and the fuel inlet valve

  5. Direct-Steam Linear Fresnel Performance Model for NREL's System Advisor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Zhu, G.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the technical formulation and demonstrated model performance results of a new direct-steam-generation (DSG) model in NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). The model predicts the annual electricity production of a wide range of system configurations within the DSG Linear Fresnel technology by modeling hourly performance of the plant in detail. The quasi-steady-state formulation allows users to investigate energy and mass flows, operating temperatures, and pressure drops for geometries and solar field configurations of interest. The model includes tools for heat loss calculation using either empirical polynomial heat loss curves as a function of steam temperature, ambient temperature, and wind velocity, or a detailed evacuated tube receiver heat loss model. Thermal losses are evaluated using a computationally efficient nodal approach, where the solar field and headers are discretized into multiple nodes where heat losses, thermal inertia, steam conditions (including pressure, temperature, enthalpy, etc.) are individually evaluated during each time step of the simulation. This paper discusses the mathematical formulation for the solar field model and describes how the solar field is integrated with the other subsystem models, including the power cycle and optional auxiliary fossil system. Model results are also presented to demonstrate plant behavior in the various operating modes.

  6. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  7. Research on steam-supply performance of ship micro-superheated steam generating system%船舶微过热蒸汽发生系统供汽性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨元龙

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve ship micro-superheated steam generating system stability and optimize its performance parameters, the micro-superheated steam generating system steam-supply response characteristic under the steady and transient state will be cleared. The ship micro-superheated steam generating system was taken as the mechanism model herein. The steady characteristics of velocity pressure, and temperature field for micro-superheated steam generating system were calculated by method of CFD simulation. The boundary conditions were introduced to treat as actual operating parameters of this system. The dynamic simulation study on micro-superheated steam generating system steam-supply response characteristic was carried out. The key parameters distributions of saturated and superheated steam mixing massflow, micro-superheated steam pressure and temperature were obtained. Meanwhile, the micro-superheated steam mixing factor was proposed, which could express quantificationally micro-superheated steam generating system mixing characteristics and effects of micro-superheated steam temperature. The calculated results showed that the pressure drop of saturated steam was higher than one of superheated steam. The micro-superheated steam pressure reduced gradually, leading to larger saturated and superheated steam massflow. These caused micro-superheated steam mixing factor to reduce, which resulted in that the micro-superheated steam temperature reduced slightly. Based on the analysis of the micro-superheated steam generating system steam-supply performance parameters, it could satisfy demand for equipment performance. These could be used to design ship steam power system.%为提高船舶微过热蒸汽发生系统的稳定性和优化微过热系统性能参数,探析稳态、动态工况下微过热蒸汽发生系统供汽响应特性。本文以船舶微过热蒸汽发生系统为机理模型,采用 CFD模拟方法计算了微过热蒸汽发生系统速度场、压

  8. Analysis of the financial impacts to the industrial energy user of using coal or municipal solid waste in a new process-steam-generating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    An analysis is presented of the financial impacts to the industrial energy user of using either coal or MSW in a new process-steam-generating plant. The results of the analysis indicate that the use of coal or solid waste, rather than oil, in a new energy production plant represents an attractive investment. The financial analysis is based on replacing an existing oil-fired plant with a new plant financed via 100-percent debt. The analysis was structured to cover a range of steam demands, different plant ownership and operating structures, and the tax benefits available to these types of plants. Information is also provided on the types of technologies that would be appropriate given the assumed steam demands. In addition, information is provided on available tax benefits in light of recent tax law changes. Nine options for new coal and MSW plants were analyzed, reflecting a matching of technology and energy output to various process steam demands, as well as different ownership and operating structures.

  9. A Generalized and Simple Numerical Model to Compute the Feed Water Preheating System for Steam Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Opriș

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A general and simple numerical model is presented to calculate the uncontrolled steam flows extracted from a turbine to preheat the feed-water of a steam generator. For a user-defined technological scheme, a set of clear rules is given to complete the elements of the augmented matrix of the linear system that solves the problem. The model avoids writing of the heat balance equations for each heat exchanger. The steam extractions to the heaters are determined as related to the flow rate at the condenser. A numerical example is given to show the results.

  10. An Expert System Using A Neural Network For Steam Generator Tube Inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo; Huh, Younghwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Heegon; Choi, Sungsoo [Korea Electric Power Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-04-15

    An expert system using neural network is built to automatically evaluate eddy current (EC) signals generated during steam generator (S/G) tubes inspection. The system consists of three subsystem, i.e., syntactic pattern recognition subsystem, neural network subsystem and rule based production subsystem. The syntactic pattern recognition subsystem makes it easy to process the vast EC signal data, screens EC signals and detects event signals such as defect signals and structural signals. The neural network subsystem is useful to classify the event signals which often contain noise signals. The expert system implemented on HP 9000/370 workstation also supplies a good EC test data management function.

  11. Modeling a high output marine steam generator feedwater control system which uses parallel turbine-driven feed pumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhi-qiang; ZOU Hai; SUN Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    Parallel turbine-driven feedwater pumps are needed when ships travel at high speed. In order to study marine steam generator feedwater control systems which use parallel turbine-driven feed pumps,a mathematical model of marine steam generator feedwater control system was developed which includes mathematical models of two steam generators and parallel turbine-driven feed pumps as well as mathematical models of feedwater pipes and feed regulating valves. The operating condition points of the parallel turbine-driven feed pumps were calculated by the Chebyshev curve fit method. A water level controller for the steam generator and a rotary speed controller for the turbine-driven feed pumps were also included in the model. The accuracy of the mathematical models and their controllers was verified by comparing their results with those from a simulator.

  12. Leak before break evaluation for main steam piping system made of SA106 Gr.C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kyoung Mo; Jee, Kye Kwang; Pyo, Chang Ryul; Ra, In Sik [Korea Power Engineering Company, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    The basis of the leak before break (LBB) concept is to demonstrate that piping will leak significantly before a double ended guillotine break (DEGB) occurs. This is demonstrated by quantifying and evaluating the leak process and prescribing safe shutdown of the plant on the basis of the monitored leak rate. The application of LBB for power plant design has reduced plant cost while improving plant integrity. Several evaluations employing LBB analysis on system piping based on DEGB design have been completed. However, the application of LBB on main steam (MS) piping, which is LBB applicable piping, has not been performed due to several uncertainties associated with occurrence of steam hammer and dynamic strain aging (DSA). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of the LBB design concept to main steam lines manufactured with SA106 Gr.C carbon steel. Based on the material properties, including fracture toughness and tensile properties obtained from the comprehensive material tests for base and weld metals, a parametric study was performed as described in this paper. The PICEP code was used to determine leak size crack (LSC) and the FLET code was used to perform the stability assessment of MS piping. The effects of material properties obtained from tests were evaluated to determine the LBB applicability for the MS piping. It can be shown from this parametric study that the MS piping has a high possibility of design using LBB analysis.

  13. Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam and water-cooled gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainiger, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study was made of the performance of air, steam, and water-cooled gas-turbine/steam turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205 C (2200 F), resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4 percent, when the turbine inlet temperature is increased from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1675 C (3050 F) and the airfoil temperature is kept the same. For water cooling, the maximum efficiency improvement is 2.2 percentage points at a turbine inlet temperature of 1683 C (3062 F) and the maximum specific power improvement is 36.6 percent by increasing the turbine inlet temperature from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1730 C (3150 F) and keeping the airfoil temperatures the same. These improvements are greater than that obtained with combined cycles using air cooling at a turbine inlet temperature of 1205 C (2200 F). The large temperature differences across the thermal barriers at these high temperatures, however, indicate that thermal stresses may present obstacles to the use of coatings at high turbine inlet temperatures.

  14. 易熔塞在工业蒸汽锅炉上应用的探讨%The Investigation of Application of Fusible Plug in Industrial Steam Boilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐振鹏; 孟昭北; 陈雅华

    2013-01-01

    小型工业蒸汽锅炉水容量小,极易产生缺水爆炸事故,目前还没有一些较好的措施避免这种事故发生.易熔塞一种安全泄压装置,在蒸汽机车锅炉上广泛应用,而且效果很好,技术成熟.本文就如何把易熔塞应用到工业蒸汽锅炉上进行深入探讨.%Small-scale industrial steam boilers have a small water capacity, making them easily involved in explosive accident because of water shortage. Currently, no effective measure has been developed to avoid the occurrence of such accident. The fusible plug, a safe equipment for pressure relief, has been widely applied in steam locomotive boilers with good effect and mature technology. This article will investigate in details whether the fusible plug can be applied in industrial steam boilers and how it can be applied.

  15. Industrial and Systems Engineering Applications in NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the many applications of Industrial and Systems Engineering used for safe NASA missions is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Information; 2) Industrial Engineering; 3) Systems Engineering; and 4) Major NASA Programs.

  16. Systems Engineering Provides Successful High Temperature Steam Electrolysis Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles V. Park; Emmanuel Ohene Opare, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes two Systems Engineering Studies completed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support development of the High Temperature Stream Electrolysis (HTSE) process. HTSE produces hydrogen from water using nuclear power and was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) for integration with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The first study was a reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) analysis to identify critical areas for technology development based on available information regarding expected component performance. An HTSE process baseline flowsheet at commercial scale was used as a basis. The NGNP project also established a process and capability to perform future RAM analyses. The analysis identified which components had the greatest impact on HTSE process availability and indicated that the HTSE process could achieve over 90% availability. The second study developed a series of life-cycle cost estimates for the various scale-ups required to demonstrate the HTSE process. Both studies were useful in identifying near- and long-term efforts necessary for successful HTSE process deployment. The size of demonstrations to support scale-up was refined, which is essential to estimate near- and long-term cost and schedule. The life-cycle funding profile, with high-level allocations, was identified as the program transitions from experiment scale R&D to engineering scale demonstration.

  17. Systems strategies for developing industrial microbial strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2015-01-01

    Industrial strain development requires system-wide engineering and optimization of cellular metabolism while considering industrially relevant fermentation and recovery processes. It can be conceptualized as several strategies, which may be implemented in an iterative fashion and in different...... performance under industrial fermentation conditions. These challenges can be overcome by taking systems approaches through the use of state-of-the-art tools of systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering in the context of industrial bioprocess. Major systems metabolic engineering...

  18. Troubleshooting vacuum systems steam turbine surface condensers and refinery vacuum towers

    CERN Document Server

    Lieberman, Norman P

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum systems are in wide spread use in the petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries and power generation plants. The existing texts on this subject are theoretical in nature and only deal with how the equipment functions when in good mechanical conditions, from the viewpoint of the equipment vendor.  In this much-anticipated volume, one of the most well-respected and prolific process engineers in the world takes on troubleshooting vacuum systems, and especially steam ejectors, an extremely complex and difficult subject that greatly effects the profitability of the majority of the world'

  19. Modeling of indirect carbon fuel cell systems with steam and dry gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Katherine M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2016-05-01

    An indirect carbon fuel cell (ICFC) system that couples coal gasification to a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising candidate for high efficiency stationary power. This study couples an equilibrium gasifier model to a detailed 1D MEA model to study the theoretical performance of an ICFC system run on steam or carbon dioxide. Results show that the fuel cell in the ICFC system is capable of power densities greater than 1.0 W cm-2 with H2O recycle, and power densities ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 W cm-2 with CO2 recycle. This result indicates that the ICFC system performs better with steam than with CO2 gasification as a result of the faster electro-oxidation kinetics of H2 relative to CO. The ICFC system is then shown to reach higher current densities and efficiencies than a thermally decoupled gasifier + fuel cell (G + FC) system because it does not include combustion losses associated with autothermal gasification. 55-60% efficiency is predicted for the ICFC system coupled to a bottoming cycle, making this technology competitive with other state-of-the-art stationary power candidates.

  20. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of higher hydrocarbons in a novel circulating fluidized bed reactor-regenerator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.; Elnashaie, S.; Yan, Y. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Chemcial Engineering

    2003-07-01

    A mathematical model was developed to demonstrate the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of higher hydrocarbons in a circulating fluidized bed reactor-regenerator system (CFBRR). Heptane was the higher hydrocarbon used in this study. The process simulation of the riser steam reformer, catalyst regenerator, and downer indicate that the impact of catalyst deactivation is negligible because of the large mass flow ratio of solid to gas stream and the catalyst regenerator. The carbon deposited on the catalyst can be either gasified efficiently in the steam reformer or burned with air in the catalyst regenerator. The burning of carbon on the catalyst supplies the heat required for endothermic steam reforming of heptane and methane. This method has potential advantages for both energy consumption as well as hydrogen production.

  1. One year update - Chevron's horizontal steam injection test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, J.C.; Fram, J.H. [Chevron Energy Technology Company (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, control of the steam injection profile constitutes an important challenge when using a thermal recovery system in horizontal wells. In general, the measurement of two flow mixtures is complex and to date there is no reliable method for controlling two-phase steam distribution. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the results of testing flow splitting and liner isolation devices. These tests have been conducted by Chevron over the last year in a horizontal steam injection test facility built at the Kern River Field close to Bakersfield. This facility also allows Chevron to develop their own equipment for improving steam injection profile. Results show that none of the commercially available devices tested are able to provide consistent steam control. This paper highlighted the results of Chevron's horizontal steam injection test facility and the need for improvement of steam control equipment.

  2. LOCA steam condensation loads in BWR Mark II pressure suppression containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukita, Y.; Namatame, K.; Takeshita, I.; Shiba, M.

    1987-06-01

    Hydrodynamic loads induced in the BWR Mark II pressure suppression containment system during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) were investigated using a large scale test facility. The maximum-bounding loading conditions on the pressure suppression pool-boundary structures were defined by conducting experiments for a wide range of parameters. The maximum-bounding loads occurred when steam, with air concentration less than 1% in weight, was injected at moderate rates (approx. = 30 kg/m/sup 2/.s) into a low-temperature (below 310 K) pool. Such conditions are most likely to be encountered during LOCAs with intermediate break sizes.

  3. DESIGN OF COMBINED CYCLE GENERATION SYSTEM WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE FUEL CELL AND STEAM TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lijun; Yuan Junqi; Cao Guangyi

    2003-01-01

    For environment protection and high efficiency, development of new concept power plant has been required in China. The fuel cell is expected to be used in a power plant as a centralized power station or distributed power plant. It is a chemical power generation device that converts the energy of a chemical reaction directly into electrical energy and not limited by Carnot cycle efficiency. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant has several attractive features I.e. High efficiency and lower emission of Nox and Sox. A combined cycle generation system with MCFC and steam turbine is designed. Its net electrical efficiency LHV is about 55%.

  4. Oil and gas platforms with steam bottoming cycles: System integration and thermoenvironomic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The integration of steam bottoming cycles on oil and gas platforms is currently regarded as the most promising option for improving the performance of these energy-intensive systems. In this paper, a North Sea platform is taken as case study, and a systematic analysis of its energy requirements...... cooling utility, and (iv) the weight limitations on the platform are quantitatively assessed. The results illustrate the benefits of converting the gas turbine process into a combined cycle, since the fuel gas consumption and the total CO2-emissions can be reduced by more than 15 %. Using the cooling...

  5. Global Freshwater Thermal Pollution from Steam-Electric Power Plants with Once-Through Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, C. E.; van Vliet, M. T. H.; Pfister, S.

    2015-12-01

    Thermoelectric power generation requires large amounts of cooling water. In facilities employing once-through cooling systems the heat removed in the power cycle is rejected directly into a water body. Several studies have focused on the impacts of power-related thermal emissions in Europe and the U.S., in terms of river temperature increase and the capacity for power production, especially in the light of legislative measures designed to protect freshwater bodies from excessive temperature. In this work we present a comprehensive, global analysis of current freshwater thermal pollution by thermoelectric facilities. The Platts World Electric Power Plant (WEPP) database was the principal data source. Data gaps in the principal parameters of the steam-electric power cycle were filled in by regression relationships developed in this work. Some 2400 steam-electric units using once-through freshwater cooling systems, amounting to 19% of the global installed capacity of thermoelectric units, were identified and georeferenced, and a global view of thermal emission rates was achieved by systematically solving the Rankine cycle on a power generating unit level. The rejected heat rates are linearly proportional to the steam flow rate, which in turn is directly proportional to the power produced. By applying the appropriate capacity factors, the rejected heat rate can be estimated for each unit or agglomeration of units at the desired temporal resolution. We coupled mean annual emission rates with the global gridded hydrological-river temperature model VIC-RBM to obtain a first view of river temperature increases resulting from power generation. The results show that in many cases, even on a mean annual emission rate basis and a relatively large spatial resolution of 0.5 x 0.5 degrees, the local limits for temperature increase are often exceeded, especially in the U.S. and Europe.

  6. Design approaches for solar industrial process-heat systems: nontracking and line-focus collector technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.; Davenport, R.L.; Dougherty, D.A.; Gee, R.C.; Masterson, P.M.; May, E.K.

    1982-08-01

    The design methodology for solar industrial process heat systems is described, and an overview is given of the use of solar energy in industry. A way to determine whether solar energy makes sense for a particular application is described. The basic system configurations used to supply hot water or steam are discussed, and computer-generated graphs are supplied that allow the user to select a collector type. Detailed energy calculations are provided, including the effects of thermal losses and storage. The selection of subsystem components is described, and control systems, installation and start-up details, economics, and safety and environmental issues are explained. (LEW)

  7. Construction of Circular Economy Industrial System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Man; Ye Wenhu

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to realize the transformation from traditional economy industrial system to circular economy industrial system.Regarding primary raw materials as the indicators,the industrial system has been specified according to the divergence among the indicators and the circular utilization modes.In comparison with the association among industrial systems,the relationship among industrial sub-systems is named as industrial cross-linking in this paper.The industrial system which could completely utilize and recycle the indicators should be increased and strengthened,and the circular economy industrial system with complete industrial association and industrial cross-linking should also be constructed.Taking the development of circular agricultural system basing on the traditional agricultural system as an example,the traditional agricultural products are regarded as the indicators which have been divided into foodstuff and crop straws which are used to produce food and articlesfor use,like fertilizer,energy and papers etc.The way to construct the circular agricultural industrial system is to increase the industrial systems that could utilize the products generated from crop straws,feces and other castoffs and transform the wastewater and other trucks into environmental friendly products.It has also been pointed out that the construction of circular economy industrial system is conducive to the foundation of circular industrial economics and the establishment of the construction layout of circular economy and the application schemes.Suggestions to the theoretical and practical work of the next step have also been brought forward in this paper.

  8. Model-Free Coordinated Control for MHTGR-Based Nuclear Steam Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR is a typical small modular reactor (SMR that offers simpler, standardized and safer modular design by being factory built, requiring smaller initial capital investment, and having a shorter construction period. Thanks to its small size, the MHTGRs could be beneficial in providing electric power to remote areas that are deficient in transmission or distribution and in generating local power for large population centers. Based on the multi-modular operation scheme, the inherent safety feature of the MHTGRs can be applicable to large nuclear plants of any desired power rating. The MHTGR-based nuclear steam supplying system (NSSS is constituted by an MHTGR, a side-by-side arranged helical-coil once-through steam generator (OTSG and some connecting pipes. Due to the side-by-side arrangement, there is a tight coupling effect between the MHTGR and OTSG. Moreover, there always exists the parameter perturbation of the NSSSs. Thus, it is meaningful to study the model-free coordinated control of MHTGR-based NSSSs for safe, stable, robust and efficient operation. In this paper, a new model-free coordinated control strategy that regulates the nuclear power, MHTGR outlet helium temperature and OTSG outlet overheated steam temperature by properly adjusting the control rod position, helium flowrate and feed-water flowrate is established for the MHTGR-based NSSSs. Sufficient conditions for the globally asymptotic closed-loop stability is given. Finally, numerical simulation results in the cases of large range power decrease and increase illustrate the satisfactory performance of this newly-developed model-free coordinated NSSS control law.

  9. Design and modelling of an innovative three-stage thermal storage system for direct steam generation CSP plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Pierre; Vuillerme, Valéry; Olcese, Marco; El Mourchid, Nadim

    2016-05-01

    Thermal Energy Storage systems (TES) for a Direct Steam Generation (DSG) solar plant feature preferably three stages in series including a latent heat storage module so that steam can be recovered with a limited temperature loss. The storage system designed within the Alsolen Sup project is characterized by an innovative combination of sensible and latent modules. A dynamic model of this three-stage storage has been developed and applied to size the storage system of the Alsolen Sup® plant demonstrator at CEA Cadarache. Results of this simulation show that this promising concept is an efficient way to store heat in DSG solar plants.

  10. Energy Audit as a Tool for Improving System Efficiency in Industrial Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi Srinath,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the characteristics of energy consumption in industrial sector, the methodology and results of energy audits (EA performed in industrial sites and potentials for energy efficiency (EE improvements. The present state of industrial energy in India could be characterized by significant technological out-of–date, low energy efficiency and low level of environmental protection. Presented analysis of the results of conducted energy audits in selected industrial companies in previous period has shown the significant potentials for energy efficiency improvements in industrial sector (upgrading or replacement of equipment in the industrial energy sources and processes, introduction of energy management, improvement of steam supply and condensate return systems, the waste heat utilization, introduction of energy efficiency technology, improvement of energy efficiency in electrical equipment, usage of waste materials etc.

  11. High Temperatures Health Monitoring of the Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Takano, Nobuyuki; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic probes were designed, fabricated and tested for high temperature health monitoring system. The goal of this work was to develop the health monitoring system that can determine the height level of the condensed water through the pipe wall at high temperature up to 250 deg while accounting for the effects of surface perturbation. Among different ultrasonic probe designs, 2.25 MHz probes with air backed configuration provide satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, receiving reflections from the target through the pipe wall. A series of tests were performed using the air-backed probes under irregular conditions, such as surface perturbation and surface disturbance at elevated temperature, to qualify the developed ultrasonic system. The results demonstrate that the fabricated air-backed probes combined with advanced signal processing techniques offer the capability of health monitoring of steam pipe under various operating conditions.

  12. High Temperatures Health Monitoring of the Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Takano, Nobuyuki; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic probes were designed, fabricated and tested for high temperature health monitoring system. The goal of this work was to develop the health monitoring system that can determine the height level of the condensed water through the pipe wall at high temperature up to 250 deg while accounting for the effects of surface perturbation. Among different ultrasonic probe designs, 2.25 MHz probes with air backed configuration provide satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, receiving reflections from the target through the pipe wall. A series of tests were performed using the air-backed probes under irregular conditions, such as surface perturbation and surface disturbance at elevated temperature, to qualify the developed ultrasonic system. The results demonstrate that the fabricated air-backed probes combined with advanced signal processing techniques offer the capability of health monitoring of steam pipe under various operating conditions.

  13. In-Service Monitoring of Steam Pipe Systems at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Lih, Shyh-Shiuh (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor); Blosiu, Julian O. (Inventor); Widholm, Scott E. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring the properties of a fluid, such as water, in a steam pipe without mechanically penetrating the wall of the pipe. The system uses a piezoelectric transducer to launch an ultrasonic probe signal into the pipe. Reflected ultrasonic signals are captured in a transducer, which can be the same transducer that launched the probe signal. The reflected signals are subjected to data processing, which can include filtering, amplification, analog-to-digital conversion and autocorrelation analysis. A result is extracted which is indicative of a property of the fluid, such as a height of the condensed fluid, a cavitation of the condensed fluid, and a surface perturbation of the condensed fluid. The result can be recorded, displayed, and/or transmitted to another location. One embodiment of the system has been constructed and tested based on a general purpose programmable computer using instructions recorded in machine-readable non-volatile memory.

  14. Energy savings in one-pipe steam heating systems fitted with high-capacity air vents. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Multifamily buildings heated by one-pipe steam systems experience significant temperature gradients from apartment to apartment, often reaching 15{degrees}F. As a result, many tenants are to cold, or if the heating system output is increased so as to heat the coldest apartment adequately, too hot. While both are undesirable, the second is particularly so because it wastes energy. It was thought that insufficient air venting of the steam pipes contributed to the gradient. Theoretically, if steam mains and risers are quickly vented, steam will reach each radiator at approximately the same time and balance apartment temperatures. The project`s objective was to determine if the installation of large-capacity air vents at the ends of steam mains and risers would economically reduce the temperature gradient between apartments and reduce the amount of space heating energy required. The test was conducted by enabling and disabling air vents biweekly in 10 multifamily buildings in New York City between December 1992 to May 1993. The temperatures of selected apartments and total space heating energy were compared during each venting regime. There was no difference in energy consumption between ``vents on`` and ``vents off`` periods (see Tables 2 and 5); however, there was a reduction in the maximum spread of apartment temperatures.

  15. Toward High Performance in Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, H.

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design in industr...... in industrial refrigeration systems....

  16. Towards High Performance in Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, H.

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design in industr...... in industrial refrigeration systems....

  17. Control law design for the fuel consumption system of steam drum boiler taking into consideration the economy of energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The cascade system for maintaining the level in the steam boiler drum was investigated. Main features of the system are it’s variable structure which changes depending on the load variation relative to its previous value, and the use of the model of the drum level in dependence of the feedwater flow rate.

  18. Characteristics Evaluation of a CO2-Caputuring Power Generation System with Reheat Cycle Utilizing Regenerative Oxygen-Combustion Steam-Superheater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Pyong Sik

    A new CO2-capturing power generation system is proposed that can be easily realized by applying conventional technologies. In the proposed system, the temperature of middle-pressure steam in a thermal power plant is raised by utilizing oxygen-combusting regenerative steam-superheater. The generated CO2 by combusting fuel in the superheater can be easily separated and captured from the exhaust gas at condenser outlet, and is liquefied. The superheated steam is used to drive a steam turbine power generation system. By adopting a high efficient combined cycle power generation system as an example, it has been shown that the proposed system can increase power output by 10.8%, decrease the CO2 emission amount of the total integrated system by 18.6% with power generation efficiency drop of 2.36% compared with the original power plant without CO2-capture, when superheated steam temperature is 750°C

  19. An optimization model for the operations of steam production in industrial boilers Um modelo de otimização para as operações de produção de vapor em caldeiras industriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Damião Rocco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a mixed integer linear programming model is presented to support some of the key decisions in the steam production system with industrial boilers. The model approaches the fuel management decisions (fuel replenishment and its inventory control, boiler operational decisions (start-up, warm-up, and shutdown operations, and which boiler should produce steam. The model adjustments and its validation were carried out through a case study in a large food industry. In face of the good outcomes achieved in applying the model and the lack of optimization tools to support the decisions in this system, the proposed model is a suitable alternative to support some of the key decisions in the system of steam production with multiple industrial boilers.Apresenta-se neste trabalho um modelo de programação linear inteira mista para apoiar algumas das principais decisões na operação de produção de vapor em caldeiras industriais. O modelo contempla as decisões de gerenciamento dos combustíveis: compra nos fornecedores, transporte para a fábrica e níveis dos estoques, assim como determina o modo de funcionamento das caldeiras: momentos de acionamento (start-up, regime de aquecimento (warm-up e desligamento dos equipamentos (shutdown, e em quais deles haverá produção de vapor. Os ajustes e a validação do modelo ocorreram por meio de um estudo de caso realizado em uma indústria de alimentos de grande porte. Diante dos bons resultados obtidos com a aplicação do modelo e da ausência de protocolos ou ferramentas de otimização para apoiar as decisões no sistema estudado, o modelo proposto apresenta-se como uma alternativa viável para apoiar algumas das principais decisões no sistema de produção de vapor em caldeiras industriais.

  20. Application of vacuum steam systems to hot water district heating and cooling systems; Phase 2, System design and installation: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    Pequod Associates, Inc. and District Energy St. Paul, Inc. installed a pilot project of an innovative District Heating technology through a contract with the US Department of Energy: Application of Vacuum Steam Systems to Hot Water District Heating and Cooling Systems FG01-88CE26560. This applied research was funded by the Energy Research and Development Act (94-163) for District Heating and Cooling Research. The Department of Energy recognizes the importance of developing low-cost conversion techniques for hot water district heating systems. The experimental design is an intervention technique that permits hot water district heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems. This method can substantially reduce conversion cost in many older buildings. The method circulates moist hot air as a heating medium under atmospheric and vacuum conditions in standard steam radiators and steam heating coils. The system operates with heat exchangers and blower/receiver package. The pilot project involved the installation of such a system in an office building located at 310 Cedar Street, St. Paul, Minnesota. The installation enabled District Energy to provide service to a building that otherwise could not be converted to district heating without major system renovations. If the operating results of the pilot project are favorable, the technology cab be adopted by many district heating systems to lower conversion costs and increase market penetration. Among the additional benefits from this technology are eliminating old, inefficient boilers, lower maintenance costs and improved fuel efficiency.

  1. Nuclear power plant steam pipes repairing with Tirant 3 Robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, M.; Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Lazaro, F. [Revestimientos Anticorrosivos Industriales, S. L. U., Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.soto@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The metallization arc spray process is based on the projection of molten metal, supplied by means of different stainless alloys wire, over a surface of carbon steel usually, with the object of serving as protection against erosion-corrosion, increasing resistance to abrasion and detrition. A typical application functions covering the steam pipes inner surface in coal-fired power station and nuclear power plants. The results of this process are spectacular in terms of protection against corrosion and abrasion, but its application has conditioning factors, such as: Severe application conditions for workers. Due to the worker's postural position (usually kneeling) in 32 diameter pipes and working with fireproof clothing and masks with outdoor air supplying, due to fumes, sparks and molten metal particles, radiological contamination, confined space, poor lighting, ... Coating uniformity. As metallization is a manual process, the carried out measurements show small variations in the thickness of the coating, always within the tolerance limits established by the applicable regulations and quality assurance. An increase in the uniformity of the projected coating, increase the resistance and give a better surface protection. For all these reasons, Lainsa has developed the Tirant 3 robot, a worldwide innovative system, for metallization of steam pipes inner surface. Tirant 3 robot is tele operated from outside of the pipe, so that human intervention is reduced to the operations of robot positioning and change of metallization wire. As it is an independent system of the human factor, metallization process performance is significantly increased by reducing rest periods due only to the robot maintenance. Likewise, Tirant 3 system permits to increase resulting coating uniformity and thus its resistance, keeping selected parameters constant (forward speed, rotation speed and inner surface distance) depending on required type and thickness of wire. (Author)

  2. Analysis of pressure oscillations and safety relief valve vibrations in the main steam system of a Boiling Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbally, David, E-mail: dgalbally@innomerics.com [Innomerics, Calle San Juan de la Cruz 2, 28223 Madrid (Spain); García, Gonzalo [Alava Ingenieros, Calle Albasanz 16, 28037 Madrid (Spain); Hernando, Jesús; Sánchez, Juan de Dios [Iberdrola, Calle Tomás Redondo 1, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Barral, Marcos [Alava Ingenieros, Calle Albasanz 16, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyze the vibratory response of safety relief valves in the main steam system of a Boiling Water Reactor. • We show that valve internals experience acceleration spikes of more than 20 g. • Spikes are caused by impacts between the valve disc and the seating surface of the valve nozzle. • Resonances occur at higher Strouhal numbers than those reported in the literature for tandem side branches. • Valves experience high vibration levels even for resonances caused by second order hydrodynamic modes. - Abstract: Steam flow inside the main steam lines of a Boiling Water Reactor can generate high-amplitude pressure oscillations due to coupling between the separated shear layer at the mouth of the safety relief valves (SRVs) and the acoustic modes of the side branches where the SRVs are mounted. It is known that certain combinations of flow velocities and main steam line geometries are capable of generating self-excited pressure oscillations with very high amplitudes, which can endanger the structural integrity of main steam system components, such as safety valves, or reactor internals such as steam dryers. However, main steam systems may also experience lower amplitude pressure oscillations due, for example, to coupling of higher order hydrodynamic modes with acoustic cavity modes, or to incipient resonances where the free stream velocity is slightly lower than the critical flow velocity required to develop a stable locked-on acoustic resonance. The amplitude of these pressure oscillations is typically insufficient to cause readily observable structural damage to main steam system components, but may still have subtle effects on safety relief valves. The investigation presented in this article focuses on the characterization of the response of SRVs under the effects of pressure oscillations associated with acoustic excitations that are insufficient to cause structural damage to the valves or associated equipment. It is shown that valve

  3. 400-MWe Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS). 1200-MWt Phase 2A interim studies. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The Phase 2A interim studies of the Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) consisted of a number of separate task studies addressing the design concepts developed during the Phase 1 study reported in BAW--1445. The purpose of the interim studies was to better establish overall concept feasibility from both a hardware and economic standpoint, to make modification and additions to the design where appropriate, and to understand and reduce the technical risks in critical areas of the design. The work on these task studies included input from Barberton, Mt. Vernon, and the Alliance Research Center as well as United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C). The UE and C work was carried out under a separate DOE contract.

  4. Modeling of Spray System Operation under Hydrogen and Steam Emissions in NPP Containment during Severe Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Seleznev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes one of the variants of mathematical models of a fluid dynamics process inside the containment, which occurs in the conditions of operation of spray systems in severe accidents at nuclear power plant. The source of emergency emissions in this case is the leak of the coolant or rupture at full cross-section of the main circulating pipeline in a reactor building. Leak or rupture characteristics define the localization and the temporal law of functioning of a source of emergency emission (or accrued operating of warmed up hydrogen and steam in the containment. Operation of this source at the course of analyzed accident models should be described by the assignment of the relevant Dirichlet boundary conditions. Functioning of the passive autocatalytic recombiners of hydrogen is described in the form of the complex Newton boundary conditions.

  5. Saferad industrial radiography system; Sistema Saferad de radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Wallace Aparecido de [NDT do Brasil Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Saferad industrial radiography system is a system for execution of radiographic tests that provide small rays of insulation compared to conventional techniques. The system consists of a special irradiator that can be operated in three modes of exposure: Projection, Directional, and Panoramic with a set of collimators for different diameters of tubes, which collimate the radiation only to the area of the film. The radioisotope used is Selenium-75. Complements the system the shielding GammaBlok, polymer based on cadmium, flexible, non-toxic, and presented in various dimensions and shapes. It should involve the radiographic arrangement to shield the radiation after it goes through the film and the scattered radiation.

  6. Use of a turboexpander in steam power units for heat energy recovery in heat supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, R. A.; Daminov, A. Z.; Solomin, I. N.; Futin, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    A method for raising the efficiency of a boiler plant by installing a unit operating by the organic Rankine cycle is presented. Such units allow one to generate electricity to cover the auxiliaries of a heat source at a heat-transfer fluid temperature of no more than 130°C. The results of commissioning tests of boilers revealed that their efficiency is maximized under a load that is close or corresponds to the nominal one. If this load is maintained constantly, excess heat energy is produced. This excess may be used to generate electric energy in a steam power unit with a turboexpander. A way to insert this unit into the flow diagram of a boiler plant is proposed. The results of analysis of turbine types (turboexpanders included) with various capacities are presented, and the optimum type for the proposed flow diagram is chosen. The methodology for the design of turboexpanders and compressors used in the oil and gas industry and their operational data were applied in the analysis of a turboexpander. The results of the thermogasdynamic analysis of a turboexpander and the engineered shape of an axial-radial impeller are presented. Halocarbon R245fa is chosen as the working medium based on its calorimetric properties.

  7. Industrial applications of THz systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietzke, S.; Jansen, C.; Jördens, C.; Krumbholz, N.; Vieweg, N.; Scheller, M.; Shakfa, M. K.; Romeike, D.; Hochrein, T.; Mikulics, M.; Koch, M.

    2009-07-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz TDS) holds high potential as a non-destructive, non-contact testing tool. We have identified a plethora of emerging industrial applications such as quality control of industrial processes and products in the plastics industry. Polymers are transparent to THz waves while additives show a significantly higher permittivity. This dielectric contrast allows for detecting the additive concentration and the degree of dispersion. We present a first inline configuration of a THz TDS spectrometer for monitoring polymeric compounding processes. To evaluate plastic components, non-destructive testing is strongly recommended. For instance, THz imaging is capable of inspecting plastic weld joints or revealing the orientation of fiber reinforcements. Water strongly absorbs THz radiation. However, this sensitivity to water can be employed in order to investigate the moisture absorption in plastics and the water content in plants. Furthermore, applications in food technology are discussed. Moreover, security scanning applications are addressed in terms of identifying liquid explosives. We present the vision and first components of a handheld security scanner. In addition, a new approach for parameter extraction of THz TDS data is presented. All in all, we give an overview how industry can benefit from THz TDS completing the tool box of non-destructive evaluation.

