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Sample records for industrial scale chromatographic

  1. Industrial scale chromatographic separation of valuable compounds from biomass hydrolysates and side streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, P.

    2011-06-15

    Carbohydrates are composed of a number of various monosaccharides, glucose being the most abundant. Some of the monosaccharides are valuable compounds used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. They can be separated from biomass hydrolysates e.g. by chromatographic methods. In this thesis, chromatographic separation of valuable compounds using ion exchange resins was studied on an industrial scale. Of special interest were rare monosaccharides in biomass hydrolysates. A novel chromatographic separation process was developed for fucose, starting from pre-processed spent sulfite liquor. The core of the process consists of three chromatographic separations with different types of ion exchange resins. Chromatographic separation of galactose was tested with three biomass hydrolysates; lactose, gum arabic and hemicellulose hydrolysates. It was demonstrated that also galactose can be separated from complex carbohydrate mixtures. A recovery process for arabinose from citrus pectin liquid residual and for mannose from wood pulp hydrolysate were also developed and experimentally verified. In addition to monosaccharides, chromatographic separation of glycinebetaine from vinasse was examined with a hydrogen form weak acid cation exchange resin. The separation involves untypical peak formation depending, for example, on the pH and the cation composition. The retention mechanism was found to be hydrogen bonding between glycinebetaine and the resin. In the experimental part, all four resin types - strong acid cation, strong base anion, weak acid cation and weak base anion exchange resins - were used. In addition, adsorption equilibria data of seven monosaccharides and sucrose were measured with the resins in sodium and sulfate forms because such data have been lacking. It was found out that the isotherms of all sugars were linear under industrial conditions. A systematic method for conceptual process design and sequencing of chromatographic separation steps were developed

  2. A Small-Scale Low-Cost Gas Chromatograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Natasa; Vrtacnik, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    The design and application of a small-scale portable gas chromatograph for learning of the basic concepts of chromatography is described. The apparatus consists of two basic separable units, which includes a chromatographic unit and an electronic unit.

  3. Development, modelling, optimisation and scale-up of chromatographic purification of a therapeutic protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen; Hansen, Thomas Budde; Kidal, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Development of a chromatographic purification step proceeds through a number of stages. High-throughput screening techniques are used to identify suitable resins. This technique is also suitable for the design of a capture step and some intermediate chromatographic steps, but development and true...... by industry. The theory of residence time based scale-up is developed and applied. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. Large scale chromatographic separations using continuous displacement chromatography (CDC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, V.T.; Doty, A.W.; Byers, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    A process for large scale chromatographic separations using a continuous chromatography technique is described. The process combines the advantages of large scale batch fixed column displacement chromatography with conventional analytical or elution continuous annular chromatography (CAC) to enable large scale displacement chromatography to be performed on a continuous basis (CDC). Such large scale, continuous displacement chromatography separations have not been reported in the literature. The process is demonstrated with the ion exchange separation of a binary lanthanide (Nd/Pr) mixture. The process is, however, applicable to any displacement chromatography separation that can be performed using conventional batch, fixed column chromatography

  5. The counterintuitive role of extra-column volume in the determination of column efficiency and scaling of chromatographic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze-Jena, A.; Boon, M.A.; Bussmann, P.J.Th.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Padt, van der A.

    2017-01-01

    In industrial liquid separation processes chromatography often has a key function in the optimization of yield and purity. For the design of an industrial system, chromatographic processes are generally simulated using mathematical models, tested and optimized at laboratory level, and then scaled

  6. The counterintuitive role of extra-column volume in the determination of column efficiency and scaling of chromatographic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze-Jena, A.; Boon, M.A.; Bussmann, P.J.T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Padt, A. van der

    2017-01-01

    In industrial liquid separation processes chromatography often has a key function in the optimization of yield and purity. For the design of an industrial system, chromatographic processes are generally simulated using mathematical models, tested and optimized at laboratory level, and then scaled up

  7. Large scale gas chromatographic demonstration system for hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheh, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    A large scale demonstration system was designed for a throughput of 3 mol/day equimolar mixture of H,D, and T. The demonstration system was assembled and an experimental program carried out. This project was funded by Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Canadian Fusion Fuel Technology Projects and Ontario Hydro Research Division. Several major design innovations were successfully implemented in the demonstration system and are discussed in detail. Many experiments were carried out in the demonstration system to study the performance of the system to separate hydrogen isotopes at high throughput. Various temperature programming schemes were tested, heart-cutting operation was evaluated, and very large (up to 138 NL/injection) samples were separated in the system. The results of the experiments showed that the specially designed column performed well as a chromatographic column and good separation could be achieved even when a 138 NL sample was injected

  8. Industrial scale gene synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notka, Frank; Liss, Michael; Wagner, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The most recent developments in the area of deep DNA sequencing and downstream quantitative and functional analysis are rapidly adding a new dimension to understanding biochemical pathways and metabolic interdependencies. These increasing insights pave the way to designing new strategies that address public needs, including environmental applications and therapeutic inventions, or novel cell factories for sustainable and reconcilable energy or chemicals sources. Adding yet another level is building upon nonnaturally occurring networks and pathways. Recent developments in synthetic biology have created economic and reliable options for designing and synthesizing genes, operons, and eventually complete genomes. Meanwhile, high-throughput design and synthesis of extremely comprehensive DNA sequences have evolved into an enabling technology already indispensable in various life science sectors today. Here, we describe the industrial perspective of modern gene synthesis and its relationship with synthetic biology. Gene synthesis contributed significantly to the emergence of synthetic biology by not only providing the genetic material in high quality and quantity but also enabling its assembly, according to engineering design principles, in a standardized format. Synthetic biology on the other hand, added the need for assembling complex circuits and large complexes, thus fostering the development of appropriate methods and expanding the scope of applications. Synthetic biology has also stimulated interdisciplinary collaboration as well as integration of the broader public by addressing socioeconomic, philosophical, ethical, political, and legal opportunities and concerns. The demand-driven technological achievements of gene synthesis and the implemented processes are exemplified by an industrial setting of large-scale gene synthesis, describing production from order to delivery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  10. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure , particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  11. Qualification of an Agilent Technologies 7890A gas chromatograph used in the biotechnology industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Gonzalez, Alberto; Tambara Hernandez, Yanet; Alvarez Gil, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The drug manufacture is governed by strict international standards that guarantee reproducibility and consistency of results. The qualification of the instruments used in the productive processes, as well as in the characterization of products and their quality control are prerequisites to the validation of any analytical technique using them. One of the instrumental techniques used in the biotechnical industry is Gas Chromatography. A standard of pure caffeine was used for analysis in addition to a HP-5 30 m x 0,32 mm d.i. and 0,33 μm thick film column was used in a Gas Chromatograph coupled with a Flame Ionization Detector. For the testing of the different modules involved in the analysis (injector, column, oven and detector), an experimental design was made to estimate several parameters

  12. Strengthening industry-research linkage for small scale industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening industry-research linkage for small scale industrial development in Ghana - the relevance of scientific and technological information. ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search ...

  13. Validated electrochemical and chromatographic quantifications of some antibiotic residues in pharmaceutical industrial waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Heba K; Abdel-Moety, Mona M; Abdel-Gawad, Sherif A; Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A; Kawy, Mohamed Abdel

    2017-03-01

    Realistic implementation of ion selective electrodes (ISEs) into environmental monitoring programs has always been a challenging task. This could be largely attributed to difficulties in validation of ISE assay results. In this study, the electrochemical response of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMX), ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPLX), trimethoprim (TMP), and norfloxacin (NFLX) was studied by the fabrication of sensitive membrane electrodes belonging to two types of ISEs, which are polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane electrodes and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Linear response for the membrane electrodes was in the concentration range of 10 -5 -10 -2  mol/L. For the PVC membrane electrodes, Nernstian slopes of 55.1, 56.5, 56.5, and 54.0 mV/decade were achieved over a pH 4-8 for AMX, CPLX, and NFLX, respectively, and pH 3-6 for TMP. On the other hand, for GC electrodes, Nernstian slopes of 59.1, 58.2, 57.0, and 58.2 mV/decade were achieved over pH 4-8 for AMX, CPLX, and NFLX, respectively, and pH 3-6 for TMP. In addition to assay validation to international industry standards, the fabricated electrodes were also cross-validated relative to conventional separation techniques; high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and thin layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry. The HPLC assay was applied in concentration range of 0.5-10.0 μg/mL, for all target analytes. The TLC-densitometry was adopted over a concentration range of 0.3-1.0 μg/band, for AMX, and 0.1-0.9 μg/band, for CPLX, NFLX, and TMP. The proposed techniques were successfully applied for quantification of the selected drugs either in pure form or waste water samples obtained from pharmaceutical plants. The actual waste water samples were subjected to solid phase extraction (SPE) for pretreatment prior to the application of chromatographic techniques (HPLC and TLC-densitometry). On the other hand, the fabricated electrodes were successfully applied for quantification of the antibiotic residues in actual

  14. Some Problems of Industrial Scale-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    Scientific ideas of the biological laboratory are turned into economic realities in industry only after several problems are solved. Economics of scale, agitation, heat transfer, sterilization of medium and air, product recovery, waste disposal, and future developments are discussed using aerobic respiration as the example in the scale-up…

  15. Chromatographic techniques used in the laboratory scale fractionation and purification of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Wan Hamirul Bahrin Wan Kamal; Shaharuddin Mohd

    2004-01-01

    Chromatography is a powerful technique used in the separation as well as purification of proteins for use as biopharmaceuticals or medicines. Scientists use many different chromatographic techniques in biotechnology as they bring a molecule from its initial identification stage to the stage of it becoming a marketed product. The most commonly used of these techniques is liquid chromatography (1,C). This technique can be used to separate the target molecule from undesired contaminants, as well as to analyse the final product for the requisite purity as established by governmental regulatory groups such as the FDA. Some examples of LC techniques include: ion exchange (IEC), hydrophobic interaction (HIC), gel filtration (GF), affinity (AC) and reverse phase (RPC) chromatography. These techniques are very versatile and can be used at any stage of the purification process i.e. capture, intermediate purification phase and polishing. The choice of a particular technique is dependent upon the nature of the target protein as well as its intended final use. This paper describes the preliminary work done on the chromatographic purification of factor VIII (FVIII), factor IX (FIX), albumin and IgG from plasma. Results, in particular, in the isolation of albumin and IgG using IEC, have been promising. Preparation and production of cryoprecipitate to yield FVIII and FIX have also been successful. (Author)

  16. Scale-up of chromatographic ion-exchange processes in biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Jibbouri, Sattar

    2006-01-01

    The van Deemter equation has been used to derive a rule of thumb guideline for scaling. The scaling is done by the concept of time scales. The time scales are kept identical for all the columns by scaling the flow rate to the total void volume and the load to the amount of the media. The verifica...

  17. Functional Materials Produced On An Industrial Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barska Justyna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a wide range of applications of functional materials and a scale of their current industrial production. These are the materials which have specific characteristics, thanks to which they became virtually indispensable in certain constructional solutions. Their basic characteristics, properties, methods of production and use as smart materials were described.

