WorldWideScience

Sample records for industrial sector evolution

  1. The evolution of the energy demand in France in the industrial, residential and transportation sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information, from 1970 to 2005, on the evolution of the energy intensity (ratio between the primary energy consumption and the gross domestic product in volume) and the actions of energy control for the industrial, residential and transportation sectors. (A.L.B.)

  2. ROMANIAN FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY-EVOLUTIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    OFILEANU DIMI

    2014-01-01

    Footwear industry represents an important sector in national economy. Most of its production goes to export, Romania being the 14th footwear exporter worldwide. The aim of this article is to make an analysis of the evolution of the Romanian footwear industry by presenting the sector’s main indicators, their evolution in the past 20 years and the features of the industry.

  3. Energy consumption in the industrial sector. Evolution and perspectives; Consumo energetico en el sector industrial. Evolucion y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieyra Fernandez, Arturo; Cortes Mendez, Carlos

    1993-12-31

    This article has the purpose of analyzing the main determinants of energy use in the industrial sector, standing out the economical, social and technological implications that determine a specific consumption pattern, departing from which, -as first hand indicators- the efficiency conditions under which this consumption is effected, are evaluated. Likewise, a break-up by branch for the analysis is proposed, taking as a reference point the importance of each one of these in the sector global consumption as well as the available information for each one of them. Finally, the execution of a prospective with an horizon to the year 2005, taking into consideration a macroeconomic scenario, in general, and the potential saving for each sub-sector, in particular, is proposed. [Espanol] El articulo tiene como finalidad analizar los determinantes principales del consumo energetico del sector industrial, destacando las implicaciones de caracter economico, social y tecnologico que conlleva a un patron especifico de consumo, a partir del cual se evaluan - con indicadores de primera mano - las condiciones de eficiencia bajo las cuales se realiza dicho consumo. Asimismo, se propone una desagregacion por rama para el analisis, tomando como punto de referencia la importancia de cada una de estas en el consumo global del sector, asi como la informacion disponible para cada una. Finalmente, se propone un ejercicio de prospectiva con un horizonte hasta el ano 2005 tomando en consideracion un escenario macroeconomico en general y el potencial de ahorro para cada subsector en particular.

  4. Energy consumption in the industrial sector. Evolution and perspectives; Consumo energetico en el sector industrial. Evolucion y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieyra Fernandez, Arturo; Cortes Mendez, Carlos

    1992-12-31

    This article has the purpose of analyzing the main determinants of energy use in the industrial sector, standing out the economical, social and technological implications that determine a specific consumption pattern, departing from which, -as first hand indicators- the efficiency conditions under which this consumption is effected, are evaluated. Likewise, a break-up by branch for the analysis is proposed, taking as a reference point the importance of each one of these in the sector global consumption as well as the available information for each one of them. Finally, the execution of a prospective with an horizon to the year 2005, taking into consideration a macroeconomic scenario, in general, and the potential saving for each sub-sector, in particular, is proposed. [Espanol] El articulo tiene como finalidad analizar los determinantes principales del consumo energetico del sector industrial, destacando las implicaciones de caracter economico, social y tecnologico que conlleva a un patron especifico de consumo, a partir del cual se evaluan - con indicadores de primera mano - las condiciones de eficiencia bajo las cuales se realiza dicho consumo. Asimismo, se propone una desagregacion por rama para el analisis, tomando como punto de referencia la importancia de cada una de estas en el consumo global del sector, asi como la informacion disponible para cada una. Finalmente, se propone un ejercicio de prospectiva con un horizonte hasta el ano 2005 tomando en consideracion un escenario macroeconomico en general y el potencial de ahorro para cada subsector en particular.

  5. The strategic industrial sectors of the green economy: stakes and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, Jean-Paul; Larrieu, Catherine; Griot, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Proposing a transverse analysis and a synthesis, the first part of this voluminous report discusses the evolution of the context since 2009 for the green industry sector, outlines and comments the development stakes for the different sectors, analyses and comments their main evolutions for the last three years, outlines the development potential and perspectives of these activities in France, and proposes an overview of strategic policies implemented in the field of green economy in different countries (USA, Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, China, South Korea). The second part addresses the evolution and perspectives of each sector: energy production from renewable sources (biofuels, biomass, marine energies, wind energy, geothermal energy, solar energy), optimization of natural energy consumption (building with low environmental impact, green chemistry, hydrogen and fuel cells, biomaterials, optimization of industrial processes, smart grids, energy storage, low-carbon vehicles), natural resource life cycle management (CO 2 capture and storage, water, purification and ecologic engineering, metrology and instrumentation, recycling and waste valorization)

  6. Energy economy and industrial ecology in the Brazilian cement sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Schaeffer, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of the Brazilian cement sector: the Brazilian cement main types specification, cement quantities evolution produced in Brazil from 1987 to 1997, energy conservation in the cement production process with additives, energy economy cost estimates from the utilization of additives, and several technologies energy economy cost used in the industrial sector

  7. Evolution of industrial sector electricity demand in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Steven C.

    2005-01-01

    This note is a preliminary investigation into the relationship between the efficiency of electricity utilization in the Costa Rican industrial sector and the competitive pressures generated by the implementation of economic reforms, in particular, the progressive liberalization of international trade, in the years since the debt and economic crisis of the early 1980s. The steady, year-by-year, reduction in the rate of import tariff protection, with only temporary interruptions and reverses, has been the most consistently implemented component of the macroeconomic, trade, and financial sector reforms upon which this country has embarked over the past two decades. The note sheds some light on the nature of the general policy environment that is conductive to an efficient utilization of energy in the productive sectors and to the success of national energy efficiency promotion programs in this and other parts of the world. (Author)

  8. Restructuring the industry sector - the impact on energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, M.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the industrial sector is a factor of major importance in analyzing the evolution of energy intensity or in setting-up realistic development scenarios. A positive influence on the energy intensity value is expected for Romania from the process of restructuring the industry sector towards low energy consumption products. In order to reach this target though, suitable end comprehensive strategies have to become operational without delay, promoting energy efficiency and modern technologies at a nation-wide scale. The benefits of such strategies extend from improvement of the security of supply through environmental protection and reduction of unemployment. (Author)

  9. Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The industrial sector is categorized as related to among others, the provision of technical and engineering services, supply of products, testing and troubleshooting of parts, systems and industrial plants, quality control and assurance as well as manufacturing and processing. A total of 161 entities comprising 47 public agencies and 114 private companies were selected for the study in this sector. The majority of the public agencies, 87 %, operate in Peninsular Malaysia. The remainders were located in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study on both public agencies and private companies are presented in subsequent sections of this chapter. (author)

  10. Current market of industrial bio-products and biofuels, and predictable evolutions by 2015/2030. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    The main objectives of this study were to describe the current status of the energetic and industrial bio-product markets (biofuels, bio-lubricants, biomaterials, papers, cosmetics, and so on), to identify and analyze the evolution perspectives of these new markets on a long and medium term, to define scenarios of evolution for different sectors (agro-industry, energy, organic chemistry), to identify the most promising new markets, and to select the priority agro-industrial sectors

  11. The evolution of the energy demand in France in the industrial, residential and transportation sectors; L'evolution de la demande energetique en France dans les secteurs industriel, residentiel, et des transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document provides information, from 1970 to 2005, on the evolution of the energy intensity (ratio between the primary energy consumption and the gross domestic product in volume) and the actions of energy control for the industrial, residential and transportation sectors. (A.L.B.)

  12. The Pricing Evolution in the Air Transportation Industry. Implication for the Romanian Tourism Sector in the Era of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Marin-Pantelescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The globalization process involves the liberalization of the services and the air transportation industry is responsive to this reality. There is a developing tendency for global alliances and strategies in major airline companies. The globalization implies extending service networks in the whole world. Currently we are witnessing lower prices for domestic and foreign airline flights with benefits for the tourists’ business and leisure activities. The last minute offers and early booking prices provide a win-win situation, for the airline companies on one side and for the customers on the other side. The positive online reviews influence people buying decision because customers are more sensitive than ever to the services prices. Under this condition it is very interesting to see the evolution of pricing in the air transportation industry and the implication for the Romanian tourism sector.

  13. Energy demand analysis in the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillone, B.

    1991-01-01

    This Chapter of the publication is dealing with Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector.Different estimates of energy consumption in Industry taking Thailand as an example is given. Major energy consuming industrial sectors in selected Asian countries are given. Suggestion for the analysis of the energy consumption trends in industry, whether at the overall level or at the sub-sector level (e.g. food) using the conventional approach , through energy/output ratio is given. 4 refs, 7 figs, 13 tabs

  14. Current market of industrial bio-products and biofuels, and predictable evolutions by 2015/2030. Synthesis; Marche actuel des bioproduits industriels et des biocarburants et evolutions previsibles a echeance 2015 / 2030. Synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The main objectives of this study were to describe the current status of the energetic and industrial bio-product markets (biofuels, bio-lubricants, biomaterials, papers, cosmetics, and so on), to identify and analyze the evolution perspectives of these new markets on a long and medium term, to define scenarios of evolution for different sectors (agro-industry, energy, organic chemistry), to identify the most promising new markets, and to select the priority agro-industrial sectors

  15. Patterns of technological innovation and evolution in the energy sector: A patent-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyungpyo; Lee, Sungjoo

    2013-01-01

    Given the ever-increasing pace and complexity of technological innovation in the energy sector, monitoring technological changes has become of strategic importance. One of the most common techniques for technology monitoring is patent analysis, which enables the identification of technological trends over time. However, few previous studies have carried out patent analysis in the energy sector. This study aims to explore patterns of innovation and of evolution in energy technologies, particularly focusing on similarities and differences across technologies. For this purpose, we first defined the relevant energy technologies and extracted the associated patent data from the United States Patents and Trademark Office (USPTO) and then adopted six patent indices and developed six patent maps to analyze their innovation characteristics. We then clustered energy technologies with similar characteristics, so defining innovation categories, and analyzed the changes in these characteristics over time to define their evolution categories. As one of the few attempts to investigate the overall trends in the energy sector's innovation and evolution, this study is expected to help develop an in-depth understanding of the energy industry, which will be useful in establishing technology strategies and policy in this rapidly changing sector. - Highlights: • We examined the patterns of innovation and evolution of energy technologies. • Six types of innovation patterns such as “competitive” or “mature” were identified. • Six types of evolution patterns such as “towards closed innovation” were identified. • The patterns of evolution were related to the patterns of innovation

  16. Nuclear industry: a young sector of excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varin, P.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear industry is the 3. industrial sector in France and is the good reason why the French energy mix is largely carbon-free. The medium term challenges that faces nuclear industry in this country is first to succeed the extensive refit of nuclear power plants with a view on getting the extension of their operating life and secondly to recruit the skilled staff nuclear industry needs. About 8000 jobs dispatched in the 2500 enterprises that forms the nuclear sector will be available each year up to 2020. The age pyramid shows that numerous retirements are expected in the years to come so the issue of skill and knowledge transfer is looming. 25% of recruitment will be made on the basis of work-study contracts particularly for technical jobs. Concerning recruitment, the nuclear sector is competing with other high-tech sectors like aeronautics or the automobile sector, which make things harder. The image that nuclear industry wants to promote of itself is the image of a young, modern, high-tech industry that appeared less than 50 years ago and whose main purpose is to provide a carbon-free electricity to an avid world. (A.C.)

  17. Universal Industrial Solution and Industrial Sectors Module for Pulp and Paper Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased concerns over air pollution and its detrimental effects on health have called for more stringent emission reduction strategies in the industrial sector. However, stringent regulatory policies can potentially adversely affect domestic and international trade. Therefore E...

  18. Energy and Exergy Analyses of the Danish Industry Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the Danish industry is presented in this paper using the energy and exergy methods. For the 22 most energy-intensive process industries, which represent about 80% of the total primary energy use of the industrial sector, detailed end-use models were created and analysed...... of using electricity and district heat in the industry is shown. The exergy efficiencies for each process industry were found to be in the range of 12% to 56% in 2012. However variations in the efficiencies within the sectors for individual process industries occur, underlining the need for detailed......, by determining the sectors losses and exergy destruction. In addition the importance of applying a system analysis is shown, which corrects the site efficiencies for electricity and district heating use. The use of 22 industries,further highlights differences amongst industries belonging to the same sector....

  19. The gas market and sector in France. Situation and predictions 2018 - Sector and competitive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Through a detailed analysis of market determining factors, of evolutions of supply and demand, and of major events in firms life, this set of two reports proposes an analysis of the recent situation of the gas sector and of the evolutions of the competitive game. The first report on situation and predictions which is updated three times a year, proposes a synthesis on the consequences of the evolution of the economic environment, on major trends noticed for the sector, and on predictable evolutions. It proposes the most recent predictions regarding natural gas consumption in France and the turnover of the gas sector. It highlights recent events for companies of the sector: takeovers, investments, restructuring, introduction of new products, and so on. It proposes a sector-based dashboard which contains all the critical figures useful to analyse the sector situation (activity determining factors, key figures for the sector and its environment). The second report (the annual one) proposes an overview of trends and competition within the gas sector. It gives an overview of some basic aspects of the activity (sector organisation, gas categories, main customer markets, gas consumption in industry), and of its determining factors, analyses the sector environment (sites connected to the natural gas network, evolution of average temperatures in France, production by chemical industry, by the food industry, and by metallurgy and oil refining, thermal production of electricity, regulatory evolution regarding supports to energy efficiency, and new opportunities). The evolution of the sector activity is analysed through its trends and indicators (turnovers, gas consumption, butane-propane deliveries, wholesale prices, regulated tariffs). The economic structure is also analysed: aspects related to the upstream part (extraction, injection of biogas, natural gas main input and output points, transport and storage, natural gas distribution), and aspects related to gas provision

  20. Predictive management of jobs and abilities in the industry and energy sectors within a green economy context. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Within the frame of the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS), the authors study job evolutions considered globally, not only those concerning sectors which will provide 'green jobs', but also those where job destructions may occur because of the implementation of the Grenelle de l'Environnement. They propose a qualitative rather than quantitative analysis of consequences, and typological approaches of the vulnerability of some worker categories with respect to retraining possibilities. For each sector whether it is submitted to the ETS system (electricity production, gas transport, urban heating, steel metallurgy, refining, paper industry, cement industry, building materials, chemical industry) or not (automotive industry, motorization, phyto-sanitary products, renewable energies, electromechanical industry), they analyse actor strategies, propose a diagnostic and draw some perspectives

  1. Modelling energy demand of Croatian industry sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medić, Zlatko Bačelić; Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    Industry represents one of the most interesting sectors when analysing Croatian final energy demand. Croatian industry represents 20% of nation's GDP and employs 25% of total labour force making it a significant subject for the economy. Today, with around 60 PJ of final energy demand...... it is the third most energy intensive sector in Croatia after transport and households. Implementing mechanisms that would lead to improvements in energy efficiency in this sector seems relevant. Through this paper, long-term energy demand projections for Croatian industry will be shown. The central point...... for development of the model will be parameters influencing the industry in Croatia. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model. IED model produces results which can be compared to Croatian National Energy Strategy. One of the conclusions shown in this paper is significant...

  2. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy. - Highlights: ► The global industrial sector and its industries are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. ► Global industrial sector efficiencies are evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. ► Exergy analysis shows global industrial energy to be less efficient than does energy analysis. ► A misleadingly low margin for efficiency improvement is indicated by energy analysis. ► A significant and rational margin for efficiency improvement exists from an exergy perspective

  3. Industrial Disputes in the Construction Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J Perry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cole Royal Commission enquiry into the building and construction (abbreviated to ‘construction’ sector recommended controversial workplace-relation reforms for that sector. The recommended changes are likely to be enshrined in legislation within the year. The Commission drew on analyses of industrial disputes that focused, in the main, on quite recent experience. This paper attempts to give a broader historical perspective on disputes in that sector by considering the pattern of disputes for the entire post-World War II period. Accordingly, data on disputes and employees during the entire period are gathered from Australian Bureau of Statistics current and archived sources. These data are classified according to sector (construction versus non-construction and analysed. It is found that the strike rate has, on average, been greater in the construction sector than in the non-construction sector. However, there have been periods during which disputes in the construction sector have been relatively low. The most recent period was during the period of the Accord (1983-96, during which the strike rate in the construction sector fell relatively strongly. The analysis of this relatively broad historical period draws attention, among other things, to the possibility that the sort of strategies employed during the Accord years – strategies of cooperation and consensus building – may provide a more effective means of bringing industrial peace to the workplace relations scene of the construction sector than policies that are relatively confrontational.

  4. Voluntary agreements in the industrial sector in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan

    2003-03-31

    China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. While tremendous energy conservation and environmental protection achievements were realized in the industrial sector in the past, there remains a great gulf between the China's level of energy efficiency and that of the advanced countries of the world. Internationally, significant energy efficiency improvement in the industrial sector has been realized in a number of countries using an innovative policy mechanism called Voluntary Agreements. This paper describes international experience with Voluntary Agreements in the industrial sector as well as the development of a pilot program to test the use of such agreements with two steel mills in Shandong Province, China.

  5. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Decomposition of electricity demand in China's industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenhof, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    In the past five years, China's demand for electricity has accelerated far beyond what central planners had forecasted, leading to supply constraints and costly brownouts throughout the country. This paper presents analysis of the effect of changes in the industrial sector on electricity demand, an important economic sector contributing to these above patterns as it consumes nearly 70% of the electricity generated in China. Using decomposition analysis, it is found that both increased industrial activity and fuel shifts helped increase industrial sector electricity demand between 1998 and 2002, the period of focus in this study, but significant increases in energy efficiency countered this

  7. Evolution of the geographical concentration pattern of the Danish IT sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Dalum, Bent

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the employment growth and spatial evolution of the Danish IT sector during the upswing in the 1990s. The employment and the number of IT firms have more than doubled during this decade, but the spatial evolution indicates a ‘non random’ concentration of the sector around...... the larger urban areas. The paper analyses, which factors shaped the growth and spatial evolution of the sector and analyzes how and why it agglomerated in the urban areas....

  8. Low carbon society scenario 2050 in Thai industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvakkumaran, Sujeetha; Limmeechokchai, Bundit; Masui, Toshihiko; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thai industrial sector has been modelled using AIM/Enduse model. • Potential mitigation of CO 2 for 2050 is approximately 20% from Baseline scenario. • Abatement cost curves show that varied counter measures are practical in the industrial sector. • Energy security is enhanced due to CO 2 mitigation in the LCS scenario. - Abstract: Energy plays a dominant role in determining the individual competitiveness of a country and this is more relevant to emerging economies. That being said, energy also plays an important and ever expanding role in carbon emissions and sustainability of the country. As a developing country Thailand’s industrial sector is vibrant and robust and consumes majority of the energy. In addition, it also has the highest CO 2 emissions, provided the emissions of power generation are taken into account. Industry also accounts for the highest consumption of electricity in Thailand. The objective of this study is to model the Thai industrial energy sector and estimate the mitigation potential for the timeframe of 2010–2050 using the principles of Low Carbon Society (LCS). In addition, the paper would also evaluate emission tax as a key driver of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) mitigation along with Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) analysis. Another secondary objective is to analyse the impact of mitigation on energy security of the industrial sector. The Thai industrial sector was modelled using AIM/Enduse model, which is a recursive dynamic optimisation model belonging to the Asia–Pacific Integrated Model (AIM) family. Thai industrial sector was divided into nine sub-sectors based on national economic reporting procedures. Results suggest that the mitigation potential in 2050, compared to the Baseline scenario, is around 20% with positive impacts on energy security. The Baseline emission will approximately be 377 Mt-CO 2 in the industrial sector. All four indicators of energy security, Primary Energy Intensity, Carbon Intensity, Oil

  9. Voluntary GHG reduction of industrial sectors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Tung; Hu, Allen H

    2012-08-01

    The present paper describes the voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction agreements of six different industrial sectors in Taiwan, as well as the fluorinated gases (F-gas) reduction agreement of the semiconductor and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) industries. The operating mechanisms, GHG reduction methods, capital investment, and investment effectiveness are also discussed. A total of 182 plants participated in the voluntary energy saving and GHG reduction in six industrial sectors (iron and steel, petrochemical, cement, paper, synthetic fiber, and textile printing and dyeing), with 5.35 Mt reduction from 2004 to 2008, or 33% higher than the target goal (4.02 Mt). The reduction accounts for 1.6% annual emission or 7.8% during the 5-yr span. The petrochemical industry accounts for 49% of the reduction, followed by the cement sector (21%) and the iron and steel industry (13%). The total investment amounted to approximately USD 716 million, in which, the majority of the investment went to the modification of the manufacturing process (89%). The benefit was valued at around USD 472 million with an average payback period of 1.5 yr. Moreover, related energy saving was achieved through different approaches, e.g., via electricity (iron and steel), steam and oil consumption (petrochemical) and coal usage (cement). The cost for unit CO(2) reduction varies per industry, with the steel and iron industrial sector having the highest cost (USD 346 t(-1) CO(2)) compared with the average cost of the six industrial sectors (USD 134 t(-1) CO(2)). For the semiconductor and Thin-Film Transistor LCD industries, F-gas emissions were reduced from approximately 4.1 to about 1.7 Mt CO(2)-eq, and from 2.2 to about 1.1 Mt CO(2)-eq, respectively. Incentive mechanisms for participation in GHG reduction are also further discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Market Report for the Industrial Sector, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastri, Bhima [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Brueske, Sabine [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); de los Reyes, Pamela [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Jamison, Keith [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Justiniano, Mauricio [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Margolis, Nancy [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Monfort, Joe [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Raghunathan, Anand [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Sabouni, Ridah [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This report provides an overview of trends in industrial-sector energy use. It focuses on some of the largest and most energy-intensive industrial subsectors and several emerging technologies that could transform key segments of industry.

  11. Trends in worker hearing loss by industry sector, 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Elizabeth A; Deddens, James A; Themann, Christa L; Bertke, Stephen; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of hearing loss for noise-exposed U.S. workers by industry sector and 5-year time period, covering 30 years. Audiograms for 1.8 million workers from 1981-2010 were examined. Incidence and prevalence were estimated by industry sector and time period. The adjusted risk of incident hearing loss within each time period and industry sector as compared with a reference time period was also estimated. The adjusted risk for incident hearing loss decreased over time when all industry sectors were combined. However, the risk remained high for workers in Healthcare and Social Assistance, and the prevalence was consistently high for Mining and Construction workers. While progress has been made in reducing the risk of incident hearing loss within most industry sectors, additional efforts are needed within Mining, Construction and Healthcare and Social Assistance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Petroleum industry 1996; L`industrie petroliere 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector`s companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  13. Petroleum industry 1996; L`industrie petroliere 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector`s companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  14. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Marc A

    2013-09-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Economic development and multiple air pollutant emissions from the industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between economic growth and emissions of eight environmental air pollutants (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur oxide (SOx), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH3)) in 39 countries from 1995 to 2009. We tested an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 16 individual industry sectors and for the total industrial sector. The results clarified that at least ten individual industries do not have an EKC relationship in eight air pollutants even though this relationship was observed in the country and total industrial sector level data. We found that the key industries that dictated the EKC relationship in the country and the total industrial sector existed in CO2, N2O, CO, and NMVOC emissions. Finally, the EKC turning point and the relationship between economic development and trends of air pollutant emissions differ among industries according to the pollution substances. These results suggest inducing new environmental policy design such as the sectoral crediting mechanism, which focuses on the industrial characteristics of emissions.

  16. Universal industrial sectors integrated solutions module for the pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash; Jozewicz, Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    The U.S. is the world's second-leading producer of pulp and paper products after China. Boilers, recovery furnaces, and lime kilns are the dominant sources of emissions from pulp and paper mills, collectively accounting for more than 99 % of the SO 2 , almost 96 % of the NO X , and more than 85 % of the particulate matter (PM) emitted to the air from this sector in the U.S. The process of developing industrial strategies for managing emissions can be made efficient, and the resulting strategies more cost-effective, through the application of modeling that accounts for relevant technical, environmental and economic factors. Accordingly, the United States Environmental Protection Agency is developing the Universal Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions module for the Pulp and Paper Industry (UISIS-PNP). It can be applied to evaluate emissions and economic performance of pulp and paper mills separately under user-defined pollution control strategies. In this paper, we discuss the UISIS-PNP module, the pulp and paper market and associated air emissions from the pulp and paper sector. After illustrating the sector-based multi-product modeling structure, a hypothetical example is presented to show the engineering and economic considerations involved in the emission-reduction modeling of the pulp and paper sector in the U.S.

  17. Analysis of Intra-Industry Trade in Turkish Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Füsun YENİLMEZ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The automotive sector is one of the important sectors affecting the economy of a country. Considering the export and import size of the sector, any kind of work to be done for the sector is important. The analysis of Turkey's situation in the sector will contribute to R&D studies to develop the sector, strategic planning and determination of short, medium and long term targets. The aim of the paper is to determine the location of the Turkish automotive industry in world trade. For this purpose, firstly products in the automotive sector foreign trade were reduced to three sub-digit and included in the evaluation. Grubel-Lloyd index is used in the analysis. As a result of the analyzes, Turkey has been determined separately according to the product groups of the countries that have the most intensive trade in industry.

  18. Development of Eco-Industry Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Ioviţu

    2012-01-01

    Measures to encourage development of Eco-industries represent an important part of the programs of many countries; analyses of different international organisms reveal a series of advantages of this sector for economy. According to OCDE “The environmental goods and services industry consists of activities which produce goods and services to measure, prevent, limit, minimize or correct environmental damage to water, air and soil, as well as problems related to waste, noise and Eco-systems”. Th...

  19. Application of combined heat and power in Malaysia Industrial Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaredah Hashim; Faridah Mohd Taha

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia is still working on continuing its economic growth especially in the industrial sector in order to achieve vision 2020. The rapid industrialization process has caused increment in the energy demand, which simultaneously increases carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Energy efficient technologies are strongly needed for reducing the energy requirement and to avoid the depleting of energy resources. This project focused on the application of integrated resource planning (IRP) in industrial sector using Combined Heat and Power (CHP), as a strategy for Demand Side Management (DSM). This approach is another way for meeting near and future energy requirement in Malaysia's industrial sector. Two scenarios which are Business As Usual (BAU) and CHP were developed using End Use Model EUM), to forecast the energy demand and CO 2 emission in Malaysia's industries. The effectiveness of the proposed method is then simulated using Long Range Energy Alternative Planning System (LEAP) software and Comparative Model for Projects of Engineering Economics and Energy Environmental Development (COMPEED) analysis. Evaluations were based on the potential of energy saving and CO 2 reduction. Scope of research was limited to pulp and paper industrial sub sector. The research data were extracted from Energy Audit Reports conducted by Malaysia Energy Center (PTM). An engineering calculation was demonstrated. Two designs of CHP applications for the pulp and paper industrial sector are according to heating and electricity sizing. It was found that the most energy efficient and CO 2 reduction for Malaysia's industrial sector is the CHP based on heating requirement. The method was found to be able of save fuel and GHG emission compared to the reference case. (author)

  20. Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    About 37% of the primary energy consumed both in the U.S. and globally is used by the industrial sector. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been implemented throughout the world in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of this sector. This report provides an overview of these policies and programs in twelve industrialized nations and the European Union (EU). We focus on energy efficiency products and services that are available to industrial consumers, such as reports, guidebooks, case studies, fact sheets, profiles, tools, demonstrations, roadmaps and benchmarking. We also focus on the mechanisms to communicate the availability and features of these products and services and to disseminate them to the industrial consumers who can use them. Communication channels include customer information centers and websites, conferences and trade shows, workshops and other training mechanisms, financial assistance programs, negotiated agreements, newsletters, publicity, assessments, tax and subsidy schemes and working groups. In total, over 30 types of industrial sector energy efficiency products, services and delivery channels have been identified in the countries studied. Overall, we found that the United States has a large variety of programs and offers industry a number of supporting programs for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, there are some products and services found in other industrialized countries that are not currently used in the U.S., including benchmarking programs, demonstration of commercialized technologies and provision of energy awareness promotion materials to companies. Delivery mechanisms found in other industrialized countries that are not employed in the U.S. include negotiated agreements, public disclosure and national-level tax abatement for energy-efficient technologies.

  1. Industry evolution in developing countries : the Indonesian pulp and paper industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.

    2003-01-01

    Almost all empirical research on industry evolution has been conducted on high or medium technology industries in industrialised countries. In this paper, a detailed analysis of the life cycle of Indonesia's pulp and paper industry is presented as case study to investigate industry evolution in

  2. SECTORAL ANALYSIS: GROWTH ACCOUNTING OF TERTIARY INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Z. ALSHEHHI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary sector is one of the modern styles of economic systems in view of the share it occupies in the field of production as well as employment occupied share. Hence, just like other lands, the UAE, witnessed an economic structural change similar to developed and developing nations, where the tertiary industries contributed 55.4% in 2015 to total country’s income. The empirical study aimed to analyze the contribution portion of growth in the tertiary industries through using the growth accounting framework in time-series from 1990 to 2015. The empirical study found that most of the industries contributed significantly to the growth of the tertiary sector. The contribution shares of growth due to labor and capital varied among industries. The main observed results show that there was a vice versa relationship between TFP performance and the size of labor, where the TFP positively corresponded with the decline in the size of labor specifically from 2010-2015.

  3. Energy and Exergy Analysis of the Danish Industry Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2015-01-01

    % to 56% in 2012. Industries with high-temperature processes, such as the cement and metal production sectors, present the highest exergy efficiencies but the lowest energy ones. The opposite conclusion is drawn for the food, paper and chemical industries. The exergy losses, which indicate the potential......A detailed analysis of the Danish industry is presented in this paper using the energy, exergy and embodied exergy methods. The 22 most energy-intensive process industries, which represent about 80% of the total primary energy use of the industry, were modelled and analysed in details for the years...... is not seen with the embodied exergy efficiency, which remains at around 29% for the Danish industry. This analysis shows that there are still large potentials to recover waste heat in most Danish industrial sectors and thus to increase their efficiencies....

  4. Challenges facing the food industry: Examples from the baked goods sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability.......This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry, illustrated by a case study from the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to address in order to limit waste, improve productivity and increase profitability....

  5. Changes in carbon intensity in China's industrial sector: Decomposition and attribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Nan; Ma, Zujun; Kang, Jidong

    2015-01-01

    The industrial sector accounts for 70% of the total energy-related CO_2 emissions in China. To gain a better understanding of the changes in carbon intensity in China's industrial sector, this study first utilized logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis to disentangle the carbon intensity into three influencing factors, including the emission coefficient effect, the energy intensity effect, and the structure effect. Then, the analysis was furthered to explore the contributions of individual industrial sub-sectors to each factor by using an extension of the decomposition method proposed in Choi and Ang (2012). The results indicate that from 1996 to 2012, the energy intensity effect was the dominant factor in reducing carbon intensity, of which chemicals, iron and steel, metal and machinery, and cement and ceramics were the most representative sub-sectors. The structure effect did not show a strong impact on carbon intensity. The emission coefficient effect gradually increased the carbon intensity, mainly due to the expansion of electricity consumption, particularly in the metal and machinery and chemicals sub-sectors. The findings suggest that differentiated policies and measures should be considered for various industrial sub-sectors to maximize the energy efficiency potential. Moreover, readjusting the industrial structure and promoting clean and renewable energy is also urgently required to further reduce carbon intensity in China's industrial sector. - Highlights: • The study analyzed the changes in carbon intensity in China's industrial sector. • An extension of the Divisia index decomposition methodology was utilized. • Energy efficiency improvement was the dominant factor reducing carbon intensity. • The sub-sector contributions to the energy efficiency improvement varied markedly. • Emission coefficient growth can be mainly due to the expansion of electricity.

  6. Transferability of Industrial Engineering Methods to the Healthcare Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Nielsen, Anders Paarup; Hasle, Peter

    for discussing the implications of transferring such industrial engineering methods to the healthcare sector. The conclusion of the review suggest that is possible to use lean as an inspiration for improvements of both efficiency, quality and working conditions provided diligent consideration of the particulars....... With no hope of getting substantial more resources healthcare managers and politicians has begun to look for alternative modes of organization. In doing so the healthcare sector is being exposed to industrial rationalization principles such as lean manufacturing. The question is whether lean opens...... of health care organization in comparison with manufacturing industry....

  7. Transferability of Industrial Engineering Methods to the Healthcare Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Nielsen, Anders P.; Hasle, Peter

    2011-01-01

    for discussing the implications of transferring such industrial engineering methods to the healthcare sector. The conclusion of the review suggest that is possible to use lean as an inspiration for improvements of both efficiency, quality and working conditions provided diligent consideration of the particulars....... With no hope of getting substantial more resources healthcare managers and politicians has begun to look for alternative modes of organization. In doing so the healthcare sector is being exposed to industrial rationalization principles such as lean manufacturing. The question is whether lean opens...... of health care organization in comparison with manufacturing industry....

  8. An Environmental Sector Plan for the nuclear industry in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.; Fawcett, P.; Hunt, C.; Long, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Environment Agency is the principal environmental regulator in England and Wales. As part of its longer term strategic planning, it is developing 'Sector Plans' for the major industry sectors it regulates. The intent of Sector Plans is to promote improvement of the Industry's performance in order to deliver environmental benefit. One of the pilot Sector Plans developed has been for the nuclear sector. The Nuclear Sector Plan has been produced jointly with the nuclear industry as a rolling framework of agreed national environmental objectives and priorities. Operators of nuclear sites have agreed to use this framework as a basis in England and Wales for setting environmental performance targets, monitoring performance against the targets and publicly reporting on their performance. The paper describes the development of the Sector Plan, its content and further development. (Author) 3 refs

  9. Industrial consumers and electricity sector deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jukic, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the electricity sector deregulation from the point of view of major industrial consumers (MIC). Possibilities and limitations of MIC's impact on the introduction and development of an open power market in some European countries, the USA and Croatia are discussed. (author)

  10. Sectoral shift in industrial natural gas demand: A comparison with other energy types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, G.; Fisher, R.; Hanson, D.; Ross, M.

    1989-01-01

    It has been recognized in a variety of studies that energy demand by industry has been effected not only by the changing energy intensity of the various sectors of industry, but also by the composition of industrial sector. A previous study group of the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF-8) found that sectoral shift, i.e., the relative decline in the energy intensive sectors of industry, has contributed at least one third of the decline in aggregate manufacturing energy intensity since the early 1970s. The specific types of energy use may also be important, however. For example, the effect of shifts in production by electricity intensive sectors has been shown to be somewhat different than that for fossil fuel

  11. Potential of waste heat in Croatian industrial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bišćan Davor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat recovery in Croatian industry is of the highest significance regarding the national efforts towards energy efficiency improvements and climate protection. By recuperation of heat which would otherwise be wasted, the quantity of fossil fuels used for production of useful energy could be lowered thereby reducing the fuel costs and increasing the competitiveness of examined Croatian industries. Another effect of increased energy efficiency of industrial processes and plants is reduction of greenhouse gases i.e. the second important national goal required by the European Union (EU and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. Paper investigates and analyses the waste heat potential in Croatian industrial sector. Firstly, relevant industrial sectors with significant amount of waste heat are determined. Furthermore, significant companies in these sectors are selected with respect to main process characteristics, operation mode and estimated waste heat potential. Data collection of waste heat parameters (temperature, mass flow and composition is conducted. Current technologies used for waste heat utilization from different waste heat sources are pointed out. Considered facilities are compared with regard to amount of flue gas heat. Mechanisms for more efficient and more economic utilization of waste heat are proposed. [Acknoledgment. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the UNITY THROUGH KNOWLEDGE FUND (UKF of the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia and the World Bank, under the Grant Agreement No. 89/11.

  12. Industrial processes inventory. Sector 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The work objective is to conduct a greenhouse gas emission inventory of the industrial processes in Lebanon for the year 1994. The Lebanese industry has emitted 1924.063 Gg (1.924.063 tons) of Carbon dioxide CO 2 ; 0.0003 Gg (0.3 tons) of carbon monoxide CO; 0.01112 Gg of nitrogen oxide NO; 273.888 tons of non-methane volatile organic compounds and 3.382 Gg (3.382 tons) of sulphur dioxide SO 2 . The cement industry is the major source of CO 2 emissions among the industrial processes in Lebanon. The cement industry is responsible for 76.1% of the total emissions followed by the iron and steel industry which produces 21.68% of the total CO 2 emissions from industrial processes. The NMVOC emissions are mainly produced by the use of asphalt for road paving (98.5% of total emissions by industry) followed by the food and beverage industry (1.2%). The emissions of sulphur dioxide SO 2 come from three industrial sources: the first come from the production of sulphuric acid (69.9% of total industrial emissions), the second from the cement industry (26.4% of total industrial emissions) and the third from the iron and steel mills (3.7% of total industrial emissions). Figures are presented to show the percentage distribution of various industrial sources contributions to CO 2 , NMVOC and SO 2 emissions in Lebanon. Carbon monoxide CO emissions in the industrial sector are very small. The major source is iron and steel mills and the minor source is asphalt-roofing production

  13. Reduction of Multi-pollutant Emissions from Industrial Sectors: The U.S. Cement Industry – A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge Carbon dioxide (CO2) accounts for more than 90% of worldwide CO2-eq green-house gas (GHG) emissions from industrial sectors other than power generation. Amongst these sectors, the cement industry is one ...

  14. Global Sectoral Industry Approaches to Climate Change. The Way Forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigson, B.; Egenhofer, C.; Fujiwara, N.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of some industrial sectors is so highly concentrated that just a handful of companies are responsible for producing a significant share of that sector's total greenhouse gases emissions worldwide. These sectors are thus a 'natural' focus of policy-makers concerned with climate change and have attracted keen interest from the EU. So-called 'sectoral approaches' are seen as having the potential to broaden the range of contributions by all parties, including emerging economies, to greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and to help moderate competitiveness concerns in trade-exposed industries. In particular, such approaches may help to quantify emissions on a sector-by-sector basis, building confidence that policies and measures can be put in place to reduce emissions. They can also help identify national or global commitments through the aggregation of sectoral data. While sectoral approaches allow policy-makers to concentrate on those individual sectors that contribute significantly to global emissions, they also pose a number of challenges. This CEPS Task Force Report identifies the principal issues associated with sectoral approaches - their rationale and the associated political dynamics - and gives an overview of existing approaches, the formulation of preconditions that would allow sectoral approaches to be implemented and an analysis of the potential interaction of sectoral approaches with existing climate change policies. The concluding chapter sketches a possible way forward

  15. Sectoral patterns versus firm-level heterogeneity - The dynamics of eco-innovation strategies in the automotive sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Lourenco; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2017-01-01

    analysis using patent data from 1965 to 2012. Our findings suggest a process of co-evolution of firms' strategies and indicate that strong sectoral-specific patterns of eco-innovation are present in this sector from the mid-2000s onwards. For fuel cells technologies, however, we observe the formation......This paper sheds light on some important but underestimated elements of green industrial dynamics: the evolution of firms' eco-innovation strategies and activities within a sector. While eco-innovation sectoral case studies have taken place before, our analysis is distinct in investigating the rate......, direction and extent of eco-innovation in the automotive sector, represented here by the main automakers, in order to identify possibly sectoral-specific patterns in firms' strategies, as opposed to divergent strategic behaviors, grounded on evolutionary economic theory. We conduct a two-step empirical...

  16. The deregulation of network industries: is the electricity sector an exception?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, F.; Vivet, D.

    2006-01-01

    In view of their special characteristics, network industries have for quite a long time been considered as (natural) monopolies. Network externalities and economies of scale in particular justified this (natural) monopoly thesis. Since the last decade of the past century, however, a trend towards deregulation of such industries has been observed worldwide. This trend started with the successful introduction of competition in the telecommunications sector. The success in that sector is often used as an argument for opening up other network industries to competition as well. The study analyses whether this reasoning can be applied to the electricity sector. At first glance, the sectors electricity and telecommunications seem very similar, as both are network industries having been characterised for a long time by economies of scale, but for which technological progress may have put an end to this scale effect. However, the study points out that there are important differences. In the telecommunications sector, technological progress on the supply side has been accompanied by a strong growth in demand. There is no such demand side effect in the electricity branch. Moreover, due to physical characteristics, the electricity sector seems to be more complicated. In order to introduce competition, the sector has to be split up into sub-sectors (production, transmission, distribution and supply). Only two segments, production and supply, are considered as open markets; transmission and distribution, on the other hand, remain monopolies. This splitting up, however, entails a new kind of costs, the so-called transaction costs. As such the gains from the liberalization in certain segments might (partly) offset increase in the transaction costs resulting from vertical disintegration. (authors)

  17. Extended Producer Responsibility in the Aviation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa; Laan, Erwin; Irion, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate recent initiatives with respect to extended producer responsibility in the aviation sector. We compare those with the existing practices in the automobile sector and the emerging regulations in the shipping sector. We describe the challenges and the lessons to be learned from the evolution and state of extended producer responsibility in these two industries.

  18. Estimating Employment Dynamics across Occupations and Sectors of Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cörvers, Frank; Dupuy, Arnaud

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the demand for workers by sector and occupation using system dynamic OLS techniques to account for the employment dynamics dependence across occupations and sectors of industry. The short run dynamics are decomposed into intra and intersectoral dynamics. We find that employment by occupation and sector is significantly affected by the short run intersectoral dynamics, using Dutch data for the period 1988-2003. On average, these intersectoral dynamics account for 20%...

  19. China's economic reform and industry sector energy requirement: A forecast to 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, A.Y.

    1997-01-01

    With its GDP growing at an average rate of 9.8% for the last seventeen years, China has the world's fastest growing economy. This rapid pace of growth and industrialization has caused economic strain because fuel production cannot keep pace with demand, If China allows this situation to continue, significant oil imports will be necessary. In 1993, the industrial sector contributed 56% to China's GDP and consumed 61% of the total final energy. The industrial sector will remain the largest energy consumer in China well into the next century. According to China's Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996--2000), China will strengthen its ability to develop new products and will use technological advancement to promote industrial development. The Plan calls for special attention in four major areas: microelectronics technology, digital technology, software technology, and network technology. Given China's emphasis on developing light industries and on improving industrial sector energy efficiency, it is important to study the future energy demand of the industrial sector. Two scenarios for future energy requirements are studied through the year 2015: a Business As Usual (BASU) scenario and an Energy Efficient (EE) scenario. The study evaluates China's current economic reform policies and energy efficiency policies. The results of this evaluation are used to assign appropriate growth rates to industrial GDP and the industrial energy intensity for both scenarios. Results from the two scenarios are compared and analyzed

  20. Energy use and CO2 emissions of China's industrial sector from a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Sheng; Kyle, G. Page; Yu, Sha; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Luckow, Patrick; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhang, Xiliang; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of China's final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Traditionally, however, integrated assessment research has handled the industrial sector of China in a highly aggregate form. In this study, we develop a technologically detailed, service-oriented representation of 11 industrial subsectors in China, and analyze a suite of scenarios of future industrial demand growth. We find that, due to anticipated saturation of China's per-capita demands of basic industrial goods, industrial energy demand and CO 2 emissions approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040, then decrease gradually. Still, without emissions mitigation policies, the industrial sector remains heavily reliant on coal, and therefore emissions-intensive. With carbon prices, we observe some degree of industrial sector electrification, deployment of CCS at large industrial point sources of CO 2 emissions at low carbon prices, an increase in the share of CHP systems at industrial facilities. These technological responses amount to reductions of industrial emissions (including indirect emission from electricity) are of 24% in 2050 and 66% in 2095. - Highlights: • Eleven industrial subsectors in China are detail analyzed from a global perspective. • Industrial energy use and CO 2 emissions will approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040. • Industrial CHP and CCS are truly encouraged by carbon tax. • Some degree of industrial sector electrification are observed by carbon tax

  1. ANALYSIS OF LABOR MARKET IN THE SECONDARY SECTOR ON ROMANIAN DEVELOPMENT REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina\tALPOPI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze and highlight the evolution of workforce engaged in the secondary sector. We determined too the unemployment rate distribution, which is coupled with the decline of industry and constructions and there are identified zones and cities affected by major rising unemployment. The increase of unemployed number in the secondary sector was primarily due to the decline of manufacturing industry and mining. At Bucharest and growth poles level, it shows that between the secondary sector branches: industry and construction, the most employees are engaged in the industrial sector, especially in manufacturing industries, although this sector ranks on the second place in order of preference. Most of the employees choose jobs into the tertiary sector. Regarding the distribution of the number of employees per industrial subsectors, it appears that most of them work in manufacturing, followed water supply and waste, then energy supply and a very small percentage in the mining. The activity sectors reveal that most employees are engaged in secondary and tertiary sectors, and then, in a very small proportion, in the primary sector. At regional poles level, the largest number of employees are engaged in industrial sector. In the construction sector, the number of employees is small. Counties associated of Bucharest metropolitan area recorded the greatest number of employees in construction. All analyzed territories recorded positive evolutions in the number of employees in 2011 compared to 2002. Counties associated of some metropolitan areas, including Bucharest, showed a positive trend, superior to other types of areas in 2011 compared to 2002. Compared to the situation in construction sector, the industry is characterized by a decrease of the number of employees in 2011 compared to 2002. Even in a general context characterized by instability in the industry, some types of analyzed areas showed a rising trend. In 2011, compared to 2006

  2. Decomposition of Productivity Considering Multi-environmental Pollutants in Chinese Industrial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Cao, Jing; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to calculate and decompose productivity incorporating multi-environmental pollutants in Chinese industrial sectors from 1992 to 2008. We apply a weighted Russell directional distance model to calculate productivity from both the economic and environmental performance. The main findings are: (1) Chinese industrial sectors increased productivity, with the main contributing factors being labor saving prior to 2000; (2) The main contributing factors for productivity...

  3. Association of Parkinson's disease with industry sectors: a French nationwide incidence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaar, Tim; Kab, Sofiane; Schwaab, Yannick; Fréry, Nadine; Elbaz, Alexis; Moisan, Frédéric

    2018-05-05

    In order to identify working environments at risk for Parkinson's disease (PD), we investigated the relation between the importance of industry sectors, used as a surrogate for occupational exposures, and PD incidence in French cantons. The number of incident PD cases (2010-2014) in 3689 cantons of metropolitan France was determined using drug claims from French National Health Insurance databases. The proportions of workers in 38 industry sectors in 2006 were calculated for each canton. Associations between the proportions of workers in industry sectors and PD age/sex-standardized incidence ratios were examined using incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) estimated with multilevel negative binomial regressions with a random intercept at the canton-level and adjusted for smoking, deprivation index, and density of neurologists. We then used two-step semi-Bayes hierarchical regression (HR) to include prior information about exposure to pesticides, metals, and solvents in each industry sector. We identified 112,625 incident cases. PD incidence was higher in areas characterized by high proportions of workers in "Agriculture, forestry and fishing" (IRR HR  = 1.042; CI 95% = 1.014-1.070; p-Trend HR  = 0.004), "Manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products" (IRR HR  = 1.024; CI 95% = 1.005-1.044; p-Trend HR  = 0.010), and "Manufacture of basic metals and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment" (IRR HR  = 1.024; CI 95% = 1.003-1.046; p-Trend HR  = 0.071). This nationwide study, based on a comprehensive analysis of industry sectors, shows significant associations between high proportions of workers in specific industry sectors (agriculture, metallurgy, textile) and PD incidence that may be targeted in further epidemiological studies to replicate and better understand these associations.

  4. Sectoral linkage analysis of three main air pollutants in China's industry: Comparing 2010 with 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiwei; Wang, Yuan; Zuo, Jian; Luo, Yincheng

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the driving forces of air pollution in China, the changes in linkages amongst inter-industrial air pollutant emissions were analyzed by hypothetical extraction method under the input-output framework. Results showed that the emissions of SO 2 , soot and dust from industrial sources increased by 56.46%, 36.95% and 11.69% respectively in 2010, compared with 2002. As major contributors to emissions, the power and gas sectors were responsible for the growing SO 2 emissions, the nonmetal products sector for soot emissions, and the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors for dust emissions. The increasing volume of emissions was mainly driven by the growing demand in the transport equipment and electrical equipment sectors. In addition, the expansion in the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors could result in even more severe air pollution. Therefore, potential effective strategies to control air pollution in China are: (1) reducing the demand of major import sectors in the equipment manufacturing industry; (2) promoting R&D in low-emissions-production technologies to the power and gas sectors, the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors, and the nonmetal products sector, and (3) auditing the considerable industrial scale expansion in the metals mining, smelting and pressing sectors and optimizing the industrial structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolution of the U.S. energy service company industry: Market size and project performance from 1990–2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Peter H.; Goldman, Charles A.; Satchwell, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry is an example of a private sector business model where energy savings are delivered to customers primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. This study was conceived as a snapshot of the ESCO industry prior to the economic slowdown and the introduction of federal stimulus funding mandated by enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This study utilizes two parallel analytic approaches to characterize ESCO industry and market trends in the U.S.: (1) a “top-down” approach involving a survey of individual ESCOs to estimate aggregate industry activity and (2) a “bottom-up” analysis of a database of ∼3250 projects (representing over $8B in project investment) that reports market trends including installed EE retrofit strategies, project installation costs and savings, project payback times, and benefit-cost ratios over time. Despite the onset of a severe economic recession, the U.S. ESCO industry managed to grow at about 7% per year between 2006 and 2008. ESCO industry revenues were about $4.1 billion in 2008 and ESCOs anticipate accelerated growth through 2011 (25% per year). We found that 2484 ESCO projects in our database generated ∼$4.0 billion ($2009) in net, direct economic benefits to their customers. We estimate that the ESCO project database includes about 20% of all U.S. ESCO market activity from 1990–2008. Assuming the net benefits per project are comparable for ESCO projects that are not included in the LBNL database, this would suggest that the ESCO industry has generated ∼$23 billion in net direct economic benefits for customers at projects installed between 1990 and 2008. There is empirical evidence confirming that the industry is evolving by installing more comprehensive and complex measures—including onsite generation and measures to address deferred maintenance—but this evolution has significant implications for customer project economics

  6. Industrial Strategy and the Regions : the shortcomings of a narrow sectoral focus

    OpenAIRE

    Fothergill, Stephen; Gore, Tony; Wells, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Key points\\ud  - The new money that the UK government has allocated to support its industrial strategy is targeted at R&D in an exceptionally narrow range of sectors – healthcare & medicine, robotics & artificial intelligence, batteries, self-driving vehicles, materials for the future and satellites & space technology.\\ud  - Even on a generous definition of the industries that might benefit from the new Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund, these sectors account for little more than 1 per cen...