  8. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  9. Getting of Industrial Water for Steam Boilers with Treatment of Drinking Water from the Spring "Studenčica"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorica Pavlovska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The drinking water from the source Studenčica contains a high percentage of dissolved mineral salts and can not be used for the operation of steam boilers.It is therefore necessary this water to bephysically and chemically treated.Physical treatment consistsofthe removal of mechanical impurities by means of sand filters, and chemical treatment is consisted of two different procedures: decarbonation and demineralization. Decarbonation is performed in quick concrete reactor - accelerator with a solution of Ca(OH2 and FeCl3, and demineralization is performed using ion modifiers.

  10. SIMS: The SLAC Industrial Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, B.; /SLAC

    2005-08-12

    The development of electronic sensors and of small powerful computers, and their integration together have led to the development of what has come to be known as Industrial Measurement Technology (IMT). Industrial Measurement Systems feature one or more electronic sensors and a computer with powerful software. The software has three essential components: data collection, data reduction and data analysis. In the field of industrial surveying, the IMT system is the automated theodolite system, but other systems such as the laser tracker are on the horizon.

  11. ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION BASIS FOR INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS RENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Milićević

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the most environmental pressure in Serbia comes from urban areas and associated industries,with collection, treatment and disposal all kinds of hazardous waste, non hazardous waste, and waste water being among the most challenging issues.There is an urgency to prevent further environmental degradation and to initiate new environmental and industrial management practices. Industrial systems reingeneering is one of possible solutions, from the authors stand point.

  12. Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems Program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbeck, D.W. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in partnership with industry, has set new performance standards for industrial gas turbines through the creation of the Industrial Advanced Turbine System Program. Their leadership will lead to the development of an optimized, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly gas turbine power systems in this size class (3-to-20 MW). The DOE has already created a positive effect by encouraging gas turbine system manufacturers to reassess their product and technology plans using the new higher standards as the benchmark. Solar Turbines has been a leader in the industrial gas turbine business, and is delighted to have joined with the DOE in developing the goals and vision for this program. We welcome the opportunity to help the national goals of energy conservation and environmental enhancement. The results of this program should lead to the U.S. based gas turbine industry maintaining its international leadership and the creation of highly paid domestic jobs.

  13. Post-scram Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) heat transport system dynamics and steam generator control: Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukx, J. F. L. M.

    1982-06-01

    Dynamic modeling of LMFBR heat transport system is discussed. Uncontrolled transient behavior of individual components and of the integrated heat transport system are considered. For each component, results showing specific dynamic features of the component and/or model capability were generated. Controlled dynamic behavior for alternative steam generator control systems during forced and natural sodium coolant circulation was analyzed. Combined free and forced convection of laminar and turbulent vertical pipe flow of liquid metals was investigated.

  14. Developing a Package Training System for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, D. L. N.

    1974-01-01

    The hotel and catering industry is one of Great Britain's largest. A packaged training system has been developed to satisfy the needs of this industry, an ever-growing occupational field with multiple categories. The material provided in each package outlines short pieces of instruction and helps the trainer create appropriate training. (DS)

  15. Steam generator tube failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  16. Industrial Foundations in the Tax System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    and elsewhere. This system implies clear consequences for the taxation of different types of income, labor income and capital income. However, as the outline of the system is based on the premise that “people pay taxes”, industrial foundations, having no personal owners, do not immediately fit in. So what to do......This paper attempts to place industrial foundations (IFs in the following; similar to trusts) in the tax system. An industrial foundation is a private foundation that holds a voting majority in a joint stock corporation. These IFs are probably more prevalent in Denmark than in any other country...

  17. Exergy analysis on eco-industrial systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li; HU Shanying; CHEN Dingjiang; ZHANG Dawei

    2006-01-01

    Exergy analysis of eco-industrial systems reflects the thermodynamic characteristics of resource utilization by studying complicated material flow patterns to an industrial system. Different indicators based on exergy analysis are presented, such as system exergy depletion index, cycling ratio of material exergy, etc. which can be used to evaluate the efficiency of resource utilization and the environmental potential effect. The interrelations of these exergy indicators and their interpretation on industrial ecology are further discussed. Finally, the result of case study suggests effectiveness of exergy analysis methods and practicability of these exergy estimate indices.

  18. 一种太阳能吸热器过热蒸汽温度控制系统%Temperature control system of superheated steam for one type solar water/steam receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭铁铮; 刘国耀; 刘德有; 郭苏; 许昌

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一种应用于塔式太阳能热发电系统的水/蒸汽吸热器过热蒸汽温度控制系统.受到太阳辐射能间歇性和不确定性的影响,吸热器产生的过热蒸汽温度难于控制.控制系统根据吸热器在蒸汽流量变化、光功率变化和减温水流量变化等3种主要扰动下的过热汽温度动态响应特性,以减温水流量作为控制量,光功率和蒸汽负荷作为前馈信号,设计和研制了两段式过热蒸汽温度控制系统,使吸热器过热区出口汽温维持在允许的范围内.%A superheated steam temperature control system of heat receiver in solar power tower plant was introduced. It is hard to control superheated steam temperature of receiver because solar radiant energy is intermittent and unsteady. A superheated steam temperature control system with two phases was designed and developed based on dynamic response characteristics of superheated steam caused by three main influencing factors such as steam flow, solar radiation and flow of desuperheating water. The flow of desuperheating water was used as control variable, and solar radiation and steam load as feed-forward signal, the steam outlet temperature at superheat zone in receiver changed within allowable arrange.

  19. Chapter 13. Industrial Application of Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Design and application of modern pure tap water components and systems in industries, in particular food processing industry.......Design and application of modern pure tap water components and systems in industries, in particular food processing industry....

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of the efficiency of high-temperature steam electrolysis system for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyi, Liu; Bo, Yu; Jingming, Xu; Jing, Chen

    High-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), a reversible process of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in principle, is a promising method for highly efficient large-scale hydrogen production. In our study, the overall efficiency of the HTSE system was calculated through electrochemical and thermodynamic analysis. A thermodynamic model in regards to the efficiency of the HTSE system was established and the quantitative effects of three key parameters, electrical efficiency (η el), electrolysis efficiency (η es), and thermal efficiency (η th) on the overall efficiency (η overall) of the HTSE system were investigated. Results showed that the contribution of η el, η es, η th to the overall efficiency were about 70%, 22%, and 8%, respectively. As temperatures increased from 500 °C to 1000 °C, the effect of η el on η overall decreased gradually and the η es effect remained almost constant, while the η th effect increased gradually. The overall efficiency of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with the HTSE system under different conditions was also calculated. With the increase of electrical, electrolysis, and thermal efficiency, the overall efficiencies were anticipated to increase from 33% to a maximum of 59% at 1000 °C, which is over two times higher than that of the conventional alkaline water electrolysis.

  1. High performance steam development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Over 30 years ago U.S. industry introduced the world`s highest temperature (1200{degrees}F at 5000 psig) and most efficient power plant, the Eddystone coal-burning steam plant. The highest alloy material used in the plant was 316 stainless steel. Problems during the first few years of operation caused a reduction in operating temperature to 1100{degrees}F which has generally become the highest temperature used in plants around the world. Leadership in high temperature steam has moved to Japan and Europe over the last 30 years.

  2. Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, J.B.

    1983-07-01

    A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

  3. Industrial applications study. Volume III. Technology data base evaluation of waste recovery systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence W.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study was undertaken to estimate the present and potential technical and economic characteristics of a wide range of components and complete systems capable of converting industrial and commercial waste heat into mechanical or electrical power and/or building and process heating and cooling. The component and system technologies evaluated include: Rankine-, Stirling-, and Brayton-cycle power systems; reciprocating-, rotary-, and turbo-expanders; heat exchangers and heat pumps; thermally driven cooling and dehumidification systems; and integrated systems capable of providing multiple outputs. Extensive analyses were conducted of Rankine-cycle systems using steam, halogenated hydrocarbons, and other organic compounds as working fluids. Performance characteristics, recoverable output power, and installed costs were estimated and are presented herein for Rankine-cycle systems utilizing selected working fluids over a range of waste heat source temperatures between approximately 200 and 1000/sup 0/F. Data describing the performance capabilities, technology and installed costs of heat exchangers, expanders and thermally driven absorption, vapor compression, steam-jet cooling and refrigeration systems are presented herein together with limited performance and cost estimates for Stirling-cycle power recovery systems. The component and system data were used to provide a preliminary assessment of the recoverable energy and associated system costs when integrated with generalized waste heat sources identified by Drexel University from their two-digit SIC industrial energy survey.

  4. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  5. Vision Systems Illuminate Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA designs a spacecraft to undertake a new mission, innovation does not stop after the design phase. In many cases, these spacecraft are firsts of their kind, requiring not only remarkable imagination and expertise in their conception but new technologies and methods for their manufacture. In the realm of manufacturing, NASA has from necessity worked on the cutting-edge, seeking new techniques and materials for creating unprecedented structures, as well as capabilities for reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of existing manufacturing technologies. From friction stir welding enhancements (Spinoff 2009) to thermoset composites (Spinoff 2011), NASA s innovations in manufacturing have often transferred to the public in ways that enable the expansion of the Nation s industrial productivity. NASA has long pursued ways of improving upon and ensuring quality results from manufacturing processes ranging from arc welding to thermal coating applications. But many of these processes generate blinding light (hence the need for special eyewear during welding) that obscures the process while it is happening, making it difficult to monitor and evaluate. In the 1980s, NASA partnered with a company to develop technology to address this issue. Today, that collaboration has spawned multiple commercial products that not only support effective manufacturing for private industry but also may support NASA in the use of an exciting, rapidly growing field of manufacturing ideal for long-duration space missions.

  6. IT Security Aspects of Industrial Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Holecko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a set of general network system architectures for industrial process control systems as well as vulnerabilities related to these systems and the IT threats these systems are exposed to from the point of view of Common Criteria methodology and ITU-T recommendation X.805.

  7. J.R. Simplot: Burner Upgrade Project Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Large Food Processing Plant (Steam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This DOE Industrial Program case study describes how the J.R. Simplot Company saved energy and money by increasing the efficiency of the steam system in its potato processing plant in Caldwell, Idaho.

  8. J.R. Simplot: Burner Upgrade Project Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Large Food Processing Plant (Steam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This DOE Industrial Program case study describes how the J.R. Simplot Company saved energy and money by increasing the efficiency of the steam system in its potato processing plant in Caldwell, Idaho.

  9. A high-speed photographic system for flow visualization in a steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    A photographic system was designed to visualize the moisture flow in a steam turbine. Good performance of the system was verified using dry turbine mockups in which an aerosol spray simulated, in a rough way, the moisture flow in the turbine. Borescopes and fiber-optic light tubes were selected as the general instrumentation approach. High speed motion-picture photographs of the liquid flow over the stator blade surfaces were taken using stroboscopic lighting. Good visualization of the liquid flow was obtained. Still photographs of drops in flight were made using short duration flash sources. Drops with diameters as small as 30 micrometers (0.0012 in.) could be resolved. In addition, motion pictures of a spray of water simulating the spray off the rotor blades and shrouds were taken at normal framing rates. Specially constructed light tubes containing small tungsten-halogen lamps were used. Sixteen millimeter photography was used in all cases. Two potential problems resulting from the two-phase turbine flow (attenuation and scattering of light by the fog present and liquid accumulation on the borescope mirrors) were taken into account in the photographic system design but not evaluated experimentally.

  10. C++ Implementation of IAPWS Water/Steam Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling Zou; Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Qiyue Lu

    2014-02-01

    For the calculations of water-involved systems, such as safety analysis of light water reactors, it is essential to provide accurate water properties. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam is an international non-profit association of national organizations concerned with the properties of water and steam. It provides internationally accepted formulations of water/steam properties for scientific and industrial applications. The purpose of this work is to provide a stand-alone software package in C++ programming language to provide accurate and efficient water/steam properties evaluation, based on the latest IAPWS releases. The discussion on related IAPWS releases, code implementations and verifications are provided in details.

  11. Accurate calibration of steam turbine speed control system and its influence on primary regulation at electric grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrazabal Bohorquez, Washington Orlando; Barbosa, Joao Roberto [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Center for Reference on Gas Turbine and Energy], E-mail: barbosa@ita.br

    2010-07-01

    In an interconnected electric system there are two very important parameters: the field voltage and the frequency system. The frequency system is very important for the primary regulation of the electric grid. Each turbomachine actuating as generator interconnected to the grid has an automatic speed regulator to keep the rotational speed and mechanical power of the prime machine operating at the set conditions and stable frequency. The electric grid is a dynamical system and in every moment the power units are exposed to several types of disturbances, which cause unbalance of the mechanical power developed by prime machine and the consumed electric power at the grid. The steam turbine speed control system controls the turbine speed to support the electric grid primary frequency at the same time it controls the frequency of the prime machine. Using a mathematical model for the speed control system, the transfer functions were calculated, as well as the proportionality constants of each element of the steam turbine automatic speed regulator. Among other parameters, the droop characteristic of steam turbine and the dynamic characteristics of the automatic speed regulator elements were calculated. Another important result was the determination of the behavior of the speed control when disturbances occur with the improvement of the calibration precision of the control system. (author)

  12. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jayne [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Ludwig, Peter [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, Larry [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources.

  13. Instrumental system for the quick relief of surface temperatures in fumaroles fields and steam heated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Iole; Cappuzzo, Santo; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Cosenza, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We present an instrumental system to measure and to map the space variation of the surface temperature in volcanic fields. The system is called Pirogips, its essential components are a Pyrometer and a Global Position System but also other devices useful to obtain a good performance of the operating system have been included. In the framework of investigation to define and interpret volcanic scenarios, the long-term monitoring of gas geochemistry can improve the resolution of the scientific approaches by other specific disciplines. Indeed the fluid phase is released on a continuous mode from any natural system which produces energy in excess respect to its geological boundaries. This is the case of seismic or magmatic active areas where the long-term geochemical monitoring is able to highlight, and to follow in real time, changes in the rate of energy release and/or in the feeding sources of fluids, thus contributing to define the actual behaviour of the investigated systems (e.g. Paonita el al., 2013; 2002; Taran, 2011; Zettwood and Tazieff, 1973). The demand of pirogips starts from the personal experience in long term monitoring of gas geochemistry (e.g. Diliberto I.S, 2013; 2011; et al., 2002; Inguaggiato et al.,2012a, 2012b). Both space and time variation of surface temperature highlight change of energy and mass release from the deep active system, they reveal the upraise of deep and hot fluid and can be easily detected. Moreover a detailed map of surface temperature can be very useful for establishing a network of sampling points or installing a new site for geochemical monitoring. Water is commonly the main component of magmatic or hydrothermal fluid release and it can reach the ground surface in the form of steam, as in the high and low temperature fumaroles fields, or it can even condense just below the ground surface. In this second case the water disperses in pores or circulates in the permeable layers while the un-condensable gases reach the surface (e

  14. Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, B.W.

    1983-05-01

    As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

  15. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  16. Wet steam treatment with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehle, W.; Enkler, G. [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    After many years of excellent results using high all volatile treatment (HAVT) for operation of the secondary system of a PWR, flow assisted corrosion in the heating pipes of the intermediate steam reheaters has been experienced. Oxygen addition into the heating steam before the reheater is expected to improve the protective oxide layers formation. The reaction of oxygen with the alkalizing steam ingredients is described. (orig.)

  17. Pilot-scale study on the acid-catalyzed steam explosion of rice straw using a continuous pretreatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hua; Tsai, Chia-Chin; Lin, Chih-Feng; Tsai, Pei-Yuan; Hwang, Wen-Song

    2013-01-01

    A continuous acid-catalyzed steam explosion pretreatment process and system to produce cellulosic ethanol was developed at the pilot-scale. The effects of the following parameters on the pretreatment efficiency of rice straw feedstocks were investigated: the acid concentration, the reaction temperature, the residence time, the feedstock size, the explosion pressure and the screw speed. The optimal presteaming horizontal reactor conditions for the pretreatment process are as follows: 1.7 rpm and 100-110 °C with an acid concentration of 1.3% (w/w). An acid-catalyzed steam explosion is then performed in the vertical reactor at 185 °C for 2 min. Approximately 73% of the total saccharification yield was obtained after the rice straw was pretreated under optimal conditions and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis at a combined severity factor of 0.4-0.7. Moreover, good long-term stability and durability of the pretreatment system under continuous operation was observed.

  18. Expert systems in the process industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of industrial applications of real-time knowledge based expert systems (KBES's) in the process industries. After a brief overview of the features of a KBES useful in process applications, the general roles of KBES's are covered. A particular focus is diagnostic applications, one of the major applications areas. Many applications are seen as an expansion of supervisory control. The lessons learned from numerous online applications are summarized.

  19. Industrial deployment of system engineering methods

    CERN Document Server

    Romanovsky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    A formal method is not the main engine of a development process, its contribution is to improve system dependability by motivating formalisation where useful. This book summarizes the results of the DEPLOY research project on engineering methods for dependable systems through the industrial deployment of formal methods in software development. The applications considered were in automotive, aerospace, railway, and enterprise information systems, and microprocessor design.  The project introduced a formal method, Event-B, into several industrial organisations and built on the lessons learned to

  20. Dilute acid pretreatment of black spruce using continuous steam explosion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Haixia; Deng, James; Zhang, Tony

    2011-02-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials prior to the enzymatic hydrolysis is essential to the sugar yield and bioethanol production. Dilute acid hydrolysis of black spruce softwood chip was performed in a continuous high temperature reactor followed with steam explosion and mechanical refining. The acid-soaked wood chips were pretreated under different feeding rates (60 and 92 kg/h), cooking screw rotation speeds (7.2 and 14.4 rpm), and steam pressures (12 and 15 bar). The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out on the acid-insoluble fraction of pretreated material. At lower feeding rate, the pretreatment at low steam pressure and short retention time favored the recovery of hemicellulose. The pretreatment at high steam pressure and longer retention time recovered less hemicellulose but improved the enzymatic accessibility. As a result, the overall sugar yields became similar no matter what levels of the retention time or steam pressure. Comparing with lower feeding rate, higher feeding rate resulted in consistently higher glucose yield in both liquid fraction after pretreatment and that released after enzymatic hydrolysis.

  1. Training Center for Industrial Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yezhov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the application of embedded microcontrollers and industrial controllers with built-in operating systems.With the development of embedded operating systems and technology of open standard IEC 61131-3 product developer can write their own program management and support staff – to modernize management program.

  2. Steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, G.; Gilli, P.V.; Fritz, K.; Lippitsch, J.

    1975-12-02

    A steam generator is disclosed which is particularly adapted to be used in nuclear power plants. A casing is provided with an inlet and outlet to receive and discharge a primary heating fluid from which heat is to be extracted. A pair of tube plates extend across the interior of the casing at the region of the inlet and outlet thereof, and a plurality of tubes extend along the interior of the casing and are connected in parallel between the tube plates with all of the tubes having open ends communicating with the inlet and outlet of the casing so that the primary heating fluid will flow through the interior of the tubes while a fluid in the casing at the exterior of the tubes will extract heat from the primary fluid. The casing has between the tubes at the region of the inlet a superheating chamber and at the region of the outlet a preheating chamber and between the latter chambers an evaporating chamber, the casing receiving water through an inlet at the preheating chamber and discharging superheated steam through an outlet at the superheating chamber. A separator communicates with the evaporating chamber to receive a mixture of steam and water therefrom for separating the steam from the water and for delivering the separated steam to the superheating chamber.

  3. Regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    PRESTO computer program was developed to analyze performance of wide range of steam turbine cycles with special attention given to regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles. It can be used to model standard turbine cycles, including such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking, and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses are used to calculate cycle heat rate and generator output. Program provides power engineer with flexible aid for design and analysis of steam turbine systems.

  4. Fundamental Characteristics of Industrial Variant Specification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the operational task of creating customised variants of industrial specifications (e.g. drawings, routings and bill-of-materials). Rooted in a lack of existing literature on the subject the paper describes the nature of variant specification systems. It introduces some funda...... examples. In general the paper discusses an important focus area within mass customization and build-to-order production: the nature of industrial variant specification systems.......This paper focuses on the operational task of creating customised variants of industrial specifications (e.g. drawings, routings and bill-of-materials). Rooted in a lack of existing literature on the subject the paper describes the nature of variant specification systems. It introduces some...

  5. Economics of scale in the production of steam with solar thermal-fossil boiler hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, F. R.; Lindner, D. L.; Vitko, J., Jr.

    1983-03-01

    Levelized energy costs for steam plants in the size range 15 MM Btu/h to 400 MM Btu/h were estimated for steam produced by several different technologies, including stand alone oil and coal burning plants and solar central receiver fossil boiler hybrid plants. Models for the costs of plant subsystems used in these calculations are presented. Designs of the solar fossil hybrids examined were optimized for solar fraction and amount of thermal storage used by simulation of plant operation. The resulting levelized energy costs and their sensitivity to various modelling parameters are discussed.

  6. Aspergilli: Systems biology and industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuf, Christoph; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    possible to implement systems biology tools to advance metabolic engineering. These tools include genome-wide transcription analysis and genome-scale metabolic models. Herein, we review achievements in the field and highlight the impact of Aspergillus systems biology on industrial biotechnology....... genetic modifications has enabled the use of metabolic engineering strategies. Genome sequencing of Aspergilli was originally trailing behind developments in the field of bacteria and yeasts, but with the recent availability of genome sequences for several industrially relevant Aspergilli, it has become...

  7. 46 CFR 58.60-5 - Industrial systems: Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial systems: Locations. 58.60-5 Section 58.60-5... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Industrial Systems and Components on Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODU) § 58.60-5 Industrial systems: Locations. An industrial system under this subpart must not be in a...

  8. Industrial biosystems engineering and biorefinery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shulin

    2008-06-01

    The concept of Industrial Biosystems Engineering (IBsE) was suggested as a new engineering branch to be developed for meeting the needs for science, technology and professionals by the upcoming bioeconomy. With emphasis on systems, IBsE builds upon the interfaces between systems biology, bioprocessing, and systems engineering. This paper discussed the background, the suggested definition, the theoretical framework and methodologies of this new discipline as well as its challenges and future development.

  9. Industrial Biosystems Engineering and Biorefinery Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shulin Chen

    2008-01-01

    The concept of Industrial Biosystems Engineering (IBsE) was suggested as a new engineering branch to be developed for meeting the needs for science, technology and professionals by the upcoming bioeconomy. With emphasis on systems, IBsE builds upon the interfaces between systems biology, bioprocessing, and systems engineering. This paper discussed the background, the suggested definition, the theoretical framework and methodologies of this new discipline as well as its challenges and future development

  10. Some perspective decisions for the regeneration system equipment of the thermal and nuclear power plants decreasing the probability of water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Sintsova, T. G.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Yesin, S. B.; Nikolayenkova, E. K.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigorieva, E. B.

    2016-03-01

    The regeneration system heaters are one of the sources of possible ingress of the water into the turbine. The water penetrates into the turbine either at the heaters overflow or with the return flow of steam generated when the water being in the heater boils up in the dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit. The return flow of steam and water is dangerous to the turbine blades and can result in the rotor acceleration. The known protective devices used to prevent the overflow of the low-pressure and high-pressure heaters (LPH and HPH), of the horizontal and vertical heaters of heating-system water (HWH and VWH), as well as of the deaerators and low-pressure mixing heaters (LPMH) were considered. The main protective methods of the steam and water return flows supplied by the heaters in dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit are described. Previous operating experience shows that the available protections do not fully prevent water ingress into the turbine and the rotor acceleration and, therefore, the development of measures to decrease the possibility of ingress of the water into the turbine is an actual problem. The measures allowing eliminating or reducing the water mass in the heaters are expounded; some of them were designed by the specialists of OAO Polzunov Scientific and Development Association on Research and Design of Power Equipment (NPO CKTI) and are efficiently introduced at heat power plants and nuclear power plants. The suggested technical solutions allow reducing the possibility of the water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow in the dynamic operation modes or in the case of power generating unit deenergization. Some of these solutions have been tested in experimental-industrial exploitation and can be used in industry.

  11. Laboratory use of industrial control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijllart, A. (CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Avot, L. (CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Brahy, D. (CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Jegou, D. (CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Saban, R. (CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland))

    1994-12-15

    Industrial control system manufacturers supply the building blocks for the control of industrial equipment or specific process control applications. Although the laboratory environment is different in many aspects (prototyping, evolution and frequent reconfiguration), the use of these building blocks remain attractive because of their general purpose nature, their cost and the large spectrum of available types. In this paper we present three projects which have been implemented using both industrial control system building blocks (PLCs, controllers, digital and analogue plug-in I/O cards) and commercial software packages (LabView and VisualBasic) for the man-machine interface, the data acquisition and archiving, and the process control. This approach has proved to be economical, easy and fast to implement. ((orig.))

  12. 78 FR 58153 - Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal Wage System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... RIN 3206-AM78 Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal... Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes currently used in Federal Wage System wage survey industry... 2007 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes used in Federal Wage System (FWS)...

  13. Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-07-01

    The J.R. Simplot Company's Don Plant in Pocatello, Idaho, optimized boiler operation, improved condensate recovery, and fixed steam traps and leaks for a simple payback of 6.5 months. Results are being shared with other Simplot facilities and other recommendations identified during the assessment are under consideration.

  14. Systems metabolic engineering in an industrial setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagt, Cees M J

    2013-03-01

    Systems metabolic engineering is based on systems biology, synthetic biology, and evolutionary engineering and is now also applied in industry. Industrial use of systems metabolic engineering focuses on strain and process optimization. Since ambitious yields, titers, productivities, and low costs are key in an industrial setting, the use of effective and robust methods in systems metabolic engineering is becoming very important. Major improvements in the field of proteomics and metabolomics have been crucial in the development of genome-wide approaches in strain and process development. This is accompanied by a rapid increase in DNA sequencing and synthesis capacity. These developments enable the use of systems metabolic engineering in an industrial setting. Industrial systems metabolic engineering can be defined as the combined use of genome-wide genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to modify strains or processes. This approach has become very common since the technology for generating large data sets of all levels of the cellular processes has developed quite fast into robust, reliable, and affordable methods. The main challenge and scope of this mini review is how to translate these large data sets in relevant biological leads which can be tested for strain or process improvements. Experimental setup, heterogeneity of the culture, and sample pretreatment are important issues which are easily underrated. In addition, the process of structuring, filtering, and visualization of data is important, but also, the availability of a genetic toolbox and equipment for medium/high-throughput fermentation is a key success factor. For an efficient bioprocess, all the different components in this process have to work together. Therefore, mutual tuning of these components is an important strategy.

  15. New Mexico Minerals Industry Locator System (MILS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This contains all Mineral Industry Systems in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the state of New...

  16. Microprocessor systems for industrial process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, F. H.

    1980-01-01

    Six computers operate synchronously and are interconnected by three independent data buses. Processors control one subsystem. Some can control buses to transfer data at 1 megabit per second. Every 2.5 msec each processor examines list of things to do during next interval. This spacecraft control system could be adapted for controlling complex industrial processes.

  17. Cyber Security of Industrial Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Paske, B.J. te

    2015-01-01

    Our society and its citizens depend on the undisturbed functioning of (critical) infrastructures and their services. Crucial processes in most critical infrastructures, and in many other organisations, rely on the correct and undisturbed functioning of Industrial Control Systems (ICS). A failure of

  18. Cyber Security of Industrial Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Paske, B.J. te

    2015-01-01

    Our society and its citizens depend on the undisturbed functioning of (critical) infrastructures and their services. Crucial processes in most critical infrastructures, and in many other organisations, rely on the correct and undisturbed functioning of Industrial Control Systems (ICS). A failure of

  19. Steam turbines and operation of steam turbines 2010. Proceedings; Dampfturbinen und Dampfturbinenbetrieb 2010. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the VGB conference an 30th June to 1st July, 2010 in Luebeck (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Application of rifled tubes in power plant heat exchangers (Andreas Grahl); (2) Improved efficiency and potential savings at the 'cool end' through tube cleaning and cooling water filtration (Wolfgang Czolkoss); (3) Material and process improvements in condenser tubing (Pascal Gerard); (4) Automatic eddy current testing of longitudinally welded austentic and titanium tubes for condensers and other heat exchanger (Werner Hannig); (5) Major steam turbine losses: causes, repair measures, recommissioning (Stefan Thumm); (6) Damage on industrial steam turbines (Hans-Guenter Busch); (7) Proper design of turbine draining systems (Ralph Semme); (8) VDMA - Contribution to functional safety of turbomachinery - Required risk reduction by safety functions for steam turbines (Bernhard Wuest); (9) Functional safety by MAN turbo on the example of SIL3 safety loop overspeed detection (Holger Buschmann); (10) Boiler feed pump monitoring, diagnostic and controlling loop (Sohail Ahmed); (11) Experimental investigation to the radial adjustment of brush seals for steam turbines (Heiko Schwarz); (12) The revised VGB guidelines for condenser tubes from copper alloys, stainless steels and titanium (Frank-Udo Leidich); (13) Modernization of HP and LP turbines in coal-fired power plant Bergkamen (Roland Sommer); (14) Mega-components made of cast steel for power plant technology (Reinhold Hanus); (15) Quality monitoring of steam turbine sets for new construction projects of the Vattenfall Europe Generation AG (Marco Rediess); (16) Weld repair of a cracked LP rotor (Andreas Nowi); (17) Steam turbines and CO{sub 2} sequestration (Juergen Klebes); (18) Advanced filter element construction for alleviating electrostatic discharge effects in turbine lubricating systems (John K. Duchowski).

  20. Solar Thermal Small Power Systems Study. Inventory of US industrial small electric power generating systems. [Less than 10 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This inventory of small industrial electric generating systems was assembled by The Aerospace Corporation to provide a data base for analyses being conducted to estimate the potential for displacement of these fossil-fueled systems by solar thermal electric systems no larger than 10 MW in rated capacity. The approximately 2100 megawatts generating capacity of systems in this category constitutes a potential market for small solar thermal and other solar electric power systems. The sources of data for this inventory were the (former) Federal Power Commission (FPC) Form 4 Industrial Ledger and Form 12-C Ledger for 1976. Table 1 alphabetically lists generating systems located at industrial plants and at Federal government installations in each of the 50 states. These systems are differentiated by type of power plant: steam turbine, diesel generator, or gas turbine. Each listing is designated as a power system rather than a power unit because the FPC Ledgers do not provide a means of determining whether more than one unit is associated with each industrial installation. Hence, the user should consider each listing to be a system capacity rating wherein the system may consist of one or more generating units with less than 10 MW/sub e/ combined rating. (WHK)

  1. Industrial-scale steam explosion pretreatment of sugarcane straw for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for production of second generation ethanol and value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernando M V; Pinheiro, Irapuan O; Souto-Maior, Ana M; Martin, Carlos; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Rocha, George J M

    2013-02-01

    Steam explosion at 180, 190 and 200°C for 15min was applied to sugarcane straw in an industrial sugar/ethanol reactor (2.5m(3)). The pretreated straw was delignificated by sodium hydroxide and hydrolyzed with cellulases, or submitted directly to enzymatic hydrolysis after the pretreatment. The pretreatments led to remarkable hemicellulose solubilization, with the maximum (92.7%) for pretreatment performed at 200°C. Alkaline treatment of the pretreated materials led to lignin solubilization of 86.7% at 180°C, and only to 81.3% in the material pretreated at 200°C. All pretreatment conditions led to high hydrolysis conversion of cellulose, with the maximum (80.0%) achieved at 200°C. Delignification increase the enzymatic conversion (from 58.8% in the cellulignin to 85.1% in the delignificated pulp) of the material pretreated at 180°C, but for the material pretreated at 190°C, the improvement was less remarkable, while for the pretreated at 200°C the hydrolysis conversion decreased after the alkaline treatment.

  2. The 15 kW sub e (nominal) solar thermal electric power conversion concept definition study: Steam Rankine turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    A study to define the performance and cost characteristics of a solar powered, steam Rankine turbine system located at the focal point of a solar concentrator is presented. A two stage re-entry turbine with reheat between stages, which has an efficiency of 27% at a turbine inlet temperature of 732 C was used. System efficiency was defined as 60 Hertz electrical output divided by absorbed thermal input in the working fluid. Mass production costs were found to be approximately 364 dollars/KW.

  3. Optimal design of solid oxide fuel cell, ammonia-water single effect absorption cycle and Rankine steam cycle hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Dehghani, Hossein; Ali Moosavian, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    A combined system containing solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine power plant, Rankine steam cycle and ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system is introduced and analyzed. In this process, power, heat and cooling are produced. Energy and exergy analyses along with the economic factors are used to distinguish optimum operating point of the system. The developed electrochemical model of the fuel cell is validated with experimental results. Thermodynamic package and main parameters of the absorption refrigeration system are validated. The power output of the system is 500 kW. An optimization problem is defined in order to finding the optimal operating point. Decision variables are current density, temperature of the exhaust gases from the boiler, steam turbine pressure (high and medium), generator temperature and consumed cooling water. Results indicate that electrical efficiency of the combined system is 62.4% (LHV). Produced refrigeration (at -10 °C) and heat recovery are 101 kW and 22.1 kW respectively. Investment cost for the combined system (without absorption cycle) is about 2917 kW-1.

  4. Industrial Applications of Automatic Speech Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jayashri Vajpai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current trends in developing technologies form important bridges to the future, fortified by the early and productive use of technology for enriching the human life. Speech signal processing, which includes automatic speech recognition, synthetic speech, and natural language processing, is beginning to have a significant impact on business, industry and ease of operation of personal computers. Apart from this, it facilitates the deeper understanding of complex mechanism of functioning of human brain. Advances in speech recognition technology, over the past five decades, have enabled a wide range of industrial applications. Yet today's applications provide a small preview of a rich future for speech and voice interface technology that will eventually replace keyboards with microphones for designing human machine interface for providing easy access to increasingly intelligent machines. It also shows how the capabilities of speech recognition systems in industrial applications are evolving over time to usher in the next generation of voice-enabled services. This paper aims to present an effective survey of the speech recognition technology described in the available literature and integrate the insights gained during the process of study of individual research and developments. The current applications of speech recognition for real world and industry have also been outlined with special reference to applications in the areas of medical, industrial robotics, forensic, defence and aviation

  5. The Optimization Adjustment of Steam Injection System in Daqing Oilfield%大庆油田注汽系统的优化调整

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边宇超

    2016-01-01

    Jiang 37 block of heavy oil reservoir in Daqing Oilfield use steam stimulation method for mining. At the beginning period, the bottom hole steam quality is low, which has affected the development effect.The analysis of thermal energy consumption in steam in-jection system shows that the consumption of the ground thermal energy is higher. Using high pressure steam separator can improve the boiler export dryness, which can improve the steam quality effectively by reducing the steam quality loss.There needs to insulate the equip-ment in the process of mining, strengthen the inspection of the steam injection system, maintain the damaged insulation layer in the steam injection system regularly. Proper steam injection mode should be selected in the steam injection,which is close to the steam injection to achieve the purpose of saving energy and reducing consumption and increasing the produc-tion capacity.%大庆油田江37区块稠油油藏采用蒸汽吞吐方式进行开采,开采初期井底蒸汽干度低,影响开发效果。通过分析大庆油田注汽系统各环节的热能消耗,得出地面上消耗的热能比较高。通过高压汽水分离器提高锅炉出口干度,降低蒸汽干度损失量,应用球型等干度分配器可实现多口油井注入蒸汽的干度相同;对开采过程中相关的设备进行保温,加强对注汽系统的巡线工作,定期维修注汽系统中损坏的保温层;在注汽方式中,要选择近距离注汽站进行注汽,达到了节能降耗、提高产能的目的。

  6. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation systems industrial application issues

    CERN Document Server

    Callegari, Sergio; Montisci, Augusto; Ricci, Marco; Versaci, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the practical implementation of ultrasonic NDT techniques in an industrial environment, discussing several issues that may emerge and proposing strategies for addressing them successfully.  It aims to bridge advanced academic research results and their application to industrial procedures. The topics covered in the text range from the basic operation of an ultrasonic NDT system to the simulation of the measurement operations; from the choice and generation of the signals energizing the system to the different ways of exploiting the probes and their output signals; and from quality assessment evaluation to the use of soft computing techniques for classification. Throughout the text, an effort is made to embrace a system view where the physical and technological aspects of sensing are addressed together with higher abstraction levels, such as signal and information processing. Consequently, the book aims at guiding the reader through the various tasks requested for developing a complete ultras...

  7. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  8. A Design Methodology For Industrial Vision Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, B. G.; Waltz, F. M.; Snyder, M. A.