  18. Advanced techniques for energy-efficient industrial-scale continuous chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCarli, J.P. II (Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (USA)); Carta, G. (Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Byers, C.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Continuous annular chromatography (CAC) is a developing technology that allows truly continuous chromatographic separations. Previous work has demonstrated the utility of this technology for the separation of various materials by isocratic elution on a bench scale. Novel applications and improved operation of the process were studied in this work, demonstrating that CAC is a versatile apparatus which is capable of separations at high throughput. Three specific separation systems were investigated. Pilot-scale separations at high loadings were performed using an industrial sugar mixture as an example of scale-up for isocratic separations. Bench-scale experiments of a low concentration metal ion mixture were performed to demonstrate stepwise elution, a chromatographic technique which decreases dilution and increases sorbent capacity. Finally, the separation of mixtures of amino acids by ion exchange was investigated to demonstrate the use of displacement development on the CAC. This technique, which perhaps has the most potential, when applied to the CAC allowed simultaneous separation and concentration of multicomponent mixtures on a continuous basis. Mathematical models were developed to describe the CAC performance and optimize the operating conditions. For all the systems investigated, the continuous separation performance of the CAC was found to be very nearly the same as the batchwise performance of conventional chromatography. the technology appears, thus, to be very promising for industrial applications. 43 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Sample preparation for large-scale bioanalytical studies based on liquid chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedovici, Andrei; Bacalum, Elena; David, Victor

    2018-01-01

    Quality of the analytical data obtained for large-scale and long term bioanalytical studies based on liquid chromatography depends on a number of experimental factors including the choice of sample preparation method. This review discusses this tedious part of bioanalytical studies, applied to large-scale samples and using liquid chromatography coupled with different detector types as core analytical technique. The main sample preparation methods included in this paper are protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, derivatization and their versions. They are discussed by analytical performances, fields of applications, advantages and disadvantages. The cited literature covers mainly the analytical achievements during the last decade, although several previous papers became more valuable in time and they are included in this review. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fundulus heteroclitus gonadotropins.5: Small scale chromatographic fractionation of pituitary extracts into components with different steroidogenic activities using homologous bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrino Teresa R

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fractionation and characterization of gonadotropins (GtH from Fundulus heteroclitus pituitary extracts were carried out using a biocompatible liquid chromatographic procedure (Pharmacia FPLC system. Chromatographic fractions were monitored for gonadotropic activities (induction of oocyte maturation and steroid production using homologous follicle bioassays in vitro. Size-exclusion chromatography eluted gonadotropic activity in one major protein peak (Mr ~ 30,000. Anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography (HIC yielded two distinct peaks of 17beta-estradiol (E2- and 17alpha-hydroxy,20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP-promoting activity with associated oocyte maturation. Two-dimensional chromatography (chromatofocusing followed by HIC resolved pituitary extracts into two active fractions; both induced E2 synthesis, but one was relatively poor in eliciting DHP and testosterone production. Thus, using homologous bioassays, at least two quantitatively different gonadotropic (steroidogenic activities: an E2-promoting gonadotropin (GtH I-like and a DHP-promoting gonadotropin (GtH II-like, which has a lower isoelectric point but greater hydrophobicity than the former, can be distinguished from F. heteroclitus pituitaries by a variety of chromatographic procedures. This study complements previous biochemical and molecular data in F. heteroclitus and substantiates the duality of GtH function in a multiple-spawning teleost.

  2. Pulsed corona demonstrator for semi-industrial scale air purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, F.J.C.M.; Hoeben, W.F.L.M.; Huiskamp, T.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Although pulsed corona technology for air purification is widely investigated by the lab experiments, large-scale application has yet to be proven. Industrial systems require large flow handling and thus, high corona power. An autonomous semi-industrial scale pilot wire-cylinder type corona reactor

  3. Chromatographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhol, M.; Stary, J.

    1975-01-01

    The characteristics are given of chromatographic separation and the methods are listed. Methods and data on materials used in partition, adsorption, precipitation and ion exchange chromatography are listed and conditions are described under which ion partition takes place. Special attention is devoted to ion exchange chromatography where tables are given to show the course of values of the partition coefficients of different ions in dependence on the concentration of agents and the course of equilibrium sorptions on different materials in dependence on the solution pH. A theoretical analysis is given and the properties of the most widely used ion exchangers are listed. Experimental conditions and apparatus used for each type of chromatography are listed. (L.K.)

  4. management and growth paradox of rural small-scale industrial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: Rural Small-Scale Industries, firm growth, management, proprietors, workforce ... veloping countries as a solution to the problem of scarcity .... In the analysis logistic regression sta- ..... of imported raw materials such as high cost and.

  5. Gamma Ray Tomographic Scan Method for Large Scale Industrial Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jin Ho; Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Park, Jang Geun

    2011-01-01

    The gamma ray tomography systems have been used to investigate a chemical process for last decade. There have been many cases of gamma ray tomography for laboratory scale work but not many cases for industrial scale work. Non-tomographic equipment with gamma-ray sources is often used in process diagnosis. Gamma radiography, gamma column scanning and the radioisotope tracer technique are examples of gamma ray application in industries. In spite of many outdoor non-gamma ray tomographic equipment, the most of gamma ray tomographic systems still remained as indoor equipment. But, as the gamma tomography has developed, the demand on gamma tomography for real scale plants also increased. To develop the industrial scale system, we introduced the gamma-ray tomographic system with fixed detectors and rotating source. The general system configuration is similar to 4 th generation geometry. But the main effort has been made to actualize the instant installation of the system for real scale industrial plant. This work would be a first attempt to apply the 4th generation industrial gamma tomographic scanning by experimental method. The individual 0.5-inch NaI detector was used for gamma ray detection by configuring circular shape around industrial plant. This tomographic scan method can reduce mechanical complexity and require a much smaller space than a conventional CT. Those properties make it easy to get measurement data for a real scale plant

  6. Determination of lead 210 in scales from industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Lígia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Barbosa, João B.S.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial processes such as oil and gas extraction and groundwater exploitation are examples of installations that can accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) during the extraction and production. Lead-210 deposits in the production can be formed by the same mechanisms that occur in the environment through the support of Radon-222, (where 210 Pb is produced at 222 Rn decay) or without support, as 210 Pb. The objective of this work is to evaluate the mineralogical characteristics and determine the activity of lead-210 in the scales using the X-Ray Diffraction and Gamma Spectrometry techniques. Were analyzed fifteen samples, four scales from oil industry, ten scales from groundwater conductors and one for groundwater supply pipe. The highest activity found in the oil scale and groundwater conductors scale was 0.30 ± 0.06 Bq g -1 and 3.80 ± 0.20 Bq g -1 , respectively. (author)

  7. Determination of lead 210 in scales from industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Lígia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Barbosa, João B.S., E-mail: ligsfaria@gmail.com, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br, E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br, E-mail: jbsb@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Industrial processes such as oil and gas extraction and groundwater exploitation are examples of installations that can accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) during the extraction and production. Lead-210 deposits in the production can be formed by the same mechanisms that occur in the environment through the support of Radon-222, (where {sup 210}Pb is produced at {sup 222}Rn decay) or without support, as {sup 210}Pb. The objective of this work is to evaluate the mineralogical characteristics and determine the activity of lead-210 in the scales using the X-Ray Diffraction and Gamma Spectrometry techniques. Were analyzed fifteen samples, four scales from oil industry, ten scales from groundwater conductors and one for groundwater supply pipe. The highest activity found in the oil scale and groundwater conductors scale was 0.30 ± 0.06 Bq g{sup -1} and 3.80 ± 0.20 Bq g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  8. Application of RCM to a medium scale industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, V.S.; Modak, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The factors which are assuming considerable importance in cost effective decision making of operation of any industrial enterprise are in the order of significance liability, safety and environmental conditions. Hence, preventive maintenance (PM) optimisation is providing wide opportunities and challenges to everyone involved in all aspects of operation of industrial enterprise. Reliability centred maintenance (RCM) methodology offers the best available strategy for PM optimisation. It incorporates a new understanding of the ways in which equipment fails. In this paper, the concept of RCM has been applied to steel melting shop of a medium scale steel industry. By systematically applying the RCM methodology, failures, failure causes and effects on the system are analysed. To preserve the system function, PM categories are suggested for various failure modes in the components such as (1) time directed (2) condition directed (3) failure finding (4) run to failure. Features of predictive maintenance of a medium scale steel industry are deduced through this paper in a rather generalised form

  9. Economies of scale, technology, and intra-industry trade

    OpenAIRE

    Inagawa Nobuo

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test empirically economies of scale, defined by technologyin Intra-Industry Trade(IIT). B.Balassa found first the existence of IIT. Grubeland Lloyd, Linder, Dreze, and others treated IIT as consisting of final goods.But P.Raymentfound that IIT consists mostly of intermediate goods and he tried to explain IIT byeconomies of scale and specialization. However, to test the relationship between economiesof scale and IIT, I will use I.Ozaki's definition on economies ...

  10. Genome-scale biological models for industrial microbial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nan; Ye, Chao; Liu, Liming

    2018-04-01

    The primary aims and challenges associated with microbial fermentation include achieving faster cell growth, higher productivity, and more robust production processes. Genome-scale biological models, predicting the formation of an interaction among genetic materials, enzymes, and metabolites, constitute a systematic and comprehensive platform to analyze and optimize the microbial growth and production of biological products. Genome-scale biological models can help optimize microbial growth-associated traits by simulating biomass formation, predicting growth rates, and identifying the requirements for cell growth. With regard to microbial product biosynthesis, genome-scale biological models can be used to design product biosynthetic pathways, accelerate production efficiency, and reduce metabolic side effects, leading to improved production performance. The present review discusses the development of microbial genome-scale biological models since their emergence and emphasizes their pertinent application in improving industrial microbial fermentation of biological products.

  11. Study of mortars with industrial residual plastic scales

    OpenAIRE

    Magariños, O. E.; Alderete, C. E.; Arias, L. E.; Lucca, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    This work proposes the utilization of industrial residues of PET (Polyethylene Terephtalate) as a partial substitute of arids (sand) in mortar making for construction components. Therefore, the environmental impact of large volumes of plastic of urban residues could be decreased. When PET scales were added to mortars in partial replacement of sand, lower unitary weight, acceptable absorption and resistances according to international specifications were achieved. Mortars with 66% of sand...

  12. Chromatographic studies of the lanthanide element separation for the americium/curium large scale separation using ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginisty, Claude.

    1981-06-01

    The Am/Cm large scale separations, operated by chromatography with the use of ion exchange resins, are described by numerous publications. The bibliographic studies allow to retain the followed points: use of sulfonate cationic resins, development by elution with the α-hydroxyisobutyric acid, column loadings between 1 and 30% of the capacity, possibility to use no radioactive lanthanides prior to actinides for trial purposes. The optimisation of such a process is the major part of this thesis. This point is realised by introducing a new definition for the resolution, for non symmetrical elution peaks, and a measure of this dissymmetry by introducing a shape factor F. For the separation itself and for the pressure drop in the column, the influence of the following parameters are studied: composition of the elution solution (concentration and pH), column temperature (20 to 90 0 C), resin size (9 to 27 μm), rate flow of mobile phase (70 ml.cm -2 .mn -1 ), column length and diameter. Symmetrical elution peaks may be obtained, even with a 27% loading. Elution conditions may be modified during the separation process in order to have the best recovery for the two components (1,3 [fr

  13. Barriers to innovation in small-scale industries: case study from the briquetting industry in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the innovation process in small- and medium-scale industries in developing countries, raking the briquetting (densification of biomass) as a case study. The technical efficiency was found to vary significantly between firms, which can be attributed to the lack of technological

  14. Improved Chromatographic Bioavailability Estimations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dorsey, John

    1996-01-01

    .... Since the inception of reversed phase liquid chromatography there have been many attempts to correlate chromatographic retention with bioavailability and the most often used bulk measure, the octanol...

  15. Industrial versus Laboratory Clinker Processing Using Grinding Aids (Scale Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jean Assaad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of grinding aid (GA effect on clinker processing in laboratory grinding mills is relatively simple. Yet, the results obtained cannot be directly transposed to industrial mills, given the fundamentally different operational modes and grinding parameters. This paper seeks to evaluate the scale effect by comparing the results obtained from a closed-circuit tube mill operating at 90 ton/hr to those determined using a 50-liter laboratory mill. Tests results have shown that the decrease in specific energy consumption (Ec due to glycol or amine-based GA can be evaluated under laboratory conditions. However, such tests underestimate the actual performance that could be achieved in real-scale mills; the Ec reduction due to GA is around twofold higher when grinding is performed in real-scale mill. Compared to industrial tests, the cement particle size distribution curves widened and shifted towards higher diameters when grinding was performed under laboratory conditions, particularly with GA additions. This led to remarkable changes in water demand, setting time, and 1- and 28-day compressive strengths.