  7. Energy and exergy analyses of energy consumptions in the industrial sector in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladiran, M.T.; Meyer, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The energy-utilization over a 10-year period (1994-2003) has been analysed for the South African industrial sector, which consumes more primary energy than any other sector of the economy. Four principal sub-sectors, namely iron and steel, chemical and petrochemical, mining and quarrying, and non-ferrous metals/non-metallic minerals were considered in this study. Primary-energy utilization data were used to calculate the weighted mean energy and exergy efficiencies for the sub-sectors and then overall values for the industrial sector were obtained. The results indicate that exergy efficiency is considerably lower than energy efficiency in all the sub-sectors, particularly in mining and quarrying processes, for which the values were approximately 83% and 16%, respectively. The performance of exergy utilization in the industrial sector can be improved by introducing various conservation strategies. Results from this study were compared with those for other countries

  8. Ten years of energy consumption in the tertiary sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabai, Yacine

    2012-11-01

    This document presents and comments data regarding electricity consumption by the tertiary sector over the last ten years in France. It notably outlines its strong increase compared to the other sectors (housing, industry, transport, agriculture). It comments the evolution of the energy mix of the tertiary sector (electricity with 47%, gas with 25% and oil with 19% are prevailing). It briefly comments the evolution of energy efficiency within this sector. It indicates and comments the shares of energy consumption, of high voltage electricity and gas consumption by the different sub-sectors (retail, automobile and motorcycle repair, public administration, health and social activity, real estate, specialised, scientific and technical activities, education, and so on)

  9. Para-petroleum industry. International context and results of the 2004 French inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document makes a brief overview of the international petroleum context, and then presents the results of the last inquiry allowing to precise the situation of the French para-petroleum industry in 2003 and to propose some estimations for 2004 according to the data supplied by companies. Content: 1 - international context: exploration-production (investments, investments evolution since 25 years, geophysics sector, drilling sector, sector of construction of offshore production equipments, regional analysis in the exploration-production domain, conclusions), refining and petrochemistry (economic context, refining industry, petrochemical industry, conclusions); 2 - the French para-petroleum industry: evolution of the global turnover, turnover share by sector of activity, offshore activity, foreign activity, manpower, conclusions. (J.S.)

  10. Trends in the Food and Beverage Sector of the Hospitality Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Melia, Detta

    2011-01-01

    The hospitality sector in Ireland represents an important part of the tourism industry and comprises hotels, restaurants, pubs and clubs, guesthouses and self-catering operations. The largest component within the Irish hospitality sector is hotels. In addition to hotels, food and beverage operations comprise a significant proportion of the industry. These businesses operate in a highly competitive environment as a consequence of a number of factors. First, there is a downturn in the global an...

  11. Embodied energy use in China's industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhu; Geng Yong; Lindner, Soeren; Zhao Hongyan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Guan Dabo

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s top energy consumer, China is facing a great challenge to solve its energy supply issue. In this paper energy use from all industrial sectors in China’s economy of 2007 was explored by conducting an extended environmental input–output analysis. We compare the energy consumption embodied in the final demand for goods and services from 29 sectors with the energy demand required for the actual production process in each sector. Two different viewpoints for sectoral energy use have been presented: energy use is directly allocated to the producer entity, and energy use is reallocated to sector’s supply chain from consumption perspective. Our results show that considerable amount of energy use is embodied in the supply chain, especially for “Construction” and “Other Service Activities” sectors, which is not detected if energy use is allocated on a production basis. When further dividing embodied energy consumption into direct energy consumption and indirect energy consumption, total indirect energy consumption is much higher than that of total direct energy consumption, accounting for 80.6% of total embodied energy consumption in 2007. Our results provide a more holistic picture on sectoral energy consumption and therefore can help decision-makers make more appropriate policies. - Highlights: ► A hybrid IO-LCA model was employed to analyze China’s energy use at sectoral level. ► A case study on China’s sectoral energy consumption is done. ► Construction and service sectors are actually energy intensive from the supply chain perspectives. ► Upstream and downstream ectoral collaboration along the whole supply chain is necessary. ► Energy conservation policies should be based upon a comprehensive analysis on sectoral energy use.

  12. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE EVOLUTIONS OF TEXTILE SECTOR ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA MISU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete liberalization of international trade led to important changes in financial performancesof the national enterprises. This paper has in view to present the consequences of these changes fromthe macroeconomic level to microeconomic level. Thus, indicators of the financial performance forthree enterprises at the textile sector from Galati are studied selectively. The scope of this study isboth to realize a financial performance hierarchy and to present of their evolution directions in thefuture.

  13. Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Iyer, Maithili; McNeil, Michael; Kramer, Klaas Jan; Roy, Joyashree; Roy, Moumita; Chowdhury, Shreya Roy

    2011-04-15

    This report analyzed the potential for increasing energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in the non-residential building and the industrial sectors in India. The first two sections describe the research and analysis supporting the establishment of baseline energy consumption using a bottom up approach for the non residential sector and for the industry sector respectively. The third section covers the explanation of a modeling framework where GHG emissions are projected according to a baseline scenario and alternative scenarios that account for the implementation of cleaner technology.

  14. The deregulation of the Italian natural gas industry and diversification processes in the down-stream sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazioli, R.; Quaglino, S.; Di Domenico, M.

    2000-01-01

    The opening of the italian gas market , due to the privatisation and liberalisation process, has been implemented by the important normative evolution of this sector both at european and national level. The debate following this process in the gas market has focussed, basically, on the up-stream sector leaving aside the important down-stream sector also concerning gas local distribution and sales. In this article it is paid more attention to the down-stream sector considering the firms' evolution from a basic mono utility to multi utility and multi services organisational structure. This potential firms' evolution in the italian gas market will be considered also referring to specific international experience in this market [it

  15. Market capitalization of the trucking industry sector, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    This report focuses on the market valuation of the overall trucking industry sector and each segment within it. In the past, while the focus has been on stock price appreciation or depreciation, this report emphasizes market capitalization returns. S...

  16. Towards the creation of an industrial sector dedicated to nuclear dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    In next decades the business of nuclear dismantling is expected to grow exponentially due to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities that will have reached the end of their operating life. Dismantling has 2 main features: dismantling operations on a same site can span decades and dismantling is a new activity in which innovations are likely to appear and may benefit other sectors. In France regional authorities have promoted public-private partnerships in order to make working together small enterprises very specialized in sectors like robotic, laser cutting, waste processing, remote operations... with public laboratories dedicated to nuclear research, and with graduate schools to include dismantling in curriculum and with major industrial operators of the nuclear industry. The aim is the creation of jobs and the building of an industrial sector able to win market shares in the worldwide business of nuclear dismantling. (A.C.)

  17. Spatial Evolution of Producer Service Sectors and Its Influencing Factors in Cities: A Case Study of Hangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhou Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Producer service industries are an important feature in the current development of a metropolis. Researchers from different countries are increasingly concerned about location changes and the motives of producer service sectors in cities. Given the rapid development of producer service sectors in developing countries, this study examines changes in the distribution of producer service sectors over the past decade and factors influencing them in a case study using the city of Hangzhou in China. Results show that Hangzhou’s producer service sector is still mainly concentrated in the central business district (CBD. However, a distinct trend of diffusion to suburban areas was observed, which formed several secondary clusters on the periphery of the city. Locations of the CBD, sub-centers, and professional clusters of producer service sectors established by the government are the most important factors that affect the spatial distribution of producer service sectors. The main influencing factors for the spatial evolution of producer service sectors are: (1 the high development cost and residential suburbanization of the central areas of the city promote the development of producer service sectors toward the periphery; (2 city planning has guided the clustering of producer service sectors on the city’s CBD and secondary city centers; (3 city renewal has provided personalized and diversified development space for producer service sectors; (4 incentive policies introduced by the government, such as rentals, and taxes have enhanced the orderly aggregation of producer service sectors.

  18. Late Globalization and Evolution and Metamorphoses of Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boujarzadeh, Behnam; Turcan, Romeo V.; Dholakia, Nikhilesh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore the effect of late globalization on evolution of industries. Specifically we investigate the impact of late globalization on the evolution and metamorphoses of Danish Textile and Fashion Industry (DTFI). Using historical data, we survey the development of DTFI between 1945...

  19. Understanding industrial energy use: Physical energy intensity changes in Indian manufacturing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakara Reddy, B.; Kumar Ray, Binay

    2011-01-01

    This study develops and examines physical energy intensity indicators in five industrial sub-sectors-iron and steel, aluminum, textiles, paper, and cement-and investigates mitigation options for energy related CO 2 emissions (during 1991-2005). Decomposition analysis has been employed to separate the structural effect (share of different products in the sector) from pure intensity effect (efficiency increase through technical improvement) for each industry. The results show that the combined effect (considering both structural and intensity effects together) on both iron and steel and paper and pulp industries is negative while it is positive for aluminum and textiles. The intensity effect for all the industries, barring textiles, is negative showing improvement in energy efficiency; iron and steel in particular, has seen a decrease of 134 PJ in energy consumption owing to improvements in efficiency. However, energy intensity in textiles has risen by 47 PJ due to increased mechanization. Structural effect is positive in aluminum and iron and steel industries indicating a movement towards higher energy-intensive products. In the case of aluminum, positive structural effect dominates over negative intensive effect whereas negative intensive effect dominates iron and steel industry. The paper helps in designing policies for improving productivity and reduce energy consumption in India's manufacturing sector. - Highlights: → The study develops physical energy intensity indicators in industrial sub-sectors of India. → It identifies technological and other options for reduction in energy consumption. → The study quantifies savings in energy as well as CO 2 emissions. → The indicators are useful in examining structural changes.

  20. Renewable and recovery energies for each industry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline

    2018-01-01

    The French agency of environment and energy management (Ademe) has made available to the industrialists, a study about the proper choice of renewable and recovery energies capable to meet the energy and heat needs of their facilities. This article summarises in a table, sector by sector and for each renewable and recovery energy source, the capability of this energy source to supply part or the overall energy needs of some elementary industrial processes. Indication is given about the capability of an energy source to produce electricity as well

  1. The evolution and consolidation of the timeshare industry in a developing economy: The South African experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayde R. Pandy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The timeshare industry is one of most under-researched aspects of tourism accommodation. Within existing scholarship most writings pertain to industry development and challenges in the USA and Europe. This paper provides an examination of the evolution and consolidation of the timeshare industry in South Africa from the 1980s to the present-day. The South African timeshare industry is revealed as one of the most mature in the international timeshare economy. Historically, the industry confronted parallel challenges to those in developed countries in respect of adapting the product to local conditions and confronting a tarnished image from the impact of unscrupulous developers. Currently the South African timeshare sector faces different challenges including service management and consumer dissatisfaction, marginalization within the tourism economy, and the need to address the emerging Black middle class market.

  2. Measuring the influence of industry sector membership on supply chain disruption reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The global Supply Chain Resilience Survey by the Business Continuity Institute and Zurich Insurance is a comprehensive study on the state of supply chains in different organisations worldwide. As a benchmarking tool, it also contains data about business continuity arrangements in place to ensure supply chain resilience. Given this study's historically qualitative approach to reporting, this paper aims to introduce quantitative analysis. In this paper, responses that report membership in Standard Industrial Classification 2007 industry sectors from the 2013 Supply Chain Resilience Survey were disaggregated and related to supply chain disruption reporting. A chi-square test of independence reveals that membership in a particular industry sector influences reporting of supply chain disruption. Nonetheless, the relationship between these variables is weak. This study demonstrates interesting differences between industry sectors in terms of supply chain resilience. Further research is required in terms of other variables in order to provide granularity and relevant findings to supply chain planners.

  3. 2006 statistical data of the French gas industry; Statistiques 2006 de l'industrie gaziere en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    This document makes a synthesis of the 2006 results of the annual inquiry about the French natural gas industry: 1 - organization of the French gas market (production, transport, methane terminals, storage facilities, distribution, commercialization, main steps of the opening of the gas market in France); 2 - the 2006 gas year (consumption, imports, production, stockpiles); 3 - results of the 2006 inquiry: infrastructures (storage capacities, pipelines and distribution network), production (evolution of natural gas and industrial gases production, uses), transport (inputs and outputs, geographical origin of inputs in 2005 and 2006, raw imports evolution since 1973), storage (evolution of stockpiles variation), natural gas supplies (sectoral uses), supplies by region and by sector in 2006, consumption by sector; 4 - power generation by gas cogeneration in 2005 (plants characteristics, classification, cogeneration status (in TWh), regional distribution of plants); 5 - 2006 monthly changes (inputs, net imports, consumption and useful stockpile, consumption and net imports); 6 - international comparisons (gas share in the overall energy consumption, consumption per user, evolution of main sectors of consumption in some European countries since 1973); 7 - appendixes: French transportation network, main gas roads in Europe, European gas fluxes, 2006 energy status, gas statuses during the past three years. (J.S.)

  4. Analysis of Low-Carbon Economy Efficiency of Chinese Industrial Sectors Based on a RAM Model with Undesirable Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Meng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial energy and environment efficiency evaluation become especially crucial as industrial sectors play a key role in CO2 emission reduction and energy consumption. This study adopts the additive range-adjusted measure data envelope analysis (RAM-DEA model to estimate the low-carbon economy efficiency of Chinese industrial sectors in 2001–2013. In addition, the CO2 emission intensity mitigation target for each industrial sector is assigned. Results show that, first, most sectors are not completely efficient, but they have experienced and have improved greatly during the period. These sectors can be divided into four categories, namely, mining, light, heavy, and electricity, gas, and water supply industries. The efficiency is diverse among the four industrial categories. The average efficiency of the light industry is the highest among the industries, followed by those of the mining and the electricity, gas, and water supply industries, and that of the heavy industry is the lowest. Second, the electricity, gas, and water supply industry shows the biggest potential for CO2 emission reduction, thus containing most of the sectors with large CO2 emission intensity mitigation targets (more than 45%, followed by the mining and the light industries. Therefore, the Chinese government should formulate diverse and flexible policy implementations according to the actual situation of the different sectors. Specifically, the sectors with low efficiency should be provided with additional policy support (such as technology and finance aids to improve their industrial efficiency, whereas the electricity, gas, and water supply industry should maximize CO2 emission reduction.

  5. Analysis of the impacts of combining carbon taxation and emission trading on different industry sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheng F.; Lin, Sue J.; Lewis, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Application of price mechanisms has been the important instrument for carbon reduction, among which the carbon tax has been frequently advocated as a cost-effective economic tool. However, blanket taxes applied to all industries in a country might not always be fair or successful. It should therefore be implemented together with other economic tools, such as emission trading, for CO 2 reduction. This study aims to analyze the impacts of combining a carbon tax and emission trading on different industry sectors. Results indicate that the 'grandfathering rule (RCE2000)' is the more feasible approach in allocating the emission permit to each industry sector. Results also find that the accumulated GDP loss of the petrochemical industry by the carbon tax during the period 2011-2020 is 5.7%. However, the accumulated value of GDP will drop by only 4.7% if carbon taxation is implemented together with emission trading. Besides, among petrochemical-related industry sectors, up-stream sectors earn profit from emission trading, while down-stream sectors have to purchase additional emission permits due to failure to achieve their emission targets

  6. Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM) Framework Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-12

    The goal of this study is to develop a new bottom-up industry sector energy-modeling framework with an agenda of addressing least cost regional and global carbon reduction strategies, improving the capabilities and limitations of the existing models that allows trading across regions and countries as an alternative.

  7. Petroleum industry 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector's companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  8. Co-evolution of Industry Strategies and Government Policies: The Case of the Brazilian Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gonzalez Duarte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the evolution of the automotive industry in Brazil and its key drivers. We argue that the rules of the game – industry policies – are an outcome of exchanges between the host government and industry. These arise from changes in economic and political environments and interdependence between industry and the country’s economy. To this end, we draw upon literature on institutions and co-evolution to understand the industry footprint over a 50-year period, as well as its relationship with changes in government policies. This study generates new insights on institutional and co-evolution political perspectives by showing that the rules of the game are not only the making of the government, but are also the result of interdependencies between industry and government.

  9. Energy efficiency in the industrial sector. Model based analysis of the efficient use of energy in the EU-27 with focus on the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuder, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency is a highly important topic and currently omnipresent in the energy political discussion. Despite this high importance there's no common understanding even concerning the definition of the term energy efficiency. In addition, there are plenty so called energy efficiency targets and several indicators. Therefore this study should provide a deepened understanding of the efficient use of energy. The inconsistent definition of energy efficiency is related to the use of this term for a specific as well as an absolute reduction of energy consumption. Furthermore both static views on efficiency as a status and also dynamic views on efficiency as an improvement of a value compared to a reference number are used. Additional differences occur in the evaluation of the energy use and in the selection of a reference value in a key figure to assess energy efficiency. Moreover the focus of the current general understanding is mainly only on the consumption of energy. All other resources next to the energy input which are needed to provide energy services are not considered even though there are strong interactions and substitution possibilities among these resources. Hence the understanding of energy efficiency is extended in this study by these additional resources which were not considered yet. Based on this extension the efficient use of the resource energy is a result of an optimisation of the relation of these total costs of all resources to the related benefit. To determine the efficient use of energy in the industrial sector, a deeper understanding of the sector and its characteristics is necessary. The industrial sector is the largest consumer of electricity within the EU. Also a quarter of the final energy consumption and about 20 % of the CO 2 emissions are related to this sector. Typical for this sector are the heterogeneous and high temperature level of the heat demand and the process emissions which accrue in transformation processes. The subsectors

  10. Legal aspects of new electrical sector law; Aspectos juridicos de la nueva ley del sector electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra Peris, J.M.

    1998-12-01

    The Electricity Industry Act dated on November 27th 1997 is a milestone of the liberalization process in the basic sectors of the Spanish economy. Concealing the principles of free competition, freedom of establishment and deregulation with the public interest, inherent to this essential service, is the great challenge of rule. The article also analyzes the legal evolution of the electricity industry in either our country or other around it. (Author)

  11. Sectoral approaches establishment for climate change mitigation in Thailand upstream oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiyapa, Warathida; Esteban, Miguel; Kameyama, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the upstream oil and gas (O&G) industry's responses to climate change and what factors can be influential to trigger their mitigation strategies is crucial for policy-makers to harness the huge resources that this industry can mobilize towards environmental protection. Considering that individual climate change efforts are unlikely to affect global mitigation paths, the study investigates the possibility that sectoral approaches can help in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, using Thailand as a case study. It conducted online questionnaire surveys and semi-structured interviews to acquire primary data from companies and key informants from the government, NGOs, NPOs and academics. The results suggested that, among three possible groups of factors that could affect company decisions on whether to promote sectoral approaches, domestic politics (particularly the Thai government) is the most important, though other factors also play important and interrelated roles. The most welcomed type of scheme that could be envisaged would appear to be a sectoral agreement between government and industry. Finally, the authors provide two main policy recommendations, namely the establishment of an industrial association of O&G companies and for it to target how to start looking at measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions amongst large companies in the sector. - Highlights: •Examining the possibility of establishing a sectoral approach Thailand's upstream O&G industry. •Analytical framework was constructed to ascertain most influential factors. •Questionnaires and interviews were employed with companies, government, NGOs and academic. •Domestic politics is the most determining factor, but other factors have strong interrelation. •Sectoral agreement between government and industry is the most likely scheme to be established.

  12. Contribution of Romanian Secondary Sector to Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina ALPOPI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we shows the contribution of the secondary sector (industry and construction on the economic development of the regions, functional areas and the urban system in Romania. The development of economic activities of production is conditioned by certain geophysical, demographical, social and cultural characteristics. Considering that economic restructuring and privatization of industry put their mark on the evolution of the Romanian economy in recent years, it is absolutely necessary to take into account the influence of the secondary sector activities - industry and construction, to establish the development measures of romanian regions. One more reason is that the most industrialized cities prior 1990, dependent on a single branch of industry, losing the markets for these industries, recorded high unemployment, which in terms of social, equates to a high degree of poverty. Territorial development of the secondary sector shows large differences mainly due to natural barriers, level of accessibility to natural resources and public services of general interest. These gaps deep more economic and social problems existing in the territory. In the secondary sector, Romania follows closely the provisions of European Union policy, in order to develop a national competitive market, integrated into the European internal market. An example: in the industrial branch, employment share is approximately equal to the european average level. In terms of productivity, in Romania, in the context of a very low level of this indicator, its value is high in the industrial sector (especially in the manufacturing sector the specific productivity is above the national average. It is estimated that after 2014, the improvement of Romania's macroeconomic stability could generate rapid growth in the secondary sector. In Romania, industrial sector faces with problems such: the high level of resources not identified, poor promotion on domestic and foreign market

  13. An Analysis of Industry and Sector-Specific Impacts of a Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Escolar, Royce Elvin O.

    2004-01-01

    The paper aims to identify industry and macrolevel factors that affect competitiveness of selected sectors upon the implementation of the JPEPA. Priority sectors identified by the Department of Trade and Industry, accounting for 82% of total Philippine exports to Japan in 2002, were included in the study. For Philippine industries to gain, market access issues on trade facilitation, nontariff barriers and recognition of standards come into play especially for the service and agricultural sect...

  14. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, Colin; Boardman, Richard; McKellar, Michael; Sabharwall, Piyush; Ruth, Mark; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Changes are occurring throughout the U.S. economy, especially in regard to how energy is generated and used in the electricity, buildings, industrial, and transportation sectors. These changes are being driven by environmental and energy security concerns and by economics. The electric-sector market share of natural gas and variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar photovoltaics (PV), continues to grow. The buildings sector is evolving to meet efficiency standards, the transportation sector is evolving to meet efficiency and renewable fuels standards, and the industrial sector is evolving to reduce emissions. Those changes are driving investment and utilization strategies for generation and other assets. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector’s evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are jointly investigating potential synergies between technologies exploiting nuclear and renewable energy sources. The two laboratories have held several joint workshops since 2011. Those workshops brought together experts in both areas to identify synergies and potential opportunities to work together. Workshop participants identified nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs) as one of the opportunities and recommended investigating whether N-R HESs could both generate dispatchable electricity without carbon emissions and provide clean energy to industrial processes. They also recommended analyzing the potential for N-R HESs to provide dispatchable capacity to a grid with high penetrations of non-dispatchable resources and to investigate whether real inertia provided by thermal power cycles within N-R HESs provides value to the grid. This report is one of a series of reports INL and NREL are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of N-R HESs. Previous reports

  15. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Changes are occurring throughout the U.S. economy, especially in regard to how energy is generated and used in the electricity, buildings, industrial, and transportation sectors. These changes are being driven by environmental and energy security concerns and by economics. The electric-sector market share of natural gas and variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar photovoltaics (PV), continues to grow. The buildings sector is evolving to meet efficiency standards, the transportation sector is evolving to meet efficiency and renewable fuels standards, and the industrial sector is evolving to reduce emissions. Those changes are driving investment and utilization strategies for generation and other assets. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector’s evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are jointly investigating potential synergies between technologies exploiting nuclear and renewable energy sources. The two laboratories have held several joint workshops since 2011. Those workshops brought together experts in both areas to identify synergies and potential opportunities to work together. Workshop participants identified nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs) as one of the opportunities and recommended investigating whether N-R HESs could both generate dispatchable electricity without carbon emissions and provide clean energy to industrial processes. They also recommended analyzing the potential for N-R HESs to provide dispatchable capacity to a grid with high penetrations of non-dispatchable resources and to investigate whether real inertia provided by thermal power cycles within N-R HESs provides value to the grid. This report is one of a series of reports INL and NREL are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of N-R HESs. Previous reports

  16. The Appropriateness of Trade Liberalization in the Industrial Sector of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Ilyasova, Tatiana

    2003-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate the appropriateness of implementation of trade liberalization in Russia by analyzing the current performance of the Russian industrial sector and evaluating its nominal and effective protection levels. The estimation of the effective level of protection is performed through the calculation of effective rates of protection for each industrial sector. Effective rates of protection are estimated with the simple Corden Method to examine the difference in protecti...

  17. FDI technology spillover and threshold effect of the technology gap: regional differences in the Chinese industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Huifang; Cao, Zhiyong; Wang, Bowen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new perspective that there is a double-threshold effect in terms of the technology gap existing in the foreign direct investment (FDI) technology spillover process in different regional Chinese industrial sectors. In this paper, a double-threshold regression model was established to examine the relation between the threshold effect of the technology gap and technology spillover. Based on the provincial panel data of Chinese industrial sectors from 2000 to 2011, the empirical results reveal that there are two threshold values, which are 1.254 and 2.163, in terms of the technology gap in the industrial sector in eastern China. There are also two threshold values in both the central and western industrial sector, which are 1.516, 2.694 and 1.635, 2.714, respectively. The technology spillover is a decreasing function of the technology gap in both the eastern and western industrial sectors, but a concave curve function of the technology gap is in the central industrial sectors. Furthermore, the FDI technology spillover has increased gradually in recent years. Based on the empirical results, suggestions were proposed to elucidate the introduction of the FDI and the improvement in the industrial added value in different regions of China.

  18. Assessment of annual whole-body occupational radiation exposure in education, research and industrial sectors in Ghana (2000-09)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasford, F.; Owusu-banahene, J.; Otoo, F.; Adu, S.; Sosu, E. K.; Amoako, J. K.; Darko, E. O.; Emi-reynolds, G.; Nani, E. K.; Boadu, M.; Arwui, C. C.; Yeboah, J.

    2008-01-01

    Institutions in the education, research and industrial sectors in Ghana are quite few in comparison to the medical sector. Occupational exposure to radiation in the education, research and industrial sectors in Ghana have been analysed for a 10 y period between 2000 and 2009, by extracting dose data from the database of the Radiation Protection Inst. (Ghana)) Atomic Energy Commission. Thirty-four institutions belonging to the three sectors were monitored out of which ∼65 % were in the industrial sector. During the 10 y study period, monitored institutions ranged from 18 to 23 while the exposed workers ranged from 246 to 156 between 2000 and 2009. Annual collective doses received by all the exposed workers reduced by a factor of 2 between 2000 and 2009. This is seen as a reduction in annual collective doses in education/research and industrial sectors by ∼39 and ∼62 %, respectively, for the 10 y period. Highest and least annual collective doses of 182.0 man mSv and 68.5 man mSv were all recorded in the industrial sector in 2000 and 2009, respectively. Annual average values for dose per institution and dose per exposed worker decreased by 49 and 42.9 %, respectively, between 2000 and 2009. Average dose per exposed worker for the 10 y period was least in the industrial sector and highest in the education/research sector with values 0.6 and 3.7 mSv, respectively. The mean of the ratio of annual occupationally exposed worker (OEW) doses for the industrial sector to the annual OEW doses for the education/research sector was 0.67, a suggestion that radiation protection practices are better in the industrial sector than they are in the education/research sector. Range of institutional average effective doses within the education/research and industrial sectors were 0.059-6.029, and 0.110-2.945 mSv, respectively. An average dose per all three sectors of 11.87 mSv and an average dose per exposed worker of 1.12 mSv were realised for the entire study period. The entire

  19. Regional total factor energy efficiency: An empirical analysis of industrial sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhao-Hua; Zeng, Hua-Lin; Wei, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate energy efficiency under framework of total factor energy efficiency. ► We focus on industry sector of China. ► We use statistical data of industrial enterprises above designated size. ► Energy efficiencies among regions in China are obvious because of technological differences. ► Large scale of investment should be stopped especially in central and western regions. -- Abstract: The rapid growth of the Chinese economy has resulted in great pressure on energy consumption, especially the energy intensive sector – the industrial sector. To achieve sustainable development, China has to consider how to promote energy efficiency to meet the demand of Chinese rapid economic growth, as the energy efficiency of China is relatively low. Meanwhile, the appeal of energy saving and emission reduction has been made by the Chinese central government. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the energy efficiency of industrial sector in China and to assess efficiency development probabilities. The framework of total factor energy efficiency index is adopted to determine the discrepancy of energy efficiency in Chinese industrial sector based on the provincial statistical data of industrial enterprises above designated size in 30 provinces from 2005 to 2009, with gross industrial output as the output value and energy consumption, average remaining balance of capital assets and average amount of working force as the input values. Besides, in considerate of the regional divide of China, namely eastern, central, and western, and economic development differences in each region, energy efficiency of each region is also analysed in this paper. The results show that there is room for China to improve its energy efficiency, especially western provinces which have large amount of energy input excess. Generally speaking, insufficient technological investment and fail of reaching best scale of manufacture are two factors preventing China from energy

  20. Examining the Feasibilities of Industry 4.0 for the Hospitality Sector with the Lens of Management Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim, S.; Cang, Shuang; Yu, H.N.A.; Liu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Industry 4.0 and its impact in the manufacturing sector are well documented. However, the service sector is understudied, and it is also facing the challenges of mass customization, digital enhancement, smart work environment, and efficient supply chain. The aim of this study is to fill this research gap by exploring the issues of Industry 4.0 in the service sector, with cases in the hospitality industry. All the challenges of Industry 4.0 require continuous innovation and learning, which is ...

  1. 2006 statistical data of the French gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    This document makes a synthesis of the 2006 results of the annual inquiry about the French natural gas industry: 1 - organization of the French gas market (production, transport, methane terminals, storage facilities, distribution, commercialization, main steps of the opening of the gas market in France); 2 - the 2006 gas year (consumption, imports, production, stockpiles); 3 - results of the 2006 inquiry: infrastructures (storage capacities, pipelines and distribution network), production (evolution of natural gas and industrial gases production, uses), transport (inputs and outputs, geographical origin of inputs in 2005 and 2006, raw imports evolution since 1973), storage (evolution of stockpiles variation), natural gas supplies (sectoral uses), supplies by region and by sector in 2006, consumption by sector; 4 - power generation by gas cogeneration in 2005 (plants characteristics, classification, cogeneration status (in TWh), regional distribution of plants); 5 - 2006 monthly changes (inputs, net imports, consumption and useful stockpile, consumption and net imports); 6 - international comparisons (gas share in the overall energy consumption, consumption per user, evolution of main sectors of consumption in some European countries since 1973); 7 - appendixes: French transportation network, main gas roads in Europe, European gas fluxes, 2006 energy status, gas statuses during the past three years. (J.S.)

  2. Evaluation in the Private Sector: Evolution and Professionalization of Quality Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godfroij, A.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews different approaches to quality management in the private sector from an evolutionary perspective. Two dimensions of this evolution are crucial: the scope of evaluation (“product” versus “system”) and the objective versus intersubjective orientation. Experiences within the

  3. A strategic review of the petroleum refinery industry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    The report studies the environmental performance of the U.K. petroleum refinery industry sector with reference to world-wide best practice and describes the five most practical strategic options for emission reduction in the context of projected technology, cost, demand, capacity and legislation. (author)

  4. Simulating the evolution of industries using a dynamic behavioural model

    OpenAIRE

    Kunc, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Investment decisions determine that not only the evolution of industries is hard to forecast with certainty but also industries may have different dynamic behaviour and evolutionary paths. In this paper we present a behavioural framework to simulate the evolution of industries. Two factors determine the dynamic behaviour of an industry: managerial decision-making and the interconnected set of resources. Managerial decision-making significantly affects the dynamic behaviour of firms. Bounded r...

  5. Importancia actual de la oleoquímica en el sector industrial de tensioactivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Herrera, Carlos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Oleochemistry is an industrial sector with various applications and important developments in the field of surfactans. In this article different parts are dedicated to: A Sources of oleochemical raw materials; B Valorization of the oleochemistry in the field of surfactants; C Hydrophilic heads based on carbohydrates or proteins, D Examples of surfactants currently prepared at industrial scale, such as esters of polyols, alkylpolyglucosides, glucamides and lipoaminoacids. Collaboration between industrial sectors of surfactants and oleaginous products has evidenced various strong points. Ecological, energetic, economical and sanitary reasons will probably increase this collaboration in the future.La oleoquímica es un sector industrial con aplicaciones múltiples e importantes desarrollos en el campo de los tensioactivos. En el presente artículo se dedican apartados a: A fuentes de materias primas oleoquímicas, B valorización de la oleoquímica en el campo de los tensioactivos, C partes hidrófilas de los tensioactivos basadas en carbohidratos o en proteínas, D ejemplos de biotensioactivos actualmente preparados a escala industrial, tales como ésteres de polioles, alquilpoliglucósidos, glucamidas, ésteres de sacarosa y lipoaminoácidos. La colaboración entre los sectores industriales de tensioactivos y de productos oleaginosos ha puesto en evidencia numerosos puntos fuertes. Muy probablemente, razones energéticas, económicas, ecológicas y sanitarias harán que esta colaboración se incremente en el futuro.

  6. ISO 9001 - Certificates by industrial sector in the world as a key decision variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Hys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present and analyse trends in the scope of the implementation of quality certificates compliant with the ISO 9001 standard. The analysis will concern the trend in the sectoral approach all over the world. The preparation of data, their analysis and drawing conclusions have been made on the basis of the desk research method. The data was gathered by means of an analysis of source materials such as, among others: announcements, press releases, reports for industries, publicly available reports of companies and research institutions, information from the Internet.The main conclusion is the fact that the number of certificates compliant with the ISO 9001 standard is constantly growing in the world. The kind of business activity determines the engagement in the certificate implementation. The subject of research provided conclusions and at the same time, became an inspiration for defining research issues such as the ex-post analysis of the information available, drawing conclusions and drawing up directions of development. The retrospective analysis in the scope of the sectoral analysis of ISO 9001 trends, drawing conclusions and drawing up evolution directions is the author’s original contribution.

  7. Comparative Advantage, Exchange Rates, and Sectoral Trade Balances of Major Industrial Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen S. Golub

    1994-01-01

    This paper uses a Ricardian framework to clarify the role of microeconomic and macroeconomic factors governing the time-series and cross-sectional behavior of sectoral trade balances. Unit labor costs and trade balances are calculated for several sectors for the seven major industrial countries. The time-series and cross-sectional variation in sectoral unit labor costs is decomposed into relative productivity, wage differentials, and exchange rate variations. The main findings are that change...

  8. Role of Sectoral Transformation in Evolution of Water Management in Agricultural Catchments: A Socio-hydrologic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roobavannan, Mahendran; Kandasamy, Jaya; Pande, Saket; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable development in society depends on an understanding of how communities interact with the natural system and how they co-evolve in time. Increasingly the livelihood and future viability of agricultural communities are being threatened by competition for water between food production and the environment. This study focused on this water-agriculture-environment nexus as it played out in the Murrumbidgee River Basin, Australia, and how co-evolution of society and water management occurred. Over 100 years of agricultural development the Murrumbidgee Basin has experienced a "pendulum swing" in terms of water allocation entirely to agriculture production at the expense of the environment, and eventually to the reallocation of water back to the environment. This pendulum swing has been attributed to a combination of increased national wealth, reduced share of agriculture in the national GDP, and to increased environment awareness of environmental degradation. Environment awareness depends on the structure of the economy, education, and socio-politic structure. As the basin economy develops accompanied by sectoral transformation, basin production becomes increasingly dependent on the industry sector. A loss of economic dependence on agriculture leads to a lower emphasis on the need to allocate water to agriculture. Society's value and preference turns around and is motivated towards the protection of the ecosystem. We hypothesize that in the competition of water use between economic livelihood and environment well being of society, economic diversification pushed the balance in towards the environment. In order to test this hypothesis, we developed a coupled socio-hydrologic model, which explicitly considers bi-directional feedbacks between human and water systems to explore how the competition for water played out in the Murrumbidgee. We demonstrate this by linking the dynamics of the economy of the whole (agriculture and industry) to community sentiment for the

  9. The gas sector in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, G.

    2000-05-01

    Natural gas in Canada represents 29% of the primary energy and 42% of the energy used in the industrial sector. The biggest users are the manufacturing industries for which the low cost of natural gas and the quality of products resulting from its use represent a serious advantage in a more and more competitive market. This document takes stock of the situation of natural gas and gas-related technologies in Quebec. The first part recalls the historical evolution of the gas distribution network in Quebec and its present day situation. Then, some technical-economical data about the consumption of natural gas in Quebec are presented according to the sectors of use. The third part treats of the R and D activities linked with the gas sector, in particular the activities of the two main research organizations: the technical centre of natural gas and the research group in gas technologies of the Polytechnique school of Montreal. (J.S.)

  10. Energy Audit as a Tool for Improving System Efficiency in Industrial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Gopi Srinath,; N. Uday Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of energy consumption in industrial sector, the methodology and results of energy audits (EA) performed in industrial sites and potentials for energy efficiency (EE) improvements. The present state of industrial energy in India could be characterized by significant technological out-of–date, low energy efficiency and low level of environmental protection. Presented analysis of the results of conducted energy audits in selected industrial...

  11. Canonical Sectors and Evolution of Firms in the US Stock Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Lorien; Chachra, Ricky; Alemi, Alexander; Ginsparg, Paul; Sethna, James

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we show how unsupervised machine learning can provide a more objective and comprehensive broad-level sector decomposition of stocks. Classification of companies into sectors of the economy is important for macroeconomic analysis, and for investments into the sector-specific financial indices and exchange traded funds (ETFs). Historically, these major industrial classification systems and financial indices have been based on expert opinion and developed manually. Our method, in contrast, produces an emergent low-dimensional structure in the space of historical stock price returns. This emergent structure automatically identifies ``canonical sectors'' in the market, and assigns every stock a participation weight into these sectors. Furthermore, by analyzing data from different periods, we show how these weights for listed firms have evolved over time. This work was partially supported by NSF Grants DMR 1312160, OCI 0926550 and DGE-1144153 (LXH).

  12. Evaluation of Virtual Water Trade by the Industrial Sector of Zanjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Tahami Pourzarandi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water crisis is of utmost importance due to the growing demand and consumption of water, especially in developing countries where its production and food security are facing serious challenges. Virtual water trade has been proposed as one strategy to combat the water scarcity crisis in arid and semi-arid regions. The strategy is based on the import of food and water-intensive supplies from neighboring regions that enjoy adequate supplies of water. Given the fact that the industrial sector has been proposed to serve as the basis of development in Zanjan Province, the present study was conducted to investigate the virtual water trade by the industrial sector in this province. For the purposes of this study, data from the statistical period 2010-2011 were obtained from the Statistical Center of Iran on enterprises employing ten member staffs or above. The data were used to categorize the industries surveyed, their water demands, and products to estimate the quantities of water needed for their continued operation. It was found that the highest quantities of virtual water in Zanjan are allocated to coking and petroleum plants, paper and cellulosic industries, and food and beverage processing factories with average values of 32.70, 26.14, and 11.63 cubic meters per million Rials, respectively. In addition, the total amount of virtual water exported from the industrial units operating in Zanjan Province is estimated at about 3.10 MCM, 50% of which belongs to base metal production. Conclusion: Our findings show that the industrial sector in Zanjan Province is a net exporter of virtual water.

  13. The value premium within and across GICS industry sectors in a pre-financial collapse sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E. Scislaw

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A portfolio manager employing a top-down/bottom-up method who seeks to capture the value premium long promised in academic literature would want to first determine whether the premium exists across industries and not just observed in firm-specific book-to-market (BE/ME relationships. Next, the investor would want to know if BE/ME characteristics are stable across these defined homogeneous groups or whether there is considerable variation. Results show that certain industries appear to have a natural or structural tendency to reflect either a high or low BE/ME characteristic. Results also shows that growth-oriented industry BE/ME characteristics appear to be more stable than value-oriented industries over time. Moreover, stocks from growth-oriented industries tend to cluster at high rates in the lowest BE/ME quintile, while stocks from value-oriented industries appear more evenly distributed across middle BE/ME quintiles over time. Value stocks found in growth sectors outperform value stocks in value sectors, contrary to prior published results. The January premium exists both within and across Global Industry Classification Standard industry sectors, but the value premium is not subsumed by the January effect in either analysis.

  14. Analysis of labour risks in the Spanish industrial aerospace sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN LAGUARDIA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Labour risk prevention is an activity integrated within Safety and Hygiene at Work in Spain. In 2003, the Electronic Declaration for Accidents at Work, Delt@ (DELTA was introduced. The industrial aerospace sector is subject to various risks. Our objective is to analyse the Spanish Industrial Aerospace Sector (SIAS using the ACSOM methodology to assess its labour risks and to prioritise preventive actions. The SIAS and the Services Subsector (SS were created and the relevant accident rate data were obtained. The ACSOM method was applied through double contrast (deviation and translocation of the SIAS or SS risk polygon with the considered pattern, accidents from all sectors (ACSOM G or the SIAS. A list of risks was obtained, ordered by action phases. In the SIAS vs. ACSOM G analysis, radiation risks were the worst, followed by overstrains. Accidents caused by living beings were also significant in the SS vs. SIAE, which will be able to be used to improve Risk Prevention. Radiation is the most significant risk in the SIAS and the SS. Preventive actions will be primary and secondary. ACSOM has shown itself to be a valid tool for the analysis of labour risks.

  15. Analysis of labour risks in the Spanish industrial aerospace sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguardia, Juan; Rubio, Emilio; Garcia, Ana; Garcia-Foncillas, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Labour risk prevention is an activity integrated within Safety and Hygiene at Work in Spain. In 2003, the Electronic Declaration for Accidents at Work, Delt@ (DELTA) was introduced. The industrial aerospace sector is subject to various risks. Our objective is to analyse the Spanish Industrial Aerospace Sector (SIAS) using the ACSOM methodology to assess its labour risks and to prioritise preventive actions. The SIAS and the Services Subsector (SS) were created and the relevant accident rate data were obtained. The ACSOM method was applied through double contrast (deviation and translocation) of the SIAS or SS risk polygon with the considered pattern, accidents from all sectors (ACSOM G) or the SIAS. A list of risks was obtained, ordered by action phases. In the SIAS vs. ACSOM G analysis, radiation risks were the worst, followed by overstrains. Accidents caused by living beings were also significant in the SS vs. SIAE, which will be able to be used to improve Risk Prevention. Radiation is the most significant risk in the SIAS and the SS. Preventive actions will be primary and secondary. ACSOM has shown itself to be a valid tool for the analysis of labour risks.

  16. Development of petroleum sector and prospects in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saidi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that there appears to be Anemendous potential for future development in Yemen's petroleum sector. This projection is based on the significant events and changes which mark the evolution of Yemen's petroleum industry. These events and changes are detailed in this paper

  17. CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction allocation over provincial industrial sectors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Zhu, Qingyuan; Liang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DEA is used to evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of 30 provincial industrial sector in China. • A new DEA-based model is proposed to allocate the CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets. • The context-dependent DEA is used to characterize the production plans. - Abstract: High energy consumption by the industry of developing countries has led to the problems of increasing emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) (primarily CO_2) and worsening energy shortages. To address these problems, many mitigation measures have been utilized. One major measure is to mandate fixed reductions of GHG emission and energy consumption. Therefore, it is important for each developing country to disaggregate their national reduction targets into targets for various geographical parts of the country. In this paper, we propose a DEA-based approach to allocate China’s national CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets over Chinese provincial industrial sectors. We firstly evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of Chinese industry considering energy consumption and GHG emissions. Then, considering the necessity of mitigating GHG emission and energy consumption, we develop a context-dependent DEA technique which can better characterize the changeable production with reductions of CO_2 emission and energy intensity, to help allocate the national reduction targets over provincial industrial sectors. Our empirical study of 30 Chinese regions for the period 2005–2010 shows that the industry of China had poor energy and environmental efficiency. Considering three major geographical areas, eastern China’s industrial sector had the highest efficiency scores while in this aspect central and western China were similar to each other at a lower level. Our study shows that the most effective allocation of the national reduction target requires most of the 30 regional industrial to reduce CO_2 emission and energy intensity, while a

  18. Screening of Industrial Development Policies, Plans and Programs of Strategic Environmental Assessment in the Industrial Sector of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    J. Nouri; B. Maghsoudlou Kamali

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the quality of capacity building and institutional strengthening of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in the industrial sector as well as determining the environmental strategies for industrial sustainable development in Iran. The leading aim of this paper has been to systematize the environmental considerations in industrial development strategies, policies, plans and programs in the highest strategic decision making processes and to ensure environ...

  19. Identifying and Mitigating the Impact of the Budget Control Act on High Risk Sectors and Tiers of the Defense Industrial Base: Assessment Approach to Industrial Base Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Ü~åÖÉ= - 351 - products, similar to those found in a bill of material. Figure 3 provides an example of the relationship between sectors , sub- sectors ...defense aircraft. Defense aircraft are divided in three main sub- sectors : fixed-wing, rotary wing, and unmanned systems. The fixed-wing sub- sector ...Risk Sectors and Tiers of the Defense Industrial Base: Assessment Approach to Industrial Base Risks Lirio Avilés, Engineer, MIBP, OUSD(AT&L) Sally

  20. Gradually, the industry world opens for transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This article comments some noticeable evolutions of various industrial sectors towards information transparency. It indicates the four types of structures which exist in France for local information on nuclear installations (CLI and CI), on waste processing installations (CSS), and on industrial pollutions (SPPPI), comments the efforts made by the different actors and industries of the French nuclear sector (public debates, visits, legal framework, local commissions of information, authorities like ASN and IRSN), addresses the case of chemical industry (a slow implementation of transparency due to a different and more spread organisation), and outlines that the oil and gas industry presents less opportunities for a dialogue

  1. Energy efficiency of China's industry sector: An adjusted network DEA (data envelopment analysis)-based decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingnan; Wang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    The process of energy conservation and emission reduction in China requires the specific and accurate evaluation of the energy efficiency of the industry sector because this sector accounts for 70 percent of China's total energy consumption. Previous studies have used a “black box” DEA (data envelopment analysis) model to obtain the energy efficiency without considering the inner structure of the industry sector. However, differences in the properties of energy utilization (final consumption or intermediate conversion) in different industry departments may lead to bias in energy efficiency measures under such “black box” evaluation structures. Using the network DEA model and efficiency decomposition technique, this study proposes an adjusted energy efficiency evaluation model that can characterize the inner structure and associated energy utilization properties of the industry sector so as to avoid evaluation bias. By separating the energy-producing department and energy-consuming department, this adjusted evaluation model was then applied to evaluate the energy efficiency of China's provincial industry sector. - Highlights: • An adjusted network DEA (data envelopment analysis) model for energy efficiency evaluation is proposed. • The inner structure of industry sector is taken into account for energy efficiency evaluation. • Energy final consumption and energy intermediate conversion processes are separately modeled. • China's provincial industry energy efficiency is measured through the adjusted model.

  2. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-05-21

    The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG reduction or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as reductions in GHG emissions within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or emissions reduction goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.

  3. Curriculum Development Based On INQF and Business/Industries Sector for Improvement Competency of Basic Pattern Making Students at Vocational High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilasari, Yoni; Dasining

    2018-04-01

    In this era of globalization, every human resource is faced with a competitive climate that will have a major impact on the development of the business and industrial sector. Therefore it is deemed necessary to research the development of curriculum based on INQF and the business/industries sector in order to improve the competence of Sewing Technique for Vocational High School Students of fashion clothing program. The development of curricula based on INQF and the business/industries is an activity to produce a curriculum that suits the needs of the business and industries sector. The formulation of the problem in this research are: (1) what is the curriculum based on INQF and the business/industries sector?; (2) how is the process and procedure of curriculum development of fashion program profession based on INQF and the business/industries sector?; And (3) how the result of the curriculum of fashion expertise based on INQF and the business/industries sector. The aims of research are: (1) explain what is meant by curriculum based on INQF and business/industries sector; (2) to know the process and procedure of curriculum development of fashion program profession based on INQF and the business/industries sectors ; And (3) to know result the curriculum of clothing expertise based on INQF and the business/industries sector. The research method chosen in developing curriculum based on INQFand business/industry sector is using by 4-D model from Thiagarajan, which includes: (1) define; (2) design; (3) development; And (4) disseminate. Step 4, not done but in this study. The result of the research shows that: (1) the curriculum based on INQF and the business/industries sector is the curriculum created by applying the principles and procedures of the Indonesian National Qualification Framework (INQF) that will improve the quality of graduates of Vocational High School level 2, and establish cooperation with Business/industries as a guest teacher (counselor) in the

  4. Automation and control trends in the upstream sector of the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plucenio, Agustinho; Pagano, Daniel J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP em Automacao, Controle e Instrumentacao para a Industria do Petroleo e Gas, PRH-34

    2004-07-01

    The need to continuously improve the aspects of Health, Safety and Environment to operators, installation's security, optimization of oil reservoir recovery in wells operating with different artificial lift methods, subject to different secondary recovery techniques, has motivated the development of technologies in the automation and control for the upstream sector of the oil industry. While the application of control and automation techniques is well established in the downstream sector of the oil industry that is not the case in the downstream sector. One tendency in this sector is the utilization of control via Field bus Networks. This technology uses equipment that communicate with each other in a two wire digital network and can be programmed to execute function blocks algorithms designed to perform a designed control strategy. The most noticeable benefits are the improvements in the process performance and the equipment reusability and interoperability. Proprietary solutions can be replaced by systems composed of equipment supplied by different manufacturers connected in the same network. These equipment operate according to a strategy designed by automation and control engineers under the supervision of professionals working in computer terminals located in different company departments. Other gains are a better understanding about the industry processes, application of optimization techniques, fault detection, equipment maintenance follow-up, and improved operators working conditions and workers qualification. Other tendencies are: permanent well monitoring. Either with installation of down hole sensors based on fiber grating sensors or surface sensors using embedded electronic processors. Developments of instrumentation technology for low cost multiphase flow measurements. Application of control techniques for flow regime control and optimization of reservoir recovery through better identification, optimization and Model Based Predictive Control

  5. Multi-sectoral decomposition in decoupling industrial growth from carbon emissions in the developed Jiangsu Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Qinli; Yang, Hong; Huang, Xianjin; Chuai, Xiaowei; Wu, Changyan

    2015-01-01

    ICE (Industrial carbon emission) is one of most important sources of anthropogenic carbon emissions. To reduce the carbon emissions, many countries, particularly China, have adjusted their industrial structures and improved energy efficiency. The complete decomposition technique and decoupling method were used to investigate and quantitatively analyze the main factors influencing the energy-related ICE in Jiangsu, the Chinese province with the largest energy consumption and carbon emissions. The importance of the sectoral dimension was taken into account by dividing the industry into three main departments consisting of 38 sub-sectors. The results indicated that the industry of Jiangsu was in a weak decoupling state from 2005 to 2012. The industrial output growth was the biggest driver of the increase in ICE, while energy efficiency advancement was the main cause for the reduction, in a weakening trend. The year of 2008 was an important breaking point when the optimization of industry structure came into play and global financial crisis took place. The biggest dilemma in Jiangsu is heavy industry is still dominant, especially the five sectors of them made the biggest contribution (88.2%) to ICE. Thankfully, there were five manufacturing industries had achieved low carbon economy at various degrees. - Highlights: • Multi-sectoral decomposition and decoupling were conducted to evaluate the ICE. • The industry of Jiangsu was in a weak decoupling state with an increasing trend. • The industrial output growth was the biggest driver for ICE from 2005 to 2012. • The optimization of industry structure came into play for the reduction since 2008. • Five backward and advanced industries were identified

  6. Industrial and institutional restructuring of the Russian electricity sector: Status and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engoian, Alda

    2006-01-01

    The reform of the Russian electricity industry represents one of the largest and most technically complex post-Soviet era industrial restructurings. This paper presents the framework, status, and perspectives for the Russian electricity sector liberalisation. Uncertainties regarding the effective implementation of the reform are specifically examined. Ultimately the critical analysis of the reform questions the feasibility and adequacy of the recommended measures in the specific Russian context. Current theories fail to answer a fundamental issue, namely how to promote investment in an obsolete electrical infrastructure and, more generally, whether a pure free market model is compatible with physical constraints posed by the electricity sector. A careless deregulation of the Russian electricity system could hinder the country's stable and sustainable development, as its economy and the population's service have traditionally been closely linked to the electricity industry

  7. Industrial and institutional restructuring of the Russian electricity sector: status and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engoian, A.