    1988-11-01

    The cost of design, rather than that of target system hardware, represents the principal factor inhibiting the adoption of machine vision systems by manufacturing industry. To reduce design costs to a minimum, a number of software and hardware aids have been developed or are currently being built by the authors. These design aids are as follows: a. An expert system for giving advice about which image acquisition techniques (i.e. lighting/viewing techniques) might be appropriate in a given situation. b. A program to assist in the selection and setup of camera lenses. c. A rich repertoire of image processing procedures, integrated with the Al language Prolog. This combination (called ProVision) provides a facility for experimenting with intelligent image processing techniques and is intended to allow rapid prototyping of algorithms and/or heuristics. d. Fast image processing hardware, capable of implementing commands in the ProVision language. The speed of operation of this equipment is sufficiently high for it to be used, without modification, in many industrial applications. Where this is not possible, even higher execution speed may be achieved by adding extra modules to the processing hardware. In this way, it is possible to trade speed against the cost of the target system hardware. New and faster implementations of a given algorithm/heuristic can usually be achieved with the expenditure of only a small effort. Throughout this article, the emphasis is on designing an industrial vision system in a smooth and effortless manner. In order to illustrate our main thesis that the design of industrial vision systems can be made very much easier through the use of suitable utilities, the article concludes with a discussion of a case study: the dissection of tiny plants using a visually controlled robot.

  9. Network analysis of eight industrial symbiosis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Shi, Han; Yu, Xiangyi; Liu, Gengyuan; Su, Meirong; Li, Yating; Chai, Yingying

    2016-06-01

    Industrial symbiosis is the quintessential characteristic of an eco-industrial park. To divide parks into different types, previous studies mostly focused on qualitative judgments, and failed to use metrics to conduct quantitative research on the internal structural or functional characteristics of a park. To analyze a park's structural attributes, a range of metrics from network analysis have been applied, but few researchers have compared two or more symbioses using multiple metrics. In this study, we used two metrics (density and network degree centralization) to compare the degrees of completeness and dependence of eight diverse but representative industrial symbiosis networks. Through the combination of the two metrics, we divided the networks into three types: weak completeness, and two forms of strong completeness, namely "anchor tenant" mutualism and "equality-oriented" mutualism. The results showed that the networks with a weak degree of completeness were sparse and had few connections among nodes; for "anchor tenant" mutualism, the degree of completeness was relatively high, but the affiliated members were too dependent on core members; and the members in "equality-oriented" mutualism had equal roles, with diverse and flexible symbiotic paths. These results revealed some of the systems' internal structure and how different structures influenced the exchanges of materials, energy, and knowledge among members of a system, thereby providing insights into threats that may destabilize the network. Based on this analysis, we provide examples of the advantages and effectiveness of recent improvement projects in a typical Chinese eco-industrial park (Shandong Lubei).

  10. Improving industrial process control systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Epting, U; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2004-01-01

    System providers are today creating process control systems based on remote connectivity using internet technology, effectively exposing these systems to the same threats as corporate computers. It is becoming increasingly difficult and costly to patch/maintain the technical infrastructure monitoring and control systems to remove these vulnerabilities. A strategy including risk assessment, security policy issues, service level agreements between the IT department and the controls engineering groups must be defined. In addition an increased awareness of IT security in the controls system engineering domain is needed. As consequence of these new factors the control system architectures have to take into account security requirements, that often have an impact on both operational aspects as well as on the project and maintenance cost. Manufacturers of industrial control system equipment do however also propose progressively security related solutions that can be used for our active projects. The paper discusses ...

  11. Integrity evaluation for steam generator tube of system integrated modular advanced reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Jin, T. E. [KOPEC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, M. J.; Choi, Y. H.; Jeo, J. C. [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    In this study, the structural integrity for SG tube of system integrated modular advanced reactor, which is subjected to dominant external pressure as well as helical type, is evaluated using the commercial finite element package ABAQUS and the American petrochemical industry code API 579 Appendix B. First of all, the crack behavior under the assumption of local heating is assessed using ABAQUS. And, the buckling behavior of tube with 40% wall thinning is assessed using API 579 Appendix B. As a result, it is found that the crack closure phenomenon occurs under external pressure and the buckling doesn't occur even if 40% wall thinning exists in tube.

  12. Formal verification of industrial control systems

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Verification of critical software is a high priority but a challenging task for industrial control systems. For many kinds of problems, testing is not an efficient method. Formal methods, such as model checking appears to be an appropriate complementary method. However, it is not common to use model checking in industry yet, as this method needs typically formal methods expertise and huge computing power. In the EN-ICE-PLC section, we are working on a [methodology][1] and a tool ([PLCverif][2]) to overcome these challenges and to integrate formal verification in the development process of our PLC-based control systems. [1]: http://cern.ch/project-plc-formalmethods [2]: http://cern.ch/plcverif

  13. INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS AS LOCAL SYSTEMS OF INNOVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo Cor�; Stefano Micelli

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines the situation and the lines of development of industrial districts from the point of view of local systems of innovation. First of all, this article points out to the modernity factors of the district model � which are ascribable to the supply chain economy, to entrepreneurial dynamics and to the importance of geography as a competitive resource � through the analysis of recent contributions of economic literature that examined the emerging organizational models in knowled...

  14. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  15. Design and Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam Ejector Refrigeration/Heat Pump System for Naval Surface Ship Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Ezgi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Naval surface ships should use thermally driven heating and cooling technologies to continue the Navy’s leadership role in protecting the marine environment. Steam ejector refrigeration (SER or steam ejector heat pump (SEHP systems are thermally driven heating and cooling technologies and seem to be a promising technology to reduce emissions for heating and cooling on board naval surface ships. In this study, design and thermodynamic analysis of a seawater cooled SER and SEHP as an HVAC system for a naval surface ship application are presented and compared with those of a current typical naval ship system case, an H2O-LiBr absorption heat pump and a vapour-compression heat pump. The off-design study estimated the coefficient of performances (COPs were 0.29–0.11 for the cooling mode and 1.29–1.11 for the heating mode, depending on the pressure of the exhaust gas boiler at off-design conditions. In the system operating at the exhaust gas boiler pressure of 0.2 MPa, the optimum area ratio obtained was 23.30.

  16. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J

    2016-05-01

    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Quality Management System for Defence Aeronautical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.T. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Indian defence aeronautical industry, while becoming a global business, demands a largeeffort to monitor quality management system (QMS and to ensure quality of aeronauticalproducts. An effort is being made to look for an effective QMS for aeronautical industry in India,which will also meet the requirements of the regulatory authority.The essential features of an effective QMS are described and compared with the presentlyavailable QMS standards for defence aeronautical industry such as QCSR: 2002 (DGAQA, India,Def Stan (MOD, UK, ISO, AQAPs (NATO and Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE aerospacestandards (AS. Evolution, relevance and review of the existing standards, to meet the requirementsof the industry as well as regulatory authority, have been made to bring out the special featuresand differences. The study leads to the most acceptable standard of SAE-AS-9100 (Rev B.With suitable modifications to include regulatory requirement of assistance for governmentquality assurance in the standard, when complied with, it will fully meet the QMS requirementsof the Indian defence aeronautical supply organisations as well as the requirements of theregulatory authority. Minor reorientation of the regulatory functions and inclusion of the QMSin the defence aeronautical supply orders are also suggested.

  18. 46 CFR 58.60-9 - Industrial systems: Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial systems: Design. 58.60-9 Section 58.60-9... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Industrial Systems and Components on Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODU) § 58.60-9 Industrial systems: Design. Each system under this subpart must be designed and analyzed in...

  19. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Brian K.

    2010-08-01

    The document provides a methodology to estimate unmetered industrial water use for evaporative cooling systems, steam generating boiler systems, batch process applications, and wash systems. For each category standard mathematical relationships are summarized and provided in a single resource to assist Federal agencies in developing an initial estimate of their industrial water use. The approach incorporates industry norms, general rules of thumb, and industry survey information to provide methodologies for each section.

  20. Simulation Model for Stochastic Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Steam Generator System of a Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Vora,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the stochastic analysis and performance evaluation of turbo generator system of a thermal plant by making the use of performance evaluation using probabilistic approach. The steam generator system of thermal power plant under the research study consists mainly sub-systems boiler, super heater and reheaterarranged in series with two feasible states: working and failed. Failure and repair rates for all the sub-systems are assumed to be constant. Initially transition diagram representing the operational behavior is drawn and then problem formulation is done using Markov approach. Based on the data collection and its analysis for thermal Power Plant, Performance matrix for each subsystem is also developed. Then from these results, availability matrices and graphs of failure and repair rates for maximum availability of each system is analysed and then condition based maintenance decisions are decided.

  1. IT Asset Management of Industrial Automation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The installation and administration of large heterogeneous IT infrastructures, for enterprises as well industrial automation systems,are becoming more and more complex and time consuming. The growing number of interconnections between networks, the development of new intelligent IT devices, and increasingly sophisticated computer hardware and software, require in-depth knowledge of IT protocols,interfaces, and standards to manage such infrastructures. The exponential growth of the World Wide Web and new IT technologies enable further integration of software and hardware systems across company boundaries.

  2. A study on integrity of LMFBR secondary cooling system to hypothetical tube failure propagation in the steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshihisa Shindo; Kazuo Haga [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) Kamiya-cho MT Bldg., 4-3-20 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: A fundamental safety issue of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) is to maintain the integrity of the secondary cooling system components against violent chemical sodium-water reaction caused by the water leak from the heat transfer tube of steam generators (SG). The produced sodium-water reaction jet would attack more severely surrounding tubes and would cause other tube failures (tube failure propagation), if it was assumed that the water leak was not detected by function-less detectors and proper operating actions to mitigate the tube failure propagation, such as isolations of the SG from the secondary cooling system and turbine water/steam system, and blowing water and steam inside tubes in the SG, were not taken. This study has been made focusing on the affection of large-scale water leak enlarged due to SG tube failure propagation to the structural integrity of the secondary cooling system because the generated pressure pulse caused by a large-scale sodium-water reaction might break heat transfer tubes of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). The present work has been made as one part of the study of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of LMFBR, because if the heat-transfer tubes of IHX were failed, the reactor core may be affected by the pressure pulse and/or by the sodium-water reaction products transported through the primary cooling system. As tools for PSA of the water leak incident of SG, we have developed QUARK-LP Version 4 code that mainly analyzes the high temperature rupture phenomena and estimates the number of failed tubes during the middle-scale water leak. The pressure pulse behavior generated by sodium-water reaction in the failure SG and the pressure propagation in the secondary cooling system are calculated by using the SWAAM-2 code developed by ANL. Furthermore, the quasi-steady state high pressure and temperature of the secondary cooling system in a long term is estimated by using the SWAAM

  3. Amazing & extraordinary facts the steam age

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Respected transport author Julian Holland delves into the intriguing world of steam in his latest book, which is full of absorbing facts and figures on subjects ranging from Cornish beam engines, steam railway locomotives, road vehicles and ships through to traction engines, steam rollers and electricity generating stations and the people who designed and built them. Helped along the way by the inventive minds of James Watt, Richard Trevithick and George Stephenson, steam became the powerhouse that drove the Industrial Revolution in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries.

  4. Development of industrial variant specification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer

    With globalisation and increased competition industrial companies must be prepared to satisfy individual customer needs and still stay competitive with regards to lead times, quality, and prices. These factors require companies to be better prepared to handle specification activities during order...... acquisition and order fulfilment, i.e. the creation of drawings, bill-of-materials, routings, product descriptions, quote letters etc. The present thesis is rooted in the assumption that variant specification systems supporting the cross-functional processes of order acquisition and order fulfilment must...... be developed from a holistic and strategically anchored point of view. Another assumption is that this is a challenge for many industrial companies. Even though the literature presents many considerations on general issues covering new information technology, little work is found on the business perspectives...

  5. The impact research of control modes in steam turbine control system (digital electric hydraulic to the low-frequency oscillation of grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanghai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of the control theory for steam turbine, the transfer function of the steam turbine control modes in the parallel operation was obtained. The frequency domain analysis indicated that different control modes of turbine control system have different influence on the damping characteristics of the power system. The comparative analysis shows the direction and the degree of the influence under the different oscillation frequency range. This can provide the theory for the suppression of the low-frequency oscillation from turbine side and has a guiding significance for the stability of power system. The results of simulation tests are consistent with the theoretic analysis.

  6. Systemic analysis of industrial cogeneration; Analise sistemica da cogeracao industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M. Eugenia de P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Clayton D.R.

    2001-07-01

    This paper optimizes, by using linear programming, the production configuration of an industry as far the net income is concerned when acting to increase either the electric power generation capacity, or efficiency of the cogeneration cycle equipment. A sugar and hydrated alcohol facility has been chosen as a production unity due to the utilization of facility real data measured.

  7. 46 CFR 111.107-1 - Industrial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial systems. 111.107-1 Section 111.107-1 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Industrial Systems § 111.107-1 Industrial systems. (a) For the purpose of this subpart, an industrial system is a system that— (1) Is not a ship's service load, as defined in § 111.10-1; (2) Is...

  8. Solar steam supply: Initial operation of a plant

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Dirk; Lichtenthäler, Niels; Dersch, Jürgen; Schenk, Heiko; Hennecke, Klaus; Anthrakidis, Anette; Rusack, Markus; Lokurlu, Ahmet; Saidi, Karim; Walder, Marcus; Fischer, Stephan; Wirth, Hans Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experiences in operating a parabolic trough collector field for process heat supply by direct steam generation. The solar steam generator has been running automatically since its start in 2010 except for a winter pause up to now, August 2011, without any malfunction. It has supplied steam at 4 bar absolute and 143°C to the main production steam line on sunny days. Direct steam generation has proven to be a viable technology to supply saturated steam to an industrial st...

  9. Performance and economic assessments of a solid oxide fuel cell system with a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming process using CaO sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2016-02-01

    The hydrogen production process is known to be important to a fuel cell system. In this study, a carbon-free hydrogen production process is proposed by using a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming procedure, which consists of ethanol dehydrogenation and steam reforming, as a fuel processor in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. An addition of CaO in the reformer for CO2 capture is also considered to enhance the hydrogen production. The performance of the SOFC system is analyzed under thermally self-sufficient conditions in terms of the technical and economic aspects. The simulation results show that the two-step reforming process can be run in the operating window without carbon formation. The addition of CaO in the steam reformer, which runs at a steam-to-ethanol ratio of 5, temperature of 900 K and atmospheric pressure, minimizes the presence of CO2; 93% CO2 is removed from the steam-reforming environment. This factor causes an increase in the SOFC power density of 6.62%. Although the economic analysis shows that the proposed fuel processor provides a higher capital cost, it offers a reducing active area of the SOFC stack and the most favorable process economics in term of net cost saving.

  10. 78 FR 18252 - Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal Wage System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Industry Classification System Based Federal Wage System Wage Surveys AGENCY: U. S. Office of Personnel... is issuing a proposed rule that would update the 2007 North American Industry Classification System... North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes used in Federal Wage System (FWS)...

  11. Challenges and opportunities in securing industrial control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadziosmanovic, D.; Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Industrial Control Systems (ICS) are used for operating and monitoring industrial processes. Recent reports state that current ICS infrastructures are not sufficiently protected against cyber threats. Unfortunately, due to the specific nature of these systems, the application of common security

  12. Improving Fan System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-04-01

    This is one of a series of sourcebooks on motor-driven equipment produced by the Industrial Technologies Program. It provides a reference for industrial fan systems users, outlining opportunities to improve fan system performance.

  13. Space Applications Industrial Laser System (SAILS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCay, T. D.; Bible, J. B.; Mueller, R. E.

    1993-10-01

    A program is underway to develop a YAG laser based materials processing workstation to fly in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. This workstation, called Space Applications Industrial Laser System (SAILS), will be capable of cutting and welding steel, aluminum, and Inconel alloys of the type planned for use in constructing the Space Station Freedom. As well as demonstrating the ability of a YAG laser to perform remote (fiber-optic delivered) repair and fabrication operations in space, fundamental data will be collected on these interactions for comparison with terrestrial data and models. The flight system, scheduled to fly in 1996, will be constructed as three modules using standard Get-Away-Special (GAS) canisters. The first module holds the laser head and cooling system, while the second contains a high peak power electrical supply. The third module houses the materials processing workstation and the command and data acquisition subsystems. The laser head and workstation cansisters are linked by a fiber-optic cable to transmit the laser light. The team assembled to carry out this project includes Lumonics Industrial Products (laser), Tennessee Technological University (structural analysis and fabrication), Auburn University Center for Space Power (electrical engineering), University of Waterloo (low-g laser process consulting), and CSTAR/UTSI (data acquisition, control, software, integration, experiment design). This report describes the SAILS program and highlights recent activities undertaken at CSTAR.

  14. Space Applications Industrial Laser System (SAILS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccay, T. D.; Bible, J. B.; Mueller, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    A program is underway to develop a YAG laser based materials processing workstation to fly in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. This workstation, called Space Applications Industrial Laser System (SAILS), will be capable of cutting and welding steel, aluminum, and Inconel alloys of the type planned for use in constructing the Space Station Freedom. As well as demonstrating the ability of a YAG laser to perform remote (fiber-optic delivered) repair and fabrication operations in space, fundamental data will be collected on these interactions for comparison with terrestrial data and models. The flight system, scheduled to fly in 1996, will be constructed as three modules using standard Get-Away-Special (GAS) canisters. The first module holds the laser head and cooling system, while the second contains a high peak power electrical supply. The third module houses the materials processing workstation and the command and data acquisition subsystems. The laser head and workstation cansisters are linked by a fiber-optic cable to transmit the laser light. The team assembled to carry out this project includes Lumonics Industrial Products (laser), Tennessee Technological University (structural analysis and fabrication), Auburn University Center for Space Power (electrical engineering), University of Waterloo (low-g laser process consulting), and CSTAR/UTSI (data acquisition, control, software, integration, experiment design). This report describes the SAILS program and highlights recent activities undertaken at CSTAR.

  15. 干熄焦锅炉系统主蒸汽参数%Main steam parameters of CDQ boiler system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖丽; 李旭东

    2014-01-01

    介绍了干熄焦锅炉系统主蒸汽压降和温降的计算方法,通过干熄焦锅炉与汽轮发电机组之间不同的距离计算出干熄焦锅炉出口所需的主蒸汽压力和温度,分析比较可知,应尽可能减少干熄焦锅炉与汽轮机的距离,减小压降和温降,以提高经济效益。%This paper describes the calculation method of pressure drop and temperature drop of main steam of CDQ boiler system.Based on the different distances between CDQ boiler and turbo genera-tors, the pressure and temperature of main steam at the outlet of CDQ boiler is calculated.It is found through comparison that pressure drop and temperature drop can be reduced by shortening the dis-tance between CDQ boiler and turbo generators,so as to increase economic benefit.

  16. Analisis Safety System dan Manajemen Risiko pada Steam Boiler PLTU di Unit 5 Pembangkitan Paiton, PT. YTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luluk Kristianingsih

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pembangkit listrik tenaga uap (PLTU merupakan pembangkit listrik yang banyak digunakan di Indonesia. Salah satu bagian dari sistem PLTU yang memiliki risiko bahaya tinggi adalah boiler, oleh karena itu diperlukan adanya analisis bahaya dan safety system sebagai langkah pencegahan bahaya pada boiler. Analisis bahaya dalam penelitian ini dilakukan menggunakan metode HAZOP. Node yang dipakai adalah economizer, steam drum, superheater, dan reheater yang merupakan komponen utama penyusun boiler. Guide word dan deviasi ditentukan berdasarkan control chart yang dibentuk oleh data proses masing-masing komponen selama bulan Maret 2013. Estimasi likelihood dilakukan berdasarkan data maintenance dari work order PT YTL selama 5 tahun, sedangkan estimasi consequences dilakukan berdasarkan kriteria risiko yang ditimbulkan serta berdasarkan control chart. Hasil perkalian likelihood dan consequences dengan risk matrix menghasilkan kriteria risiko dari komponen. Berdasarkan hasil analisis, diperoleh hasil bahwa komponen yang memiliki risiko bahaya paling besar adalah level transmitter steam drum dengan deviasi berupa less level, yaitu dengan kriteria likelihood adalah A dan consequences 4, sehingga risiko bernilai extreme. Selain itu, risiko extreme juga terdapat pada pressure transmitter outlet superheater, dengan likelihood B dan consequences 4. Untuk menurunkan risiko, maka dilakukan perawatan dan kalibrasi secara rutin, serta penambahan redundant transmitter. Bahaya paling besar pada seluruh node adalah adanya kebakaran. Oleh karena itu, dilakukan analisis emergency response plan untuk kebakaran yang mencakup peta evakuasi, tugas dan tanggungjawab tiap personel, langkah pencegahan, serta langkah penanganan.

  17. Duplex tube steam reformer development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewe, C K; Nieto, J M; Papadopoulos, A

    1978-09-01

    Work done in partial fulfillment of Task 7 of the Duplex Steam Reformer Development Program is described. The DSR concept acts as a double barrier between a process heat high temperature reactor plant (PNP) and a closed loop chemical heat pipe (CHP) for the long distance transport of chemical energy to a remote industrial user. The current state of the DSR design is described as well as related systems and equipment. The PNP concept presented is based upon work currently underway in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  18. A Novel Teaching System for Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-I Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The most important tool for controlling an industrial robotic arm is a teach pendant, which controls the robotic arm movement in work spaces and accomplishes teaching tasks. A good teaching tool should be easy to operate and can complete teaching tasks rapidly and effortlessly. In this study, a new teaching system is proposed for enabling users to operate robotic arms and accomplish teaching tasks easily. The proposed teaching system consists of the teach pen, optical markers on the pen, a motion capture system, and the pen tip estimation algorithm. With the marker positions captured by the motion capture system, the pose of the teach pen is accurately calculated by the pen tip algorithm and used to control the robot tool frame. In addition, Fitts’ Law is adopted to verify the usefulness of this new system, and the results show that the system provides high accuracy, excellent operation performance, and a stable error rate. In addition, the system maintains superior performance, even when users work on platforms with different inclination angles.

  19. Biofouling and biocorrosion in industrial water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetser, S E; Cloete, T E

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion associated with microorganisms has been recognized for over 50 years and yet the study of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is relatively new. MIC can occur in diverse environments and is not limited to aqueous corrosion under submerged conditions, but also takes place in humid atmospheres. Biofouling of industrial water systems is the phenomenon whereby surfaces in contact with water are colonized by microorganisms, which are ubiquitous in our environment. However, the economic implications of biofouling in industrial water systems are much greater than many people realize. In a survey conducted by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers of the United States ten years ago, it was found that many corrosion engineer did not accept the role of bacteria in corrosion, and many of then that did, could not recognize and mitigate the problem. Biofouling can be described in terms of its effects on processes and products such as material degradation (bio-corossion), product contamination, mechanical blockages, and impedance of heat transfer. Microorganisms distinguish themselves from other industrial water contaminants by their ability to utilize available nutrient sources, reproduce, and generate intra- and extracellular organic and inorganic substances in water. A sound understanding of the molecular and physiological activities of the microorganisms involved is necessary before strategies for the long term control of biofouling can be format. Traditional water treatment strategies however, have largely failed to address those factors that promote biofouling activities and lead to biocorrosion. Some of the major developments in recent years have been a redefinition of biofilm architecture and the realization that MIC of metals can be best understood as biomineralization.

  20. 46 CFR 58.60-7 - Industrial systems: Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial systems: Piping. 58.60-7 Section 58.60-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY...) § 58.60-7 Industrial systems: Piping. The piping for industrial systems under this subpart must...

  1. Steam Drum Design for Direct Steam Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Willwerth, Lisa; Müller, Svenja; Krüger, Joachim; Succo, Manuel; Feldhoff, Jan Fabian; Tiedemann, Jörg; Pandian, Juvaraj; Krüger, Dirk; Hennecke, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    For the direct steam generation in solar fields, the recirculation concept has been demonstrated in several installations. Water masses in the solar field vary during transient phases, such as passing clouds. The volume of the steam drum can serve as a buffer during such transients by taking in excess water and providing water storage. The saturated steam mass flow to the superheating section or the consumer can be maintained almost constant during short transients; therefore the steam drum p...

  2. Space Applications of Industrial Laser Systems (SAILS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert E.; McCay, T. Dwayne; McCay, Mary Helen; Bible, Brice

    1995-01-01

    A program is under way to develop a YAG laser based materials processing workstation to fly in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The system will be capable of cutting and welding steel, aluminum, and Inconel alloys of the type planned for use on Space Station Freedom. As well as demonstrating the ability of a YAG laser to perform remote (fiber-optic delivered) repair and fabrication operations in space, fundamental data will be collected on these interactions for comparison with terrestrial data and models. The flight system, scheduled to fly in 1995, will be constructed as two modules to fit into the standard Get Away Special (GAS) canisters. The first can holds the laser and its power supply, to be constructed by our industrial partner, Lumonics Industrial Processing Division. The second canister has the materials processing workstation and the command and data acquisition subsystems. These components will be provided by groups at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the University of Waterloo. The cans are linked by a fiber-optic cable which transmits the beam from the laser head to the workstation.

  3. An interation of lifetime monitoring of steam generators in power control systems; Integration der Lebensdauerueberwachung von Dampferzeugern in die Kraftwerksleittechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, Ulrich; Pels Leusden, Christoph; Spinner, Ralf [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Energy Sector; Hackstein, Holger [Siemens AG, Offenbach am Main (Germany). Energy Sector; Walz, Horst [Siemens AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Energy Sector

    2008-07-01

    The substantial cost-relevant requirements of the operation of power stations are a highly flexible operation, efficient maintenance, a high efficiency and a high availability. Computer-assisted procedures are indispensable for the continuous monitoring of lifetime consumption and for the condition-dependent maintenance of the boiler. The fatigue monitoring system (FMS) offers all possibilities of the control system. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an integration of life time monitoring of steam generators into the power station control technology. The technical fundamentals for the computation of the boiler lifetime as well as the fundamentals of integration philosophy and their conversion are presented. Subsequently, a configuration exemplarily is presented, and its results are described.

  4. Industrial Internet of Things cybermanufacturing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brecher, Christian; Song, Houbing; Rawat, Danda

    2017-01-01

    Developing the core system science needed to enable the development of a complex industrial internet of things/manufacturing CPS (IIoT/M-CPS), this book will foster a research community committed to advancing research and education in IIoT/M-CPS and to transitioning applicable science and technology into engineering practice. Presenting the current state IIoT and the concept of cybermanufacturing, this book is at the nexus of research advances from the engineering and computer and information science domains. It features contributions from leading experts in the field with years of experience in advancing manufacturing. Readers will acquire the core system science needed to transform to cybermanufacturing that spans the full spectrum from ideation to physical realization.

  5. Effectiveness of heat-integrated methanol steam reformer and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack systems for portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrič, A.; Sekavčnik, M.; Hočevar, S.

    2014-12-01

    Efficiently combining proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack with methanol steam reformer (MSR) into a small portable system is still quite a topical issue. Using methanol as a fuel in PEMFC stack includes a series of chemical processes where each proceeds at a unique temperature. In a combined MSR-PEMFC-stack system with integrated auxiliary fuel processors (vaporizer, catalytic combustor, etc.) the processes are both endothermic and exothermic hence their proper thermal integration can help raising the system efficiency. A concept of such fully integrated and compact system is proposed in this study. Three separate systems are designed based on different PEMFC stacks and MSR. Low-temperature (LT) and conventional high-temperature (cHT) PEMFC stack characteristics are based on available data from suppliers. Also, a novel high-temperature (nHT) PEMFC stack is proposed because its operating temperature coincides with that of MSR. A comparative study of modelled systems is performed using a mass and energy balances zero-dimensional model, which is interdependently coupled to a physical model based on finite element method (FEM). The results indicate that a system with nHT PEMFC stack is feasible and has the potential to reach higher system efficiencies than systems with LT or cHT PEMFC stacks.

  6. Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-11-01

    NREL will produce this sourcebook for DOE's Industrial Technologies Office as part of a series of documents on industrial energy equipment. The sourcebook is a reference for industrial compressed air system users, outlining opportunities to improve system efficiency.

  7. Industry structure and the performance of the Global System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industry structure and the performance of the Global System for ... The strata comprised of the four GSM service providers operating in Nigeria as at when this ... both favourable and adverse industry conditions as business manager has little or ...

  8. The calculation of the optimum parameters to customize the contour three-pulse billing system supply of steam boilers with the phenomenon of "swelling" level in the drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Grinev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the calculation of the optimal settings automatic control system (ASR level in the boiler steam drum with the phenomenon of "swelling level" typical for boilers with nekipyaschim economizer. The article can be useful for specialists in the field

  9. Research on new type of fast-opening mechanism in steam turbine regulating system and optimization of operation tactic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-xiao LI; Xuan-yin WANG; Fu-shang LI

    2008-01-01

    With the analysis on regulating system in 200 MW steam turbine, the necessity of appending the fast-opening function to the original system is set forth and a new type of fast-opening mechanism is devised. The mathematical model of system is built up. With the use of AMESIM software, the displacement curve of the piston, the force curve of the cartridge valve spool, the pressure curve and the flux curve in the regulation process are obtained based on simulation. The performances of three fast-opening systems composed of cartridge valves with different diameters are compared. Based on the analysis on factors that affect the execution time of fast-opening, the dead zone of the fast-opening system is put forward, To overcome the defect, different operation modes are adopted for different zones. The result shows that with the increase of the valve diameter, the regulating time in the dead zone significantly exceeds the fast-opening time in the whole journey. Accordingly, the optimization operation tactic in the dead zone and the qualification conditions are brought forward. The fast-opening system composed of 32 mm cartridge valves is taken as an example with use of the tactic. The simulation result shows that the maximum regulating time is shortened by 509 ms.

  10. Technique of optimization of minimum temperature driving forces in the heaters of regeneration system of a steam turbine unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamarokov, A. S.; Zorin, V. M.; Dai, Fam Kuang

    2016-03-01

    At the current stage of development of nuclear power engineering, high demands on nuclear power plants (NPP), including on their economy, are made. In these conditions, improving the quality of NPP means, in particular, the need to reasonably choose the values of numerous managed parameters of technological (heat) scheme. Furthermore, the chosen values should correspond to the economic conditions of NPP operation, which are postponed usually a considerable time interval from the point of time of parameters' choice. The article presents the technique of optimization of controlled parameters of the heat circuit of a steam turbine plant for the future. Its particularity is to obtain the results depending on a complex parameter combining the external economic and operating parameters that are relatively stable under the changing economic environment. The article presents the results of optimization according to this technique of the minimum temperature driving forces in the surface heaters of the heat regeneration system of the steam turbine plant of a K-1200-6.8/50 type. For optimization, the collector-screen heaters of high and low pressure developed at the OAO All-Russia Research and Design Institute of Nuclear Power Machine Building, which, in the authors' opinion, have the certain advantages over other types of heaters, were chosen. The optimality criterion in the task was the change in annual reduced costs for NPP compared to the version accepted as the baseline one. The influence on the decision of the task of independent variables that are not included in the complex parameter was analyzed. An optimization task was decided using the alternating-variable descent method. The obtained values of minimum temperature driving forces can guide the design of new nuclear plants with a heat circuit, similar to that accepted in the considered task.

  11. Maintenance of Power Steam Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Kapelovich, Boris; Khmelnik, Solomon; Kapelovich, David; Benenson, Evgeny

    2008-01-01

    The diagnostics system of the power steam turbine is offered. It can be executed also in the form of telediagnostic system. The system is presented on a site http://turbo.mic34.com/ System engineering can is ordered to authors.

  12. Specific features of the control systems of new-modification 310-330-MW steam turbines manufactured by PAO turboatom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov, V. L.; Babaev, I. N.

    2017-07-01

    Principal engineering solutions taken by PAO Turboatom when developing the control systems of the 310-325-MW turbines for thermal power stations are set forth. A schematic diagram of the control system is presented and the designs of the retrofitted basic mechanisms, viz., high-pressure steam-distribution unit and the cutoff valve, are described. It is noted that the accepted principles of designing the control systems allow retaining the following advantages of the latter: use of the condensate as a cheap nonflammable working fluid, valveless switches to control the locking servomotors, a mechanical ring-type turbine trip mechanism (TTM) in combination with an actuator fitted with two double-seated actuator valves to control the pressure in the pulse security lines, and a rotary valve to block the triggering of the actuator valves during successive testing of the TTM rings by filling the oil during the operation of the turbine and the subsequent raising of the above valves. The control systems of the new-modification turbines are based on microprocessor hardware using electromechanical converters to drive every cutoff valve as a universal solution that is not oriented towards a particular manufacturer of the control system electronics. Application of a mechanical turbine trip mechanism is acknowledged as indispensable for unconditional guarantee of the safe operation of the turbines irrespective of the presence of the electronic turbine trip mechanism.

  13. Experimental investigation of system parameters and structure influence on steam-water flow regime and pressure oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskouriakov, K. N.; Moukhine, V. S.; Sabouni, Kh. [Moscow Power Engineering Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    Primary circuit of heat removal from reactors are the complex multi loop back spatial systems which are carrying out the main tasks- maintenance of reliable heat removal at normal operating in design modes and minimization of consequences of abnormal and emergency operation. For a substantiation serviceability of these systems out specially developed computer codes are used. These calculations of thermal hydraulic processes are based on use of laws of preservation and drawing up of power balances for the consecutive elements forming a contour of a heat-removal path. Comparisons of the result assumed on the basis of calculation with use of computer codes to the date of experiments show, that in the certain time period in system of cooling there are fluctuation of pressure and flow rate which are not described by model of system used in code. Synchronous investigation of statistic behavior of signals from Resistance Transducer (RT) of vapor content and Pressure Pulses Transducer (PPT) was provided. There was discovered variations of statistical performance of pressure pulsation on condition of different vapor content and flow regime. System parameters and structure influence on steam-water flow regime and pressure oscillation are discussed.

  14. Application of tri-generation systems to the food retail industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassou, S.A.; Chaer, I.; Sugiartha, N.; Ge, Y.-T. [Brunel University, Uxbridge (United Kingdom). School of Engineering and Design; Marriott, D. [Doug Marriott Associates (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    The food industry, both food manufacturing and retailing has a need for heating and electrical power as well as refrigeration. Invariably, plant is installed, which consists of heating systems employing low pressure hot water, high pressure hot water or steam, vapour compression refrigeration systems and an electrical power supply derived from the National Grid. The overall utilisation efficiency of these processes is low, because of the relatively low electricity generation efficiency in power stations and distribution losses in the grid. A way of increasing the energy utilisation efficiency of food manufacturing and retail facilities is through tri-generation. This paper considers tri-generation technology and the feasibility of its application to the food retail industry and examines the economics and environmental impacts of the technology compared to conventional systems. The results indicate that the economic viability of these systems is dependent on the relative cost of natural gas and grid electricity. The system investigated can provide payback periods of less than 4.0 years when the relative cost of gas to electricity is below 0.3. (author)

  15. Draft, development and optimization of a fuel cell system for residential power generation with steam reformer; Entwurf, Aufbau und Optimierung eines PEM-Brennstoffzellensystems zur Hausenergieversorgung mit Dampfreformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, H.

    2006-05-17

    The first development cycle of a residential power generation system is described. A steam reformer was chosen to produce hydrogen out of natural gas. After carbon monoxide purification with a preferential oxidation (PrOx) unit the hydrogen rich reformat gas is feed to the anode of the PEM-fuel cell, where due to the internal reaction with air oxygen form the cathode side water, heat and electricity is produced. Due to an incomplete conversion the anode off gas contains hydrogen and residual methane, which is feed to the burner of the steam reformer to reduce the needed amount of external fuel to heat the steam reformer. To develop the system the components are separately investigated and optimized in their construction or operation to meet the system requirements. After steady state and dynamic characterization of the components they were coupled one after another to build the system. To operate the system a system control was developed to operate and characterize this complex system. After characterization the system was analyzed for further optimization. During the development of the system inventions like a water cooled PrOx, an independent fuel cell controller or a burner for anodic off gas recirculation were made. The work gives a look into the interactions between the components and allows to understand the problems by coupling such components. (orig.)

  16. Use of process steam in vapor absorption refrigeration system for cooling and heating applications: An exergy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase in cost of conventional fuels shifts the interest toward the use of alternative as well waste energy sources for the operation of refrigeration and air-conditioning units. The present study therefore analyzes the performance of a process steam-operated vapor absorption system for cooling and heating applications using ammonia and water as working fluids based on first and second laws of thermodynamics. A mathematical model has been developed based on exergy analysis to investigate the performance of the system. The different performance parameters such as coefficient of performance (COP and exergetic efficiency of absorption system for cooling and heating applications are also calculated under different operating conditions. The results obtained show that cooling and heating COP along with second law efficiency (exergy efficiency increases with the heat source temperature at constant evaporator, condenser, and absorber temperature. Also, COP as well as exergy efficiency increases with an increase in the evaporator temperature at constant generator, condenser, and absorber temperature. The effect of ambient temperature on the exergetic efficiency for cooling and heating applications is also studied. The results obtained from the simulation studies can be used to optimize different components of the system so that the performance can be improved significantly.