  16. Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN

  17. Optimization of large-scale industrial systems : an emerging method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammache, A.; Aube, F.; Benali, M.; Cantave, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, PQ (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviewed optimization methods of large-scale industrial production systems and presented a novel systematic multi-objective and multi-scale optimization methodology. The methodology was based on a combined local optimality search with global optimality determination, and advanced system decomposition and constraint handling. The proposed method focused on the simultaneous optimization of the energy, economy and ecology aspects of industrial systems (E{sup 3}-ISO). The aim of the methodology was to provide guidelines for decision-making strategies. The approach was based on evolutionary algorithms (EA) with specifications including hybridization of global optimality determination with a local optimality search; a self-adaptive algorithm to account for the dynamic changes of operating parameters and design variables occurring during the optimization process; interactive optimization; advanced constraint handling and decomposition strategy; and object-oriented programming and parallelization techniques. Flowcharts of the working principles of the basic EA were presented. It was concluded that the EA uses a novel decomposition and constraint handling technique to enhance the Pareto solution search procedure for multi-objective problems. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Comparative analyses of industrial-scale human platelet lysate preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jan; Benedetti, Eric; Preslar, Amber; Jacobson, Pam; Jin, Ping; Stroncek, David F; Reems, Jo-Anna

    2017-12-01

    Efforts are underway to eliminate fetal bovine serum from mammalian cell cultures for clinical use. An emerging, viable replacement option for fetal bovine serum is human platelet lysate (PL) as either a plasma-based or serum-based product. Nine industrial-scale, serum-based PL manufacturing runs (i.e., lots) were performed, consisting of an average ± standard deviation volume of 24.6 ± 2.2 liters of pooled, platelet-rich plasma units that were obtained from apheresis donors. Manufactured lots were compared by evaluating various biochemical and functional test results. Comprehensive cytokine profiles of PL lots and product stability tests were performed. Global gene expression profiles of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) cultured with plasma-based or serum-based PL were compared to MSCs cultured with fetal bovine serum. Electrolyte and protein levels were relatively consistent among all serum-based PL lots, with only slight variations in glucose and calcium levels. All nine lots were as good as or better than fetal bovine serum in expanding MSCs. Serum-based PL stored at -80°C remained stable over 2 years. Quantitative cytokine arrays showed similarities as well as dissimilarities in the proteins present in serum-based PL. Greater differences in MSC gene expression profiles were attributable to the starting cell source rather than with the use of either PL or fetal bovine serum as a culture supplement. Using a large-scale, standardized method, lot-to-lot variations were noted for industrial-scale preparations of serum-based PL products. However, all lots performed as well as or better than fetal bovine serum in supporting MSC growth. Together, these data indicate that off-the-shelf PL is a feasible substitute for fetal bovine serum in MSC cultures. © 2017 AABB.

  19. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Chromatographic Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanne E. Pemberton

    2011-03-10

    Chromatographic separations play a central role in DOE-supported fundamental research related to energy, biological systems, the environment, and nuclear science. The overall portfolio of research activities in the Separations and Analysis Program within the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences includes support for activities designed to develop a molecular-level understanding of the chemical processes that underlie separations for both large-scale and analytical-scale purposes. The research effort funded by this grant award was a continuation of DOE-supported research to develop vibrational spectroscopic methods to characterize the interfacial details of separations processes at a molecular level.

  20. Chromatographic separations of stereoisomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souter, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This text covers both diastereomers and enantiomers; describes techniques for GC, HPLC, and other chromatographic methods; and tabulates results of various applications by both techniques and compound class. It provides current knowledge about separation mechanisms and interactions of asymmetric molecules, as well as experimental and commercial materials such as columns, instruments, and derivatization reagents. The contents also include stereoisomer separations by gas chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by other chromatographic techniques.

  1. Scale-up and optimization of biohydrogen production reactor from laboratory-scale to industrial-scale on the basis of computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu; Ding, Jie; Guo, Wan-Qian; Ren, Nan-Qi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 202 Haihe Road, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The objective of conducting experiments in a laboratory is to gain data that helps in designing and operating large-scale biological processes. However, the scale-up and design of industrial-scale biohydrogen production reactors is still uncertain. In this paper, an established and proven Eulerian-Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was employed to perform hydrodynamics assessments of an industrial-scale continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) for biohydrogen production. The merits of the laboratory-scale CSTR and industrial-scale CSTR were compared and analyzed on the basis of CFD simulation. The outcomes demonstrated that there are many parameters that need to be optimized in the industrial-scale reactor, such as the velocity field and stagnation zone. According to the results of hydrodynamics evaluation, the structure of industrial-scale CSTR was optimized and the results are positive in terms of advancing the industrialization of biohydrogen production. (author)

  2. Metabolic engineering of strains: from industrial-scale to lab-scale chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Alper, Hal S

    2015-03-01

    A plethora of successful metabolic engineering case studies have been published over the past several decades. Here, we highlight a collection of microbially produced chemicals using a historical framework, starting with titers ranging from industrial scale (more than 50 g/L), to medium-scale (5-50 g/L), and lab-scale (0-5 g/L). Although engineered Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae emerge as prominent hosts in the literature as a result of well-developed genetic engineering tools, several novel native-producing strains are gaining attention. This review catalogs the current progress of metabolic engineering towards production of compounds such as acids, alcohols, amino acids, natural organic compounds, and others.

  3. Study of mortars with industrial residual plastic scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magariños, O. E.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the utilization of industrial residues of PET (Polyethylene Terephtalate as a partial substitute of arids (sand in mortar making for construction components. Therefore, the environmental impact of large volumes of plastic of urban residues could be decreased. When PET scales were added to mortars in partial replacement of sand, lower unitary weight, acceptable absorption and resistances according to international specifications were achieved. Mortars with 66% of sand replacement by scales and without any additive, showed optimal characteristics to be used in concret block manufacturing.

    Este trabajo de investigación se desarrolla a partir de la hipótesis de utilizar los desechos post-industriales de PET (Tereftalato de Polietileno como sustituto de áridos (arena, ingrediente de morteros, en la fabricación de componentes constructivos. En dicho trabajo se estudian las propiedades físico-químicas de distintos morteros en los que se reemplazó el contenido de árido por escamas de plástico en distintas proporciones. Se compararon y evaluaron las propiedades físico-mecánicas de los morteros en estudio con los convencionales mediante ensayos de resistencia a la flexión, compresión, absorción, durabilidad y microfotografías por barrido electrónico. Estos estudios determinaron que el agregado de PET en morteros puede ser usado como un posible sustituto de áridos, ya que se obtuvieron morteros con 66% de reemplazo de arena por escamas que presentaron menor peso unitario, absorción aceptable y resistencias acordes a las exigidas por normas.

  4. Scaled multisensor inspection of extended surfaces for industrial quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Daniel; Bothe, Thorsten; Osten, Wolfgang

    2002-06-01

    Reliable real-time surface inspection of extended surfaces with high resolution is needed in several industrial applications. With respect to an efficient application to extended technical components such as aircraft or automotive parts, the inspection system has to perform a robust measurement with a ratio of less then 10-6 between depth resolution and lateral extension. This ratio is at least one order beyond the solutions that are offered by existing technologies. The concept of scaled topometry consists of arranging different optical measurement techniques with overlapping ranges of resolution systematically in order to receive characteristic surface information with the required accuracy. In such a surface inspection system, an active algorithm combines measurements on several scales of resolution and distinguishes between local fault indicating structures with different extensions and global geometric properties. The first part of this active algorithm finds indications of critical surface areas in the data of every measurement and separates them into different categories. The second part analyses the detected structures in the data with respect to their resolution and decides whether a further local measurement with a higher resolution has to be performed. The third part positions the sensors and starts the refined measurements. The fourth part finally integrates the measured local data set into the overall data mesh. We have constructed a laboratory setup capable of measuring surfaces with extensions up to 1500mm x 1000mm x 500mm (in x-, y- and z-direction respectively). Using this measurement system we will be able to separate the fault indicating structures on the surface from the global shape and to classify the detected structures according to their extensions and characteristic shapes simultaneously. The level of fault detection probability will be applicable by input parameter control.

  5. Industrial scale-plant for HLW partitioning in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzekun, E.G.; Glagolenko, Y.V.; Drojko, E.G.; Kurochkin, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    Radiochemical plant of PA > at Ozersk, which was come on line in December 1948 originally for weapon plutonium production and reoriented on the reprocessing of spent fuel, till now keeps on storage HLW of the military program. Application of the vitrification method since 1986 has not essentially reduced HLW volumes. So, as of September 1, 1995 vitrification installations had been processed 9590 m 3 HLW and 235 MCi of radionuclides was included in glass. However only 1100 m 3 and 20.5 MCi is part of waste of the military program. The reason is the fact, that the technology and equipment of vitrification were developed for current waste of Purex-process, for which low contents of corrosion-dangerous impurity to materials of vitrification installation is characteristic of. With reference to HLW, which are growing at PA > in the course of weapon plutonium production, the program of Science-Research Works includes the following main directions of work. Development of technology and equipment of installations for immobilising HLW with high contents of impurity into a solid form at induction melter. Application of High-temperature Adsorption Method for sorption of radionuclides from HLW on silica gel. Application of Partitioning Method of radionuclides from HLW, based on extraction cesium and strontium into cobalt dicarbollyde or crown-ethers, but also on recovery of cesium radionuclides by sorption on inorganic sorbents. In this paper the results of work on creation of first industrial scale-plant for partitioning HLW by the extraction and sorption methods are reported

  6. Process improvement of knives production in a small scale industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Muktasim, Irfan

    2017-06-01

    Small scale industry that produces several kinds of knive should increase its capacity due to the demand from the market. Qualitatively, this case study consisted of formulating the problems, collecting and analyzing the necessary data, and determining the possible recommendations for the improvement. While the current capacity is only 9 (nine), it is expected that 20 units of knife will produced per month. The processes sequence are: profiling (a), truing (b), beveling (c), heat treatment (d), polishing (e), assembly (f), sharpening (g) and finishing (h). The first process (a) is held by out-house vendor company while other steps from (b) to (g) are executed by in-house vendor. However, there is a high dependency upon the high skilled operator who executes the in -house processes that are mostly held manually with several unbalance successive tasks, where the processing time of one or two tasks require longer duration than others since the operation is merely relied on the operator's skill. The idea is the improvement or change of the profiling and beveling process. Due to the poor surface quality and suboptimal hardness resulted from the laser cut machine for profiling, it is considered to subst itute this kind of process with wire cut that is capable to obtain good surface quality with certain range levels of roughness. Through simple cutting experiments on the samples, it is expected that the generated surface quality is adequate to omit the truing process (b). In addition, the cutting experiments on one, two, and four test samples resulted the shortest time that was obtained through four pieces in one cut. The technical parameters were set according to the recommendation of machine standard as referred to samples condition such as thickness and path length that affect ed the rate of wear. Meanwhile, in order to guarantee the uniformity of knife angles that are formed through beveling process (c), a grinding fixture was created. This kind of tool diminishes the

  7. Industrial-scale separation of high-purity single-chirality single-wall carbon nanotubes for biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomogida, Yohei; Tanaka, Takeshi; Zhang, Minfang; Yudasaka, Masako; Wei, Xiaojun; Kataura, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Single-chirality, single-wall carbon nanotubes are desired due to their inherent physical properties and performance characteristics. Here, we demonstrate a chromatographic separation method based on a newly discovered chirality-selective affinity between carbon nanotubes and a gel containing a mixture of the surfactants. In this system, two different selectivities are found: chiral-angle selectivity and diameter selectivity. Since the chirality of nanotubes is determined by the chiral angle and diameter, combining these independent selectivities leads to high-resolution single-chirality separation with milligram-scale throughput and high purity. Furthermore, we present efficient vascular imaging of mice using separated single-chirality (9,4) nanotubes. Due to efficient absorption and emission, blood vessels can be recognized even with the use of ∼100-fold lower injected dose than the reported value for pristine nanotubes. Thus, 1 day of separation provides material for up to 15,000 imaging experiments, which is acceptable for industrial use. PMID:27350127

  8. Bulgarian electricity market and the large-scale industrial customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, P.; Kanev, K.; Dyankov, M.; Minkov, N.