    2006-01-01

    The reform of the Russian electricity industry represents one of the largest and most technically complex post-Soviet era industrial restructurings. This paper presents the framework, status, and perspectives for the Russian electricity sector liberalisation. Uncertainties regarding the effective implementation of the reform are specifically examined. Ultimately the critical analysis of the reform questions the feasibility and adequacy of the recommended measures in the specific Russian context. Current theories fail to answer a fundamental issue, namely how to promote investment in an obsolete electrical infrastructure and, more generally, whether a pure free market model is compatible with physical constraints posed by the electricity sector. A careless deregulation of the Russian electricity system could hinder the country's stable and sustainable development, as its economy and the population's service have traditionally been closely linked to the electricity industry. (author)

  8. The critical role of the industrial sector in reaching long-term emission reduction, energy efficiency and renewable targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fais, Birgit; Sabio, Nagore; Strachan, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new industrial modelling approach in a whole energy systems model is developed. • The contribution of UK industry to long-term energy policy targets is analysed. • Emission reductions of up to 77% can be achieved in the UK industry until 2050. • The UK industry sector is essential for achieving the overall efficiency commitments. • UK industry can make a moderate contribution to the expansion of renewable energies. - Abstract: This paper evaluates the critical contribution of the industry sector to long-term decarbonisation, efficiency and renewable energy policy targets. Its methodological novelty is the incorporation of a process-oriented modelling approach based on a comprehensive technology database for the industry sector in a national energy system model for the UK (UKTM), allowing quantification of the role of both decarbonisation of upstream energy vectors and of mitigation options in the industrial sub-categories. This enhanced model is then applied in a comparative policy scenario analysis that explores various target dimensions on emission mitigation, renewable energy and energy efficiency at both a national and European level. The results show that ambitious emission cuts in the industry sector of up to 77% until 2050 compared to 2010 can be achieved. Moreover, with a reduction in industrial energy demand of up to 31% between 2010 and 2050, the sector is essential for achieving the overall efficiency commitments. The industry sector also makes a moderate contribution to the expansion of renewable energies mostly through the use of biomass for low-temperature heating services. However, additional sub-targets on renewable sources and energy efficiency need to be assessed critically, as they can significantly distort the cost-efficiency of the long-term mitigation pathway.

  9. Market potential for solar thermal energy supply systems in the United States industrial and commercial sectors: 1990--2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This report revises and extends previous work sponsored by the US DOE on the potential industrial market in the United States for solar thermal energy systems and presents a new analysis of the commercial sector market potential. Current and future industrial process heat demand and commercial water heating, space heating and space cooling end-use demands are estimated. The PC Industrial Model (PCIM) and the commercial modules of the Building Energy End-Use Model (BEEM) used by the DOE's Energy Information Administration (EIA) to support the recent National Energy Strategy (NES) analysis are used to forecast industrial and commercial end-use energy demand respectively. Energy demand is disaggregated by US Census region to account for geographic variation in solar insolation and regional variation in cost of alternative natural gas-fired energy sources. The industrial sector analysis also disaggregates demand by heat medium and temperature range to facilitate process end-use matching with appropriate solar thermal energy supply technologies. The commercial sector analysis disaggregates energy demand by three end uses: water heating, space heating, and space cooling. Generic conceptual designs are created for both industrial and commercial applications. Levelized energy costs (LEC) are calculated for industrial sector applications employing low temperature flat plate collectors for process water preheat; parabolic troughs for intermediate temperature process steam and direct heat industrial application; and parabolic dish technologies for high temperature, direct heat industrial applications. LEC are calculated for commercial sector applications employing parabolic trough technologies for low temperature water and space heating. Cost comparisons are made with natural gas-fired sources for both the industrial market and the commercial market assuming fuel price escalation consistent with NES reference case scenarios for industrial and commercial sector gas markets

  10. Is the Societal burden of fatal occupational injury different among NORA industry sectors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Elyce Anne

    2015-01-01

    Problem Since the implementation of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, safety and health in the work environment has seen marked improvement. Although these improvements are laudable, workplace hazards continue to plague the American worker. Understanding the economic burden of fatalities by industry sector is important to setting broad occupational safety and health research priorities. Cost estimates provide additional information about how fatal injuries affect society and hence can improve injury prevention program planning, policy analysis, evaluation, and advocacy. Method This study estimated the total, mean, and median societal costs by worker and case characteristic in 2003–2006 for the industry sectors identified in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). Analyses were conducted with restricted access to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data. These data exclude military personnel, decedents with unknown age or sex, and fatalities occurring in New York City. Societal costs were estimated using the cost-of-illness approach, which combines direct and indirect costs to yield an overall cost of an fatal occupational injury. Results During this period, the cost of the 22,197 fatal occupational injuries exceeded $21 billion. The mean and median costs of these fatalities were $960,000 and $944,000 respectively. Total societal costs by NORA sector ranged from a high of $5.8 billion in Services to a low of $530 million in Healthcare and Social Assistance with mean costs ranging from the nearly $800,000 in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing to almost $1.1 million in Mining. Discussion The societal costs—total, mean, and median costs—of case and worker characteristics for occupational fatal injuries varied within each NORA sector. Impact on Industry To have the greatest societal impact, these costs can be used to target resources for public and private sector

  11. FDI spillovers at different levels of industrial and spatial aggregation: Evidence from the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Bo, Chiara F.

    2013-01-01

    The European electricity sector has undergone significant reforms in recent years, in the direction of market opening, integration and privatization. National and regional markets are now characterized by the presence of domestic and foreign firms, both privately and publicly owned. Did foreign entry induce positive productivity spillovers to domestic firms in the electricity sector, both at the aggregate and disaggregated level, while also controlling for domestic firms' ownership? This paper examines this issue by focusing on regional foreign direct investment (FDI) spillovers in the aggregated electricity sector and in the disaggregated sub-sectors of generation and distribution. The results show the importance of industry aggregation in determining the existence and sign of regional FDI spillovers for domestic firms. FDI spillovers are then calculated based on a purely geographic scale, by considering the distance between each firm's city of location and firms in neighboring cities. The importance and sign of FDI spillovers is different with respect to the analysis based on regional administrative boundaries, suggesting that spatial aggregation, along with industrial aggregation, is relevant in accounting for productivity spillover effects of foreign presence in the EU electricity sector. - Highlights: • Has the post-reform entry of foreign firms in the EU electricity sector induced spillover effects? • Spatial and industrial disaggregation are important when evaluating foreign direct investment (FDI) spillovers. • Positive horizontal spillovers are found only in the distribution segment of the industry. • Vertical spillovers in generation are negative; positive in distribution. • Spillover intensity in distribution decreasing with distance; regional dimension relevant in generation

  12. The Garment Industry Development Corporation: A Case Study of a Sectoral Employment Development Approach. Sectoral Employment Development Learning Project Case Studies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Maureen

    The Garment Industry Development Corporation (GIDC) was founded in 1984 by a 3-member partnership that included the local union, industry associations, and local government. GIDC's goal was to support New York City's garment industry, which had been steadily losing jobs. GIDC exhibits the following characteristics of sectoral initiatives: it…

  13. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  14. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed

  15. Diverging business strategies towards climate change : a USA-Europe comparison for four sectors of industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerd, van der K.F.; Wit, de C.M.; Kolk, A.; Levy, D.L.; Vellinga, P.; Behlyarova, E.

    2004-01-01

    The research project has investigated what strategies specific sectors of industry develop to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In an USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have analysed emerging climate strategies in the oil industry, the automobile industry, the chemical industry and the bank and

  16. Rethinking environmental stress from the perspective of an integrated environmental footprint: Application in the Beijing industry sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingru; Huang, Kai; Ridoutt, Bradley G; Yu, Yajuan; Wei, Jing

    2018-05-13

    Individual footprint indicators are limited in that they usually only address one specific environmental aspect. For this reason, assessments involving multiple footprint indicators are preferred. However, the interpretation of a profile of footprint indicators can be difficult as the relative importance of the different footprint results is not readily discerned by decision-makers. In this study, a time series (1997-2012) of carbon, water and land footprints was calculated for industry sectors in the Beijing region using input-output analysis. An integrated environmental footprint (IEF) was subsequently developed using normalization and entropy weighting. The results show that steep increases in environmental footprint have accompanied Beijing's rapid economic development. In 2012, the Primary Industry had the largest IEF (8.32); however, the Secondary Industry had the greatest increase over the study period, from 0.19 to 6.37. For the Primary Industry, the greatest contribution to the IEF came from the land footprint. For the Secondary and Tertiary Industries, the water footprint was most important. Using the IEF, industry sectors with low resource utilization efficiency and high greenhouse gas emissions intensity can be identified. As such, the IEF can help to inform about industry sectors which should be given priority for modernization as well as the particular footprints that require priority attention in each sector. The IEF can also be helpful in identifying industry sectors that could be encouraged to expand within the Beijing region as they are especially efficient in terms of value adding relative to IEF. Other industries, over time, may be better located in other regions that do not face the same environmental pressures as Beijing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Sectoral Approach to Training in the Printing Industry and the Hospital Sector. Synthesis Report of a Study in Five European Countries. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, John

    The development of sectoral training systems in two economic sectors--the printing industry and the sector of health care in hospitals--was examined in a study that entailed parallel research projects in five European countries: Belgium, Latvia, The Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom. The study was based on the assumption that the…

  18. Building a comprehensive mill-level database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model of the U.S. pulp and paper sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Nabanita; Spence, Kelley; Sood, Saloni; Rosati, Jacky Ann

    2015-01-01

    Air emissions from the U.S. pulp and paper sector have been federally regulated since 1978; however, regulations are periodically reviewed and revised to improve efficiency and effectiveness of existing emission standards. The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant, sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with regulatory development. The model utilizes a multi-sector, multi-product dynamic linear modeling framework that evaluates the economic impact of emission reduction strategies for multiple air pollutants. The ISIS model considers facility-level economic, environmental, and technical parameters, as well as sector-level market data, to estimate the impacts of environmental regulations on the pulp and paper industry. Specifically, the model can be used to estimate U.S. and global market impacts of new or more stringent air regulations, such as impacts on product price, exports and imports, market demands, capital investment, and mill closures. One major challenge to developing a representative model is the need for an extensive amount of data. This article discusses the collection and processing of data for use in the model, as well as the methods used for building the ISIS pulp and paper database that facilitates the required analyses to support the air quality management of the pulp and paper sector.

  19. Episodes and Epochs in the Evolution of Danish Textile and Fashion Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boujarzadeh, Behnam; Turcan, Romeo V.; Dholakia, Nikhilesh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore the emergence and evolution of industries. Specifically we investigate the episodes and epochs in the emergence and evolution of Danish Textile and Fashion Industry. We collected historical data on Danish Textile and Fashion Industry between 1945 and 2015. We employ radar...

  20. Modelling of energy / technology actions and measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the industrial sector (the industry challenge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyboer, J.; Bailie, A.J.; Sadownik, B.

    2001-01-01

    The potential in Canadian industry for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is assessed in this report. The analysis is aimed at providing a comprehensive and integrated evaluation of a wide spectrum of technology and energy actions available to the industrial sector in Canada, providing estimates of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, costs and cost effectiveness for different actions by 2010, and simulating industry response to defined measures approved by representatives of the industry sector sub-table. The impacts of a set of measures was determined using in-house models. Four measures were tested against several actions including primary fossil and electricity consumption, using regionally specific energy prices, a discount rate approximating 40 per cent and growth rates derived from the Analysis and Modelling Group. Enhancement of voluntary initiatives, enhanced cogeneration, financial incentives for capital investment to improve efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and a set of cost-of-carbon-dioxide simulations were the measures tested. Total energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions by sector and in aggregate are provided as well as the costs. An indication of the total cost of reduction per tonne, some sense of the cost of the permit and the quantity of a subsidy required to induce decision-makers to purchase the more efficient technology are also provided. 9 refs., tabs

  1. Financing of private power development and power sector reform in emerging nations: an essential nexus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, Reinier

    1995-01-01

    This article attempts to demonstrate and illustrate important relationships between the concept of the independent economic regulator and the evolution of emerging nation electric power sectors from patterns of government dominance that have undermined both their efficiency and their receptivity to substantial private sector involvement. It re-emphasizes the important relationships between industry structure, competition, market mechanisms and regulation; and the important distinctions between the different roles government can and should play in the power sector in different stages of evolution -as owner, manager, regulator and political policy maker. It seeks to put content and meaning into the concept of the independent regulator in the broader context of power sector reform. It distills from the experience of those countries with developed regulatory systems a series of practical guidelines or principles that may be helpful in the design and implementation of regulatory regimes for electricity and other infrastructural industries in emerging nations in the process of transformation from government dominated monopolies. (author)

  2. Evolution of stainless steels in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, Farhad

    2010-01-01

    Starting with the stainless steels used in the conventional industry, their adoption and successive evolutions in the nuclear industry, from one generation of nuclear reactors to another, is presented. Specific examples for several steels are given, covering fabrication procedures, qualification methods, property databases and design allowable stresses, to show how the ever-increasing demands for better performance and reliability, in particular under neutron irradiation, have been met. Particular attention is paid to the austenitic stainless steels types 304L, 316L, 316L(N), 316L(N)-IG, titanium stabilized grade 321, precipitation strengthened alloy 800, conventional and low activation ferritic/martensitic steels and their oxygen dispersion strengthening (ODS) derivatives. For each material, the evolution of the associated filler metal and welding techniques are also presented. (author)

  3. Regional water coefficients for U.S. industrial sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Boero; Donatella Pasqualini

    2017-01-01

    Designing policies for water systems management requires the capability to assess the economic impacts of water availability and to effectively couple water withdrawals by human activities with natural hydrologic dynamics. At the core of any scientific approach to these issues there is the estimation of water withdrawals by industrial sectors in the form of water coefficients, which are measurements of the quantity of water withdrawn per dollar of GDP or output. In this work we focus on the c...

  4. Occupational safety of different industrial sectors in Khartoum State, Sudan. Part 1: Safety performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Gehan R; El-Marakby, Fadia A; H Deign El-Nor, Yasser; Nofal, Faten H; Zakaria, Adel M

    2012-12-01

    Safety performance evaluation enables decision makers improve safety acts. In Sudan, accident records, statistics, and safety performance were not evaluated before maintenance of accident records became mandatory in 2005. This study aimed at evaluating and comparing safety performance by accident records among different cities and industrial sectors in Khartoum state, Sudan, during the period from 2005 to 2007. This was a retrospective study, the sample in which represented all industrial enterprises in Khartoum state employing 50 workers or more. All industrial accident records of the Ministry of Manpower and Health and those of different enterprises during the period from 2005 to 2007 were reviewed. The safety performance indicators used within this study were the frequency-severity index (FSI) and fatal and disabling accident frequency rates (DAFR). In Khartoum city, the FSI [0.10 (0.17)] was lower than that in Bahari [0.11 (0.21)] and Omdurman [0.84 (0.34)]. It was the maximum in the chemical sector [0.33 (0.64)] and minimum in the metallurgic sector [0.09 (0.19)]. The highest DAFR was observed in Omdurman [5.6 (3.5)] and in the chemical sector [2.5 (4.0)]. The fatal accident frequency rate in the mechanical and electrical engineering industry was the highest [0.0 (0.69)]. Male workers who were older, divorced, and had lower levels of education had the lowest safety performance indicators. The safety performance of the industrial enterprises in Khartoum city was the best. The safety performance in the chemical sector was the worst with regard to FSI and DAFR. The age, sex, and educational level of injured workers greatly affect safety performance.

  5. Defense Industrial Base: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    This Defense Industrial Base (DIB) Sector-Specific Plan (SSP), developed in collaboration with industry and government security partners, provides sector-level critical infrastructure and key resources (CI/KR...

  6. ENERGY SOURCES AND CARBON EMISSIONS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY SECTOR IN SOUTH ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Sarker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines CO2 emissions from electricity and fuel consumption of different energy sources consumed in the Iron and Steel Industry sector (non-ferrous included, also known as basic metal in five South Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The study finds that about 30% of the total energy in the manufacturing industry is used in this sector, which is about 11% of total industrial input, contributing approximately 13% to the Manufacturing Value Added (MVA. Electricity, on the other hand, shares almost 60% of total energy consumption in the five countries in South Asia, followed by natural gas, coal, kerosene and diesel. The study also finds that CO2 emissions vary across sectors in countries in which the study was conducted. For instance, while in Bangladesh CO2 emissions are primarily caused by electricity generation, in India the majority of CO2 emissions are originated from coal. On the contrary, CO2 emissions in Nepal are mostly generated through other fuels such as Charcoal, Diesel and Kerosene. This study provides some policy recommendations, which could help reduce CO2 emissions in the Iron and Steel Industry sector in the South Asian region.

  7. Market value stimulates CO2 reduction in non-industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacquiere, D.

    2008-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases by non-industrial sectors barely leads to additional costs. As a result there is no incentive to curb their emissions. In order to implement effective policy such an incentive is required though. Attaching a market value to the emission will provide such an incentive. [mk] [nl

  8. How industry can help us fight against botnets : Notes on regulating private-sector intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E Silva, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Could industry improve our response to botnet attacks? If so, how should this private sector participation be regulated? This paper examines how regulation could be used to facilitate private sector intervention against robot networks, also known as botnets. The first part of this paper is dedicated

  9. The Comprehensive Approach to Assessing the Economic Security of the Industry Sector in Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysov Oleg Ye.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The author carries out an empirical study of the level of economic security of the chemical industry sector of Ukraine in the direction of «production of polyvinyl chlorides». For this purpose the integral index of economic security has been calculated according to the model of functional-component blocks of economic security of sector, developed by the author. Application of this model allowed to research the algorithm of action of the model on the factual basis and to analyze the obtained indicators. This, in turn, made possible to draw a conclusion about the constructiveness and expediency of application of the model of basic functional-component blocks for calculating the level of economic security of the industry sector. With the help of this approach, with application of the complex, system-structural, dynamic and functional approaches, the level of economic security has been defined and the process of monitoring the status and level of economic security of the industry sector has been ensured.

  10. Industry evolution, submarket dynamics and strategic behavior among firms in offshore wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Drejer, Ina; Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to the understanding of competition and industry evolution by analysing how submarket dynamics and agency influence the development of the emerging industrial field of Danish offshore wind energy. We argue that industry evolution is sensitive to the balance between integrat...... integration, overlap and disintegration across submarkets. This balance depends on how strategic intent and behaviour influence submarket dynamics, leading to the conclusion that effects of agency and managerial intent should play a more prominent role in studies of industry evolution....

  11. PECULIARITIES OF THE ELECTROTECHNICAL INDUSTRY AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE PRODUCTION COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU (COSTACHE LUMINITA NICOLETA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrotechnical industry is in the top branch within the industrial development and the technical progress, currently providing a wide range of innovative products and services, and as a result of this dynamic development, the electrotechnical industry has currently become a key industry for many other industrial sectors. Electricity has established itself in most areas of activity due to its easy use, easy distance transport, the fact that it can be turned into other forms of energy and because it is the most suitable for the supply of automation processes. Consequently, given that industry is the key factor for the recovery, modernization and economic revival of the country, we can say that the electrotechnical industry also has a crucial influence on Romania’s social and economic evolution, and this evolution is in its turn the result of the production cost monitoring and control in this sector.

  12. Building a Comprehensive Mill-Level Database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) Model of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Nabanita; Spence, Kelley; Sood, Saloni; Rosati, Jacky Ann

    2015-01-01

    Air emissions from the U.S. pulp and paper sector have been federally regulated since 1978; however, regulations are periodically reviewed and revised to improve efficiency and effectiveness of existing emission standards. The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant, sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with regulatory development. The model utilizes a multi-sector, multi-product dynamic linear modeling framework that evaluates the economic impact of emission reduction strategies for multiple air pollutants. The ISIS model considers facility-level economic, environmental, and technical parameters, as well as sector-level market data, to estimate the impacts of environmental regulations on the pulp and paper industry. Specifically, the model can be used to estimate U.S. and global market impacts of new or more stringent air regulations, such as impacts on product price, exports and imports, market demands, capital investment, and mill closures. One major challenge to developing a representative model is the need for an extensive amount of data. This article discusses the collection and processing of data for use in the model, as well as the methods used for building the ISIS pulp and paper database that facilitates the required analyses to support the air quality management of the pulp and paper sector. PMID:25806516

  13. Co-evolution of industry strategies and government policies: The case of the brazilian automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, R.G. (Roberto Gonzalez); S.B. Rodrigues (Suzana)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the evolution of the automotive industry in Brazil and its key drivers. We argue that the rules of the game – industry policies – are an outcome of exchanges between the host government and industry. These arise from changes in economic and political environments and

  14. The Framework of Tunisian Textile and Clothing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kahia, Montassar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we will first present the textile and the clothing sector in the Tunisian economy. It is therefore very important to situate this sector in our economy, evaluating its various features and outline its strengths and weaknesses. We also focus on the historical evolution of Tunisian textile and clothing sector. We will establish then a comparison between Tunisia and China as part of the textile and clothing industry.

  15. Characteristics of occupational musculoskeletal disorders of five sectors in service industry between 2004 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Young-Ki; Kang, Dong-Mug; Kim, Jong-Eun; Jang, Bo-Young

    2017-01-01

    ' Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs)' have been mostly reported in the manufacturing industry but recently the occurrence of industrial injuries has been constantly increasing in the service industry. This research is going to analyze the data about workers' compensation for WRMSDs in five different service sectors and identify characteristics of occupations with the highest approved occupations. According to the data released from the Korea Worker's Compensation & Welfare Service, the overview of 12,730 cases of workers' compensation for WRMSDs in five service sectors from 2004 to 2013 is going to be analyzed and the source data is going to be classified by the Korean Standard Classification of Occupations to select the top five occupations that have the highest number of approval. After selecting each five occupations from the service sector that have work related musculoskeletal disorders, the result showed that the occupation with the highest number of approval in the health and social care sector were the early childhood educators, cooks in the school canteens in education services sector, garbage collectors in the sanitation and similar services sector, deliverymen in wholesale and retail, consumer goods repair and building cleaners in general management businesses such as those in building maintenance. The major event observed in the top five occupations was the overexertion and reaction as a cause of WRMSDs. The day when the WRMSDs mostly occurred was on Monday and the most likely time was 10 am. The median days away from work and lost working days are 29-90 days and 0-50 days respectively. The difference in each occupation was observed in year of service, age, and gender. 83.21% of the approved cases of workers' compensation for WRMSDs occurred in the top 25 occupations in all of the five service sectors, which meant that the approval of workers' compensation is concentrated in specific occupations. This research is going to suggest

  16. Energy savings potential in China's industrial sector: From the perspectives of factor price distortion and allocative inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Xiaoling; Sun, Chuanwang

    2015-01-01

    China's industrial energy consumption accounted for 70.82% of national and 14.12% of world energy usage in 2011. In the context of energy scarcity and environmental pollution, the industrial sector in China faces unsustainable growth problems. By adopting the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) framework, this paper analyzes the factor allocative efficiency of China's industrial sector, and estimates the energy savings potential from the perspective of allocative inefficiency. This paper focuses on three issues. The first is examining the factor allocative inefficiency of China's industrial sector. The second is measuring factor price distortion by the shadow price model. The third is estimating the energy savings potential in China's industrial sector during 2001–2009. Major conclusions are thus drawn. First, factor prices of capital, labor and energy are distorted in China due to government regulations. Moreover, energy price is relatively low compared to capital price, while is relatively high compared to labor price. Second, the industry-wide energy savings potential resulted from energy allocative inefficiency was about 9.71% during 2001–2009. The downward trend of energy savings potential implies the increasing energy allocative efficiency in China's industrial sector. Third, a transparent and reasonable pricing mechanism is conducive to improving energy allocative efficiency. - Highlights: • We measure energy savings potential resulted from allocative inefficiency in China's industrial sector. • Allocative inefficiency is explained based on the theoretical and empirical models. • Factor prices of capital, labor and energy are distorted because of government regulations. • Energy pricing reform is conducive to improving energy allocative efficiency

  17. Price regulation in the Spanish energy sectors: who benefits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arocena, Pablo; Contin, Ignacio; Huerta, Emilio

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the distribution of benefits between firms and consumers due to the price regulation of the Spanish energy sectors (electricity, oil fuels and gas) during the decade 1987-1997. To that effect, we compare the actual evolution of energy prices with alternate benchmarks in order to assess the potential existence of a pro-industry or a pro-consumer bias in the pricing policies followed by the regulator. Our results show a pro-industry-biased regulatory context, where consumers benefited very little from price control. The successive price adjustments over time allowed the companies to keep all the productivity gains and cost reductions and to increase their profitability rates relative to those achieved in the manufacturing sector. (Author)

  18. Price regulation in the Spanish energy sectors: who benefits?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arocena, Pablo; Contin, Ignacio; Huerta, Emilio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia. 31006, Pamplona (Spain); [Canterbury Business School, University of Kent Canterbury (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-01

    This paper analyses the distribution of benefits between firms and consumers due to the price regulation of the Spanish energy sectors (electricity, oil fuels and gas) during the decade 1987-1997. To that effect, we compare the actual evolution of energy prices with alternate benchmarks in order to assess the potential existence of a pro-industry or a pro-consumer bias in the pricing policies followed by the regulator. Our results show a pro-industry-biased regulatory context, where consumers benefited very little from price control. The successive price adjustments over time allowed the companies to keep all the productivity gains and cost reductions and to increase their profitability rates relative to those achieved in the manufacturing sector. (Author)

  19. Knowledge translation in tri-sectoral collaborations: An exploration of perceptions of academia, industry and healthcare collaborations in innovation adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Suzanne Sayuri; Fitzgerald, Louise; Morys-Carter, Megan M; Davie, Natasha L; Barker, Richard

    2018-02-01

    With the aging population and increase in chronic disease conditions, innovation to transform treatment pathways and service delivery will be necessary. The innovation adoption process however, can take 15 years before widespread adoption occurs in most healthcare systems. Current UK government policies to increase the facilitation of innovation adoption are under way. The aim of this study is to explore perceptions of tri-sectoral collaborations in the healthcare sector. The data in the study are drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015 of professionals in academia, industry and the healthcare sectors in England, focusing on Diabetes care. Academia and healthcare respondents had the least work experience outside of their sectors compared to the industry respondents. Healthcare and academia respondents rated the industry sector less trustworthy, unethical, having different goals and less understanding of the other sectors. Industry respondents had a more positive perspective towards potential collaborators. The results from the study demonstrate greater potential challenges to tri-sectoral collaborations and the government's knowledge translation policy, due to pre-conceived notions and lack of understanding of other sectors. The purely structural approach of establishing government mandated translational networks may be insufficient without active attempts to improve collaborative relationships. Mechanisms to facilitate trust building and collaboration are proposed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Decomposition of toxicity emission changes on the demand and supply sides: empirical study of the US industrial sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Kagawa, Shigemi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the changes in the toxicity of chemical emissions from the US industrial sector over the 1998-2009 period. Specifically, we employed a multiregional input-output analysis framework and integrated a supply-side index decomposition analysis (IDA) with a demand-side structural decomposition analysis (SDA) to clarify the main drivers of changes in the toxicity of production- and consumption-based chemical emissions. The results showed that toxic emissions from the US industrial sector decreased by 83% over the studied period because of pollution abatement efforts adopted by US industries. A variety of pollution abatement efforts were used by different industries, and cleaner production in the mining sector and the use of alternative materials in the manufacture of transportation equipment represented the most important efforts.

  1. Is the societal burden of fatal occupational injury different among NORA industry sectors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Elyce Anne

    2013-02-01

    Since the implementation of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, safety and health in the work environment has seen marked improvement. Although these improvements are laudable, workplace hazards continue to plague the American worker. Understanding the economic burden of fatalities by industry sector is important to setting broad occupational safety and health research priorities. Cost estimates provide additional information about how fatal injuries affect society and hence can improve injury prevention program planning, policy analysis, evaluation, and advocacy. This study estimated the total, mean, and median societal costs by worker and case characteristic in 2003-2006 for the industry sectors identified in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). Analyses were conducted with restricted access to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data. These data exclude military personnel, decedents with unknown age or sex, and fatalities occurring in New York City. Societal costs were estimated using the cost-of-illness approach, which combines direct and indirect costs to yield an overall cost of an fatal occupational injury. During this period, the cost of the 22,197 fatal occupational injuries exceeded $21 billion. The mean and median costs of these fatalities were $960,000 and $944,000 respectively. Total societal costs by NORA sector ranged from a high of $5.8 billion in Services to a low of $530 million in Healthcare and Social Assistance with mean costs ranging from the nearly $800,000 in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing to almost $1.1 million in Mining. The societal costs-total, mean, and median costs-of case and worker characteristics for occupational fatal injuries varied within each NORA sector. To have the greatest societal impact, these costs can be used to target resources for public and private sector research by industry. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Balancing health and industrial policy objectives in the pharmaceutical sector: lessons from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steve; McMahon, Meghan; Greyson, Devon

    2008-08-01

    Policy-makers worldwide struggle to balance health with industrial policy objectives in the pharmaceutical sector. Tensions arise over pricing and reimbursement in particular. What health plans view as necessary to maintain equitable access to medicines, industry views as inimical to R&D and innovation. Australia has grappled with this issue for years, even incorporating the goal of "maintaining a responsible and viable medicines industry" into its National Medicines Policy. This case study was conducted via a narrative review that examined Australia's experiences balancing health and industrial policy objectives in the pharmaceutical sector. The review included electronic databases, grey literature and government publications for reports on relevant Australian policy published over the period 1985-2007. While pharmaceutical companies claim that Australia's pricing and reimbursement policies suppress drug prices and reduce profits, national policy audits indicate these claims are misguided. Australia appears to have secured relatively low prices for generics and "me-too drugs" while paying internationally competitive prices for "breakthrough" medicines. Simultaneously, Australia has focused efforts on local pharmaceutical investment through a variety of industry-targeted R&D incentive policies. Despite the fact that policy reviews suggest that Australia has achieved balance between health and industrial policy objectives, the country continues to face criticism from industry that its health goals harm innovation and R&D. Recent reforms raise the question whether Australia can sustain the apparent balance.

  3. Carbon Capture and Utilization in the Industrial Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarras, Peter C; Comello, Stephen; Bains, Praveen; Charoensawadpong, Panunya; Reichelstein, Stefan; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2017-10-03

    The fabrication and manufacturing processes of industrial commodities such as iron, glass, and cement are carbon-intensive, accounting for 23% of global CO 2 emissions. As a climate mitigation strategy, CO 2 capture from flue gases of industrial processes-much like that of the power sector-has not experienced wide adoption given its high associated costs. However, some industrial processes with relatively high CO 2 flue concentration may be viable candidates to cost-competitively supply CO 2 for utilization purposes (e.g., polymer manufacturing, etc.). This work develops a methodology that determines the levelized cost ($/tCO 2 ) of separating, compressing, and transporting carbon dioxide. A top-down model determines the cost of separating and compressing CO 2 across 18 industrial processes. Further, the study calculates the cost of transporting CO 2 via pipeline and tanker truck to appropriately paired sinks using a bottom-up cost model and geo-referencing approach. The results show that truck transportation is generally the low-cost alternative given the relatively small volumes (ca. 100 kt CO 2 /a). We apply our methodology to a regional case study in Pennsylvania, which shows steel and cement manufacturing paired to suitable sinks as having the lowest levelized cost of capture, compression, and transportation.

  4. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-01-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

  6. Structural change and inter-sectoral mobility in a two-sector economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoci, Angelo; Galeotti, Marcello; Iannucci, Gianluca; Russu, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of a two-sector economy (with a natural resource-dependent sector and an industrial sector) characterized by free inter-sectoral labor mobility and heterogeneity of agents (workers and entrepreneurs). In such a context, we analyze the effects of the deterioration of natural resources, caused by the production activity of both sectors, on inter-sectoral movements of the labor force (structural changes), on ecological dynamics and on the revenues of workers and entrepreneurs. As in the seminal work by Matsuyama (1992), we obtain that a low productivity of labor in the resource-dependent sector can fuel the industrialization process. However, differently from Matsuyama, in our model the industrialization process may give rise to a reduction in workers’ revenues if the contribution to environmental depletion of the industrial sector, per unit of product, is higher than that of the resource-dependent one.

  7. The nuclear industry: a new weapon for the Kremlin?; L'industrie nucleaire: nouvelle arme du Kremlin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Castel, V.

    2010-07-01

    After having noticed the recent evolution of the Russian policy which tends to concentrate the economical and political power with a limited democratic pluralism, the author describes the re-structuring policy adopted for the energy sector, and notably the nuclear sector, in order to become a major international actor. First, she analyses the evolution of the hydrocarbon sector with a better management of tax incomes, and a stronger control of the industries of this sector based on a State capitalism development. She outlines that Russia now uses energy as a diplomatic arm, particularly in its relationship with the European Union. She states that Russia may want to follow the same kind of policy for nuclear energy as for the hydrocarbon sector by developing partnership with other countries, by regrouping the concerned activities within a single holding company (Atomenergoprom) and a federal agency (Rosatom). Russia increased its uranium production and became a powerful actor who challenges other international companies (Areva, Westinghouse, Toshiba). The author discusses the strategy defined by the Kremlin to reach supremacy in the nuclear sector

  8. Scrum, Kanban and Canvas in the commercial, industrial and educational sector - A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolfaris Fuertes A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The search was conducted using search engines and 63 sources about the themes found. In the analysis of results it is concluded that Scrum, Kanban tools and Canvas methodology, are really use full for commercial, industrial and educational sectors because contribute in the transformation of the culture of these organizations, in the commercial sector, advanced generation and production of knowledge, based on agile development methodologies as a benefit for software companies is evident; also by adopting Kanban, local companies looking to export their products to China. In another way the strong inclusion of pharmacies of all sizes, has been a topic of interest given that the consumption of drugs has increased significantly in recent times, for it is working is based business model Canvas. In the industrial sector, it was found that the application of agile methodologies delivered excellent results in quality processes, new strategies to optimize the level of productive utility by Kanban and analysis of business models and the redesign of competitive strategies are evident through the contribution of Canvas. In the education sector, the appropriation of Scrum in companies that have adopted CMMI, Kanban implemented in the public sector of higher education and Canvas as support for innovation.

  9. Integrated IDA–ANN–DEA for assessment and optimization of energy consumption in industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olanrewaju, O.A.; Jimoh, A.A.; Kholopane, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts forward an integrated approach, based on logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) – an index decomposition analysis (IDA) method, an artificial neural network (ANN) and a data envelopment analysis (DEA) for the analysis of total energy efficiency and optimization in an industrial sector. The energy efficiency assessment and the optimization of the proposed model use LMDI to decompose energy consumption into activity, structural and intensity indicators, which serve as inputs to the ANN. The ANN model is verified and validated by performing a linear regression comparison between the specifically measured energy consumption and the corresponding predicted energy consumption. The proposed approach utilizes the measure-specific, super-efficient DEA model for sensitivity analysis to determine the critical measured energy consumption and its optimization reductions. The proposed method is validated by its application to determine the efficiency computation and an analysis of historical data as well as the prediction and optimization capability of the Canadian industrial sector. -- Highlights: ► An integrated IDA–ANN–DEA model for energy management is proposed. ► The model relies on aggregate energy and GDP data. ► The model explains how energy can be managed in the Canadian Industrial sector.

  10. Technique of calculating specific capital investments in the fuel extracting sectors of industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugrov, V.A.; Filey, I.A.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the existing methods of calculating specific capital investments in the fuel extracting sectors of industry. Their shortcomings are shown. It is suggested that specific capital investments for extraction of coal and gas be defined as the ratio of capital investments to the conditional increase in extraction. Coal extraction should take int consideration all the capital investments associated with the input of new facilities, and the maintenance of the attained level of extraction and reconstruction of the enterprise, as well as all the newly introduced facilities both at the new and at the active enterprises associated with an increase in coal extraction and with maintenance of the facilities. The suggested technique completely corresponds to the ''Standard Technique for Developing a Technical-Industrial-Financial Plan,'' which stipulates determination of specific capital investments per unit of introduced facilities with only the difference that it takes into consideration the specific features of the fuel extracting sectors of industry.

  11. Industrial innovation and intra sectoral and inter sectoral technology diffusion; Innovacion industrial y difusion tecnological intrasectorial e intersectorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano Domingo, G.; Cabrera Borras, B.; Requena Silvente, F.

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines whether sectoral backward and forward linkages can generate positive externalises in sectoral innovation through diffusion of technological knowledge, both across countries within a sector or across sectors within a country. Using a sample of 14 OECD countries and 12 sectors over the period 1995-2005 we find that forward linkages enhance sectoral innovation. Intra sectoral slipovers are important among sectors and countries with low-to-medium R an D intensity while inter sectoral slipovers have a major impact on sectors with high R and D intensity. (Author)

  12. Comparison and Evolution of Energy Consumption in Moroccan Agro-food Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Badaoui, Meryem; Touzani, Abdellatif

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to establish a comparison between the Moroccan energy consumption and the BREF the reference document on best available techniques in the food industries, then an evolution of this consumption by 2030 in order to better understand it and to define strategies to reduce energy bill. According to a survey conducted among 5000 Moroccan companies, we were able to compare the energy consumption of the agro-food industries including sugar industry, dairy industry, cereal industry; fatty substances industry and fishing industry with that of the BREF. Also an evolution of Moroccan consumption was established by 2030 using the linear regression method, and then calculated a non-negligible average annual growth rate (AAGR). The results show that the Moroccan energy consumption is adequate to that of the BREF, and an energy consumption constantly increasing by registering a non-negligible AAGR.

  13. End-use energy analysis in the Malaysian industrial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahim, N.A.; Mekhilef, S.; Ping, H.W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jamaluddin, M.F. [Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), Head Office, Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-02-15

    The industrial sector is the second largest consumer of energy in Malaysia. In this energy audit, the most important parameters that have been collected are as follows: power rating and operation time of energy-consuming equipments/machineries; fossil fuel and other sources of energy use; production figure; peak and off-peak tariff usage behavior and power factor. These data were then analyzed to investigate the breakdown of end-use equipments/machineries energy use, the peak and off-peak usage behavior, power factor trend and specific energy use. The results of the energy audit showed that the highest electrical energy-using equipment was an electric motor followed by pumps and air compressors. The specific energy use has been estimated and compared with four Indonesian industries and it was found that three Malaysian industries were more efficient than the Indonesian counterpart. The study also found that about 64% electrical energy was used in peak hours by the industries and the average power factor ranged from 0.88 to 0.92. The study also estimated energy and bill savings using highly efficient electrical motors along with the payback period. (author)

  14. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R.; Garcia-Perez, M.; Cortez, L.A.B.; Oscullo, J.; Olmedo, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol

  15. Recent and future developments of the oil industry in Russian Federation and more particularly in the Republic of Baskortostan; Evolution recente et perspectives d'evolution de l'industrie petroliere en federation de Russie et plus specialement dans la Republique du Bachkortostan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garifullin, R

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the thesis is to analyse the actual situation in the Russian oil industry and to envisage basic ways if its future development. The first chapter evaluates the place of the former USSR and Russia in the world and particularly European systems of energy supply. The three next chapters analyse the currents situation in the sectors of oil exploration and production, logistics and refining in Russia. The fifth chapter aims to figure out the perspectives of the refining industry taking into account the evolution of demand for basic petroleum products and the production capacities. Optimisation of refining and production volumes between the Russian refineries is done by minimising the transportation cost between the refineries and consuming regions by using linear programming. The last chapter analyses the regional impacts of the oil industry taking the Republic of Baskortostan as example. The contribution of the oil industry to regional development is evaluated in the framework of the export base theory using the Input-Output analysis as mathematical tool. (author)

  16. Market-based implementation of Kyoto commitments: how the financial/insurance sector can support industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoepfel, Ivo

    1999-01-01

    The implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in the context of the Framework Convention on Climate Change will probably lead to economic winners and losers in various sectors of the economy. Especially carbon intensive industries will need to develop hedging strategies to prevent potential negative effects and to optimise market opportunities. Such strategies can be based on technological innovation, market and product diversification, and on financial/legal offsets. The Kyoto Protocol has introduced new market-based instruments, which can, in a near future provide such hedging opportunities. These include joint implementation, the so-called clean development mechanism, and international emissions trading. The financial services and insurance sector are the natural partners of industry in designing tailored hedging strategies. It is recommended that industry, financial services and insurance companies take a more proactive role in further developing the market-based instruments established by the Kyoto Protocol. (Author)

  17. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Viorel Pop

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the wor...

  18. Hyperspectral imaging for diagnosis and quality control in agri-food and industrial sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Allende, P. Beatriz; Conde, Olga M.; Mirapeix, Jesus; Cobo, Adolfo; Lopez-Higuera, Jose M.

    2010-04-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been utilized in various fields of science, industry and medicine, since each substance is discernible from all others by its spectral properties. However, optical spectroscopy traditionally generates information on the bulk properties of the whole sample, and mainly in the agri-food industry some product properties result from the heterogeneity in its composition. This monitoring is considerably more challenging and can be successfully achieved by the so-called hyperspectral imaging technology, which allows the simultaneous determination of the optical spectrum and the spatial location of an object in a surface. In addition, it is a nonintrusive and non-contact technique which gives rise to a great potential for industrial applications and it does not require any particular preparation of the samples, which is a primary concern in food monitoring. This work illustrates an overview of approaches based on this technology to address different problems in agri-food and industrial sectors. The hyperspectral system was originally designed and tested for raw material on-line discrimination, which is a key factor in the input stages of many industrial sectors. The combination of the acquisition of the spectral information across transversal lines while materials are being transported on a conveyor belt, and appropriate image analyses have been successfully validated in the tobacco industry. Lastly, the use of imaging spectroscopy applied to online welding quality monitoring is discussed and compared with traditional spectroscopic approaches in this regard.

  19. Environmental indexes for the aggregation of emissions of industrial sectors; Milieu-indexen voor het aggregeren van emissies van bedrijfstakken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeets, E.; Weterings, R. [TNO Studiecentrum voor Technologie en Beleid, Delft (Netherlands); Klein, A.; Pulles, M.P.J. [TNO Milieuwetenschappen, Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    The Dutch Emission Registration is an integral information system which contains data on the emissions of circa 900 materials of more than 700 businesses in the Netherlands. In this report attention is paid to how data from the Emission Registration can be presented such that specific groups of businesses and industrial sectors can be stimulated to reduce their emissions. Thereto, an index has been developed which gives an indication of the environmental load (emission in the year of registration) and the environmental performance (trends in emissions during a number of years) of groups of businesses and industrial sectors. Based on the results of a literature study six possible environmental indexes were investigated and compared for two randomly chosen groups of businesses (building materials, ceramics and glass industry and metal products industry) and two randomly chosen industrial sectors (fertilizer industry, and medicine and bandages industry). The indexes were calculated for the years 1988, 1990 and 1992. The index, which is based on a unweighted aggregation of emissions of a business group or industrial class, divided by the national emission and corrected for the number of laborers, appeared to be the most favorable. 9 refs.

  20. Pathways to Carbon Neutral Industrial Sectors: Integrated Modelling Approach with High Level of Detail for End-use Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Industry constitutes a substantial share of the energy and fuel consumption in energy systems. Types and patterns of usage within different industrial sectors are diverse. In this paper, we illustrate the energy and fuel use in Danish industry by 24 end-uses and 20 fuels and provide hourly profiles...... for electricity, space and process heating. The heat profiles are based on measured natural gas consumption. While seasonal patterns are predominant for space heating, process heating and electricity consumption are found to follow sector-related activities on a temporal scale. Building on this data analysis...

  1. Evolution of the U.S. Energy Service Company Industry: Market Size and Project Performance from 1990-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-08

    investment. There is empirical evidence confirming that the industry is responding to customer demand by installing more comprehensive and complex measures—including onsite generation and measures to address deferred maintenance—but this evolution has significant implications for customer project economics, especially at K-12 schools. We found that the median simple payback time has increased from 1.9 to 3.2 years in private sector projects since the early-to-mid 1990s and from 5.2 to 10.5 years in public sector projects for the same time period.

  2. Energy efficiency in the industrial sector. Model based analysis of the efficient use of energy in the EU-27 with focus on the industrial sector; Energieeffizienz in der Industrie. Modellgestuetzte Analyse des effizienten Energieeinsatzes in der EU-27 mit Fokus auf den Industriesektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuder, Ralf

    2014-01-09

    Energy efficiency is a highly important topic and currently omnipresent in the energy political discussion. Despite this high importance there's no common understanding even concerning the definition of the term energy efficiency. In addition, there are plenty so called energy efficiency targets and several indicators. Therefore this study should provide a deepened understanding of the efficient use of energy. The inconsistent definition of energy efficiency is related to the use of this term for a specific as well as an absolute reduction of energy consumption. Furthermore both static views on efficiency as a status and also dynamic views on efficiency as an improvement of a value compared to a reference number are used. Additional differences occur in the evaluation of the energy use and in the selection of a reference value in a key figure to assess energy efficiency. Moreover the focus of the current general understanding is mainly only on the consumption of energy. All other resources next to the energy input which are needed to provide energy services are not considered even though there are strong interactions and substitution possibilities among these resources. Hence the understanding of energy efficiency is extended in this study by these additional resources which were not considered yet. Based on this extension the efficient use of the resource energy is a result of an optimisation of the relation of these total costs of all resources to the related benefit. To determine the efficient use of energy in the industrial sector, a deeper understanding of the sector and its characteristics is necessary. The industrial sector is the largest consumer of electricity within the EU. Also a quarter of the final energy consumption and about 20 % of the CO{sub 2} emissions are related to this sector. Typical for this sector are the heterogeneous and high temperature level of the heat demand and the process emissions which accrue in transformation processes. The

  3. Four Sectors of Industry in USA and Europe compared. Business Strategies and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Woerd, F.; De Wit, K.; Vellinga, P.; Kolk, A.; Levy, D.

    2000-01-01

    Private companies will play a critical role in implementation of successful climate policies. However, until now little is known about triggers to develop corporate climate strategies. In a USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have investigated emerging climate strategies in the oil, automobile, chemical and bank and insurance industries. A focal question was whether strategies of EU based corporations differ systematically from USA based corporations. Results show rather sectorial specific developments. In most sectors, i.e. oil, automobile and banks, European corporations generally tend to have more advanced climate policies than their USA counterparts, but this does not apply to chemical companies. In the automobile industry, USA and Europe show convergent strategies. In the other sectors, convergence is not clearly visible

  4. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the U.S. Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Colin A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center; Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The industrial sector was the third-largest source of direct U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2014 behind electricity generation and transportation and accounted for roughly 20% of total emissions (EPA 2016). The Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that total U.S. energy consumption will grow to about 108 exajoules (1 EJ = 1018 J) or 102 quads (1 quad = 1015 British thermal units) in 2025, with nearly all of the growth coming from the industrial sector (DOE 2015b). Energy consumption in the industrial sector is forecast to increase to 39.5 EJ (37.4 quads)—a 22% increase, exceeding 36% of total energy consumption in the United States. Therefore, it is imperative that industrial GHG emissions be considered in any strategy intent on achieving deep decarbonization of the energy sector as a whole. It is important to note that unlike the transportation sector and electrical grid, energy use by industry often involves direct conversion of primary energy sources to thermal and electrical energy at the point of consumption. About 52% of U.S. industrial direct GHG emissions are the result of fuel combustion (EPA 2016) to produce hot gases and steam for process heating, process reactions, and process evaporation, concentration, and drying. The heterogeneity and variations in scale of U.S. industry and the complexity of modern industrial firms’ global supply chains are among the sector’s unique challenges to minimizing its GHG emissions. A combination of varied strategies—such as energy efficiency, material efficiency, and switching to low-carbon fuels—can help reduce absolute industrial GHG emissions. This report provides a complement to process-efficiency improvement to consider how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions. Specifically, it considers the possibility of replacing fossil-fuel combustion in industry with nuclear (specifically small modular reactors [SMRs]), solar thermal (referred to

  5. Evolution of the Main Banking Sector Risks in Romania in the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA SISEA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of financial sector stability risks is a major cause of concern for central banks in democratic countries, the macroprudential approach being a top priority nowadays, amid efforts to overcome the current global financial crisis. The systemic risk management approach has a major impact on economic growth. It refers to financial, economic and social cycles as well. The analysis that reveals this evolution is based on the correlations between risk indicators and economic indicators. It is worth mentioning that the banking sector is the largest part of the financial system in Romania, while the equity stock market is relatively small. In this context, the paper presents the correlations between the main banking sector risk indicators, namely the solvency indicator, leverage and total risks, and key and derived economic and financial indicators. In addition, this paper presents a stress test that predicts the impact of macroeconomic shocks on financial soundness indicators, such as the domestic credit and its main components – governmental and, respectively, non-governmental credit – each of them having a different impact on economic growth. The stress test is based on an econometric model, i.e. the historical scenario. Finally, conclusions are drawn, emphasizing the essential role of prudential regulation, which diminished before the financial crisis that emerged in the United States in 2007. As a result, toxic financial assets could no longer be kept off markets, leading to the destabilization of the financial system and of economy of democratic countries.

  6. The world petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2005-01-01

    This study proposes a global vision of the petroleum industry, a precise and well argued state of the art of the petroleum markets. It defines the strategical challenges which the petroleum companies are exposed and allows to anticipate the sector evolutions. It details the key acts of the last three years, the financial performances of the companies. (A.L.B.)

  7. FY2000 survey report research and development internationalization in industrial sector among APEC economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey is conducted and a database is constructed on internationalization of research and development activities in the industrial sectors of APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) countries, namely, on research and development support systems, research and development appropriations, research and development personnel, research VISA granting procedures and control over foreign funds, trends of research and development among private sector businesses, main research and development organizations, evaluation by private sector businesses of the research and development environments of their countries, and the like. Incorporated into the database are Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Chinese Taipei, Thailand, United States, and Vietnam. The database, compiled for Internet web pages, CD-ROMs, and publications, covers the industrial technology related policies of all the countries and helps understand the research and development systems, and enables access to main research organizations. The database comprises a general section dealing with the background, system constitution, and internationalization trend and a countries section collecting information on the respective countries. (NEDO)

  8. Energy and Water Consumption End-Use Survey in Commercial and Industrial Sectors in Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The objective of survey was to collect statistical energy and water end-use data for commercial and industrial sectors. The survey identified volumes of energy and...

  9. Brazilian industrial growth financing: are the sources adequate to the sectoral technological regimes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyzing the relationship between the type of financing resources and growth of the manufacturing sectors, grouped according to technological regimes, and to relate this relationship to its degree of adequacy of the sources to the sectoral technological opportunities. Thus, panel data analysis was performed in order to asses the relationship between financial deepening and innovation. We gathered detailed data for each industrial sector, grouped according to its technological regimes, and ran a Granger causality test in panels. Results found report that more innovation-intense sectors, which boosted aggregated economic growth rather steeply, present inadequate financing dynamic to its own growth. Therefore, considering sectors with high technological opportunities and strong innovation persistence, it was observed a bank-based type of financing, whilst the ideal for its growth would be the market-based one. On the other hand, less innovative sectors are found in better situation of financing and better growth conditions. These (non-satisfactory requirements present themselves in (higher lower growth rates and industrial production share.O objetivo do trabalho é analisar a relação entre o tipo de financiamento e o crescimento dos diversos setores da indústria de transformação e ligá-la ao maior ou menor grau de adequação das fontes às oportunidades tecnológicas setoriais. Para tanto, faz-se uma avaliação em painel de dados da relação entre aprofundamento financeiro e inovação, utilizando dados desagregados para os setores industriais, agrupados de acordo com regimes tecnológicos, fazendo um exercício de Granger-causalidade em painéis. Os resultados encontrados mostram que os setores mais inovativos, que impulsionariam o crescimento da economia agregada de forma mais acentuada, apresentam dinâmicas de financiamento inadequadas ao seu crescimento. Assim, para setores com altas oportunidades tecnológicas e

  10. Sectoral panorama: the electric power sector in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2003-10-01

    This study takes stock on the main european markets to help the electric power companies in their decisions and investments. The first part presents the electric power sector structure in Europe. The second part is devoted to the market evolution for the different european markets (german, french, british, italian and spanish) with an analysis of the retail prices, the competition and the evolution perspectives. The third part presents the highlights in the electric power sector between 2001 and the middle of 2003. The enterprises management and strategies are presented in the fourth part. In the last part the document analyzes the financial performances of the sector and the electric power companies. (A.L.B.)