  17. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    Second World era international system (1945-1990) may not have done any good to ... wedge between the capitalist and socialist blocs, not only blurred Third World .... Politics and the Stages of Economic Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge ... complex industries producing mainly for export, but also producing for local.

  18. A novel cleaning process for industrial production of xylose in pilot scale from corncob by using screw-steam-explosive extruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Jia; Fan, Xiao-Guang; Qiu, Xue-Liang; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Wang, Wen-Ya; Li, Shuang-Xi; Deng, Li-Hong; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Wei, Dong-Sheng; Yuan, Qi-Peng

    2014-12-01

    Steam explosion is the most promising technology to replace conventional acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose for biomass pretreatment. In this paper, a new screw-steam-explosive extruder was designed and explored for xylose production and lignocellulose biorefinery at the pilot scale. We investigated the effect of different chemicals on xylose yield in the screw-steam-explosive extrusion process, and the xylose production process was optimized as followings: After pre-impregnation with sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 3 h, corncob was treated at 1.55 MPa with 9 mg sulfuric acid/g dry corncob (DC) for 5.5 min, followed by countercurrent extraction (3 recycles), decoloration (activated carbon dosage 0.07 g/g sugar, 75 °C for 40 min), and ion exchange (2 batches). Using this process, 3.575 kg of crystal xylose was produced from 22 kg corncob, almost 90 % of hemicellulose was released as monomeric sugar, and only a small amount of by-products was released (formic acid, acetic acid, fural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and phenolic compounds were 0.17, 1.14, 0.53, 0.19, and 1.75 g/100 g DC, respectively). All results indicated that the screw-steam-explosive extrusion provides a more effective way to convert hemicellulose into xylose and could be an alternative method to traditional sulfuric acid hydrolysis process for lignocellulose biorefinery.

  19. Experience gained from using water and steam for bringing the operation of aircraft- and marine-derivative gas-turbine engines in compliance with environmental standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datsenko, V. V.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Kosoi, A. S.

    2014-04-01

    Practical experience gained from using water and steam admission into the combustion chambers of aircraft- and marine-derivative gas turbines for bringing their operation in compliance with the requirements of environmental standards is described. The design and schematic modifications of combustion chambers and fuel system through which this goal is achieved are considered. The results obtained from industrial and rig tests of combustion chambers fitted with water or steam admission systems are presented.

  20. Industrial ecology: a new perspective on the future of the industrial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkman, S

    2001-09-22

    Industrial ecology? A surprising, intriguing expression that immediately draws our attention. The spontaneous reaction is that "industrial ecology" is a contradiction in terms, something of an oxymoron, like "obscure clarity" or "burning ice". Why this reflex? Probably because we are accustomed to considering the industrial system as isolated from the Biosphere, with factories and cities on one side and nature on the other, as well as the recurrent problem of trying to minimise th impact of the industrial system on what is "beyond" it: its surroundings, the "environment". As early as the 1950's, this end-of-pipe angle was the one adopted by ecologists, whose first serious studies focused on the consequences of the various forms of pollution on nature. In this perspective on the industrial system, human industrial activity as such remained outside the field of research. Industrial ecology explores the opposite assumption: The industrial system can be seen as a certain kind of ecosystem. After all, the industrial system, just as natural ecosystems, can be described as a particular distribution of materials, energy, and information flows. Furthermore, the entire industrial system relies on resources and services provided by the Biosphere, from which it cannot be dissociated. (It should be specified that "industrial", in the context of industrial ecology, refers to all human activities occurring within modern technological society. Thus, tourism, housing, medical services, transportation, agriculture, etc. are part of the industrial system.) Besides its rigorous scientific conceptual framework (scientific ecology), industrial ecology can also be seen as a practical approach to sustainability. It is an attempt to address the question, "How can the concept of sustainable development be made operational in an economically feasible way?" Industrial ecology represents precisely one of the paths that could provide concrete solutions. Governments have traditionally approached

  1. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power-plant retrofit and distribution network. Volume 2. Tasks 1-3. Final report. [Downtown Toledo steam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, J.R.; Sommerfield, G.A.

    1979-08-01

    Each of the tasks is described separately: Task 1 - Demonstration Team; Task 2 - Identify Thermal Energy Source(s) and Potential Service Area(s); and Task 3 - Energy Market Analysis. The purpose of the project is to establish and implement measures in the downtown Toledo steam system for conserving scarce fuel supplies through cogeneration, by retrofit of existing base- or intermediate-loaded electric-generating plants to provide for central heating and cooling systems, with the ultimate purpose of applying the results to other communities. For Task 1, Toledo Edison Company has organized a Demonstration Team (Battelle Columbus Laboratories; Stone and Webster; Ohio Dept. of Energy; Public Utilities Commission of Ohio; Toledo Metropolitan Area Council of Governments; and Toledo Edison) that it hopes has the expertise to evaluate the technical, legal, economic, and marketing issues related to the utilization of by-product heat from power generation to supply district heating and cooling services. Task 2 gives a complete technical description of the candidate plant(s), its thermodynamic cycle, role in load dispatch, ownership, and location. It is concluded that the Toledo steam distribution system can be the starting point for developing a new district-heating system to serve an expanding market. Battelle is a member of the team employed as a subcontractor to complete the energy market analysis. The work is summarized in Task 3. (MCW)

  2. INVENTION, INNOVATION SYSTEMS, AND THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arthur Daemmrich

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the interplay of major inventions and changes to innovation systems during three historical industrial revolutions as the basis for understanding whether a new revolutionary era...

  3. System of cities dynamics in newly industrializing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D R

    1986-01-01

    Rapid industrialization in such countries as Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan suggests that the complex functional structures of cities in the periphery may appear early in development. This paper proposes a 4-stage framework for the dynamics of a system of cities in a developing country undergoing industrialization and encompassing both nonindustrial and industrial development. The synthesis is assessed with evidence from the newly industrializing Asian nations of Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan. The 4 stages of cities' industrial change include 1) increasing primacy with industrial satellites, 2) increasing primacy with industrial satellites and nodal towns on a transport network, 3) rapidly increasing primacy with rapidly growing industrial satellites and nodal towns on the transport network, and 4) decreasing primacy with slowly growing industrial satellites and rapidly growing peripheral industrial towns. The 4-stage synthesis suggests that economic development in the periphery may occur even while the primate city maintains its hegemony over control and coordination functions. Peripheral industrial growth does not challenge this hegemony. The growth of industrial cities is, instead, part of a process of regional specialization in which the low cost labor in the periphery becomes an attraction for industry. These stages are not inevitable. Government efforts are necessary to develop rural areas in terms of social improvements (education and health), capital infrastructure (transportation and utilities), and fair payments to farmers for their outputs. These seem to be the lessons learned from the industrialization process in Korea, Malaysia, and Taiwan.

  4. Selection of an industrial natural-gas-fired advanced turbine system - Task 3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, G.M.

    1997-05-01

    TASK OBJECTIVES: Identify a gas-fueled turbine and steam system which will meet the program goals for efficiency - and emissions. TECHNICAL GOALS AND REQUIREMENTS: Goals for the Advanced Turbine System Program (ATS) where outlined in the statement of work for five basic categories: Cycle Efficiency - System heat rate to have a 15% improvement over 1991 vintage systems being offered to the market. Environmental No post-combustion devices while meeting the following parameter targets: (1) Nitrous Oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions to equal 8 parts per million dry (ppmd) with 15% oxygen. (2) Carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions to equal 20 parts per million(ppmd) each. Cost of electricity to be 10 percent less when compared to similar 1991 systems. Fuel Flexibility Have to ability to burn coal or coal derived fuels without extensive redesign. Reliability, Availability, Maintainability Reliability, availability and maintainability must be comparable to modern advanced power generation systems. For all cycle and system studies, analyses were done for the following engine system ambient conditions: Temperature - 59F; Altitude - Sea Level; Humidity - 60%. For the 1991 reference system, GE Aircraft Engines used its LM6OOO engine product offering for comparison of the Industrial System parameters developed under this program.

  5. Establishment of minimum operational parameters for a high-volume static chamber steam pasteurization system (SPS 400-SC) for beef carcasses to support HACCP programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzlaff, Deanna; Phebus, Randall; Kastner, Curtis; Marsden, James

    2005-01-01

    A static chamber steam pasteurization unit (SPS 400-SC()) was installed in a high-volume commercial beef slaughter facility. The SPS 400-SC consists of a three-phase carcass treatment cycle of water removal, steam pasteurization, and water chilling. Seven chamber temperatures (71.1, 73.9, 76.7, 79.4, 82.2, 85.0, and 87.8 degrees C) were evaluated at the midline area of pre-rigor beef carcasses. For each temperature evaluated, 20 carcass sides were randomly selected and aseptically sampled by tissue excision immediately before and after steam pasteurization to determine total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, generic E. coli, and total coliform populations. The 87.8 and 85.0 degrees C treatment temperatures were highly effective at reducing total aerobic bacterial populations, with log(10) reductions of 1.4 and 1.5 CFU/cm(2), respectively, from pretreatment mean population levels of 1.7 and 1.9 log10 CFU/cm(2). These temperatures also reduced Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and generic E. coli to undetectable levels (HACCP)-based system employing steam pasteurization of carcasses as a critical control point, a critical limit of 85.0 degrees C as a minimum chamber temperature should be established, with a targeted operating temperature of 87.8 degrees C providing optimum antimicrobial activity.

  6. 蒸汽养护制度对水泥石孔结构的影响%Effect of Steam Curing System on Pore Structure of Cement Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿健; 彭波; 孙家瑛

    2011-01-01

    Mercury intrusion method was used to study the effect of steam curing system on pore structure of cement paste. The major reason for inferior permeation resistance of steam cured concrete compared with standard cured concrete is that steam curing process can cause inferior pore structure of cement paste. The influence of steam curing-related parameters on the pore structure of cement paste is significant,a longer curing period favors improvement of the pore structure of cement paste, but a higher temperature rise speed,a longer constant temperature time and a higher constant temperature are unfavorable to the pore structure of cement paste.%采用压汞法研究了蒸汽养护(蒸养)制度对水泥石孔结构的影响.结果表明:蒸养过程会导致水泥石孔结构变差,这是造成蒸养混凝土抗渗性能下降的主要原因;蒸养制度中各参数的变化对水泥石孔结构有明显的影响,静养时间的延长对水泥石孔结构具有改善作用,而较快的升温速率、较长的恒温时间及过高的恒温温度均会对水泥石的孔结构产生不利影响.

  7. IMPACT UPON ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION DUE TO DEFECTIVELY PRODUCED AND OPERATED VENTILATION SYSTEMS IN FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Małecka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical (air-conditioning ventilation systems and equipment in the food industry may transfer various pathogenic bacteria causing, for instance, pneumonia (Legionellosis. Microclimate parameters in manufacturing shops felt by people are affected by: human factors (health, individual temperature perception etc, and non-human factors (air physical parameters, air freshness and cleanliness etc.. Microbiological contamination of process equipment, machines and systems such as ventilation and air-conditioning equipment causes growth of pathogenic bacteria. The amount of air supplied and removed from a room depends on its use and load of odours and hazardous material. As a result of dew point formation in ventilation systems may appear the so-called air-borne condensation nuclei on which steam settles when the air gets oversaturated. The air flow rate has a material influence upon comfortable conditions in human inhabited zones. In manufacturing shops where the highest air quality is a priority, radial disinfection by means of catalytic ionization is applied. In food industry manufacturing shops of higher microbiological standard, ventilation systems based on air re-circulation should not be used.

  8. Hydrogen production via catalytic steam reforming of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in a two-stage fixed bed reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.; Huang, Q.; Sui, M.; Yan, Y.; Wang, F. [Research Center for Biomass Energy, State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Hydrogen production was prepared via catalytic steam reforming of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in a two-stage fixed bed reactor system. Low-cost catalyst dolomite was chosen for the primary steam reforming of bio-oil in consideration of the unavoidable deactivation caused by direct contact of metal catalyst and bio-oil itself. Nickel-based catalyst Ni/MgO was used in the second stage to increase the purity and the yield of desirable gas product further. Influential parameters such as temperature, steam to carbon ratio (S/C, S/CH{sub 4}), and material space velocity (W{sub B}HSV, GHSV) both for the first and the second reaction stages on gas product yield, carbon selectivity of gas product, CH{sub 4} conversion as well as purity of desirable gas product were investigated. High temperature (> 850 C) and high S/C (> 12) are necessary for efficient conversion of bio-oil to desirable gas product in the first steam reforming stage. Low W{sub B}HSV favors the increase of any gas product yield at any selected temperature and the overall conversion of bio-oil to gas product increases accordingly. Nickel-based catalyst Ni/MgO is effective in purification stage and 100% conversion of CH{sub 4} can be obtained under the conditions of S/CH{sub 4} no less than 2 and temperature no less than 800 C. Low GHSV favors the CH{sub 4} conversion and the maximum CH{sub 4} conversion 100%, desirable gas product purity 100%, and potential hydrogen yield 81.1% can be obtained at 800 C provided that GHSV is no more than 3600 h{sup -} {sup 1}. Carbon deposition behaviors in one-stage reactor prove that the steam reforming of crude bio-oil in a two-stage fixed bed reaction system is necessary and significant. (author)

  9. Optimal operations and resilient investments in steam networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Laurent Bungener

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam is a key energy vector for industrial sites, most commonly used for process heating and cooling, cogeneration of heat and mechanical power, as a motive fluid or for stripping. Steam networks are used to carry steam from producers to consumers and between pressure levels through letdowns and steam turbines. The steam producers (boilers, heat and power cogeneration units, heat exchangers, chemical reactors should be sized to supply the consumers at nominal operating conditions as well as peak demand.This paper firstly proposes an Mixed Integer Linear Programming formulation to optimise the operations of steam networks in normal operating conditions and exceptional demand (when operating reserves fall to zero, through the introduction of load shedding. Optimisation of investments based on operational and investment costs are included in the formulation.Though rare, boiler failures can have a heavy impact of steam network operations and costs, leading to undercapacity and unit shutdowns. A method is therefore proposed to simulate steam network operations when facing boiler failures. Key performance indicators are introduced to quantify the network's resilience.The proposed methods are applied and demonstrated in an industrial case study using industrial data. The results indicate the importance of oversizing key steam producing equipments and the value of industrial symbiosis to increase industrial site resilience.

  10. System aspects of black liquor gasification - Consequences for both industry and society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The pulp and paper industry consumes large quantities of biofuels (mainly bark and black liquor) to satisfy process requirements. Biomass is however a limited resource, and biofuel usage should therefore be as effective as possible. Modern pulp mills and integrated pulp and paper mills have excess fuel compared to the amounts needed to satisfy the process steam demand. The excess fuel is often used for cogeneration of electric power in CHP units. For integrated pulp and paper mills, this usually requires import of supplementary fuel to the plant. For market pulp mills, the excess internal biofuel quantities are sufficient to also allow electric power generation in condensing power plant units. If biofuel availability at a reasonable price is limited, import/export to, from a mill changes the amount of such biofuel available to alternative users. The goal of this thesis is to compare different mill powerhouse technologies and CHP plant configurations (including conventional recovery boiler technology and black liquor gasification technology) in order to identify the technology and CHP plant configuration that can produce the most electric power output from a given fuel resource for a given process steam demand. Different process steam demand levels for different representative mill types are considered. The comparison accounts for increased/decreased electricity production in an alternative energy system when biofuel is imported/exported to/from from the mill. The alternative energy system considered includes a district heating system with CHP capacity and natural gas fired combined cycle power plant capacity. The results show that black liquor gasification is in all cases considered an attractive powerhouse recovery cycle technology compared to conventional recovery boiler technology. If the marginal electric power generation efficiency for biofuel exported to the reference alternative energy system is 49%, excess mill internal biofuel should be used on mill

  11. Design principles of an integrated natural gas steam reformer for stationary PEMFC systems; Auslegungsprinzipien eines integrierten Erdgas-Dampfreformers fuer stationaere PEM-Brennstoffzellen-Systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosser, K.

    2006-09-05

    The function, efficiency and economic efficiency of fuel cell systems are defined by various influencing factors, especially in the case of hydrogen production by steam reforming of natural gas. The dissertation describes the design of integrated natural gas steam reformers for PEM fuel cell systems in the electric power range of 1- 10 kW; the influencing factors of the process are investigated and weighted. Design principles are derived from which optimum operating parameters can be defined and which can be used for designing a multitude of components. [German] Die Funktionsfaehigkeit, der Wirkungsgrad und die Wirtschaftlichkeit von Brennstoffzellen-Systemen werden insbesondere bei der Wasserstofferzeugung durch Erdgas-Dampfreformierung durch verschiedene Einflussfaktoren bestimmt. In dieser Dissertation werden die Methodik der Auslegung integrierter Erdgas-Dampfreformer fuer PEM-Brennstoffzellen-Systeme im elektrischen Leistungsbereich von 1-10 kW beschrieben und die prozessbestimmenden Einflussfaktoren untersucht und gewichtet. Daraus werden Auslegungsprinzipien abgeleitet, mit denen sich die optimalen Betriebsparameter ermitteln lassen und die zur konstruktiven Gestaltung einer Vielzahl von Anlagenteilen genutzt werden koennen.

  12. Recommendations for optimised repair welding operations in steam systems exposed to creep; Rekommendationer foer optimering av svetsreparationer i kryppaakaenda aangsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Samuelson, Aake; Klasen, Bjoern; Jensen, Carsten

    2002-03-01

    Recommendations for optimised repair welding in creep exposed steam systems have been produced on basis of different parts of the project which involve a literature survey, case studies, metallographical investigations and finite element simulations. The separate parts are compiled in the present report where the results also are coupled to each other. Two of the project parts are reported in appendices in the present report and the other ones in three separate work reports. The studies have shown evidence of the complexity associated with repair welding and many alternatives may be offered for a given situation. The importance of the factors which may influence the life time of the repair have been investigated and are described in order to facilitate the decision-making process for the given situation. From the obtained results there are also more general recommendations to be given: Make sure that system stresses not are acting at the repair. Avoid welding methods that could result in strongly creep soft HAZs. Select a weld metal for the repair which is slightly creep hard compared to the remaining aged material. Selection of a wide and 'medium' deep excavation geometry as well as a repair around the whole circumference is to be preferred. Repairs of welds that not include excavation of the whole width of the original weld should be avoided. Replica testing is recommended in addition to the common practice in the quality and condition-monitoring control of the repair.

  13. Study of connected system of automatic control of load and operation efficiency of a steam boiler with extremal controller on a simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanin, V. R.; Starostin, A. A.; Repin, A. I.; Popov, A. I.

    2017-02-01

    The problems of operation effectiveness increase of steam boilers are considered. To maintain the optimum fuel combustion modes, it is proposed to use an extremal controller (EC) determining the value of airflow rate, at which the boiler generating the desired amount of heat will consume a minimum amount of fuel. EC sets the determined value of airflow rate to airflow rate controller (ARC). The test results of numerical simulation dynamic nonlinear model of steam boiler with the connected system of automatic control of load and combustion efficiency using EC are presented. The model is created in the Simulink modeling package of MATLAB software and can be used to optimize the combustion modes. Based on the modeling results, the conclusion was drawn about the possibility in principle of simultaneously boiler load control and optimizing by EC the combustion modes when changing the fuel combustion heat and the boiler characteristics and its operating mode. It is shown that it is possible to automatically control the operation efficiency of steam boilers when using EC without applying the standard flue gas analyzers. The article considers the numerical simulation dynamic model of steam boiler with the schemes of control of fuel consumption and airflow rate, the steam pressure and EC; the purpose of using EC in the scheme with linear controllers and the requirements to the quality of its operation; the results of operation of boiler control schemes without EC with estimation of influence of roughness of thermal mode maps on the nature of static and dynamic connection of the control units of fuel consumption and airflow rate; the phase trajectories and the diagrams of transient processes occurring in the control scheme with EC with stepped changing the fuel quality and boiler characteristics; analysis of modeling results and prospects for using EC in the control schemes of boilers.

  14. Design and Implementation of Industrial Environmental Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Ole-Christian

    1996-01-01

    The structure and main contents of a company tailored environmental management system is discussed based on a case from a large Danish company working within the medical device industry.......The structure and main contents of a company tailored environmental management system is discussed based on a case from a large Danish company working within the medical device industry....

  15. The process matters: cyber security in industrial control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadžiosmanović, Dina

    2014-01-01

    An industrial control system (ICS) is a computer system that controls industrial processes such as power plants, water and gas distribution, food production, etc. Since cyber-attacks on an ICS may have devastating consequences on human lives and safety in general, the security of ICS is important. I

  16. Design and Implementation of Industrial Environmental Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Ole-Christian

    1996-01-01

    The structure and main contents of a company tailored environmental management system is discussed based on a case from a large Danish company working within the medical device industry.......The structure and main contents of a company tailored environmental management system is discussed based on a case from a large Danish company working within the medical device industry....

  17. CASC To Build A New Aerospace Industrial System By 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Huiting

    2008-01-01

    @@ CASC held its fourth working conference in July 2008. At this conference, CASC proposed a new development target, "to build a new innovative, open and integrated aerospace industrial system by 2015", thus making CASC a large international leading aerospace group. The proposed new aerospace industrial system will mainly include the following aspects:

  18. Challenges and opportunities in securing industrial control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadziosmanovic, D.; Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Control Systems (ICS) are used for operating and monitoring industrial processes. Recent reports state that current ICS infrastructures are not sufficiently protected against cyber threats. Unfortunately, due to the specific nature of these systems, the application of common security coun

  19. The process matters: cyber security in industrial control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadziosmanovic, D.

    2014-01-01

    An industrial control system (ICS) is a computer system that controls industrial processes such as power plants, water and gas distribution, food production, etc. Since cyber-attacks on an ICS may have devastating consequences on human lives and safety in general, the security of ICS is important. I

  20. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  1. The Invisibility of Steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Almost everyone "knows" that steam is visible. After all, one can see the cloud of white issuing from the spout of a boiling tea kettle. In reality, steam is the gaseous phase of water and is invisible. What you see is light scattered from the tiny droplets of water that are the result of the condensation of the steam as its temperature…

  2. Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of high efficiency waste-fired power generation system (industrial refuse derived fuel and gas turbine combined type); Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (sangyo RDF GT fukugogata) jigyoka FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    High efficiency power generation, which is useful for promoting the environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community, is investigated by combining a steam turbine power generation system using the PS-RDF (paper sludge-refuse derived fuel) and a gas turbine (GT) combined cycle. Industrialization plan for processing PS in low cost has been made to ensure the profitability by participating the wholesale power supply under the law of electric power industry. This combined system is similar to the so-called super power generation using municipal garbage, but the lower temperature of steam from GT waste heat boilers (WHB) is super-heated by the flue gas from RDF boiler, which is called advanced power generation system (A.S.S.). The total power generation capacity is 149,000 kW, which consists of three 35,000 kW units of GT and one 44,000 kW unit of steam turbine. When comparing the combined system (A.S.S.) and usual one with the independent installation of the RDF steam power generation system and a GT combined cycle, the A.S.S. provides the repowering efficiency of 7,600 kW output with exactly the same quantity of fuel input as usual one. 71 figs., 31 tabs.

  3. Modeling message sequences for intrusion detection in industrial control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, Marco; Zambon, Emmanuele; Petit, Jonathan; Kargl, Frank; Rice, Mason; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2015-01-01

    Compared with standard information technology systems, industrial control systems show more consistent and regular communications patterns. This characteristic contributes to the stability of controlled processes in critical infrastructures such as power plants, electric grids and water treatment fa

  4. Scale Model Test and Transient Analysis of Steam Injector Driven Passive Core Injection System for Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Shuichi; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu

    A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater. This provides SI with capability to serve also as a direct-contact feed-water heater that heats up feed-water by using extracted steam from turbine. Our technology development aims to significantly simplify equipment and reduce physical quantities by applying "high-efficiency SI", which are applicable to a wide range of operation regimes beyond the performance and applicable range of existing SIs and enables unprecedented multistage and parallel operation, to the low-pressure feed-water heaters and emergency core cooling system of nuclear power plants, as well as achieve high inherent safety to prevent severe accidents by keeping the core covered with water (a severe accident-free concept). This paper describes the results of the scale model test, and the transient analysis of SI-driven passive core injection system (PCIS).

  5. World largest KAWASAKI KJ type soda recovery boiler, generating high pressure and high temperature steam. For the Iwakuni mill of Nippon Paper Industries Co. Ltd.; Sekai saidaikyu no koatsu koon soda kaishu boiler. Nippon seishi (kabu) Iwakuni kojo dono muke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirokawa, M.; Matsuda, T.; Masuda, T.; Suemitsu, N.; Makito, Y.; Tanihara, T.; Asada, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-10-15

    This paper presents the important notices in design and issues on the large KAWASAKI KJ type soda recovery boiler under construction for the Iwakuni mill of Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd. This soda recovery boiler is the largest one in volume in Japan, and the highest one in pressure and temperature in the world. Since saturation temperature rises with steam pressure, corrosion resistance of the water cooling wall of a combustion chamber should be considered enough. This boiler thus adopts the double contact tube with an outer tube of SUS310 most superior in corrosion resistance. Alkaline molten salt corrosion of a superheater is one of the most severe problems on steam temperature rise. This boiler thus adopts SUS309J2TB superior in alkaline molten salt corrosion resistance for the highest-temperature portion of a superheater and the lower U bent subjected to radiant heat from a combustion chamber. Flow in a furnace and stress of a superheater were analyzed using computer for scale-up of boiler and preliminary verification. 1 ref., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Development of industrial variant specification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer

    With globalisation and increased competition industrial companies must be prepared to satisfy individual customer needs and still stay competitive with regards to lead times, quality, and prices. These factors require companies to be better prepared to handle specification activities during order...

  7. Industry faced with a new tariff system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyatos, M.

    1986-10-01

    EDF has been offering a new tariff to its industrial customers since December 1982. Most of them have chosen it, taking best advantage of opportunities given them to minimize their expenses by adjusting their means of operation to the new tariff structure. This paper explains the overall outcome and illustrates, by means of examples, customer behavior.

  8. ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav K. Mayevski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a mathematical model of an industrial chemical reactor for production of synthetic rubber. During reactor operation the model parameters vary considerably. To create a control algorithm performed transformation of mathematical model of the reactor in order to obtain a dependency that can be used to determine the model parameters are changing during reactor operation.

  9. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhole steam-generation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C.

    The application of heat to reservoirs containing high API gravity oils can substantially improve recovery. Although steam injection is currently the principal thermal recovery method, heat transmission losses associated with delivery of the steam from the surface generators to the oil bearing formation has limited conventional steam injection to shallow reservoirs. The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. The technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses are compared. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality.

  10. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a.... If the covering of the piping is not removed, the test pressure shall be maintained on the piping...

  11. Water treatment processes for oilfield steam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, A.; Pauley, J.C. [Chevron Canada Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Various water treatment processes are used within the oilfield industry. Processes tend to be common within one region of the world, but different between regions due to untreated water characteristics and treated water quality requirements. This paper summarized Chevron's view of water treatment requirements and processes for oilfield steam injection. It identified water treatment systems that have been used at thermal projects, where they are most commonly utilized, their purpose, and the limits of each process. The advantages and disadvantages of different water treatment systems were also reviewed. The paper focused on the treatment of fresh waters, low-TDS produced waters, high-hardness waters, and high-silica produced waters. Challenges and opportunities were also identified. It was concluded that the challenges created by high-silica, or by high-hardness produced waters lead to more costly processes. 25 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Applications of predictive maintenance techniques in industrial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prognostic methods represent a new methodology for system maintenance which offers significant time and cost savings. The paper offers a short overview of the available prognosis techniques and proposes the implementation of one model-based and one data-driven method. As a representative of the model-based methods the autoregressive moving average (ARMA modeling approach is chosen. The estimated model parameters are further used for implementing the early change detector which is realized as a Neyman-Pearson hypothesis test. On the other hand, hidden Markov model (HMM based prognosis illustrates the use of data-driven techniques. Using the cross-correlation input-output functions, HMM prognosis algorithm is proposed, as a suitable way of timely detection. Both techniques were implemented to detect performance changes of the water level sensor in a steam separator system in thermal power plants.

  13. SCADA systems in the industrial automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Pérez-López

    2015-12-01

    Este tipo de software constituye un avance de gran impacto en la automatización industrial, ya que permite ilustrar gráficamente los procesos productivos en pantalla y crear alarmas y advertencias en tiempo real, para el manejo confiado y pleno del proceso que se desea controlar. Se presentan los ejemplos de dos industrias que han aplicado SCADA con el fin de mejorar sus procesos, obteniendo muy buenos resultados.

  14. A study of steam injection in fractured media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dindoruk, M.D.S.; Aziz, K.; Brigham, W.; Castanier, L.

    1996-02-01

    Steam injection is the most widely used thermal recovery technique for unfractured reservoirs containing heavy oil. There have been numerous studies on theoretical and experimental aspects of steam injection for such systems. Fractured reservoirs contain a large fraction of the world supply of oil, and field tests indicate that steam injection is feasible for such reservoirs. Unfortunately there has been little laboratory work done on steam injection in such systems. The experimental system in this work was designed to understand the mechanisms involved in the transfer of fluids and heat between matrix rocks and fractures under steam injection.

  15. Development of a water leak detection system for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 2; General planning of sensor arrangement for active acoustic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kazuo; Kumagai, Hiromichi (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.)

    1994-04-01

    Development of a water leak detection system with short response time and high sensitivity for LMFBR steam generators is required to prevent failure propagation and to maintain structural integrity of steam generators. A new type of leak detection method, active acoustic method, which observes gas bubbles accompanying the leak using sonic waves is being developed. In this study, some series of experiments are carried out to investigate; (1) attenuation of sonic wave in a typical SG structure, (2) suitable method to attach waveguides to the SG shell, and (3) possibility of reflex method. Furthermore, a reference sensor arrangement for active acoustic method is selected based on the experimental results as the basis of future studies. (author).

  16. Effects of steam pretreatment and co-production with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, heat and electricity production from industrial hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus™ to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-based processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-production of biogas, district heat and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of heat demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Results Producing biogas, heat and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (based on lower heating values), providing that the maximum capacity of district heat is delivered. The combined production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district heat is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-production with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103–128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The production and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the production and prices of electricity and district heat. Conclusions To reduce the production cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined production with

  17. A Comparison of Organic and Steam Rankine Cycle Power Systems for Waste Heat Recovery on Large Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Graa Andreasen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of the conventional dual pressure steam Rankine cycle process and the organic Rankine cycle process for marine engine waste heat recovery. The comparison was based on a container vessel, and results are presented for a high-sulfur (3 wt % and low-sulfur (0.5 wt % fuel case. The processes were compared based on their off-design performance for diesel engine loads in the range between 25% and 100%. The fluids considered in the organic Rankine cycle process were MM(hexamethyldisiloxane, toluene, n-pentane, i-pentane and c-pentane. The results of the comparison indicate that the net power output of the steam Rankine cycle process is higher at high engine loads, while the performance of the organic Rankine cycle units is higher at lower loads. Preliminary turbine design considerations suggest that higher turbine efficiencies can be obtained for the ORC unit turbines compared to the steam turbines. When the efficiency of the c-pentane turbine was allowed to be 10% points larger than the steam turbine efficiency, the organic Rankine cycle unit reaches higher net power outputs than the steam Rankine cycle unit at all engine loads for the low-sulfur fuel case. The net power production from the waste heat recovery units is generally higher for the low-sulfur fuel case. The steam Rankine cycle unit produces 18% more power at design compared to the high-sulfur fuel case, while the organic Rankine cycle unit using MM produces 33% more power.

  18. Robust Control of Urban Industrial Water Mismatching Uncertain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Kebai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban industrial water system parameter fluctuation producing uncertainty may not occur in a control input channel, can be applied mismatching uncertain system to describe. Based on Lyapunov direct method and linear matrix inequality, design the urban industrial water mismatching uncertain system feedback stabilization robust control scheme. Avoid the defects that the feedback stabilization control method based on the matrix Riccati equation need to preset equation parameters, easier to solve and can reduce the conservative.

  19. Interrupted innovation : innovation system dynamics in latecomer aerospace industries

    OpenAIRE

    Vertesy, D.; Szirmai, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the role of sectoral innovation systems in the emergence and catch-up of aerospace industries in latecomer economies. We argue that the aerospace sector is characterized by a process of interrupted innovation. Competitive pressures and the cyclical nature of the industry not only require shifts in the direction of innovation and changes in the production system, but also periodical restructuring of the whole sectoral system of innovation. Aerospace manufacturing requi...

  20. Report: integrated industrial waste management systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxin; Roberts, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Various models of urban sustainable development have been introduced in recent years and some of these such as integrated waste management have been proved to be of particular value. Integrated industrial waste management systems include all the administrative, financial, legal, planning and engineering functions involved in solutions to the problems of industrial waste. Even though the pace of the improvement made to China's industrial waste management capacity is impressive, China has been unable to keep up with the increasing demand for waste management. This paper will evaluate the application of integrated industrial waste management systems in promoting urban sustainable development in the context of three case study cities in China (positive case, average case and negative case) by identifying and accessing the factors that affect the success or failure of integrated industrial waste management systems.

  1. INVARIANT SYSTEM OF THE STEAM-DRUM BOILER FEED AUTOMATIC REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of the controlling system structure, law of control, and optimal parameters for the regulator dynamic settings exercise, under principal influences, substantial effect on quality of the transient processes of water-level change in the shell of the boiler. At the present moment, techniques of design by analysis for the optimal regulating systems allow improving quality of the transient processes. Applying the method of structural-parametrical optimization and the invariance theory render it possible to significantly improve quality of the boiler-shell water level maintaining by means of changing the system structure and optimizing the feed automatic-control system dynamic settings. However, this becomes attainable at the expense of increasing the control-action maximum magnitude with the feeding water rate. At the same time, the indicator of the latter should be less than the control-action value of the typical threeelement control of the feed-regulation system as this directly links to the boiler equipment safety, the drum metal and the feed-water economizer longevity. For removal of this shortcoming, the paper proposes to form in parallel to the real inertial region of the controlled member its dynamic simulation which allows separating the equivalent external disturbance without having to measure it. And to limit the compensation device output to the control-action value of the typical three-element control system of the automatic feed-regulation. This leads to the maximum control-action magnitude decrease, besides, the external-disturbances execution time remains unchanged. Altogether, under all the influences, the authors report of receiving substantial improvement of regulation quality as compared with the typical three-element automatic feed-regulation system

  2. Thermodynamic simulation of biomass gas steam reforming for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sordi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to simulate a small-scale fuel cell system for power generation using biomass gas as fuel. The methodology encompasses the thermodynamic and electrochemical aspects of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, as well as solves the problem of chemical equilibrium in complex systems. In this case the complex system is the internal reforming of biomass gas to produce hydrogen. The fuel cell input variables are: operational voltage, cell power output, composition of the biomass gas reforming, thermodynamic efficiency, electrochemical efficiency, practical efficiency, the First and Second law efficiencies for the whole system. The chemical compositions, molar flows and temperatures are presented to each point of the system as well as the exergetic efficiency. For a molar water/carbon ratio of 2, the thermodynamic simulation of the biomass gas reforming indicates the maximum hydrogen production at a temperature of 1070 K, which can vary as a function of the biomass gas composition. The comparison with the efficiency of simple gas turbine cycle and regenerative gas turbine cycle shows the superiority of SOFC for the considered electrical power range.

  3. Evaluation Indicator System for China’s Agricultural Industrial Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingpeng; GAO; Bin; CHEN; Qinyang; LI

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of new characteristics and trend of China’s agricultural development in the post-WTO period,combining analysis of factors influencing agricultural industrial safety,this paper builds an evaluation indicator system for China’s agricultural industrial safety by scientific indicator system design method.This indicator system includes risk factor indicators(showing risk degree)and capacity factor indicators(showing guaranteeing ability),and consists of 7 subsystems:consumption safety,production safety,industrial controlling capacity,industrial development capacity,industrial development environment,government functions and industrial foundation condition.Risk factor is divided into 5 levels:higher risk,high risk,medium risk,low risk and lower risk;guarantee risk is also divided into five levels:strong,healthy,normal,weak and disabled.According to the overall evaluation score obtained from weighting sum,the agricultural industrial safety includes 5 types:very safe,safe,basically safe,not safe and hazardous.This evaluation indicator system is expected to providing theoretical reference for evaluating China’s agricultural industrial safety.

  4. Design of Manufacturing Execution System for FMCG Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Banerjee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing Execution System (MES has been evolved as an effective solution for today’s high performance, mass production industrial automation system. MES acts like a bridge between managerial level ERP solution and shop floor level control systems hardwares. MES solutions are highly flexible which are developed and customized targeting some particular industry. In this paper we plan to design an MES architecture aiming FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods industries. The proposed solution keeps the basic MES architecture intact while improves production data capturing process based on batch event detection approach. It also accelerates the 2-way communication between ERP and MES for exchanging batch production data.