    2003-01-01

    The paper focuses on a brief overview of the Bulgarian Electricity Market Design and steps toward its development, as well as on preliminary analyses for market opening and influence of large industrial customers to system and market operation. (author)

  9. Productive Efficiency of Small Scale Sawmilling Industries in Mufindi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 80 small-scale sawmills in Mufindi District. Data were analysed using descriptive as well as quantitative methods. Technical, scale and allocative efficiency score of sawmills were computed using data envelopment analysis programme developed by Coelli. Censored ...

  10. Determination of Water Quality Degradation Due to Industrial and Household Wastewater in the Galing River in Kuantan, Malaysia Using Ion Chromatograph and Water Quality Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kozaki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of the Galing River in Kuantan, Malaysia was examined to understand the anthropogenic environmental load in each administrative section, using water quality monitoring data and land use pattern. The National Physical Plan 2005 identified Kuantan as one of the country’s future growth centers, which has resulted in rapid development and environmental degradation in the past decade. Multiple water quality indexes used by the Department of Environment, Malaysia and concentrations of several ionic species were examined to assess the river’s water quality. The following inferences were drawn in this study: (1 Cl− and Na+ concentrations indicated that the basin area near the eastern urbanized area was subject to lesser human influence and lower environmental burden; (2 the Western side of the Galing River was subject to higher anthropogenic influence and indicated lower class levels of ammoniacal nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen, compared to the eastern side; (3 Class V or near class V pH values were obtained upstream at the western side of the Galing River in the industrial area; (4 Two types of environmental burden were identified in the western side of the Galing River, namely, inflow of industrial wastewater upstream on the western side and the effect of household wastewater or untreated raw sewage wastewater.

  11. Scale of harvesting by non-industrial private forest landowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinda Vokoun; Gregory S. Amacher; David N. Wear

    2006-01-01

    We examine the intensity of harvesting decision by non-industrial landowners at the lowest price offer they deem acceptable, using a multiple bounded discrete choice stated preference approach that draws upon and connects two subfields of forestry, one identifying characteristics of landowners important to past harvesting or reforestation decisions, and another...

  12. Industrial-scale process control by means of electrostatics probes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špatenka, P.; Brunnhofer, Václav; Krumeich, J.; Blažek, J.; Šerý, M.; Endres, H. J.; Cook, R.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2001), s. 255-263 ISSN 1084-0184 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1592; GA MŠk OC 527.60 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  13. Low specific activity scale in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The NRPB present an illustrated fold-out leaflet in the At-a-glance series, for members of the oil industry, indicating the type of radioactivity to be met during off-shore drilling, possible hazards, doses, and precautions and procedures to be undertaken by workers. (author)

  14. Growth and Efficiency of Small Scale Industry and its Impact on Economic Development of Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali Junejo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the growth, efficiency, causes of sickness of small scale industry, emergence of entrepreneur and competencies of entrepreneurs at Larkana estate area of Sindh Province. The study examines the educational background of the entrepreneurs of small scale industry who are the helm of affairs and its impact on the growth of sales of the every year. Strong evidence emerges that owners of small industrial units are family concern and having a low educational background, lack of managerial knowledge and conservation-oriented attitude results in under utilization of capacity and low growth of units established every year. This research paper provides a survey of the theoretical and empirical literature relating to promote the small scale industry in the Larkana region. This study indicates effective policy measures to promote the small scale industry particularly in Larkana region and generally in Pakistan.

  15. Laboratory scale studies on removal of chromium from industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, M A; Mir, Mohsin; Murtaza, Shazad; Bhatti, Zafar I

    2003-05-01

    Chromium being one of the major toxic pollutants is discharged from electroplating and chrome tanning processes and is also found in the effluents of dyes, paint pigments, manufacturing units etc. Chromium exists in aqueous systems in both trivalent (Cr(3+)) and hexavalent (Cr(6+)) forms. The hexavalent form is carcinogenic and toxic to aquatic life, whereas Cr(3+) is however comparatively less toxic. This study was undertaken to investigate the total chromium removal from industrial effluents by chemical means in order to achieve the Pakistan NEQS level of 1 mg/L by the methods of reduction and precipitation. The study was conducted in four phases. In phase I, the optimum pH and cost effective reducing agent among the four popular commercial chemicals was selected. As a result, pH of 2 was found to be most suitable and sodium meta bisulfate was found to be the most cost effective reducing agent respectively. Phase II showed that lower dose of sodium meta bisulfate was sufficient to obtain 100% efficiency in reducing Cr(6+) to Cr(3+), and it was noted that reaction time had no significance in the whole process. A design curve for reduction process was established which can act as a tool for treatment of industrial effluents. Phase III studies indicated the best pH was 8.5 for precipitation of Cr(3+) to chromium hydroxide by using lime. An efficiency of 100% was achievable and a settling time of 30 minutes produced clear effluent. Finally in Phase IV actual waste samples from chrome tanning and electroplating industries, when precipitated at pH of 12 gave 100% efficiency at a settling time of 30 minutes and confined that chemical means of reduction and precipitation is a feasible and viable solution for treating chromium wastes from industries.

  16. Performance prediction of industrial centrifuges using scale-down models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boychyn, M; Yim, S S S; Bulmer, M; More, J; Bracewell, D G; Hoare, M

    2004-12-01

    Computational fluid dynamics was used to model the high flow forces found in the feed zone of a multichamber-bowl centrifuge and reproduce these in a small, high-speed rotating disc device. Linking the device to scale-down centrifugation, permitted good estimation of the performance of various continuous-flow centrifuges (disc stack, multichamber bowl, CARR Powerfuge) for shear-sensitive protein precipitates. Critically, the ultra scale-down centrifugation process proved to be a much more accurate predictor of production multichamber-bowl performance than was the pilot centrifuge.

  17. Impacts of Large Scale Wind Penetration on Energy Supply Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kabouris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Large penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES impacts Energy Supply Industry (ESI in many aspects leading to a fundamental change in electric power systems. It raises a number of technical challenges to the Transmission System Operators (TSOs, Distribution System Operators (DSOs and Wind Turbine Generators (WTG constructors. This paper aims to present in a thorough and coherent way the redrawn picture for Energy Systems under these conditions. Topics related to emergent technical challenges, technical solutions required and finally the impact on ESI due to large wind power penetration, are analyzed. Finally, general conclusions are extracted about the ESI current and future state and general directions are recommended.

  18. Lithium zirconate elements fabricated by industrial scale processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, N.

    1991-01-01

    Lithium metazirconate Li 2 ZrO 3 is one of the leading tritium breeding ceramics contemplated in solid blanket concepts for fusion reactors. Among its merits are fair physical properties, satisfactory compatibility with structural materials and beryllium, satisfactory mechanical strength, excellent irradiation behaviour as shown by a comparative irradiation of ceramics in the EBR II reactor, and very good tritium release performance as evidenced in the MOZART and EXOTIC neutron irradiations. Pechiney and the CEA are jointly involved in developing industrial fabrication of Li 2 ZrO 3 elements to the microstructural and geometrical specifications required for their use in the solid blankets as conceived in the European Program

  19. Off-Policy Reinforcement Learning: Optimal Operational Control for Two-Time-Scale Industrial Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinna; Kiumarsi, Bahare; Chai, Tianyou; Lewis, Frank L; Fan, Jialu

    2017-12-01

    Industrial flow lines are composed of unit processes operating on a fast time scale and performance measurements known as operational indices measured at a slower time scale. This paper presents a model-free optimal solution to a class of two time-scale industrial processes using off-policy reinforcement learning (RL). First, the lower-layer unit process control loop with a fast sampling period and the upper-layer operational index dynamics at a slow time scale are modeled. Second, a general optimal operational control problem is formulated to optimally prescribe the set-points for the unit industrial process. Then, a zero-sum game off-policy RL algorithm is developed to find the optimal set-points by using data measured in real-time. Finally, a simulation experiment is employed for an industrial flotation process to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Industry potential of large scale uses for peaceful nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, P.L.

    1969-01-01

    The industrial potential for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions entering a critical stage of development. Should Project Gasbuggy, an experiment to determine to what extent an underground nuclear explosion can stimulate the production of natural gas from low-permeability formations, prove a technical or economic success, a great step forward will have been made. Should other experiments now being considered in natural gas, oil shale, copper, coal, water resources, underground storage, and others, also demonstrate technical or economic advantage, it is conceivable to expect peaceful nuclear explosion to grow from our current rate of one or two experimental shots per year to hundreds of production explosions per year. This growth rate could be severely restricted or reduced to zero if public safety and environmental control cannot be exercised. (author)

  1. Brevion: the new small-scale industrial gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Dan; Perrins, Robert; Gibson, Wayne; Levesque, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The economical processing of low-volume products has been a challenge to the gamma industry since inception, influencing customers to send their products to contractors or choose alternative technologies. With the introduction of the Brevion irradiator (patent pending), economical gamma processing of low annual volume product lines is now possible. This innovative design is specifically targeted at plants processing product volumes of up to 20,000 m 3 /yr. Brevion provides good cobalt efficiency and good dose uniformity, thus processing these volumes efficiently and economically. The Brevion facility has the distinct advantage of a low capital cost, compared to medium-sized automatic tote plants, while maintaining similar performance. Lead-time for the construction phase is also considerably shorter, resulting in significantly lower start-up costs. Companies with low-volume product lines can now achieve the control provided by in-house processing, and eliminate transportation time and costs associated with shipping products off-site

  2. Industry potential of large scale uses for peaceful nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P L [Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The industrial potential for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions entering a critical stage of development. Should Project Gasbuggy, an experiment to determine to what extent an underground nuclear explosion can stimulate the production of natural gas from low-permeability formations, prove a technical or economic success, a great step forward will have been made. Should other experiments now being considered in natural gas, oil shale, copper, coal, water resources, underground storage, and others, also demonstrate technical or economic advantage, it is conceivable to expect peaceful nuclear explosion to grow from our current rate of one or two experimental shots per year to hundreds of production explosions per year. This growth rate could be severely restricted or reduced to zero if public safety and environmental control cannot be exercised. (author)

  3. PARTITION EFFICIENCY OF NEWLY DESIGNED LOCULAR MULTILAYER COIL FOR COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF PROTEINS USING SMALL-SCALE CROSS-AXIS COIL PLANET CENTRIFUGE WITH AQUEOUS-AQUEOUS POLYMER PHASE SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Ito, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Countercurrent chromatographic performance of the locular multilayer coil separation column newly designed in our laboratory was evaluated in terms of theoretical plate number, peak resolution and retention of the stationary phase in protein separation with an aqueous polymer phase system using the small-scale cross-axis coil planet centrifuge (X-axis CPC) fabricated in our laboratory. The locular column was made from 1.0 mm I.D., 2.0 mm O.D. or 1.5 mm I.D., 2.5 mm O.D. PTFE tubing compressed with a pair of hemostat at 2 or 4 cm intervals. The protein separation was performed using a set of stable proteins including cytochrome C, myoglobin and lysozyme with the 12.5% (w/w) polyethylene glycol 1000 and 12.5% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate system under 1000 rpm of column revolution. The 1.5 mm I.D., 2.5 mm O.D. locular tubing compressed at 2 cm intervals yielded better partition efficiencies than the non-clamped tubing using both lower and upper mobile phases with satisfactory retention of the stationary phase. The overall results suggest that the newly designed locular multilayer coil is useful to the preparative separation of proteins with aqueous-aqueous polymer phase system using our small-scale X-axis CPC.