  11. Restructuring the Production of Medicines: An Investigation on the Pharmaceutical Sector in China and the Role of Mergers and Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Elisa; Huang, Manli; Pi, Shenglei; Tassinari, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    In places like China, an ageing population coupled with changes in living standards and increases in disposable income, imply a shift of the demand for health-related goods and services which is likely to affect the whole organization of the industries that supply such goods and services at the global level. One of the industries most likely to be affected is the pharmaceutical sector. In the early 2000s China was already the second largest global producer of pharmaceutical ingredients. The pharmaceutical sector has become one of the most important industries promoted by the Chinese government and Five-Year Plan of China’s Strategic Emerging Sectors, mergers and acquisition (M&A) activity has been the key strategy to restructure the sector and increase its competitiveness. This paper firstly provides an updated picture of the evolution of M&As in the pharmaceutical sector, compared to other sectors, in China in the period 2005–2013. Secondly, we develop a composite indicator to measure the industrial performance of all Chinese industrial sectors over time, which allows us to assess the performance of the pharmaceutical industry compared to that of other sectors of the Chinese economy. Finally, we develop and estimate an empirical model that tests the relationship between the number of M&A in a sector and its performance, with a particular focus on the pharmaceutical case. The results offer some initial evidence of positive effects from the process of restructuring of the pharmaceutical sector in China. PMID:28981463

  12. Restructuring the Production of Medicines: An Investigation on the Pharmaceutical Sector in China and the Role of Mergers and Acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Elisa; Huang, Manli; Pi, Shenglei; Tassinari, Mattia

    2017-10-05

    In places like China, an ageing population coupled with changes in living standards and increases in disposable income, imply a shift of the demand for health-related goods and services which is likely to affect the whole organization of the industries that supply such goods and services at the global level. One of the industries most likely to be affected is the pharmaceutical sector. In the early 2000s China was already the second largest global producer of pharmaceutical ingredients. The pharmaceutical sector has become one of the most important industries promoted by the Chinese government and Five-Year Plan of China's Strategic Emerging Sectors, mergers and acquisition (M&A) activity has been the key strategy to restructure the sector and increase its competitiveness. This paper firstly provides an updated picture of the evolution of M&As in the pharmaceutical sector, compared to other sectors, in China in the period 2005-2013. Secondly, we develop a composite indicator to measure the industrial performance of all Chinese industrial sectors over time, which allows us to assess the performance of the pharmaceutical industry compared to that of other sectors of the Chinese economy. Finally, we develop and estimate an empirical model that tests the relationship between the number of M&A in a sector and its performance, with a particular focus on the pharmaceutical case. The results offer some initial evidence of positive effects from the process of restructuring of the pharmaceutical sector in China.

  13. Environmental assessment and investment strategies of provincial industrial sector in China — Analysis based on DEA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Juan, E-mail: wangjuan_tju@163.com [College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Tao [College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Xiaohu [College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210016 (China)

    2016-09-15

    As an energy-intensive industry, the industrial sector consumes 70% of energy consumption and causes serious environmental pollution in China. Also, the government emphasized the promotion of R&D investment in the industrial sector in China's National Plan on Climate Change (2014–2020). It is meaningful and contributes to assessing energy and environmental performance, as well as R&D and industrial pollution control (IPC) investment strategies of China's industrial sector. A non-radial DEA model, as with natural and managerial disposability, was adopted to evaluate this from provincial and regional perspectives during the 2008–2012 period. Energy and environmental performance was evaluated by unified efficiency under natural disposability (UEN), unified efficiency under managerial disposability (UEM), and unified efficiency under natural and managerial disposability (UENM). The empirical results indicated that Shandong and Hainan were efficient under natural and managerial disposability, while other provinces had the potential to improve their energy and environmental performance. The number of provinces that was fit for investments of R&D and IPC increased from 2008 to 2010, then decreased in 2011 and 2012. In spite of this, many provincial industrial sectors should make efforts to reduce pollution by investment on technology. Tianjin, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi and Henan were especially the best investment objects because investments of R&D and IPC turned to be effective for them during the whole study period. Moreover, western China had the highest average UENM, followed by eastern China and central China. Eastern China and central China were rewarding to expand investments. Coal consumption was the main factor to negatively affect unified efficiency whereas the increase in economic development level was primarily responsible for the improvement of unified efficiency. According to the results, differentiated suggestions to further improve energy and

  14. Environmental assessment and investment strategies of provincial industrial sector in China — Analysis based on DEA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Juan; Zhao, Tao; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2016-01-01

    As an energy-intensive industry, the industrial sector consumes 70% of energy consumption and causes serious environmental pollution in China. Also, the government emphasized the promotion of R&D investment in the industrial sector in China's National Plan on Climate Change (2014–2020). It is meaningful and contributes to assessing energy and environmental performance, as well as R&D and industrial pollution control (IPC) investment strategies of China's industrial sector. A non-radial DEA model, as with natural and managerial disposability, was adopted to evaluate this from provincial and regional perspectives during the 2008–2012 period. Energy and environmental performance was evaluated by unified efficiency under natural disposability (UEN), unified efficiency under managerial disposability (UEM), and unified efficiency under natural and managerial disposability (UENM). The empirical results indicated that Shandong and Hainan were efficient under natural and managerial disposability, while other provinces had the potential to improve their energy and environmental performance. The number of provinces that was fit for investments of R&D and IPC increased from 2008 to 2010, then decreased in 2011 and 2012. In spite of this, many provincial industrial sectors should make efforts to reduce pollution by investment on technology. Tianjin, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi and Henan were especially the best investment objects because investments of R&D and IPC turned to be effective for them during the whole study period. Moreover, western China had the highest average UENM, followed by eastern China and central China. Eastern China and central China were rewarding to expand investments. Coal consumption was the main factor to negatively affect unified efficiency whereas the increase in economic development level was primarily responsible for the improvement of unified efficiency. According to the results, differentiated suggestions to further improve energy and environmental

  15. Job retention in the British offshore sector through greening of the North Sea energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, Miguel; Leary, David; Zhang, Qi; Utama, Agya; Tezuka, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Keiichi N.

    2011-01-01

    For the case of the UK there are currently three ways of obtaining energy from sea areas, namely from wind, tides and waves. A methodology was developed to determine the future size of the offshore renewable industry based on the concept of employment factor, or the number of people required to maintain each unit of electricity production. An assessment was made of the decline in the number of people employed in oil related jobs in the North Sea and the gap that this could create in the UK's economy unless this pool of offshore expertise could find an alternative employment in the renewable sector. The paper will also investigate the effect of gradually transforming the UK's oil and gas sector into offshore renewables. If this was to happen by 2050 the UK offshore renewable industry could produce between 127 and 146 TWh of electricity, equivalent to around 57-66% of the current energy consumption in the country. - Research highlights: → There are three possible sources of energy from sea areas in the UK: wind, tide and waves. → As the number of jobs in the offshore oil industry reduces they should be compensated with jobs in the renewable offshore sector. → By 2050 the UK offshore renewable industry could produce between 127 and 146TWh of electricity. → This would represent around 57-66% of the current energy consumption in the UK.

  16. ASPECTS REGARDING WINE PRODUCTION AND WINE SECTOR COMPETITIVENESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana LADARU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to make some assumptions regarding wine sector competitiveness in Romania. Vineyards have an important share in Romanian agriculture, Romania being ranked on 11th position in the world and on 5th position in the European Union in terms of vineyards surface, while the wine industry is an important contributor to the GDP. The research method was based on analyze of wine sector evolution in the last years. The paper presents current global context of wine market at international level and focus on Romanian wine production sector and wine trade, seen in the light of competitiveness. The competitiveness of Romanian wine sector need to be related with measures that are able to increase the attractiveness of Romanian wines, both on domestic and external markets.

  17. Strategies for reconciling environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector: Analytic framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The project is motivated by recommendations that were made by industry in a number of different forums: the Industry Workshop of the White House Conference on Climate Change, and more recently, industry consultations for EPAct Section 131(c) and Section 160(b). These recommendations were related to reconciling conflicts in environmental goals, productivity improvements and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  18. THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY – IMPACT ON THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela FIROIU; Adina Gabriela CROITORU

    2015-01-01

    In the context of an increasingly dynamic society, globalization has become one of the key issues, causing important changes in the evolution of all economic sectors and especially in the development of the tourism industry, an industry that depends heavily on the free movement of people and unhindered access to information. Although the implications of the globalization phenomenon on tourism are extremely diverse and profound, sometimes difficult to commensurate, the evolution of the informa...

  19. Incorporating Workplace Injury to Measure the Safety Performance of Industrial Sectors in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ting Yeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The severity of workplace injuries varies by industry. Information on workplace injuries can enable firms and governments to effectively improve their safety performance based on the specific contexts of each industry. Incorporating the three workplace injury rates (being wounded or ill, disability, and death, a data envelopment analysis (DEA model is developed to evaluate the safety performance of 17 industrial sectors in Taiwan. The results suggest that the Taiwanese government should pay particular attention to the mining and quarrying industry, which has the lowest safety performance. Additionally, the results provide abundant information for the Taiwanese government to design industry safety regulations in a way that may prompt firms to develop a sustainable economy by improving their health and safety practices and enhancing their overall safety performance.

  20. The political economy of the fisheries sector in Uganda: ruling elites, implementation costs and industry interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Muhumuza, Fred; Mwebaze, Tom

    This paper sets out to explain policies, implementation arrangements and results (PIRs) in Uganda’s fisheries sector. Industry actors wanted to be able to keep up with European standards in order to survive in the chilled and frozen fillet export industry. They put pressure on ruling elites...

  1. The future of the French civil nuclear sector. Report synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Considering the evolution of the French civil nuclear industry by 2030, this study examines its different dimensions: energy policy, safety and security of uranium supplies, nuclear competitiveness, environmental and safety issues, public acceptance, consequences of non proliferation international and French policies, industrial, human and research capacities, and so on. Thus, this report presents the actors involved in the French civil nuclear sector, gives an overview of the reactor market, highlights the main aspects of the fuel cycle and of the waste management, stresses the need of a new organisation for this sector to face the domestic as well as the international challenges. It discusses the possible ways for a wider financing and a higher competitiveness. It identifies new means for an ambitious civil nuclear policy. Fifteen recommendations are proposed

  2. The energy rebound effects across China’s industrial sectors: An output distance function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Yanchu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Output distance function for the energy rebound effect is developed. • The aggregate energy rebound effect of China is 88.42%. • Investment-driven economic growth is not conducive to energy-saving. - Abstract: Improving energy efficiency sustainability is a target of the Chinese government. However, the effectiveness of energy conservation policy is affected by the energy rebound effect under which energy efficiency improvement reduces the effective price of energy services, thereby completely or partially offsetting the energy saved by efficiency improvement. Based on the output distance function, this paper develops an improved estimation model of the energy rebound effect, which is logically consistent with the quantities of energy savings and energy rebounds induced by technological progress. Results show that the aggregate energy rebound effect of 36 industrial sectors in China over 1998–2011 is 88.42%, which implies that most of the expected energy savings are mitigated. Investment-driven economic growth is not conducive to energy-saving and results in a strong energy rebound effect in the following year. The equipment and high-end manufacturing sectors have low levels of rebound effect, indicating that increasing the proportion of such firms in the total manufacturing sector can improve the performance of energy conservation. The high level and heterogeneity in rebound effects strongly suggest that varies strategies are necessary for energy conservation among China’s industrial sectors.

  3. Higgs quartic coupling and neutrino sector evolution in 2UED models

    KAUST Repository

    Abdalgabar, A.

    2014-05-20

    Two compact universal extra-dimensional models are an interesting class of models for different theoretical and phenomenological issues, such as the justification of having three standard model fermion families, suppression of proton decay rate, dark matter parity from relics of the six-dimensional Lorentz symmetry, origin of masses and mixings in the standard model. However, these theories are merely effective ones, with typically a reduced range of validity in their energy scale. We explore two limiting cases of the three standard model generations all propagating in the bulk or all localised to a brane, from the point of view of renormalisation group equation evolutions for the Higgs sector and for the neutrino sector of these models. The recent experimental results of the Higgs boson from the LHC allow, in some scenarios, stronger constraints on the cutoff scale to be placed, from the requirement of the stability of the Higgs potential. 2014 The Author(s).

  4. ESCO market and industry trends: Updated results from the NAESCO database project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Julie G.; Goldman, Charles A.; Hopper, Nicole C.

    2001-10-15

    Today's U.S. energy efficiency services industry is one of the most successful examples of private sector energy efficiency services in the world, yet little empirical information is available on the actual market activity of this industry. LBNL, together with the National Association of Energy Services Companies (NAESCO), has compiled the most comprehensive dataset of the energy efficiency services industry: nearly 1,500 case studies of energy efficiency projects. Our analysis of these projects helps shed light on some of the conventional wisdom regarding industry performance and evolution. We report key statistics about typical projects and industry trends that will aid state, federal, and international policymakers, and other investors interested in the development of a private sector energy efficiency services industry.

  5. Analysis of institutional evolution of regulatory activity in the Brazilian electric sector: 1920-1997; Analise da evolucao institucional da atividade de regulacao no setor eletrico brasileiro: 1920-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Mauricio Lopes; Ferreira, Elnatan Chagas; Dias, Jose Antonio Siqueira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEMIC/FEEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Eletronica e Microeletronica], Email: siqueira@demic.fee.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    An analysis of the institutional evolution of the governmental organizations which were responsible for the regulation of the electrical energy sector in Brazil (before the establishment of the ANEEL) is presented . Taking into account the various levels of subordination and independence in their actuation, the different missions and powers given to these agencies regarding the inspection, controlling, planning and regulating the industry, are compared and discussed. The conducted analysis is essentially formal, based on the legal instruments which defined and established the creation of those agencies. (author)

  6. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the EU Power and Industry Sectors. An assessment of key technologies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rootzen, Johan

    2012-11-01

    In February 2011, the European Council reconfirmed the goal of reducing EU greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 % by 2050, as compared to the levels in 1990. The power and industrial sectors currently account for almost half of the total GHG emissions in the EU. The overall objective of the work presented in this thesis is to provide a technology-based perspective on the feasibility of significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in the EU power and industrial sectors, with the emphasis on expected turnover in the capital stock of the existing infrastructure. Three sectors of industry are included: petroleum refining; iron and steel production; and cement manufacturing. The analysis is based on a thorough description and characterization of the current industry infrastructure and of the key mitigation technologies and measures in each sector. The analysis comprises investigations of how specific factors, such as the age structure of the capital stock, technology and fuel mix, and spatial distribution of the plant stock, contribute to facilitating or hindering the shift towards less-emission-intensive production processes. The results presented here are the synthesis of the results described in the following three papers: Paper I investigates the potential for CCS in industrial applications in the EU by considering branch- and plant-specific conditions; Paper II assesses strategies for CO{sub 2} abatement in the European petroleum refining industry; and Paper III explores in a scenario analysis the limits for CO{sub 2} emission abatement within current production processes in the power and industrial sectors. Together, the three papers provide a comprehensive assessment of the roles of technologies and measures that are commercially available today, as well as those of emerging technologies that are still in their early phases of development. The results presented in Paper III show that the EU goal for emissions reductions in the sectors covered by the EU ETS, i

  7. Economic efficiency evaluation of merges and acquisitions in the sector of industry based on nonlinear model of synergistical growth of an industrial corporation value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov A.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous research works of the end of the 20th and of the beginning of the 21st century prove that the synergistic effect often declared as the main goal of merges and acquisitions is not generated in fact. This is due to imperfection of the available methodology of its economic evaluation that does not take into account a nonlinear nature of the pooled corporation development. The article suggests a methodology of economic efficiency evaluation of merges and acquisitions in the sector of industry based on identification of synergistically successful acquisition order parameters. These are synergistic effects that with minimal investments in their achievement lead to a disproportionate increase in the value of an industrial corporation. A mathematical model has been created simulating the influence of these investments on the value of an industrial corporation. The model allows one to increase the degree of the decisions validity in merges and acquisitions in the sector of industry.

  8. Identifying Opportunities and Impacts of Fuel Switching in the Industrial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ramesh C. [Industrial Technologies Program, Washington, DC (United States); Jamison, Keith [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Thomas, Daniel E. [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2006-08-01

    The underlying purpose of this white paper is to examine fuel switching opportunities in the U.S. industrial sector and make strategic recommendations—leading to application of the best available technologies and development of new technologies—that will introduce fuel use flexibility as an economically feasible option for plant operators, as a means to condition local fuel demands and a hedge against the local rises in fuel prices.

  9. The nuclear industry: a new weapon for the Kremlin?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Castel, V.

    2010-01-01

    After having noticed the recent evolution of the Russian policy which tends to concentrate the economical and political power with a limited democratic pluralism, the author describes the re-structuring policy adopted for the energy sector, and notably the nuclear sector, in order to become a major international actor. First, she analyses the evolution of the hydrocarbon sector with a better management of tax incomes, and a stronger control of the industries of this sector based on a State capitalism development. She outlines that Russia now uses energy as a diplomatic arm, particularly in its relationship with the European Union. She states that Russia may want to follow the same kind of policy for nuclear energy as for the hydrocarbon sector by developing partnership with other countries, by regrouping the concerned activities within a single holding company (Atomenergoprom) and a federal agency (Rosatom). Russia increased its uranium production and became a powerful actor who challenges other international companies (Areva, Westinghouse, Toshiba). The author discusses the strategy defined by the Kremlin to reach supremacy in the nuclear sector

  10. CURRENT STATE AND EVOLUTION PERSPECTIVES FOR MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IN THE ENERGY SECTOR BY IMPLEMENTING THE ABC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rof Letitia Maria

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a controversial issue, namely determining and controlling costs in the energy sector, the present study falls within the scope of management accounting and control. This scientific approach was initiated as a result of personal research concerns in the area of accounting, starting from the need to know and quantify costs in a sector of the economy that is less exploited. The main objective of this scientific approach is to address the evolution of the energy sector in a national and international context, in terms of economy and finances, with the aim to underline the need to organize and conduct management accounting in this sector. We will present a few particularities of the energy system, the current status of implementation of a medium and long term strategy aimed at developing the energy sector, as well as the need to adopt modern costing methods in this sector, which ensure operative cost control and performance growth of the entities that operate in this sector. Information on the reviewed topic was conducted by studying the national and international literature in the field, by analyzing the associated legislation, by consulting specialized web-sites and various articles in the database. The main research methods used in this scientific approach were analysis and synthesis, and qualitative research was the type of used research. The results of the research will materialize in providing the necessary conditions for designing an econometric model for implementing the ABC method, the conceptual and ideological delimitation of the ABC method, the deepening of the positive and negative aspects that the implementation of the Activity Based Costing involves. The major implication for the researched field is ensuring success for the implementation of a modern costing method in the energy sector, underlining the shortcomings of the traditional costing methods. The added value of the paper consists in conducting a rigorous study of the

  11. Internal marketing and organisational performance of SMEs in the EDV industrial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa João Pedro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the industrial sector, this research aims to identify conditions for the implementation of internal marketing concepts among employees and its impact on the organisational performance. Only one study was found simultaneously integrating the two constructs. It concerned the cork processing industry alone, yet considered expanding the efforts – namely, using qualitative exploratory research in the form of 10 in-depth interviews based on a script of generally open questions – to the entire industry in the Portuguese region between rivers Douro and Vouga. The unit of analysis was constructed considering distinct features as well as activity criteria and the geographic location, thus ensuring the necessary heterogeneity. The results inform about the awareness of the internal marketing conceptualisation. The research found that all analysed enterprises had more or less structured model frames and worked with the conceptualisation of the guidance for the internal market, a strategic concern, and in some instances, this concept was an organisational desideratum in the sector. In addition to the lapse of the research according to a qualitative paradigm of exploratory nature, the main limitation is the need for objective sustainably of the results obtained through future quantitative studies to promote an integrated triangulation of their outcomes. The research allowed identifying the companies that use organisational models conducive to the individual well-being of employees and facilitating the desired orientation to the market.

  12. Impact of Blockchain Technology Platform in Changing the Financial Sector and Other Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusko Knezevic

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to conduct a research on an impact of blockchain technology platform on the financial sector through cryptocurrency, and an impact on other industries.. The subject of research is not only this technology but also its commercial exploitation. In order to understand the platform, the starting point of this research is an analysis of how the technology functions, after that the advantages for business and economic transaction are identified, and finally the paper deals with an impact of new technology on business, above all on financial operations. The basic hypothesis is that blockchain has achieved a great impact on financial sector, also it has the potential to radically change only the financial sector but also the way we buy and sell, our interaction with the authorities as a way of verifying the ownership from the authorship and the organic food production. Using the available data and synthesis of knowledge from the fields of technology, economics, finance, and politics, 4 scenarios were set up for the future of underlying technology. The scenario approach combined with trend analysis in order to prove the starting hypothesis with high reliability. The research results show that the technology being investigated already has a profound impact on the financial sector, that it is in the initial phase of changing many industries, with the likelihood that they will change them significantly in the next five to ten years. Businesses increasingly discover the power of this technology to exploit the benefits of the Fourth Technological Revolution.

  13. Advice presented on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the project of 2003 financial law (no. 230), tome 6, economy, finances and industry, industry-energy; Avis presente au nom de la commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur le projet de loi de finances pour 2003 (no. 230), tome 6, economie, finances et industrie, industrie-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masdeu-Arus, J.

    2002-10-01

    This report presents in a detailed way the evolution of the French industry and energy financial supplies for 2003: 1 - general evolution of supplies; 2 - measures devoted to the improvement of the environment of industrial companies: quality policy, technical centers, financing of engineers schools; 3 - research and innovation supplies: main industrial research programs, small- and medium-size companies, innovation and technologies diffusion; 4 - budgetary sustain of the energy sector: budgetary sustain of nuclear energy and the French atomic energy commission (CEA) supplies, the commission of electric power regulation (CRE), the research network on oil and gas technologies, the agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe), and the French institute of petroleum (IFP); 5 - the follow up of industrial mutations: mechanical decay of the supplies to the sectors in crisis: Charbonnages de France situation, naval construction, reconversion of coal mining and steelmaking industries (funds and conversion companies); 6 - economic and financial situation of Electricite de France (EdF): continuous deterioration of results, low profitability of daughter companies, consequences for the future. (J.S.)

  14. Restructuring the Production of Medicines: An Investigation on the Pharmaceutical Sector in China and the Role of Mergers and Acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Barbieri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In places like China, an ageing population coupled with changes in living standards and increases in disposable income, imply a shift of the demand for health-related goods and services which is likely to affect the whole organization of the industries that supply such goods and services at the global level. One of the industries most likely to be affected is the pharmaceutical sector. In the early 2000s China was already the second largest global producer of pharmaceutical ingredients. The pharmaceutical sector has become one of the most important industries promoted by the Chinese government and Five-Year Plan of China’s Strategic Emerging Sectors, mergers and acquisition (M&A activity has been the key strategy to restructure the sector and increase its competitiveness. This paper firstly provides an updated picture of the evolution of M&As in the pharmaceutical sector, compared to other sectors, in China in the period 2005–2013. Secondly, we develop a composite indicator to measure the industrial performance of all Chinese industrial sectors over time, which allows us to assess the performance of the pharmaceutical industry compared to that of other sectors of the Chinese economy. Finally, we develop and estimate an empirical model that tests the relationship between the number of M&A in a sector and its performance, with a particular focus on the pharmaceutical case. The results offer some initial evidence of positive effects from the process of restructuring of the pharmaceutical sector in China.

  15. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.S.; Miller, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  16. Industry 4.0 Concept Introduction into Construction SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotarski, Piotr; Paslawski, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    The article presents a general idea of Industry 4.0 concept with the introduction presenting descriptions of the most important aspects in terms of production and construction industry development. The importance of the SME sector is stressed showing that this group of companies plays significant role in the European economy. The main objective of the article is to define and show possible research areas connected with the introduction of Industry 4.0 concept into SMEs with the main focus on the construction sector. For this purpose, an analysis was made, based on the most recent literature, to point out actual needs in the SMEs sector in terms of its evolution into 4.0 level. What is more, the analysis was performed based on the most popular articles published in journals available in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Core Collection database regarding Industry 4.0 concept in the last decade showing the actual change of interest in this filed, taking into account possibility of usage of this concept in the construction and production sector. Authors tried to describe current knowledge regarding Industry 4.0 introduction for SMEs. Performed analysis showed that there is a wide spectrum of disciplines that are affected by the Industry 4.0 that needs to be examined considering introduction into SMEs. Study also showed that multidiscipline approach was not investigated so far to create special rules, procedures and methods and know-how designed for introduction of main principles of Industry 4.0 in the SME sector. Authors came to the conclusions that there should be more stress put into research in this field especially taking into account the huge potential which lies in SME sector in terms of global economic strength.

  17. The Integration Aspects of Activities of the Companies in the Oil and Gas Industry Sector in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panevnyk Tetiana M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers both the dynamics and the structure of oil and gas production in Ukraine, situation of the oil and gas companies at the current stage of globalization of the world economy have been covered. The main problems impacting the functioning of the domestic industry sector have been identified, including the lack of effectiveness of the existing integration processes. The world trends and patterns of integration processes have been considered. It has been determined that the oil and gas industry sector leaders are the multinational companies that actively use integration in their practices. The current trends in creating integration linkages in different parts of the process chain in the oil and gas industry have been identified. Influence by large corporations of the innovative type on the creation of a favorable investment climate has been confirmed, as well as conducting their own policies of expansion in the overseas markets. On the basis of studying the foreign experience, expediency of development of the oil and gas sector enterprises by activating integration processes has been substantiated. Priorities and possibilities for further functioning of enterprises in the the oil and gas industry sector have been identified

  18. Climate's evolution and the industrial revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the evolution of climate change and the role that man has played in causing these fluctuations. The chief cause has been the ever-increasing use of fossil fuels. A comparison is made of the amount of energy used to earn each dollar of gross national product (GNP) in industrialized nations. The use of fossil fuels in developing countries is expected to rise as their populations increase and they shift from vegetation-derived fuels to fossil fuels

  19. Evolution of Ion Implantation Technology and its Contribution to Semiconductor Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Katsuhiro; Kuroi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yoji

    2011-01-01

    Industrial aspects of the evolution of ion implantation technology will be reviewed, and their impact on the semiconductor industry will be discussed. The main topics will be the technology's application to the most advanced, ultra scaled CMOS, and to power devices, as well as productivity improvements in implantation technology. Technological insights into future developments in ion-related technologies for emerging industries will also be presented.

  20. Retrospective of CO{sub 2} emissions of the Mexican industrial sector; Retrospectiva de emisiones de CO{sub 2} del sector industrial mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Domingo; Martinez, Manuel [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    The carbon dioxide emissions of the Mexican Industrial Sector throughout the period of 1965-2003 are analyzed, in terms of 16 branches of the industrial economic activity, as it is marked by the proposed disintegration of the Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales of the Intituto Nacional de Estadistica, Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) and the National Balance of Energy 2003 (BNE-2003). The CO{sub 2} emissions by the energy use have a behavior very similar to the one of the consumption of the final energy, which reflects that non significant changes in the composition of used fuels have existed. During this period the CO{sub 2} emissions increased 230%. The industrial branches that have shown significant changes in the CO{sub 2} emission are Construction, Bottled Water, Rubber, Cement, Beer and Malta and Chemistry. In order to evaluate the effects of the Activity, Structure, Power Intensity, fuel Mixture of final use and fuel Mixture used in electricity generation the decomposition model of CO{sub 2} is used based on the Laspeyres index. The calculated effects show that the main increase of total carbon dioxide of the SIM is referred to the Activity with an average rate of annual growth (TMCA) of 4.32%; whereas the effect that mitigates more the CO{sub 2} emission is the one described by the power Intensity and is equivalent to a TMCA of -0.85%. [Spanish] Se analizan las emisiones de bioxido de carbono del Sector Industrial Mexicano a lo largo del periodo de 1965-2003, en termino de 16 ramas de actividad economica industrial como lo marca la desagregacion propuesta por el Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales del Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) y el Balance Nacional de Energia 2003 (BNE-2003). Las emisiones de CO{sub 2} por el uso de energia tienen un comportamiento muy similar al de consumo de energia final, lo que refleja que no han existido cambios significativos en la composicion de los combustibles empleados. Durante este periodo las

  1. Reconversión industrial, gran empresa y efectos territoriales: El caso del sector automotriz en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Vieyra Medrano

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de reconversión industrial que se desarrolla en México manifiesta un impacto diferencial, al incorporar sólo ciertos territorios y determinados sectores económicos a la "nueva lógica de producción global". Esto hace que los patrones territoriales, imperantes hasta los años setenta, se vean modificados. El estudio parte del análisis de la industria manufacturera y reconoce a las empresas de gran tamaño como las de mayor capacidad para asumir dicha reestructuración. Finalmente, se estudia al sector automotriz, asumiéndolo como uno de los más importantes dentro del fenómeno de la globalización, ya que liga realidades nacionales y regionales con el actual funcionamiento de una economía mundial.In Mexico it is developing a process of rationalization of industry. It is expressed by a diferential impact, since it incorporates only some regions and certain economic sectors to the "new global production logic". This makes changes in the land patterns prevailing until the 1970 decade. The analysis leaves from manufacturing industry, identifying the big firms as the more qualified to assume that reestructuration. At last, the automobile sector is studied taking it as a more important ones into globalization phenomenon. So, it links national and regional realities with the actual world economy function.

  2. Evolution of the economic importance of the oil and gas industrial sector in Brazil: impacts on macroeconomic indicators; Evolucao da importancia economica da industria de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: contribuicao a variaveis macroeconomicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre Luis de Souza

    2007-06-15

    This thesis analyzes the evolution of the macroeconomic importance of the oil and gas sector in Brazil, in the recent years, which is represented by its contribution to the macroeconomic indicators, which are: GDP, Investment, Foreign Direct Investment, Trade Balance, Tax Revenue, Jobs, Wages and Inflation. The results found indicate that the oil and gas sector has a relevant contribution to the values of the Brazilian GDP, total amount of investment, total amount of foreign direct investment, tax revenue, inflation and trade balance, whereas this sector has a less relevant impact for the creation of jobs and wages in Brazil. (author)

  3. Energetic consumption in the Brazilian fertilizers industry; Consumo energetico na industria brasileira de fertilizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The main production processes in the fertilizers industry are presented and their energy consumption are presented and discussed. The energetics used in these processes are presented. The consumption per sector is presented and a brief historic of its evolution is also presented and discussed. The energetic policies which concern this energy intensive sector are presented and discussed. Finally, the future trends for the sector are presented and discussed 6 tabs.

  4. Energetic consumption in the Brazilian fertilizers industry; Consumo energetico na industria brasileira de fertilizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The main production processes in the fertilizers industry are presented and their energy consumption are presented and discussed. The energetics used in these processes are presented. The consumption per sector is presented and a brief historic of its evolution is also presented and discussed. The energetic policies which concern this energy intensive sector are presented and discussed. Finally, the future trends for the sector are presented and discussed 6 tabs.

  5. Assessment of On-Site Power Opportunities in the Industrial Sector; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify the potential for on-site power generation in the U.S. industrial sector with emphasis on nine industrial groups called the ''Industries of the Future'' (IOFs) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through its Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), the DOE has teamed with the IOFs to develop collaborative strategies for improving productivity, global competitiveness, energy usage and environmental performance. Total purchases for electricity and steam for the IOFs are in excess of$27 billion annually. Energy-related costs are very significant for these industries. The nine industrial groups are: (1) Agriculture (SIC 1); (2) Forest products; (3) Lumber and wood products (SIC 24); (4) Paper and allied products (SIC 26); (5) Mining (SIC 11, 12, 14); (6) Glass (SIC 32); (7) Petroleum (SIC 29); (8) Chemicals (SIC 28); and (9) Metals (SIC 33)-Steel, Aluminum, Metal casting. Although not currently part of the IOF program, the food industry is included in this report because of its close relationship to the agricultural industry and its success with on-site power generation. On-site generation provides an alternative means to reduce energy costs, comply with environmental regulations, and ensure a reliable power supply. On-site generation can ease congestion in the local utility's electric grid. Electric market restructuring is exacerbating the price premium for peak electricity use and for reliability, creating considerable market interest in on-site generation

  6. Effects of financial crisis on the industry sector of Chinese stock market — from a perspective of complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxia; Chen, Yanhua; Hao, Weiwei; Shen, Ying; Tang, Minxuan; Niu, Lei

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we use mutual information to measure the statistical interdependence between 23 industry sectors of Shanghai stock market and construct corresponding correlation network to analyze the shock of 2008 financial crisis on industry sectors. The obtained meaningful facts are as follows. First, such crisis has only a limited impact on leading industries such as Manufacturing, Commercial trade and Machinery & Equipment, which still play an important role in Chinese economy. Second, the crisis badly attacks China's export industries like Electronics, Wood & Furniture and Textile & Clothing. The damage further hurts other industries, and then export industries' influence becomes larger. Third, the crisis adversely impacts the import industries like Petrochemical, Metal & Nonmetal and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. While due to the stimulation of macroeconomic policies, the influence of crisis on import industries is limited. Similarly, due to relatively strict capital control and the macroeconomic policies stimulating the domestic demand, those industries like Construction, Real Estate and Financial Services are slightly wounded. All these findings suggest that Chinese government should transform from the external demand to the domestic consumption to sustain economic growth.

  7. Evolution of Secondary Software Businesses: Understanding Industry Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrväinen, Pasi; Warsta, Juhani; Seppänen, Veikko

    Primary software industry originates from IBM's decision to unbundle software-related computer system development activities to external partners. This kind of outsourcing from an enterprise internal software development activity is a common means to start a new software business serving a vertical software market. It combines knowledge of the vertical market process with competence in software development. In this research, we present and analyze the key figures of the Finnish secondary software industry, in order to quantify its interaction with the primary software industry during the period of 2000-2003. On the basis of the empirical data, we present a model for evolution of a secondary software business, which makes explicit the industry dynamics. It represents the shift from internal software developed for competitive advantage to development of products supporting standard business processes on top of standardized technologies. We also discuss the implications for software business strategies in each phase.

  8. Evaluación de la Concentración Industrial Sinérgica: Propuesta Metodológica y Aplicada a un Sector Industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Val Segarra Oña

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia de la concentración geográfica y la evidenciade la existencia de clusters industriales ha sido temade muchos estudios a través de los años. En este artículo,presentamos una herramienta para analizar la concentraciónindustrial sinérgica, entendida como la generación de ventajasproducto de la actividad en grupo (en este caso de un sectorindustrial, las cuales resultan superiores a la suma de losefectos individuales. Esta herramienta se aplica a un sectorconcreto, el del mueble de hogar de la Comunidad Valenciana,en España, en el que se identifican los factores exógenosque contribuyen a reforzar la competitividad del sector através de la creación de las sinergias producto de la actividaden grupo. La metodología seguida en la investigación ha sidoel estudio de casos.   ABSTRACT The importance of geographical concentration and theevidence of the existence of industrial clusters have beenwidely studied through the years. In this article, we presentan analysis tool of a synergistic industrial concentration (fora particular industrial sector that is superior to the sum ofits individual effects. This tool is specifically applied to thehome furniture sector in the Region of Valencia in Spain, inwhich the exogenous factors contributing to reinforce thesector’s competitiveness through synergy created by groupaction are identified. The methodology followed was thecase study type.

  9. The Impact of Energy taxes on Competitiveness and Output: A Panel Regression Study of 56 European Industry Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Martin K.; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the extent to which energy taxes - via the resulting increase in real energy prices, or in their own right - reduce or enhance industrial competitiveness. From a panel data set covering 56 industry sectors throughout Europe over the period 1990-2003, we estimate how cha...... changes in real energy taxes and real energy prices affect, on the one hand, competitiveness measured in terms unit energy costs and unit wage costs and, on the other hand, economic performance expressed in terms of output (value added)......The focus of this paper is the extent to which energy taxes - via the resulting increase in real energy prices, or in their own right - reduce or enhance industrial competitiveness. From a panel data set covering 56 industry sectors throughout Europe over the period 1990-2003, we estimate how...

  10. Perceptions of Private Sector towards the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register: A Case Study on Petrochemical Industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, Rayong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Kondo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 as well as other international agreements, Thailand is currently in the process of adopting the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR through a pilot project in Rayong province with assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA. This research aimed to study perceptions of private sector towards the PRTR through a case study on petrochemical industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate. Through semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews, the study found that the petrochemical industry viewed that benefits of the PRTR for the government and civil society is quite clear, while each petrochemical company has different understanding on such benefit for private sector to be as sustainable industrial management. Various incentive measures and concerns on the PRTR were also indicated in this study.

  11. Valor económico agregado en las empresas del sector industrial manufacturero de Cúcuta periodo 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Antuny Pabón-León

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The manufacturing industry in Cúcuta is considered important because of the relevance of this sector of the economy either due to demand for products and services, employment generation and economic impact on different other economic activities on the city. Objective: This paper makes part of a research on value creation in the manufacturing sector of Cúcuta Colombia Norte de Santander Department in 2008-2012. It is intended to describe the behavior of this indicator in the sector. Methods: The study was developed with a quantitative approach; the scope of the research was descriptive with a non- experimental design. For this, a trend analysis of financial indicators related to value creation based on accounting information was made. Results: This research found that no value is created in the sector or in any of the subsectors studied during five years; this is due to the decrease in operating income and rising inventories coupled with the fact that cost of capital is high compared to the performance of equity. Conclusions: There is low industrial vocation in the city, less contribution of the sector on the GDP year after year, hence regional economy has been affected in both social and economic indicators.

  12. The technical and industrial evolutions in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougeau, J.P.; Guais, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The fuel cycle industry is a vital part of nuclear energy generation. Producers in every step of this industry, from uranium to reprocessing are working to adapt their products and services both to the more and more competitive conditions of the market and to the utilities evoluting specific needs. For the next decade, the main trend is uranium economy and reduction of industrial costs. For the longer term, the difficult prevision of nuclear energy developments, in particular with new types of reactors necessitates a true capacity of adaptation both from the utilities and from the fuel cycle industry. Cogema has already demonstrated the ability to adapt its industrial capabilities and therefore can prepare confidently for the future challenges [fr

  13. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN JAPANESE BANKING SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Murawski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The concept of CSR is developed in the theory of economics and management from the 50s of the last century. In practice, the banking industry uses it for many years. The evolution of the banking sector caused the emergence of new services and products that are integrated with the philosophy of CSR. In Japan, each of the bank you can see the relationship between business, society and the environment. This activity follows the tradition and adopted a philosophy that is both fostered and develop...

  14. The Evolution of the Direct Marketing Industry in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. OSTILLIO; G. TROILO

    1996-01-01

    The paper reports the evolution of the direct marketing (DM) industry and activties in Italy, by comparing Italian data with data from other large international markets. The comparison regards motivations behind investments in DM, the type of investment, the services offered by DM agencies.

  15. Sectoral Innovation Watch Food and Drinks Sector. Final Sector Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leis, M.; Gijsbers, G.; Zee, F. van der

    2011-01-01

    The food and drinks manufacturing industry is a diverse and complex sector. There are ample possibilities for performance improvement and innovation in the food and drinks industry as well as a variety of challenges ranging from a lack of financial and human resources, fragmented consumer interests

  16. Industrial sector-based volatile organic compound (VOC) source profiles measured in manufacturing facilities in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junyu; Yu, Yufan; Mo, Ziwei; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Xinming; Yin, Shasha; Peng, Kang; Yang, Yang; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Cai, Huihua

    2013-07-01

    Industrial sector-based VOC source profiles are reported for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China, based source samples (stack emissions and fugitive emissions) analyzed from sources operating under normal conditions. The industrial sectors considered are printing (letterpress, offset and gravure printing processes), wood furniture coating, shoemaking, paint manufacturing and metal surface coating. More than 250 VOC species were detected following US EPA methods TO-14 and TO-15. The results indicated that benzene and toluene were the major species associated with letterpress printing, while ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol were the most abundant compounds of other two printing processes. Acetone and 2-butanone were the major species observed in the shoemaking sector. The source profile patterns were found to be similar for the paint manufacturing, wood furniture coating, and metal surface coating sectors, with aromatics being the most abundant group and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) as the second largest contributor in the profiles. While OVOCs were one of the most significant VOC groups detected in these five industrial sectors in the PRD region, they have not been reported in most other source profile studies. Such comparisons with other studies show that there are differences in source profiles for different regions or countries, indicating the importance of developing local source profiles. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Eco-innovation Dynamics and Green Economic Change: the role of sectoral-specific patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Faria, Lourenco

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the features of Green Economic Change process at the meso-level, the greening of industries. We posit that, as for “traditional” innovations, it is possible to identify sectoral eco-innovation patterns and that these represent key but neglected factors in the dynamics...... of green economic evolution. . The paper represents early speculative conceptual work. We have posited that, as for “general” innovations, it is possible to identify sectoral eco-innovation patterns and that these represent key but neglected factors in the dynamics of green economic chance. The paper...... identifies seven specific characteristics of eco-innovation which form the basis for identifying 4 core hypothesis which may explain sectoral heterogeneity and identify likely sectoral eco-innovation leaders....

  18. PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES BETWEEN CRISIS AND COMPETITIVENESS - SECTORAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela\tBÎRSAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the pharmaceutical industry was a positive constant with the indicators of industrial production even in years of crisis. Although the economic crisis in Romania decreased average growth rate of pharmaceutical companies, market value is expected to increase. The explanation comes from the fact that in order to boost productivity, pharmaceutical companies are turning to emerging countries with aging populations such as open new markets for future development. Add to this the recent health policies implemented by newly industrialized countries that are aimed at ensuring increased access to care. Analysts see the field phenomenon called "Farma-merger" a good chance for European pharmaceutical companies oriented to developing countries where drug sales should record a double-digit annual growth until 2017. In Erste Group reports stated that the impact of the crisis on the pharmaceutical industry should be limited markets for EU only their economic slowdown. This will be possible because the external indebtedness of pharmaceutical companies in the EU remains at a minimum, they are able to finance their investment plans without tapping financial markets, are not adversely affected by the current limited availability of credit resources. Therefore major pharmaceutical companies in the EU will remain a solid investment on the long term, the negative developments are limited due to high resistance to the crisis their business model segment "generic". The consequence of these developments is reflected in the recognition for the first time, the pharmaceutical sector as a strategic sector for the Romanian economy. In the context of public debate launching the National Strategy for Competitiveness 2014-2020, Generic Medicines Industry Association of Romania (APMGR local pharmaceutical industry reminds the Government proposals on correcting the current fiscal and operational regulatory framework, to allow unlocking investments in facilities

  19. Chances for the development of manufactures of capital goods. Analysis of the situation and sector evolution; Oportunidades para el desarrollo de los fabricantes de bienes de equipo. Analisis de la situacion y evolucion del sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez Ramos, M. L.

    2012-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the situation and development in the capital goods sector in Spain. This industry is not just an important sector in the Spanish economy but, given its structural characteristics (dynamism, influence on the production processes of other activities and presence in all developed countries), it conditions the recovery of our economy. The article includes an analysis of the weaknesses, threats, strengths and opportunities of the sector. Further, it is crucial its contribution to make sustainable development of industrial activity. Also, it deals with those opportunities that are presented for the future development of this industry such as eco-design, energy efficiency and life cycle analysis. (Author)

  20. Government intervention in the Canadian nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doern, G B [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). School of Public Administration

    1980-01-01

    Several facets of government intervention in the Canadian nuclear industry are examined by reviewing the general historical evolution of intervention since the Second World War and by a more detailed analysis of three case studies. The case studies are the public sector - private sector content of the initial CANDU reactor program in the 1950's, the regulation of the health and safety of uranium miners in the late 1960's and early 1970's, and the Ontario Hydro decision in 1978 to enter into longer-term (40 year) contracts for uranium for its power reactors.

  1. Hydraulic and marine energies. Market evolution and perspectives on the medium term for the sector actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In its first part, this report proposes an analysis of the hydraulic and marine energy sector and of its perspectives through the identification of its main activity determining factors, a presentation of the activity evolution until 2015, and a discussion of the process of concession renewal, and of the development of small hydroelectric projects. The second part presents and comments the financial performance of enterprises belonging to the sector, and the third part an overview of highlights and of development focuses of operators (increase of production capacities, concession renewals, international development, and diversification in other renewable energies). The third part reports an analysis of the sector context: structural brakes and drivers, hydraulic world market, hydraulic French market. The three last parts propose an analysis of the sector economic structure and of actors, data sheet for operators, equipment manufacturers and engineering companies, and economic and financial indicators for 192 operators which allow a comparative overview of these actors

  2. Sectoral agreements and competitive distortions - a Swedish perspective; Effects of EU Emissions Trading System for European industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterberg, Lars; Holmgren, Kristina

    2009-03-15

    The objectives of this study are to: Give an overview of the current discussion concerning competition distortion in relation to climate policy; Describe results from some studies estimating the actual competition situation for selected activities; Describe what sector agreement models are suggested/ discussed by EU; Describe what sectors are most interesting to target with a sector agreement from a Swedish point of view; Analyse what parameters are important for reducing competition distortion for Swedish Industry. Two studies, for the United Kingdom and Germany, have recently assessed the potential cost impact for different industrial sectors of CO{sub 2}-prices due to the EU ETS. The sectors with high potential impact, with a maximum value at stake larger than 10%, are in the United Kingdom Lime and cement, Basic iron and steel, Starches, Refined petroleum, Fertilizers and Nitrogen compounds and Aluminium. In Germany: Cement and lime, Fertilizers and nitrogen compounds, Basic iron and steel, Aluminium, Paper and board, Other basic inorganic compounds and Coke, refined petroleum and nuclear fuels. Ex-ante studies of the impacts of competitiveness and carbon leakage due to the EU ETS fail to find actual impacts. However, that does not mean that there will be no impact in the future, which hold changes both in the EU ETS (method for allowance allocation, allowance prices etc) and possibly also other important circumstances. In this study, based on official Swedish statistics, the maximum value a stake has been calculated for 52 Swedish sectors. Seven sectors have a maximum value a stake of more than 4%: Coke and refined petroleum (21%), Pulp and paper (11%), Basic metals (10%), Non-metallic mineral (9%), Metal ore mines (6%), Air transport (5%) and Electricity, gas and heat (4%). If Air transport and Electricity, gas and heat are omitted, the five remaining sectors account for 22% of Sweden's carbon emissions. In late 2008, the EU proposed three types of

  3. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects. The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2015) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of industrial output. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types

  4. Key Directions of Sectoral and Spatial Changes in the Russian Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chasovsky Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers major trends in the spatial and sectoral structure of national production and analyses the patterns of transformation of industrial systems into integrated industrial complexes, which show higher efficiency in transit condiétions. The author presents a new approach to studying the structural transformation of industrial systems during the transition of the national economy, which will make it possible to identify major trends in national production. The article seeks to draw attention to the methodology of developing and implementing industrial policy and devising an algorithm of effective transition of Russian industries in the modern conditions of international division of labor. The modernization and transnationalization of national production rests on a number of methods that make it possible for the corporate management to react rapidly to changes in the global market situation. These methods include strategic segmentation, analyzing the ability to adapt to the expected conditions, devising a company’s entrepreneurial strategy, and changes in the spatial and industrial structure of production. The transformation of national industry is associated with the introduction of mechanisms of industrial integration structures using single organizational production modules capable of rational combination and transformation of the elements of national production structure to create competitive transnational production associations, such as clusters and other production forms serving as ‘growth poles’ and becoming elements of the emerging framework for national production. This methodology makes it possible to develop new approaches, methods, and principles for analyzing the transformation of the national spatial and industrial system during economic transition. Current factors, features, patterns and trends in the transformation of national industrial systems are identified; a mechanism for devising and implementing a

  5. New Product Development (NPD) Process - An Example of Industrial Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierska, Marianna; Grębosz-Krawczyk, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    This aim of this article is to present the process of new product introduction on example of industrial sector in context of new product development (NPD) concept. In the article, the concept of new product development is discussed and the different stages of the process of new electric motor development are analysed taking into account its objectives, implemented procedures, functions and responsibilities division. In the article, information from secondary sources and the results of empirical research - conducted in an international manufacturing company - are used. The research results show the significance of project leader and regular cooperation with final client in the NPD process.

  6. Relationship between technological progress, capital elasticity and emissions of industrial pollutants for the production sectors in Catalonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pie, Laia; Saez, Marc

    2009-01-01

    As is known, the Kyoto protocol proposes to reinforce national policies for emission reduction and, furthermore, to cooperate with other contracting parties. In this context, it would be necessary to assess these emissions, both in general and specifically, by pollutants and/or among productive sectors. The objective of this paper is precisely to estimate the polluting emissions of industrial origin in Catalonia in the year 2001, in a multivariate context that explicitly allows a distinction to be made between the polluter and/or the productive sector causing this emission. Six pollutants are considered, four directly related to greenhouse effect. A multi-level model, with two levels, pollutants and productive sectors, was specified. Both technological progress and elasticity of capital were introduced as random effects. Hence, it has been permitted that these coefficients vary according to one or the other level. The most important finding in this paper is that elasticity of capital has been estimated as very non-elastic, with a range that varies between 0.162 (the paper industry) and 0.556 (commerce). In fact, and generally speaking, greater the capital in the sector, lower the elasticity of capital estimated

  7. Evolution of hospital industrial engineering: from scientific management to total quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahney, V K

    1993-01-01

    Industrial engineering applications in the hospital industry first began in 1910. This paper traces the evolution of hospital industrial engineering in five distinct phases. For each of the major phases, this paper presents the contributions made by industrial engineers. Many of the techniques advocated by industrial engineers are now being taught to hospital employees as hospitals introduce total quality management (TQM) within the health-care industry. TQM introduction has meant a new role for industrial engineers, as that of a teacher, coach, and a facilitator. This new role holds much promise for the improvement of quality and productivity in health care.

  8. The Scrap Collection per Industry Sector and the Circulation Times of Steel in the U.S. between 1900 and 2016, Calculated Based on the Volume Correlation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gauffin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the Volume Correlation Model (VCM as well as data on steel consumption and scrap collection per industry sector (construction, automotive, industrial goods, and consumer goods, it was possible to estimate service lifetimes of steel in the United States between 1900 and 2016. Input data on scrap collection per industry sector was based on a scrap survey conducted by the World Steel Association for a static year in 2014 in the United States. The lifetimes of steel calculated with the VCM method were within the range of previously reported measured lifetimes of products and applications for all industry sectors. Scrapped (and apparent lifetimes of steel compared with measured lifetimes were calculated to be as follows: a scrapped lifetime of 29 years for the construction sector (apparent lifetime: 52 years compared with 44 years measured in 2014. Industrial goods: 16 (27 years compared with 19 years measured in 2010. Consumer goods: 12 (14 years compared with 13 years measured in 2014. Automotive sector: 14 (19 years compared with 17 years measured in 2011. Results show that the VCM can estimate reasonable values of scrap collection and availability per industry sector over time.