  5. Steam generator asset management: integrating technology and asset management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, P.; Cislo, D. [AREVA NP Inc., Lynchburg, Virginia (United States)]. E-mail: paul.shoemaker@areva.com

    2006-07-01

    Asset Management is an established but often misunderstood discipline that is gaining momentum within the nuclear generation industry. The global impetus behind the movement toward asset management is sustainability. The discipline of asset management is based upon three fundamental aspects; key performance indicators (KPI), activity-based cost accounting, and cost benefits/risk analysis. The technology associated with these three aspects is fairly well-developed, in all but the most critical area; cost benefits/risk analysis. There are software programs that calculate, trend, and display key-performance indicators to ensure high-level visibility. Activity-based costing is a little more difficult; requiring a consensus on the definition of what comprises an activity and then adjusting cost accounting systems to track. In the United States, the Nuclear Energy Institute's Standard Nuclear Process Model (SNPM) serves as the basis for activity-based costing. As a result, the software industry has quickly adapted to develop tracking systems that include the SNPM structure. Both the KPI's and the activity-based cost accounting feed the cost benefits/risk analysis to allow for continuous improvement and task optimization; the goal of asset management. In the case where the benefits and risks are clearly understood and defined, there has been much progress in applying technology for continuous improvement. Within the nuclear generation industry, more specialized and unique software systems have been developed for active components, such as pumps and motors. Active components lend themselves well to the application of asset management techniques because failure rates can be established, which serves as the basis to quantify risk in the cost-benefits/risk analysis. A key issue with respect to asset management technologies is only now being understood and addressed, that is how to manage passive components. Passive components, such as nuclear steam generators

  6. Healthcare systems, the State, and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio José Godinho Delgado

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article discusses the relations between healthcare systems and the pharmaceutical industry, focusing on state support for pharmaceutical innovation. The study highlights the experiences of the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany, developed countries and paradigms of modern health systems (liberal, universal, and corporatist, in addition to Japan, a case of successful catching up. The study also emphasizes the experiences of China, India, and Brazil, large developing countries that have tried different catching up strategies, with diverse histories and profiles in their healthcare systems and pharmaceutical industries. Finally, with a focus on state forms of support for health research, the article addresses the mechanisms for linkage between health systems and the pharmaceutical industry, evaluating the possibilities of Brazil strengthening a virtuous interaction, favoring the expansion and consolidation of the Brazilian health system - universal but segmented ‒ and the affirmation of the innovative national pharmaceutical industry.

  7. Formal methods for industrial critical systems a survey of applications

    CERN Document Server

    Margaria-Steffen, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    "Today, formal methods are widely recognized as an essential step in the design process of industrial safety-critical systems. In its more general definition, the term formal methods encompasses all notations having a precise mathematical semantics, together with their associated analysis methods, that allow description and reasoning about the behavior of a system in a formal manner.Growing out of more than a decade of award-winning collaborative work within the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics, Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: A Survey of Applications presents a number of mainstream formal methods currently used for designing industrial critical systems, with a focus on model checking. The purpose of the book is threefold: to reduce the effort required to learn formal methods, which has been a major drawback for their industrial dissemination; to help designers to adopt the formal methods which are most appropriate for their systems; and to offer a panel of state-of...

  8. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, S.

    1995-12-31

    Solar approached Phase II of ATS program with the goal of 50% thermal efficiency. An intercolled and recuperated gas turbine was identified as the ultimate system to meet this goal in a commercial gas turbine environment. With commercial input from detailed market studies and DOE`s ATS program, Solar redefined the company`s proposed ATS to fit both market and sponsor (DOE) requirements. Resulting optimized recuperated gas turbine will be developed in two sizes, 5 and 15 MWe. It will show a thermal efficiency of about 43%, a 23% improvement over current industrial gas turbines. Other ATS goals--emissions, RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability), cost of power--will be met or exceeded. During FY95, advanced development of key materials, combustion and component technologies proceeded to the point of acceptance for inclusion in ATS Phase III.

  9. Failure analysis of retired steam generator tubings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, J. S.; Hwang, S. S. and others

    2005-04-15

    Degradation of steam generator leads to forced outage and extension of outage, which causes increase in repair cost, cost of purchasing replacement power and radiation exposure of workers. Steam generator tube rupture incident occurred in Uljin 4 in 2002, which made public sensitive to nuclear power plant. To keep nuclear energy as a main energy source, integrity of steam generator should be demonstrated. Quantitative relationship between ECT(eddy current test) signal and crack size is needed in assesment of integrity of steam generator in pressurized water reactor. However, it is not fully established for application in industry. Retired steam generator of Kori 1 has many kinds of crack such as circumferential and axial primary water stress corrosion crack and outer diameter stress corrosion crack(ODSCC). So, it can be used in qualifying and improving ECT technology and in condition monitoring assesment for crack detected in ISI(in service inspection). In addition, examination of pulled tube of Kori 1 retired steam generator will give information about effectiveness of non welded sleeving technology which was employed to repair defect tubes and remedial action which was applied to mitigate ODSCC. In this project, hardware such as semi hot lab. for pulled tube examination and modification transportation cask for pulled tube and software such as procedure of transportation of radioactive steam generator tube and non-destructive and destructive examination of pulled tube were established. Non-destructive and destructive examination of pulled tubes from Kori 1 retired steam generator were performed in semi hot lab. Remedial actions applied to Kori 1 retired steam generator, PWSCC trend and bulk water chemistry and crevice chemistry in Kori 1 were evaluated. Electrochemical decontamination technology for pulled tube was developed to reduce radiation exposure and enhance effectiveness of pulled tube examination. Multiparameter algorithm developed at ANL, USA was

  10. A System for Telerobotic Control of Servicing Tasks in a Nuclear Steam Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    following commands: calibrate, autodock , dock and move. . Calibrate performs the camera calibration, leading the operator through the procedure via a number...of interac- tive commands. - Autodock is the fully autonomous docking procedure. The system explores the environment determining the tubesheet...move command to the arm. The autodock uses a triad of piezoelectric range sensors to measure the three tubesheet parameters, which are filtered to

  11. Haverhill solar energy project: site data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-16

    The diagrams and specifications are presented for the instrumentation for the solar industrial process heat system to provide 150 psi steam for polystyrene production. The data acquisition system and specific system sensors are included. (MHR)

  12. Security Metrics in Industrial Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Zachary A; Ganin, Alexander A; Kott, Alex; Linkov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Risk is the best known and perhaps the best studied example within a much broader class of cyber security metrics. However, risk is not the only possible cyber security metric. Other metrics such as resilience can exist and could be potentially very valuable to defenders of ICS systems. Often, metrics are defined as measurable properties of a system that quantify the degree to which objectives of the system are achieved. Metrics can provide cyber defenders of an ICS with critical insights regarding the system. Metrics are generally acquired by analyzing relevant attributes of that system. In terms of cyber security metrics, ICSs tend to have unique features: in many cases, these systems are older technologies that were designed for functionality rather than security. They are also extremely diverse systems that have different requirements and objectives. Therefore, metrics for ICSs must be tailored to a diverse group of systems with many features and perform many different functions. In this chapter, we first...

  13. Correction Method about the Working Condition Graph of the Heating Steam Turbine System and Parameter%供热式汽轮机工况图的系统及参数修正方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 吕泰萍; 王占洲

    2015-01-01

    Working condition of the heating steam turbine figure in existence,is mainly obtained in the rated parameters of main steam and reheat steam parameters,the exhaust steam parameters and the extraction steam pressure,and thinking of the regenerative system state is normal.While in the actual operation of the steam turbine,these parameters are not always keep their rating unchanged,regenerative system status also inevitably deviate from the design values,and there is also the reduction temperature of superheater and reheater.At this moment, In order to get the relationship among the electrical power and the main steam flow and the amount of extraction,we can' t pick up the operation condition of the steam turbine diagram directly,and must correct it.This paper give a modified method about the regenerative system states,main steam turbine parameters,regenerative system parameters,the reheat steam temperature,steam turbine exhaust steam pressure and extraction steam pressure deviating from the value of the design,and process the correct calculation with a certain C330/262-16.7/0.49/538/538 type steam turbine as an example.The proposed correction method also has a certain guiding significance of predicting steam turbine electric power according to the main steam flow and extraction steam flow in the actual operation.%现有的供热式汽轮机工况图,主要是在额定的主蒸汽参数、再热蒸汽参数、排汽参数及抽汽压力下得到的,并且认为回热系统的状态正常.而汽轮机实际运行中,这些参数并不总是保持其额定值不变,同时回热系统状态也不可避免地要偏离设计值,且还存在着过热器和再热器的喷水减温.此时,为了得到电功率与主蒸汽流量及抽汽量之间的关系,就不能直接查取汽轮机的工况图,而必须对其进行修正.给出了在汽轮机回热系统状态及主蒸汽参数、再热蒸汽温度、汽轮机排汽压力以及抽汽压力偏离设计值时的

  14. System safety education focused on industrial engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W. L.; Morris, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    An educational program, designed to train students with the specific skills needed to become safety specialists, is described. The discussion concentrates on application, selection, and utilization of various system safety analytical approaches. Emphasis is also placed on the management of a system safety program, its relationship with other disciplines, and new developments and applications of system safety techniques.

  15. System safety education focused on industrial engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W. L.; Morris, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    An educational program, designed to train students with the specific skills needed to become safety specialists, is described. The discussion concentrates on application, selection, and utilization of various system safety analytical approaches. Emphasis is also placed on the management of a system safety program, its relationship with other disciplines, and new developments and applications of system safety techniques.

  16. [Industrial injury insurance system in the UK].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Keiji; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    The Industrial Injuries Disablement Benefit (IIDB) is a benefit for people who are disabled either as a result of an accident at work or because of a prescribed disease. IIDB does not cover the self-employed, military personnel, or certain kinds of trainees. "Prescribed diseases" are defined by the Department of Work and Pension in a list of diseases covered by IIDB. Delivery of medical services, such as the medical treatment benefit in Japan, is not included in this scheme because most medical services are provided for in the scheme of the National Health Service (NHS). Prevention Projects, such as the Follow-up Medical Examination Benefits in Japan, are also not included. Benefits for people who have Pneumoconiosis (including asbestosis) are provided in the IIDB scheme.

  17. Employing Industry Standards for System Integration in Digital Radiology Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjian Bao

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews system inte-gration needs in a digital radiologydepartment, and open industry stan-dards developed in the past twodecades to address these needs. In par-ticular, the Integrating the HospitalEnterprise (IHE) initiative defines aset of Integration Profiles in radiolo-gy, with a focus on the interoperabili-ty of the integrated systems, based onexisting industry standards, such asDICOM and HL7.

  18. Development of Interactive Industrial Design Support System Considering Customer's Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Hideyoshi; Fukuda, Shuichi

    To respond to rapidly changing and diversifying customers' requirements, an industrial design support system for eyeglass frames which allows the customer to participate in the industrial design process was developed. This system is based on the Interactive Evolutionary Computing (IEC) technique so that a customer can interact with the system to express his or her Kansei requirements through images. The design of an eyeglass frame cannot be determined in isolation but rather must be determined by considering its appearance on the customer. In the developed system, the user evaluates each sample suggested by the system and narrows down the candidate gradually. Its usefulness was demonstrated by operational experiments and questionnaires.

  19. Early tube leak detection system for steam boiler at KEV power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Firas B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tube leakage in boilers has been a major contribution to trips which eventually leads to power plant shut downs. Training of network and developing artificial neural network (ANN models are essential in fault detection in critically large systems. This research focusses on the ANN modelling through training and validation of real data acquired from a sub-critical boiler unit. The artificial neural network (ANN was used to develop a compatible model and to evaluate the working properties and behaviour of boiler. The training and validation of real data has been applied using the feed-forward with back-propagation (BP. The right combination of number of neurons, number of hidden layers, training algorithms and training functions was run to achieve the best ANN model with lowest error. The ANN was trained and validated using real site data acquired from a coal fired power plant in Malaysia. The results showed that the Neural Network (NN with one hidden layers performed better than two hidden layer using feed-forward back-propagation network. The outcome from this study give us the best ANN model which eventually allows for early detection of boiler tube leakages, and forecast of a trip before the real shutdown. This will eventually reduce shutdowns in power plants.

  20. Fundamental Characteristics of Industrial Variant Specification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    fundamental concepts related to this task, which are relevant to understand for academia and practitioners working with the subject. This is done through a description of variant specification tasks and typical aspects of system solutions. To support the description of variant specification tasks and systems...

  1. The Pressure Relief System Design for Industrial Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Hace

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A quick and simple approach for reactor—emergency relief system design—for runaway chemical reactions is presented. A cookbook for system sizing with all main characteristic dimensions and parameters is shown on one realistic example from process industry. System design was done based on existing theories, standards, and correlations obtained from the literature, which were implemented for presented case. A simple and effective method for emergency relief system is shown, which may serve as an example for similar systems design. Obtained results may contribute to better understanding of blow down system frequently used in industrial plants, for increasing safety, decreasing explosion damage, and alleviating the ecological problems together with environmental pollution in case of industrial accidents.

  2. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  3. Sequence-aware intrusion detection in industrial control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, Marco; Zambon, Emmanuele; Kargl, Frank; Zhou, Jianying; Jones, D.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, several threats endanger cyber-physical systems. Among these systems, industrial control systems (ICS) operating on critical infrastructures have been proven to be an attractive target for attackers. The case of Stuxnet has not only showed that ICSs are vulnerable to cyber-attacks, but als

  4. Sequence-aware intrusion detection in industrial control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, M.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Kargl, Frank; Zhou, Jianying; Jones, D.

    Nowadays, several threats endanger cyber-physical systems. Among these systems, industrial control systems (ICS) operating on critical infrastructures have been proven to be an attractive target for attackers. The case of Stuxnet has not only showed that ICSs are vulnerable to cyber-attacks, but

  5. Energy Supply System for Industrial Poultry Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The gas engine driven carbon dioxide heat pump designed for providing the heat, cold and electricity for industrial poultry house is proposed. The scheme differs from the known by using recuperative heat exchanger installed between the exhaust air duct of poultry house and heat pump evaporator and the heat curtain installed on the air duct after the evaporator. The air coming into the poultry house after the regenerative heat exchanger is supplied to the heat pump gas cooler. The heat pump produces heat of the required parameters of the input air and water for watering of poultry, space heating, etc. Heat pump compressor is driven by gas engine (GPA, by natural gas or biogas. The part of the gas-piston engine heat is used for adjusting the optimal heat pump mode and for regeneration of the absorbent in an evaporative cooler. The proposed technical solution of the above scheme provides a higher COP of the heat pump. Installing of heat curtain does not require the use of non-freezing solution to prevent icing of the air outlet of heat pump evaporator. The latter allows producing, besides electric power and heat, still cold (with the use off the adsorption-refrigerating machine and provide drying air inlet evaporative cooler (if necessary.

  6. Space Industry Commercialization: A Systems Engineering Evaluation of Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinally, Jihan

    The Constellation Program cancellation reversed the government and commercial space industry's roles and relationships by dedicating the majority of the federal funding and opportunities to the commercial space industry and left the government space industry in search of an approach to collaborate with the dominant organization, the commercial space industry service providers. The space industry government agencies, Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had realized that to gain resources in the new commercially oriented economic environment, they had to work together and possess the capabilities aligned with the National Space Policy's documented goals. Multi-organizational collaboration in space industry programs is challenging, as NASA, AFSPC, and commercial providers, follow different [1] enterprise architecture guidance such as the NASA systems engineering Handbook, MIL-STD-499 and "A Guide to the systems engineering Body of Knowledge" by the International Council on systems engineering [2] [3]. A solution to streamline their enterprise architecture documentation and meet National Space Policy goals is the Multi-User Architecture Maturity Model Methodology (MAM3), which offers a tailored systems engineering technique the government agencies and private companies can implement for the program's maturity level. In order to demonstrate the MAM3, a CubeSat motivated study was conducted partnering a commercial provider with a government agency. A survey of the commercial space industry service providers' capabilities was performed to select the private companies for the study. Using the survey results, the commercial space industry service providers were ranked using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) [4]. The AHP is a structured technique for making complex decisions for representing and quantifying its weights, relating those weights to overall goals, and evaluating alternative solutions [5] - [8]. The weights

  7. Assessment of the properties of ash particles in regions prone to soiling of industrial steam generators; Bestimmung der Eigenschaften von Aschepartikeln in ansatzrelevanten Bereichen von Grossdampferzeugern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, W.; Hildebrand, V.; Ruttloff, G.; Goerner, K.; Liebetruth, M.

    2001-07-01

    Modern steam generators have maximum gas temperatures at the combustion chamber outlet for maximum efficiency. The temperature is limited by the material characteristics of the downstream elements and by the softening temperature of the ash particles. Soiling and slagging in these parts will interfere with the operating process and reduce the availability of a plant. To define a so-called 'safety distance' between the particle temperature and critical softening temperature, knowledge is required of the local temperature distribution, the particle parameters, and the mineralogical properties of the ash particles. Systematic, complex investigations comprising CFD simulations, model and original measurements and thermochemical calculations were carried out for the purpose of solving this problem. [German] Der Wirkungsgrad moderner Anlagen wird unter anderem durch eine moeglichst hohe Gastemperatur am Feuerraumende gesteigert. Eine Limitierung der Temperatur erfolgt durch die Materialeigenschaften der nachgeschalteten Elemente und durch die Erweichungstemperatur der Ascheteilchen. Feste Ansaetze und Verschlackungen fuehren hier oft zu Betriebsstoerungen und mindern die Verfuegbarkeit der Anlagen. Um einen sogenannten ''Sicherheitsabstand'' zwischen Partikeltemperatur und kritischer Erweichungstemperatur definieren zu koennen, sind genaue Kenntnisse der oertlichen Temperaturverteilung, der Partikelparameter und der mineralogischen Eigenschaften der Ascheteilchen notwendig. Zur Loesung dieser Aufgabe werden systematische, komplexe Untersuchungen mit CFD-Simulationen, Modell- und Originalmessungen und thermochemischen Berechnungen durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  8. New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES): a method of efficiently supplying energy to a community of industrial users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    The New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES) concept allows the use of coal by small as well as large industrial users. The NIPES concept consists of a system of Energy Supply Stations groups of cogeneration plants) and steam transmission lines that supplies process heat and electricity to multiple existing and/or new users in an industrial park(s) setting. The Energy Supply Stations grow along with the industrial park(s) as new industries are attracted by a reliable reasonably priced energy source. The growth of the Energy Supply Stations over a period of years allows the introduction of new energy sources and technologies as they become established. This report describes the generic NIPES concept and the results of the evaluation of a specific NIPES system for the Lake Charles, Louisiana, area. A ten-year process steam load growth scenario is developed including both new and existing industrial users. During the initial years of the growth scenario, process steam is supplied to the industrial users by several coal-fired plants. Later, as the process steam load develops, a two-unit nuclear plant is integrated into the specific NIPES system. An evaluation is also performed for a NIPES system consisting of all coal-fired plants. The specific NIPES system is compared to: (1) individual user owned oil-fired facilities for existing industrial users; and (2) individual user owned coal-fired facilities for new industrial plants. A financial analysis is performed to determine the total economic advantages associated with the NIPES system: savings in a steam costs for industrial users, potential return on investment for investors.

  9. Thermoelastic steam turbine rotor control based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzadkowski, Romuald; Dominiczak, Krzysztof; Radulski, Wojciech; Szczepanik, R.

    2015-12-01

    Considered here are Nonlinear Auto-Regressive neural networks with eXogenous inputs (NARX) as a mathematical model of a steam turbine rotor for controlling steam turbine stress on-line. In order to obtain neural networks that locate critical stress and temperature points in the steam turbine during transient states, an FE rotor model was built. This model was used to train the neural networks on the basis of steam turbine transient operating data. The training included nonlinearity related to steam turbine expansion, heat exchange and rotor material properties during transients. Simultaneous neural networks are algorithms which can be implemented on PLC controllers. This allows for the application neural networks to control steam turbine stress in industrial power plants.

  10. Comprehensive Evaluation of a CO2-Capturing NOx-Free Repowering System with Utilization of Middle Pressure Steam in a Thermal Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sik Pak, Pyong

    A CO2-capturing NOx-free H2O turbine power generation system is proposed in which middle pressure steam produced in a thermal power plant is utilized to increase generated power when demand for electricity is large. The proposed system can capture all the generated CO2 based on the oxygen combustion method and emits no NOx, so that it causes no urban and global environmental problems. A combined cycle power generation system with 200MW gas turbine power output is adopted as an example of a thermal power plant. It was assumed that 32 t/h of steam with 25kg/cm2 pressure produced at waste heat recovery boiler was utilized in the proposed system.It has been shown through simulation study that increase of power output by 11.8MW or 4.51% of the rated output is possible with no efficiency decrease. The amount of CO2 reduction is estimated to be 19600t/y.The unit cost of generated power is estimated to be 8.38yen/kWh, annual gross profit of the proposed system 271 million yen, depreciation year 4.87, and thus the proposed system is estimated to be economically feasible.

  11. Combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system for solar-thermal steam-electric power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyer, E.C.; Bourne, J.G.; Brownell, D.L.; Rose, R.M.

    1979-02-28

    The thermal performance and economics of the combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system concept for solar-thermal steam-electric plants have been evaluated. Based on the computer simulation of the operation of southwest-sited solar-thermal plants, it has been determined that the combined pond-tower concept has significant cost and performance advantages over conventional dry cooling systems. Use of a thermal storage pond as a component of the dry cooling system allows a significant reduction in the required dry cooling heat exchange capacity and the associated parasitic power consumption. Importantly, it has been concluded that the combined pond-tower dry cooling system concept can be employed to economically maintain steam condensing temperatures at levels normally achieved with conventional evaporative cooling systems. An evaluation of alternative thermal storage pond design concepts has revealed that a stratified vertical-flow cut-and-fill reservoir with conventional membrane lining and covering would yield the best overall system performance at the least cost.

  12. Development of machine interference system in industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodina Veronika Igorevna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to improve the control effectiveness of cell-type system due to solving the problem of optimal allocation of labor force. An optimality criterion was created as a result of this work. It allows to characterize the operation of the system and choose the best option of its organization which has maximized output. The main sections of the work: 1 The main directions of queuing theory in the analysis of production processes; 2 Optimality criterion in the production task of queuing; 3 Determination of the optimal number of operators in production units.

  13. Steam treatment of zebra mussels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsou, J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Rybarik, D.L.; Thiel, J. [Dairyland Power Cooperative, La Crosse, WI (United States); Mussalli, Y.G.; Collins, F. [Stone & Webster Environmental Technology & Services, Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Steam injection into intake bays is a nonchemical method to control zebra mussels. This technique was demonstrated at Dairyland Power Cooperative`s J.P. Madgett Station located in Alma, Wisconsin. The project was funded by the EPRI Zebra Mussel Consortium which includes: Dairyland Power Cooperative, Central Illinois Public Service, Duke Power, Illinois Power Company, PSI Energy, Public Service Electric & Gas, and Tennessee Valley Authority. This technique can be used by other power plants around the nation. The steam treatments were performed at the J.P. Madgen intake in Alma, Wisconsin, on September 14 and 18, 1994. The J.P. Madgen Station has two water intake bays with capacities of approximately 295,000 gallons and 265,000 gallons each. Each intake can be isolated, permitting either full or reduced generation depending on river temperature conditions. In addition to the intake bays, the outside fire protection loop and hydrants were also treated with the hot water from one of the bays. This paper presents the process design, piping and steam educator configurations, portable industrial boiler sizing and description, and the thermocouples to monitor the water temperature in the intake bay. The biological mortality and control test protocol and treatment results are also presented. Treatment effectiveness was 100%, however equipment installation and operation was more problematic than anticipated. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. A system dynamic investigation on Iranian electricity industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Asadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Management of energy plays an important role on having sustainable growth on the economy of developing countries. Electricity is part of the main infrastructure of any country, it can help develop many industries, and any shortage in electricity can jeopardize many heavy industries. In Iran, for many years electricity used to be subsided by the government hoping that economy grows faster but this caused a major problem for this industry since the electricity industry could not handle its expenses and faced with somewhat irreversible crises. In this paper, we present a system dynamic investigation to study the existing crises in this sector. The preliminary result of the implementation of system dynamic is that the sector needs to increase its productivity, significantly and lowers the cost of product.

  15. A Comparison of Organic and Steam Rankine Cycle Power Systems for Waste Heat Recovery on Large Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Meroni, Andrea; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the conventional dual pressure steam Rankine cycle process and the organic Rankine cycle process for marine engine waste heat recovery. The comparison was based on a container vessel, and results are presented for a high-sulfur (3 wt %) and low-sulfur (0.5 wt...... %) fuel case. The processes were compared based on their off-design performance for diesel engine loads in the range between 25% and 100%. The fluids considered in the organic Rankine cycle process were MM(hexamethyldisiloxane), toluene, n-pentane, i-pentane and c-pentane. The results of the comparison...... indicate that the net power output of the steam Rankine cycle process is higher at high engine loads, while the performance of the organic Rankine cycle units is higher at lower loads. Preliminary turbine design considerations suggest that higher turbine efficiencies can be obtained for the ORC unit...

  16. LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: ENGINEERING THE EDUCATION INDUSTRY TO EDUCATE THE INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Van Dyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A learning management system (LMS is any infrastructure on which e-learning can be built and delivered. In this article two sides of the LMS coin are investigated: On the one side, it is argued that industrial and systems engineering skills are equally relevant for learning systems as for as for any other system. To support this argument, an analogy is drawn between the management of learning systems and the management of manufacturing systems. On the other side of the coin, the educational issues and concerns related to implementing an LMS at the University of Pretoria are investigated by means of a case study in the Industrial Engineering department. It is concluded that the industrial engineering educator is in the unique position of understanding and contributing towards the engineering of the education industry whilst educating the industrial engineer.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ‘n Leerbestuurstelsel (LMS is enige infrastruktuur waarop e-leer gebou en afgelewer kan word. In hierdie artikel word beide kante van die LMS muntstuk ondersoek: Aan die een kant word getoon dat bedryfsingenieursvaardighede en -beginsels ewe toepaslik is op leerstelsels as op vervaardigingstelsels. Om hierdie argument te steun word 'n analogie getrek tussen the bestuur van leerstelsels en die bestuur van vervaardigingstelsels. Aan die ander kant van die muntstuk word die opvoedkundige aspekte verbonde aan die implementering van ‘n leerbestuurstelsel (LMS aan die Universiteit van Pretoria ondersoek aan die hand van ‘n gevallestudie in die Bedryfsingenieursdepartment. Die gevolgtrekking word gemaak dat die bedryfsingenieurs-opleier in 'n unieke posisie is om die opleidingsindustrie te begryp en by dra tot the ontwikkeling daarvan terwyl die bedryfsingenieur opgelei word.

  17. Process Technology Development of Ni Electroplating in Steam Generator Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, H. P.; Lim, Y. S.; Kim, S. S.; Hwang, S. S.; Yi, Y. S.; Kim, D. J.; Jeong, M. K.

    2009-11-15

    Operating nuclear power steam generator tubing material, Alloy 600, having superior resistance to corrosion has many experiences of damage by various corrosion mechanisms during long term operation period. In this research project, a new Ni electroplating technology to be applied to repair the damaged steam generator tubes has been developed. In this technology development, the optimum conditions for variables affecting the Ni electroplating process, optimum process conditions for maximum adhesion forces at interface between were established. The various mechanical properties (RT and HT tensile, fatigue, creep, burst, etc.) and corrosion properties (general corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, boric acid corrosion, doped steam) of the Ni plated layers made at the established optimum conditions have been evaluated and confirmed to satisfy the specifications. In addition, a new ECT probe developed at KAERI enable to detect defects from magnetic materials was confirmed to be used for Ni electroplated Alloy 600 tubes at the field. For the application of this developed technology to operating plants, a mock-up electroplating system has been designed and manufactured, and set up at Doosan Heavy Industry Co. and also its performance test has been done. At same time, the anode probe has been modified and improved to be used with the established mock-up system without any problem

  18. 2006 Marine Corps Systems Command Advanced Planning Briefing to Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-14

    WIN” Marriott Baltimore Waterfront Hotel Baltimore, Maryland April 13 - 14, 2006 Advanced Planning Briefing to Industry 2006 MARINE CORPS SYSTEMS...Planning Briefing to Industry Day April 13 - 14, 2006, at the Marriott Baltimore Waterfront Hotel , Baltimore, Maryland. The MCSC has not had an...or operations officers will be manning the displays. They will be able to answer questions and make appointments. This kiosk will be giving out MCSC

  19. Accounting information system in turkish shipbuilding industry: Special accounting applications

    OpenAIRE

    DAŞTAN, Abdulkerim; Sercan EROL

    2014-01-01

    This study is considered in an effort to analyze the accounting information system in Turkish shipbuilding industry enterprises objectively accompanied by the elements of the accounting organization which are the document, the book and the chart of accounts and to demonstrate the accounting activities which are in existence under the present circumstances in Turkey. Shipbuilding industry creates a lot of added value such as the transfer and production of new technologies, employment and forei...

  20. Accounting information system in turkish shipbuilding industry: Special accounting applications

    OpenAIRE

    DAŞTAN, Abdulkerim; Sercan EROL

    2011-01-01

    This study is considered in an effort to analyze the accounting information system in Turkish shipbuilding industry enterprises objectively accompanied by the elements of the accounting organization which are the document, the book and the chart of accounts and to demonstrate the accounting activities which are in existence under the present circumstances in Turkey. Shipbuilding industry creates a lot of added value such as the transfer and production of new technologies, employment and forei...

  1. Safety Picks up "STEAM"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This column shares safety information for the classroom. STEAM subjects--science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics--are essential for fostering students' 21st-century skills. STEAM promotes critical-thinking skills, including analysis, assessment, categorization, classification, interpretation, justification, and prediction, and are…

  2. ERP system for 3D printing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaky Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GOCREATE is an original cloud-based production management and optimization service which helps 3D printing service providers to use their resources better. The proposed Enterprise Resource Planning system can significantly increase income through improved productivity. With GOCREATE, the 3D printing service providers get a much higher production efficiency at a much lower licensing cost, to increase their competitiveness in the fast growing 3D printing market.

  3. Performance evaluation of advanced industrial SPECT system with diverging collimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang Guen; Jung, Sung-Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Moon, Jinho; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chan Hyeong

    2014-12-01

    An advanced industrial SPECT system with 12-fold-array diverging collimator was developed for flow visualization in industrial reactors and was discussed in the previous study. The present paper describes performance evaluation of the SPECT system under both static- and dynamic- flow conditions. Under static conditions, the movement of radiotracer inside the test reactor was compared with that of color tracer (blue ink) captured with a high-speed camera. The comparison of the reconstructed images obtained with the radiotracer and the SPECT system showed fairly good agreement with video-frames of the color tracer obtained with the camera. Based on the results of the performance evaluation, it is concluded that the SPECT system is suitable for investigation and visualization of flows in industrial flow reactors.

  4. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  5. Disposal of Steam Generators from Decommissioning of PWR Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walberg, Mirko; Viermann, Joerg; Beverungen, Martin [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Hollestrasse 7A, 45127 Essen (Germany); Kemp, Lutz [Kernkraftwerk Stade GmbH and Co.oHG, Bassenflether Chaussee, 21683 Stade (Germany); Lindstroem, Anders [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Amongst other materials remarkable amounts of radioactively contaminated or activated scrap are generated from the dismantling of Nuclear Power Plants. These scrap materials include contaminated pipework, fittings, pumps, the reactor pressure vessel and other large components, most of them are heat exchangers. Taking into account all commercial and technical aspects an external processing and subsequent recycling of the material might be an advantageous option for many of these components. The disposal of steam generators makes up an especially challenging task because of their measures, their weight and compared to other heat exchangers high radioactive inventory. Based on its experiences from many years of disposal of smaller components of NPP still in operation or under decommissioning GNS and Studsvik Nuclear developed a concept for disposal of steam generators, also involving experiences made in Sweden. The concept comprises transport preparations and necessary supporting documents, the complete logistics chain, steam generator treatment and the processing of arising residues and materials not suitable for recycling. The first components to be prepared, shipped and treated according to this concept were four steam generators from the decommissioning of the German NPP Stade which were removed from the plant and shipped to the processing facility during the third quarter of 2007. Although the plant had undergone a full system decontamination, due to the remaining contamination in a number of plugged tubes the steam generators had to be qualified as industrial packages, type 2 (IP-2 packages), and according to a special requirement of the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection a license for a shipment under special arrangement had to be applied for. The presentation gives an overview of the calculations and evidences required within the course of the IP-2 qualification, additional requirements of the competent authorities during the licensing procedure as

  6. Stakeholder analysis for industrial waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, Oliver; Harvey, Joan; Tollin, Nicola

    2009-02-01

    Stakeholder approaches have been applied to the management of companies with a view to the improvement of all areas of performance, including economic, health and safety, waste reduction, future policies, etc. However no agreement exists regarding stakeholders, their interests and levels of importance. This paper considers stakeholder analysis with particular reference to environmental and waste management systems. It proposes a template and matrix model for identification of stakeholder roles and influences by rating the stakeholders. A case study demonstrates the use of these and their ability to be transferred to other circumstances and organizations is illustrated by using a large educational institution.

  7. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review...... the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further....

  8. Control of Auxiliary System for USC Steam Turbines%超超临界汽轮机辅助系统的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚

    2016-01-01

    介绍了超超临界汽轮机辅助系统的控制策略,包括本体疏水、抽汽逆止阀、汽封及油系统四个方面的内容。通过详细分析各子系统的控制特点,论证了超超临界汽轮机辅助系统控制的独特性和先进性。掌握这种控制策略,可为新系统开发提供理论参照。%The control strategy including turbine drains ,extraction non‐return valves ,gland seal and oil system for auxiliary system of USC steam turbines is presented .Based on analysis of the control characteristics of each subsystem ,the unique features and advances in this system are demonstrated .The strategy shall be regarded as theoretical reference for developing the new system of USC steam turbines .

  9. El mantenimiento en la confiabilidad y disponibilidad de un sistema de generación de vapor // Maintenance on the reliability and availability of steam boiler systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Troncoso-Fleitas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo revelar y agrupar los principales hallazgos de seguridaddetectados en Sistemas de Generación de Vapor, SGV, que influyen en su confiabilidad ydisponibilidad y son causados por debilidades en la función mantenimiento. Los hallazgos han sidoidentificados mediante la aplicación de Técnicas de Identificación de Peligros, TIP, como Revisionesde Seguridad, Análisis HAZOP y Análisis Qué pasa si..?, entre otras metodologías y técnicasdisponibles, a más de una treintena de instalaciones donde los SGV han cumplido funciones tanto deapoyo a la producción como a los servicios. Agrupar y analizar estos hallazgos, problemas odesviaciones de seguridad han revelado que, independientemente del grado de cultura de seguridadque presente la instalación objeto de estudio, tienen un mismo origen y requieren de accionessimilares para su gestión.Palabras claves: mantenimiento, confiabilidad, disponibilidad, seguridad, caldera, generación de vapor.__________________________________________________________________AbstractThis paper has as objective to develop and to group the main findings of safety detected in SteamBoiler Systems that influence in its reliability and availability and they are caused by weaknesses inthe function maintenance. Findings have been identified by means of the application of HazardIdentification Techniques, HIT, like Safety Revision, HAZOP Analysis, What if..? Analysis and othersmethodologies and techniques available, applied to more than a thirty of where the Steam BoilerSystems have fulfilled functions in support to the production or services. Grouping and analyzingthese findings, problems or deviations of safety have revealed that, independently of the grade ofsafety culture presents in the facility, they have common causes and they require of similar actions fortheir management.Key words: maintenance, reliability, safety, availability, steam boilers.

  10. Effects of steam-treated rice straw feeding on growth, digestibility, and plasma volatile fatty acids of goats under different housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Naeem; Nasir, Rajput; Li, Dong; Lili, Zhang; Tian, Wang

    2014-12-01

    In order to use rice straw as forage in livestock feeding, the effects of steam-treated rice straw (at 15.5 kgf/cm(2) for 120 s) feeding on growth performance, plasma volatile fatty acid profile, and nutrient digestibility of goats were determined. Twenty male goats (18.69 ± 0.34 kg) were used in an 84-day trial. The goats were divided into four groups of five goats each to receive steam-treated (STRS) or untreated (UTRS) rice straw diet under closed house (CH) and open house (OH) systems. The results revealed that the goats fed with STRS had significantly higher dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility; similarly, the average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were higher for STRS groups under both CH and OH systems than those for UTRS. The plasma protein and insulin in STRS and cholesterol in UTRS groups was higher (P  0.05) at 30 days. The plasma amylase, lipase, T3, T4 and glucagon at 30 and 60 days were not different (P > 0.05) among the groups. The plasma acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total volatile fatty acid were higher (P  0.05) on these parameters. It could be concluded that steam treatment of rice straw at 15.5 kgf/cm(2) for 120 s increased apparent nutrient digestibility, hence increased the growth and feed efficiency of growing goats.