  4. Air pollution and economics: Alternate use of fuels in small scale industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.P.S.; Pandit, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    In developing countries the problem of air pollution was recognized earlier, however, it has acquired a greater dimension due to the conventional use of low grade fuels like coal, baggase, rice husk, etc. having high sulphur and ash content. The industrial sources contribute about 30--40% of the total emissions. In India, the small scale industries (low investment group) contribute about 60--80% of the total industrial emissions. These industries are characterized with various environmental pollution problems due to cluster of small scale industries located in sensitive area; use of low grade fuel, primitive processing techniques without emission abatement facilities etc., thus leading to enormous pollution in an confined region. Acute need was felt to reduce the pollution problem associated with small scale industries by use of cleaner fuel so as to reduce the localized problem. The paper presents the emissions associated with use of coal/coke, natural gas, LPG, and propane along with the fuel cost for small scale industrial sector of Agra, Firozabad and Mathura region. The studies carried out would find applicability to meet the air pollution standards based on shift in fuel and associated cost

  5. Playing the Scales: Regional Transformations and the Differentiation of Rural Space in the Chilean Wine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, John; Murray, Warwick E.

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and industrial restructuring transform rural places in complex and often contradictory ways. These involve both quantitative changes, increasing the size and scope of operation to achieve economies of scale, and qualitative shifts, sometimes leading to a shift up the quality/price scale, towards finer spatial resolution and…

  6. Experimental evidence for convergent evolution of maternal care heuristics in industrialized and small-scale populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnick, Geoff; Hanowell, Ben; Kim, Jun-Hong; Langstieh, Banrida; Magnano, Vittorio; Oláh, Katalin

    2015-06-01

    Maternal care decision rules should evolve responsiveness to factors impinging on the fitness pay-offs of care. Because the caretaking environments common in industrialized and small-scale societies vary in predictable ways, we hypothesize that heuristics guiding maternal behaviour will also differ between these two types of populations. We used a factorial vignette experiment to elicit third-party judgements about likely caretaking decisions of a hypothetical mother and her child when various fitness-relevant factors (maternal age and access to resources, and offspring age, sex and quality) were varied systematically in seven populations-three industrialized and four small-scale. Despite considerable variation in responses, we found that three of five main effects, and the two severity effects, exhibited statistically significant industrialized/ small-scale population differences. All differences could be explained as adaptive solutions to industrialized versus small-scale caretaking environments. Further, we found gradients in the relationship between the population-specific estimates and national-level socio-economic indicators, further implicating important aspects of the variation in industrialized and small-scale caretaking environments in shaping heuristics. Although there is mounting evidence for a genetic component to human maternal behaviour, there is no current evidence for interpopulation variation in candidate genes. We nonetheless suggest that heuristics guiding maternal behaviour in diverse societies emerge via convergent evolution in response to similar selective pressures.

  7. Development and validation of a new safety climate scale for petrochemical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Eskandari, Davood; Valipour, Firouz; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Charkhand, Hossein; Mirghotbi, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    While a considerable body of research has studied safety climate and its role as a leading indicator of organizational safety, much of this work has been conducted with Western manufacturing samples. The current study puts emphasis on the cross-validation of a safety climate model in the non-Western industrial context of Iranian petrochemical industries. The current study was performed in one petrochemical company in Iran. The scale was developed through conducting a literature review followed by a qualitative study with expert participation. After performing a screening process, the initial number of items on the scale was reduced to 68. Ten dimensions (including management commitment, workers' empowerment, communication, blame culture, safety training, job satisfaction, interpersonal relationship, supervision, continuous improvement, and reward system) together with 37 items were extracted from the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to measure safety climate. Acceptable ranges of internal consistency statistics for the sub-scales were observed. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the construct validity of the developed safety climate scale for the petrochemical industry workers. The results of reliability showed that the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the designed scale was 0.94. The ICC was obtained 0.92. This study created a valid and reliable scale for measuring safety climate in petrochemical industries.

  8. Allergen sanitation in the food industry: a systematic industrial scale approach to reduce hazelnut cross-contamination of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Baltruweit, Iris; Gruyters, Helwig; Ibach, Anja; Mücke, Ingo; Matissek, Reinhard; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Recently, we investigated the impact of shared equipment on cross-contamination of cookies at a pilot plant scale. Based on those findings, this study investigated the extent and subsequent sanitation of hazelnut cross-contamination (HNCC) of cookies at the industrial scale. Similarly, a product change from cookies with hazelnut ingredient to cookies without hazelnut was performed on standard equipment. HNCC in the hazelnut-free follow-up product was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for each production device and the applied cleaning procedure. All experiments were repeated in duplicate. The highest HNCC was found in concordance with previous studies after mere mechanical scraping: more than 1,000 mg of hazelnut protein per kg was quantified in the follow-up product after processing by a cookie machine. Additional cleaning with hot water decreased the HNCC irrespective of the processing device to levels at or below 1 mg of hazelnut protein per kg. Furthermore, raw materials for cookie production were monitored over a period of 24 months for unwanted preloads of hazelnut and peanut: hazelnut was quantified in 16% of the investigated raw materials as being between 0.26 and 90 mg/kg. Further critical control points at the industrial scale, where cross-contamination might occur, were identified but did not display noteworthy sources of cross-contamination. In conclusion, the quantitative monitoring of the cleaning efficiency at the industrial scale confirmed the procedure of manual scraping plus wet cleaning as a qualified sanitation procedure to effectively reduce the hazelnut protein cross-contamination down to a level at which severe hazelnut-related allergic reactions are unlikely to occur.

  9. Validation of the Hospitality Culture Scale in the context of hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, A.; Alturas, B.; Laureano, R.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to validate the final factors for the Organizational Culture of the Hospitality Culture Scale which consists of the following four dimensions: management principles, customer relationships, job variety, and job satisfaction in the context of hotel industry organizations both in Brazil and Portugal. To this end, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed, where two hundred and fifty-nine hotel industry professionals were rated. The presented results support a structure ...

  10. An analysis of the Spanish electrical utility industry. Economies of scale, technological progress and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, Angel; De Toledo, Pablo Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to explain the behaviour of the Spanish electrical utility industry during the period 1987-1997, under the then existing regulatory system (Marco Legal Estable). The paper will study the presence of economies of scale, the effect of technological progress and the differences in the efficiency of the different companies within the market. The paper concludes that the Spanish electrical utility industry was not, in fact, characterized by economies of scale during this period, but witnessed a great improvement in efficiency within that period. All the critical market factors remind stable. (author)

  11. Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Potential: Simulation of Lab and Industrial-Scale Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ihsan Hamawand; Craig Baillie

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a simulation was carried out using BioWin 3.1 to test the capability of the software to predict the biogas potential for two different anaerobic systems. The two scenarios included: (1) a laboratory-scale batch reactor; and (2) an industrial-scale anaerobic continuous lagoon digester. The measured data related to the operating conditions, the reactor design parameters and the chemical properties of influent wastewater were entered into BioWin. A sensitivity analysis was carried...

  12. Occupational health issues in small-scale industries in Sri Lanka: An underreported burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraweera, Inoka K; Wijesinghe, Supun D; Senanayake, Sameera J; Herath, Hema D B; Jayalal, T B Ananda

    2016-10-17

    Work-related diseases and occupational accidents affect a significant number of workers globally. The majority of these diseases and accidents are reported from developing countries; and a large percentage of the workforce in developing countries is estimated to be employed in small-scale industries. Sri Lanka is no exception. These workers are exposed to occupational hazards and are at a great risk of developing work- related diseases and injuries. To identify occupational health issues faced by small-scale industry workers in Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was conducted among workers in four selected small-scale industry categories in two districts of Sri Lanka. A small-scale industry was defined as a work setting with less than 20 workers. Cluster sampling using probability proportionate to size of workers was used. Eighty clusters with a cluster size of eight from each district were selected. Data was collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Our study surveyed 198 industries. Headache (2.2%, 95% CI 1.5-3.1) and eye problems (2.1%, 95% CI 1.4-2.9) were the commonest general health issues detected. Back pain (4.8%, 95% CI 3.8-6.1) was the most prevalent work-related musculoskeletal pain reported. Knee pain was the second highest (4.4%, 95% CI 3.4-5.6). Most of the work-related musculoskeletal pain was either of short duration or long lasting. Work-related musculoskeletal pain was much more common than the general health issues reported. Health promotional programs at workplaces focusing ergonomics will benefit the workers at small-scale industries inSri Lanka.

  13. Modeling industrial centrifugation of mammalian cell culture using a capillary based scale-down system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westoby, Matthew; Rogers, Jameson K; Haverstock, Ryan; Romero, Jonathan; Pieracci, John

    2011-05-01

    Continuous-flow centrifugation is widely utilized as the primary clarification step in the recovery of biopharmaceuticals from cell culture. However, it is a challenging operation to develop and characterize due to the lack of easy to use, small-scale, systems that can be used to model industrial processes. As a result, pilot-scale continuous centrifugation is typically employed to model large-scale systems requiring a significant amount of resources. In an effort to reduce resource requirements and create a system which is easy to construct and utilize, a capillary shear device, capable of producing energy dissipation rates equivalent to those present in the feed zones of industrial disk stack centrifuges, was developed and evaluated. When coupled to a bench-top, batch centrifuge, the capillary device reduced centrate turbidity prediction error from 37% to 4% compared to using a bench-top centrifuge alone. Laboratory-scale parameters that are analogous to those routinely varied during industrial-scale continuous centrifugation were identified and evaluated for their utility in emulating disk stack centrifuge performance. The resulting relationships enable bench-scale process modeling of continuous disk stack centrifuges using an easily constructed, scalable, capillary shear device coupled to a typical bench-top centrifuge. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Nano-Scale Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC S) for Industrial and Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    A one-year project was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to explore the technical and economic feasibility of producing nano-scale Interpenetrating Phase Composite (IPC) components of a usable size for actual testing/implementation in a real applications such as high wear/corrosion resistant refractory shapes for industrial applications, lightweight vehicle braking system components, or lower cost/higher performance military body and vehicle armor. Nano-scale IPC s with improved mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties have previously been demonstrated at the lab scale, but have been limited in size. The work performed under this project was focused on investigating the ability to take the current traditional lab scale processes to a manufacturing scale through scaling of these processes or through the utilization of an alternative high-temperature process.

  15. Coping with Power Interruptions in Tanzania: An Industrial Perspective A Case Study of One Small Scale Animal Food Processing Industry in Moshi Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Kavishe, Theodora Ephrem

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in Moshi-Tanzania. The research topic is Coping with Power Interruptions in Tanzania.An Industrial Perspesctive:A Case Study of one Small Scale Animal Food Processing Industry in Moshi Municipality.The objectives are (1) to explore perceptions of staff in the industry and among TANESCO towards interruptions in power supply (2) to describe the coping strategies developed by the industry under study. The study was guided by Resource Dependence Theory (RDT) by Pfeffer an...

  16. Pilot-scale testing membrane bioreactor for wastewater reclamation in industrial laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin; Kristensen, Gert Holm; Brynjolf, M.

    2002-01-01

    A pilot-scale study of membrane bioreactor treatment for reclamation of wastewater from Berendsen Textile Service industrial laundry in Søborg, Denmark was carried out over a 4 month period. A satisfactory COD degradation was performed resulting in a low COD in the permeate (

  17. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT TO ELABORATE COMMON WHITE WINE IN MISIONES, WITH ECONOMIC EVALUATION AT INDUSTRIAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miño Valdés, Juan Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to develop a sustainable technology on an industrial scale to produce common white wine with non viniferous grapes cultivated in Misiones. This technological project was initiated at a laboratory scale, continued in the pilot plant and industrial-scale project. It was considered as a productive unit to 12 rural families with 27 hectares of vines each. The 8 stages followed with inductive and deductive methodology were: The development of dry white wine at laboratory scale. The evaluation of process variables in the vivification. The mathematical modeling of the alcoholic fermentation in oenological conditions. The valuation of the aptitude of wines for human consumption. The establishment of a technological procedure for wine in the pilot plant. The evaluation of the pilot plant in technological procedure established. The calculation and selection of industrial equipment. The estimate of the costs and profitability of industrial technological process. It reached a technology for a production capacity of 5,834 L day-1, with dynamic economic indicators whose values were: net present value of 6,602,666 U$D, an internal rate of return of 60 % for a period of recovery of investment to net present value of 3 years.