  9. EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL INTENSITY OF EXPORTS IN THE FORESTRY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Monteiro da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the fastest growing sectors in the domestic industry is the forestry, which has contributed significantly to economic development, job creation, income taxes, putting Brazil in a prominent position in the world market. This paper analyzes the evolution of the technological intensity of 12 main products exported by the sector, from 2000 to 2011. For that, utilizes an indicator called PRODY, which allows classifying different products according to their technological intensity or income content and considers the GDP per capita of exporting countries of each product, weighted by its revealed comparative advantage. It can be seen by the results, a continuous growth in all products' technology indicators and their decomposition into income effects, comparative advantage and joint effects, allowed to verify the main causes of this growth. Products with lower PRODY values are those that presented a higher evolution during the period studied. Products of higher processing, and those from pulp and paper industry, had greater technological advances, thanks to a joint effect, while the ones of lower processing, had a technological improvement due to the increase in GDP per capita in exporting countries. Sawn wood was the standout product, being the only one who proved to be dependent of comparative advantage effect, confirming that this industry has been reinventing itself and incorporating, in fact, more technology. This study revealed the importance of technological intensification to generate comparative advantage and be able to stand against international competition.

  10. Assessment of the energy requirements and selected options facing major consumers within the Egyptian industrial and agricultural sectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-31

    The objectives of the energy assessment study of Egypt are to develop an understanding of the current status of the principal energy users in Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors; to estimate the energy demand and efficiency for each selected subsector within these major sectors; to identify opportunities for fuel type changes, technology switches, or production pattern changes which might increase the efficiency with which Egypt's energy is used both now and in the future: and based on options identified, to forecast energy efficiencies for selected Egyptian subsectors for the years 1985 and 2000. Study results are presented for the iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, chemical, petrochemical, cement, and textile industries and automotive manufacturers. Study results for drainage, irrigation, and mechanization procedures in the agricultural sector and food processing sector are also presented. (MCW)

  11. Energy and capital: substitutes or complements. Some results for the UK industrial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, L.C.

    1984-10-01

    This paper investigates the substitutability or complementarity possibilities between capital, labor, and energy in the UK industrial sector, with particular attention to the capital-energy relationship. It is found, using the translog-cost-function approach, that capital and labor as well as energy and labor are substitutes. However, capital and energy are found to be complements. 11 references, 3 tables.

  12. Annual electricity consumption forecasting by neural network in high energy consuming industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Sohrabkhani, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for annual electricity consumption in high energy consumption industrial sectors. Chemicals, basic metals and non-metal minerals industries are defined as high energy consuming industries. It is claimed that, due to high fluctuations of energy consumption in high energy consumption industries, conventional regression models do not forecast energy consumption correctly and precisely. Although ANNs have been typically used to forecast short term consumptions, this paper shows that it is a more precise approach to forecast annual consumption in such industries. Furthermore, the ANN approach based on a supervised multi-layer perceptron (MLP) is used to show it can estimate the annual consumption with less error. Actual data from high energy consuming (intensive) industries in Iran from 1979 to 2003 is used to illustrate the applicability of the ANN approach. This study shows the advantage of the ANN approach through analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, the ANN forecast is compared with actual data and the conventional regression model through ANOVA to show its superiority. This is the first study to present an algorithm based on the ANN and ANOVA for forecasting long term electricity consumption in high energy consuming industries

  13. Understanding the evolution of eco-innovative activity in the automotive sector: a patent based analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Lourenco; Andersen, Maj Munch

    The paper aims to analyze the evolution of eco-innovative activity and strategies in the automotive sector over time. We suggest to use a patent count methodology tracking the development of selected technologies considered as promising ?green technologies? in the automotive sector. The paper...... their patent portfolios in order to generate competitive advantages derived from the introduction of eco-innovations, activities emerging in the 1990s and accelerating in scope and radicality in the end zeroes. All the firms are engaging in developing new alternative green trajectories to the existing dominant...... demonstrates the current fluid emerging stage of the greening of the economy but also illustrates that eco-innovation is already an important competitive factor globally....

  14. The French nuclear sector. Situation and predictions 2018 - Sectoral and competitive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This document comprises two reports. A first one, published and updated three times a year, and a second one which is a yearly publication. The first one, based on an analysis of market perspectives and of actor strategies, proposes a synthesis on the consequences of the evolution of the economic environment, on major trends noticed for the nuclear sector, and on predictable evolutions. It proposes the most recent data regarding the activities of more than 100 firms belonging to the sector (notably in terms of electric power production, of turnover for firms specialised in nuclear maintenance or in the fuel cycle). It highlights recent events for companies of the sector: takeovers, investments, restructuring, introduction of new products, and so on. It proposes a sector-based dashboard which contains all the critical figures useful to analyse the sector situation (activity determining factors, key figures for the sector and its environment). The annual report proposes a general presentation of the sector (determining factors of the activity, operated nuclear plants in the world, nuclear power production in the world, uranium production and consumption in the world, maintenance and improvement expenses on nuclear plants, electric power consumption and shares in power generation by different sources in France), an analysis of the evolution of the sector activity (trends, indicators, financial performance of actors in the maintenance of nuclear plants), an overview of important issues for the profession (growth issue despite the maturity of the French market, implications of intensification of foreign competition, of higher safety requirements, and of a decrease of nuclear energy profitability), and an analysis of the sector economic structure (turnovers, personnel, position of France among world exporters, equipment export structure, key figures for nuclear maintenance). The last part proposes presentations of 20 French actors and data and information sheets for 10

  15. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Oil and gas field machinery and equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil and gas field machinery and equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for oil and gas field machinery and equipment

  16. The Petroleum Sector in Latin America: Reforming the Crown Jewels - CERI Studies No. 88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Luisa

    2002-09-01

    This paper studies the institutional transformation of Latin America's oil sector. It discusses specific policy choices and the timing of reforms in this industry. Latin American countries present different models of openness and energy-sector dynamics, and allow for an analysis of the liberalization process from a range of points of view: that of an importer (Brazil), of a historically self-sufficient country (Argentina) and of oil exporters (Mexico and Venezuela). The degree of dependence on oil revenues has proven in general to be negatively correlated with the level of openness of the oil sector. That is, countries more dependent on their oil sector for foreign and fiscal revenues tend to be less liberalized and open to private investment. This principle also holds true in Latin America: oil importers and self-sufficient countries like Argentina, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil indeed have oil industries that are relatively more open to private sector participation than those of the oil exporters in the region (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Mexico). However, different levels of openness exist within these general categories of importers and exporters. This paper will further argue that differences among countries in the same category are a function of the strategic and financial position prior to reform of their respective National Oil Companies (NOC), which is in turn related to the institutional evolution of the oil industries in these countries. (author)

  17. Determinants of eco-efficiency in the Chinese industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2013-12-01

    This study measures productive inefficiency within the context of multi-environmental pollution (eco-efficiency) in the Chinese industrial sector. The weighted Russell directional distance model is applied to measure eco-efficiency using production technology. The objective is to clarify how external factors affect eco-efficiency. The major findings are that both foreign direct investment and investment for pollution abatement improve eco-efficiency as measured by air pollutant substances. A levy system for wastewater discharge improves eco-efficiency as measured by wastewater pollutant substances. However, an air pollutant levy does not significantly affect eco-efficiency as measured by air pollutants. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. El conflicto competitivo entre sistemas socio-técnicos complejos y la evolución de los sectores industriales = The competitive conflict between complex socio-technical systems and industrial sector dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Levy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas concepciones tradicionales con respecto a la Estrategia Competitiva y a la dinámica de los sectores industriales han sido casi siempre orientadas hacia el lado de la demanda, el Posicionamiento de las marcas, o hacia el lado de la oferta, la Productividad de los recursos. En este artículo se presenta el concepto de “paradigma vincular” para entender a la Estrategia Competitiva y la Dinámica de los Sectores Industriales. Este concepto liga el posicionamiento con la productividad desde un abordaje cognitivo, interactivo y sistémico.AbstractAlmost all of the traditional views regarding Competitive Strategy and Industrial Sector Dynamics have been oriented towards the demand side, this is a brand Positioning bias, or towards the supply side, this is a resource Productivity bias. This paper introduces the concept of “vincular paradigm” to understand Competitive Strategy and Industrial Sector Dynamics from a cognitive, interactive and systemic approach

  19. Self-employed persons in Sweden - mortality differentials by industrial sector and enterprise legal form: a five-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, Susanna; Mellner, Christin; Vinberg, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated mortality differentials between self-employed persons in Sweden, considering industrial sector, enterprise characteristics and socio-demographic factors. Data on 321,274 self-employed persons were obtained from population registers in Sweden. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare all-cause and cause-specific mortality rate ratios by industrial sector and enterprise legal form, adjusted for confounders. All-cause mortality was 10-32% higher in self-employed persons in Manufacturing and Mining, Trade and Communication, and Not Specified and Other sectors than in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing. Mortality from cardiovascular disease was 23% higher in Trade and Communication, and from neoplasms 17-51% higher in Manufacturing and Mining, Not Specified, and Other. Mortality from suicide was 45-60% lower in Personal and Cultural Services, and in Not Specified. Mortality was 8-16% higher in sole proprietorship than limited partnership. Further research of working conditions is warranted, considering industry and enterprise legal form. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Investigation on the Relationship owth of Agricultural Sector’s Growth with Growth of Industrial and Service Sectors (Commerce, Transportation, Telecommunication in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yaghoob zeraatkish

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has always been considerd as one of the important sectors in domestic and international economy .Based on the Central Bank Statistics; agriculture’s share in the Iranian GDP at the constant price of the year 1998 was 13 percent of the GDP in the year 2007. Therefore, studies on the role of agriculture in an economy and its interactions with other economic sectors should be considered with a special attention. This paper aimed at surveying the effects of growth of value-added in agriculture on the value-added of different sectors of industry, services as well as subordinate sectors of transportation, communication and commerce. In this regard, the status of the period between 1967 to 2009 is used. To determine the relationship among the study variables, some econometric techniques such as VAR were used. The results of VAR technique proves that there is a positive relation among the growth of value-added in the agricultural sector with the growth of industrial sector and the growth of sub-sectors of communication, transportation and commerce. Among the mentioned sectors and sub-sectors, the growth of commerce has maximum effect on the agricultural growth. Furthermore, in the short term, the growth variant of trading sector presented the largest share in explaining the variants of the agriculture sector . The growth variant of communication sector is trivial

  1. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on bibliographic coupling network: How industrial sectors on the GVC compete for production resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jun; Xu, Xiaoyu; Xing, Lizhi

    2018-03-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing national economic systems with abundance of economic relationships depicting information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper focuses on how to quantify the degree of competition on the global value chain (GVC) from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models are established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output (ICIO) tables and then have them transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network models to analyze the competitive relationships based on bibliographic coupling approach. Three indicators well suited for the weighted and undirected networks with self-loops are introduced here, including unit weight for competitive power, disparity in the weight for competitive amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied empirically to analyze the function of industrial sectors on the basis of the latest World Input-Output Database (WIOD) in order to reveal inter-sector competitive status during the economic globalization.

  2. Learning Networks in Innovation Systems at Sector / Regional Level in Argentina: Winery and Dairy Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Sanchez; Roberto Bisang

    2011-01-01

    This work studies how the set of relationships that gives place to the learning processes is established in the food indus- try in Argentina. A theoretical ad hoc approach is adopted, conjugating the concepts of innovation systems at sector / regional level with some context considerations like the innovative behaviour of the global and local food industry and a description of the public and private S&T in Argentina. The study is focused in two cases: the wine industry, at the Mendoza provinc...

  3. Government intervention in the Canadian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doern, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    Several facets of government intervention in the Canadian nuclear industry are examined by reviewing the general historical evolution of intervention since the Second World War and by a more detailed analysis of three case studies. The case studies are the public sector - private sector content of the initial CANDU reactor program in the 1950's, the regulation of the health and safety of uranium miners in the late 1960's and early 1970's, and the Ontario Hydro decision in 1978 to enter into longer-term (40 year) contracts for uranium for its power reactors. (auth)

  4. Nuclear Energy R and D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, David; Herring, J. Stephen

    2010-01-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, entitled 'Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors', addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R and D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: (1) Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, (2) Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and (3) Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation

  5. On the formation of energy policies towards 2020: Challenges in the Swedish industrial and building sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, Patrik; Rohdin, Patrik; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    The impact of global climate change due to increased emissions of greenhouse gases emissions which in turn is a consequence of in particular, the use of fossil fuels, has made EU decision makers to act decisively, e.g. the EU 2020 primary energy target of reducing primary energy use with 20% from 2005 to 2020. The aim of this paper is to present major challenges related to the development and formation of energy policies towards the Swedish industrial and building sector in order to fulfill the EU 2020 primary energy target. This paper is approaching the presented challenges by introducing the theory of Asymmetric Energy Policy Shocks (AEPSs), and addresses some key challenges which are of particular relevance for the fulfilment of the EU 2020 primary energy target for Member States like Sweden which from an energy end-use perspective substantially differs from the EU-25's energy end-use structure. In conclusion, overcoming AEPSs, and moving towards a more Long-Term Energy Policy Approach (LTEPA) will be of key importance for individual Member States, if the 2020 primary energy target is to be fulfilled. - Highlights: ► The paper presents major challenges in regard to the formation of Swedish energy policy for the industry and building sectors. ► The theory of Asymmetric Energy Policy Shocks is introduced. ► Regional differences are important to take into account when designing energy policies for the industry and building sectors.

  6. Articulation of Industrial R&D with Higher Education in the Telecommunications Sector in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This article shows how and why particular higher education?industry research and development networks articulate with the South African telecommunications sector. The range of competing and complementary data telecommunications technologies available in the South African market provide varying opportunities for enterprises to engage in R&D. Two…

  7. Análisis del fracaso empresarial por sectores: factores diferenciadores = Cross-industry analysis of business failure: differential factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Mures Quintana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo se centra en el análisis del fracaso empresarial por sectores, a fin de identificar los factores explicativos y predictivos de este fenómeno que son diferentes en tres de los principales sectores que se distinguen en toda economía: industria, construcción y servicios. Para cada uno de estos sectores, seguimos el mismo procedimiento. En primer lugar, aplicamos un análisis de componentes principales con el que identificamos los factores explicativos del fracaso empresarial en los tres sectores. A continuación, consideramos dichos factores como variables independientes en un análisis discriminante, que aplicamos para predecir el fracaso de una muestra de empresas, utilizando no sólo información financiera en forma de ratios, sino también otras variables no financieras relativas a las empresas, así como información externa a las mismas que refleja las condiciones macroeconómicas bajo las que desarrollan su actividad. This paper focuses on a cross-industry analysis of business failure, in order to identify the explanatory and predictor factors of this event that are different in three of the main industries in every economy: manufacturing, building and service. For each one of these industries, the same procedure is followed. First, a principal components analysis is applied in order to identify the explanatory factors of business failure in the three industries. Next, these factors are considered as independent variables in a discriminant analysis, so as to predict the firms’ failure, using not only financial information expressed by ratios, but also other non-financial variables related to the firms, as well as external information that reflects macroeconomic conditions under which they develop their activity.

  8. Energy saving in residential and tertiary sectors: regulations, inciting measures and consumer attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, P.; Aubert, D.; Grel, P.; Herant, P.; Molia, J.P.; Thelinge, H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy saving regulations in the residential and tertiary sectors are under permanent evolution. What are the most significant rules already existing and under preparation? What is the position of the natural gas industry with respect to this regulatory environment? Is there more specific regulatory measures that would be needed to reach the CO 2 abatement goals? What are the means to sensibilize consumers? What are the contributions of the building industry and of energy services? This workshop gathered five experts and a chairman who debated these different points. (J.S.)

  9. Evaluation of the sector network for the industry's system of analysis 1996-2002; Evaluering av bransjenettverket for industris analyseordning 1996-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenning, Anne; Modahl, Ingunn Saur

    2005-07-01

    Enova wanted to carry out an evaluation of the sector network for the industry's analysis arrangement 1996-2002. This evaluation considers the arrangement's results in relation to its purposes, and contains an assessment of its effects related to energy consumption and energy efficiency. The data is based on meeting with IFE (Institute for Energy Technology), a survey among the sector network's member companies, interviews with advisors, companies and IFE, a survey among the advisors, and reported data from companies to IFE's database of applications and final reports. The methodology for collection of data on energy saving is based on a direct method instead of an indirect method, originally planned. Based on this evaluation it is concluded that the sector network analysis arrangement or advisory service has been a success. The evaluation has revealed that the industry has gained knowledge about possibilities for a more efficient and environmentally-friendly energy consumption, i.e. an increased competency of action. Additionally, based on the feedback from the companies in the surveys, it was revealed that the companies after the participation in the analysis have carried out energy saving measures equal to 809 GWh. The target figure for the analysis arrangement was energy savings of 350 GWh before 2005 (ml)

  10. Evolution of Wireless Sensor Networks for Industrial Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Low

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Technologies evolve in a process of gradual scientific change, but the commercial application of technologies is discontinuous. Managers interested in technology evolution can integrate these contrasting ideas using a powerful theoretical framework, based on the concept of punctuated equilibrium from evolutionary biology. The framework, which enables the differentiation of the technical evolution of a technology from its market application, is used in this article to compare the two standards for wireless sensor networks (WSN for industrial instrumentation and control: WirelessHART and ISA100.11a. The two WSN standards are the product of two different market contexts, which have selected different minimum viable technologies for evolution in their respective niches. Network security issues present some important selection criteria. Both WSN standards implement security countermeasures against localized wireless network attacks based on the application of the AES encryption standard, but some specific security threats – some local, others remotely launched – are only well-defended by the adoption of public-key cryptographic (PKC protocols, which only ISA100.11a supports. This article concludes that the mainstream market potential of the Internet has influenced the evolution of ISA100.11a and will continue to demand that each WSN standard evolve in ways that are difficult to predict.

  11. Leveraging Big Data Tools and Technologies: Addressing the Challenges of the Water Quality Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ponce Romero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The water utility sector is subject to stringent legislation, seeking to address both the evolution of practices within the chemical/pharmaceutical industry, and the safeguarding of environmental protection, and which is informed by stakeholder views. Growing public environmental awareness is balanced by fair apportionment of liability within-sector. This highly complex and dynamic context poses challenges for water utilities seeking to manage the diverse chemicals arising from disparate sources reaching Wastewater Treatment Plants, including residential, commercial, and industrial points of origin, and diffuse sources including agricultural and hard surface water run-off. Effluents contain broad ranges of organic and inorganic compounds, herbicides, pesticides, phosphorus, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals of emerging concern. These potential pollutants can be in dissolved form, or arise in association with organic matter, the associated risks posing significant environmental challenges. This paper examines how the adoption of new Big Data tools and computational technologies can offer great advantage to the water utility sector in addressing this challenge. Big Data approaches facilitate improved understanding and insight of these challenges, by industry, regulator, and public alike. We discuss how Big Data approaches can be used to improve the outputs of tools currently in use by the water industry, such as SAGIS (Source Apportionment GIS system, helping to reveal new relationships between chemicals, the environment, and human health, and in turn provide better understanding of contaminants in wastewater (origin, pathways, and persistence. We highlight how the sector can draw upon Big Data tools to add value to legacy datasets, such as the Chemicals Investigation Programme in the UK, combined with contemporary data sources, extending the lifespan of data, focusing monitoring strategies, and helping users adapt and plan more efficiently. Despite

  12. Internet and international trade by manufacturers: An approach using industrial sectors data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Bernal-Jurado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Some evidences show how the potential generated by using the Internet as a tool able to open new commercial markets is not being fulfilled. The study´s purpose is to analyze the possible intensity with which the industrial sectors incorporate and take advantage of the Internet and the volume of business generated in international markets, based on statistical information referring to Spanish industry. Starting from the available statistical information on the incorporation and commercial use of ICT, the foreign trade and production of various Spanish industries are assigned different variables and the lineal relationships among them are contrasted. Those industries with the largest importing and exporting activities are, at the same time, those that get more and more business via electronic commerce, particularly through different communication channels, such as EDI, Minitel or Internet. However, it is interesting to note the absence of this kind of relationship when we look at the e-commerce carried out exclusively through the Internet. The results justify the necessity of taking more intensive actions to improve the use of the new electronic systems in the international commercialization, especially in the environment of the small and medium sized companies.

  13. Sectorial energy observatory: the concentration of the sector intensifies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The 1998 energy market conjuncture was particularly bad for two main reasons: the collapse of oil prices and the recession of primary energy consumption. This situation occurred while the regulatory framework of markets was becoming overturned because of the forthcoming deregulation of the European power market (February 1999) and of the natural gas market (summer 2000). In this context, the energy actors have concentrated their efforts to the reinforcement of their positions using external growth operations. Apart from the concentration process, the actors of the energy sector have carried on with their strategic initiatives started these last years, internationalization being their main strategic goal. Europe is their favoured zone but they more and more lust after the USA: oil companies are placing their positions downstream of the gas industry file, while gas distributors are moving upstream. The financial performances of energy actors have been greatly lowered with a general decreasing turnover (negative price effect). They have kept some important financial latitude in order to maintain their concentration policy. Their targets will be probably the German, British and Spanish electricity and gas utilities. The electric power sector has been one of the main sectors concerned by external growth operations, but the natural gas industry should encounter a similar evolution since summer 2000. (J.S.)

  14. Climate change issue table : petroleum downstream sector industry foundation paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.R.; Kelly, S.J.; Kromm, R.B.; Prime, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Canadian downstream petroleum industry is presented. The downstream sector includes petroleum refining, plus all activities regarding distribution, marketing and retailing of petroleum products. In 1990, the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions resulting from the production and consumption of petroleum products were about 207 megatons which is about 45 per cent of total Canadian CO 2 emissions. This report includes the analysis of the Base Case and the Kyoto Case. The Base Case is premised on the implementation of fuel sulphur reductions to meet cleaner fuels requirements and an enhanced program of refinery efficiency initiatives. Under the Base Case assumptions the CO 2 emissions from refinery operations in 2010 would be about 3.4 below 1990 levels. The Kyoto Case was developed on the basis of reductions in Canadian petroleum product demand that would be sufficient to achieve a 6 per cent reduction in GHG emissions from the production and consumption of petroleum products relative to 1990 levels. The model demonstrates the dramatic economic impact of the Kyoto Case reductions on the Canadian downstream petroleum sector. Investment requirements for capital improvements to further distillate production and to further desulphurization are estimated at $ 1.5 billion between 2005 and 2015. The reduced volume of gasoline sales would be expected to result in rationalization of retail outlets, resulting in the closure of some 2,000 retail outlets with a combined loss of about 12,000 jobs. It is suggested that similar impact in other countries that are signatory to the Kyoto Protocol could result in the shift of refining, refining industry jobs and related economic benefits to countries which are not participants in the Kyoto Protocol. 14 tabs., 6 figs., 5 appendices

  15. Comparative local advantages and technological competitiveness for Italian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Daniela; Zini, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the Italian manufacturing sector's competitiveness over the past ten years and the role played bu the local technology-based comparative advantages in shaping national competitiveness. Data obtained with local-based econometric techniques point to a gradual weakening of core know-how in high-tech industries strongly rooted in the Northwest [it

  16. Industrial Control Systems/SCADA systems risk assessment in the energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falodun, Babatunde

    The energy sector is one of the most critical components of our national infrastructure. It not only provides the electrical power and petroleum required to run day-to-day operations and mechanisms in society, it's also an important element that directly impacts the economy with regard to growth and stability. Industrial Control Systems (ICS) /Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA) are computerized mechanisms, they are both software and hardware that are used to control real time processes and operations in power plants and oil production facilities. A significant attack on these control systems that leads to widespread disruption of energy could result in catastrophic consequences for any major city and even the nation. This research paper explores cyber threats and vulnerabilities faced by ICS/SCADA systems in the energy sector and also highlights possible outcomes of a successful breach. Furthermore, the research underscores mitigation strategies that could be used to prevent and respond to an attack. Keywords: Cybersecurity, SCADA, Cyber Attacks, Threats, Vulnerabilities, Risk Assessment, Dr. Albert Orbinati.

  17. Trade brokerage property of industrial sectors on the global value chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lizhi; Xu, Xiaoyu; Guan, Jun; Dong, Xianlei

    2017-08-01

    ICIO data have proven itself to be a reliable source for the analysis of economic globalization, with which sectors all over the world could be constructed into a sophisticated GVC, bringing the advantages of simultaneous study on international and domestic economies in detail as a holistic network. This paper uses OECD-WTO TiVA data to set up GIVCN-TiVA networks as the general analytical framework, depicting the transferring process of intermediate goods among sectors of various countries/regions. Secondly, the conception of brokerage roles in SNA has been adopted to redefine sector’s function while linkage exists between its upstream providers and downstream consumers, referred to as “Trade Brokerage Property”, as well as to quantify the ratio of each types of the roles. Thirdly, a set of simulations have been defined to testify the contribution that different TBPs incur to the robustness of global economic system. Finally, analyses on TBPs and NTBPs have been carried out in the levels of industry and country/region, respectively.

  18. Regional water coefficients for U.S. industrial sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Boero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing policies for water systems management requires the capability to assess the economic impacts of water availability and to effectively couple water withdrawals by human activities with natural hydrologic dynamics. At the core of any scientific approach to these issues there is the estimation of water withdrawals by industrial sectors in the form of water coefficients, which are measurements of the quantity of water withdrawn per dollar of GDP or output. In this work we focus on the contiguous United States and on the estimation of water coefficients for regional scale analyses. We first compare an established methodology for the estimation of national water coefficients with a parametric one we propose. Second, we introduce a method to estimate water coefficients at the level of ecological regions and we discuss how they reduce possible biases in regional analyses of water systems. We conclude discussing advantages and limits of regional water coefficients.

  19. Game theory approach in decisional process of energy management for industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aplak, H. Soner; Sogut, M. Ziya

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Decision-making process of the industry and the environment are evaluated in a game theoretic approach. • Industry and environment are considered as two players to find optimal strategies in governing energy policy. • Industry plays its renewable energy usage strategy. • Environment prefers to execute its protection reflex strategy for survivability and sustainability. • The industry’s insistence on the use of fossil fuels will forward strategy for the environment of uncertainty. - Abstract: Intensive energy consuming industrial sectors are the most important actors on global climate change which natural habitat and the environment faced. In this study, by the scope of energy management, decision-making process of the industry and the environment are evaluated in a game theoretic approach. Industry and environment are considered as two players which have conflicting objectives and try to find optimal strategies in governing energy policy. According to concept of study, while industry tries to maintain the sustainability of production with the strategies of fossil fuel, renewable energies, energy recovery and nuclear energy usage, environment exhibits reactive approach to ensure its sustainability. In the flow of study, players’ strategies are analyzed by using Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods and by calculating performance efficiency values of strategies, game payoff matrix is obtained. Finally, optimal strategies are found for both industry and environment in orienting their energy policy and results are evaluated. According to results of the payoff matrix, the equilibrium point is the cell (2, 1) with the values of 0.5324 and 0.5619. This implies that the environment develops protective reflexes for sustainable nature in case of using renewable energy in industry

  20. The evolution of and challenges for industrial radiation processing—2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, A.J.; Cleland, M.R.; Walo, M.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of industrial radiation processing is traced from Roentgen's discovery of X-radiation in 1895 by following the development of high current, electron beam accelerators (EB) throughout the twentieth century. Although Becquerel soon followed Roentgen with his discovery of what became to be known as radioactivity, electrical sources for ionizing radiation dominate industrial processing with there being more than ten times as many industrial installations using high current EB equipment than the facilities relying upon large concentrations of radioactive isotopes. In the 1950s, the discovery that ionizing radiation would enhance the value of what has become the world's largest volume commodity plastic, polyethylene (PE), opened the way for full scale commercial use of high current EB equipment. While the crosslinking of the PE insulation on wire became one of the first major industrial applications, other uses of EB processing soon followed. In the 1970s, low-energy, self-shielded EB equipment made the surface curing of inks, coatings and adhesives more industrially viable. In the early part of the twenty-first century, new market applications involving the low-energy EB surface decontamination of packaging materials emerged. This new area poses challenges for the metrology needed to control industrial processes, in that there is limited EB penetration into what have been used as dosimeters by industry. Major industrial use of radiation process is now over 50 years old. Because of the diversity of end-uses and the fact that the use of ionizing radiation in industry is a process technique, it is hard to quantify the value-added to numerous commercial products that benefit from this energy efficient process. It may be in excess of a trillion Euros in value-added to articles of commerce. In this milieu, there are some broad-based opportunities for research which are noted. - Highlights: ► The evolution of industrial radiation processing is traced from

  1. Sectoral Innovation Watch Biotechnology Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enzing, C.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology has evolved from a single set of technologies in the mid 1970s into a full grown technological field that is the driving force in innovation processes in many industrial sectors (pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture, food, chemical, environment, instruments). Nowadays, biotechnology is

  2. Does the regulation of the insurance industry have a pernicious effect on innovation by the sector in South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Zingwevu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial regulation could be a double edged sword in that despite its major thrust being that to secure the financial sector and bring about financial stability; it might have the unintended consequence of stifling innovation by the sector. We investigate the nexus between financial regulation and innovation by specifically focusing on the insurance industry in South Africa. We demonstrate that there are plethora pieces of legislation that govern the insurance industry in South Africa. As such this has driven the cost of compliance to unsustainable levels thereby curtailing the spending by companies on innovation. We thus would like to caution the policy makers’ that this “heavy-touch” regulatory mode is having a pernicious effect on research and development by the insurance sector. As such we encourage them to embrace the “light-touch” regulatory mode whereby self-regulation and moral suasion are other avenues to be considered.

  3. Collaboration and Evolution of E-Commerce and Express Delivery Industry Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the contradictions between the electronic commerce (e-commerce and its matching express delivery service, this paper investigates a supply chain regarding e-commerce and express delivery industry, in which collaborative operations of enterprises are discussed. The profitability and collaboration capability acting as order parameters and the rest of the influential resources including logistics, fund, information, and commodity are selected with their interrelations being examined based on servo theory of synergetics. Besides, evolutionary model of the e-commerce and express delivery industry is established and analyzed according to self-organization method of system dynamic theory to illustrate order parameters’ role in system evolution, and numerical analyses emerged to intuitively demonstrate the solutions. We conclude the work along with its results of significant references for investigating resource integrations by combining the two closely related businesses in an entire cooperative supply chain and providing guidelines for e-commerce and express delivery enterprises and industries in effective collaboration and system evolution.

  4. COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF CLOTHING SECTOR IN THE EU-28 MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-01-01

    The study presented here is aimed at analyzing the comparative advantages in the European clothing sector with the focus on Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. For all Balkan countries export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development and the clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity in this countries. The evolution of the RCA index for garment ind...

  5. Market development for active solar thermal systems (ASTS) in the institutional, commercial and industrial (ICI) sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The market potential for active solar thermal systems in the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors of the Canadian economy was investigated, the objective being to identify markets and to prepare action plans as the foundation for developing these markets by Natural Resources Canada and the industry. In the process of researching the market, barriers to market development in these sectors of the economy were also identified as well as actions to overcome these barriers. Nine potential applications were modelled to determine their energy, economic and environmental performance. Of these four attractive applications have been selected for more detailed treatment. Separate action plans have been developed for Natural Resources Canada, the Canadian Solar Industries Association and the active solar thermal industry. The close cooperation of all three partners is considered essential for a successful marketing effort. A marketing plan which gives due consideration to the product, planning, packaging, price and promotion, is also considered to be a vital ingredient, as is a meticulous follow-up on 'leads' created by exposure to the target market. Solarwall'TM' for preheating of ventilation air to new school buildings and solar domestic hot water heating for camp grounds have been identified as the most attractive candidates for marketing at this time. Highlights of marketing plans for these two options are included for purposes of illustrating the essential ingredients of marketing plans. 1 fig

  6. Competing Explanations in the Evolution of the Danish Furniture Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    This article assesses the credibility and relative economic importance of the many real and proposed unique development events in the Post-War evolution of the Danish furniture industry by means of available trade and production time series. It finds first, that the Danish industry experienced its...... only exceptional growth event compared to other developed country furniture industries in the 1950s. It is argued that this establishes as the leading causal candidates for the Danish economic specialisation in furniture; subsidised export marketing of Danish Modern style in the US and the War......-undamaged Danish industry’s opportunistic exploitation of recovering European Post-War furniture markets. Second, the apparent prominence of particle board manufacture in today’s industry is a Danish specialisation with its origin in the 1950s growth event. Third, while there is much evidence that IKEA became...

  7. Engineering in the energy sector. The single market and the engineering sector; Ingenieria en el sector energetico. El mercado unico y el sector de ingenieria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Rodrigues, A [Empresarios Agrupados, A.I.E., Madrid (Spain)

    1993-12-15

    Projects with large infrastructures, particularly those in the field of energy, provide a strong boost to certain industrial sectors in the country. In the case of Spain, the policy of direct management 'by components' of these projects - hydroelectric power plants, petrochemical plants, thermoelectric plants and nuclear power plants - adopted by the electric utility owners has furthered not only the local equipment manufacturing industry but also the engineering sector. At present, with full implementation of the Single Market in sight, it is particularly interesting for Spain to continue building up a powerful engineering sector, increasing its size and usefulness, and extending its traditional areas of action to other technologies, more on the lines of engineering and consulting firms in the USA than in the rest of Europe. The intention is to endow our equipment and construction companies with the skills necessary to enable them to compete with large European conglomerates in their respective sectors. The structure of these conglomerates usually contains engineering capabilities which are not habitual in our industry. Examples are given, showing how this model has been used to compete and win awards for important international projects. A specific analysis has been made of the position of Spanish engineering and industry in nuclear power generation projects in the former Soviet Union and East European countries, in which large investments are expected to be made. (author)

  8. COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF CLOTHING SECTOR IN THE EU-28 MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented here is aimed at analyzing the comparative advantages in the European clothing sector with the focus on Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. For all Balkan countries export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development and the clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity in this countries. The evolution of the RCA index for garment industry is decreasing for all countries in the Balkans. The evolution of the Lafay index is also decreasing in the most Balkan countries (except Greece, Montenegro and Slovenia but still the values for Lafay index is positive what indicating that in these countries the sale of garments contribute positively to balance the trade balance of countries analyzed. Negative value of the Lafay index may be due to the fact that the garment industry is one of the key industries in the economy of that country and also because the earnings from garment industry in these countries is high. When the producers of the Balkan countries will create products with higher added value in garment industry the competitiveness of these countries will decrease. Also rising wages in this industry, as a result of trade union pressure or government policy, will lead to decreasing competitiveness of these products on the EU market and implicitly to the decrease of exports of garments from these countries.

  9. PREVIOUS DEVELOPMENTS AND THE CURRENT SITUATION IN THE TURKISH BANKING SECTOR, FOREIGN ENTRY AND ITS REFLECTIONS ON THE NATIONAL BANKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytac GOKMEN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The banking industry possesses a unique property that is unlike to other sectors with respect to supplying liquidity and financial strength for the economy and transaction operations However, despite their significance, banking industries in the world are subject to various crises and foreign interventions that could affect the financial industry negatively. This study describes the background of the Turkish Banking Sector, explains the reasons for the three major crises it was subjected to in 1994, 2001 and 2002 that resulted from numerous factors such as insufficient implementation of regulations, inadequate depth of the capital markets, lack of assessment of risk, inadequate managerial applications and excessive lending to incorporated institutions. The study also dwells on the restructuring process that has been continuing for more than two decades, reasons of foreign entry to the Turkish Banking Industry, as well as explains the reflections of foreign entry on the national banking industry depending on various comprehensive and credible national and international publications.

  10. Methodology for getting the end use of energy in the industrial sector from Parana State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag Filho, A.

    1990-03-01

    A methodology for a survey on the utilization of energy in the industrial sector from Parana state, at low costs, and aiming the supply of data with the desired reliability and disaggregation is presented. The obtained data shall provide elements for the adoption of short term actions as well as serve as a basis for the elaboration of medium and long terms scenarios. The survey shall be conducted throughout the state, comprising all fields of activity and having the following objectives: determine the state's energetic consumption profile by industrial segment and by end use of energy; determine the state's energetic profile with the spatial distribution of consumption and detect the industrial segments which are more sensitive to the energetic substitution programs and/or of energy conservation. (author)

  11. Sanitary hot water consumption patterns in commercial and industrial sectors in South Africa: Impact on heating system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, R.; Rousseau, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    A large amount of individual sanitary hot water consumers are present in the South African residential sector. This led to several studies being done on hot water consumption patterns in this sector. Large amounts of sanitary hot water are also consumed in the commercial sector in buildings such as hotels and in large residences such as those found in the mining industry. The daily profiles of sanitary hot water consumption are not related to any technical process but rather to human behavior and varying ambient conditions. The consumption of sanitary hot water, therefore, represents a challenge to the electrical utility because it is an energy demand that remains one of the biggest contributors to the undesirable high morning and afternoon peaks imposed on the national electricity supply grid. It also represents a challenge to sanitary hot water system designers because the amount of hot water as well as the daily profile in which it is consumed impacts significantly on system design. This paper deals with hot water consumption in the commercial and industrial sectors. In the commercial sector, we look at hotels and in the industrial sector at large mining residences. Both of them are served by centralized hot water systems. Measured results from the systems are compared to data obtained from previous publications. A comparison is also made to illustrate the impact that these differences will have on sanitary hot water system design. Simulations are conducted for these systems using a simulation program developed in previous studies. The results clearly show significant differences in the required heating and storage capacity for the new profiles. A twin peak profile obtained from previous studies in the residential sector was used up to now in studies of heating demand and system design in commercial buildings. The results shown here illustrate the sanitary hot water consumption profile differs significantly from the twin peaks profile with a very high morning

  12. Assessment and exploitation of energy-related externalities in the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diakoulaki, D.; Mirasgedis, S.; Tourkolias, C.

    2007-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to comparatively evaluate the effectiveness of alternative policy measures in reducing impacts from atmospheric pollution generated from industrial energy use. The evaluation procedure relies on the assessment of energy-related externalities by exploiting the methodology developed in the framework of the ExternE project. The analysis focuses on 2 industrial units located in the Greater Athens area and examines three types of abatement measures that can be used independently of the extent energy saving or end-of-pipe emission reduction measures are used: substitution of fuel oil with natural gas, relocation of the units several hundreds of kilometers far from Athens and increase of stack height in the same site. It results that the use of natural gas is by far the most effective among these measures, leading to a reduction of more than 90% of both local and regional damages. The relative effectiveness of the examined measures does not change if the significant uncertainties associated with the accounting procedure are taken into account, while inclusion of the external cost due to greenhouse gases emissions is further accentuating the advantages of natural gas. Moreover, it is shown that the quantifiable energy-related external costs of a single industrial product, may be very low compared to the corresponding private costs, but they sum up to significantly high damages to society if we take into account the total energy consumption in the industrial sector

  13. 15 years of monitoring occupational exposure to respirable dust and quartz within the European industrial minerals sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilaout, Hicham; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Houba, Remko; Kromhout, Hans

    2017-07-01

    In 2000, a prospective Dust Monitoring Program (DMP) was started in which measurements of worker's exposure to respirable dust and quartz are collected in member companies from the European Industrial Minerals Association (IMA-Europe). After 15 years, the resulting IMA-DMP database allows a detailed overview of exposure levels of respirable dust and quartz over time within this industrial sector. Our aim is to describe the IMA-DMP and the current state of the corresponding database which due to continuation of the IMA-DMP is still growing. The future use of the database will also be highlighted including its utility for the industrial minerals producing sector. Exposure data are being obtained following a common protocol including a standardized sampling strategy, standardized sampling and analytical methods and a data management system. Following strict quality control procedures, exposure data are consequently added to a central database. The data comprises personal exposure measurements including auxiliary information on work and other conditions during sampling. Currently, the IMA-DMP database consists of almost 28,000 personal measurements which have been performed from 2000 until 2015 representing 29 half-yearly sampling campaigns. The exposure data have been collected from 160 different worksites owned by 35 industrial mineral companies and comes from 23 European countries and approximately 5000 workers. The IMA-DMP database provides the European minerals sector with reliable data regarding worker personal exposures to respirable dust and quartz. The database can be used as a powerful tool to address outstanding scientific issues on long-term exposure trends and exposure variability, and importantly, as a surveillance tool to evaluate exposure control measures. The database will be valuable for future epidemiological studies on respiratory health effects and will allow for estimation of quantitative exposure response relationships. Copyright © 2017 The

  14. The potential of natural gas use including cogeneration in large-sized industry and commercial sector in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales Palomino, Raul; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there have been several discussions on a greater use of natural gas nationwide. Moreover, there have been several announcements by the private and public sectors regarding the construction of new pipelines to supply natural gas to the Peruvian southern and central-north markets. This paper presents future scenarios for the use of natural gas in the large-sized industrial and commercial sectors of the country based on different hypotheses on developments in the natural gas industry, national economic growth, energy prices, technological changes and investment decisions. First, the paper estimates the market potential and characterizes the energy consumption. Then it makes a selection of technological alternatives for the use of natural gas, and it makes an energetic and economic analysis and economic feasibility. Finally, the potential use of natural gas is calculated through nine different scenarios. The natural gas use in cogeneration systems is presented as an alternative to contribute to the installed power capacity of the country. Considering the introduction of the cogeneration in the optimistic–advanced scenario and assuming that all of their conditions would be put into practice, in 2020, the share of the cogeneration in electricity production in Peru would be 9.9%. - Highlights: ► This paper presents future scenarios for the use of natural gas in the large-sized industrial and commercial sectors of Peru. ► The potential use of natural gas is calculated through nine different scenarios.► The scenarios were based on different hypotheses on developments in the natural gas industry, national economic growth, energy prices, technological changes and investment decisions. ► We estimated the market potential and characterized the energy consumption, and made a selection of technological alternatives for the use of natural gas.

  15. Chinese automobile industry: opportunities and business; El sector automovilistico Chino: oportunidades y negocios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhang, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The emergence of Chinese economy and its rapid recovery from global crisis have sustained a high rate of growth in Chinese automobile market. The article analyzes the industrial evolution of this particular market from the perspective of automobile manufacturers. Two concrete proposals have been suggested to explore these business opportunities exposed in the analyzed industry: investment in China to take advantage of market growth and hence gaining global competitive advantages, and being strategic partner of Chinese enterprises in European and global market. Strategic alternatives for both proposals have been discussed with suggestions and conclusions followed. (Author) 11 refs.

  16. Learning Networks in Innovation Systems at Sector / Regional Level in Argentina: Winery and Dairy Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sanchez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This work studies how the set of relationships that gives place to the learning processes is established in the food industry in Argentina. A theoretical ad hoc approach is adopted, conjugating the concepts of innovation systems at sector / regional level with some context considerations like the innovative behaviour of the global and local food industry and a description of the public and private S&T in Argentina. The study is focused in two cases: the wine industry, at the Mendoza province, and the dairy products industry at the centre of the Santa Fe province, both in Argentina. While the winery industry at the province of Mendoza exports differentiated products the dairy industry, at the central basin of the province of Santa Fe, exports commodities leaving differentiated (functional products for the domestic market. These facts determine different dynamics between them, despite of what the established set of relationships is very complex and knowledge intensive in both cases. Also, in both cases the preponderant contribution of the public institutions of science and technology as knowledge and technology source is flagged.

  17. The restructuring of Africa's electricity sector : lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fall, A.

    2008-01-01

    The challenges facing the electricity sector in Africa was discussed with particular reference to financial constraints and the inefficient management of public utilities. The 2 types of reform in the electricity sector include the disengagement of the State for the benefit of the private sector, and the restructuring of the electrical industry to include competition for greater efficiency in the sector. The first reform in Africa involved the opening of the sector to private enterprises without the restructuring of the industry. With the exception of Uganda, the evolution of the restructuring did not include a complete de-integration in the transitional stage. Restructuring involved systematic independent production; a single buyer model with a limited period of monopoly on bulk purchase; access to third party on the networks; empowerment of regulation by the creation of an independent body responsible for regulation; and, establishment of a rural electrification agency. In more advanced countries such as Egypt, Algeria and Nigeria, the creation of a holding company with legally separated subsidiaries was retained. One of the major problems was financial investment, technical performances and the extension of electrical access. Low competition, or low negotiation capabilities led to unbalanced contracts in favour of private promoters. In general, rates for electrical energy increased due to the reform, with the lowering of public resources at the profit of private funding, notably in the independent production of thermal energy versus hydroelectric energy. The results have been mixed due to the breakdown of public versus private partnerships in many countries, with the disengagement of the State. Independent power production has raised problems of sustainability and environmental issues, as well as social problems, price control, as well as accessibility in rural settings. 7 refs., 1 fig

  18. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  19. SECTORAL SHARES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Naveed, Amjad; Naz, Amber

    2013-01-01

    believe that structural change is an unimportant side effect of the economic development. On the contrary, economists associated with the World Bank and some others posit that growth is brought about by the changes in sectoral composition. The objective of this study is to empirically test...... the relationship between sectoral shares and economic growth by using the panel data for 20 developed countries. The results of the granger causality suggest that both services and agriculture sectors do granger cause economic growth, whereas industrial sector does not granger cause growth. Reverse causality does...... not hold for any of the three sectors. The results of Barro and Non-Barro regressions along with the set of control variables have suggested that services sector is negatively affecting growth, whereas both industrial and agriculture shares are positively affect economic growth....

  20. Occupational Segregation and Its Impact on Gender Wage Discrimination in China's Rural Industrial Sector.

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Xin; Miller, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines gender wage discrimination in China's newly developed rural industrial sector. The different occupational distributions of men and women are shown to be partly due to discrimination in occupational assignment by the community authorities, but the impact on the gender wage differential of this form of discrimination is not as important as wage discrimination within each occupation. Moreover, it is found that relative to intraoccupational discrimination, interoccupational wa...

  1. Implementing Interoperability in the Seafood Industry: Learning from Experiences in Other Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Tejas; Gooch, Martin; Dent, Benjamin; Sylvia, Gilbert

    2017-08-01

    Interoperability of communication and information technologies within and between businesses operating along supply chains is being pursued and implemented in numerous industries worldwide to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of operations. The desire for greater interoperability is also driven by the need to reduce business risk through more informed management decisions. Interoperability is achieved by the development of a technology architecture that guides the design and implementation of communication systems existing within individual businesses and between businesses comprising the supply chain. Technology architectures are developed through a purposeful dialogue about why the architecture is required, the benefits and opportunities that the architecture offers the industry, and how the architecture will translate into practical results. An assessment of how the finance, travel, and health industries and a sector of the food industry-fresh produce-have implemented interoperability was conducted to identify lessons learned that can aid the development of interoperability in the seafood industry. The findings include identification of the need for strong, effective governance during the establishment and operation of an interoperability initiative to ensure the existence of common protocols and standards. The resulting insights were distilled into a series of principles for enabling syntactic and semantic interoperability in any industry, which we summarize in this article. Categorized as "structural," "operational," and "integrative," the principles describe requirements and solutions that are pivotal to enabling businesses to create and capture value from full chain interoperability. The principles are also fundamental to allowing governments and advocacy groups to use traceability for public good. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Scientific and technological capabilities in health-related areas: opportunities, challenges, and interactions with the industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Marco Antonio; Britto, Jorge

    2016-11-03

    Characterization of the scientific and technological infrastructure in health and its interactions with the industrial sector provides key elements for understanding the dynamics of innovation in health. This study conducts an exploratory analysis of the potentialities and limitations associated with scientific and technological capabilities in the health area in Brazil and the different links between the scientific and industrial sectors in health. The analysis points to important growth in internationally indexed research output, especially in certain areas such as pharmaceutics, public health, genetics, morphology, physiology, and microbiology. There has also been important growth in research groups that interact with the industrial sector in selected areas of health. The study highlights the importance of building more solid and permanent bridges between companies, research institutions, and the health system, linking the knowledge developed in research institutions to the dynamics of the industrial sector in health. Resumo: A caracterização da infraestrutura científica e tecnológica na área da saúde e das suas formas de articulação com a base produtiva representam elementos centrais na compreensão da dinâmica de inovação em saúde. Este estudo faz uma análise exploratória sobre as potencialidades e limitações associadas às capacitações científicas e tecnológicas na área da saúde no Brasil e as formas de articulação entre a base científica e a base produtiva em saúde. A análise aponta para o crescimento expressivo da produção bibliográfica com circulação internacional no campo da saúde, particularmente em determinadas áreas como farmácia, saúde coletiva, genética, morfologia, fisiologia e microbiologia. Além disso, observa-se um crescimento expressivo dos grupos de pesquisa com relacionamentos com o setor produtivo em áreas selecionadas da saúde. Destaca-se a importância da construção de pontes mais sólidas e

  3. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the U.S. Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the industrial sector and identifies opportunities for non-GHG-emitting thermal energy sources to replace the most significant GHG-emitting U.S. industries based on targeted, process-level analysis of industrial heat requirements. The intent is to provide a basis for projecting opportunities for clean energy use. This provides a prospectus for small modular nuclear reactors (including nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems), solar industrial process heat, and geothermal energy. This report provides a complement to analysis of process-efficiency improvement by considering how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions.

  4. The development of public and private construction procurement systems in the Malaysian construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastura Jaafar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As demand on building construction projects rises, various procurement methods have been adapted to suit with unique project requirements. However, poor industry performance and rapid developments within it indicate the need for a research on the procurement systems in the industry. In order to explore the development of procurement systems in Malaysia, a discussion on different economic phases which influence the routes of procurement systems and its evolution in Malaysia's construction industry is initiated. Subsequently, based on a questionnaire survey collected from 73 public and 68 private parties, the significant and dominant role of traditional procurement system used by both the public and private sectors in Malaysia can be confirmed. Further, compared to the public sector, the private sector is observed to be more aggressive in adapting alternative systems such as design and build (D&B and Turnkey. Further elaboration on the research findings is covered in the discussion section.

  5. ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF COPYRIGHT-BASED INDUSTRIES AND IMPACT ON EMPLOYMENT AND PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IN KNOWLEDGE-BASED SOCIETY DEVELOPING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ZAMAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic dimension of copyright-based industries sector in Romania is becoming of higher interest, on the one hand, for policy-makers taking into consideration its increasing contribution to GDP, employment, foreign trade and investment and, on the other hand, as a multidimensional vector for social inclusion, increasing self-confidence, supporting better education in a globalised and multicultural world.The opening of the Romanian economy and society has contributed to higher employment in the creative activities. The new jobs - “high-knowledge jobs” in creative activities or in “non-creative industries” – have several features that could support higher performance. We underline the size and features of employment in the copyright-based industry sector and in core activities in Romania and some performance of labour force. On one hand, press freedom, the increase in the role of civil society, the elimination of censorship represented positive influence factors for new jobs creation in the cultural industries. In this way, the copyright-based industries have become a factor of tension reduction and increased flexibility on the labour market. On the other hand, there are big differences regarding the value of the operational profit per employee and its evolution in time among the core component industries. The analysis of the core copyright industries with respect to the size and evolution of the operational profit per employee, both in the overall sector and the component industries, led us to an interesting and useful classification of the core industries which could be helpful for better decision-making and copyright industries policies.