  11. Model Oriented Application Generation for Industrial Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Copy, B; Blanco Vinuela, E; Fernandez Adiego, B; Nogueira Ferandes, R; Prieto Barreiro, I

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Unified Industrial Control Systems framework (UNICOS) is a software generation methodology and a collection of development tools that standardizes the design of industrial control applications [1]. A Software Factory, named the UNICOS Application Builder (UAB) [2], was introduced to ease extensibility and maintenance of the framework, introducing a stable metamodel, a set of platformindependent models and platformspecific configurations against which code generation plugins and configuration generation plugins can be written. Such plugins currently target PLC programming environments (Schneider and SIEMENS PLCs) as well as SIEMENS WinCC Open Architecture SCADA (previously known as ETM PVSS) but are being expanded to cover more and more aspects of process control systems. We present what constitutes the UNICOS metamodel and the models in use, how these models can be used to capture knowledge about industrial control systems and how this knowledge can be leveraged to generate both code and configuratio...

  12. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  13. First experience with steam generator diagnostic systems and neuronal networks at RWE Energie AG; Erste Erfahrungen mit Diagnosesystemen und Neuronalen Netzen bei der RWE Energie AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, W.; Puetter, J.; Pollack, M. [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    With the aid of diagnosis systems installed at three reference plants it is possible to support an economic and trouble-free operation of steam generator plants. The steam generator diagnostic systems analyse and assess momentary plant conditions by means of thermodynamic recalculation. They can deploy boiler cleaning devices in a targeted and optimised manner. Subsequent to the present optimisation runs for different coal charges, the control of boiler cleaning devices is to become automatic. Diagnostic systems and optimisation software on the basis of neural networks can additionally be used for optimisation of the entire process. (orig.) [German] Mit Hilfe der an drei Referenzanlagen nachgeruesteten Diagnosesysteme ist es moeglich, einen wirtschaftlichen und stoerungsfreien Betrieb der Dampferzeugeranlagen zu unterstuetzen. Die Kesseldiagnosesysteme analysieren und bewerten mittels einer thermodynamischen Nachrechnung den momentanen Anlagenzustand. Durch sie koennen die Kesselreinigungseinrichtungen gezielt und optimiert eingesetzt werden. Im Anschluss an die zur Zeit laufende Optimierungsphase fuer verschiedene Kohlequalitaeten wird die Ansteuerung der Kesselreinigungseinrichtungen automatisiert. Diagnosesysteme und Neuronale Netze koennen zur Optimierung des Gesamtprozesses ergaenzend eingesetzt werden. (orig.)

  14. Solar steam generation: Steam by thermal concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The solar-driven generation of water steam at 100 °C under one sun normally requires the use of optical concentrators to provide the necessary energy flux. Now, thermal concentration is used to raise the vapour temperature to 100 °C without the need for costly optical concentrators.

  15. A Comparative Study between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Ayman M.; Su, Yu; Sun, Junming; Yang, Cheng; Strohm, James J.; King, David L.; Wang, Yong

    2010-06-01

    Rh and Co-based catalyst performance was compared for steam reforming of ethanol under conditions suitable for industrial hydrogen production. The reaction conditions were varied to elucidate the differences in reaction pathways on both catalysts. On Co/ZnO, CH4 is a secondary product formed through the methanation reaction, while it is produced directly by ethanol decomposition on Rh. The difference in the reaction mechanism is shown to favor Co-based catalysts for selective hydrogen production under elevated system pressures (up to 15 bar) of industrial importance. The carbon deposition rate was also studied, and we show that Co is more prone to coking and catalyst failure. However, the Co/ZnO catalyst can be regenerated, by mild oxidation, despite the high carbon deposition rate. We conclude that Co/ZnO is a more suitable catalyst system for steam reforming of ethanol due to the low methane selectivity, low cost and possibility of regeneration with mild oxidation.

  16. Attacks to Cryptography Protocols of Wireless Industrial Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franekova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problems of safety and security principles within wireless industrial communication systems. First safety requirements to wireless industrial communication system, summarisation of attack methods and the available measures for risks elimination are described with orientation to safety critical applications. The mainly part is oriented to identification of risks and summarisation of defensive methods of wireless communication based on cryptographic techniques. Practical part the cryptoanalytic’s attacks to COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf wireless communications are mentioned based on the IEEE 802.11 standards.

  17. Protein design in systems metabolic engineering for industrial strain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Zeng, An-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Accelerating the process of industrial bacterial host strain development, aimed at increasing productivity, generating new bio-products or utilizing alternative feedstocks, requires the integration of complementary approaches to manipulate cellular metabolism and regulatory networks. Systems metabolic engineering extends the concept of classical metabolic engineering to the systems level by incorporating the techniques used in systems biology and synthetic biology, and offers a framework for the development of the next generation of industrial strains. As one of the most useful tools of systems metabolic engineering, protein design allows us to design and optimize cellular metabolism at a molecular level. Here, we review the current strategies of protein design for engineering cellular synthetic pathways, metabolic control systems and signaling pathways, and highlight the challenges of this subfield within the context of systems metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The use of commercial and industrial waste in energy recovery systems - A UK preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupa, Christopher J; Ricketts, Lois J; Sweetman, Andy; Herbert, Ben M J

    2011-08-01

    With 2020 energy targets set out by the EU fast approaching, the UK is trying to source a higher proportion of its energy from renewable resources. Coupled with this, a growing population and increasing trends in consumer demand have resulted in national waste loads increasing. A possible solution to both issues is energy-from-waste (EfW) technologies. Many studies have focused on municipal solid waste (MSW) as a potential feedstock, but appear to overlook the potential benefits of commercial and industrial waste (C&IW). In this study, samples of C&IW were collected from three North West waste management companies and Lancaster University campus. The samples were tested for their gross and net calorific value, moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, and also elemental composition to determine their suitability in EfW systems. Intra-sample analysis showed there to be little variation between samples with the exception two samples, from waste management site 3, which showed extensive variation with regards to net calorific value, ash content, and elemental analysis. Comparisons with known fuel types revealed similarities between the sampled C&IW, MSW, and refuse derived fuel (RDF) thereby justifying its potential for use in EfW systems. Mean net calorific value (NCV) was calculated as 9.47MJ/kg and concentrations of sulphur, nitrogen, and chlorine were found to be below 2%. Potential electrical output was calculated using the NCV of the sampled C&IW coupled with four differing energy generation technologies. Using a conventional incinerator with steam cycle, total electrical output was calculated as 24.9GWh, based on a plant operating at 100,000tpa. This value rose to 27.0GWh when using an integrated gasification combined cycle. A final aspect of this study was to deduce the potential total national electrical output if all suitable C&IW were to be used in EfW systems. Using incineration coupled with a steam turbine, this was determined to be 6TWh, 1.9% of

  19. Energy conservation by efficient vapour-condensate systems. Vapour-water transfer station; Energieeinsparung durch effiziente Dampf-Kondensat-Systeme. Dampf-Wasser-Uebergabestationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baelz, Uwe; Kilpper, Renate [W. Baelz und Sohn GmbH und Co., Heilbronn (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    The escape of unused steam in the industry and in the living area is a dissipation of energy: Depending on the operating pressure of the steam the heat loss amounts up to 20%. However, these heat losses can be avoided: Modern steam-water transfer stations are closed, space-saving systems. These systems show how the otherwise escaping energy can be converted to heat energy, for example.

  20. Industrial Scale Energy Systems Integration; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2015-07-28

    The industrial sector consumes 25% of the total energy in the U.S. and produces 18% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy Systems Integration (ESI) opportunities can reduce those values and increase the profitability of that sector. This presentation outlines several options. Combined heat and power (CHP) is an option that is available today for many applications. In some cases, it can be extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed. extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed.

  1. Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Since industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).

  2. VISART: Artificial vision for industrial use. A comprehensive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debritoalves, Sdnei

    1992-02-01

    A thorough description of a Computer Vision System applied to inspection activities is presented, all of the life-cycle stages of this system being dealt with in detail. It was conceived, designed, and implemented within the scope of an applied research, entitled (VISART) Artificial Vision for Industrial Use: A Comprehensive System. During the effort employed in the development of this work, significant contributions were incorporated to the state-of-the-art in processing of binary images. The VISART system includes resources, concepts, and inovations not yet seen in similar systems. A new terminology with technical terms nearer to those used by engineers and technicians, in industrial environments, is proposed and it might contribute for acceptance and dissemination of Vision Systems in these environments. Concepts of Group Technology have been associated to Vision Systems and they might contribute for a greater integration of the industrial process automation. A special data structure was conceived for image data storage, allowing to reduce the processing time of algorithms of industrial part features-extraction. A library with a considerable number of feature extraction algorithms, used for recognition, acceptance or rejection of industrial products under inspection, was conceived and implemented. New algorithms can be appended to this library by the user, without the necessity of reprogramming the modules of the VISART system. Within this respect lies one of the main comprisement features of VISART. It has a graphic editor which makes possible to use it in activities such as teaching and formation of skilled personnel in the area of vision. At first, this facility exempts the use of sensors, making it more economic for use in these activities. All in all, this research work is a pioneer in Brazil, and its divulgation must contribute significantly for the dissemination and growth of the computer vision area applied to inspection, in the country.

  3. Vulnerabilities and Attacks Targeting Social Networks and Industrial Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Dharmendra; Sinha, Rakhi; Songara, Pawan; Rathi, Dr. Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerability is a weakness, shortcoming or flaw in the system or network infrastructure which can be used by an attacker to harm the system, disrupt its normal operation and use it for his financial, competitive or other motives or just for cyber escapades. In this paper, we re-examined the various types of attacks on industrial control systems as well as on social networking users. We have listed which all vulnerabilities were exploited for executing these attacks and their effects on these...

  4. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Noyes

    2012-03-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  5. Development and realization of the concept of an integrated system for the improvement of steam turbine plant reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmanskii, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Main works performed when implementing the concept of an integrated approach to the improvement of the steam turbine plant (STP) reliability were stated. The technique of an integrated approach to the collection and processing of data on the STP equipment reliability was presented. This technique is based on the information on damages resulting in equipment failures, damages revealed during the routine equipment maintenance, and on data concerning equipment faults occurred when operating the STP. There is an implementation example for the technique of defining main elements specifying the reliability of a specific unit based on the statistical analysis of STP operating data.

  6. On-Line Condition Monitoring System for High Level Trip Water in Steam Boiler’s Drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Alnaimi Firas B.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a monitoring technique using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN with four different training algorithms for high level water in steam boiler’s drum. Four Back-Propagations neural networks multidimensional minimization algorithms have been utilized. Real time data were recorded from power plant located in Malaysia. The developed relevant variables were selected based on a combination of theory, experience and execution phases of the model. The Root Mean Square (RMS Error has been used to compare the results of one and two hidden layer (1HL, (2HL ANN structures

  7. 烧结生产线的饱和蒸汽发电系统%Power generation system with saturated steam in sintering line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青枝; 陈恩鉴; 胡巍

    2013-01-01

    针对烧结线余热电站运行中短时间停机造成的问题,提出了一种烧结线饱和蒸汽发电系统,该系统可以克服烧结线停机带来的发电量减少的问题,并与现有系统进行了比较.%According to the problems by sintering machine shutdown in short time during sintering waste heat power station operation,a sintering power generation system with saturated steam was put forward. This system can solve the problem of generated energy reduction by sintering machine shutdown. A comparison was made between this system and existing system.

  8. Research on Nil-Ductility Transition Temperature of Steel Used for Cylinder of Industrial Steam Turbine%工业汽轮机汽缸用材无塑性转变温度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何成; 刘中华; 周黎明; 刘京伟; 林云; 宋思远

    2016-01-01

    The issue that the temperature of test liquid required by the hydraulic test shall be higher than the nil-ductility transition temperature of test material has been expressed. The NDT temperature of steel used for the cylinder of industrial steam turbine has been examined by the drop test, and the factor influenced on NDT temperature has been analyzed as well. By adopting the advanced smelting technology and heat treatment process to strictly control P and S contents, and refining the grain, NDT temperature of steel could be reduced effectively.%针对水压试验要求试验液体温度应高于试验材料的无塑性转变温度的问题,通过落锤试验测定了工业汽轮机汽缸用材的NDT温度,并分析了影响NDT温度的因素。通过先进的冶炼技术和热加工工艺严格控制P、S含量,细化晶粒等手段,可有效降低钢材的NDT温度。

  9. LOW - TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIES AND REGIONAL INNOVATION SYSTEMS: THE SALMON INDUSTRY IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Maldonado Rojo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Results show that the worldwide competitiveness of the low-tech Salmon Industry in the Los Lagos region has not developed the principal factors permitting the consolidation of a Regional Innovation System (RIS. On the contrary we identify important gaps in terms of the regional conditions such as “networking”, “knowledge creation and diffusion”, among others, capable to stimulate the innovation behavior of salmon firms.

  10. New comprehensive use path of iron and steel industry sintering waste heat and saturated steam%钢铁企业烧结余热和饱和蒸汽综合利用的新途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔昔民

    2011-01-01

    利用煤气过热锅炉把饱和蒸汽加热成过热蒸汽,并入烧结余热锅炉产生的蒸汽进行发电.%Saturated steam superheated by gas heating boiler, and merge the steam produced by sintering waste heat boiler to generate electric power.

  11. Biophysical Evaluation of SonoSteam®:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Duelund, Lars; Brewer, Jonathan R.;

    and safety evaluations. Our results show that there are no contradictions between data obtained by either approach. However, the biophysical methods draw a much more nuanced picture of the effects and efficiency of the investigated decontamination method, revealing e.g. an exponential dose/response...... relationship between SonoSteam treatment time and changes in collagen I, and a depth dependency in bacterial reduction, which points toward CFU counts overestimating total bacterial reduction. In conclusion the biophysical methods provide a less biased, reproducible and highly detailed system description......In this study we employ a biophysical and molecular approach for the investigation of qualitative and quantitative changes in both food surface and bacteria upon surface decontamination by SonoSteam®. SonoSteam® is a recently developed method of food surface decontamination, which employs steam...

  12. Sliding Mode Control for the Boiler Steam Pressure of Fuel-steam Pressure System Based on Delayed Output Observer%基于输出延时观测器的燃料-汽压系统锅炉蒸汽压力滑模控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔志强; 刘吉臻; 刘金琨

    2011-01-01

    The boiler steam pressure is a important parameter reflecting the state of boiler operation. According to the delayed measurement of the boiler steam pressure, a delayed output observer was designed for fuel-steam pressure system. In the delayed output observer, only the boiler steam pressure was needed, then the observed value of the boiler steam pressure, the first derivative and the second derivative value of the boiler steam pressure were obtained. The convergence of the observer was proved. Sliding mode controller was designed by using the observed value which can improve the system robustness, and the result show that the closed system stability can be guarantee from Lyapunov stability analysis. Only the boiler steam pressure signal was used in the observer and the controller, which indicates that the proposed method has important significance in engineering. Simulation results are presented to validate the good tracking performance of the control system.%锅炉蒸汽压力是表征锅炉运行状态的重要参数.针对燃料-汽压系统锅炉蒸汽压力测量信号的延迟问题,设计一种延迟观测器,只需要实测的延迟锅炉蒸汽压力信号,便可实现延迟锅炉蒸汽压力及其一阶和二阶导数的观测,理论分析证明了观测器的收敛性.将延时观测器的观测值用于控制器中,利用滑模控制方法设计控制器,通过Lyapunov稳定性分析方法证明了闭环系统的稳定性.由于观测器和控制器中只采用了延迟锅炉蒸汽压力信号,因此本算法具有重要的工程意义.仿真结果显示了良好的跟踪效果,证明了该方法的有效性.

  13. Development & testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, phase 3. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, 1 October, 1993--31 December, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauderer, B.

    1994-01-31

    The primary objective of the present Phase 3 effort is to perform the final testing at a 20 MMBtu/hr commercial scale of an air cooled, slagging coal combustor for application to industrial steam boilers and power plants. The focus of the test effort will be on combustor durability, automatic control of the combustor`s operation, and optimum environmental control of emissions inside the combustor. In connection with the latter, the goal is to achieve 0.4 lb/MMBtu of SO{sub 2} emissions, 0.2 lb/MMBtu of NO{sub x} emissions, and 0.02 lb particulates/MMBtu. Meeting the particulate goal will require the use of a baghouse or electrostatic precipitator to augment the nominal slag retention in the combustor. The NO{sub x} emission goal will require a modest improvement over maximum reduction achieved to date in the combustor to a level of 0.26 lb/MMBtu. To reach the SO{sub 2} emissions goal may require a combination of sorbent injection inside the combustor and sorbent injection inside the boiler, especially in high (>3.5%) sulfur coals. Prior to the initiation of the project, SO{sub 2} levels as low as 0.6 lb/MMBtu, equal to 81% reduction in 2% sulfur coals, were measured with boiler injection of calcium hydrate. The final objective is to define suitable commercial power or steam generating systems to which the use of the air cooled combustor offers significant technical and economic benefits. In implementing this objective both simple steam generation and combined gas turbine-steam generation systems will be considered.

  14. Post-processing procedure for industrial quantum key distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiktenko, Evgeny; Trushechkin, Anton; Kurochkin, Yury; Fedorov, Aleksey

    2016-08-01

    We present algorithmic solutions aimed on post-processing procedure for industrial quantum key distribution systems with hardware sifting. The main steps of the procedure are error correction, parameter estimation, and privacy amplification. Authentication of classical public communication channel is also considered.

  15. ISO 14001 ENVIRONMENTL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new USEPA documents address environmental management systems (EMS) from the perspectives of government and industry and are offered as tools for understanding the process of the ISO 14000 Standards development and usefulness of an EMS approach. The first document, ISO 14001 -...

  16. Assessing Seasonality in the Marketing System of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honcharenko Tetiana P.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies a necessity of study of the issue of application of complex integral approaches in the system of assessing the influence of the seasonality factor upon the system of marketing management of an industrial enterprise, since formation of adequate volumes of sales of products for a planned period is a key factor of acquisition of competitive advantages under modern conditions of market development. The author studies existing methodical approaches to assessing influence of the seasonality factor upon the system of marketing communications of an industrial enterprise, systemises existing forecasting methods, which include studies of the seasonal component and generalises the Box – Jenkins models. The article makes a conclusion that the analysed methods give a possibility to reveal the seasonal component of volumes of realisation of the manufactured product and form forecast in the system of marketing of an industrial enterprise, but they need some practical examination and formation of a modern approach, which would take into consideration real conditions of functioning of domestic industrial enterprises.

  17. Development of a multiphysics analysis system for sodium-water reaction phenomena in steam generators of sodium-cooled fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchibori, Akihiro; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    A multiphysics analysis system for sodium-water reaction phenomena in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors was newly developed. The analysis system consists of the mechanistic numerical analysis codes, SERAPHIM, TACT, and RELAP5. The SERAPHIM code calculates the multicomponent multiphase flow and sodium-water chemical reaction caused by discharging of pressurized water vapor. Applicability of the SERAPHIM code was confirmed through the analyses of the experiment on water vapor discharging in liquid sodium. The TACT code was developed to calculate heat transfer from the reacting jet to the adjacent tube and to predict the tube failure occurrence. The numerical models integrated into the TACT code were verified through some related experiments. The RELAP5 code evaluates thermal hydraulic behavior of water inside the tube. The original heat transfer correlations were corrected for the tube rapidly heated by the reacting jet. The developed system enables evaluation of the wastage environment and the possibility of the failure propagation.

  18. Context-Aware System Applied in Industrial Assembly Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Stipancic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present an ongoing development of a context‐aware system used within industrial environments. The core of the system is so‐called Cognitive Model for Robot Group Control. This model is based on well‐known concepts of Ubiquitous Computing, and is used to control robot behaviours in specially designed industrial environments. By using sensors integrated within the environment, the system is able to track and analyse changes, and update its informational buffer appropriately. Based on freshly collected information, the Model is able to provide a transformation of high‐level contextual information to lower‐level information that is much more suitable and understandable for technical systems. The Model uses semantically defined knowledge to define domain of interest, and Bayesian Network reasoning to deal with the uncertain events and ambiguity scenarios that characterize our naturally unstructured world.

  19. Startup of the experimental physics industrial control system at NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichta, P.; Dong, J.

    1999-12-17

    The Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a set of software which is being used as the basis of the National Spherical Torus Experiment's (NSTX) Process Control System, a major element of the NSTX's Central Instrumentation and Control System. EPICS is a result of a co-development effort started by several US Department of Energy National Laboratories. EPICS is actively supported through an international collaboration made up of government and industrial users. EPICS' good points include portability, scalability, and extensibility. A drawback for small experiments is that a wide range of software skills are necessary to get the software tools running for the process engineers. The authors' experience in designing, developing, operating, and maintaining NSTX's EPICS (system) will be reviewed.

  20. Stereo optical guidance system for control of industrial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Bradley W. (Inventor); Rodgers, Mike H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A device for the generation of basic electrical signals which are supplied to a computerized processing complex for the operation of industrial robots. The system includes a stereo mirror arrangement for the projection of views from opposite sides of a visible indicia formed on a workpiece. The views are projected onto independent halves of the retina of a single camera. The camera retina is of the CCD (charge-coupled-device) type and is therefore capable of providing signals in response to the image projected thereupon. These signals are then processed for control of industrial robots or similar devices.

  1. Steam gasification of wood biomass in a fluidized biocatalytic system bed gasifier: A model development and validation using experiment and Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme BPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Vecchione

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in biomass biocatalytic gasification is the correct prediction of gasification products, with particular attention to the Topping Atmosphere Residues (TARs. In this work, performedwithin the European 7FP UNIfHY project, we develops and validate experimentally a model which is able of predicting the outputs,including TARs, of a steam-fluidized bed biomass gasifier. Pine wood was chosen as biomass feedstock: the products obtained in pyrolysis tests are the relevant model input. Hydrodynamics and chemical properties of the reacting system are considered: the hydrodynamic approach is based on the two phase theory of fluidization, meanwhile the chemical model is based on the kinetic equations for the heterogeneous and homogenous reactions. The derived differentials equations for the gasifier at steady state were implemented MATLAB. Solution was consecutively carried out using the Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme by varying steam/biomass ratio (0.5-1 and operating temperature (750-850°C.The comparison between models and experimental results showed that the model is able of predicting gas mole fractions and production rate including most of the representative TARs compounds

  2. Preliminary Analysis of a Steam Line Break Accident with the MARS-KS code for the SMART Design with Passive Safety Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Doohyuk; Ko, Yungjoo; Suh, Jaeseung [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sunguk; Yi, Sungjae; Park, Hyunsik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    SMART has been developed by KAERI, and SMART-Standard Design Approval (SDA) was recently granted in 2012. A SMART design with Passive Safety System (PSS) features (called SMART-PSS) is being developed and added to the standard design of SMART by KAERI to improve its safety system. Active safety systems such as safety injection pumps will be replaced by a passive safety system, which is actuated only by the gravity force caused by the height difference. All tanks for the passive safety systems are higher than the injection nozzle, which is located around the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs). In this study, a preliminary analysis of the main steam line break accident (MSLB) was performed using the MARS-KS code to understand the general behavior of the SMART-PSS design and to prepare its validation test with the SMART-ITL (FESTA) facility. An anticipated accident for the main steam line break (MSLB) was performed using the MARS-KS code to understand the thermal-hydraulic behaviors of the SMART-PSS design. The preliminary analysis provides good insight into the passive safety system design features of the SMART-PSS and the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the SMART design. The analysis results of the MSLB showed that the core water collapsed level inside the core support barrel was maintained high over the active core top level during the transient period. Therefore, the SMART-PSS design has satisfied the requirements to maintain the plant at a safe shutdown condition during 72 hours without AC power or operator action after an anticipated accident.

  3. A Model for Industrial Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin Waez, Md Tawhid; Wasowski, Andrzej; Dingel, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Introducing automated formal methods for large industrial real-time systems is an important research challenge. We propose timed process automata (TPA) for modeling and analysis of time-critical systems which can be open, hierarchical, and dynamic. The model offers two essential features for larg...... establish safety and reachability properties of TPA by reduction to solving timed games. To mitigate the state-space explosion problem, an automated state-space reduction technique using compositional reasoning and aggressive abstractions is also proposed....

  4. Evaluation of food safety management systems in Serbian dairy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Tomašević; Nada Šmigić; Ilija Đekić; Vlade Zarić; Nikola Tomić; Jelena Miocinovic; Andreja Rajković

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports incentives, costs, difficulties and benefits of food safety management systems implementation in the Serbian dairy industry. The survey involved 27 food business operators with the national milk and dairy market share of 65 %. Almost two thirds of the assessed dairy producers (70.4 %) claimed that they had a fully operational and certified HACCP system in place, while 29.6 % implemented HACCP, but had no third party certification. ISO 22000 was implemented and certified in ...

  5. Using Vision Metrology System for Quality Control in Automotive Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofi, N.; Samadzadegan, F.; Roohy, Sh.; Nozari, M.

    2012-07-01

    The need of more accurate measurements in different stages of industrial applications, such as designing, producing, installation, and etc., is the main reason of encouraging the industry deputy in using of industrial Photogrammetry (Vision Metrology System). With respect to the main advantages of Photogrammetric methods, such as greater economy, high level of automation, capability of noncontact measurement, more flexibility and high accuracy, a good competition occurred between this method and other industrial traditional methods. With respect to the industries that make objects using a main reference model without having any mathematical model of it, main problem of producers is the evaluation of the production line. This problem will be so complicated when both reference and product object just as a physical object is available and comparison of them will be possible with direct measurement. In such case, producers make fixtures fitting reference with limited accuracy. In practical reports sometimes available precision is not better than millimetres. We used a non-metric high resolution digital camera for this investigation and the case study that studied in this paper is a chassis of automobile. In this research, a stable photogrammetric network designed for measuring the industrial object (Both Reference and Product) and then by using the Bundle Adjustment and Self-Calibration methods, differences between the Reference and Product object achieved. These differences will be useful for the producer to improve the production work flow and bringing more accurate products. Results of this research, demonstrate the high potential of proposed method in industrial fields. Presented results prove high efficiency and reliability of this method using RMSE criteria. Achieved RMSE for this case study is smaller than 200 microns that shows the fact of high capability of implemented approach.

  6. Revamping of Temperature and Pressure Reduction Interlock in High Pressure Steam System of Large Chemical Plant%大型化工厂高压蒸汽减温减压联锁改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乜春晖; 何魁邦; 杨德林

    2014-01-01

    Describe the importance of stability of both high and medium pressure steam systems in large chemical plant . After modifying the steam control system and interlock logic drawbacks in the design ,the foundation for smooth delivery of steam power is laid ,continuity of the production in chemical plant is guaranteed ,and economic benefits are improved .%阐述了调解大型化工厂高压蒸汽与中压过热蒸汽的稳定对于化工企业的重要性。修改设计存在的蒸汽调解及联锁逻辑弊端,为蒸汽动力的平稳输送奠定了基础,保证了化工企业的生产连续性,提高了经济效益。

  7. The automated system for prevention of industrial-caused diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavsky, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the automated system intended to prevent industrial-caused diseases of workers, the basis of which is represented by algorithms of preventing several negative functional conditions (stress, monotony). The emergence of such state shall be determined based on an analysis of bioelectric signals, in particular, skin-galvanic reactions. Proceeding from the dynamics of the functional state, the automated system offers to perform an optimized set of measures to restore the health of the worker. Implementation of an automated system is presented in Visual Programming system LabVIEW.

  8. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  9. Industrial thermal insulation: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, R.G.; Tennery, V.J.; McElroy, D.L.; Godfrey, T.G.; Kolb, J.O.

    1976-03-01

    A large variety of thermal insulation materials is manufactured for application in various temperature ranges and environments. Additional and improved thermal insulation for steam systems is a key area with immediate energy conservation potential in several of the larger energy-consuming industries. Industrial thermal insulation technology was assessed by obtaining input from a variety of sources including insulation manufacturers, system designers, installers, users, consultants, measurement laboratories, open literature, and in-house knowledge. The assessment identified a number of factors relevant to insulation materials and usage that could contribute significantly to improved energy conservation.

  10. Steam microturbines in distributed cogeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Kicinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the most recent trends and concepts in power engineering, especially with regard to prosumer and civic energy generation. In so doing, it draws widely on his experience gained during the development of steam microturbines for use in small combined heat and power stations based on the organic Rankine cycle (CHP-ORC). Major issues concerning the dynamic properties of mechanical systems, in particular rotating systems, are discussed, and the results obtained when using unconventional bearing systems, presented. Modeling and analysis of radial-flow and axial-flow microturbines a

  11. Internet technologies in the mining industry. Towards unattended mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzykawski, Michal [FAMUR Group, Katowice (Poland)

    2009-08-27

    Global suppliers of longwall systems focus mainly on maximising the efficiency of the equipment they manufacture. Given the fact that, since 2004, coal demand on world markets has been constantly on the increase, even during an economic downturn, this endeavour seems fully justified. However, it should be remembered that maximum efficiency must be accompanied by maximum safety of all underground operations. This statement is based on the belief that the mining industry, which exploits increasingly deep and dangerous coal beds, faces the necessity to implement comprehensive IT systems for managing all mining processes and, in the near future, to use unmanned mining systems, fully controllable from the mine surface. The computerisation of mines is an indispensable element of the development of the world mining industry, a belief which has been put into practice with e-mine, developed by the FAMUR Group. (orig.)

  12. A Model for Industrial Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin Waez, Md Tawhid; Wasowski, Andrzej; Dingel, Juergen;

    2015-01-01

    Introducing automated formal methods for large industrial real-time systems is an important research challenge. We propose timed process automata (TPA) for modeling and analysis of time-critical systems which can be open, hierarchical, and dynamic. The model offers two essential features for larg...... establish safety and reachability properties of TPA by reduction to solving timed games. To mitigate the state-space explosion problem, an automated state-space reduction technique using compositional reasoning and aggressive abstractions is also proposed.......Introducing automated formal methods for large industrial real-time systems is an important research challenge. We propose timed process automata (TPA) for modeling and analysis of time-critical systems which can be open, hierarchical, and dynamic. The model offers two essential features for large...... industrial systems: (i) compositional modeling with reusable designs for different contexts, and (ii) an automated state-space reduction technique. Timed process automata model dynamic networks of continuous-time communicating control processes which can activate other processes. We show how to automatically...

  13. Active acoustic leak detection for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 6. Applicability to practical steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kazuo; Kumagai, Hiromichi; Kinoshita, Izumi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.

    1998-03-01

    It is necessary to develop a reliable water leak detection system for steam generators of liquid metal reactors in order to prevent the expansion of damage and to maintain the structural integrity of the steam generators. The concept of the active acoustic method is to detect the change of the ultrasonic field due to the hydrogen gas bubbles generated by a sodium-water reaction. This method has the potential for improved detection performance compared with conventional passive methods, from the viewpoint of sensitivity, response time and tolerance against the background noise. A feasibility study of the active acoustic leak detection system is being carried out. This report predicts the performance of the active acoustic method in the practical steam generators from the results of the large scale in-water experiments. The results shows that the active acoustic system can detect a 10 g/s leak within a few seconds in large-scale steam generators. (author)

  14. Finite Element Modeling of Material Fatigue and Cracking Problems for Steam Power System HP Devices Exposed to Thermal Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlicki Jakub

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed analysis of the material damaging process due to low-cycle fatigue and subsequent crack growth under thermal shocks and high pressure. Finite Element Method (FEM model of a high pressure (HP by-pass valve body and a steam turbine rotor shaft (used in a coal power plant is presented. The main damaging factor in both cases is fatigue due to cycles of rapid temperature changes. The crack initiation, occurring at a relatively low number of load cycles, depends on alternating or alternating-incremental changes in plastic strains. The crack propagation is determined by the classic fracture mechanics, based on finite element models and the most dangerous case of brittle fracture. This example shows the adaptation of the structure to work in the ultimate conditions of high pressure, thermal shocks and cracking.

  15. Conceptualizing the use of system products and system deliveries in the building industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Thuesen, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the concepts system products and system deliveries based on the use of product modularization and product configuration. The concepts are outlined and discussed based on examples from both the construction industry and related industry. The description focuses partly...

  16. Trends in electronic technologies for industrial electric power control and protection systems; Kanshi seigyo hogo sytem no doko to denshika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, K.; Kurihara, H.; Nakamura, S. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    For Toshiba`s industrial power receiving and transforming facilities, developments have been made on switchgear multi-relays, transfer systems, concentrated surveillance systems and digital protection relay systems to achieve realization of high-level and close surveillance, control and protection. This paper introduces representative models of these systems and devices. Application of microprocessors and liquid crystal display units is rapidly progressing for surveillance and control devices which are installed in power receiving rooms to monitor and control power receiving and transforming systems from the side of these devices. In the protection relay systems, items of the hardware are standardized, and those of the software are designed in response to protection requirements to provide various relay characteristics and protection sequence functions. Also in the switchgears, combined digital type switchgears are used widely. Systems have been structured being focused mainly not only on functions to collectively monitor and control power systems in factories, but also improve efficiency of output and energy operation such as of steam. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Layered Thermal Insulation Systems for Industrial and Commercial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2015-01-01

    From the high performance arena of cryogenic equipment, several different layered thermal insulation systems have been developed for industrial and commercial applications. In addition to the proven areas in cold-work applications for piping and tanks, the new Layered Composite Insulation for Extreme Environments (LCX) has potential for broader industrial use as well as for commercial applications. The LCX technology provides a unique combination of thermal, mechanical, and weathering performance capability that is both cost-effective and enabling. Industry applications may include, for example, liquid nitrogen (LN2) systems for food processing, liquefied natural gas (LNG) systems for transportation or power, and chilled water cooling facilities. Example commercial applications may include commercial residential building construction, hot water piping, HVAC systems, refrigerated trucks, cold chain shipping containers, and a various consumer products. The LCX system is highly tailorable to the end-use application and can be pre-fabricated or field assembled as needed. Product forms of LCX include rigid sheets, semi-flexible sheets, cylindrical clam-shells, removable covers, or flexible strips for wrapping. With increasing system control and reliability requirements as well as demands for higher energy efficiencies, thermal insulation in harsh environments is a growing challenge. The LCX technology grew out of solving problems in the insulation of mechanically complex cryogenic systems that must operate in outdoor, humid conditions. Insulation for cold work includes equipment for everything from liquid helium to chilled water. And in the middle are systems for LNG, LN2, liquid oxygen (LO2), liquid hydrogen (LH2) that must operate in the ambient environment. Different LCX systems have been demonstrated for sub-ambient conditions but are capable of moderately high temperature applications as well.

  18. Commissioning Techniques of Direct Air-cooling Exhausted Steam Absorbing Heat Pump System%直接空冷机组乏汽吸收式热泵系统调试技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于天群; 叶宁; 白志刚

    2014-01-01

    The basic operation principle of heat pump and the main commissioning content and procedure are analysed. The application of direct air-cooling exhausted steam absorbing heat pump in heating network water circulating system,steam-driven system, exhausted steam system,water cooling system,steam-driven water pump system and vacuum system are introduced,and the problems and solutions encountered during the commissioning are summed up,which provides technical reference to promote the application of waste heat absorbing heat pump.%分析了热泵工作基本原理及热泵系统调试过程中主要包含的内容及流程,总结了直接空冷系统乏汽利用吸收式热泵工程项目在热网循环水系统、驱动蒸汽系统、乏汽系统、减温水系统、驱动蒸汽疏水泵系统、真空系统等调试过程中遇到的问题和解决办法,有利于乏汽吸收式热泵技术的推广应用。

  19. Calculation of Industrial Enterprise Ventilation System by Network Integral Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihienkova Evgeniya I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describe a ventilation system calculation of the technology building industrial enterprise. On the basis of the calculation model for the enterprise offered technical decision of ventilation systems, subject to a compliance exchange multiplicity, purification efficiency, decontamination from the work area; provided the required volume of gas extraction from process equipment according to the sanitary standards and environmental requirements. Produced selection of ventilation equipment parameters, solved the problem of the air exchange balancing between ventilation systems to prevent the emergence of parasitic flows between the rooms building. SigmaNet software package was used for the implement the calculation.