  18. STAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR OBTAINIGN AN ECONOMIC WHITE WINE TO AN INDUSTRIAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Esteban Miño Valdés

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to develop a sustainable technology to produce economical white wine, industrial scale, not viniferous grapes grown in Misiones. This technological project started at laboratory scale, it continued in a pilot plant and planned to an industrial scale. It was considered as productive unit 12 rural families with 27 hectares of vines each. The 8 stages followed with inductive and deductive methodology were: the development of dry white wine at laboratory scale, the evaluation of the variables of the process in the vilification, the Mathematical modeling of alcoholic fermentation in winemaking conditions, the assessment of the fitness of wines for human consumption, the establishment of a technological process for winemaking in a pilot plant, the evaluation in pilot plant of the technological process established, the calculation and selection of industrial equipment and finally, the costs estimation and profitability of the industrial technological process. A technology for a production capacity of 5,834 L day-1, with dynamic economic indicators was reached whose values were 6,602,666 net present value of U$D, an internal rate of return of 60 % for a period of payback a value net of three years to date.

  19. Development of Affordable, Low-Carbon Hydrogen Supplies at an Industrial Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Dermot J.

    2008-01-01

    An existing industrial hydrogen generation and distribution infrastructure is described, and a number of large-scale investment projects are outlined. All of these projects have the potential to generate significant volumes of low-cost, low-carbon hydrogen. The technologies concerned range from gasification of coal with carbon capture and storage…

  20. Economies of scale and trends in the size of southern forest industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog

    1978-01-01

    In each of the major southern forest industries, the trend has been toward achieving economies of scale, that is, to build larger production units to reduce unit costs. Current minimum efficient plant size estimated by survivor analysis is 1,000 tons per day capacity for sulfate pulping, 100 million square feet (3/8- inch basis) annual capacity for softwood plywood,...

  1. A central solar-industrial waste heat heating system with large scale borehole thermal storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Xu, L.; Torrens, I.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new research of seasonal thermal storage is introduced. This study aims to maximize the utilization of renewable energy source and industrial waste heat (IWH) for urban district heating systems in both heating and non-heating seasons through the use of large-scale seasonal thermal

  2. Economies of scale and vertical integration in the investor-owed electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.G.; Islam, M.; Rose, K.

    1996-01-01

    This report analyzes the nature of costs in a vertically integrated electric utility. Findings provide new insights into the operations of the vertically integrated electric utility and supports earlier research on economics of scale and density; results also provide insights for policy makers dealing with electric industry restructuring issues such as competitive structure and mergers. Overall, results indicate that for most firms in the industry, average costs would not be reduced through expansion of generation, numbers of customers, or the delivery system. Evidently, the combination of benefits from large-scale technologies, managerial experience, coordination, or load diversity have been exhausted by the larger firms in the industry; however many firms would benefit from reducing their generation-to-sales ratio and by increasing sales to their existing customer base. Three cost models were used in the analysis

  3. Partition Efficiency of High-Pitch Locular Multilayer Coil for Countercurrent Chromatographic Separation of Proteins Using Small-Scale Cross-Axis Coil Planet Centrifuge and Application to Purification of Various Collagenases with Aqueous-Aqueous Polymer Phase Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Inokuchi, Norio; Nakagomi, Kazuya; Ito, Yoichiro

    2010-01-01

    Partition efficiency of the high-pitch locular multilayer coil was evaluated in countercurrent chromatographic (CCC) separation of proteins with an aqueous-aqueous polymer phase system using the small-scale cross-axis coil planet centrifuge (X-axis CPC) fabricated in our laboratory. The separation column was specially made by high-pitch (ca 5 cm) winding of 1.0 mm I.D., 2.0 mm O.D. locular tubing compressed at 2 cm intervals with a total capacity of 29.5 mL. The protein separation was performed using a set of stable proteins including cytochrome C, myoglobin, and lysozyme with the 12.5% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1000 and 12.5% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate system (pH 9.2) under 1000 rpm of column revolution. This high-pitch locular tubing yielded substantially increased stationary phase retention than the normal locular tubing for both lower and upper mobile phases. In order to demonstrate the capability of the high-pitch locular tubing, the purification of collagenase from the crude commercial sample was carried out using an aqueous-aqueous polymer phase system. Using the 16.0% (w/w) PEG 1000 – 6.3% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate – 6.3% (w/w) monobasic potassium phosphate system (pH 6.6), collagenase I, II, V and X derived from Clostridium hystolyticum were separated from other proteins and colored small molecular weight compounds present in the crude commercial sample, while collagenase N-2 and S-1 from Streptomyces parvulus subsp. citrinus were eluted with impurities at the solvent front with the upper phase. The collagenase from C. hystolyticum retained its enzymatic activity in the purified fractions. The overall results demonstrated that the high-pitch locular multilayer coil is effectively used for the CCC purification of bioactive compounds without loss of their enzymatic activities. PMID:21869859

  4. Evaluation of differences between dual salt-pH gradient elution and mono gradient elution using a thermodynamic model: Simultaneous separation of six monoclonal antibody charge and size variants on preparative-scale ion exchange chromatographic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi Feng; Jöhnck, Matthias; Frech, Christian

    2018-02-21

    The efficiencies of mono gradient elution and dual salt-pH gradient elution for separation of six mAb charge and size variants on a preparative-scale ion exchange chromatographic resin are compared in this study. Results showed that opposite dual salt-pH gradient elution with increasing pH gradient and simultaneously decreasing salt gradient is best suited for the separation of these mAb charge and size variants on Eshmuno ® CPX. Besides giving high binding capacity, this type of opposite dual salt-pH gradient also provides better resolved mAb variant peaks and lower conductivity in the elution pools compared to single pH or salt gradients. To have a mechanistic understanding of the differences in mAb variants retention behaviors of mono pH gradient, parallel dual salt-pH gradient, and opposite dual salt-pH gradient, a linear gradient elution model was used. After determining the model parameters using the linear gradient elution model, 2D plots were used to show the pH and salt dependencies of the reciprocals of distribution coefficient, equilibrium constant, and effective ionic capacity of the mAb variants in these gradient elution systems. Comparison of the 2D plots indicated that the advantage of opposite dual salt-pH gradient system with increasing pH gradient and simultaneously decreasing salt gradient is the noncontinuous increased acceleration of protein migration. Furthermore, the fitted model parameters can be used for the prediction and optimization of mAb variants separation in dual salt-pH gradient and step elution. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Partition Efficiency of High-Pitch Locular Multilayer Coil for Countercurrent Chromatographic Separation of Proteins Using Small-Scale Cross-Axis Coil Planet Centrifuge and Application to Purification of Various Collagenases with Aqueous-Aqueous Polymer Phase Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Inokuchi, Norio; Nakagomi, Kazuya; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Partition efficiency of the high-pitch locular multilayer coil was evaluated in countercurrent chromatographic (CCC) separation of proteins with an aqueous-aqueous polymer phase system using the small-scale cross-axis coil planet centrifuge (X-axis CPC) fabricated in our laboratory. The separation column was specially made by high-pitch (ca 5 cm) winding of 1.0 mm I.D., 2.0 mm O.D. locular tubing compressed at 2 cm intervals with a total capacity of 29.5 mL. The protein separation was performed using a set of stable proteins including cytochrome C, myoglobin, and lysozyme with the 12.5% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1000 and 12.5% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate system (pH 9.2) under 1000 rpm of column revolution. This high-pitch locular tubing yielded substantially increased stationary phase retention than the normal locular tubing for both lower and upper mobile phases. In order to demonstrate the capability of the high-pitch locular tubing, the purification of collagenase from the crude commercial sample was carried out using an aqueous-aqueous polymer phase system. Using the 16.0% (w/w) PEG 1000 - 6.3% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate - 6.3% (w/w) monobasic potassium phosphate system (pH 6.6), collagenase I, II, V and X derived from Clostridium hystolyticum were separated from other proteins and colored small molecular weight compounds present in the crude commercial sample, while collagenase N-2 and S-1 from Streptomyces parvulus subsp. citrinus were eluted with impurities at the solvent front with the upper phase. The collagenase from C. hystolyticum retained its enzymatic activity in the purified fractions. The overall results demonstrated that the high-pitch locular multilayer coil is effectively used for the CCC purification of bioactive compounds without loss of their enzymatic activities.

  6. Modeling of Thermochemical Behavior in an Industrial-Scale Rotary Hearth Furnace for Metallurgical Dust Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Liang; Jiang, Ze-Yi; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Xue, Qing-Guo; Yu, Ai-Bing; Shen, Yan-Song

    2017-10-01

    Metallurgical dusts can be recycled through direct reduction in rotary hearth furnaces (RHFs) via addition into carbon-based composite pellets. While iron in the dust is recycled, several heavy and alkali metal elements harmful for blast furnace operation, including Zn, Pb, K, and Na, can also be separated and then recycled. However, there is a lack of understanding on thermochemical behavior related to direct reduction in an industrial-scale RHF, especially removal behavior of Zn, Pb, K, and Na, leading to technical issues in industrial practice. In this work, an integrated model of the direct reduction process in an industrial-scale RHF is described. The integrated model includes three mathematical submodels and one physical model, specifically, a three-dimensional (3-D) CFD model of gas flow and heat transfer in an RHF chamber, a one-dimensional (1-D) CFD model of direct reduction inside a pellet, an energy/mass equilibrium model, and a reduction physical experiment using a Si-Mo furnace. The model is validated by comparing the simulation results with measurements in terms of furnace temperature, furnace pressure, and pellet indexes. The model is then used for describing in-furnace phenomena and pellet behavior in terms of heat transfer, direct reduction, and removal of a range of heavy and alkali metal elements under industrial-scale RHF conditions. The results show that the furnace temperature in the preheating section should be kept at a higher level in an industrial-scale RHF compared with that in a pilot-scale RHF. The removal rates of heavy and alkali metal elements inside the composite pellet are all faster than iron metallization, specifically in the order of Pb, Zn, K, and Na.

  7. Validation of a pre-existing safety climate scale for the Turkish furniture manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Kadri Cemil; Yildirim, Ibrahim; Gungor, Celal

    2018-03-22

    Understanding the safety climate level is essential to implement a proactive safety program. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of having a safety climate scale for the Turkish furniture manufacturing industry since there has not been any scale available. The questionnaire recruited 783 subjects. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) tested a pre-existing safety scale's fit to the industry. The CFA indicated that the structures of the model present a non-satisfactory fit with the data (χ 2  = 2033.4, df = 314, p ≤ 0.001; root mean square error of approximation = 0.08, normed fit index = 0.65, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.65, comparative fit index = 0.69, parsimony goodness-of-fit index = 0.68). The results suggest that a new scale should be developed and validated to measure the safety climate level in the Turkish furniture manufacturing industry. Due to the hierarchical structure of organizations, future studies should consider a multilevel approach in their exploratory factor analyses while developing a new scale.

  8. Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility in Gambling Industry: Multi-Items Stakeholder Based Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ming Luo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Macau gambling companies included Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR information in their annual reports and websites as a marketing tool. Responsible Gambling (RG had been a recurring issue in Macau’s chief executive report since 2007 and in many of the major gambling operators’ annual report. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement scale on CSR activities in Macau. Items on the measurement scale were based on qualitative research with data collected from employees in Macau’s gambling industry and academic literature. First and Second Order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were used to verify the reliability and validity of the measurement scale. The results of this study were satisfactory and were supported by empirical evidence. This study provided recommendations to gambling stakeholders, including practitioners, government officers, customers and shareholders, and implications to promote CSR practice in Macau gambling industry.