  6. A guide to the sources of energy use statistics for the industrial, commercial, agricultural and institutional sectors of the Canadian economy. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The intent of this report is to provide a detailed and comprehensive description of the current data available on energy consumption in selected sectors in Canada. These sectors are the industrial sector--mainly fishing/trapping, logging/forestry, mining, manufacturing, and construction--agriculture (including all types of farm operations and agricultural service industries) and the commerical/institutional sector (excluding government or public administration). Summaries of the sources of energy use information are presented according to source agency and individual energy commodity. Data bases are assessed according to the kinds of data collected, collection methods, availability, quality, coverage, format of presentation and units used, timeliness, and usefulness for analysis and forecasting. A separate section of the report discusses some of the problems with the data available, such as standardization of data codes, data gaps, lack of detail, and reconciliation of different data sources. 36 tabs.

  7. Techno-economic evaluation of commercial cogeneration plants for small and medium size companies in the Italian industrial and service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armanasco, Fabio; Colombo, Luigi Pietro Maria; Lucchini, Andrea; Rossetti, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The liberalization of the electricity market and the concern for energy efficiency have resulted in a surge of interest in cogeneration and distributed power generation. In this regard, companies are encouraged to evaluate the opportunity to build their own cogeneration plant. In Italy, the majority of such companies belong to the industrial or service sector; it is small or medium in size and the electric power ranges between 1 ÷ 10 MW. Commercially available gas turbines are the less expensive option for cogeneration. Particular attention has been given to the possibility of combining an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with gas turbine, to improve the conversion efficiency. Companies have to account for both technical and economical aspects to assess viability of cogeneration. A techno-economic analysis was performed to identify, in the Italian energy market, which users can take advantage of a cogeneration plant aimed to cover at least part of their energy demand. Since electricity and thermal needs change considerably in the same sector, single product categories have been considered in the analysis. Our work shows that in the industrial sector, independent of the product category, cogeneration is a viable option form a techno-economic perspective. - Highlights: ► The best technologies for 1 ÷ 10 MW distributed generation plant are gas turbine and ORC. ► A variety of commercial cogeneration plants is available to meet user needs. ► Cogeneration is a technical and economical advantage for industrial sector companies.

  8. An assessment of investment projects in terms of gas and oil sectors of Ukraine’s and Russia’s industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Dzebykh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the assessment of investment projects with the usage of characteristic examples, taken from gas and oil sectors of the industries, which are of crucial importance for the economies of Ukraine and Russia. These branches of industry are characterized by insufficient definition and complicacy, which necessitates the financial analysis of these sectors in Ukraine and Russia, especially if it is made for the assessment of the investment projects. In the long-term investment budget planning of the company the financial analysis is carried out to determine the investment possibilities, the value of which for the company is more than the money necessary for the ensurance of such possibilities. A few proposed methods can help specialist-analysts to take right decisions concerning investments.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE INDUSTRIAL AND SERVICE SECTORS: A LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE IMPROVEMENTS OBTAINED THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF LEAN SIX SIGMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Martins Rosa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a review of literature, to identify the improvements acquired from the application of the Lean Six Sigma methodology in the industrial and service sectors in different countries. The PRISMA methodology was used to select relevant articles to the topic of work, and the bibliographic databases used for the research were the Google Scholar, SciELO, ScienceDirect, Taylor & Francis and Web of Science. The study counted on 27 articles to better exemplify these points, being 11 focused on the industrial sector and 16 on the services sector. It was evident that in both sectors the variability of the process and its waste were reduced, by eliminating non-value-added activities, improving process quality, productivity, efficiency, the service provided, increasing customer satisfaction, reducing costs and generating savings. It has been found that Lean Six Sigma is a versatile tool that can be adapted and applied in any segment, allowing potential opportunities for new research and applications.

  10. MUTATIONS OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE WORLD CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Alexandru RĂDUŢEANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global technical harmonization is considered a driver of international competitiveness of the European automotive industry, with improving global competitiveness of European industry and creating automotive jobs in terms of environmental protection and road safety. The global economic crisis, the European Union had to take some measures to protect the automotive sector, using the investment in innovative technologies to facilitate consumer credit, and financial incentives for people who choose to sell old car and buy a new one. Referring to the importance of the issues examined in Europe today, automotive industry become very substantial, competition is fierce and the pace of change is emphasized. Thus, we have presented in this paper the general characteristics of the motor car industry in Europe and how it was influenced by the global crisis, and then to review the evolution of this sector in Romania and how they are feeling the crisis.

  11. Philippine Tourism: Evolution towards Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilapil-Añasco Cherry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry in the Philippines has been identified as one of the powerful engines for a strong and sustained economic growth. To determine whether the Philippine tourism industry is moving towards sustainable development, this paper explores the evolution of the tourism industry in the Philippines by tracing its historical transformations and determining its typology. Four major periods has been recognized, namely: 1] pre-martial law era (years before 1972; 2] martial law era (1972-1986; 3] post-martial law era (1986-2000; and 4] 21st century era (2001-present. The eras are based on the country’s major political regimes. Corresponding events and numerous initiatives undertaken by the government agencies, non-government organizations and private sectors that significantly affect the tourism industry are described and analyzed. It is concluded that tourism is a well established industry in the Philippines that contributes to an inclusive economic growth of the country. The continued concerted efforts of all the stakeholders of the industry in the implementation of all these initiatives will surely lead to a sustainable Philippine tourism.

  12. Development of the Manpower Demand Forecast Model of Nuclear Industry Using the System Dynamics Method - Operation Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Ahn, Nam Sung

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the resource management of nuclear engineering manpower has become an important issue in Korean nuclear industry. The government's plan for increasing the number of domestic nuclear power plants and the recent success of nuclear power plant export to UAE (United Arab Emirates) will increase demand for nuclear engineers in Korea. Accordingly, the Korean government decided to supplement 2,246 engineers in the public sector of nuclear industry in the year 2010 to resolve the manpower shortage problem in the short term. However, the experienced engineers which are essentially important in the nuclear industry cannot be supplied in the short term. Therefore, development of the long term manpower demand forecast model of nuclear industry is needed. The system dynamics (SD) is useful method for forecasting nuclear manpower demand. It is because the time-delays which is important in constructing plants and in recruiting and training of engineers, and the feedback effect including the qualitative factor can be effectively considered in the SD method. Especially, the qualitative factor like 'Productivity' is very important concept in Human Resource Management (HRM) but it cannot be easily considered in the other methods. In this paper, the concepts of the nuclear manpower demand forecast model using the SD method are presented and the some simulation results are being discussed especially for the 'Operation Sector'

  13. Development of the Manpower Demand Forecast Model of Nuclear Industry Using the System Dynamics Method - Operation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Suk [Future and Challenges Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Nam Sung [SolBridge International School of Business, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Recently, the resource management of nuclear engineering manpower has become an important issue in Korean nuclear industry. The government's plan for increasing the number of domestic nuclear power plants and the recent success of nuclear power plant export to UAE (United Arab Emirates) will increase demand for nuclear engineers in Korea. Accordingly, the Korean government decided to supplement 2,246 engineers in the public sector of nuclear industry in the year 2010 to resolve the manpower shortage problem in the short term. However, the experienced engineers which are essentially important in the nuclear industry cannot be supplied in the short term. Therefore, development of the long term manpower demand forecast model of nuclear industry is needed. The system dynamics (SD) is useful method for forecasting nuclear manpower demand. It is because the time-delays which is important in constructing plants and in recruiting and training of engineers, and the feedback effect including the qualitative factor can be effectively considered in the SD method. Especially, the qualitative factor like 'Productivity' is very important concept in Human Resource Management (HRM) but it cannot be easily considered in the other methods. In this paper, the concepts of the nuclear manpower demand forecast model using the SD method are presented and the some simulation results are being discussed especially for the 'Operation Sector'

  14. Assessment and evolution of renewable energy policy: the transition of the Latin-American electricity sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersalli, German

    2017-01-01

    The transition to a more sustainable energy system requires a much faster development of new and renewable energy technologies for electricity generation (RENe). Thus, involving new challenges in the regulation of electricity sector. Additionally, a stronger commitment by emerging and developing countries for a deeper decarbonization trajectory, calls for the strengthening of renewable energy policies. Such policies include designing regulatory instruments that are better adapted for their specific economic and institutional needs. This thesis deals with the evaluation and the redesign of policies that encourage the diffusion of RENe in the context of Latin America's countries. To this end, we first use Environmental Economics theory to analyse the different regulatory instruments available, characterize them and to propose evaluation criteria based on a thorough review of the literature. We then carry out a panel data econometric study, to identify the determining factors of investments in regards to new RENe production capacity; and in particular, to measure the effectiveness of such policies. In a third phase, we mobilize the evolutionary theory of technological change to analyse the process of policy implementation, the existing barriers and the obtained results. This analysis is based on three case studies in the electricity sector of Chile, Brazil and Argentina. And finally, we focus on the challenges related to the massive deployment of RENe in Latin America by 2030-2040: the integration of intermittent energy sources, the access to financing and the industrial challenge. Our research shows that the evolution of the economic and institutional context encourages a dynamic which conditions public policy choices as well as their performance. We therefore propose the basis of an analytical framework for the design and assessment of ambitious long-term promoting policies. These policies must be integrated into a multidimensional and coherent project for the

  15. The oil industry in France: contribution to the debate on energy; L'industrie petroliere en France contribution au debat sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    Proposed by the professional body of the French oil industry, this document proposes a contribution of this body to the energy challenge. The authors first discuss the context and its evolution in terms of energy demand and of energy sources. They outline the necessary development of renewable energies. While giving recommendations, they state how the oil sector will support the economy and employment, how this sector will keep on exploring and producing hydrocarbons, how the refining activity needs to be adapted, how the oil logistics must evolve, and how the service station network is already evolving

  16. Energy industries in the Centre-Val de Loire region - June 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mialot, Marie-Madeleine; Ducroq, Caroline

    2015-07-01

    After an overview of the energy sector in the world (consumption growth, share of the different energies, main consuming countries, evolution of the energy mix, perspectives) and in France (energy consumption, energy production, jobs, trade balance, research policy and organisation), this publication proposes an overview of energy industries in the Centre-Val de Loire region. It provides some data such as regional consumption, share in the national energy production, jobs and employment structure. The next part proposes a sector-based approach by evoking a strong expertise in the oil and gas industry, by describing a rich industrial tissue about electro-nuclear energy (various activities, specialised urban areas, job creations in nuclear plants, education and training, research lead by private consultants), and by outlining that the territory is suitable for the development of renewable energies (solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal energies, energy storage, R and D, education)

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Human Capital Investment and Corporate Financial Performance of Jordanian Industrial Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Nasif ALSHUBIRI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The revolution of globalization, computerization and information technology has entered to Jordanian market. This phenomenon requires company's attention of human element and the acquired knowledge, experience and the development of the so-called concept of intellectual capital.(IC In this study I used only the human capital as a part of IC. This study aims to exploring the relationship between human capital investment (HCI, and corporate financial performance. This study used an 11 industrial sectors listed of Amman Stock Exchange from 2005to 2011. Correlation analysis tests used in this study and the results indicate the high positive significant relationship between HCI and corporate financial performance related to, ROE , PTBV , log of sales , log of assets , DPS and ICR but no significant relationship between HCI and WCTO. The researcher recommends industrial companies to strengthen and stimulate the concept of human capital in the companies and the need for develop administrative innovation program. For future analysis may be used more sectors listed in market in addition used the all parts of intellectual capital related to structural and physical capital with corporate financial performance.

  18. What the Industry Wants. How Physics Students can Prepare to Thrive in the Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sandeep

    The goal of this talk is to provide a window to physics undergraduates into what the industry wants. And thus, preparing them on what relevant hard skills to acquire, highlighting the types of experiences that are valued, and how to market themselves (interviewing, resume writing, networking). Physics majors can excel just as well as their engineering peers in the private sector. Professors can also gather insights in how to empower their students for successful transition out of academia. This talk is also a personal journey of a physics major, from a small liberal arts college, moving up the ladder in the tech industry in silicon valley.

  19. GOLD AND LAND PRICES WITH CAPITAL ACCUMULATION IN AN ECONOMY WITH INDUSTRIAL AND AGRICULTURAL SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG WEI-BIN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine dynamic interactions among gold value, land price and economic structure in a growth model with capital accumulation. The paper proposes a two-sector general equilibrium model with land and gold prices as endogenous variables. The economy consists of industrial and agricultural sectors with fixed land and gold. Land is used for residential use and agricultural production and gold is used for saving and decorations. The portfolio equilibrium growth model is based on the neoclassical growth theory and Ricardian theory. We simulate the model to demonstrate that the economic system has a unique stable steady state. We show how exogenous changes in preference and technology affect the transitory processes and long-term equilibrium.

  20. Organizational Culture in the Financial Sector: Evidence from a Cross-Industry Analysis of Employee Personal Values and Career

    OpenAIRE

    van Hoorn, Andre

    2015-01-01

    We assess the organizational culture in the finance industry in relation to the global financial crisis (GFC) and consider the potential of cultural change to improve the financial sector. To avoid (response) biases, we build on the person-organization (P-O) fit literature and develop a novel, indirect method for assessing organizational culture that revolves around relationships between employees’ personal traits and their career success in the industry or organization under study. We analyz...

  1. Engineering in the energy sector. The single market and the engineering sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodrigues, A.

    1993-01-01

    Projects with large infrastructures, particularly those in the field of energy, provide a strong boost to certain industrial sectors in the country. In the case of Spain, the policy of direct management 'by components' of these projects - hydroelectric power plants, petrochemical plants, thermoelectric plants and nuclear power plants - adopted by the electric utility owners has furthered not only the local equipment manufacturing industry but also the engineering sector. At present, with full implementation of the Single Market in sight, it is particularly interesting for Spain to continue building up a powerful engineering sector, increasing its size and usefulness, and extending its traditional areas of action to other technologies, more on the lines of engineering and consulting firms in the USA than in the rest of Europe. The intention is to endow our equipment and construction companies with the skills necessary to enable them to compete with large European conglomerates in their respective sectors. The structure of these conglomerates usually contains engineering capabilities which are not habitual in our industry. Examples are given, showing how this model has been used to compete and win awards for important international projects. A specific analysis has been made of the position of Spanish engineering and industry in nuclear power generation projects in the former Soviet Union and East European countries, in which large investments are expected to be made. (author)

  2. Consumo de energía eléctrica en el sector industrial : metales, siderurgia y gases industriales

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez de la Cruz, Carlos Javier

    2011-01-01

    En este PFC se analiza el consumo industrial de electricidad en nuestro país, en los sectores de Siderurgia, Metales y Gases industriales, que forman una parte de la demanda eléctrica de España y que también será analizada con detalle. De los procesos de siderurgia, se estudian la producción integral y la no integral, para la metalurgia no férrea, el PFC se centra en a producción de zinc, y en el sector de gases industriales, se estudia el proceso de fraccionamiento del aire, q...

  3. Rock 'n roller coaster : an explorative study on the evolution of the European steel roller coaster industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, B.; Bekkers, R.N.A.; Bordoli, L.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the 50 years evolution of the European steel roller coaster industry, which can be classified as a complex products systems (CoPS) industry. This industry is characterized as a non-shake out industry where entry can be divided in three waves, i.e. early diversifiers, new

  4. Institutional framework changes in Brazil's energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Almeida, E.; Queiroz Pinto JR, H.

    2009-01-01

    The liberalization of the Brazilian energy sector in the 1990's was meant to drastically reduce the role of the State in the sector. This reform has not had the desired results. Private investment could not guarantee the expansion of the Brazilian energy sector at the necessary speed. The first half of this decade has been marked by problems of electricity supply and a rather timid role of private investment in boosting energy supply. During the second half of the decade, liberal reform of the energy sector in Brazil has gone through major adjustments, marked by the search for a new compromise between the role of the State and the private sector. This paper highlights the institutional evolution of Brazil's energy or industries and tries to show how risk for public and private investment has been reduced by the adoption of new institutional and economic mechanisms of coordination. In the current institutional framework, the State plays an important role in coordinating the investment process for the expansion of supply. The pace of investment in Brazil in the energy sector has accelerated significantly after the adoption of the new coordination mechanisms. (authors)

  5. GHGRP Minerals Sector Industrial Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Minerals industry.

  6. Logit Model of Computer-Based Data-Driven Creative Idea Generation in the Industry and Service Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Hojjati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizational creativity and employee idea generation have become important and essential elements of an organization’s success, as creativity results to increased performance. The need of increased creativity is evident in industrial and service companies. The main idea behind this paper is to analyze and demonstrate if accessing various types of data in certain ways and/or situations affects creative idea generation by the people involved in different industrial/service sectors, considering that now most of the employees use digital data. The current paper discusses how seven different factors are related to digital data affect creativity.

  7. Role of Manufacturing Sector and Trade, Hotel, Restaurant Sector In East Java’s Economy: Input Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggari Marya Kresnowati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to (1 analyze the relationship the manufacturing sector and the trade, hotel, and restaurant sector with other sectors in East Java, (2 to analyze the economic impact caused the two sectors based on the multiplier effect, (3 and analyze the economic impact caused by these two sectors if there additional investment funds. This study uses data analysis input output 2010 East Java 19x19 aggregation sector.The results indicate that base metals subsector has the highest linkages to other sectors. Based on household income multiplier effect, trade subsector has the greatest multiplier. Employment multiplier in trade and industrial sectors are in medium rank. This is indicates that the labor has been absorbed well in both sectors. The output multiplier effect, subsector non-metal goods, except petroleum and coal has the highest multiplier. The last, according to the analysis of investment injection simulations Input-Output East Java in 2010, subsector other processing industries has a best value added. Overall, the manufacturing sector has a better influence to East Java's economy than trade, hotel, and restaurant sector.

  8. New productive technologies for wood and furniture industry; Nuevas tecnologias productivas para el sector de la madera y del mueble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojo Calvo, F. J.

    2012-07-01

    During recent years, the wood industry and furniture industry have declined sharply, up to 46,5% of the total employment. These companies have always had a familiar character, their cost structure has enabled them to stay afloat during the crisis while larger companies have succumbed. The main problems that threaten their viability are the fall of the construction sector in the case of wood and the increasing imports in the case of furniture. The Industrial Observatory of the Wood Industry has made available two tools to put the latest technology available to the companies. (Author)

  9. Data as an asset: What the oil and gas sector can learn from other industries about “Big Data”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrons, Robert K.; Jensen, Jesse W.

    2015-01-01

    The upstream oil and gas industry has been contending with massive data sets and monolithic files for many years, but “Big Data” is a relatively new concept that has the potential to significantly re-shape the industry. Despite the impressive amount of value that is being realized by Big Data technologies in other parts of the marketplace, however, much of the data collected within the oil and gas sector tends to be discarded, ignored, or analyzed in a very cursory way. This viewpoint examines existing data management practices in the upstream oil and gas industry, and compares them to practices and philosophies that have emerged in organizations that are leading the way in Big Data. The comparison shows that, in companies that are widely considered to be leaders in Big Data analytics, data is regarded as a valuable asset—but this is usually not true within the oil and gas industry insofar as data is frequently regarded there as descriptive information about a physical asset rather than something that is valuable in and of itself. The paper then discusses how the industry could potentially extract more value from data, and concludes with a series of policy-related questions to this end. -- Highlights: •Upstream oil and gas industry frequently discards or ignores the data it collects •The sector tends to view data as descriptive information about the state of assets •Leaders in Big Data, by stark contrast, regard data as an asset in and of itself •Industry should use Big Data tools to extract more value from digital information

  10. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization. PMID:28873432

  11. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lizhi

    2017-01-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization.

  12. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhi Xing

    Full Text Available The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization.

  13. Desarrollo y aplicación de una auditoría a los estados financieros en empresas del sector industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Hurel, Ivette; Gonzalez Magallanes, Jessenia

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo se basa en el desarrollo y la aplicación de la Auditoria a los Estados Financieros específicamente en una empresa del sector Industrial , teniendo como principal objetivo determinar si los Estados Financieros como Balance General , Estados de Resultado Flujo de Efectivo y Evolución de Patrimonio han sido preparados de acuerdo con los principios de contabilidad generalmente aceptados. Adicionalmente esta tesis servirá de aporte a las universidades y empresas del sector in...

  14. Evolution of Food Quality Demand in the Food Service Industry in China: The Case of Duck

    OpenAIRE

    Carnegie, Rachel Alison

    2014-01-01

    Booming economic growth and rising consumer incomes have impacted food preferences and purchasing behavior in China. At the same time, several internationally publicized food safety incidents, particularly in the animal husbandry sector, have heightened awareness of and concern for food safety and quality in meat and dairy. Rising quality demand and safety concerns have been studied at length in the food retail sector, but also appear to be important in the food service industry. This researc...

  15. Making offshore industries greener: negotiating environmental policy in the Dutch oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinssen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the negotiations between the Dutch Government and the oil and gas sector regarding environmental measures for the offshore industry are analysed. Dutch environmental policy is presently being developed via 'Target Group Management'. The instrument used in this approach is policy negotiations, resulting in covenants. By signing a covenant, both government and industry take responsibility for the development and implementation of a realistic environmental policy. Negotiating environmental policies, however, can be problematic. This relates to the delay in obtaining an integrated approach to environmental problems. It is not unlikely that, in the four years required for the negotiation process, a legally binding environmental law might also have been developed. It is concluded that the value of the covenant mainly depends on the goodwill of the parties involved. (Author)

  16. The oil industry in France: contribution to the debate on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Proposed by the professional body of the French oil industry, this document proposes a contribution of this body to the energy challenge. The authors first discuss the context and its evolution in terms of energy demand and of energy sources. They outline the necessary development of renewable energies. While giving recommendations, they state how the oil sector will support the economy and employment, how this sector will keep on exploring and producing hydrocarbons, how the refining activity needs to be adapted, how the oil logistics must evolve, and how the service station network is already evolving

  17. Market development study for active solar thermal systems in the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Promising market opportunities for the sale of Active Solar Thermal Systems (ASTS) in the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors of the Canadian economy were examined in an effort to identify the main factors for success and the barriers to development of the ASTS market. This report described some of the action plans which could help Natural Resources Canada and the industry to develop these markets. It was noted that a promising ASTS application should have a substantial market. Some of the promising applications for ASTS include air heating applications such as: (1) make-up air to an industrial facility, particularly one that requires a high rate of air flow or air layer destratification, such as in welding operations, paint shops or vehicle maintenance facilities, (2) ventilation to a high-walled commercial or institutional building that requires high air flow such as in schools, recreational facilities, multi-residential or retail buildings, and (3) slow drying applications for crops, lumber or other materials. Promising water heating applications include: (1) high volume low temperature rise applications such as in swimming pools, (2) domestic hot water to high density accommodations such as in hotels, multi-unit dwellings, college residences and military barracks, (3) domestic hot water to an isolated location such as campgrounds or lodges, and (4) process hot water used for water washing in industry, restaurants, farms and car washes. This study concluded that there are many opportunities for sales of ASTS to the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors, but combined efforts are needed by committed members of the community to take advantage of these opportunities. 15 refs., 11 tabs., 2 figs., 4 append.

  18. Turismo industrial: oportunidades y retos dentro del sector de manu- factura en Ciudad Juárez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Arturo Bribiescas Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Turismo Industrial, tema relevante dentro de la región fronteriza Ciudad Juá-rez-El Paso, donde la Industria de manufactura tiene gran dinamismo eco-nómico, y se visualizan expectativas y propuestas innovadoras a este sector. Este trabajo es una exploración de las oportunidades y retos de la industria manufacturera instalada en Ciudad Juárez para desarrollar actividades de turismo industrial en sus instalaciones. La información se obtuvo a través de entrevistas a profundidad con 15 gerentes de las empresas más importantes de esta región. Dentro de los resultados se puede observar que las actividades del turismo industrial son percibidas por los gerentes entrevistados como benéficas y consideradas como una actividad alterna a la manufactura.

  19. Promotion COPERNIC Energy and Society the interrogations on the world demand evolution; Promotion COPERNIC Energie et Societe les interrogations sur l'evolution de la demande mondiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    In the framework of a prospective reflexion emergence on the energy demand, this document presents an analysis of the prospective approach and of recent studies: challenges, interests, limits, validity of the models and hypothesis and results relevance. With this analysis, the authors aim to identify the main interrogations bond to the world energy demand evolution. They then analyse these interrogations in the framework of a sectoral approach (agriculture, industry, transports, residential) in order to detail the demand and to forecast the evolution. Facing the consumption attitudes, they also suggest some new action avenues to favor a sustainable growth. (A.L.B.)

  20. Determination of consumption biogenic solid fuels in the commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehmann, Cornelia; Westerkamp, Tanja; Schwenker, Andre; Schenker, Marian; Thraen, Daniela; Lenz, Volker; Ebert, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The policy has both national and European level ambitious program aimed at expansion of renewable energy and related to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In the national action plan for renewable energy of the Federal Republic of Germany these goals are defined by 2020. The share of renewable energy in the provision of heat and cold should therefore rise from 6.6% to 15.5% of gross final energy consumption. According to the increasing importance of solar-thermal, near-surface and geothermal heat, the relative share of biomass is decreasing. However biomass makes with those listed in the national action plan with 79% an essential amount in regenerative heat market [BMU 2010]. For the pursuit of goals and reviews, the support measures and packages of measures which are initiated in this context, a regular and timely reporting on the development of the above objectives is mandatory. The diverse and growing reporting requirements such as in the EU directive on the promotion of renewable energy, require, however well-founded knowledge of the sector-specific energy consumption from renewable sources. While the data available for use of biogenic solid fuels in the sectors household and industry has improved significantly in recent years, for the sector commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector) reliable figures are still lacking. Against this background, the objective is to present study, in close cooperation with the Federal Environment Agency (UBA), the determination of the final energy consumption biogenic solid fuels in the tertiary sector in Germany for the year 2008. The basis is, in addition to the development of the current knowledge of the energy and heat consumption, the delimitation and characterization of the sector and the development of an extrapolation tools. The demand for this tool is its expandability and update possibility. From the industry-nonspecific and industry-specific input data can be derived, collecting for the extrapolation

  1. Directory of the French thermal solar sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demangeon, Elsa; Simmonet, Raphael; Canals, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    After an overview of what is at stake for the thermal solar sector in terms of employment and industrial development, a discussion of the huge energy and industrial potential of this sector, and the proposition of a road map for the development of this sector in France, this publication proposes a directory of actors of the different activity sectors: research and development, engineering, electric and electronic hardware manufacturing, thermal equipment manufacturing, fluid manufacturing, reflector manufacturing, thermodynamic machine manufacturer, structure component manufacturer, control-command system, energy storage, developers, and so on

  2. COMPETENCIAS ESPECÍFICAS SOLICITADAS AL RECIÉN EGRESADO DE INGENIERÍA INDUSTRIAL POR EL SECTOR SERVICIOS EN BOGOTÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Esperanza González González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A nivel mundial, el estudio de competencias es abordado por profesionales y organismos de diferentes disciplinas que tienen interés en mejorar o actualizar los procesos educativos. De ahí que el semillero de investigación DIGESOR de la línea “Diseño y Gestión de las Organizaciones”, adscrita al grupo de investigación GINTECPRO del Programa de Ingeniería Industrial de la Universidad El Bosque, consideró relevante la identificación de los requerimientos y percepciones actuales en lo que refiere a las competencias específicas solicitadas al recién egresado de Ingeniería Industrial por el sector servicios en Bogotá. Para el estudio se consultaron documentos provenientes de: Tuning Project, Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET, Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE, Consejo Nacional de Acreditación (CNA, Asociación Colombiana de Facultades de Ingeniería (ACOFI, entre otros. A partir de éstos se diseñó una herramienta que permite identificar las competencias específicas de mayor interés por parte de las empresas pequeñas, medianas y grandes del sector. La información obtenida muestra la incursión del recién egresado al sector servicios, los medios de búsqueda utilizados por los reclutadores, las competencias específicas requeridas por los empleadores, el nivel organizacional más desempeñado, las áreas organizacionales y los respectivos cargos del área principal ocupada por los profesionales. Los resultados son de utilidad para la reorientación de los currículos de la carrera de Ingeniería Industrial, impartidos por las Instituciones de Educación Superior. De esta manera, se promovería una alineación más pertinente del desempeño de los futuros egresados según las necesidades y expectativas del sector servicios.

  3. Sectoral Costs of Environmental Policy. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercaemst, P.; Vanassche, S.; Campling, P.; Vranken, L.; Agnolucci, P.; Salmons, R.; Shaw, B.; Jantzen, J.; Van der Woerd, H.; Gruenig, M.; Best, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission has launched a study on the 'Sectoral costs of environmental policy'. The overall aim of the study is to obtain a clearer picture of the impact of environmental policy in some of the industrial sectors most affected by environmental policy, taking into account the differences between sectors and Member States. Previous studies mainly focussed on the individual impact of one Directive, but in this study we will assess the cumulative costs attributable to the environmental policy in its entirety and attempt to identify synergies between individual policies. The project has the following main objectives: paint a clearer picture of the environmental costs for the selected industries; indicate the differences in costs between individual companies; indicate the differences in costs between Member States; demonstrate the drivers for environmental expenditures of the companies and differences between sectors and Member States; describe different types of environmental regulation (policy instruments) and their impact on environmental expenditures; evaluate the environmental performance of the industries and differences between companies/Member States; collect evidence for the impacts of environmental regulation (and associated costs) on the competitiveness of companies; and carry out an international comparison. The sectors selected are:oil supply chain; electricity production; steel industry; and textile and leather industry

  4. Industrial and residential electricity demand dynamics in Japan: How did price and income elasticities evolve from 1989 to 2014?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Nan; Mogi, Gento

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates the price and income elasticities of industrial and residential electricity demand in Japan with the annual data from 1989 to 2014. A time varying parameter (TVP) model with the Kalman filter is applied to monitor the evolution of consumer behaviors in the “post-bubble” period given the exogenous shock (financial crisis in 2008) and the structural breaks (electricity deregulation and Fukushima Daiichi crisis). The TVP model can provide a robust estimation of elasticities and can detect the outliers and the structural breaks. The results suggest that both industrial and residential consumers become less sensitive to price after the electricity deregulation and the financial crisis, and more sensitive to price after the Fukushima Daiichi crisis. Especially the industrial sector is less sensitive to price after the retail deregulation. By contrast, the income elasticities of industrial and residential sector consumers are stable during the examined period. Results also indicate that a negative relationship exists between the price elasticity of electricity demand and the price level of electricity after the electric sector deregulation. Some insights on the further electric sector reform and the environmental taxation in Japan are also provided. - Highlights: • A time varying parameter model is calculated with the Kalman filter. • Income elasticities are stable while price elasticities are time-varying. • Industrial sector is less sensitive to price change than residential sector. • Negative relationship between price elasticity and price level is found.

  5. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for SelectedIndustrial Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky,Christina; Zhou, Nan

    2007-06-05

    "World best practice" energy intensity values, representingthe most energy-efficient processes that are in commercial use in atleast one location worldwide, are provided for the production of iron andsteel, aluminium, cement, pulp and paper, ammonia, and ethylene. Energyintensity is expressed in energy use per physical unit of output for eachof these commodities; most commonly these are expressed in metric tonnes(t). The energy intensity values are provided by major energy-consumingprocesses for each industrial sector to allow comparisons at the processlevel. Energy values are provided for final energy, defined as the energyused at the production facility as well as for primary energy, defined asthe energy used at the production facility as well as the energy used toproduce the electricity consumed at the facility. The "best practice"figures for energy consumption provided in this report should beconsidered as indicative, as these may depend strongly on the materialinputs.

  6. Análisis estratégico del proceso productivo en el sector industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Rodríguez Medina; Solange Balestrini Atencio; Sara Balestrini Atencio; Rosana Meleán Romero; Belkis Rodríguez Castro

    2002-01-01

    Este artículo contiene una reflexión sobre los factores claves de éxito para el análisis estratégico del proceso productivo del sector industrial, cuyo objetivo es tratar aspectos fundamentales para las estrategias de modernización como el diseño de los productos, la selección del sistema productivo y de la tecnología, la planificación de la capacidad, la ubicación y distribución de las instalaciones, el diseño de los procesos, la cadena de valor, el aseguramiento de la calidad, e...

  7. Prospective of the Electrical Sector 2002-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the 66 Th Article of the regulation of the Law of the Public Service of Electric Energy, the Comision Federal de Electricidad presented for approval of the Secretaria de Energia this prospective that contains the trend analysis of the electric sector, the program of the expansion system and the perspectives of the market for the next 10 years. The first chapter treats about the position of the generation infrastructure of Mexico in the World and continental environment. In chapter two, the regulatory framework of the electric industry is presented, the present and future evolution of the supply and demand of electric energy as contributions of the Comision Federal de Electricidad and the Compania de Luz y Fuerza del Centro is presented in chapter three. Finally, the main programs of savings and efficient use of energy are shown. This document is perfectible therefore the Secretaria de Energia invites to all those interested on the Mexican electric sector for sending their comments to the addresses which appearing in the Annexe five to establish a continuous improvement system of this publication. (Author)

  8. Cause-specific sickness absence trends by occupational class and industrial sector in the context of recent labour market changes: a Finnish panel data study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Taina; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to provide previously unestablished information on population-based differences in cause-specific sickness absence trends between occupational classes and further between four large industrial sectors within the different occupational classes while controlling for other socioeconomic factors and employment patterns. We focused on the period 2005–2013, during which the labour market underwent large economic and structural changes in many countries. Design Register-based panel data study. Setting Large representative datasets on Finnish wage earners aged 25–59 years. Outcome measure Annual risk of sickness absence (>10 working days) based on repeated logistic regression. Results Between 2005 and 2013, the proportion of employees with sickness absence decreased. Occupational class differences in sickness absence trends varied by disease group. Overall, the decrease in absences was smallest among lower non-manual employees. Sickness absence levels were highest in the health and social work sector and in the manufacturing sector within the non-manual and manual classes, respectively. Absences due to musculoskeletal diseases decreased temporarily during the peak of the economic recession in 2009, particularly in the manufacturing sector within the manual class. The decrease in absences due to musculoskeletal diseases was smallest in the trade sector within the lower occupational classes. Overall, education, income and employment patterns partly explained the differences in the absence levels, but not in the trends. Conclusions We found a complex interplay between the associations of occupational class and industrial sector with sickness absence trends. During the economic recession, absences due to musculoskeletal diseases decreased temporarily in a segment of wage earners who were known to have been hit hard by the recession. However, the trend differences were not explained by the measured structural changes in the characteristics of the study

  9. The energy demand in the British and German industrial sectors. Heterogeneity and common factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnolucci, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates energy demands for the German and British industrial sectors over the 1978-2004 and the 1991-2004 samples. From time series models we can conclude that there is a considerable variation in the value of the coefficients across sectors, even though energy demands with sensible parameters can rarely be estimated. When using a panel approach, the ability of some estimators to allow for diversity across subsectors was an important factor in explaining the estimates for price elasticity. On the other hand, correlation across panel members or common factors did not markedly influence our results. With regard to the estimated parameters, our preferred choice for elasticity of economic activity and price in the longer sample is 0.52 and - 0.64. Similar values are found in the case of the shorter samples. Bearing in mind the high price elasticity, energy taxes can be considered an effective strategy for reducing energy consumption. (author)

  10. Promotion COPERNIC Energy and Society the interrogations on the world demand evolution; Promotion COPERNIC Energie et Societe les interrogations sur l'evolution de la demande mondiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    In the framework of a prospective reflexion emergence on the energy demand, this document presents an analysis of the prospective approach and of recent studies: challenges, interests, limits, validity of the models and hypothesis and results relevance. With this analysis, the authors aim to identify the main interrogations bond to the world energy demand evolution. They then analyse these interrogations in the framework of a sectoral approach (agriculture, industry, transports, residential) in order to detail the demand and to forecast the evolution. Facing the consumption attitudes, they also suggest some new action avenues to favor a sustainable growth. (A.L.B.)

  11. Assessment of the wood waste resource and its position in the wood / wood-energy sector - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinard, Ludovic; Deroubaix, Gerard; Roux, Marie-Lise; Levet, Anne-Laure; Quint, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    The first objective of this study is to obtain a better knowledge of the 'wood wastes' issue, to propose a photography of the wood waste sector (productions, trades, consumptions), and then to elaborate different prospective scenarios on the use of wood waste volumes while taking into account possible evolutions on the medium or short term of the regulation and market of the wood/wood energy sector. The considered wastes come from industrial production, from the use of wood-based products, and from the end of life of products potentially containing wood. The authors present bibliographical sources and the adopted methodology, briefly describe the 'wood waste' system with its actors, and then report their assessment of wood wastes. They propose a global assessment as well as detailed assessments with respect to waste origins: wood trade and distribution, industries, craft, households and communities, building sector, public and private tertiary sector, packaging. They also address the collection and management of wood wastes by public services, and present the different types of valorisation (panel fabrication, energy, and others). They discuss exports, and then present different scenarios: a trend-based scenario, and two prospective scenarios with a priority to energetic valorisation or to material valorisation of wood wastes. These scenarios are compared

  12. Deindustrialization or metamorphosis of the industry. The new relationship between the manufacturing and tertiary activities; Desindustrializacion o metamorfosis de la instria?. La nueva relacion entre las actividades manufacturera y terciaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baro Tomas, E.

    2013-06-01

    The evolution of the manufacturing industry in recent decades has been subject to a complex process of transformation. Relevant changes have occurred in the composition of these activities, in the nature thereof and in the relationships established between the various productive sectors, especially the manufacturing sectors and an important part of the tertiary sectors. The analysis of these transformations requires a new viewpoint of what currently constitutes the industrial sector and, especially, a new definition of its effective perimeter. This new perimeter should incorporate a significant portion of tertiary activities: the services for production. In sum, we must put more emphasis on the complementary relationships that exist between the two types of activities, rather than considering the deindustrialization process as a simple shift of industrial activities by service activities. (Author) 33 refs.

  13. Estimating number of workers potentially at risk of exposure to hardwood dust in certain industrial sectors in Italy using a national register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarselli, Alberto; Di Marzio, Davide

    2014-11-24

    Hardwood dust is a well-known human carcinogen and its use is common in several economic activities. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of occupational exposure to hardwood dust in certain sectors of Italian industry. Information on occupational exposures was collected from enterprise exposure registers that must by law be reported to the National Workers' Compensation Authority, as at 31 December 2011. Data stored in the database included economic activity sector, work force size and exposed workers. The number of workers potentially exposed was estimated for some of the industrial sectors from national occupational statistics in Italy. The economic sector with the highest number of potentially exposed workers to hardwood dust was that classified as the manufacture of other wooden furniture with 15,760 men and 2,771 women, while the highest percentage of enterprises that had sent data (according to the ISTAT 2001 census) was in building and repair of non-metallic ships (21%). The systematic recording of occupational exposures is a source of data that permits recognition of high risk situations and aids exposure assessment for epidemiological studies.

  14. Evolution of strategies and competition in the international airline industry: a practical analysis using porter's competitive forces model

    OpenAIRE

    Zannoni, Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    This master thesis describes the evolution of the competition and strategies in the international airline industry. It studies the industry before and after deregulation, using the competitive forces model.

  15. Servitization in industry

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Presenting both a comprehensive collection of sectorial studies of servitization in manufacturing industries, on the one hand, and research investigating the necessity to adapt various processes and departments of manufacturing companies to servitized business models, on the other, ‘Servitization in Industry’ informs the scientific and managerial servitization debate with recent data regarding industrial servitization models. This book provides detailed analyses of manufacturing sectors that elucidate the options and barriers related to servitization from a sector-based perspective. This sector-based approach allows for an individual and in-depth examination of recent relationships among manufacturers and their clients by explaining leads and lags in servitization. Serving to maximize reader insight into the specific characteristics of different sectors with their barriers and potentials, the book presents frameworks for successful servitization of the core sectors in European manufacturing industries whi...

  16. BIM in Europe: innovation networks in the construction sectors of Sweden, France and the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Richard; Crespin-Mazet, Florence; Linne, Ase; Pardo, Catherine; Havenvid, Malena Ingemannson; Harty, Chris; Ivory, Chris; Salle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    European countries are developing or implementing policies that promote or require the use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and give BIM a central role in strategies for national sector-level transformation. It is necessary to understand BIM as a systemic innovation that is enacted and adopted by firms, projects and users but also by national actors. The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) approach has shown how the evolution of innovations can be understood in terms of networks ...

  17. Caracterización de la calidad del aire en el sector industrial y propuesta de herramientas de medida

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Muñoz, Xiomara Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo general consiste en establecer los parámetros que definen la relación entre la calidad del aire y los niveles de emisión de contaminación de origen industrial y proporcionar herramientas que ayuden a la toma de decisiones con el fin de facilitar la localización de impactos ambientales derivados del sector industrial. Los objetivos específicos que se plantean para desarrollar este trabajo se basan en: 1. Realizar una búsqueda bibliográfica de la información relacionada ...

  18. Trends driving the hotel industry global evolution. Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa-Adina BĂLTESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tourism field is well known for the dynamic of changes over recent years. We witness the continous growth of the number of tourists, the increase of consumers demands, the development of new markets and the changes determined by information technologies implementation and adaptations and innovations supported at the level of tourism business. Being a defining component in the tourism industry, the hotel field is individualized through specific evolutions and significant adjustments in relation to the general rate of changes and development trends recorded. In this framework, through this article, the author aims to assess which are the most relevant changes recorded in the Romanian hotel industry and the degree in which this specific activity field follow the trend of changes recorded at international level.

  19. Promotion COPERNIC Energy and Society the interrogations on the world demand evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    In the framework of a prospective reflexion emergence on the energy demand, this document presents an analysis of the prospective approach and of recent studies: challenges, interests, limits, validity of the models and hypothesis and results relevance. With this analysis, the authors aim to identify the main interrogations bond to the world energy demand evolution. They then analyse these interrogations in the framework of a sectoral approach (agriculture, industry, transports, residential) in order to detail the demand and to forecast the evolution. Facing the consumption attitudes, they also suggest some new action avenues to favor a sustainable growth. (A.L.B.)

  20. The French wind energy market by 2020. Market evolution and competition context within the sector. Analysis of business model and of financial performance of fleet operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    As the French wind energy sector has been recovering a good dynamics since 2014, notably for onshore production whereas some uncertainties remain present for offshore production, this report aims at assessing market perspectives by 2020, and at identifying business opportunities for the different involved actors. The first part identifies some determining factors for the sector activity, proposes an analysis of the activity for the 2002-2015 period (installed power, electricity production, turnover, equipment manufacturers, operators) and its perspectives by 2020 (evolution of determining factors, installed power, market share evolution for manufacturers, opportunities and threats on the medium term). The second part discusses the main elements of the operators' business models, and analyses fleet managers' financial data. Structural drivers and brakes are then discussed, as well as the French, European and World context (installed power, installed offshore power, electricity production, energy policy, law for energy transition, commitment of public authorities in favour of wind energy, competitiveness of wind energy). Some highlights and aspects of offer evolution are outlined: development of offshore wind energy, diversification of operators, international development, takeovers and capital increase, new financing modes. The last parts propose an analysis of the economic structure of the sector in France (types of interveners, staff, location, machine power evolution) and an overview of the main actors. Identity sheets of the main operators and equipment manufacturers are provided, as well as economic and financial data of 200 operators which can be compared through 5 key indicators

  1. The electricity market. Situation and predictions 2018 - Sectoral and competitive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This document comprises two reports. A first one, published and updated three times a year, and a second one which is a yearly publication. The first one, based on an analysis of market perspectives and of actor strategies, proposes a synthesis on the consequences of the evolution of the economic environment, on major trends noticed for the electric power sector, and on predictable evolutions. It proposes the most recent data regarding the activities of about 200 firms belonging to the power sector (notably in terms of turnover and of electric power consumption). It highlights recent events for companies of the sector: takeovers, investments, restructuring, introduction of new products, and so on. It proposes a sector-based dashboard which contains all the critical figures useful to analyse the sector situation (activity determining factors, key figures for the sector and its environment). The annual report proposes a presentation of the sector and of the determining factors of its activity, an analysis of the activity evolution (trends, indicators like turnover, electric power consumption and production, prices and regulated tariffs, power imports and exports), a presentation of financial performance of electricity producers, a description of the sector economic structure (evolution of the economic tissue, analysis of structural characteristics), and a presentation of actors and of the competitive landscape (ranking and positioning of electric power providers and producers, market shares, identity sheets of the main actors, highlights, and ranking of the main companies in terms of turnover and of financial performance)

  2. The formation of the global natural gas industry: definition, constraints and challenges; A formacao da industria global de gas natural: definicao, condicionantes e desafios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina Pinto Pires

    2008-03-15

    This study aims to investigate the real possibilities for the natural gas industry to become a global energy industry. So, it is necessary to define what global energy industry really means. In order to do a comparative analysis between the oil and natural gas industries, it is necessary to define three distinct stages of the evolution of an energy industry, namely internationalization, mundialization and globalization. This study analyzes the evolution of the oil industry trying to identify the main aspects that promoted changes and transformed the oil business into a global industry. Then, the evolution of the natural gas industry is analyzed, looking for similarities between the structural changes in both industries, and trying to determine what is the current stage of the natural gas industry. Despite the increase in the natural gas international trade and the prospects of growth of natural gas demand, there are still some challenges for this industry to effectively become global. Some of the challenges are the need of investments in production infrastructure, transportation and distribution sectors, the access to the main reserves, the uncertainty related to the demand evolution and the possible creation of a natural gas producers cartel, like the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). (author)

  3. Organizational culture in the financial sector : evidence from a cross-industry analysis of employee personal values and career success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, André

    2017-01-01

    We assess the organizational culture in the finance industry in relation to the global financial crisis (GFC) and consider the potential of cultural change to improve the financial sector. To avoid (response) biases, we build on the person-organization (P-O) fit literature and develop a novel,

  4. PUBLIC SECTOR PLANT BREEDING IN A PRIVATIZING WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    Thirtle, Colin G.; Srinivasan, Chittur S.; Heisey, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    Intellectual property protection, globalization, and pressure on public budgets in many industrialized countries have shifted the balance of plant breeding activity from the public to the private sector. Several economic factors influence the relative shares of public versus private sector plant breeding activity, with varying results over time, over country, and over crop. The private sector, for example, dominates corn breeding throughout the industrialized world, but public and private act...

  5. Electrification and Decarbonization: Exploring U.S. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Scenarios with Widespread Electrification and Power Sector Decarbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bielen, Dave [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eurek, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Parker, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Electrification of end-use services in the transportation, buildings, and industrial sectors coupled with decarbonization of electricity generation has been identified as one of the key pathways to achieving a low-carbon future in the United States. By lowering the carbon intensity of the electricity generation and substituting electricity for higher-emissions fossil fuels in end-use sectors, significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions can be achieved. This report describes a preliminary analysis that examines the potential impacts of widespread electrification on the U.S. energy sector. We develop a set of exploratory scenarios under which electrification is aggressively pursued across all end-use sectors and examine the impacts of achieving these electrification levels on electricity load patterns, total fossil energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and the evolution of the U.S. power system.

  6. The topology of inter-industry relations from the Portuguese national accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Faustino, Rui

    2017-08-01

    In last years, the Portuguese economy has gone through a severe adjustment process, affecting almost all industrial sectors, the building blocks of economic structures. Research on economic structural changes has made use of input/output tables to define networks of industrial relations. Here, these networks are induced from output tables of the Portuguese national accounting system, being each inter-industry relation defined by the output made by any two industries for the products that they both produce. The topological analysis of these networks allows to uncover a particular structure that comes out during the Portuguese adjustment program. The evolution of the industrial networks shows an important structural change in 2011-2014, confirming the usefulness of inducting similarity networks from output tables and the consequent promising power of the graph formulation for the analysis of inter-industry relations.

  7. Decomposing Brazilian manufacturing industry dynamics in the mid-2000s: Macroeconomic factors and their sectoral impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Paulo Domingues

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry's loss in participation, phenomena called “deindustrialization”, has been observed for the Brazilian economy for a while and seems to have intensified from mid-2000s. However, the literature has not developed a consistent or integrated analysis of this process. We have used a detailed simulation model to identify how macroeconomic factors (such as exchange rate, labor costs, and household consumption have contributed to manufacturing dynamics. Our results indicate that the macroeconomic scenario explains a large portion of the manufacturing industry's participation loss. The rise in households consumption and investment, important factors in this period, were responsible for dampening of the pressures coming from the currency appreciation and the workforce costs, benefiting some industrial sectors, but not avoiding the manufacturings participation loss. Keywords: Manufacturing, Growth, Development, Simulations, JEL classification: O14, C68, D58

  8. Evolution of camel CYP2E1 and its associated power of binding toxic industrial chemicals and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeel, Mahmoud; Altaher, Abdullah; Kitade, Yukio; Abdelaziz, Magdi; Alnazawi, Mohamed; Elshazli, Kamal

    2016-10-01

    Camels are raised in harsh desert environment for hundreds of years ago. By modernization of live and the growing industrial revolution in camels rearing areas, camels are exposed to considerable amount of chemicals, industrial waste, environmental pollutions and drugs. Furthermore, camels have unique gene evolution of some genes to withstand living in harsh environments. In this work, the camel cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is compromised to detect its evolution rate and its power to bind with various chemicals, protoxins, procarcinogens, industrial toxins and drugs. In comparison with human CYP2E1, camel CYP2E1 more efficiently binds to small toxins as aniline, benzene, catechol, amides, butadiene, toluene and acrylamide. Larger compounds were more preferentially bound to the human CYP2E1 in comparison with camel CYP2E1. The binding of inhalant anesthetics was almost similar in both camel and human CYP2E1 coinciding with similar anesthetic effect as well as toxicity profiles. Furthermore, evolutionary analysis indicated the high evolution rate of camel CYP2E1 in comparison with human, farm and companion animals. The evolution rate of camel CYP2E1 was among the highest evolution rate in a subset of 57 different organisms. These results indicate rapid evolution and potent toxin binding power of camel CYP2E1. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Energy prospects in the competitiveness of the paper industry. Diagnosis of the Industrial Observatories; Perspectivas energeticas en la competitividad del sector del papel. El diagnostico de los observatorios industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortigosa Goni, J. A.

    2012-07-01

    This article analyzes the prospects and options for the paper industry in terms of energy. For that, the article begins defining competitiveness, analyzing the connections and interdependencies with economy, energy and industry, both world, European and national levels. Also, the article studies in depth the evolution and situation of the Spanish paper industry, its characteristics and energy alternatives, stressing biomass as one of the most attractive choices currently. (Author)

  10. La evolucion de la industria del sector automotriz en Japon, crecimiento de las empresas automotrices japonesas y su impacto en la economía de Japon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Blanco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main question of this research was to know if the growing of the Japanese automotive Industry Sector has an impact on the Japanese economy or is the export dynamics evolution of automotive company that has enabled significant growth. We analyze the evolution of the Japanese automotive industry starting with a review of the global automotive industry and ending with the analysis of case study as the Japanese company, Toyota. It’s important to know that since 1952, the Japanese government started a policy to encourage the automotive industry through the provision of cheap credit, tax and labor market protection, and emerging companies like Toyota, Nissan, Mazda and Honda. These facts eventually became highly competitive the Japanese companies that created and flexible production systems, which are more efficient and reduce production costs, help increase sales and foreign trade.