  20. Bundle adjustment for data processing of theodolite industrial surveying system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹峥嵘; 丁晓利; 曾卓乔; 何凭宗

    2001-01-01

    The photogrammetric bundle adjustment was used in data processing of electronic theodolite industrial surveying system by converting angular observations into virtual photo coordinates. The developed algorithm has ability of precision estimation and data-snooping, do not need initial values of exterior orientation elements and object point coordinates. The form of control condition for the system is quite flexible. Neither centering nor leveling is the theodolite needed and the lay-out of theodolite position is flexible when the system is used for precise survey. Experiments carried out in test field verify the validity of the data processing method.

  1. Modelling of a Coil Steam Generator for CSP applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelagotti, Leonardo; Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph;

    2014-01-01

    The project investigates a new design for a CSP plant steam generation system, the Coil Steam Generator (CSG). This system allows faster start-ups and therefore higher daily energy production from the Sun. An analytical thermodynamic simulation model of the evaporator and a mechanical analysis...

  2. Impact of Leagile Manufacturing System on Industrial Up-Gradation of Apparel Industry of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Moahmmad Tanvir Monsur; Takahashi Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In the manufacturing step of the global apparel value chain (GAVC) the firms face fierce competition due to availability of low cost labor and hence the opportunity to make higher profit is a tough job. A good strategy to overcome this problem is industrial up-gradation through value chain. Resource based view can be an important logic to advocate that leagile (lean and agile) manufacturing system can be an unique resource for the firm and can facilitate a firm for doing that up-gradation. Th...

  3. Coupling of high temperature nuclear reactor with chemical plant by means of steam loop with heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeć Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature nuclear reactors (HTR can be used as an excellent, emission-free source of technological heat for various industrial applications. Their outlet helium temperature (700°-900°C allows not only for heat supply to all processes below 600°C (referred to as “steam class”, but also enables development of clean nuclear-assisted hydrogen production or coal liquefaction technologies with required temperatures up to 900°C (referred to as “chemical class”. This paper presents the results of analyses done for various configurations of the steam transport loop coupled with the high-temperature heat pump designed for “chemical class” applications. The advantages and disadvantages as well as the key issues are discussed in comparison with alternative solutions, trying to answer the question whether the system with the steam loop and the hightemperature heat pump is viable and economically justified.

  4. Development of a Program for Predicting Flow Instability in a Once-through Sodium- Heated Steam Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Kim, Dehee; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Tae-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A SG selected for PGSFR is of a once-through integrated type. It is a vertical counter flow shell and tube heat exchanger with sodium on the shell side and water-steam in the tubes. The phenomenon of two-phase flow instability has been observed in many industrial domains such as boiling systems and steam generators. In this paper, a computer program developed for predicting two-phase flow instability in a steam generator under axial non-uniform heat flux is presented, and analysis results for verification are presented. A computer code was developed for investigating the two-phase flow stability under sodium-heated conditions in the shell-side of a SG. A solution algorithm for the sodium flow field and tube conduction has been developed for application to sodium-heated SG.

  5. System of aid for the starting of the steam generator of a thermoelectric unit; Sistema de ayuda para el arranque del generador de vapor de una unidad termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero R, Agustin; Suarez C, Dionisio A; Aquino E, Juan C; Diaz H, Carlos A; Cruz T, Jorge A; Sanchez L, Jose A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    This article presents the development of an on line aid system, whose objective is to aid the operator of a thermoelectric unit, providing the information that is required to carry out the heating and pressurization of the steam generator in the shortest possible time. The former takes place respecting the operation limits determined by the manufacturer and the conditions of security established to carry out the maneuvers of operation of the equipment. The system incorporates a scheme of predictive control, based on a neuronal model that estimates the optimal position of two final elements of control to fulfill with the curves of reference for the temperature and pressure of the main steam. The system is based on an architecture client-server and uses technology Web for the access of the information through a navigator of the Internet. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de ayuda en linea, cuyo objetivo es asistir al operador de una unidad termoelectrica, proporcionando la informacion que requiere para llevar a cabo el calentamiento y presurizacion del generador de vapor en el menor tiempo posible. Lo anterior se efectua respetando los limites de operacion determinados por el fabricante y las condiciones de seguridad establecidas para efectuar las maniobras de operacion de los equipos. El sistema incorpora un esquema de control predictivo, basado en un modelo neuronal, que estima la posicion optima de dos elementos finales de control para cumplir con las curvas de referencia para la temperatura y presion del vapor principal. El sistema esta basado en una arquitectura cliente-servidor y utiliza tecnologia Web para el acceso a la informacion a traves de un navegador del Internet.

  6. Economic and Thermodynamic Analysis for Preliminary Design of Dry Steam Geothermal Power Plant (GPP) with Multifarious Gas Removal System (GRS) in Kamojang, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damar Pranadi, Aloysius; Sihana; Suryopratomo, Kutut; Rahmatika Salis, Fiki

    2016-09-01

    Indonesia has great number of geothermal potential separated by two kind of potential, 16.13 GW for high enthalpy and 7.88 GW for low enthalpy speculative resources [4]. In the end of 2013, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources stated that Geothermal Power Plant (GPP) in Indonesia have been built about 1.34 GW in capacity and wanted to seriously develop geothermal potential up to 6.64 GW by 2025 [8]. Cost is one of famous obstacle in Indonesia's GPP Development. To reduce grand total cost of GPP, this paper will present the relation between thermodynamic and economic analysis in purpose to find the most economical gas removal system in GPP. By gleaning data at Kamojang Steam Field on behalf of PT Pertamina Geothermal Energy, this study will thermodynamically analyze and calculate a GPP preliminary design with software, named as Cycle Tempo 5.0. In additional, writers create motive steam calculator (based on C++ language) to enhance thermodynamic analysis for gas removal system (GRS) and adapted the results in Cycle Tempo 5.0. After thermodynamic analysis has been done, economic study will be undertaken by Net Present Value Analysis to compare the utilization cost of three different GRS and find which kind of GRS is more economical for nearly 30 years operation. For the result, Dual LRVP has higher performance than the others, spend less utilization cost and more economical for nearly 30 years operation. Moreover, the economic analysis for replacement of gas removal system shown in this paper too. In conclusion, GPP with Dual LRVP is proper to be developed in the future Geothermal Power Plant or to replace the existing GRS in some existing GPP in Indonesia.

  7. Thermal hydraulic studies in steam generator test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinod, V.; Suresh Kumar, V.A.; Noushad, I.B.; Ellappan, T.R.; Rajan, K.K.; Rajan, M.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Engineering Development Group Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: A 500 MWe fast breeder reactor is being constructed at Kalpakkam, India. This is a sodium cooled reactor with two primary and two secondary sodium loops with total 8 steam generators. The typical advantage of fast breeder plants is the high operating temperature of steam cycles and the high plant efficiency. To produce this high pressure and high temperature steam, once through straight tube vertical sodium heated steam generators are used. The steam is generated from the heat produced in the reactor core and being transported through primary and secondary sodium circuits. The steam generator is a 25 m high middle supported steam generator with expansion bend and 23 m heat transfer length. Steam Generator Test Facility (SGTF) constructed at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam aims at performing various tests on a 5.5 MWt steam generator. This vertically simulated test article is similar in all respects to the proposed 157 MWt steam generator module for the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), with reduced number of tubes. Heat transfer performance tests are done with this 19 tube steam generator at various load conditions. Sodium circuit for the SGTF is equipped with oil fired heater as heat source and centrifugal sodium pump, to pump sodium at 105 m{sup 3}/hr flow rate. Other typical components like sodium to air heat exchanger, sodium purification system and hydrogen leak detection system is also present in the sodium circuit. High pressure steam produced in the steam generator is dumped in a condenser and recycled. Important tests planned in SGTF are the heat transfer performance test, stability test, endurance test and performance test of steam generator under various transients. The controlled operation of steam generator will be studied with possible control schemes. A steady state simulation of the steam generator is done with a mathematical model. This paper gives the details of heat transfer

  8. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant......A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...

  9. Methodology for energy diagnosis in distribution steam lines; Metodologia para diagnostico de energia en lineas de distribucion de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, M.; Ambriz, J. J.; Romero P, H. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper shows a methodology that results of great advantage in the development of the energy analysis of an industrial facility that utilizes steam as a mean of energy transport and where the steam operated equipment is physically located in a remote place, away from the generation site. Mention is made here of the equipment characteristics that can be used for such purpose, the most important parameters to identify in a rapid and efficient way the faults presented in the steam distribution system in the industrial plants and the formats that contribute to keep the corresponding records for efficiently maintain in operation the steam pipeline net in conjunction with the involved accessories. [Espanol] En el presenta trabajo se muestra una metodologia que resulta de gran utilidad en el desarrollo del analisis energetico de una planta industrial, en la cual se emplee el vapor como medio de transporte de la energia y en donde el equipo que utiliza el vapor se encuentre fisicamente en un lugar apartado de la zona de generacion. Aqui se mencionan las caracteristicas del equipo que se puede utilizar para dicho diagnostico, los parametros de mayor importancia para identificar en forma rapida y eficiente las fallas que se presentan en el sistema de distribucion de vapor en las plantas industriales y los formatos que contribuyen a llevar los registros correspondientes para mantener operando eficientemente la red de vapor, en conjunto con los accesorios que en ella se involucran.

  10. AnaIysis of SIiding Key System for Dongfang Independent NucIear Steam Turbine%东方自主核电汽轮机滑销系统分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢平; 高宏喜

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzed the sliding key system for Dongfang independent nuclear power steam turbine, emphatically enumerated the emphasis in design process, and checked the strength of dead keys and guiding keys in larger seismic loads and extreme steam thrust operating conditions.%文章分析了东方自主核电汽轮机的滑销系统,着重列举了设计过程中的重点,在较大地震载荷及极限工况蒸汽推力下进行了主机部件死点键、导向键的强度校核。

  11. Systems development methods and usability in Norway: An industrial perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bygstad, B; G. Ghinea; Brevik, E.

    2007-01-01

    This is the post-print version of the Article. The official published version can be accessed from the link below - Copyright @ 2007 Springer Berlin Heidelberg This paper investigates the relationship between traditional systems development methodologies and usability, through a survey of 78 Norwegian IT companies. Building on previous research we proposed two hypotheses; (1) that software companies will generally pay lip service to usability, but do not prioritize it in industrial project...

  12. Thermophotovoltaic systems for civilian and industrial applications in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugami, Hiroo; Sasa, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2003-05-01

    The potential market for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications has been studied for civilian and industrial sectors in Japan. Comparing the performance of gas engines or turbines, as well as the underdeveloped power generation technologies such as fuel cells or chemical batteries, we have discussed the feasible application field of TPV systems to compete with those power generations. From the point of view of applicability for TPV systems in Japan, portable generators, co-generation systems and solar power plants are selected for our system analysis. The cost and performance targets of TPV systems for co-generation are also discussed by assuming a typical daily profile of electricity and hot water demands in Japanese homes. A progress report on the recent TPV research activities is given as well as a feasibility study concerning such TPV systems in Japan.

  13. Integrating a SOFC Plant with a Steam Turbine Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Scappin, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is integrated with a Steam Turbine (ST) cycle. Different hybrid configurations are studied. The fuel for the plants is assumed to be natural gas (NG). Since the NG cannot be sent to the anode side of the SOFC directly, a desulfurization reactor is used to remove....... The off-gases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Different systems layouts are considered. Cyclic efficiencies up to 67% are achieved which is considerably higher than...

  14. Model for determining and optimizing delivery performance in industrial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fechete Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance means achieving organizational objectives regardless of their nature and variety, and even overcoming them. Improving performance is one of the major goals of any company. Achieving the global performance means not only obtaining the economic performance, it is a must to take into account other functions like: function of quality, delivery, costs and even the employees satisfaction. This paper aims to improve the delivery performance of an industrial system due to their very low results. The delivery performance took into account all categories of performance indicators, such as on time delivery, backlog efficiency or transport efficiency. The research was focused on optimizing the delivery performance of the industrial system, using linear programming. Modeling the delivery function using linear programming led to obtaining precise quantities to be produced and delivered each month by the industrial system in order to minimize their transport cost, satisfying their customers orders and to control their stock. The optimization led to a substantial improvement in all four performance indicators that concern deliveries.

  15. Industrial Component-based Sample Mobile Robot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kucsera

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The mobile robot development can be done in two different ways. The first is tobuild up an embedded system, the second is to use ‘ready to use’ industrial components.With the spread of Industrial mobile robots there are more and more components on themarket which can be used to build up a whole control and sensor system of a mobile robotplatform. Using these components electrical hardware development is not needed, whichspeeds up the development time and decreases the cost. Using a PLC on board, ‘only’constructing the program is needed and the developer can concentrate on the algorithms,not on developing hardware. My idea is to solve the problem of mobile robot localizationand obstacle avoidance using industrial components and concentrate this topic to themobile robot docking. In factories, mobile robots can be used to deliver parts from oneplace to another, but there are always two critical points. The robot has to be able tooperate in human environment, and also reach the target and get to a predefined positionwhere another system can load it or get the delivered product. I would like to construct amechanically simple robot model, which can calculate its position from the rotation of itswheels, and when it reaches a predefined location with the aid of an image processingsystem it can dock to an electrical connector. If the robot succeeded it could charge itsbatteries through this connector as well.

  16. Ultrafast fiber beam delivery: system technology and industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funck, Max C.; Eilzer, Sebastian; Wedel, Björn

    2017-02-01

    Flexible beam delivery of high power pico- and femtosecond pulses offers great advantages in industrial applications. Complex free space beam delivery as found in robot or gantry systems can be replaced, laser safety and uptime increased and system integration in production environment simplified. Only recently fiber beam delivery has become available for ultrafast lasers while it has been an established standard for cw and pulsed laser sources for many years. Using special kinds of fiber that guide the laser beam mostly inside a hollow core, nonlinear effects and catastrophic damage that would arise in conventional glass fibers can be avoided. Today, ultrafast pulses with several 100 μJ and hundreds of MW can be transmitted in quasi single mode fashion with micro-structured hollow core fibers. During the last years we have developed a modular beam delivery system that suits industrial ultrafast lasers and can be integrated into existing processing machines. Micro-structured hollow core fibers inside the sealed laser light cable efficiently guide high-power laser pulses over distances of several meters with excellent beam quality, while power, pulse duration and polarization are maintained. We report on the technology required for fiber beam delivery of ultrafast laser pulses and discuss requirements for successful integration into industrial production as well as achievable performance under realistic operation and show examples of micromachining applications.

  17. Security of the data transmission in the industrial control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Bednarek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is to present the data transmission security system between the stations of the industrial control system. The possible options for secure communications between process stations, as well as between process and operator station are described. Transmission security mechanism is based on algorithms for symmetric and asymmetric encryption. The authentication process uses a software token algorithm and a one-way hash function. The algorithm for establishing a secured connection between the stations, including the authentication process and encryption of data transmission is given. The process of securing the transmission consists of 4 sub-processes: (I authentication; (II asymmetric, public keys transmission; (III symmetric key transmission; (IV data transmission. The presented process of securing the transmission was realized in the industrial controller and emulator. For this purpose, programming languages in accordance with EN 61131 were used. The functions were implemented as user function blocks. This allows us to include a mixed code in the structure of the block (both: ST and FBD. Available function categories: support of the asymmetric encryption; asymmetric encryption utility functions; support of the symmetric encryption; symmetric encryption utility functions; support of the hash value calculations; utility functions of conversion.[b]Keywords[/b]: transmission security, encryption, authentication, industrial control system

  18. 78 FR 18353 - Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System... ``Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility'' dated April... establishment computer system validation program, consistent with recognized principles of software...

  19. Methane Steam Reforming Kinetics for a Rhodium-Based Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jon Geest; Jakobsen, M.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2010-01-01

    Methane steam reforming is the key reaction to produce synthesis gas and hydrogen at the industrial scale. Here the kinetics of methane steam reforming over a rhodium-based catalyst is investigated in the temperature range 500-800 A degrees C and as a function of CH4, H2O and H-2 partial pressures....... The methane steam reforming reaction cannot be modeled without taking CO and H coverages into account. This is especially important at low temperatures and higher partial pressures of CO and H-2. For methane CO2 reforming experiments, it is also necessary to consider the repulsive interaction of CO...

  20. Numerical simulation in steam injection process by a mechanistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Souza, J.C.Jr.; Campos, W.; Lopes, D.; Moura, L.S.S. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    Steam injection is a common thermal recovery method used in very viscous oil reservoirs. The method involves the injection of heat to reduce viscosity and mobilize oil. A steam generation and injection system consists primarily of a steam source, distribution lines, injection wells and a discarding tank. In order to optimize injection and improve the oil recovery factor, one must determine the parameters of steam flow such as pressure, temperature and steam quality. This study focused on developing a unified mathematical model by means of a mechanistic approach for two-phase steam flow in pipelines and wells. The hydrodynamic and heat transfer mechanistic model was implemented in a computer simulator to model the parameters of steam injection while trying to avoid the use of empirical correlations. A marching algorithm was used to determine the distribution of pressure and temperature along the pipelines and wellbores. The mathematical model for steam flow in injection systems, developed by a mechanistic approach (VapMec) performed well when the simulated values of pressures and temperatures were compared with the values measured during field tests. The newly developed VapMec model was incorporated in the LinVap-3 simulator that constitutes an engineering supporting tool for steam injection wells operated by Petrobras. 23 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Methodology of problem space modeling in industrial enterprise management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Glushchevsky

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to develop methodological principles for building a problem space model which can be integrated into industrial enterprise management system. The results of the analysis. The author developed methodological principles for constructing the problem space of an industrial enterprise as a structural and functional model. These problems appear on enterprise business process network topology and can be solved by its management system. The centerpiece of the article is description of the main stages of implementation of modeling methodology of industrial enterprise typical management problems. These stages help to solve several units of organizational management system structure of enterprise within their functional competence. Author formulated an axiom system of structural and characteristic properties of modeling space problems elements, and interconnections between them. This system of axioms is actually a justification for the correctness and adequacy of the proposed modeling methodology and comes as theoretical basis in the construction of the structural and functional model of the management problems space. This model generalizes three basic structural components of the enterprise management system with the help of axioms system: a three-dimensional model of the management problem space (the first dimension is the enterprise business process network, the second dimension is a set of management problems, the third dimension is four vectors of measurable and qualitative characteristics of management problems, which can be analyzed and managed during enterprise functioning; a two-dimensional model of the cybernetic space of analytical problems, which are formalized form of management problems (multivariate model experiments can be implemented with the help of this model to solve wide range of problem situations and determine the most effective or optimal management solutions; a two-dimensional model

  2. Numerical investigation of mass transfer in the flow path of the experimental model of the PGV-1500 steam generator's steam receiving section with two steam nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golibrodo, L. A.; Krutikov, A. A.; Nadinskii, Yu. N.; Nikolaeva, A. V.; Skibin, A. P.; Sotskov, V. V.

    2014-10-01

    The hydrodynamics of working medium in the steam volume model implemented in the experimental setup constructed at the Leipunskii Institute for Physics and Power Engineering was simulated for verifying the procedure of calculating the velocity field in the steam space of steam generators used as part of the reactor plants constructed on the basis of water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER). The numerical calculation was implemented in the environment of the STAR-CCM+ software system with its cross verification in the STAR-CD and ANSYS CFX software systems. The performed numerical investigation served as a basis for substantiating the selection of the computation code and parameters for constructing the computer model of the steam receiving device of the PGV-1500 steam generator experimental model, such as the quantization scheme, turbulence model, and mesh model.

  3. Compressed Air System Optimization: Case Study Food Industry in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayati, Endang; Nuzahar, Hasril

    2016-01-01

    Compressors and compressed air systems was one of the most important utilities in industries or factories. Approximately 10% of the cost of electricity in the industry was used to produce compressed air. Therefore the potential for energy savings in the compressors and compressed air systems had a big challenge. This field was conducted especially in Indonesia food industry or factory. Compressed air system optimization was a technique approach to determine the optimal conditions for the operation of compressors and compressed air systems that included evaluation of the energy needs, supply adjustment, eliminating or reconfiguring the use and operation of inefficient, changing and complementing some equipment and improving operating efficiencies. This technique gave the significant impact for energy saving and costs. The potential savings based on this study through measurement and optimization e.g. system that lowers the pressure of 7.5 barg to 6.8 barg would reduce energy consumption and running costs approximately 4.2%, switch off the compressor GA110 and GA75 was obtained annual savings of USD 52,947 ≈ 455 714 kWh, running GA75 light load or unloaded then obtained annual savings of USD 31,841≈ 270,685 kWh, install new compressor 2x132 kW and 1x 132 kW VSD obtained annual savings of USD 108,325≈ 928,500 kWh. Furthermore it was needed to conduct study of technical aspect of energy saving potential (Investment Grade Audit) and performed Cost Benefit Analysis. This study was one of best practice solutions how to save energy and improve energy performance in compressors and compressed air system.

  4. Model of marketing management in management system of industrial enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Raiko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to create an open conceptual model of marketing management in management system of industrial enterprise that has certain theoretical and practical significance. The results of the analysis. Nowadays there is an objective need to improve the principles of marketing management both within the marketing department, and within all industrial enterprises, as it brings marketing understanding of customer needs and creative thinking that enables the company to be customer-oriented. That is why particular research topic is burning. In the process of marketing a set of goods and services are developed and produced while ensuring a certain society level. Therefore, an important point for the proper organization of marketing activity at the industrial enterprise is the marketing management. First of all, the theoretical and methodological analysis for marketing management importance understanding was conducted. It allowed to make certain conclusions concerning this concept statements, determine its place and role in the enterprise management. Thus, it is proposed to consider marketing management not only as one of the functional tasks and part of enterprise’s overall plan but also as the management of all activities which is based on the marketing principles (when all business units plan and evaluate their work from the marketing standpoint. The result of the proposed model is that the enterprise should be considered as an open system and the part of «consumer-enterprise-partner» system, which is based on marketing that covers all units and links of the enterprise. Marketing partnerships appear as the result of the interaction of system elements. Marketing partnerships’ main objective is to profit from the results of the products and services production and distribution, and to satisfy consumers demand that occurs during the activation of the consumers needs. Marketing management and marketing

  5. Analysis of nitrogen injection as alternative fluid to steam in heavy oil reservoir; Analise da injecao de nitrogenio como fluido alternativo ao vapor em reservatorio de oleo pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Marcos Allyson Felipe; Galvao, Edney Rafael Viana Pinheiro; Barillas, Jennys Lourdes; Mata, Wilson da; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio Viana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Many of hydrocarbon reserves existing in the world are formed by heavy oils (deg API between 10 and 20). Moreover, several heavy oil fields are mature and, thus, offer great challenges for oil industry. Among the thermal methods used to recover these resources, steam flooding has been the main economically viable alternative. Latent heat carried by steam heats the reservoir, reducing oil viscosity and facilitating the production. This method has many variations and has been studied both theoretically and experimentally (in pilot projects and in full field applications). In order to increase oil recovery and reduce steam injection costs, the injection of alternative fluid has been used on three main ways: alternately, co-injected with steam and after steam injection interruption. The main objective of these injection systems is to reduce the amount of heat supplied to the reservoir, using cheaper fluids and maintaining the same oil production levels. In this paper, the use of N{sub 2} as an alternative fluid to the steam was investigated. The analyzed parameters were oil recoveries and net cumulative oil productions. The reservoir simulation model corresponds to an oil reservoir of 100 m x 100 m x 28 m size, on a Cartesian coordinates system (x, y and z directions). It is a semi synthetic model with some reservoir data similar to those found in Potiguar Basin, Brazil. All studied cases were done using the simulator STARS from CMG (Computer Modelling Group, version 2009.10). It was found that N{sub 2} injection after steam injection interruption achieved the highest net cumulative oil compared to others injection system. Moreover, it was observed that N2 as alternative fluid to steam did not present increase on oil recovery. (author)

  6. Designing Integrated Product- Service System Solutions in Manufacturing Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Nina; Patrício, Lia; Morelli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing firms are increasingly evolving towards the design of integrated product-service solutions but servitization literature does not provide specific guidance on how to design these integrated solutions. Building upon ProductService System (PSS) and Service Design (SD) approaches......, this paper proposes an integrative method that joins PSS’s systems and network approach with the creative, human-centered, value cocreation approach of SD. The paper also describes the development and application of this method to the creation of integrated solutions for the laboratory industry, highlighting...

  7. STEAM GENERATOR GROUP PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R. A.; Lewis, M

    1985-09-01

    This report is a summary of progress in the Surry Steam Generator Group Project for 1984. Information is presented on the analysis of two baseline eddy current inspections of the generator. Round robin series of tests using standard in-service inspection techniques are described along with some preliminary results. Observations are reported of degradation found on tubing specimens removed from the generator, and on support plates characterized in-situ. Residual stresses measured on a tubing specimen are reported. Two steam generator repair demonstrations are described; one for antivibration bar replacement, and one on tube repair methods. Chemical analyses are shown for sludge samples removed from above the tube sheet.

  8. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, S. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program is to develop conceptual designs of gas fired advanced turbine systems that can be adapted for operation on coal and biomass fuels. The technical, economic, and environmental performance operating on natural gas and in a coal fueled mode is to be assessed. Detailed designs and test work relating to critical components are to be completed and a market study is to be conducted.

  9. Digest of "Invariant Method of Load Independent Pressure Control in Steam Boiler"

    OpenAIRE

    Sniders, Andris; Komass, Toms

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers the possibility of steam production and supply process improvement by perfection of the steam boiler control system, applying invariance principle that makes possible preemptive compensation of the influence of steam expenditure as a disturbance on the control process quality and efficiency. For the development of invariant control system, the mathematical modeling and simulation in MATLAB - SIMULINK environment is made. The control unit is low pressure steam boiler with o...

  10. Adaptive-passive vibration control systems for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, D.; Pfeiffer, T.; Vrbata, J.; Melz, T.

    2015-04-01

    Tuned vibration absorbers have become common for passive vibration reduction in many industrial applications. Lightly damped absorbers (also called neutralizers) can be used to suppress narrowband disturbances by tuning them to the excitation frequency. If the resonance is adapted in-operation, the performance of those devices can be significantly enhanced, or inertial mass can be decreased. However, the integration of actuators, sensors and control electronics into the system raises new design challenges. In this work, the development of adaptive-passive systems for vibration reduction at an industrial scale is presented. As an example, vibration reduction of a ship engine was studied in a full scale test. Simulations were used to study the feasibility and evaluate the system concept at an early stage. Several ways to adjust the resonance of the neutralizer were evaluated, including piezoelectric actuation and common mechatronic drives. Prototypes were implemented and tested. Since vibration absorbers suffer from high dynamic loads, reliability tests were used to assess the long-term behavior under operational conditions and to improve the components. It was proved that the adaptive systems are capable to withstand the mechanical loads in an industrial application. Also a control strategy had to be implemented in order to track the excitation frequency. The most mature concepts were integrated into the full scale test. An imbalance exciter was used to simulate the engine vibrations at a realistic level experimentally. The neutralizers were tested at varying excitation frequencies to evaluate the tracking capabilities of the control system. It was proved that a significant vibration reduction is possible.

  11. Development of a water leak detector system for LMFBR steam generator. Pt. 1; Sound attenuation due to bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.)

    1994-03-01

    In the steam generators (SG) of LMFBR, it is necessary to detect the leakage of water from tubes of heat exchanger as soon as leakage is occurred. The active acoustic detection method has drawn general interests owing to its short response time and reduction of the influence of background noise. In this paper, in order to study the applicability of active acoustic method for detection of water leakage in the SG, the sound attenuation characteristics due to bubbles are investigated under various bubble conditions and emitted sound conditions. Furthermore, using SG sector model, sound attenuation characteristics due to injection of bubbles are studied. As a result, it is clarified that the sound attenuation due to bubbles varies dependent upon size of bubbles, void fraction and thickness of bubble layer, that the attenuation of sound reaches maximum when bubbles resonate with the emitted frequency. The sound attenuation due to bubbles in the SG model attenuates immediately upon injection of bubbles, and sound attenuation depends upon bubble size as well as void fraction. (author).

  12. Adjusting the Danish industrial relations system after Laval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    labour market (for detailed descriptions of the Laval case and the ’Laval-quartet’ see Ahlberg et al., 2006; Bücker and Warneck, 2010). The Laval ruling in particular, but also the Viking, Rüffert and Luxembourg rulings have made scholars question the durability of the Nordic industrial relations model...... and scholars have even pointed to an erosion of the model (see e.g. Woolfson et al., 2013; Sippola, 2012; Thornqvist, 2011; Woolfson et al., 2010). But much of the sceptic analyses refers to the Swedish case, where the situation seems more uncertain. However, this article shows that the Danish industrial...... relations system has been re-calibrated, rather than eroded, to absorb the new conditions following the Laval-quartet. This re-calibration has happened through judicial and political adjustments, much of which has had an explicit neo-corporatist nature, where the position of the labour market organisations...

  13. Alternative power supply systems for remote industrial customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamova, N. V.; Khalyasmaa, A. I.; Eroshenko, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    The paper addresses the problem of alternative power supply of remote industrial clusters with renewable electric energy generation. As a result of different technologies comparison, consideration is given to wind energy application. The authors present a methodology of mean expected wind generation output calculation, based on Weibull distribution, which provides an effective express-tool for preliminary assessment of required installed generation capacity. The case study is based on real data including database of meteorological information, relief characteristics, power system topology etc. Wind generation feasibility estimation for a specific territory is followed by power flow calculations using Monte Carlo methodology. Finally, the paper provides a set of recommendations to ensure safe and reliable power supply for the final customers and, subsequently, to provide sustainable development of the regions, located far from megalopolises and industrial centres.

  14. The need for simulation in complex industrial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboura Khalid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the concept of simulation and its application in the resolution of problems in complex industrial systems. Most problems of serious scale, be it an inventory problem, a production and distribution problem, a management of resources or process improvement, all real world problems require a mix of generic, data algorithmic and Ad-hoc solutions making the best of available information. We describe two projects in which analytical solutions were applied or contemplated. The first case study uses linear programming in the optimal allocation of advertising resources by a major internet service provider. The second study, in a series of projects, analyses options for the expansion of the production and distribution network of mining products, as part of a sensitive strategic business review. Using the examples, we make the case for the need of simulation in complex industrial problems where analytical solutions may be attempted but where the size and complexity of the problem forces a Monte Carlo approach.

  15. 纸机干燥部蒸汽冷凝水系统热力平衡计算%Thermodynamic Energy Balance Calculation for Steam and Condensate System of Paper Machine Drier Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤伟; 李蕊

    2011-01-01

    通过分析目前纸机干燥部蒸汽冷凝水热力系统中常用的三段供汽和热泵供汽各自存在的问题,提出了一种新的方案——三段供汽和热泵供汽相结合,并且以一个五叠网涂布白纸板机实际生产工艺条件为例,详细地对系统中的蒸汽和冷凝水的热值进行了计算,以此说明新的蒸汽冷凝水热力系统方案在节能上的优越性、%Based on the analysis of advantages and disadvantages of three-stage steam supply and heat pump steam supply, this article proposed a new kind program of thermal control system of steam and condensate system in drier sectionin of the coated white paperboard machine, with five fold wires forming end, a detailed thermodynamic energy balance calculation process was calculated as an example of the new steam condensate on the heating system in energy-saving advantages of the program to promote the program in practice and further applications.

  16. Temperature control of a steam generator by means of an hybrid system PID-RLC; Control de las temperaturas de un generador de vapor mediante un sistema hibrido PID-RLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares Gonzalez, Daniel; Garcia Mendoza, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    A description is made of the design and evaluation of an hybrid control system, formed by a quadratic gaussian linear regulator (QLR) and proportional integral derivative (PID) type regulators. This scheme is used to control the reheater and secondary superheater steam temperatures of a steam generator model with a maximum capacity of 2,150,000 pounds per hour. Once applied to the model of a 300 MW steam power plant, this system showed better results than the traditional schemes and inclusively better than some modern control schemes. This fact characterizes it as a high potential system to be applied to steam power plants. [Espanol] Se describe el diseno y la evaluacion de un sistema de control hibrido, formado por un regulador lineal cuadratico gaussiano (RLC) y reguladores tipo proporcional integral derivativo (PID). Este esquema se utiliza para controlar las temperaturas de vapor del recalentador y sobrecalentador secundario del modelo de un generador de vapor con capacidad maxima de 2,150,000 libras por hora. Una vez aplicado al modelo de una unidad termoelectrica de 300 MW, este sistema produjo mejores resultados que los esquemas tradicionales e incluso mejores que algunos esquemas de control moderno. Esto lo caracteriza como un sistema con un alto potencial para aplicarse a unidades termoelectricas.

  17. Survey of creep damage in a T-joint from a retired steam pipe system; Kartlaeggning av krypskador i ett T-stycke fraan ett utrangerat aangnaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan

    2009-06-15

    Unexpected failures and cracking have recently occurred in steam piping by creep although the service temperatures have been significantly below the limit temperature for creep rupture. Characterisation of such damage, mapping of the presence in Swedish plants and better knowledge of the presumptions for the phenomenon have been received in previous Vaermeforsk projects. A steam pipe system that never had been inspected or tested with respect to creep was replica tested at a number of test positions. The steam data was 450 deg C and 65 bars and the age was 35 years of almost continuous operation. Extensive creep damage was found in one T-joint. This component was the object of interest in the present project. Metallographic investigations were carried out by cutting the T-joint into sections for through thickness examinations of possible creep damage as well as characterisation of the microstructure. Ten sections were selected at different positions of four welds that the T-joint covered. In addition to the characterisation by means of creep damage and possible microstructure degradation or other anomalies the purpose of the investigation was to find out if the replica testing was a conservative method or not. Other expectations on the project were to gain additional knowledge of the creep phenomena's below the limit temperature and a verification of the computation models for crack propagation that were used in the previous Vaermeforsk projects in the area. Nine chemical analyses were performed on all different parent and weld metals of the T-joints. Most analyses resulted in a composition close to the nominal one, that is 13CrMo4-4 steel, the most frequently used heat resistant steel in steam piping for steam temperatures around the limit temperature in Sweden. The parent metal in which the creep cracks were found, however, had a composition that corresponds to 0,5Cr0,6Mo0,3V steel, a low alloy steel that is liable to cracking. Furthermore the branch part of

  18. Experimental research of heterogeneous nuclei in superheated steam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoš Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile steam expansion chamber has been developed to investigate experimentally homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation processes in steam, both in the laboratory and at power plants using the steam withdrawn from the steam turbine. The purpose of the device is to provide new insight into the physics of nonequilibrium wet steam formation, which is one of the factors limiting the efficiency and reliability of steam turbines. The expanded steam or a mixture of steam with a non-condensable gas rapidly expands in the expansion chamber. Due to adiabatic cooling, the temperature drops below the dew point of the steam at a given pressure. When reaching a sufficiently high supersaturation, droplets are nucleated. By tuning the supersaturation in the so-called nucleation pulse, particles of various size ranges can be activated. This fact is used in the present study to measure the aerosol particles present in the air. Homogeneous nucleation was negligible in this case. The experiment demonstrates the functionality of the device, data acquisition system and data evaluation methods.

  19. Experimental research of heterogeneous nuclei in superheated steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoš, Ondřej; Kolovratník, Michal; Šmíd, Bohuslav; Hrubý, Jan

    2016-03-01

    A mobile steam expansion chamber has been developed to investigate experimentally homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation processes in steam, both in the laboratory and at power plants using the steam withdrawn from the steam turbine. The purpose of the device is to provide new insight into the physics of nonequilibrium wet steam formation, which is one of the factors limiting the efficiency and reliability of steam turbines. The expanded steam or a mixture of steam with a non-condensable gas rapidly expands in the expansion chamber. Due to adiabatic cooling, the temperature drops below the dew point of the steam at a given pressure. When reaching a sufficiently high supersaturation, droplets are nucleated. By tuning the supersaturation in the so-called nucleation pulse, particles of various size ranges can be activated. This fact is used in the present study to measure the aerosol particles present in the air. Homogeneous nucleation was negligible in this case. The experiment demonstrates the functionality of the device, data acquisition system and data evaluation methods.

  20. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Development of sustainable processes to produce bio-based compounds is necessary due to the severe environmental problems caused by the use of fossil resources. Metabolic engineering can facilitate the development of highly efficient cell factories to produce these compounds from renewable resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Systems of attitudes towards production in the pork industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia; Veflen Olsen, Nina

    2012-01-01

    , understanding them as embedded into a wider attitude system that consists of attitudes towards objects of different abstraction levels, ranging from personal value orientations over general socio-political attitudes to evaluations of specific characteristics of agricultural production systems. It is assumed...... production systems was modelled. The analysis was based on data from a cross-national survey involving 1931 participants from Belgium, Denmark, Germany and Poland. The survey questionnaire contained measures of personal value orientations and attitudes towards environment and nature, industrial food...... search algorithms and structural equation models. The results suggest that evaluative judgments of the importance of pork production system attributes are generated in a schematic manner, driven by personal value orientations. The effect of personal value orientations was strong and largely unmediated...