  9. Industrial scale salt-free reactive dyeing of cationized cotton fabric with different reactive dye chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallathambi, Arivithamani; Venkateshwarapuram Rengaswami, Giri Dev

    2017-10-15

    Dyeing of knitted cotton goods in the industry has been mostly with reactive dyes. Handling of salt laden coloured effluent arising out of dyeing process is one of the prime concerns of the industry. Cationization of cotton is one of the effective alternative to overcome the above problem. But for cationization to be successful at industrial scale it has to be carried out by exhaust process and should be adoptable for the various dye chemistries currently practiced in the industry. Hence, in the present work, industrial level exhaust method of cationization process was carried out with concentration of 40g/L and 80g/L. The fabrics were dyed with dyes of three different dye chemistry and assessed for its dyeing performance without the addition of salt. Dye shades ranging from medium to extra dark shades were produced without the addition of salt. This study will provide industries the recipe that can be adopted for cationized cotton fabric for the widely used reactive dyes at industrial level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, D.D.

    A chromatographic system is described that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a nontransparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extreme low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  11. A Preliminary Review on Economies of Scale (EOS Towards Industrialized Building System (IBS Manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajul Ariffin Syazwana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrialized Building System (IBS is a potential technology to improve productivity of construction industry. Controlled production and minimum generation of construction waste are some of the benefits that can be achieved by replacing conventional construction with IBS. In business, IBS is giving a huge opportunity for manufacturer and supplier to expand their business while contributing to construction development. However, bad strategies will put the company in high risk due to higher initial capital for machines and equipment. Therefore, strategic planning for company’s growth, profit maximization, and enhancement of productivity is undeniable to ensure the success of business in construction industry. This preliminary paper is exploring associated factors that affect Economy of Scale (EOS and their relationships in catalyzing the IBS manufacturer especially precast concrete as the scope of study to continue their business in the construction industry. Thus, a framework of EOS is proposed to assist IBS manufacturers to ensure their company’s growth and stability, competitiveness in term of monopoly or an oligopoly, increasing productivity, leading constant returns to scale, and finally increasing the firm’s efficiency. The refined EOS’s conceptual framework is an important turning point to support the development of decision making tools for IBS manufacturer towards their stability and survival in this highly competitive industry.

  12. Potential for improved radiation thermometry measurement uncertainty through implementing a primary scale in an industrial laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Jon R.; Lowe, David; Broughton, Mick; White, Ben S.; Machin, Graham

    2016-09-01

    A primary temperature scale requires realising a unit in terms of its definition. For high temperature radiation thermometry in terms of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 this means extrapolating from the signal measured at the freezing temperature of gold, silver or copper using Planck’s radiation law. The difficulty in doing this means that primary scales above 1000 °C require specialist equipment and careful characterisation in order to achieve the extrapolation with sufficient accuracy. As such, maintenance of the scale at high temperatures is usually only practicable for National Metrology Institutes, and calibration laboratories have to rely on a scale calibrated against transfer standards. At lower temperatures it is practicable for an industrial calibration laboratory to have its own primary temperature scale, which reduces the number of steps between the primary scale and end user. Proposed changes to the SI that will introduce internationally accepted high temperature reference standards might make it practicable to have a primary high temperature scale in a calibration laboratory. In this study such a scale was established by calibrating radiation thermometers directly to high temperature reference standards. The possible reduction in uncertainty to an end user as a result of the reduced calibration chain was evaluated.

  13. Environmental justice implications of industrial hazardous waste generation in India: a national scale analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Pratyusha; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2016-12-01

    While rising air and water pollution have become issues of widespread public concern in India, the relationship between spatial distribution of environmental pollution and social disadvantage has received less attention. This lack of attention becomes particularly relevant in the context of industrial pollution, as India continues to pursue industrial development policies without sufficient regard to its adverse social impacts. This letter examines industrial pollution in India from an environmental justice (EJ) perspective by presenting a national scale study of social inequities in the distribution of industrial hazardous waste generation. Our analysis connects district-level data from the 2009 National Inventory of Hazardous Waste Generating Industries with variables representing urbanization, social disadvantage, and socioeconomic status from the 2011 Census of India. Our results indicate that more urbanized and densely populated districts with a higher proportion of socially and economically disadvantaged residents are significantly more likely to generate hazardous waste. The quantity of hazardous waste generated is significantly higher in more urbanized but sparsely populated districts with a higher proportion of economically disadvantaged households, after accounting for other relevant explanatory factors such as literacy and social disadvantage. These findings underscore the growing need to incorporate EJ considerations in future industrial development and waste management in India.

  14. Scale development of safety management system evaluation for the airline industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Fu; Chen, Shu-Chuan

    2012-07-01

    The airline industry relies on the implementation of Safety Management System (SMS) to integrate safety policies and augment safety performance at both organizational and individual levels. Although there are various degrees of SMS implementation in practice, a comprehensive scale measuring the essential dimensions of SMS is still lacking. This paper thus aims to develop an SMS measurement scale from the perspective of aviation experts and airline managers to evaluate the performance of company's safety management system, by adopting Schwab's (1980) three-stage scale development procedure. The results reveal a five-factor structure consisting of 23 items. The five factors include documentation and commands, safety promotion and training, executive management commitment, emergency preparedness and response plan and safety management policy. The implications of this SMS evaluation scale for practitioners and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Particle physics and polyedra proximity calculation for hazard simulations in large-scale industrial plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebe, Alice; Grasso, Giorgio

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes a system developed for the simulation of flames inside an open-source 3D computer graphic software, Blender, with the aim of analyzing in virtual reality scenarios of hazards in large-scale industrial plants. The advantages of Blender are of rendering at high resolution the very complex structure of large industrial plants, and of embedding a physical engine based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics. This particle system is used to evolve a simulated fire. The interaction of this fire with the components of the plant is computed using polyhedron separation distance, adopting a Voronoi-based strategy that optimizes the number of feature distance computations. Results on a real oil and gas refining industry are presented.

  16. Supercritical Fluid Chromatographic Separation of Dimethylpolysiloxane Polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyo, Dong Jin; Lim, Chang Hyun [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    Water was used as a polar modifier and a μ-porasil column as a saturator column. The μ-porasil column was inserted between the pump outlet and the injection valve. During the passage of the supercritical fluid mobile phase through the silica column, a polar modifier (water) can be dissolved in the pressurized supercritical fluid. Dimethylpolysiloxane polymer has been known as more polar polymer than polystyrene polymer. Dimethylpolysiloxane polymer has never been separated using water modified mobile phase. In this paper, using a μ-porasil column as a saturator column, excellent supercritical fluid chromatograms of dimethylpolysiloxane oligomers were obtained. The use of compressed (dense) gases and supercritical fluids as chromatographic mobile phases in conjunction with liquid chromatographic (LC)-type packed columns was first reported by Klesper et al. in 1962. During its relatively short history, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has become an attractive alternative to GC and LC in certain industrially important applications. SFC gives the advantage of high efficiency and allows the analysis of nonvolatile or thermally labile mixtures.

  17. Supercritical Fluid Chromatographic Separation of Dimethylpolysiloxane Polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyo, Dong Jin; Lim, Chang Hyun

    2005-01-01

    Water was used as a polar modifier and a μ-porasil column as a saturator column. The μ-porasil column was inserted between the pump outlet and the injection valve. During the passage of the supercritical fluid mobile phase through the silica column, a polar modifier (water) can be dissolved in the pressurized supercritical fluid. Dimethylpolysiloxane polymer has been known as more polar polymer than polystyrene polymer. Dimethylpolysiloxane polymer has never been separated using water modified mobile phase. In this paper, using a μ-porasil column as a saturator column, excellent supercritical fluid chromatograms of dimethylpolysiloxane oligomers were obtained. The use of compressed (dense) gases and supercritical fluids as chromatographic mobile phases in conjunction with liquid chromatographic (LC)-type packed columns was first reported by Klesper et al. in 1962. During its relatively short history, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has become an attractive alternative to GC and LC in certain industrially important applications. SFC gives the advantage of high efficiency and allows the analysis of nonvolatile or thermally labile mixtures

  18. Dissolution of Platinum in Hydrochloric Acid Under Industrial-Scale Alternating Current Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrzabekov, B. E.; Bayeshov, A. B.; Makhanbetov, A. B.; Mishra, B.; Baigenzhenov, O. S.

    2018-02-01

    The electrochemical behavior of platinum in a hydrochloric acid solution under polarization by an industrial-scale alternating current has been investigated. For the electrical dissolution of platinum, titanium is used as an auxiliary electrode, which increases the yield of platinum dissolution by 12.5 pct. The influence of the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the current densities of the platinum and titanium electrodes, and the temperature of the electrolyte on the efficiency of the process of dissolving platinum have all been studied.

  19. Automated Bug Assignment: Ensemble-based Machine Learning in Large Scale Industrial Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Leif; Borg, Markus; Broman, David; Sandahl, Kristian; Eldh, Sigrid; Runeson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Bug report assignment is an important part of software maintenance. In particular, incorrect assignments of bug reports to development teams can be very expensive in large software development projects. Several studies propose automating bug assignment techniques using machine learning in open source software contexts, but no study exists for large-scale proprietary projects in industry. The goal of this study is to evaluate automated bug assignment techniques that are based on machine learni...

  20. DEM GPU studies of industrial scale particle simulations for granular flow civil engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizette, Patrick; Govender, Nicolin; Wilke, Daniel N.; Abriak, Nor-Edine

    2017-06-01

    The use of the Discrete Element Method (DEM) for industrial civil engineering industrial applications is currently limited due to the computational demands when large numbers of particles are considered. The graphics processing unit (GPU) with its highly parallelized hardware architecture shows potential to enable solution of civil engineering problems using discrete granular approaches. We demonstrate in this study the pratical utility of a validated GPU-enabled DEM modeling environment to simulate industrial scale granular problems. As illustration, the flow discharge of storage silos using 8 and 17 million particles is considered. DEM simulations have been performed to investigate the influence of particle size (equivalent size for the 20/40-mesh gravel) and induced shear stress for two hopper shapes. The preliminary results indicate that the shape of the hopper significantly influences the discharge rates for the same material. Specifically, this work shows that GPU-enabled DEM modeling environments can model industrial scale problems on a single portable computer within a day for 30 seconds of process time.

  1. Novel GIMS technique for deposition of colored Ti/TiO₂ coatings on industrial scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdunek Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper has been to verify the effectiveness and usefulness of a novel deposition process named GIMS (Gas Injection Magnetron Sputtering used for the flrst time for deposition of Ti/TiO₂ coatings on large area glass Substrates covered in the condition of industrial scale production. The Ti/TiO₂ coatings were deposited in an industrial System utilizing a set of linear magnetrons with the length of 2400 mm each for covering the 2000 × 3000 mm glasses. Taking into account the speciflc course of the GIMS (multipoint gas injection along the magnetron length and the scale of the industrial facility, the optical coating uniformity was the most important goal to check. The experiments on Ti/TiO₂ coatings deposited by the use of GIMS were conducted on Substrates in the form of glass plates located at the key points along the magnetrons and intentionally non-heated during any stage of the process. Measurements of the coatings properties showed that the thickness and optical uniformity of the 150 nm thick coatings deposited by GIMS in the industrial facility (the thickness differences on the large plates with 2000 mm width did not exceed 20 nm is fully acceptable form the point of view of expected applications e.g. for architectural glazing.