  11. Characterization of low-level waste from the industrial sector, and near-term projection of waste volumes and types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A telephone survey of low-level waste generators has been carried out in order to make useful estimates of the volume and nature of the waste which the generators will be shipping for disposal when the compacts and states begin operating new disposal facilities. Emphasis of the survey was on the industrial sector, since there has been little information available on characteristics of industrial LLW. Ten large industrial generators shipping to Richland, ten shipping to Barnwell, and two whose wastes had previously been characterized by BNL were contacted. The waste volume shipped by these generators accounted for about two-thirds to three-quarters of the total industrial volume. Results are given in terms of the categories of LLW represented and of the chemical characteristics of the different wastes. Estimates by the respondents of their near-term waste volume projections are presented

  12. Characterization of low-level waste from the industrial sector, and near-term projection of waste volumes and types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A telephone survey of low-level waste generators has been carried out in order to make useful estimates of the volume and nature of the waste which the generators are shipping for disposal when the compacts and states begin operating new disposal facilities. Emphasis of the survey was on the industrial sector, since there has been little information available on characteristics of industrial LLW. Ten large industrial generators shipping to Richland, ten shipping to Barnwell, and two whose wastes had previously been characterized by BNL were contacted. The waste volume shipped by these generators accounted for about two-thirds to three-quarters of the total industrial volume. Results are given in terms of the categories of LLW represented and of the chemical characteristics of the different wastes. Estimates by the respondents of their near-term waste volume projections are presented

  13. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, J; Rabbani, I; Aslam, S; Ahmad, H A

    2015-12-01

    The poultry sector is an important and vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan with a significant contribution to the national GDP (1.3%). Commercial poultry production in Pakistan started in the 1960's and has been providing a significant portion of daily proteins to the Pakistani population ever since. During its evolution the industry enjoyed promotional policies of the Government, but has faced several challenges such as disease outbreaks and retail price fluctuations. Despite its important role in the country's economy, not a single scientific study is available on its evolutionary history. The data available in this regard are scattered and lack reliability. This review is an effort to encompass the history of the overall growth of the poultry industry in Pakistan, its present status (2012 statistics) and future directions and challenges. This article may serve as the basic source of information on Pakistan's poultry industry achievements. It will also guide poultry experts and policy makers for developing strategic planning for further growth of the industry.

  14. Cause-specific sickness absence trends by occupational class and industrial sector in the context of recent labour market changes: a Finnish panel data study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Taina; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2018-04-07

    We aimed to provide previously unestablished information on population-based differences in cause-specific sickness absence trends between occupational classes and further between four large industrial sectors within the different occupational classes while controlling for other socioeconomic factors and employment patterns. We focused on the period 2005-2013, during which the labour market underwent large economic and structural changes in many countries. Register-based panel data study. Large representative datasets on Finnish wage earners aged 25-59 years. Annual risk of sickness absence (>10 working days) based on repeated logistic regression. Between 2005 and 2013, the proportion of employees with sickness absence decreased. Occupational class differences in sickness absence trends varied by disease group. Overall, the decrease in absences was smallest among lower non-manual employees. Sickness absence levels were highest in the health and social work sector and in the manufacturing sector within the non-manual and manual classes, respectively. Absences due to musculoskeletal diseases decreased temporarily during the peak of the economic recession in 2009, particularly in the manufacturing sector within the manual class. The decrease in absences due to musculoskeletal diseases was smallest in the trade sector within the lower occupational classes. Overall, education, income and employment patterns partly explained the differences in the absence levels, but not in the trends. We found a complex interplay between the associations of occupational class and industrial sector with sickness absence trends. During the economic recession, absences due to musculoskeletal diseases decreased temporarily in a segment of wage earners who were known to have been hit hard by the recession. However, the trend differences were not explained by the measured structural changes in the characteristics of the study population. Both occupational class and industrial sector should

  15. Energy efficiency achievements in China's industrial and transport sectors: How do they rate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Libo; Huo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    China is experiencing intensified industrialisation and motorisation. In the world's largest emerging economy, energy efficiency is expected to play a critical role in the ever-rising demand for energy. Based on factual overviews and numerical analysis, this article carries out an in-depth investigation into the effectiveness of policies announced or implemented in recent decades targeted at energy conservation in the energy intensive manufacturing and transportation sectors. It highlights nine energy intensive sectors that achieved major improvements in their energy technology efficiency efforts. Under the umbrella of the 11th Five-Year Plan, these sectors' performances reflect the effectiveness of China's energy conservation governance. Numerous actions have been taken in China to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy and its GHG emissions by implementing fuel economy standards, promoting advanced energy efficient vehicles, and alternative fuels. Coal-based energy saving technologies, especially industrial furnace technologies, are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. In the long run, renewable energy development and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways to reduce energy use and GHG emissions in China. Fuel economy standards could reduce oil consumption and GHGs by 34–35 per cent. - Highlights: • This article makes an investigation into the effectiveness of energy conservation policies in China. • Efficiency improvement reflects the effective governance of energy conservation in China. • Numerous actions have been taken to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy. • Coal-based energy saving technologies are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. • In the long run, renewable energy and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways

  16. Taxation of the energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.

    1995-01-01

    Taxation of the energy industries is an issue of major importance for each energy sector. This has always been the situation for the primary fossil fuel sectors but, with corporatization and privatization, is now also an issue for the electricity supply industry. This article examines the most significant forms of taxation affecting the major industry sectors, namely secondary taxation, corporate taxation and, as a consequence of the corporatization and privatization of the electricity supply industry, surrogate taxation as it affects that industry. While essentially considering secondary taxation, the paper also reviews corporate and surrogate taxes. Tax exemptions for various energy sector activities such as mining operations, exploration and rehabilitation related activities are outlined. It is considered that there is insufficient evidence of the influence of taxation and other factors on electricity pricing. 2 tabs

  17. THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY – IMPACT ON THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela FIROIU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an increasingly dynamic society, globalization has become one of the key issues, causing important changes in the evolution of all economic sectors and especially in the development of the tourism industry, an industry that depends heavily on the free movement of people and unhindered access to information. Although the implications of the globalization phenomenon on tourism are extremely diverse and profound, sometimes difficult to commensurate, the evolution of the information and communication technology is currently outlining the main directions of the global economy through the accelerated pace of innovation. The hospitality industry requires a high level of adaptability to the demands of the tourist market, and the information and communication technology represents an efficient tool for increasing the degree of correlation between tourist supply and clients' demands, thus turning into a real progress bond. Improving the efficiency of this sector's activity becomes one of the primary issues on an increasingly dynamic global market, the changes regarding the distribution channel, the marketing services and the customer relationship management representing the key elements in this respect. In this context, the hotel market in Romania acquires new dimensions, its performance depending on the strong influence that the implementation of the newest informational technologies has on it, determining important changes at both the management and the operational level.

  18. PUBLIC SECTOR - CONCEPTUAL ELEMENTS, IMPLICATIONS IN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Popa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The public economy, branch of economic science analyses the state, as economic actor; its field of research interacts with investigations of other areas of economic science (monetary, international trade, market organization etc.. The state has experienced various stages of manifestation of its role in the economy, against the changes in society, which led to either an increase in its intervention, to regulate market phenomena, the recovery of economic activity in times of crisis, or to its decline against the modernization of the economies of industrialized countries, the increase of the role of entrepreneurs, technological progress. Thus, the development of economic science, changes in economic area, the emergence of capitalism, of industrialization in the nineteenth century, especially the second half, outlined a new role towards state intervention in economic life; in the context of new economic developments of the last decades of the twentieth century, the interventionist role of the state has diminished, the state giving up certain activities, in return for initiating other actions (privatization, reducing state monopoly, deregulation.nThe paper presents conceptual elements referring to public sector, peculiarities that distinguish it from the private sector, as well as issues about the state implication in the economic life, in different periods of evolution of society.

  19. Acumulación de capital y estructuración espacial: un caso de crisis no resuelta. El sector industrial colombiano 1968 – 1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Enrique Rodríguez Hernández

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El trabajo establece una relación entre el proceso de acumulación de capital y la distribución espacial de la industria a partir del concepto de “espacio regional”. A este respecto el período analizado corresponde a una etapa de doble crisis: de una parte, la del patrón de acumulación en el que se intentó desplazar al sector industrial ´por el financiero como sector líder; y de otra, la  del modelo  de distribución espacial  de la industria que  evidenció los inconvenientes del alto nivel de concentración que el mismo generó. En este  número de la revista está incluida la parte que toca al modelo de acumulación y la crisis del sector industrial, dejando los aspectos espaciales y las conclusiones para el siguiente.

  20. Electricity sector human resources review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facette, J. [Canadian Association of Technicians and Technologists (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The electricity industry is expanding, with new supply and infrastructure development equivalent to 35 per cent of existing capacity over the next 20 years. This paper examines the preliminary results of a human resources sector review providing industry specific labor force data. The key objectives of the review were to develop detailed industry profiles, identify root causes of human resources issues, identify industry best practices and develop a human resources strategy for the Canadian electricity sector. Estimates of current employment were provided, with age of employees, retirement projections, regional projections and estimated supply/demand gaps. Current shortages were identified, including wind energy technicians. The paper also identified a declining Canadian born labor force and a concurrent dependence on immigrants. A project research methodology was provided with a list of participating major employers. tabs., figs.

  1. Harnessing the potential - Atlantic Canada's oil and gas industry : Newfoundland Ocean Industries special releases or publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    A comprehensive overview of Atlantic Canada's oil and gas industry is presented, demonstrating the importance of oil and gas resources and their related industries to Atlantic Canada. The objective of the report is to provide a basis for a strategy to optimize opportunities within the region from the oil and gas sector. The report reviews the current status of the industry, including the region's resource potential and the oil and gas developments currently underway. The evolution of the oil and gas industry is discussed in terms of value chain components. A broad assessment of the region's supply, labour force, infrastructure, training, and research and development capabilities is presented, followed by a description of the industry's potential, its regulatory framework and the barriers and constraints affecting industry development. Appendices contain a chronological history of major events in Atlantic Canada's oil and gas industry (Appendix A); and overview of the Atlantic Accord and the Canada-Nova Scotia Accord's equalization offset provisions (Appendix B); a value chain matrix, detailing some 60 categories of industry requirements and a capsule assessment of the region's ability to meet them (Appendix C); and a listing of research and development institutions in Atlantic Canada, including their areas of specialization (Appendix D)

  2. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 1. Primary model documentation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Roger E.; Herod, J. Steven; Andrews, Gwen L.; Budzik, Philip M.; Eissenstat, Richard S.; Grossmann, John R.; Reiner, Gary M.; Roschke, Thomas E.; Shulman, Michael J.; Toppen, Timothy R.; Veno, William R.; Violette, Daniel M.; Smolinski, Michael D.; Habel, Deborah; Cook, Alvin E.

    1979-10-01

    ISTUM is designed to predict the commercial market penetration of various energy technologies in the industrial sector out to the year 2000. It is a refinement and further development of Market Oriented Program Planning Study task force in 1977. ISTUM assesses the comparative economic competitiveness of each technology and competes over 100 energy technologies - conventionals, fossil/energy, conservation, cogeneration, solar, and geothermal. A broad overview of the model, the solution of the model, and an in-depth discussion of strength and limitations of the model are provided in Volume I. (MCW)

  3. Analysis of the quality of work life in the sewing sector of a clothing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Silva de Aquino

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze the quality of work life in the sewing sector of a clothing industry located in the Northwest of the Paraná. The research is characterized as an exploratory and descriptive case study. The instrument of data collection was an adaptation of the model considered for Walton. For data analysis descriptive statistics and the diagram of boxes were used (boxplot. The results had disclosed that the eight criterions of the quality of work life investigated had presented levels of satisfaction greater than 50%. A satisfactory general average can be evidenced (66.85% among the employees of the sewing sector in relation to the quality of work life. Although the presented levels of satisfaction, it would be interesting to take some measures aiming to improve them even more. These measures should be directed to the analysis of the criterion “proper and fair compensation”, which presented the worst average and greater dispersion among investigated criteria.

  4. Opportunities for business and partnership : services sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Fernandez, J.

    1999-01-01

    Mexico is one of the countries with the highest industrial growth in Latin America. This is due to its geographical location, its vast oil and gas reserves, its membership in NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), and mainly because of its modern economic policies. Mexico is a country in which many opportunities for private investment in the energy sector exist. This paper discussed Bufete Industrial Construcciones' involvement and experiences in the fields of petroleum, electricity and natural gas. The goals to be achieved in the various areas of the energy sector for the 2000-2006 period were summarized for the electric sector, the natural gas sector and the oil and gas extraction sector. The 4 mega projects currently underway include the Cantarell, the Burgos, the Ku-Maloob Zaap and the Delta del Grijalva projects

  5. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 1: Part 1, Electricity supply sector; Part 2, Residential and commercial buildings sector; Part 3, Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    DOE encourages you to report your achievements in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sequestering carbon under this program. Global climate change is increasingly being recognized as a threat that individuals and organizations can take action against. If you are among those taking action, reporting your projects may lead to recognition for you, motivation for others, and synergistic learning for the global community. This report discusses the reporting process for the voluntary detailed guidance in the sectoral supporting documents for electricity supply, residential and commercial buildings, industry, transportation, forestry, and agriculture. You may have reportable projects in several sectors; you may report them separately or capture and report the total effects on an entity-wide report

  6. Guide to carry out photovoltaic projects in self-consumption in the tertiary, industrial and farm sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinette, Jean-Yves; Lacirignola, Martino; Morlot, Rodolphe

    2017-07-01

    For the tertiary, industrial and farm sectors, photovoltaic energy production is often synchronous with its consumption, and self-consumption therefore makes sense. This guide is aimed at giving guidelines for the development of a self-consumption project for these sectors. It details the different stages (design, financing, development, exploitation) for projects located in metropolitan France or French overseas territories, and notably takes the case on non-interconnected areas into account. After a presentation of the concept of self-consumption of electricity and more particularly solar photovoltaic electricity, the guide describes how to initiate a project: chronology, possible configurations; peculiarities of concerned sectors and applicable configurations, orders of magnitude, possible financial supports. It gives a detailed overview of the legal framework for the various aspects of the project: actors, urban planning laws, land management, taxes, connection to the grid, equipment, insurance. It analyses the project technical content, addresses financing aspects (data to be collected, assessment tools, financing modes, business plans). For these various themes which are as many chapters, the case of non-interconnected areas (islands, areas non connected to the grid) is specifically addressed

  7. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  8. Geographical Detector Model for Influencing Factors of Industrial Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying the influencing factors of carbon dioxide emissions is not only practically but also theoretically crucial for establishing regional carbon-reduction policies, developing low-carbon economy and solving the climate problems. Therefore, we used a geographical detector model which is consists of four parts, i.e., risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector and interaction detector to analyze the effect of these social economic factors, i.e., GDP, industrial structure, urbanization rate, economic growth rate, population and road density on the increase of energy consumption carbon dioxide emissions in industrial sector in Inner Mongolia northeast of China. Thus, combining with the result of four detectors, we found that GDP and population more influence than economic growth rate, industrial structure, urbanization rate and road density. The interactive effect of any two influencing factors enhances the increase of the carbon dioxide emissions. The findings of this research have significant policy implications for regions like Inner Mongolia.

  9. Scenarios for the evolution of the Spanish electricity sector: Is it on the right path towards sustainability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, P.; Santos, F.J.; Perez-Arriaga, I.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Spanish energy and electricity models are clearly unsustainable: the large increase in electricity demand, a huge dependency on energy imports, and significant environmental impacts are clear reasons for concern. In this paper we take a look at the possible evolution of the Spanish electricity sector under different policy scenarios, and try to identify which are the policies that may help to achieve the desired goal, as well as the role that the different technologies may play. Results are quite optimistic in that, under the appropriate policy measures, carbon emissions of the electricity sector may be reduced in 2020 up to 37% compared to 1990, and energy imports may be also much reduced, at reasonable costs. However, this may only be achieved by strongly pursuing energy efficiency improvements and other energy conservation measures, which should then become a must for all energy plans in Spain, together with renewable energy promotion and stronger carbon reduction policies

  10. Proceedings of the 11. annual mining industry learning seminar : 2006 equipment evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, T. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering] (comp.)

    2006-07-01

    This seminar provided a forum for mine engineers, geologists, operators, vendors and academics to discuss various topics on equipment evolution that address mining industry concerns. Participants included those who are involved in mine planning, equipment selection, operations and maintenance. The presentations identified possible solutions to ongoing issues and alternative technologies emerging in the mining industry. Operators and original equipment manufacturers shared their innovations in novel developments and presented solutions to issues relevant to mining processes including truck and shovel technology issues such as tires, lube and fuel emissions. The seminar featured 17 presentations, of which 5 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  11. A STUDY OF IRON AND STEEL SECTOR IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Chand, Sumit

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT The iron and steel manufacturing sector is one of the largest sectors in the world in terms of financial volume of trade, employment potential, development of ancillary and allied industries and geographical spread. Added to this is the fact that iron and steel is used as an input in almost all the industrial and manufacturing sectors and goods produced by them. As a result this sector attracts the maximum attention of almost all the countries of the world, whether being one of t...

  12. Engaging in Productive Sector Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Buur, Lars

    Through a comparison of sector cases in Mozambique and Ghana, the paper analyzes why and how African states engage in developing productive sectors and with what success. It argues that successful state interventions depend on four factors: (1) sustained political support by the government...... in the four factors and thus different economic outcomes. Specifically, cocoa, export is a case of sustained political support, palm oil is a case of poorly implemented industrial policy, and horticulture export is a case of political neglect of an industry. In concluding, the paper emphasizes the political...

  13. Engaging in productive sector development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Whitfield, Lindsay

    Through a comparison of sector cases in Mozambique and Ghana, the paper analyzes why and how African states engage in developing productive sectors and with what success. It argues that successful state interventions depend on four factors: (1) sustained political support by the government...... in the four factors and thus different economic outcomes. Specifically, cocoa, export is a case of sustained political support, palm oil is a case of poorly implemented industrial policy, and horticulture export is a case of political neglect of an industry. In concluding, the paper emphasizes the political...

  14. INTEGRATION OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY AND RELATED SECTORS BASED ON THE CLUSTER APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bautin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a diversified agro-industrial complex structure of the Voronezh region there are more than 200 enterprises of food and processing industry. However, due to the growth disparity in prices for agricultural and industrial products, the collapse of a single process has been a sharp decline in the production of final products of agribusiness. In the conditions of Russia's accession to the WTO and the growth in this regard competition in the market of raw materials and finished products, problems of high relevance of search for effective strategies for the development of the food industry. The emphasis of these reforms should be a priori biased towards the crea tion of favorable conditions for the formation of optimal institutional innovation structures and prospects of development of the national agro-food system at all levels. In this regard, the formation of institutional models of integration in the agricultural sector, we regard the system approach, where the newly created integrated structure is defined as a social institution, characterized by composition, structure, objectives, functions, internal and external bounding box defined inputs and outputs. Under these conditions, there is a need to develop partnerships and coo peration between enterprises of the technological chain of the final product agribusiness, finds its expression in a variety of forms, one of which is the formation of clusters, creating the conditions for effective interaction of producers of raw materials and finished products, research and educational institutions, service infrastructure of organizations and representatives of other areas to ensure. However, the analysis showed that, across a variety of alternative strategies for the development of the food industry, the most optimal in today's economic conditions appear to integration strategies that involve the union of disparate market participants on the principles of economic integr ation, which results in a synergy

  15. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  16. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  17. Evolutionist approach of upstream activities competitiveness of the petroleum industry in a long term perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the concept of competitiveness of companies and nations in the upstream sector of the international oil industry, trying to identify the possibilities of future development of this sector as well as the interactions that may exist between different actors such as governments, consumers and oil companies to boost or re-launch the competitive position of their enterprises and countries in the international context of the industry. In order to attain that, we analyze the developments of the most important economic attributes that characterize the oil activity as well as its most crucial political aspects. We develop a model of 'oil competition' and a definition of 'oil competitiveness' that take clearly into consideration both the differences between various oil actors and the dynamic aspects linked to the evolution of the oil industry. We do so by constructing an evolutionist model of competition and competitiveness. This approach emulates a 'biological process' where firms and the economic environment interact with each other within a process similar to 'natural selection' with the survival of the fittest. This evolutionist model adopts some analytical instruments established by Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, to interpret the changes and the dissimilarities of behavior of various oil actors as well as to explain their respective role in the new oil world that is being organized. Thus, we introduce the notions of 'dominant form of competition' and 'generic strategy of enterprises'. Then, we use our methodology to analyze the past of the oil industry (the stability and the instability). We conclude this work by discussing about the future evolution of the oil activities in the context of a new long term cycle of investment for the sector. (author)

  18. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  19. Decoupling of industrial energy consumption and CO2-emissions in energy-intensive industries in Scandinavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enevoldsen, Martin K.; Ryelund, Anders V.; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2007-01-01

    As methodology the ex-post analysis deserves more attention as a device to calibrate energy sector models. This paper studies the impact of energy prices and taxes on energy efficiency and carbon emissions of ten industrial sectors in the three Scandinavian countries. A database with sector-specific energy prices and taxes has been established, which allows the analysis to take various price reductions and tax exemptions better into account. A translog factor demand system estimation for a cross industry pooled model is explored and fixed effects across industries and time is estimated. The findings here confirm recent analyses which indicate higher long-term elasticities for industries than normally assumed in Scandinavian energy-sector models. With the observations on differences in energy-intensities among sectors and countries the findings allow for some optimism as to the opportunities for further decoupling between trends in gross value added, carbon emissions and energy consumption

  20. Environmental pollution as engine of industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoci, Angelo; Galeotti, Marcello; Sordi, Serena

    2018-05-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of a small open economy with two sectors (a farming sector and an industrial one), heterogeneous agents (workers and entrepreneurs) and free inter-sectoral labor mobility. Labor productivity in the first sector is negatively affected by environmental pollution generated by both sectors, whereas in the second sector it is positively affected by physical capital accumulated by entrepreneurs. Through a global analysis of the non-linear three-dimensional dynamic system of the model we derive conditions under which industrialization generates a decline in workers' revenues in both sectors.

  1. ROMANIAN INDUSTRIAL ENGINES IN THE CONDITIONS IMPOSED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDA GABRIEL

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of the number and structure of employees by main branches of the economy, with few exceptions, is atypical in terms of paths up the economy of a modern, competitive, able to sustain employment and income security of employment. Private sector development in Romania, especially in the services market (trade, catering, services rendered, tourism and release staff in the industry as a result of its restructuring will however during the employment growth in services. In developed countries, the service sector, which includes tourism, knows the high level of employment of staff, the tourist industry is the strongest absorber of community labor. Regarding the competitiveness of Romanian tourism, according to the World Economic Forum in 2011, Romania ranked 63 in the world (in 139 countries and 34th in Europe (42 countries, with an index of competitiveness in travel and tourism 4.17 (compared to 5.99 Swiss value, which is the first place .

  2. Evolution of energy consumption in Japan after Fukushima. 2010-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This note presents and comments the evolution of the energy system in Japan between 2010 and 2012 in order to analyse the consequences of the sudden decrease of nuclear electricity production due to the Fukushima accident. In fact, the evolution since 1990 is studied. The evolution of general economic figures (population, GDP, GDP per inhabitant) is firstly overviewed, and then the evolution of final energy consumption (as a whole and per inhabitant, and per sector), the evolution of final electricity consumption (as a whole, per sector), the evolution of electricity production (as a whole, per sector, per source of energy), the evolution of primary energy consumption (as a whole, per inhabitant, per source of energy). The development of renewable energies is briefly discussed. Then several indicators and impacts are highlighted and discussed: primary and final energy intensity, emissions of carbon dioxide (as a whole, by the energy sector), and costs and prices of imported energies

  3. Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramalingam, Ayyappan; Dasu, Venkatesan; Stephen, Jeremiah Chinnadurai; Sivaperumal, Mohan Raj; Kumarasamy, Deepan; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Santu; Sambandam, Sankar

    2010-11-29

    Linkages between thermal loads and its physiological consequences have been widely studied in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries like India, despite the widespread recognition of the problem, limited attempts have been made to estimate health impacts related to occupational heat stress and fewer yet to link heat stress with potential productivity losses. This is reflected in the ubiquity of workplaces with limited or no controls to reduce exposures. As a prelude to understanding the feasibility of alternative interventions in different industrial sectors, we present case studies from 10 different industrial units in Tamil Nadu, Chennai, which describe perceptions of occupational heat stress among the workers and supervisors/management.Units were selected from among those who had previously requested an assessment of workplace heat stress exposure at select locations as part of routine industrial hygiene services provided by the investigators. Since the earlier measurements were performed in response to a management request, all units were revisited to generate a simple job and process profile using checklists in order to understand the overall heat exposure situation in the concerned unit. This was followed by a simple questionnaire administration to a small subsample of employees to evaluate the perceptions of workers and supervisors/management. Finally, we retrieved available quantitative data from previous measurements of heat stress at these units to correlate prevalence of exposures with respective perceptions.Results indicate that the existing level of controls may not be sufficient for managing work-related heat stress in any of the sectors studied, with wide variations in perceived risks. There was a noticeable disconnect between worker's perceptions and their ability to secure workplace improvements related to heat stress from the management. Wider availability of engineering and administrative controls in the industries

  4. Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Balakrishnan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Linkages between thermal loads and its physiological consequences have been widely studied in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries like India, despite the widespread recognition of the problem, limited attempts have been made to estimate health impacts related to occupational heat stress and fewer yet to link heat stress with potential productivity losses. This is reflected in the ubiquity of workplaces with limited or no controls to reduce exposures. As a prelude to understanding the feasibility of alternative interventions in different industrial sectors, we present case studies from 10 different industrial units in Tamil Nadu, Chennai, which describe perceptions of occupational heat stress among the workers and supervisors/management.Units were selected from among those who had previously requested an assessment of workplace heat stress exposure at select locations as part of routine industrial hygiene services provided by the investigators. Since the earlier measurements were performed in response to a management request, all units were revisited to generate a simple job and process profile using checklists in order to understand the overall heat exposure situation in the concerned unit. This was followed by a simple questionnaire administration to a small subsample of employees to evaluate the perceptions of workers and supervisors/management. Finally, we retrieved available quantitative data from previous measurements of heat stress at these units to correlate prevalence of exposures with respective perceptions.Results indicate that the existing level of controls may not be sufficient for managing work-related heat stress in any of the sectors studied, with wide variations in perceived risks. There was a noticeable disconnect between worker's perceptions and their ability to secure workplace improvements related to heat stress from the management. Wider availability of engineering and administrative

  5. Status of the methanization sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    This report aims at describing the status of methanization installations, either operating or under construction, on the French national territory, all sectors included (industry, agriculture, sewage treatment, municipal wastes). In a first part, the authors propose a definition of methanization, a presentation of the various implementation techniques, a presentation of the different sectors using methanization (industry, agriculture and breeding, sewage treatment plants, household wastes), and a presentation of a survey. Then, they comment and discuss more precisely the different sectors, their history, their geographical distribution in France, their technologies, their effluents, their production, their economic data, their perspectives

  6. Sectoral Approaches to Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper explores sectoral approaches as a new set of options to enhance the effectiveness of greenhouse gas reduction policies and to engage emerging economies on a lower emission path. It surveys existing literature and recent policy trends in international climate change discussions, and provides an overview of sectoral approaches and related issues for trade-exposed, greenhouse-gas intensive industries (cement, iron and steel and aluminium). It is also based on interviews conducted by the IEA Secretariat in Australia, China, Europe, Japan, and the United States. Sectoral approaches were also discussed during workshops on technology and energy efficiency policies in industry, following the IEA's mandate under the Gleneagles Plan of Action.

  7. Análisis de la programación de la producción en el sector cerámico español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallada, E.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish tile industry is the European leader in terms of production quota and employs high production automated systems. However, this industry has not yet included necessary production scheduling flexible systems, taking into account demand evolution and competitors countries. In this work we analyze the results of a survey applied to industries in this field allowing us to characterize their operating systems and production scheduling problems. This is a basic analysis and prior to the development of suitable optimization methods that will permit higher competitiveness in the international sector.

    El sector azulejero español ocupa el primer lugar en Europa por cuota de producción y utiliza unos procesos productivos altamente automatizados. Sin embargo, no ha incorporado todavía en su estrategia sistemas flexibles de programación de la producción, que tan necesarios son teniendo en cuenta la evolución de la demanda y los países competidores. En este trabajo analizamos los resultados de una encuesta a empresas del sector que nos permite caracterizar su sistema de operaciones y los problemas de programación de la producción. Este análisis es básico y previo a desarrollar métodos de optimización adecuados que permitan incrementar la competitividad del sector a nivel internacional.

  8. Economic Multipliers and Sectoral Linkages: Ghana and the New Oil Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Nchor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to assess the structure of the economy of Ghana in terms of changes in the economic structure before and after the production of oil in commercial quantities. This is viewed with regards to economic multipliers, sectoral interdependence and trade concentration. The results show that changes occurred with regards to multipliers and sectoral interdependence. The output multipliers of most sectors have declined. The results also show that the agricultural sector experienced an initial decline in its growth while industry experienced an increase. The performance of the services sector was relatively stable for the period covered by the study. There is a decline in the level of trade concentration though on a whole the concentration index is still high. The study employed input-output modeling techniques and the data was obtained from the Ghana statistical service and the World Development Indicators.

  9. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  10. French parapetroleum industry: results of 1992 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, E.; Trouve, O.

    1992-01-01

    The petroleum prospection and production industries have developed a parapetroleum sector that is considerable in size and has been going through profound changes over the past few years. Under the impetus of acquisitions and mergers, the supply has become heavily concentrated, and now reorganized around a growing demand for integrated services. Petroleum companies tend to farm out a growing portion of their business, and this sharing out of competence and sometimes of responsibilities is breeding new types of partnership arrangements between the petroleum and parapetroleum business. This paper gives the results of an survey led in 1991 on petroleum international economy and gives statistical informations on french parapetroleum industry (exploration-production investments, exploratory wells drilled, drilling equipment in action, offshore operations, turnover evolution, shortage of manpower). 14 figs., 5 tabs

  11. “Crossing over”: appropriate private sector principles, to operate more reliable public sector water services

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Wall

    2008-01-01

    Private sector institutions utilise many different business methods, some of which can selectively be adapted for use by organisations outside the private sector, to the benefit of their service delivery responsibilities. But the best of the appropriate practices from the private sector have often “not crossed over”. The Water Research Commission (WRC) of South Africa, working in collaboration with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), finds that the concept of franch...

  12. The energy sector abroad. Part 5. Norwegian energy sector large exporter of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Some facts about the Norwegian natural gas and oil industry are presented. In 1995 the industries took 12.5% of GNP and no less than 47.6% of export revenues. The use of natural gas in Norway is low. In 1996 Norway exported 37.9 billion m 3 of natural gas. It is planned to double that volume within the next 10 years. Therefore, a strategic alliance between two major foreign competitors (Gasunie in the Netherlands and Gazprom in the Russian Federation) was not met with enthusiasm. The three most important companies in the Norwegian oil and gas industry are Statoil, Norsk Hydro, and Saga Petroleum. Overall turnover of the sector in 1994 was 40.6 billion Dutch guilders. Some 17,500 people are directly employed by the sector. 5 ills., 5 tabs

  13. Evolution of paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of the concepts and methods used for describing neutronics through the last thirty years is reviewed, with the important role attributed to computer technology and the capacity to perform more precise calculations and models; the various codes such as HETAIRE and APOLLO, used for the Boltzmann equation, are discussed, together with the calculation methods and theories that gain interest or those which were more or less discarded depending on the modelling capacities and nuclear industry choices. The role of experimentations is still essential for neutronics, in order to supply data when theory or data are limited or to validate models and codes. Trends are with structured and modular codes integrating all the know-how of a domain and with increased cooperation with other sectors such as thermohydraulics, thermomechanics, etc

  14. Waste management. Sector 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The waste management section of this report deals with two sectors: land disposal of solid waste and wastewater treatment. It provides background information on the type of emissions that contribute to the greenhouse gases from these two sectors, presents both sector current status in Lebanon, describes the methodology followed to estimate the corresponding emissions, and presents the results obtained regarding greenhouse emissions. The total methane emissions from solid waste disposal on land are 42.804 Gg approximately. There are no emissions from wastewater and industrial handling systems because, for the target year 1994, there was no treatment facilities in Lebanon. The wastewater (municipal, commercial and industrial) was directly discharged into the sea, rivers, ravines or septic tanks which indicate that methane or nitrous oxide emissions are significant if not nonexistent. Note that this situation will change in the future as treatment plants are being constructed around the country and are expected to come into operation by the year 2000

  15. The use of long term agreements to improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector: Overview of the European experiences and proposal for a common framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, P.

    1999-01-01

    In the European Union efficiency improvements in the industrial sector are regarded as a key element of Member States' strategies to meet their Kyoto target. Besides the traditional policy instruments, such as fiscal and financial aids, minimum efficiency standards, R and D and technology programs, there is an increasing interest by both public authorities and industry for voluntary approaches to improve industrial energy efficiency. In the European context the term voluntary approach is often used to describe a wide range of industry actions including, inter alia: industry covenants, negotiated agreements, long term agreements, self regulations, codes of conduct, benchmarking and monitoring schemes. These voluntary approaches differ in relation to their form, legal status, provisions and enforceability. The paper provides an up-to-date overview of the present status of the different voluntary approaches for the industrial sector in several Member States (the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, and the United Kingdom). The paper will focus on the particular type of voluntary approach implemented in the Netherlands and commonly called Long Term Agreements (LTA). The paper analyses the opportunities and advantages for creating a common EU framework for the conclusion and implementation of LTAs, based on the successful Dutch model. In doing so, the paper intends also to contribute to the approximation of the LTA's essential elements throughout the Community in order to reduce possible distortions of the internal market and of the competitive position of national industries, thus enlarging the acceptability of this instrument by public authorities and industry. For some industrial sectors, which are quite homogeneous throughout the Community and represent a limited number of companies, the paper analyses the advantages of having European LTAs and recommends their implementation. The paper presents the achievable results at EU level in terms of

  16. Analysis of the importance of structural change in non-energy intensive industry for prospective modelling: The French case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seck, Gondia Sokhna; Guerassimoff, Gilles; Maïzi, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    A large number of studies have been conducted on the contribution of technological progress and structural change to the evolution of aggregate energy intensity in the industrial sector. However, no analyses have been done to examine theses changes in the non-energy intensive industry in France. We analyzed their importance in French industry with respect to their energy intensity, energy costs, value added, labour and the diffusion of production sites by using data at the 3-digit level with 236 sectors. Using a new decomposition method that gives no residual, this paper attempted to examine, over 10 years from 1996 to 2005, the changes that occurred in an area that has been neglected in energy analysis. We found that structural change had an overwhelming effect on the decline of aggregate energy intensity. Furthermore, we found that the higher the level of sector disaggregation, the more significant the changes that can be attributed to structural change, due to the homogeneity of this industrial group. The results of our study show that it is important to take into account the effects of structural change in “bottom-up” modelling exercises so as to improve the accuracy of energy demand forecasting for policy-makers and scientists. - Highlights: • Defining NEI industries with a quantitative approach from relevant indicators in France. • Developing new decomposition method given in additive form with no residual in NEI. • Structural change is the overwhelming factor in improving energy performance within NEI. • Revealed consistent trend with level of sector disaggregation if homogeneous industries.

  17. A NEW CHALLENGE FOR THE ROMANIAN COAL INDUSTRY: ELIMINATION OF THE STATE AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruian Claudiu-Marian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Commission decision N 239/2007 the Romanian coal industry will receive state aid by the end of 2010. After this period public companies in this sector will finance the costs of current production and investment entirely by their revenue. This article presents a short literature review regarding the subsidization of coal industry, shows the evolution of the mining industry in Romania so far, and identifies opportunities for continuing coal production after December 31, 2010 without state aid. The paper concludes that the abolition of subsides in is a positive measure but it must be taken gradually and responsibly, in order to ameliorate the negative effects on social end natural environment.

  18. Impact of private sector credit on the real sector of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Mamman, Ph.D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The real sector is a strategic component of an economy because it produces and distributes tangible goods and services required to satisfy aggregate demand in the economy. For this reason, there is the need for adequate credit flow from the banking industry to the real sector, which in the Nigerian case, the credit flow has been grossly inadequate. This study is carried out to examine the impact of credit to private sector (CPS on the real sector of Nigeria with a view to assess the significant contribution of CPS to real sector growth in Nigeria. The study used aggregate time series data from 1986 to 2010, which was drawn from central bank of Nigeria (CBN statistical bulletin and CBN annual report and statement of accounts. The data was analysed using multiple regression and based on the coefficient of determination (R square, the study reveals a 96.1% variation between the CPS and real sector growth in Nigeria. The study cocludes that there is a statistically significant impact of credit to private sector on the real sector of Nigeria. This, suggest that the performance of the real sector is greatly influence by credit to private sector. The study recommends that the federal government of Nigeria through the central bank of Nigeria (CBN should enhance the financing of the real sector as well as improve credit flow to the sector because of its strategic importance in creating and generating growth of the economy.

  19. 2008 Industrial Technologies Market Report, May 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energetics; DOE

    2009-07-01

    The industrial sector is a critical component of the U.S. economy, providing an array of consumer, transportation, and national defense-related goods we rely on every day. Unlike many other economic sectors, however, the industrial sector must compete globally for raw materials, production, and sales. Though our homes, stores, hospitals, and vehicles are located within our borders, elements of our goods-producing industries could potentially be moved offshore. Keeping U.S. industry competitive is essential to maintaining and growing the U.S. economy. This report begins with an overview of trends in industrial sector energy use. The next section of the report focuses on some of the largest and most energy-intensive industrial subsectors. The report also highlights several emerging technologies that could transform key segments of industry. Finally, the report presents policies, incentives, and drivers that can influence the competitiveness of U.S. industrial firms.

  20. Carbon and Energy Saving Financial Opportunities in the Industrial Compressed Air Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittorini, Diego; Cipollone, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    The transition towards a more sustainable energy scenario calls for both medium-to-long and short term interventions, with CO2 reduction and fossil fuel saving as main goals for all the Countries in the World. Among all others, one way to support these efforts is the setting-up of immaterial markets able to regulate, in the form of purchase and sales quotas, CO2 emissions avoided and fossil fuels not consumed. As a consequence, the upgrade of those sectors, characterized by high energy impact, is currently more than an option due to the related achievable financial advantage on the afore mentioned markets. Being responsible for about 10% electricity consumption in Industry, the compressed air sector is currently addressed as extremely appealing, when CO2 emissions and burned fossil fuels saving are in question. In the paper, once a standard is defined for compressors performances, based on data from the Compressed Air and Gas Institute and PNEUROP, the achievable energy saving is evaluated along with the effect in terms of CO2 emissions: with reference to those contexts in which mature intangible markets are established, an estimation of the financial benefit from savings sale on correspondent markets is possible, in terms of both avoided CO2 and fossil fuels not burned. The approach adopted allows to extend the analysis results to every context of interest, by applying the appropriate emission factor to the datum on compressor specific consumption.

  1. Tourism Impact in Romania Pre and Post Crisis- Evolution, Analyses and Previsions

    OpenAIRE

    Bulin Daniel; Stanciulescu Gabriela; Gheorghe Georgicã

    2012-01-01

    Tourism industry is the strongest economy in the world. Romania is based on a high tourism potential. The economic crisis has also affected tourism, but the sector's characteristics made possible adjustments in order to maintain a satisfactory level of indicators. This paper aims to analyze the evolution of tourism's impact on the Romanian economy and a series of indicators of tourism traffic in the context of global economic crisis. The paper is structured as follows: an introductory, analys...

  2. PENSION FUNDS EVOLUTION, REFORMS AND TRENDS IN SOUTHAFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthabiseng Moleko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a graphical and descriptive analysis of the historical trends ofthe South African pension fund sector in order to provide insights andunderstanding ofnon-banking finance. Using a combination of secondary data anda desk review of existing literature, we provide in-depth analysis of the differenttypes and number of pension funds, industry trends, policy reforms and legislativeframeworks enacted by theSouth African government for the development of thesector. The study identified the evolution of the pension fund industry to be in fourphases coinciding with different waves of industry policy reforms, namely: theinfancy phase (1911-1958; institutionalisation phase (1959-1984; separation andcontinued separation phase (1985-1994; and corporatisation and amalgamation(1995-2015 The industry growth analysis indicated that a compounded annualgrowth rate of 14 percent is the highest annual growth overthe past decade and thisgrowth exceeds the global market average of 6.5 percent over the same period. Theindustry trend analysis is indicative of an upward trend in terms of funds’membership with the trendline showing a steep rise to over 15 million membersfrom under 10 million memberships with the space of a decade. However, thenumber of pension funds operating in the industry has declined due to a steadymove towards umbrella funds. Although the South African pension fund industry isnot only movingin the right direction but also considered a beacon of successaround the world, there remains huge potential for growth of the sector. Therefore,maintaining sound regulatory policies and government interventions will continueto ensure that pension fundsare well managed and bad practices discouraged in thesector through the oversight functions of government regulatory institutions such asthe Pension Fund Registrar and Financial Services Board.

  3. Rethinking health sector procurement as developmental linkages in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Maureen; Tibandebage, Paula; Karimi Njeru, Mercy; Kariuki Kungu, Joan; Israel, Caroline; Mujinja, Phares G M

    2018-03-01

    Health care forms a large economic sector in all countries, and procurement of medicines and other essential commodities necessarily creates economic linkages between a country's health sector and local and international industrial development. These procurement processes may be positive or negative in their effects on populations' access to appropriate treatment and on local industrial development, yet procurement in low and middle income countries (LMICs) remains under-studied: generally analysed, when addressed at all, as a public sector technical and organisational challenge rather than a social and economic element of health system governance shaping its links to the wider economy. This article uses fieldwork in Tanzania and Kenya in 2012-15 to analyse procurement of essential medicines and supplies as a governance process for the health system and its industrial links, drawing on aspects of global value chain theory. We describe procurement work processes as experienced by front line staff in public, faith-based and private sectors, linking these experiences to wholesale funding sources and purchasing practices, and examining their implications for medicines access and for local industrial development within these East African countries. We show that in a context of poor access to reliable medicines, extensive reliance on private medicines purchase, and increasing globalisation of procurement systems, domestic linkages between health and industrial sectors have been weakened, especially in Tanzania. We argue in consequence for a more developmental perspective on health sector procurement design, including closer policy attention to strengthening vertical and horizontal relational working within local health-industry value chains, in the interests of both wider access to treatment and improved industrial development in Africa. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Oregon's forest products industry: 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin R. Ward

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in Oregon for 1994. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed,...

  5. Managerial Accounting as a Conceptual Basis of Integrated Management System in Small Businesses (Kazakhstan's Agro-Industrial Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandugash M. Tokenova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article consideres the modern scientific approaches to the integration of management systems, interpretation of the concepts of managerial accounting and understanding of management and accounting in small businesses. The article presents the main results of the analysis of Kazakhstan's agro-industrial sector problems, ways of their solution, based on international experience and the characteristics of Kazakhstan's small business entity. There is presented the authors' vision of ways to enhance the competitiveness of small farms.

  6. The Evolution of a Creative Industry : The industrial dynamics and spatial evolution of the global fashion design industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenting, R.

    2008-01-01

    The recent growth of creative industries has raised the interest of both policy makers and academic scholars. However, we know very little about the forces that drive the development and geography of these industries. This dissertation provides an in-depth study of the industrial dynamics and

  7. Analysis of the evolution of sustainable development in biofuels industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rosa Loayza Rollano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of sustainable development in the biofuel production sector. The Energy Indicators Tool for Sustainable Development (EISD and the Sustainability Indicators Tool Global Association for Bioenergy (GBEP were applied. Performing a comparison of indicators in each performance (economic, social and environmental, it was found that the production of biofuels in Brazil is positive in most of them. Biofuels showed a favorable trend in economic indicators, not only in terms of cost, but also through the use of energy available to the consumer market. Environmental indicators showed an improvement in the efficient use of land, water and energy resources, while pesticide applications are relatively low in relation to the limits. In addition, it appears that the biofuels industries have contributed positively to rural economies, since the social indicators showed a relatively significant and positive increase in labor supply and salary level of the labor market in this sector. Also appears that existing tools are complementary and the results provide a basis for future discussions and the development of sustainability assessments in systems and bioenergy-related projects.

  8. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The

  9. Industry Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Angie Ngoc; Jeppesen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    This chapter draws on a study investigating what corporate social responsibility (CSR) means to Vietnam’s small- and medium-size enterprise (SME) owner/managers and workers, using Scott’s three-pillar (norms, regulation, cognition) institutional framework. The findings are based on factory visits...... and interviews with 40 managers/owners and 218 workers conducted in two sectors—textile/garment/footwear (TGF) and food/beverage processing (FBP)—around Ho Chi Minh City in 2011. Scott’s framework is useful in highlighting similarities and differences between these two sectors. We found more stringent state...... regulation and greater industry pressure with regard to quality and safety of products than to labour standards in both sectors. Most factories in the TGF sector assembled products for global supply chains and were under pressure by industry norms, while most companies in the FBP sector produced...

  10. Analysis of linkage effects among industry sectors in China's stock market before and after the financial crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Li, Xiangyang; Zhang, Tong

    2014-10-01

    This paper uses two physics-derived techniques, the minimum spanning tree and the hierarchical tree, to investigate the networks formed by CITIC (China International Trust and Investment Corporation) industry indices in three periods from 2006 to 2013. The study demonstrates that obvious industry clustering effects exist in the networks, and Durable Consumer Goods, Industrial Products, Information Technology, Frequently Consumption and Financial Industry are the core nodes in the networks. We also use the rolling window technique to investigate the dynamic evolution of the networks' stability, by calculating the mean correlations and mean distances, as well as the variance of correlations and the distances of these indices. China's stock market is still immature and subject to administrative interventions. Therefore, through this analysis, regulators can focus on monitoring the core nodes to ensure the overall stability of the entire market, while investors can enhance their portfolio allocations or investment decision-making.

  11. Effects of energy policy on industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carling, A; Dargay, J; Oettinger, C; Sohlman, A

    1978-06-01

    This report contains results from a number of studies of energy consumption in Swedish manufacturing industries and of the sensitivity of different industrial sectors to energy taxation and other kinds of energy policy measures. These studies have been concentrated to three energy-intensive sectors, namely the pulp and paper industry; mining and metal production (especially iron mines and the steel industry); and the brick, cement, and lime industry.

  12. Private sector participation in the petroleum industry of Trinidad ampersand Tabago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boopsingh, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    The limitations of size, domestic capital markets and the relative youth of the country, has seen shifts in the importance attributed to the private sector in energy over the past three (3) decades. The need for foreign capital and expertise has never been considered unimportant, but the corresponding need for deepening and widening the involvement of nationals in all aspects of energy sector developments has tended to make Trinidad and Tobago seek, where practicable, the joint venture as a preferred mode of operation. The need for efficient competition, not always easy to achieve in a mini-state, has led to a plural and diverse mix of arrangements, with state sector energy entities not always co-ordinated in the most efficient manner and with the local private sector in energy operating as small and mostly silent participants. The size of the country, particularly against that of international energy, thus dictates that wide domestic ownership in the energy sector in still some way off. However, the immediate benefits of new foreign capital and technology, new management expertise, more competition and greater efficiency of operations, have provided enough impetus to ensure that the role of the private sector in the energy sector in Trinidad and Tobago will continue to be enhanced to the benefit of the country, as it seeks to prepare itself for the 21st century

  13. Bioresource Sector of the Russian Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Evgenyevna Antonova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the development of the Far Eastern bioresource sector in 2006–2015 and its components: fishing industry, forestry and agriculture. It is shown that renewable bioresources, which form the foundation of the bioresource sector, are now becoming the limiting factor of that sector’s further extensive development which necessitates a transition to new ways and technologies of extracting and processing resources. The article attempts to identify and estimate the bioresource sector’s contribution to the economy of the Far Eastern Federal District (FEFD as a statistical unit through aggregating main macroeconomic indicators (gross added value, monetary value of exports, investments, number of employed, and tax revenue of its three components. The conclusion is that during the studied period the bioresource sector’s contribution to the economy of the FEFD has decreased mainly due to the factors of tax revenues and gross added value. The sector’s importance as source of employment in remote areas had also declined. At the same time the bioresource sector continues to significantly contribute to exports, mainly thanks to the fishing industry and agriculture. It is shown that the dominant role in the bioresource sector belongs to the fishing industry which increased its contribution to the bioresource sector and showed the most stable development compared to other components. The article studies changes in institutional conditions in all three components, their influence on the development of investments of the bioresource sector

  14. Disclosure of immobilized assets on companies sector industrial goods of BM&FBovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Viviani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the process of disclosure of Industrials companies listed on the BM&FBovespa, after the convergence of Brazilian accounting to IFRS, in accordance with CPC 27 - Fixed Assets . Was carried a descriptive study, conducted through content analysis and quantitative approach using the calculation of entropy proposed by Zeleny (1982. The sample consists of 34 companies in the Industrial Goods sector listed on the BM&FBovespa. The results revealed that the disclosure of items of fixed assets is not performed homogeneously by companies. Some requirements required by CPC 27 were reported incompletely or are absent. A detailed analysis of the items investigated stressed that disclosure to class of fixed assets, was the best performed, followed by depreciation policies adopted by companies, it was observed that most companies show so complete this information. The information highlighted regarding the reconciliation of the carrying amount, had higher entropy, hence there is greater heterogeneity in this items reported. The disclosure of other information about the property, deemed necessary by CPC27, were less prominent by the companies, not apply in some cases or for being absent in the notes. In general, we concluded that the analyzed companies have been responding only partially to the disclosure requirements of CPC 27. However, the basic and more important information to the external user, concerning the class of assets and depreciation rates are being shown.

  15. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  16. When do ruling elites support productive sectors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    that the ruling elite initially supported the fishing industry because of industry pressure. They have failed to enforce fisheries management because there are big political costs associated with such enforcement. The dairy sector in the southwestern milk region was initially supported because the ruling elite......This paper explains the differences in ruling elite support for the fisheries and dairy sectors in Uganda. Although production in Uganda has not generally been promoted in any sustained way, ruling elites have to varying degrees supported the dairy and fisheries sectors. The paper shows...... wanted to build a coalition of support in this region. Coming from the region himself, the president had a keen interest in dairy cattle. The sector was subsequently regulated because the biggest processor put pressure on the ruling elite to do so. Even when the ruling coalition is fragmented, promoting...