  2. Reliability analysis of two unit parallel repairable industrial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Kumar Kakkar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present a reliability and profit analysis of a two-dissimilar parallel unit system under the assumption that operative unit cannot fail after post repair inspection and replacement and there is only one repair facility. Failure and repair times of each unit are assumed to be uncorrelated. Using regenerative point technique various reliability characteristics are obtained which are useful to system designers and industrial managers. Graphical behaviors of mean time to system failure (MTSF and profit function have also been studied. In this paper, some important measures of reliability characteristics of a two non-identical unit standby system model with repair, inspection and post repair are obtained using regenerative point technique.

  3. Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

    2008-07-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

  4. Social management in traditional, industrial and post-industrial society: the prospects for management systems development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Mukhametzhanova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to social management development at different stages of society's evolution - traditional, industrial and post-industrial. The historical types of social management are highlighted.

  5. Biogas systems for sisal and other agro-industrial residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Danish Technological Inst., Section for Biotechnology, Taastrup (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Most of the East-African agro-industries are generating very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. In the East-African Region the most important of these crops are: Sisal, Sugar, Coffee, Cashew nuts and Pineapple. In other 3. world countries, Palm oil and Cassava (Tapioca starch) processing are main producers of organic waste products. Moreover, large quantities of organic residues are generated from other food processing activities like breweries, consumption of bananas etc. The following pages give examples of setups and system designs of anaerobic treatment systems for some of the residues mentioned above. When considering anaerobic treatment of sisal residues, which constitutes the main agro-industrial biomass resource in Tanzania, two major issues should be considered: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; And optionally, potential methods for pre-treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield. The sisal liquid residues are degraded very fast and efficiently in UASB systems. At COD loading rates less than 11 kg COD/m{sup 3} x day, the reduction in organic matter is more than 90% and methane yields obtained are between 373 and 377 ml CH{sub 4}/g COD reduced. The treatment of sisal solid residues in CSTR systems has been examined both at mesophilic (37 deg. C) and thermophilic temperatures (55 deg. C.). (EG)

  6. HACCP and quality system in the food processing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turubatović Lazar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points is an indispensable contemporary system of process control in the food processing industry. In its original meaning this control procedure includes hazard analysis and identification of the points in the production process where the product contamination is reasonably likely to occur resulting in an unsafe product. At the critical points the control of the production process should be severer in order to eliminate or reduce the product safety risks. The aim of implementing a quality management system being quality management, according to the standards of the ISO 9000 series, the formulation of a product that meets "the requirements stated or implied", where the implied requirements refer to the prescribed quality requirements, which, in the food industry above all, comprises safety, it is necessary to build HACCP into the quality system. The application of HACCP principles when introducing a quality system should be extended to those parts of the production process in which the required quality of the product may be at risk.

  7. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) 1999 Industry Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, John; Follen, Greg; Naiman, Cynthia; Evans, Austin

    2000-01-01

    The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia, and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective, high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners in the development effort and the actions taken over the past year to respond to that feedback. The NPSS development was supported in FY99 by the High Performance Computing and Communications Program.

  8. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance and inspection. Frames, decks, plates, tailpieces, pedestals, and braces shall be maintained in a safe and... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section...

  9. Use of a commercial household steam cleaning system to decontaminate beef and hog carcasses processed by four small or very small meat processing plants in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Suvang; Reynolds, A Estes; Chen, Jinru

    2007-03-01

    Small and very small meat-processing facilities in the United States are in need of a pathogen reduction technology that would be both effective and economical. In the present study, the effectiveness of a commercial household steam cleaner for reducing naturally occurring bacterial populations on freshly slaughtered beef and hog carcasses was evaluated in four small or very small meat-processing plants. Three anatomical sites on the right half of each carcass were exposed to a 60-s steam treatment, and the corresponding left half of the carcass remained untreated. Samples were collected from 72 beef and 72 hog carcasses before, immediately after, and 24 h after the steam treatment. The mean populations of total aerobes, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae recovered from three anatomical sites on the beef carcasses were 1.88, 1.89, and 1.36 log CFU/cm2, respectively, before the steam treatment, 1.00, 0.71, and 0.52 log CFU/cm2, respectively, immediately after the steam treatment, and 1.10, 0.95, and 0.50 log CFU/cm2, respectively, 24 h after the steam treatment. On hog carcasses, the mean populations of total aerobes, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae recovered from the three anatomical sites were 2.50, 2.41, and 1.88 log CFU/cm2, respectively, before the steam treatment, 0.50, 0.94, and 0.21 log CFU/cm2, respectively, immediately after the steam treatment, and 0.91, 1.56, and 0.44 log CFU/cm2, respectively, 24 h after the steam treatment. The steam treatment significantly reduced the total aerobes, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae at all three anatomical locations on both types of carcasses (P steam treatment was midline > neck > rump for beef carcasses and belly > jowl > ham for hog carcasses except for the total coliform counts at the midline and neck areas on the beef carcasses. Of the 144 carcasses evaluated, 5 (3.47%) were positive for Salmonella before steam treatment, but all carcasses tested negative for Salmonella after the treatment. Results indicate that

  10. Experience gained from the development and results from tests of the equipment of the Kalinin NPP Unit 4 regeneration and intermediate steam separation and reheating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Ermolov, V. F.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Nikolaenkova, E. K.; Sintsova, T. G.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Esin, S. B.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Golubev, E. A.; Bik, S. P.; Tren'kin, V. B.

    2014-06-01

    The equipment of the Kalinin NPP Unit 4 regeneration, intermediate separation, and steam reheating (ISSR) systems is described and the results of their static and dynamic tests are presented. It was shown from an analysis of test results that the equipment of the regeneration and ISSR systems produce the design thermal and hydraulic characteristics in static and dynamic modes of its operation. Specialists of the Central boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association have developed procedures and computer programs for calculating the system of direct-contact horizontal low-pressure heaters (connected according to the gravity circuit arrangement jointly with the second-stage electrically-driven condensate pumps) and the ISSR system, the results of which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The drawbacks of the layout solutions due to which cavitation failure of the pumps may occur are considered. Technical solutions aimed at securing stable operation of the equipment of regeneration and ISSR systems are proposed. The process arrangement for heating the chamber-type high-pressure heaters adopted at the Kalinin NPP is analyzed. The version of this circuit developed at the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association that allows the heating rate equal to 1°C/min to be obtained is proposed.

  11. Healthcare systems, the State, and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ignacio José Godinho

    2016-11-03

    This article discusses the relations between healthcare systems and the pharmaceutical industry, focusing on state support for pharmaceutical innovation. The study highlights the experiences of the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany, developed countries and paradigms of modern health systems (liberal, universal, and corporatist), in addition to Japan, a case of successful catching up. The study also emphasizes the experiences of China, India, and Brazil, large developing countries that have tried different catching up strategies, with diverse histories and profiles in their healthcare systems and pharmaceutical industries. Finally, with a focus on state forms of support for health research, the article addresses the mechanisms for linkage between health systems and the pharmaceutical industry, evaluating the possibilities of Brazil strengthening a virtuous interaction, favoring the expansion and consolidation of the Brazilian health system - universal but segmented ‒ and the affirmation of the innovative national pharmaceutical industry. Resumo: O artigo discute as relações entre os sistemas de saúde e a indústria farmacêutica, concentrando-se no apoio do Estado à inovação farmacêutica. Salienta as trajetórias dos Estados Unidos, Reino Unido e Alemanha, países desenvolvidos, paradigmáticos dos modernos sistemas de saúde (liberais, universais e corporativos), além do Japão, um caso de emparelhamento bem-sucedido. Também enfatiza as trajetórias de China, Índia e Brasil, países em desenvolvimento, extensos, que experimentaram diferentes estratégias de emparelhamento, dispondo de sistemas de saúde e indústrias farmacêuticas com trajetórias e perfis diversos. Finalmente, com foco nas formas estatais de apoio à pesquisa em saúde, considera os mecanismos de conexão entre os sistemas de saúde e a indústria farmacêutica, avaliando as possibilidades, no Brasil, de fortalecer uma interação virtuosa que favoreça a expansão e

  12. An integrated approach to steam condensation studies inside reactor containments: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Mahesh Kumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, 208016 (India); Khandekar, Sameer, E-mail: samkhan@iitk.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, 208016 (India); Sharma, Pavan K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Occurrence of severe accidents, such as the Fukushima incident in 2011, is unlikely with a probability of 10{sup −5} per reactor per year. However, such kinds of accidents have serious consequences on both, short term as well as on long term public health, environment and energy policy and security. They also adversely affect the progress of nuclear power industry. Thus, despite such a low probability of occurrence, a need arises to review the safety standards of nuclear power plants, especially in the light of the Fukushima accident. Apart from other systems, a review of thermal-hydraulics and safety system for the reactor containment is vital, as it is the last barrier to radioactive leakage. Main threats to the containment integrity include over-pressurization, not only due to steam alone, but its coupling with the possibility of local hydrogen combustion, depending on the local mixture composition of steam-air-hydrogens. It must be emphasized that steam condensation rate affects the local mixture composition and presence of hydrogen significantly deteriorates the condensation rate. This intrinsic coupling needs to be understood. In this paper, steam condensation and related issues, including basics of condensation, modeling approaches, parameters affecting condensation and experiments performed (in both separate effect and integral test facilities) are critically reviewed, in the light of coupled issues of hydrogen transport and combustion. Such studies are necessary for correlation development and/or to find out the local distribution of steam-hydrogen-air mixture within the containment to locate the possible hydrogen combustion location(s) and hence, deployment of active/passive safety systems. In addition, it is important that future studies, both experimental and numerical modeling, focus on the coupled nature of the problem in a comprehensive manner for ensuring long term safety.

  13. Application of solar energy for the generation and supply of industrial-process low-to intermediate-pressure steam ranging from 300/sup 0/F-550/sup 0/F (high-temperature steam). Final report, September 30, 1978-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteo, M.; Kull, J.; Luddy, W.; Youngblood, S.

    1980-12-01

    A detailed design was developed for a solar industrial process heat system to be installed at the ERGON, Inc. Bulk Oil Storage Terminal in Mobile, Alabama. The 1874 m/sup 2/ (20160 ft/sup 2/) solar energy collector field will generate industrial process heat at temperatures ranging from 150 to 290/sup 0/C (300 to 550/sup 0/F). The heat will be used to reduce the viscosity of stored No. 6 fuel oil, making it easier to pump from storage to transport tankers. Heat transfer oil is circulated in a closed system, absorbing heat in the collector field and delivering it through immersed heat exchangers to the stored fuel oil. The solar energy system will provide approximately 44 percent of the process heat required.

  14. Maury Nussbaum reappointed as Hal G. Prillaman Professor Fellow in Industrial and Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Maury Nussbaum, professor of industrial and systems engineering in the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, has been reappointed as the Hal G. Prillaman Professor Fellow in Industrial and Systems Engineering by the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors.

  15. Brian M. Kleiner receives Ralph H. Bogle Professor Fellowship in Industrial and Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Brian M. Kleiner, professor of industrial and systems engineering in the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, has been named the Ralph H. Bogle Professor Fellow in Industrial and Systems Engineering by the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors.

  16. Global Quota System and China's Textile and Clothing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Song

    2006-01-01

    By the middle of 2005, many Chinese textile and clothing enterprises were unable to continue business. Because of the safeguard actions invoked by WTO member countries, especially the USA, the EU and some developing countries, such as Turkey and Mexico, a stable and predictable overseas market no longer exists for export-oriented Chinese firms. It had actually been predicted that China would be the big winner after the elimination of the global quota system on 1 January 2005. What has happened to China's textile and clothing industries? What are the prospects for them over the next few years? Using a partial equilibrium analysis framework, this paper finds that China was the big loser under the quota system before 2005, and that China will be the big loser once again after the ending of that system.

  17. Entry Level Systems Analysts: What Does the Industry Want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Grant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the skill sets necessary for entry level systems analysts. Towards this end, the study combines two sources of data, namely, a content analysis of 200 systems analysts’ online job advertisements and a survey of 20 senior Information Systems (IS professionals. Based on Chi-square tests, the results reveal that most employers prefer entry level systems analysts with an undergraduate Computer Science degree. Furthermore, most of the employers prefer entry level systems analysts to have some years of experience as well as industry certifications. The results also reveal that there is a higher preference for entry level systems analysts who have non-technical and people skills (e.g., problem solving and oral communication. The empirical results from this study will inform IS educators as they develop future systems analysts. Additionally, the results will be useful to the aspiring systems analysts who need to make sure that they have the necessary job skills before graduating and entering the labor market.

  18. Self-evaluation System for Low carbon Industrial Park--A Case Study of TEDA Industrial Park in Tianjin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenyan, W.; Fanghua, H.; Ying, C.; Ouyang, W.; Yuan, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Massive fossil fuel burning caused by industrialization development is one major reason of global climate change. After Copenhagen climate summit, the studies of low-carbon city gain attentions from many countries. On 25th Nov. 2009, the State Council executive meeting announced that by 2020 China will reduce the carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40% to 45% compared with the level of 2005. Industrial Park as an important part of city, has developed rapidly in recent years, and turns into a key element and an alternative mechanism to achieve emission reduction target. Thus, establishing a low carbon development model for industrial park is one of the most effective ways to build sustainable low carbon cities. By adopting the self-evaluation system of low carbon industrial park, this research aims to summarize the low carbon concept in industrial park practice. According to The Guide for Low Carbon Industrial Development Zones, the quantitative evaluation system is divided into 4 separate categories with 23 different quantitative indicators. The 4 categories include: 1) energy and GHG management (weigh 60%), 2) circular economy and environmental protection (weigh 15%), 3) administration and incentive mechanisms of industrial parks (weigh 15%), and 4) planning and urban forms (weigh 10%). By going through the necessary stages and by leading continuous improvements low carbon development goals can be achieved. Tianjin TEDA industrial park is selected as one case study to conduct an assessment on TEDA low-carbon development condition. Tianjin TEDA Industrial Park is already an ecological demonstration industrial park in China, with good foundations on environmental protection, resource recycling, etc. Based on the self-evaluation system, the indicators, such as the energy using efficiency and the degree of land intensive utilization, are also analyzed and assessed. Through field survey and data collection, in accordance with the quantitative self

  19. Evaluation of food safety management systems in Serbian dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tomašević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports incentives, costs, difficulties and benefits of food safety management systems implementation in the Serbian dairy industry. The survey involved 27 food business operators with the national milk and dairy market share of 65 %. Almost two thirds of the assessed dairy producers (70.4 % claimed that they had a fully operational and certified HACCP system in place, while 29.6 % implemented HACCP, but had no third party certification. ISO 22000 was implemented and certified in 29.6 % of the companies, while only 11.1 % had implemented and certified IFS standard. The most important incentive for implementing food safety management systems for Serbian dairy producers was to increase and improve safety and quality of dairy products. The cost of product investigation/analysis and hiring external consultants were related to the initial set-up of food safety management system with the greatest importance. Serbian dairy industry was not greatly concerned by the financial side of implementing food safety management systems due to the fact that majority of prerequisite programmes were in place and regularly used by almost 100 % of the producers surveyed. The presence of competency gap between the generic knowledge for manufacturing food products and the knowledge necessary to develop and implement food safety management systems was confirmed, despite the fact that 58.8 % of Serbian dairy managers had university level of education. Our study brings about the innovation emphasizing the attitudes and the motivation of the food production staff as the most important barrier for the development and implementation of HACCP. The most important identified benefit was increased safety of dairy products with the mean rank scores of 6.85. The increased customer confidence and working discipline of staff employed in food processing were also found as important benefits of implementing/operating HACCP. The study shows that the level of HACCP

  20. Impact of flow induced vibration acoustic loads on the design of the Laguna Verde Unit 2 steam dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, D. R.; Wellstein, L. F.; Theuret, R. C.; Han, Y.; Rajakumar, C. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Amador C, C.; Sosa F, W., E-mail: forsytdr@westinghouse.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Km 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, 91680 Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Industry experience with Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) has shown that increasing the steam flow through the main steam lines (MSLs) to implement an extended power up rate (EPU) may lead to amplified acoustic loads on the steam dryer, which may negatively affect the structural integrity of the component. The source of these acoustic loads has been found to be acoustic resonance of the side branches on the MSLs, specifically, coupling of the vortex shedding frequency and natural acoustic frequency of safety relief valves (SRVs). The resonance that results from this coupling can contribute significant acoustic energy into the MSL system, which may propagate upstream into the reactor pressure vessel steam dome and drive structural vibration of steam dryer components. This can lead to high-cycle fatigue issues. Lock-in between the vortex shedding frequency and SRV natural frequency, as well as the ability for acoustic energy to propagate into the MSL system, are a function of many things, including the plant operating conditions, geometry of the MSL/SRV junction, and placement of SRVs with respect to each other on the MSLs. Comision Federal de Electricidad and Westinghouse designed, fabricated, and installed acoustic side branches (ASBs) on the MSLs which effectively act in the system as an energy absorber, where the acoustic standing wave generated in the side-branch is absorbed and dissipated inside the ASB. These ASBs have been very successful in reducing the amount of acoustic energy which propagates into the steam dome. In addition, modifications to the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 steam dryer have been completed to reduce the stress levels in critical locations in the dryer. The objective of this paper is to describe the acoustic side branch concept and the design iterative processes that were undertaken at Laguna Verde Unit 2 to achieve a steam dryer design that meets the guidelines of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure

  1. 49 CFR 230.108 - Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks. 230.108 Section 230.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.108 Steam locomotive leading...

  2. Steam engines. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning steam engines. The patents detail water spray injecter system, internal combustion, reaction chamber, valveless bi-chamber, multicylinder, steam recovery and recompression, sound simulator, oscillating, and rotary steam engines. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Plasma-chemical Synthesis and Regeneration of Catalysts for CH4 Steam Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We carried out experimental studies concerning the plasma-chemical synthesis(PCS) of a catalyst for CH4 steam conversion and designed and built the equipment for PCS and/ or regeneration of spent catalyst for CH4 steam conversion. Under the conditions of an electric-arc low-temperature plasma (LTP), we studied the Ni-O-Al system and performed a comprehensive physicochemical analysis of the ultradispersed product obtained. It's the first time worldwide when the conditions of plasma-chemical synthesis and/ or regeneration of CH4 steam conversion catalysts under the conditions of electric-arc LTP are investigated depending on the plasma-chemical process (PCP) parameters and the plasma-chemical reactor (PCP) type (with CW-"cold walls" Tw = 500 K or WW-"warm walls" Tw = 1500 K), samples with a specific surface of 120 m2/g are obtained. Plasma-chemically synthesized and/ or regenerated samples have a homogenous chemical composition similar to that the Girdller (USA) conventional industrial catalyst. It is empirically established that the optimal temperature range in PCR for synthesis of samples with maximum dispersity is (2000 ~ 3000) K. Results from investigation on dynamics and kinetics of plasma-chemically synthesized and / or regenerated catalysts for CH4 steam conversion show that under LTP conditions premises for the formation of catalyst compositions are established. They are reduced 3 to 4 times faster than their industrial analogues. High specific surface of the samples, homogenous composition, high rate of active chemical surface formed by reduction, faulty crystal lattice of catalytically active phases and mostly high catalytic activity make them a potential competitor with their industrial analogues for their probable production in catalyst shops.

  4. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiaguo; Lu, Yonggi; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud

    2011-11-22

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  5. In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of methanol steam reforming on Cu/ZnO catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Cu/ZnO (alumina) catalysts have found industrial use for the low-temperature methanol synthesis, for the low-temperature water-gas shift reaction, and for the steam reforming of methanol. An important application could be the onboard production of hydrogen for fuel cell application. It is the proposed synergistic effect in the binary copper/zinc oxide that makes this system interesting for investigation. The knowledge of the relationship between the catalytic activity, surface structure, a...

  6. Analysis of Thermo Dynamic System and Thermo Ecomony for Nuclear Steam Turbine%核电汽轮机热力系统及热经济性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀润景

    2016-01-01

    Based on simplification of outlet mix water enthalpy for collection heater and steam enthalpy in each stage of reheater, this paper established heat balance matrix model ,which can be applied for thermo system calculation of nuclear steam turbine .Based on the adjustment of calculation method which used to be applied for thermal power steam turbine ,this paper established a method which can be applied for nuclear turbine .The practical applicability of both the model and method is verified by the calculation of AP 1000 nuclear steam turbine .%对疏水汇集式加热器出口水焓值和再热器各阶段蒸汽焓值计算进行了简化处理,建立了适用于压水堆核电汽轮机热力系统计算的热平衡矩阵模型;对适用于火电再热机组的功率、热耗变化率计算方法进行了调整,建立了适合核电汽轮机的计算方法;利用AP 1000核电汽轮机作为算例,验证了上述方法的实用性。

  7. Improving Process Heating System Performance v3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-11

    Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry is a development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) and the Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA). The AMO and IHEA undertook this project as part of an series of sourcebook publications developed by AMO on energy-consuming industrial systems, and opportunities to improve performance. Other topics in this series include compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, steam systems, and motors and drives

  8. IMPROVEMENT OF SYSTEMS OF TECHNICAL WATER SUPPLY WITH COOLING TOWERS FOR STEAM POWER PLANTS TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS PERFECTION. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Olpinskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the temperature of cooling water and increase the efficiency of use of power resources the main directions of modernization of systems of technical water supply with cooling towers at steam power plants are presented. The problems of operation of irrigation systems and water distribution systems of cooling towers are reviewed. The design of heat and mass transfer devices, their shortcomings and the impact on the cooling ability of the cooling tower are also under analysis. The use of droplet heat and mass transfer device based on the lattice polypropylene virtually eliminates the shortcomings of the film and droplet-film heat and mass transfer devices of the cooling tower, increasing lifetime, and improving the reliability and efficiency of the operation of the main equipment of thermal power plants. The design of the water distribution devices of cooling towers is also considered. It is noted that the most effective are water-spattering low-pressure nozzles made of polypropylene that provides uniform dispersion of water and are of a high reliability and durability.

  9. 汽轮机润滑油系统进水的治理%Management of water power plant steam turbine lubricating oil system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炜

    2014-01-01

    Combined with the moisture content of steam turbine lubricating oil exceed the standard phenomenon during the operation of the power plant, expounds the harm of water turbine lubricating oil system and cause water causes, introduces the reason of turbine shaft seal leakage, proposed to prevent water in lube oil system and reduce the lubricating oil system measures the moisture content, the favorable effect.%结合本电厂运行过程中出现的汽轮机润滑油水分含量超标现象,阐述了汽轮机润滑油系统进水的危害和引起进水原因,介绍了汽轮机轴封漏气的原因,提出了防止润滑油系统进水和降低润滑油系统中水分含量的具体措施,经过实施后效果良好。

  10. Gamma-ray scatter methods applied to industrial measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holstad, Marie Bueie

    2004-09-01

    Throughout the work presented in this dissertation it has been confirmed that the use of scattered gamma-radiation is a complex but useful tool in industrial measurement science. Scattered radiation has shown to be useful both when traditional measurement principles cannot be used (Chapter 4) and when more information about a system is needed than what is obtained with transmission measurements (Chapter 6). All three main projects (Chapters 4, 5 and 6) confirm that the sensitivity and accuracy of systems based on scattered gamma-radiation depends strongly on the geometry of the setup and that that presence of multiple scattered radiation makes the problems complex. Chapter 4 shows that multiple scattered gamma-radiation can be used for detection of changes in density where the dimensions are too large to use transmitted radiation. There is, however, an upper limit on the thickness of the absorbing medium also when scattered radiation is utilized. As seen in Chapter 5, multiple scattered gamma-radiation can in principle also be used in level gauges with very compact measurement geometries. The main challenges are the sensitivity to interfaces between materials with similar densities and low count rate. These challenges could not be overcome for level measurements in gravitational separator tanks. The results presented in Chapter 6 show that it is feasible to combine transmission and scatter measurements to characterize produced water in the oil and gas industry. (Author)

  11. 5 MV 30 mA industrial electron processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Y.; Mizusawa, K.

    1991-05-01

    Industrial electron beam processing systems have been in use in various application fields such as: improving heat resistivity of wire insulation; controlling quality of automobile rubber tires and melt index characteristics of PE foams; and curing paintings or printing inks. Recently, there has come up a need for electron beam with an energy higher than 3 MV in order to disinfect salmonella in chicken meat, to kill bugs in fruits, and to sterilize medical disposables. To meet this need we developed a 5 MV 30 mA electron processing system with an X-ray conversion target. The machine was tested in NHV's plant in Kyoto at continuous operation of full voltage and full current. It proved to be very steady in operation with a high efficiency (as much as 72%). Also, the X-ray target was tested in a continuous run of 5 MV 30 mA (150 kW). It proved to be viable in industrial utilization. This paper introduces the process and the results of the development.

  12. A UAV system for inspection of industrial facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, J.; Burri, M.; Rehder, J.; Leutenegger, S.; Huerzeler, C.; Siegwart, R.

    This work presents a small-scale Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) capable of performing inspection tasks in enclosed industrial environments. Vehicles with such capabilities have the potential to reduce human involvement in hazardous tasks and can minimize facility outage periods. The results presented generalize to UAS exploration tasks in almost any GPS-denied indoor environment. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, results from autonomous flights inside an industrial boiler of a power plant are presented. A lightweight, vision-aided inertial navigation system provides reliable state estimates under difficult environmental conditions typical for such sites. It relies solely on measurements from an on-board MEMS inertial measurement unit and a pair of cameras arranged in a classical stereo configuration. A model-predictive controller allows for efficient trajectory following and enables flight in close proximity to the boiler surface. As a second contribution, we highlight ongoing developments by displaying state estimation and structure recovery results acquired with an integrated visual/inertial sensor that will be employed on future aerial service robotic platforms. A tight integration in hardware facilitates spatial and temporal calibration of the different sensors and thus enables more accurate and robust ego-motion estimates. Comparison with ground truth obtained from a laser tracker shows that such a sensor can provide motion estimates with drift rates of only few centimeters over the period of a typical flight.

  13. QUALITY SYSTEMS IN THE FRESH FRUIT EXPORT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Netterville

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The fresh fruit export industry has traditionally relied heavily on end point inspection to achieve quality. In response to several changes in international markets and concerns over the inability of end point inspection to ensure product safety and quality, many codes of practice and quality standard have been developed specifically for the food industry. This article reviews the principles and practicalities of implementation of the standards which have achieved international recognition. Producers and packers face technical challenges integrating these systems into a holistic management system while this may also present a significant entry barrier for smaller producers who lack the resources and expertise.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die varsvrugteuitvoerbedryf maak tradisioneel gebruik van eindpuntinspeksie vir die handhawing van gehalte. Twyfel oor die doeltreffendheid van hierdie vorm van inspeksie ten opsigte van veiligheid en gehalte in die konteks van internasionale markte het tot gevolg gehad dat verskeie gebruikskodes vir die voedselbedryf tot stand gekom het. Die beginsels en praktiese implementering van hierdie standaarde wat internasionale erkenning geniet, word hierin behandel. Produsente en verpakkers ondervind tegniese uitdagings oor hoe die standaarde in ’n holistiese bestuurstelsel geïntegreer kan word, gesien die problematiek van marktoetrede vir klein produsente sonder kundigheid en voldoende bronne.

  14. Research on Power Plant Steam Boiler Automatic Control System Based on Fuzzy Control%基于模糊控制的电厂蒸汽锅炉自动控制系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继春

    2013-01-01

      针对电厂发电过程中需对蒸汽锅炉进行自动控制的目的,提出了采用模糊控制原理实现蒸汽锅炉压力和温度的自动控制方案。通过深入研究火力发电厂中的蒸汽锅炉的工作循环过程,建立了蒸汽锅炉内部压力和温度的工作模型。文章详细设计了电厂蒸汽锅炉自动控制系统的总体方案,重点研究了模糊控制模块的设计原理和实现方法,给出了模糊控制中的隶属函数和各个主要变量的模糊化过程。最后通过仿真测试,分析了锅炉自动控制系统的工作性能。%Aiming at the automatic control aim in power plant generating electricity, this paper put forward a automatic control scheme steam boiler pressure and temperature, on fuzzy control principle. By further studying the steam boiler circulation process in thermal power plant, it built a steam boiler inner pressure and temperature working model. It design the power plant steam boiler automatic control system overall scheme in detail, focused on the design principle and implementation method, presented the membership function and main variables in the fuzzy process. At last, by simulation test, it analyzed the steam boiler control system working performance.

  15. Study on Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Steam Generation System%抛物槽式太阳能蒸汽发生系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志超; 隋军; 刘启斌; 金红光

    2011-01-01

    针对600m2抛物槽式太阳能试验台,建立了太阳能蒸汽发生系统的数学模型,开展了模拟研究,并验证了集热场模型的正确性.研究了太阳直射辐射、入射角等因素对系统性能的影响,分析了系统动态特性,利用图像分析(EUD)方法分析了系统的能量转化过程.结果表明,系统集热效率在高温段下降程度加剧;集热效率随太阳入射角的增大而越小,入射角由0°变化到40°时,集热效率下降约30%,系统件能提升空间主要在降低光学损失和改善光热转化过程.研究结果将为抛物槽式太阳能集热技术和蒸汽发生系统的设计提供依据.%Based on the experimental devices of the 600 m2 parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) steam generation system, a comprehensive model was developed to predict overall system performance. This model was verified by the experimental data from literature. The effects of direct normal irradiation (DNI), incident angle and operational temperature were analyzed. Energy conversion process was evaluated with the aid of Energy Utilization Diagram (EUD) methodology.The results showed that, the energy efficiency decreased intensely in the high-temperature segment with the increase of the operation temperature; the energy efficiency of the collector dropped about 30%, when the incident angle increased from 0° to 40°. The study also pointed out that the exergy destruction mainly took place in the process of optical loss and optic-thermal conversion. The results will provide a reference for the design of parabolic trough solar collectors and steam generation system.

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING GLOBAL WARMING: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SOLAR COOLING AND SOLAR STEAM GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levent Colak [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Baskent University, Faculty of Engineering, Baglica Campus, Ankara (Turkey); Ali Durmaz [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Gazi University, Faculty of Engineering, Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-09-30

    Energy is the prime source of human activities in all sectors of life. Traditionally fossil fuel has been the primary energy resource. Extensive fossil fuel consumption in almost all human activities led to some undesirable phenomena such as atmospheric and environmental pollutions. Consequently, global warming, greenhouse effect, climate change, ozone layer depletion and acid rain terminologies started to appear in the literature frequently. In this study a comprehensive account of medium temperature solar energy applications, such as solar cooling and solar steam generation, on global warming were discussed. During the summer, the demand for electricity greatly increases because of the extensive use of air-conditioning systems. This is a source of major problems in the country's electricity supply and contributes to an increase of carbon dioxide emissions causing environmental pollution and global warming. On the other hand, vapor compression air conditioning systems have impacts on stratospheric ozone depletion because of the chlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants. The use of solar energy to drive cooling cycles is attractive since the cooling load is roughly in phase with solar energy availability. The main advantages of solar assisted refrigeration systems concern the reduction of peak loads for electricity utilities, the use of zero ozone depletion impact refrigerants, the decreased primary energy consumption and decreased global warming impact. Steam generation is the other most widespread thermal use of solar energy in industrial sectors, especially in textile industry where large amount of steam or hot water is required in dyeing process. Although conventional energy sources consequently have high environmental impacts, solar steam generation can not only be an economical choice but also can reduce the environmental impacts substantially.

  17. Energy optimization in industrial drying systems; Optimizacion energetica en sistemas de secado industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Daniel; Ambriz, Juan Jose; Romero Paredes, Hernando [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The drying of products -meaning the extraction of water or excess humidity down to adequate levels for its conservation and final presentation- demands a large amount of energy, mainly from fuels of fossil origin. Nevertheless, from the standpoint of the energy efficiency, the burning of fuels at very high temperature for using them at a very low temperature, represents an astonishing energy waste, which can be clearly established by means of an energy and exergy balance of these drying installations. In this study the methodology for the energy analysis for industrial drying systems is presented and it is applied to different practical cases. The efficiency of the entire system is evaluated and the losses for each concept, in order to obtain the potential energy saving. [Espanol] El secado de productos, entendido como la extraccion de agua o humedad en exceso, hasta niveles adecuados para su conservacion o presentacion final, demanda una gran cantidad de energeticos, principalmente de origen fosil. No obstante, desde el punto de vista de la eficiencia energetica, el quemar combustible a muy alta temperatura para emplearlos a una muy baja, representa un dispendio energetico impresionante, lo cual puede ser claramente establecido mediante el balance energetico y exergetico de dichas instalaciones de secado. En el presente estudio se presenta la metodologia de analisis energetico de sistemas industriales de secado y se aplica a distintos casos practicos. Se evalua la eficiencia total del sistema y las perdidas por cada concepto con la finalidad de obtener los potenciales de ahorro de energia.

  18. An information system for the building industries: A communication approach based on industrial components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F Cutting-Decelle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the SYDOX/MATCOMP/Xi project, funded by the French Ministry of Industry. The goal of the project was to provide the construction professionals with an on-line aid for component specification and selection at different levels of the construction life cycle. This two years project started in 1997 and involved several partners. This paper describes the main features of the information system: databases, query and communication systems. SYDOX(SYstème de DOnnées compleXes is aimed at defining and demonstrating a prototype to access information about MATerials and COMPonents used in construction, implemented on a WWW server. Though the objective is general, the work was focused on a restricted sub-section of the construction domain. We describe the domain and the scope of the project, the starting point and the lessons learnt from the development of the prototype. We also propose some important ideas on which this research is based.

  19. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton B. Higdon III

    2011-01-07

    Industrial manufacturing in the U.S. accounts for roughly one third of the 98 quadrillion Btu total energy consumption. Motor system losses amount to 1.3 quadrillion Btu, which represents the largest proportional loss of any end-use category, while pumps alone represent over 574 trillion BTU (TBTU) of energy loss each year. The efficiency of machines with moving components is a function of the amount of energy lost to heat because of friction between contacting surfaces. The friction between these interfaces also contributes to downtime and the loss of productivity through component wear and subsequent repair. The production of new replacement parts requires additional energy. Among efforts to reduce energy losses, wear-resistant, low-friction coatings on rotating and sliding components offer a promising approach that is fully compatible with existing equipment and processes. In addition to lubrication, one of the most desirable solutions is to apply a protective coating or surface treatment to rotating or sliding components to reduce their friction coefficients, thereby leading to reduced wear. Historically, a number of materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), titanium nitride (TiN), titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), and tungsten carbide (WC) have been examined as tribological coatings. The primary objective of this project was the development of a variety of thin film nanocoatings, derived from the AlMgB14 system, with a focus on reducing wear and friction in both industrial hydraulics and cutting tool applications. Proof-of-concept studies leading up to this project had shown that the constituent phases, AlMgB14 and TiB2, were capable of producing low-friction coatings by pulsed laser deposition. These coatings combine high hardness with a low friction coefficient, and were shown to substantially reduce wear in laboratory tribology tests. Selection of the two applications was based largely on the concept of improved mechanical interface efficiencies for

  20. Equations for calculating the properties of dissociated steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Gudym, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The equations of state for dissociated steam have been developed in the temperature and pressure ranges of 1250-2300 K and 0.01-10.00 MPa for calculating thermodynamic processes in thermal power units operating on high-temperature steam. These equations are based on the property tables for dissociated steam derived at a reference temperature of 0 K. It is assumed that the initial substance is steam, the dissociation of which—in accordance with the most likely chemical reactions—results in formation of molecules of hydrogen, oxygen, steam, hydroxyl, and atoms of oxygen and hydrogen. Differential thermodynamic correlations, considering a change in the chemical potential and the composition of the mixture, during the steam dissociation are used. A reference temperature of 0.01°C used in the calculation of parameters of nondissociated steam has been adopted to predict processes in thermal power units without matching the reference temperatures and to account for transformation of dissociated steam into its usual form for which there is the international system of equations with the water triple point of 0.01°C taken as the reference. In the investigated region, the deviation of dissociated steam properties from those of nondissociated steam, which increases with decreasing the pressure or increasing the temperature, was determined. For a pressure of 0.02 MPa and a temperature of 2200 K, these deviations are 512 kJ/kg for the enthalpy, 0.2574 kJ/(kg K) for the entropy, and 3.431 kJ/(kg K) for the heat capacity at constant pressure. The maximum deviation of the dissociated steam properties calculated by the developed equations from the handbook values that these equations are based on does not exceed 0.03-0.05%.