  17. Menemukan Strategi Pengembangan Kawasan Industri Melalui Analisis Sektor Unggulan Kota Binjai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessy Eresina Pinem

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing industry is a leading sector that has potentials for promoting rapid growth in a region. The growth that relies on the industrial sector is driven by the sales of production, employment, and other multiplier effects so that many districts or cities in North Sumatra are eager to developing this sector. The types of industry that can be developed are supposed to be appropriate to the industry potentials and local resources in order to boost an optimal growth in the region. In the spatial planning (RTRW of Binjai City 2011 - 2030, the North Binjai District designated as an industrial area. The type of industry which is planned to be developed is a high-tech industry. However, the problem is whether the type specified in the RTRW is suitable to the potentials of local resources? This paper aims to find out the suitable industry to be developed in compliance with the local potentials, especially in the North Binjai District. The analyses applied are LQ, shift share and SWOT to discover the potentials and advantages of the city in comparison to those industries endorsed in the RTRW. The results show that the industrial sector is neither the leading nor potential sector in Binjai. Meanwhile, the results of LQ and shift share analyses show that the sector with the potentials to be developed in Binjai is the construction sector, finance, and services. The similarity to the RTRW policy is only in the service sector. It shows that the service sector can be developed while the computer industry, multimedia, publishing, and printing mismatch the local potentials. However, if the government still wants to develop the industrial sector in North Binjai, there should be diversification strategies to promoting the leading sectors such as building materials and mining industries.

  18. "Low -Technology”: A Forgotten Sector in Innovation Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Hirsch-Kreinsen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the discussions on research and technology policy focuses mainly on the dynamic innovation of new technologies. Long term growth, competitive advantages on the world market and employment effects are primarily perceived in new high-tech products. According to this perspective the question as to the future of industrial sectors that produce mature and conventional standard products is not raised at all. Such industrial sectors are, following well-known OECD categories, regarded as "low-tech". However, there are a number of convincing examples of sectors and companies that have been successfully inno-vating low tech products in “high-tech countries” of the European Union.The paper focuses on low-tech companies analysing their innovative capabilities and developmental perspectives. The argumentation is based on results of a recently finished research project on the developmental perspectives of low-tech industries funded by the European Commission (project title: „Policy and Innovation in Low-tech Indus-tries in Europe – PILOT“.

  19. An Innovation Systems Assessment of the Australian Biofuel Industry. Policy and Private Sector Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Jason D.

    2006-07-01

    A strong biofuel industry in Australia has the potential to provide numerous benefits to the nation and its peoples. The benefits include; reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and harmful particulate matter, a boost to rural development goals, enhanced fuel security and a lower balance of payments. For biofuels to be seriously considered as alternatives to traditional petroleum based automotive fuels they must be economically viable. The findings from a series of Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) investigations suggest that ethanol and biodiesel production would be economically viable, in the Australian context, with oil prices in the range of 30-40 USD a barrel. Despite the price of oil being in or above this range for over two years a strong home grown biofuel industry has failed to develop in Australia. The purpose of this master's thesis therefore is to identify the critical issues facing biofuel industry development in Australian and to propose possible policy and private sector strategies for dealing with them. The analysis was done in the following three steps; the first was to map the development of the ethanol and biodiesel industries, the second was to analyse the performance of the industries overtime and the third was to identify the mechanisms which have either induced or blocked their growth. The strategies proposed by this thesis were derived from analysing the inducing and blocking mechanisms and the related issues. The innovation systems approach was chosen because of its ability to provide insights into key industry players, their network interactions and the institutional setup within which they work together to develop, diffuse and use their products. The data needed for the analysis stated above included information related to the development, diffusion and use of ethanol and biodiesel; that is, details about the industry actors and their activities, industry networks, product standards, excise arrangements

  20. An Innovation Systems Assessment of the Australian Biofuel Industry. Policy and Private Sector Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Jason D.

    2006-07-15

    A strong biofuel industry in Australia has the potential to provide numerous benefits to the nation and its peoples. The benefits include; reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and harmful particulate matter, a boost to rural development goals, enhanced fuel security and a lower balance of payments. For biofuels to be seriously considered as alternatives to traditional petroleum based automotive fuels they must be economically viable. The findings from a series of Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) investigations suggest that ethanol and biodiesel production would be economically viable, in the Australian context, with oil prices in the range of 30-40 USD a barrel. Despite the price of oil being in or above this range for over two years a strong home grown biofuel industry has failed to develop in Australia. The purpose of this master's thesis therefore is to identify the critical issues facing biofuel industry development in Australian and to propose possible policy and private sector strategies for dealing with them. The analysis was done in the following three steps; the first was to map the development of the ethanol and biodiesel industries, the second was to analyse the performance of the industries overtime and the third was to identify the mechanisms which have either induced or blocked their growth. The strategies proposed by this thesis were derived from analysing the inducing and blocking mechanisms and the related issues. The innovation systems approach was chosen because of its ability to provide insights into key industry players, their network interactions and the institutional setup within which they work together to develop, diffuse and use their products. The data needed for the analysis stated above included information related to the development, diffusion and use of ethanol and biodiesel; that is, details about the industry actors and their activities, industry networks, product standards, excise arrangements

  1. An Innovation Systems Assessment of the Australian Biofuel Industry. Policy and Private Sector Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Jason D

    2006-07-15

    A strong biofuel industry in Australia has the potential to provide numerous benefits to the nation and its peoples. The benefits include; reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and harmful particulate matter, a boost to rural development goals, enhanced fuel security and a lower balance of payments. For biofuels to be seriously considered as alternatives to traditional petroleum based automotive fuels they must be economically viable. The findings from a series of Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) investigations suggest that ethanol and biodiesel production would be economically viable, in the Australian context, with oil prices in the range of 30-40 USD a barrel. Despite the price of oil being in or above this range for over two years a strong home grown biofuel industry has failed to develop in Australia. The purpose of this master's thesis therefore is to identify the critical issues facing biofuel industry development in Australian and to propose possible policy and private sector strategies for dealing with them. The analysis was done in the following three steps; the first was to map the development of the ethanol and biodiesel industries, the second was to analyse the performance of the industries overtime and the third was to identify the mechanisms which have either induced or blocked their growth. The strategies proposed by this thesis were derived from analysing the inducing and blocking mechanisms and the related issues. The innovation systems approach was chosen because of its ability to provide insights into key industry players, their network interactions and the institutional setup within which they work together to develop, diffuse and use their products. The data needed for the analysis stated above included information related to the development, diffusion and use of ethanol and biodiesel; that is, details about the industry actors and their activities, industry networks, product standards, excise arrangements

  2. Sickness Absence in the Private Sector of Greece: Comparing Shipyard Industry and National Insurance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Jelastopulu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently ( < 5 days/year compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999–2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece were retrieved from the Institute’s annual statistical reports for the period 1987–2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (% were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8, and 2.14–2.72% (median 2.49%, respectively. Short sick-leave spells ( < 4 days may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991–1997 and an increase in 1998–2004 combined with a small yet significant decline as a

  3. Sectoral dynamics and technological convergence: an evolutionary analysis of eco-innovation in the automotive sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Lourenco; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2017-01-01

    We know from evolutionary theory that sectoral characteristics are important to innovation. This paper investigates if sectoral characteristics also are important to eco-innovation, a hitherto under-researched theme. We argue that research into possible sectoral patterns in eco-innovation is key...... 1965 to 2012, focusing on powertrain technologies. The empirical analysis is based on patent data amongst big car producers and focuses on identifying changes in two main aspects: (1) the convergence/divergence of firms’ green strategies and technologies within the automotive sector; and (2......) the contribution of alternative key green technological trajectories relative to the dominant design. Our findings indicate that the evolution of relative green patenting has followed a positive, linear growth over the last decades with increasing participation of alternative propulsion technologies and increasing...

  4. Best practices in incident investigation in the chemical process industries with examples from the industry sector and specifically from Nova Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will summarize best practices in incident investigation in the chemical process industries and will provide examples from both the industry sector and specifically from NOVA Chemicals. As a sponsor of the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), an industry technology alliance of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, NOVA Chemicals participates in a number of working groups to help develop best practices and tools for the chemical process and associated industries in order to advance chemical process safety. A recent project was to develop an update on guidelines for investigating chemical process incidents. A successful incident investigation management system must ensure that all incidents and near misses are reported, that root causes are identified, that recommendations from incident investigations identify appropriate preventive measures, and that these recommendations are resolved in a timely manner. The key elements of an effective management system for incident investigation will be described. Accepted definitions of such terms as near miss, incident, and root cause will be reviewed. An explanation of the types of incident classification systems in use, along with expected levels of follow-up, will be provided. There are several incident investigation methodologies in use today by members of the CCPS; most of these methodologies incorporate the use of several tools. These tools include: timelines, sequence diagrams, causal factor identification, brainstorming, checklists, pre-defined trees, and team-defined logic trees. Developing appropriate recommendations and then ensuring their resolution is the key to prevention of similar events from recurring, along with the sharing of lessons learned from incidents. There are several sources of information on previous incidents and lessons learned available to companies. In addition, many companies in the chemical process industries use their own internal databases to track recommendations from

  5. Tracking SMME research in South Africa’s priority sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Rogerson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The National Industrial Policy Framework and the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa emphasize the importance of promoting select ‘priority sectors’. This paper provides a review of existing research concerning SMME development in the three priority sectors of tourism, business process outsourcing and offshoring (BPO & O and, creative industries. The paper argues for the importance of undertaking sector-differentiated research on SMME development in South Africa in order to complement other research which is focussed on sector development as a whole.

  6. A multidimensional conspiracy around the software industry: arguments for intervention in high technology sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Wilian Araújo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the current debate about governmental intervention in high tech industries. On one hand, there are arguments against such interventions that consider the high tech industries as a capital intensive sector; instead of technological intensity, the capital intensity determines the value added. On the other hand, we could prove that there is at least one high tech industry, which is job intensive and non capital intensive, with high value added, that generates several positive externalities (the software industry. Such externalities are important arguments to support governmental intervention in high tech industries and cast doubts on the capital’s value added argument.Este artigo analisa o debate atual relacionado à intervenção estatal nas indústrias de alta intensidade tecnológica. Por um lado, existem argumentos contra tais intervenções que consideram essas indústrias setores também intensivos em capital. Ao contrário do que se pensa, para esta corrente, a intensidade de capital – e não a tecnológica – seria o fator determinante da adição de valor. Por ouro lado, foi possível provar, neste trabalho, que existe ao menos uma indústria de alta intensidade tecnológica, intensiva em trabalho e não em capital, com alto valor adicionado, que gera diversas externalidades positivas em âmbitos social e econômico: a indústria de software. Tais externalidades servem como importantes argumentos para justificar a intervenção estatal em setores de alta intensidade tecnológica e lança dúvidas sobre o argumento da exclusividade do capital como determinante de adição de valor.

  7. Accelerating technology transfer from federal laboratories to the private sector by industrial R and D collaborations - A new business model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LOMBANA,CESAR A.; ROMIG JR.,ALTON D.; LINTON,JONATHAN D.; MARTINEZ,J. LEONARD

    2000-04-13

    Many important products and technologies were developed in federal laboratories and were driven initially by national needs and for federal applications. For example, the clean room technology that enhanced the growth of the semiconductor industry was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) decades ago. Similarly, advances in micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS)--an important set of process technologies vital for product miniaturization--are occurring at SNL. Each of the more than 500 federal laboratories in the US, are sources of R and D that contributes to America's economic vitality, productivity growth and, technological innovation. However, only a fraction of the science and technology available at the federal laboratories is being utilized by industry. Also, federal laboratories have not been applying all the business development processes necessary to work effectively with industry in technology commercialization. This paper addresses important factors that federal laboratories, federal agencies, and industry must address to translate these under utilized technologies into profitable products in the industrial sector.

  8. Cross-sector Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz Jessen, Søren; Linnet, Andreas; Tscherning, Rasmus Wiinstedt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this handbook is to help improve your opportunities for getting started on innovative and business development projects that reach beyond your own sector, commonly known as ’Cross-sector innovation’, or ’Cross innovation’ for short. We believe that there is a need for an easily read...... innovation handbook that can reach out to all sectors and potential partners whose point of departure, language use and understanding of customers is often very different to that of businesses. These differences constitute a resource for business development. If exploited they can lead to new ways of doing...... things and help us breakaway from the lull of the modes of expression and methods ‘customarily’ employed in business development. The handbook focuses on the interaction of “traditional’ businesses and sectors that belong to those known as the creative and the experience industries, i.e. designers...

  9. Evolution of and projections for automated composite material placement equipment in the aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarville, Douglas A.

    2009-12-01

    As the commercial aircraft industry attempts to improve airplane fuel efficiency by shifting from aluminum to composites (reinforced plastics), there is a concern that composite processing equipment is not mature enough to meet increasing demand and that delivery delays and loss of high tech jobs could result. The research questions focused on the evolution of composite placement machines, improvement of machine functionality by equipment vendors, and the probability of new inventions helping to avoid production shortfalls. An extensive review of the literature found no studies that addressed these issues. Since the early twentieth century, exploratory case study of pivotal technological advances has been an accepted means of performing historic analysis and furthering understanding of rapidly changing marketplaces and industries. This qualitative case study investigated evolution of automated placement equipment by (a) codifying and mapping patent data (e.g., claims and functionality descriptions), (b) triangulating archival data (i.e., trade literature, vender Web sites, and scholarly texts), and (c) interviewing expert witnesses. An industry-level sensitivity model developed by the author showed that expanding the vendor base and increasing the number of performance enhancing inventions will most likely allow the industry to make the transition from aluminum to composites without schedule delays. This study will promote social change by (a) advancing individual and community knowledge (e.g., teaching modules for students, practitioners, and professional society members) and (b) providing an empirical model that will help in the understanding and projection of next generation composite processing equipment demand and productivity output.

  10. Potential and risks in the Romanian wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU1

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present descriptive paper presents some historical, geographical and institutional landmarks of the Romanian wine sector. It offers a brief analysis of the Romanian vineyard production evolution and of the national wine market conjuncture, taking into account the global context, which allows to outline Romania's place on the world wine map. Wine promotion on foreign markets must be done emphasizing indigenous varieties, that is why knowing them is essential. Highlighting the progress made by Romanian winemakers, the difficulties they face and the opportunities in the market allow us to draw conclusions which open horizons for extensive research in this industry.

  11. [Organization and technology in the catering sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinarelli, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The catering industry is a service characterized by a contract between customer and supplier. In institutional catering industry, the customer is represented by public administration; in private catering industry, the customer is represented by privates. The annual catering trades size is about 6.74 billions of euros, equally distributed between health sector (hospitals, nursing homes), school sector and business sector (ivorkplace food service), with the participation of nearly 1.200 firms and 70.000 workers. Major services include off-premises catering (food prepared away from the location where it's served) and on-premises catering (meals prepared and served at the same place). Several tools and machineries are used during both warehousing and food refrigerating operations, and during preparation, cooking, packaging and transport of meals. In this sector, injuries, rarely resulting serious or deadly, show a downward trend in the last years. On the contrary, the number of occupational diseases shows an upward trend. About the near future, the firms should become global outsourcer, able to provide other services as cleaning, transport and maintenance. In addition, they should invest in innovation: from tools and machineries technology to work organization; from factory lay-out to safely and health in the workplaces.

  12. Coal: the metamorphosis of an industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Marie Martin-Amouroux

    2008-07-01

    Coal, a fuel that once dominated the global energy scene, is staging a come-back despite being environmentally dirty. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the return of King Coal to find out whether it is likely to be regain its dominance in the global energy in the future. In analysing the metamorphosis of the coal industry, the paper looks at the historical evolution of the industry and analyses the factors behind the change. The deficiencies of coal's competitors are also analysed. Using a scenario analysis, the future role of coal in the global energy mix is estimated as well. The paper finds that despite the domination of hydrocarbons in the global energy mix, coal has maintained a steady share and in some countries, it remained the main fuel. With the concerns of high-oil prices and peak oil, coal is regaining its domination in the power sector around the world. The industry has reformed and restructured itself to remain competitive. Consequently, it has the possibility of staging a come back as a dominant fuel.

  13. Disrupting the Industry with Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2016-01-01

    or two ago. This is significantly disrupting the industry in several market sectors. This paper describes the components of the playware and embodied artificial intelligence research that has led to disruption in the industrial robotics sector, and which points to the next disruption of the health care...

  14. The Mauritius stock exchange: Sectoral analysis, risk and return ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Companies listed on the Mauritius Stock Exchange are classified into seven sectors of the economy, namely Banking & Insurance, Industry, Investments, Sugar, Commerce, Leisure & Hotels and Transport. Significant improvements in market capitalisation and turnover are noted in all sectors except the Transport sector.

  15. Industrial zones and Arab industrialization in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Michael; Schnell, Izhak; Drori, Israel

    1996-01-01

    Since the 1970s there has been increased integration of the Arab sector into the Israeli economy. This integration has been characterized by the increase in industrial entrepreneurship in the Arab settlements. Critical to the industrialization process are factors related to the availability of

  16. Industrial process heat usage in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and evaluate sources of information on industrial energy consumption, which can serve as a reference for assessing the market potential of HTGR programs and thereby provide a consistent information base for all applications programs. The report provides information on interpretation of energy use data, definition of the industrial sector, energy use by the industrial sector and other sectors, and use within the industrial sector by industry type and service demand. The report also reviews several data sources and presents historical data and projections on industrial energy consumption. These data and projections are taken from the sources which appear to be most representative of the actual market and most useful with respect to manipulation of data to provide information needed for HTGR programs

  17. The natural gas industry in Russia: reforms in debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    Due to the emergence of shale gas in the USA, Russia has become the second world producer of natural gas but this industry remains one of the most important sectors of the Russian economy as natural gas exports are an essential component or the Russian economic policy. Addressing this industry, the author first comments the evolutions of gas production since 1960 and its perspectives by 2020 and 2030. He also outlines the importance of the cost issue associated with the choice between mega projects and smaller ones. In a second part, the author comments and discusses the evolutions of gas exports towards Europe and of the export strategy. He evokes the possibility of arbitration between price and quantity in Gazprom's strategy, the possibility of a strategy of downstream integration on European gas markets, the possibility of a diversification of export markets (notably LNG markets as several LNG projects are planned). In the third part, the author describes the Gazprom model, comments the recurring debate on a reform of this holding, and discusses its quantity-based management and the issue of Gazprom's efficiency. He briefly evokes the issue of reform of the Russian gas industry, the progressive emergence of new actors

  18. From Garment to Fashion Production: An Analysis of the Evolution of the Apparel Industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Machado Barbosa Pinto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the analysis of the evolution of apparel industry in Brazil by answering the following questions: (a Does global sourcing still explain the value upgrading process in the apparel production chains?; (b Are there new sources of value upgrading to be considered?; (c Is the dynamics of the apparel production pervaded by a phenomenon that is strongly related to a cultural and creative know-how? Two theoretical approaches are considered to unveil the value upgrading process in the apparel production: (a theory about global value chains and (b studies about cultural and creative industries. To investigate the research questions we analyzed the case of the Brazilian apparel industry evolution through the use of a methodological perspective nurtured by aspects of grounded theory. The findings of this study indicate that companies are able to upgrade not only through improvements in manufacturing steps but also by means of incorporating elements of cultural distinction in the apparel production. Analysis of the Brazilian case led us to propose an integrative theoretical approach where elements of the global apparel value chains are combined with studies of cultural and creative industries. We consider that an integrative approach can better explain value creation in the apparel industry in a context of new markets, where there is not only the development of apparel manufacturing clusters but also the emergence of a unique and local fashion apparel chain.

  19. and the Energy Sector

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's harsh economic situation in 2016 has led major industries to look inwards to resolve supply deficits occasioned ... In the electricity sector, however, the influx of imported electrical .... Engineering Infrastructure in a 2014 address.

  20. General overview of the Mexican energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Jacome, D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of Mexico's energy sector was presented, with particular focus on the natural gas and electricity sectors. Mexico ranks fifth in oil production, eighth in proven oil reserves, and fourteenth in natural gas reserves. In 1998, the energy sector generated 3.3 per cent of Mexico's gross domestic product (GDP), and oil accounted for 7.5 per cent of total exports. National production of natural gas has been forecasted to grow at a rate of 5.2 per cent annually over the next 10 years. This will be largely due to the increased demand for natural gas to produce electricity. The Mexican government has also taken initiatives to restructure the Mexican energy sector with particular focus on increasing the competitiveness of the electric power industry. Electricity demand is also expected to grow at a rate of 6 per cent annually over the next six years. The objectives of energy reform are to promote more investment from all sectors in order to strengthen the development of the electric power industry and to provide a reliable, high quality service at competitive prices. 9 figs

  1. The evolution of industrial power monitoring and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, K. E.

    1998-04-01

    The evolution of power monitoring and control systems in industrial situations are described. Computer-based PMC (power monitoring and control) systems are discussed in two sections. Section 1 covers the PC/DOS based systems in use up to the 1990s. These systems had multitasking capability, sufficient for scanning a serial line running a multi-drop protocol to field instruments, which in turn were running either proprietary or PLC subsets, maintaining a level of operator display, data logging and query support. Since the mid-1990s the second generation of industrial power monitoring and control systems based on the PC/NT system came into use, driven to market by three factors: (1) availability of low cost PCs, (2) widespread availability of computer networking technologies, and (3) the appearance of the robust, industrially viable NT operating system. Second generation systems are characterized by division into two tiers; a monitoring system focused on remote metering, and a second tier of a modular system capable of fully implementing both power monitoring and supervisory control. Looking toward the future, the requirements for systems is expected to become more unique, driven by the need for information for energy procurement decision making, automatic control for integrating power acquisition from multiple suppliers, power capacity and integrated power and production control planning needs, and power quality and reliability issues. A review of the functionality of PMC systems, and system architectures was also provided. Results of a survey of PMC systems applications were also discussed. 2 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  2. Comparing public and private sector employees' innovative behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Rune; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2015-01-01

    Innovation is argued to be of key importance in the public sector. Little is known about possible sector differences in innovative behaviour. The stereotype in literature is that public employees are less innovative. We analyse whether sector is associated with innovative behaviour...... and the influence of job/organizational characteristics. We test this by using a three-country representative survey in Scandinavia with 8,310 respondents. We control for subsectors/industries and job functions. We do not find that public employees are less innovative. Furthermore, the study emphasizes...... the importance of understanding the major differences in innovative behaviour between different subsectors/industries and job types....

  3. The new EU approach to sector regulation in the network infrastructure industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cawley, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effect of linking sector regulation with competition law in the electronic communications sector in the European Union. It examines two questions. The first is whether, on balance, aligning sector regulation with competition law helps or hinders the achievement of

  4. Sensemaking and politics in MNCs: A comparative analysis of vocabularies within the global manufacturing discourse in one industrial sector

    OpenAIRE

    Geppert, M

    2003-01-01

    This article compares sensemaking processes in multinational corporations (MNCs) situated in the same industrial sector. Our comparative analysis of three MNCs and their subsidiaries in Germany and the United Kingdom aims to shed light on the contextual dimension (institutions, culture, and politics) of the sensemaking process. First, I discuss ideologies related to the discourse about global restructuring of manufacturing. Second, I compare similarities and differences in vocabularies of the...

  5. Comparing Non-Steady State Emissions under Start-Up and Shut-Down Operating Conditions with Steady State Emissions for Several Industrial Sectors: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwairia Obaid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the emissions of various industrial facilities under start-up, shut-down, and normal operations. The industries that have been investigated include power and/or heat generation, energy-from-waste generation, nuclear power generation, sulphuric acid production, ethylene production, petrochemical production, and waste incineration. The study investigated multiple facilities worldwide for each of these industrial categories. The different potential contaminants characteristic of each industry type have been investigated and the emissions of these contaminants under non-steady state have been compared to the steady state emissions. Where available, trends have been developed to identify the circumstances, i.e., the industrial sector and contaminant, under which the assessment and consideration of emissions from start-up and shut-down events is necessary for each industry. These trends differ by industrial sector and contaminant. For example, the study shows that sulphur dioxide (SO2 emissions should be assessed for the start-up operations of sulphuric acid production plants, but may not need to be assessed for the start-up operations of a conventional power generation facility. The trends developed as part of this research paper will help air permit applicants to effectively allocate their resources when assessing emissions related to non-steady state operations. Additionally, it will ensure that emissions are assessed for the worst-case scenario. This is especially important when emissions under start-up and shut-down operations have the potential to exceed enforceable emission limits. Thus, assessing emissions for the worst-case scenario can help in preventing the emissions from adversely impacting public health and the environment.

  6. Strategic crowding, an illness that erodes sector profitability: case pharmaceutic industry in Colombia Hacinamiento estratégico, una enfermedad que erosiona la rentabilidad del sector: caso de la industria farmacéutica en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Rivera Rodríguez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Firms in the last decade have faced a turbulent environment, characterized by increasing complexity in relationships, changes in the needs of customers, and increased uncertainty in decision making. Some companies respond to this situation using the same strategies of industry leaders, leading to a convergence process, which affects the profitability of the sector. This paper presents a methodology that allows a better way to see what happens in one sector and determine the degree of convergence.Las organizaciones en la ultima década se han enfrentado a un entorno turbulento, caracterizado por un aumento en la complejidad de las relaciones, cambios en las necesidades de los clientes e incremento de la incertidumbre en la toma de decisiones. Algunas empresas para responder a esta situación utilizan las mismas estrategias de los lideres de la industria, lo que lleva a un proceso de convergencia, que afecta la rentabilidad del sector. Este documento presenta una metodología que permite percibir de una mejor manera lo que ocurre en un sector y determinar el grado de convergencia.

  7. Evolution of an Innovation Network in Tourism: Towards Sectoral Innovation Eco-System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Stare

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Networks broaden the space for sourcing knowledge and skills for innovation in tourism beyond traditional actors and provide the framework for interactions, cooperation and knowledge sharing among them. The research focuses on complex relationships between the actors linked via web platform in generating ideas and implementing innovation in tourism. It assesses the dynamics of web platform evolution towards sectoral innovation eco-system in tourism. Applying case study methodology and unique data set we analyse the Bank of Tourism Potentials in Slovenia (BTPS, a web platform for the promotion of innovation in tourism. BTPS is considered an organizational innovation that leverages innovation in tourism and results in a number of new services, processes and business models. The originality of the paper derives from an in-depth analysis of actors’ networking, collaboration and mutual learning in implementing innovation. The characteristics of interactions between actors translate into the emerging patterns of BTPS development and suggest that the web platform is assuming the characteristics of the innovation eco-system in tourism that can be transferred to other environments as well. Finally, areas of future research are proposed.

  8. A Tale of Two (Philippine) Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Peter U

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the histories of the Philippine automotive and electronics industries. The two industries present a very interestingcontrast. The automotive industry has been around longer than the electronics sector in the Philippines. Moreover, it was the target ofmuch government industrial policy in the form of various motor vehicle programs. In contrast, the electronics sector does not seem to have”enjoyed” the same level of government attention at the start. Yet the electronics indust...

  9. Sectoral clusters as new trajectories of great promise. Business networks and regional innovation systems: The German rail vehicle industry for example; Hoffnungstraeger Wirtschaftscluster. Unternehmensnetzwerke und regionale Innovationssysteme: Das Beispiel der deutschen Schienenfahrzeugindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybe, G.; Kujath, H.J.

    2000-07-01

    Although for some years now, 'clustering' as a new approach in business and industry sectors has become known as a keyword for new trajectories of great promise for economic growth and enhanced technological innovation, there is only insufficient information dealing with the rationale, or the major structures and development dynamics of such networking strategies. The authors therefore have carried out a systematic study presented in this book. Regional interlinking structures between enterprises are examined and explained as organisational, corporate networks and their capabilities, including a historical profile and analysis. Questions marking starting points of the study are: How do functional and geographical clusters evolve? How do they change over the life cycle of products and industries (pathway dependence)? What interactions are there between the geographical context (locations and regions) and the system of interlacements between industry and the scientific community? The rail vehicle industry is chosen as a system technolgy example illustrating the clustering process, and a detailed empirical analysis is given of the region of Berlin-Brandenburg. The study shows the constraints of existing theoretical approaches in explaining the evolution of regional clusters in business and industry sectors, and indicates new pathways for theoretical studies. (orig./CB) [German] Wirtschaftscluster gelten seit einigen Jahren als Traeger von Wachstum und technologischer Innovation. Obwohl die regionale Wirtschaftspolitik grosse Hoffnungen in Strategien der Clusterbildung setzt, mangelt es bisher an systematischen Untersuchungen ueber Strukturen und Entwicklungsdynamiken derartiger Unternehmensnetzwerke. Hier setzen die Autoren dieses Buchs an: Regionale Verflechtungsstrukturen von Unternehmen werden als organisatorische Netzwerke untersucht und in einer historischen Laengsschnittanalyse aufbereitet. Dabei gehen die Verfasser folgenden Fragen nach: Wie entstehen

  10. Sectoral transitions - modeling the development from agrarian to service economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2013-04-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's GDP, i.e the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations we characterise the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing 4 country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow 3 of 8 characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  11. Automatic Control Systems (ACS for Generation and Sale of Electric Power Under Conditions of Industry-Sector Liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Petrusha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible risks pertaining to transition of electric-power industry to market relations have been considered in the paper. The paper presents an integrated ACS for generation and sale of electric power as an improvement of methodology for organizational and technical management. The given system is based on integration of operating Automatic Dispatch Control System (ADCS and developing Automatic Electricity Meter Reading System (AEMRS. The paper proposes to form an inter-branch sector of ACS PLC (Automatic Control System for Prolongation of Life Cycle users which is oriented on provision of development strategy.

  12. Conflict Approaches of Effective Project Manager in the Upstream Sector of Indonesian Oil & Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Cahyono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Conflict can be functional or dysfunctional to the organization’s performance. This study focused on the relationship between conflict approaches implemented by the project manager based on project team member’s perception on the effectiveness of the project manager in managing project’s conflict. Questionnaires were modified from Barker et al. (1988 to measure conflict management approaches and outcomes of managing project conflict. Data were gathered from 57 respondents who worked in the Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC contractors serving the upstream sector of the Oil and Gas industry in Indonesia. By using Pearson correlation, result of this study indicated that project managers were perceived to be effective in managing project conflict when implementing cooperative and confi rmative approaches, but ineffective when combining competitive and avoidance approaches. Further research should investigate correlation between cultural dimensions with conflict approaches and outcomes of managing conflict. Keywords: Conflict approaches, effective project manager, EPC contractors, upstream sector of oil and gas industry /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}

  13. Sickness absence in the private sector of Greece: comparing shipyard industry and national insurance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Merekoulias, Georgios; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni C; Mikelatou, Efi; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently (industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999-2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million) insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece) were retrieved from the Institute's annual statistical reports for the period 1987-2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (%) were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate) varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8), and 2.14-2.72% (median 2.49%), respectively. Short sick-leave spells (industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991-1997 and an increase in 1998-2004) combined with a small yet significant decline as a general trend. These observations deserve detailed monitoring and could only partly be attributed to the compensation and unemployment rates in Greece so other possible reasons should be explored.

  14. INDUSTRI KREATIF INDONESIA: PENDEKATAN ANALISIS KINERJA INDUSTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kamil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Department of Commerce of the Republic of Indonesia has launched a creative economic development documents interpreted the 2025 Indonesia became the starting point and guide the development of the creative economy in Indonesia. With the existence of this document, the industry and its stakeholders or other stakeholders can readily develop the creative economy in Indonesia. Economic development in the direction of the creative industries is one manifestation of optimism aspiration to support the Master Plan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia's Economic Development in realizing the vision of Indonesia are being developed nation. The main objective of this study is the first to analyze the role of the creative industries in Indonesia for labor, value added and productivity, secondly, to analyze the performance trend of the creative industries sector, and third, to analyze the factors affecting the performance of the creative industries sector in Indonesia. Under Indonesia Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC and codes 151-372 (manufacturing industries category identified 18 industry groups belonging to the creative industries, showed that the performance of the national creative industries has been relatively high (in terms of trend analysis of the performance of the industrial creative. Furthermore, regression analysis of panel data (econometrics indicates that company size (SIZE, wages for workers (WAGE and the content of local inputs (LOCAL has a significant impact on the performance of Indonesia's creative industry. Meanwhile, the concentration ratio (CR4 no consequences but have koresi significantly positive effect on the performance of Indonesia’s creative industry.

  15. Performance Measurement Of Public Sector Insurance Units After De-Tariffication

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Seema; Sikidar, Dr. Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Insurance sector in India was privatised to publicise insurance products. After privatisation of this industry in India in the year 2000, the next important step taken in the general insurance industry was the removal of tariffs on the non-life insurance products with effect from January1, 2007. The introduction of the free price regime has provided an impetus to the non-life sector. Before the introduction of de-tariffication almost 70% of the business of the non-life sector was driven by va...

  16. PERFORMANCE AND SUSTAINABILITY IN MANUFACTURING SECTOR FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Andreea POPA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance became a very important topic especially when it comes into discussion the idea of sustainability. If we think to the value added and the level of employees, an important sector for our society and economy is the Manufacturing because it provides a high value added to GDP (gross domestic product and also provides a high amount of work places at European level and also in Romania. The main goal of this paper is to analyse the performance of the largest enterprises from Romania that are part from the Manufacturing sector. This very large enterprises could be trend setters in their subindustries for the small and medium ones. The paper is composed from three parts. In the first part it is analysed the literature developed by specialist in the domain of sustainability and financial performance. The second part is an overview of the evolution of Manufacturing sector in the past years and the last one comes to underline the performances of this sector by analysing the evolution of specific indicators regarding the sustainability and performance of enterprise. In conclusion’s side there are made some suggestions about the importance of this sector for Romania’s economy and also for a sustainable development.

  17. Sector profile: Petroleum sector in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The Cuban oil industry started in 1860 when an oil well was drilled in Matanzas province. About 200 wells were drilled up until 1959. In the past 30 years, the oil industry has become a priority sector; in 1985-1990, about US$500 million were invested in the industry, with increases in exploration and well drilling activity. Recently completed works include pipelines and a supertanker terminal. About 10 million tons of oil are imported annually and local production averages about 800,000 metric tons per year. Most of the oil found in Cuba so far is of the heavy type, as found in western Canada. There are about 10 small and medium-sized oil deposits, mainly located in the north. The most promising oil field is at Varadero, whose characteristics are similar to the Cold Lake field in Alberta. Cuban oil refining capacity is over 7.6 million metric tons per year, and additional capacity is being constructed. All imports of oil industry equipment are conducted via state trading agencies. Export opportunities of interest to Canadian companies are outlined, along with monetary constraints affecting imports to Cuba, financing and export insurance programs available to Canadian companies, and recommendations to Canadian exporters. A list of industry/government contacts is included

  18. Political Economy of Agrarian Crisis and Slow Industrialization in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudipta; Abraham, Mathew; D'Costa, Anthony

    This paper uses the structuralist framework of agriculture-industry synergy in an economy to discuss the performance of the agricultural and industrial sectors in India. The industry – agriculture relationship is argued to be integral to economic development as the agriculture sector supplies raw...... development and growth in the two sectors. It concludes that India has not followed the structuralist pattern of sectoral development and poor agricultural growth has not been conducive for demand led industrialization, adversely affecting factor markets for both labour and land....

  19. Sectoral Innovation Foresight. Food and Drinks sector. Final Report. Task 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leis, M.; Gijsbers, G.; Zee, F.A. van der

    2010-01-01

    Although food and drinks are essential for human life, the food and beverage industry is generally perceived as low-to-mid-technology sector as measured on common indicators for innovativeness and supported by CIS4 data. In principal, however, there exist many innovation possibilities within the

  20. Digital intermediaries and cultural industries: the developing influence of distribution platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Guignard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The last few years have seen the generalization of a communicative device which is technical and organizational integration of a terminal, an operating system, a network connection, an online platform to access applications (contents and services. Indeed, smartphones, connected TVs, tablet computers and game consoles are structured by this model which develops itself thanks to the rise of computer performance and capacity telecommunication networks. Single technical interface for users, they show, for industrial actors involved, a mode of organization cannot be reduced to a commercial intermediation. So at the heart of this configuration are the "platforms" which are a new form of goods and services distribution and carry out the renewal of uses and related practices and a change in the value chain which are in the depths of effective change, hopes and fears aroused by the devices presented in our contribution.    Our paper aims at exposing the evolution of these devices in several fields of cultural industries especially mobile and audiovisual sectors with a focus on smartphone and connected TV industry. It intends thereby to question the double dialectic in these sectors in reconfiguration (integration / disintegration activities on the one hand and disintermediation / re-intermediation on the other hand.

  1. Internal quality evolution of a large test system – an industrial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Attila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our empirical observations related to the evolution of a large automated test system. The system observed is used in the industry as a test tool for complex telecommunication systems, itself consisting of more than one million lines of source code. This study evaluates how different changes during the development have changed the number of observed Code Smells in the test system. We have monitored the development of the test scripts and measured the code quality characteristics over a five years period.

  2. Nanotechnology in the environment industry : opportunities and trends[Final report and bibliography for the nano-environmental cross-sector initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, K. [DK3 Scientific Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Backs, S.; Janzen, K. [SynchroComm Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Theriault, Y. [CHI 3 Consulting Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-03-04

    Extensive oil and gas production in Alberta has resulted in contaminated soil at several thousand well sites. The petrochemical infrastructure and industrial development has also contributed to other site contamination challenges. Alberta's Nano-Environmental Cross Sector Initiative was launched to help remediate existing environmental pollutants and to reduce or prevent future pollution problems, particular in areas of immediate interest to Alberta industry such as soil remediation, water purification, desalination, and high-sensitivity chemical sensors for field use. This presentation discussed the potential for nanotechnology to provide enabling technologies for wastewater and hazardous waste management, resource recovery, pollution prevention, green manufacturing and energy efficiency. A search of the United States patent database was conducted for relevant nanotechnologies and a review was conducted of primary scientific literature. Members of the Environmental Services Association of Alberta (ESAA) were surveyed to determine the current status of nanotechnology awareness and implementation within the Alberta environmental industry. Current products and precommercialization of nanotechnology for the environmental industry were presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Creative Industries: Development Processes Under Contemporary Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Kontrimienė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the processes of developing creative industries under conditions of a growth in the worldwide economy and globalization, discloses the role of the sector of creative industries and shows its place in the system of the modern global economy. The paper presents a comparative analysis of theories and theoretical approaches intended for the sector of creative industries and its development as well as defines regularities and specificities characteristic of the development of creative industries. Particular attention is shifted on the growth and development of creative industries considering the current challenges of globalization and on the most important specificities of the developing sector in the context of the challenges of economic globalization. The paper examines the trends reflecting the place of the sector of creative industries in the economy of the modern world, including the tendencies indicating changes in the export of the products created in this sector. The article considers the issues of developing creative industries and reveals priorities of future research.

  4. Convergence of carbon dioxide emissions in different sectors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Juan; Zhang, Kezhong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze differences in per capita carbon dioxide emissions from 1996 to 2010 in six sectors across 28 provinces in China and examine the σ-convergence, stochastic convergence and β-convergence of these emissions. We also investigate the factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector. The results show that per capita carbon dioxide emissions in all sectors converged across provinces from 1996 to 2010. Factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector vary: GDP (gross domestic product) per capita, industrialization process and population density impact convergence in the Industry sector, while GDP per capita and population density impact convergence in the Transportation, Storage, Postal, and Telecommunications Services sector. Aside from GDP per capita and population density, trade openness also impacts convergence in the Wholesale, Retail, Trade, and Catering Service sector. Population density is the only factor that impacts convergence in the Residential Consumption sector. - Highlights: • Analyze differences in CO 2 emissions in six sectors among 28 provinces in China. • Examine the convergence of CO 2 emissions in six sectors. • Investigate factors impact on convergence of CO 2 emissions in each sector. • Factors impact on convergence of per capita CO 2 emissions in each sector vary

  5. Data mining in pharma sector: benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Jayanthi

    2009-01-01

    The amount of data getting generated in any sector at present is enormous. The information flow in the pharma industry is huge. Pharma firms are progressing into increased technology-enabled products and services. Data mining, which is knowledge discovery from large sets of data, helps pharma firms to discover patterns in improving the quality of drug discovery and delivery methods. The paper aims to present how data mining is useful in the pharma industry, how its techniques can yield good results in pharma sector, and to show how data mining can really enhance in making decisions using pharmaceutical data. This conceptual paper is written based on secondary study, research and observations from magazines, reports and notes. The author has listed the types of patterns that can be discovered using data mining in pharma data. The paper shows how data mining is useful in the pharma industry and how its techniques can yield good results in pharma sector. Although much work can be produced for discovering knowledge in pharma data using data mining, the paper is limited to conceptualizing the ideas and view points at this stage; future work may include applying data mining techniques to pharma data based on primary research using the available, famous significant data mining tools. Research papers and conceptual papers related to data mining in Pharma industry are rare; this is the motivation for the paper.

  6. Application of safety and reliability approaches in the power sector: Inside-sectoral overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor

    2010-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the state-of-the-art and state-of-practice on the applications of safety and reliability approaches in the Power Sector. The nature and composition of this industrial sector including the characteristics of major hazards are summarized. The present situation with regard...... to a number of key technical aspects involved in the use of safety and reliability approaches in the power sector is discussed. Based on this review a Technology Maturity Matrix is synthesized. Barriers to the wider use of risk and reliability methods in the design and operation of power installations...... are identified and possible ways of overcoming these barriers are suggested. Key issues and priorities for research are identified....

  7. A new NAMA framework for dispersed energy end-use sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chia-Chin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for a nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMA) framework that can unlock the huge potential for greenhouse gas mitigation in dispersed energy end-use sectors in developing countries; specifically, the building sector and the industrial sector. These two ...

  8. Directory of French photovoltaic research and industry 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poubeau, Romain; Simmonet, Raphael; Canals, Jonathan

    2011-05-01

    After an overview of what is at stake in terms of industrial employment in the photovoltaic sector, a presentation of competitiveness clusters, a description of the value chain (cell manufacturers, arrays manufacturers, power inverter manufacturers, electric equipment manufacturers, structure component manufacturers, fabrication steps, etc.) in the photovoltaic sector, this document proposes a directory (addresses, activity descriptions) of research and industrial actors of the photovoltaic sector in France: research centres, manufacturers, industrial projects

  9. Research and chemical industry in 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapasso, I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of research with respect to changes taking place within the chemical industry. Specific areas having a significant impact on the future evolution of the industry are identified. The chemical industry is highly R ampersand D intensive with respect to its overall sales volume, as well as, to R ampersand D levels in other industries; and R ampersand D has been a dominant factor influencing the restructuring, on a global scale, of this industry. In the 90's, the industry is expected to have a supply model which is based on the production of marketable high-technology products and integrated systems, developed through coordinated research in multi-disciplinary scientific fields. The optimum strategic and organizational strategies which are to be adopted by the industry during this decade are discussed with reference to the directions being taken by a large multi-national firm in developing strategies in various areas, e.g., new prime materials, environmental protection, pharmacology, and biotechnology. A look is given at recent developments in the sector of advanced polymers, with attention given to processes involving polymer genetics, new products with a wide range of applications and those offering a high level of environmental compatibility. A review of new materials development includes an assessment of prospects for biodegradable plastics based on natural carbohydrates

  10. Iran’s Pharmaceutical Sectoral Innovation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Kargar Shahamat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By reviewing economic performance, two main phenomena could be identified: The first phenomenon is prior to the third wave of the Industrial Revolution in which limited resources are the predominant input; in other words, physical and natural resources are much more credited than human resources. The second phenomenon resonates with the third wave of industrial revolution to the present time, suggesting the pivotal role of humans in production and accumulation of wealth, in which limited resources are no longer considered as predominant input. The present research seeks to understand the behavioral logic of the players of Iran's pharmaceutical sector so as to infer the innovative treatment of the firms in this sector. The concept of innovative system is indebted to the efforts economists and other scientists have made by analyzing economic development based upon technological development. Meanwhile, sectoral innovation system (SIS is a tool for analyzing a technological sector in the context of evolutionary economics with an emphasis on institutional capabilities. The structure of such an approach is composed of some components through which performance analysis of certain technological sector could be made possible. In research, we use expert panel with 12 experts from Universities, Companies, Governmental institutes. The current study wishes to explain structural model of institutional elements in this technological sector. Subsequently, in light of such an explanation, structural elements of this sector would be analyzed through identification of legal and regulatory framework, innovative culture, innovative infrastructure, financial resources, information resources, technology transfer mechanisms, commercialization support and marketing.

  11. Sectoral Innovation Foresight. Space and Aeronautics Sectors. Final Report. Task 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandes, F.; Poel, M.

    2011-01-01

    The European aerospace industry is world leader in large civil aircraft, business jets and helicopters, aero-engines and defence electronics. The sector in Europe is dominated by a small number of large firms highly concentrated in the UK, France and Germany. It is a mature market focusing on

  12. Efficiency Standard in automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, G.

    2008-01-01

    A technological transition in the transport sector could be only be possible with a convergence of objectives of the automotive and the fuel industries, which is not very simple to obtain. Fuel economy standards could differently reduce the growing trend of CO 2 emissions in this sector but regulators should avoid capture from domestic industry. [it

  13. Housing sector in emerging countries and international climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, C.

    2006-01-01

    After a first part on the relationship between housing and greenhouse effect in developing countries (assessment of the share of the housing-tertiary sector in CO 2 emissions in the world, housing stock growth and livelihood improvement, trend towards a sustainable city), this report proposes an overview of the Chinese situation in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption in the housing sector, fossil energy production, energy prices, urban demographic dynamics and its impact on the housing stock. It describes the Chinese institutional frame (housing policy reform, energy mastering policy, actors of the housing sector), discusses some perspective aspects of housing energy consumption and CO 2 emissions: energy consumption by 2020, regional approach, usages of electricity, evolution of the housing stock by 2020, potential gains in CO 2 emissions, methodological framework for the assessment of the evolution of housing energy consumptions, simulation tool

  14. A multi-sectoral decomposition analysis of city-level greenhouse gas emissions: Case study of Tianjin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jidong; Zhao, Tao; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Xin; Xu, Xianshuo; Lin, Tao

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how city-level greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have evolved, we performed a multi-sectoral decomposition analysis to disentangle the GHG emissions in Tianjin from 2001 to 2009. Five sectors were considered, including the agricultural, industrial, transportation, commercial and other sectors. An industrial sub-sector decomposition analysis was further performed in the six high-emission industrial branches. The results show that, for all five sectors in Tianjin, economic growth was the most important factor driving the increase in emissions, while energy efficiency improvements were primarily responsible for the decrease in emissions. In comparison, the influences from energy mix shift and emission coefficient changes were relatively marginal. The disaggregated decomposition in the industry further revealed that energy efficiency improvement has been widely achieved in the industrial branches, which was especially true for the Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous Metals and Chemical Raw Materials and Chemical Products sub-sectors. However, the energy efficiency declined in a few branches, e.g., Petroleum Processing and Coking Products. Moreover, the increased emissions related to industrial structure shift were primarily due to the expansion of Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous Metals; its share in the total industry output increased from 5.62% to 16.1% during the examined period. - Highlights: • We perform the LMDI analysis on the emissions in five sectors of Tianjin. • Economic growth was the most important factor for the emissions increase. • Energy efficiency improvements mainly contributed to the emission decrease. • Negative energy intensity effect was observed in most of the industrial sub-sectors. • Industrial structure change largely resulted in emission increase

  15. Indian power industry: role of private sector in future progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    This document discusses about the current scenario of power sectors in the country. It deals with the present power policy to encourage the private sector investment. Recommendations of the long-term pricing policy are laid down to meet the financial resources and energy demands. In general the reforms should be guided by the objective of introducing competition wherever possible, so as to minimise the cost to the consumer and improve the quality and services

  16. Rethinking "energy nationalism": a study of the relationship between nation states and companies in the oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOELE DE FREITAS PEIGO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe term "energy nationalism" is frequently used by academic literature and media, but usually without adequate conceptual accuracy. Despite this, a set of papers deepens the discussion on the relationship between nation states and the energy industry, especially the oil sector. These papers allow identifying fundamental elements to understand the energy nationalism, either complementary or divergent between each other. Thus, this study aims at presenting an interpretation of the concept that fills the gaps left by the above mentioned literature based on a global analysis of the oil industry structure and its historical evolution since the mid-19thcentury.

  17. Late Globalization and Evolution, Episodes and Epochs of Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Boujarzadeh, Behnam; Dholakia, Nikhilesh

    While the empirical focus of this paper is the Danish Textile and Fashion Industry (DTFI) – specifically the episodes and epochs in the emergence and evolution of DTFI, in essence the micro and macro time-slices – the theoretical intent is wider. We aim to explore the conceptual terrain of what we...... for further exploration of the late globalization phenomenon. To get to the empirical case study, we follow a macro-conceptual to a micro-empirical path. We discuss the multidisciplinary and multifaceted field of late globalization and employing the historic-analytic approach to study DTFI we draw out very...... specific, empirically derived, conceptual themes about the patterns of global interactions that characterized the evolutionary trajectory of DTFI. We return to a final macro-conceptual section on late globalization where the particular DTFI case study advances the knowledge register only slightly; and we...

  18. Efforts for nuclear energy human resource development by industry-government-academic sectors cooperation. Nuclear Energy Human Resource Development Council Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    The report consists of eighteen sections such as the present conditions of nuclear energy, decreasing students in the department of technology and decreasing numbers of nuclear-related subjects, The Nuclear Energy Human Resources Development Program (HRD Program), The Nuclear Energy Human Resources Development Council (HRD Council), the industry-academia partnership for human resource development, the present situation of new graduates in the nuclear field, new workers of nuclear industry, the conditions of technical experts in the nuclear energy industry, long-range forecast of human resource, increasing international efforts, nuclear energy human resources development road map, three points for HRD, six basic subjects for HRD, the specific efforts of the industrial, governmental and academic sectors, promoting a better understanding of nuclear energy and supporting job hunting and employment, students to play an active part in the world, and support of the elementary and secondary schools. Change of numbers of nuclear-related subjects of seven universities, change of number of new graduates in nuclear field of various companies from 1985 to 2006, number of people employed by nuclear industries from 1998 to 2007, number of technical experts in the electric companies and the mining and manufacturing industries and forecast of number of technical experts in total nuclear industries are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  19. Industrial use of coal and clean coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibson, I; Plante, J J.M.

    1990-06-01

    This report builds upon two reports published in 1988, namely {ital The use of Coal in the Industrial, Commercial, Residential and Transportation Sectors} and {ital Innovative Clean Coal Technology Deployment}, and provides more specific recommendations pertaining to coal use in the US industrial sector. The first chapter addresses industrial boilers which are common to many industrial users. The subsequent nine chapters cover the following: coke, iron and steel industries; aluminium and other metals; glass, brick, ceramic, and gypsum industries; cement and lime industries; pulp and paper industry; food and kindred products; durable goods industry; textile industry; refining and chemical industry. In addition, appendices supporting the contents of the study are provided. Each chapter covers the following topics as applicable: energy overview of the industry sector being discussed; basic processes; foreign experience; impediments to coal use; incentives that could make coal a fuel of choice; current and projected use of clean coal technology; identification of coal technology needs; conclusions; recommendations.

  20. The Impact of the Digital Revolution in the Development of Market and Communication Strategies for the Luxury Sector (Fashion Luxury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Escobar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the luxury industry has been strongly affected by the rapid evolution of digital technology and the internet. The use of the internet and the new digital technologies has contributed to the growth of the market and its different sectors. This meant an advantage for others, but for the luxury sector, it has been a challenge and the adaptation process slow. The online participation – in certain cases incipient – of some brands in the sector has been directed by new consumption habits, which had an impact in the marketing and communication strategies on a managerial level. Based on a theoretical review, this paper proposes a central concept known as brand expression, from which elements involved in the phenomenon of the digital era, some significant for the development of the study, are described. The resulting relations between them, together with findings obtained in interviews of consumers in the sector, describe the reason for the adaptation in content and approach of