  2. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. PMID:26393620

  3. The development of an industrial-scale fed-batch fermentation simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick, Stephen; Ştefan, Andrei; Lovett, David; Montague, Gary; Lennox, Barry

    2015-01-10

    This paper describes a simulation of an industrial-scale fed-batch fermentation that can be used as a benchmark in process systems analysis and control studies. The simulation was developed using a mechanistic model and validated using historical data collected from an industrial-scale penicillin fermentation process. Each batch was carried out in a 100,000 L bioreactor that used an industrial strain of Penicillium chrysogenum. The manipulated variables recorded during each batch were used as inputs to the simulator and the predicted outputs were then compared with the on-line and off-line measurements recorded in the real process. The simulator adapted a previously published structured model to describe the penicillin fermentation and extended it to include the main environmental effects of dissolved oxygen, viscosity, temperature, pH and dissolved carbon dioxide. In addition the effects of nitrogen and phenylacetic acid concentrations on the biomass and penicillin production rates were also included. The simulated model predictions of all the on-line and off-line process measurements, including the off-gas analysis, were in good agreement with the batch records. The simulator and industrial process data are available to download at www.industrialpenicillinsimulation.com and can be used to evaluate, study and improve on the current control strategy implemented on this facility. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of clean development mechanism potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in heavy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Krey, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses clean development mechanism (CDM) potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in selected heavy industries (iron and steel, cement, aluminium, pulp and paper, and ammonia) taking India and Brazil as examples of CDM project host countries. We have chosen two criteria for identification of the CDM potential of each energy efficiency measure: (i) emission reductions volume (in CO 2 e) that can be expected from the measure and (ii) likelihood of the measure passing the additionality test of the CDM Executive Board (EB) when submitted as a proposed CDM project activity. The paper shows that the CDM potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures strongly depends on the project-specific and country-specific context. In particular, technologies for the iron and steel industry (coke dry quenching (CDQ), top pressure recovery turbine (TRT), and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) gas recovery), the aluminium industry (point feeder prebake (PFPB) smelter), and the pulp and paper industry (continuous digester technology) offer promising CDM potential

  5. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Nicolas Barbot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC, as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded.

  6. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-09-18

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g(-1) VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH₄ recovery of 189 L kg(-1) VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH₄ and 38% CO₂ was recorded.

  7. Bioprocess development for kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in semi industrial scale bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Joe Dailin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is non-pathogenic gram positive bacteria isolated from kefir grains and able to produce extracellular exopolysaccharides named kefiran. This polysaccharide contains approximately equal amounts of glucose and galactose. Kefiran has wide applications in pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, an approach has been extensively studied to increase kefiran production for pharmaceutical application in industrial scale. The present work aims to maximize kefiran production through the optimization of medium composition and production in semi industrial scale bioreactor. The composition of the optimal medium for kefiran production contained sucrose, yeast extract and K2HPO4 at 20.0, 6.0, 0.25 g L−1, respectively. The optimized medium significantly increased both cell growth and kefiran production by about 170.56% and 58.02%, respectively, in comparison with the unoptimized medium. Furthermore, the kinetics of cell growth and kefiran production in batch culture of L. kefiranofaciens was investigated under un-controlled pH conditions in 16-L scale bioreactor. The maximal cell mass in bioreactor culture reached 2.76 g L−1 concomitant with kefiran production of 1.91 g L−1.

  8. Bioprocess development for kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in semi industrial scale bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailin, Daniel Joe; Elsayed, Elsayed Ahmed; Othman, Nor Zalina; Malek, Roslinda; Phin, Hiew Siaw; Aziz, Ramlan; Wadaan, Mohamad; El Enshasy, Hesham Ali

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is non-pathogenic gram positive bacteria isolated from kefir grains and able to produce extracellular exopolysaccharides named kefiran. This polysaccharide contains approximately equal amounts of glucose and galactose. Kefiran has wide applications in pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, an approach has been extensively studied to increase kefiran production for pharmaceutical application in industrial scale. The present work aims to maximize kefiran production through the optimization of medium composition and production in semi industrial scale bioreactor. The composition of the optimal medium for kefiran production contained sucrose, yeast extract and K2HPO4 at 20.0, 6.0, 0.25 g L(-1), respectively. The optimized medium significantly increased both cell growth and kefiran production by about 170.56% and 58.02%, respectively, in comparison with the unoptimized medium. Furthermore, the kinetics of cell growth and kefiran production in batch culture of L. kefiranofaciens was investigated under un-controlled pH conditions in 16-L scale bioreactor. The maximal cell mass in bioreactor culture reached 2.76 g L(-1) concomitant with kefiran production of 1.91 g L(-1).

  9. Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Potential: Simulation of Lab and Industrial-Scale Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Hamawand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a simulation was carried out using BioWin 3.1 to test the capability of the software to predict the biogas potential for two different anaerobic systems. The two scenarios included: (1 a laboratory-scale batch reactor; and (2 an industrial-scale anaerobic continuous lagoon digester. The measured data related to the operating conditions, the reactor design parameters and the chemical properties of influent wastewater were entered into BioWin. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to identify the sensitivity of the most important default parameters in the software’s models. BioWin was then calibrated by matching the predicted data with measured data and used to simulate other parameters that were unmeasured or deemed uncertain. In addition, statistical analyses were carried out using evaluation indices, such as the coefficient of determination (R-squared, the correlation coefficient (r and its significance (p-value, the general standard deviation (SD and the Willmott index of agreement, to evaluate the agreement between the software prediction and the measured data. The results have shown that after calibration, BioWin can be used reliably to simulate both small-scale batch reactors and industrial-scale digesters with a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of less than 10% and very good values of the indexes. Furthermore, by changing the default parameters in BioWin, which is a way of calibrating the models in the software, as well, this may provide information about the performance of the digester. Furthermore, the results of this study showed there may be an over estimation for biogas generated from industrial-scale digesters. More sophisticated analytical devices may be required for reliable measurements of biogas quality and quantity.

  10. Simple setup for gas-phase H/D exchange mass spectrometry coupled to electron transfer dissociation and ion mobility for analysis of polypeptide structure on a liquid chromatographic time scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistarz, Ulrik H; Brown, Jeffery M; Haselmann, Kim F; Rand, Kasper D

    2014-12-02

    Gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) is a fast and sensitive, yet unharnessed analytical approach for providing information on the structural properties of biomolecules, in a complementary manner to mass analysis. Here, we describe a simple setup for ND3-mediated millisecond gas-phase HDX inside a mass spectrometer immediately after ESI (gas-phase HDX-MS) and show utility for studying the primary and higher-order structure of peptides and proteins. HDX was achieved by passing N2-gas through a container filled with aqueous deuterated ammonia reagent (ND3/D2O) and admitting the saturated gas immediately upstream or downstream of the primary skimmer cone. The approach was implemented on three commercially available mass spectrometers and required no or minor fully reversible reconfiguration of gas-inlets of the ion source. Results from gas-phase HDX-MS of peptides using the aqueous ND3/D2O as HDX reagent indicate that labeling is facilitated exclusively through gaseous ND3, yielding similar results to the infusion of purified ND3-gas, while circumventing the complications associated with the use of hazardous purified gases. Comparison of the solution-phase- and gas-phase deuterium uptake of Leu-Enkephalin and Glu-Fibrinopeptide B, confirmed that this gas-phase HDX-MS approach allows for labeling of sites (heteroatom-bound non-amide hydrogens located on side-chains, N-terminus and C-terminus) not accessed by classical solution-phase HDX-MS. The simple setup is compatible with liquid chromatography and a chip-based automated nanoESI interface, allowing for online gas-phase HDX-MS analysis of peptides and proteins separated on a liquid chromatographic time scale at increased throughput. Furthermore, online gas-phase HDX-MS could be performed in tandem with ion mobility separation or electron transfer dissociation, thus enabling multiple orthogonal analyses of the structural properties of peptides and proteins in a single automated LC-MS workflow.

  11. Utilization of artificial recharged effluent as makeup water for industrial cooling system: corrosion and scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liangliang; Qin, Kena; Zhao, Qingliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Xin, Ming; Liu, Chengcai; Keene, Natalie; Wang, Kun; Cui, Fuyi

    2016-01-01

    The secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants was reused for industrial cooling water after pre-treatment with a laboratory-scale soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system. Up to a 95.3% removal efficiency for suspended solids (SS), 51.4% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 32.1% for Cl(-) and 30.0% SO4(2-) were observed for the recharged secondary effluent after the SAT operation, which is essential for controlling scaling and corrosion during the cooling process. As compared to the secondary effluent, the reuse of the 1.5 m depth SAT effluent decreased the corrosion by 75.0%, in addition to a 55.1% decline of the scales/biofouling formation (with a compacted structure). The experimental results can satisfy the Chinese criterion of Design Criterion of the Industrial Circulating Cooling Water Treatment (GB 50050-95), and was more efficient than tertiary effluent which coagulated with ferric chloride. In addition, chemical structure of the scales/biofouling obtained from the cooling system was analyzed.

  12. Industrial-scale application of the plunger flow electro-oxidation reactor in wastewater depth treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guolong; Yao, Jiachao; Pan, Weilong; Wang, Jiade

    2016-09-01

    Effluents after biochemical treatment contain pollutants that are mostly non-degradable. Based upon previous pilot-scale test results, an industrial-scale electro-oxidation device was built to decompose these refractory materials in the effluent from a park wastewater treatment plant. The electro-oxidation device comprised a ditch-shaped plunger flow electrolysis cell, with mesh-plate Ti/PbO2 electrodes as the anode and the same size mesh-plate Ti as the cathode. Wastewater flowed vertically through electrodes; the effective volume of the cell was 2.8 m(3), and the surface-to-volume ratio was 17.14 m(2) m(-3). The optimal current density was 100 A m(-2), and a suitable flow velocity was 14.0 m h(-1). The removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand and color in the effluent were over 60.0 and 84.0 %, respectively. In addition, the electro-oxidation system offered a good disinfection capability. The specific energy consumption for this industrial-scale device was 43.5 kWh kg COD(-1), with a current efficiency of 32.8 %, which was superior to the pilot-scale one. To meet the requirements for emission or reuse, the operation cost was $0.44 per ton of effluent at an average price for electricity of $0.11 kWh(-1).

  13. 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in scales formed in boilers of industrial installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggi, Claudia M. Braga; Farias, Emerson Emiliano G. de; Hazin, Clovis A.; Gazineu, Maria Helena P.; Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco

    2011-01-01

    Many industrial processes involve the production of steam in boilers, which is sent through pipes to machines and other equipment used in different sectors of the installations. The water commonly used in these processes is groundwater, which generally has high concentrations of calcium and magnesium salts, that can co-precipitate with naturally occurring radioactive elements such as 226 Ra and 228 Ra creating radioactive scales, which are deposited in pipes, thus decreasing the efficiency of steam production. In addition, 40 K that is present in all soils and rocks with a concentration of about 0.012% of natural potassium can also be concentrated in these scales. No data was found in literature relating to radionuclides present in the scales formed on boilers in general. In this context, the purpose of this work was to determine concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K, in scales generated inside boilers from different industries in the cities of Caruaru, Paulista and Goiana, Pernambuco. Determination of the radionuclides concentration was performed by gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector, calculating their specific activities. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra were in the range of -1 and 228 Ra activity concentrations varied from 1 . Activity concentrations of 40 K were in the range of -1 . All these activity concentrations were lower than the limits established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission of for this type of matrix. (author)

  14. Reducibility mill scale industrial waste via coke breeze at 850-950ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mill scale is a very attractive industrial waste due to its elevated iron content (about = 69.33% Fe besides being suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characteristics of raw materials and the briquettes produced from this mill scale were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of coke breeze at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. The activation energy of this reaction ≈ 61.5 kJ/mole for reduction of mill scale with coke breeze in the form of briquettes with 2% molasses where the chemical reaction interface model is applicable.

  15. Factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation in Kuwait's crude oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutairi, Naief; Burney, Nadeem A.

    2002-01-01

    The cost structure of the crude oil industry in Kuwait has been examined, with specific focus on factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation. This has been done by estimating translog cost functions, both long-run and short-run, using time-series data covering the period from 1976 to 1996. The results indicate that the implied production structure is non-homothetic, and the pattern of scale effect is labour saving, but capital and material using. The evidence also supports the presence of an induced exogenous technical change, which is non-neutral (labour and capital using, and material saving). The elasticity of substitution between capital and labour is positive, implying that the two inputs are substitute. The results also indicate the existence of diseconomies of scale in the production of crude oil, but no economies or diseconomies of utilisation

  16. Process engineering challenges of uranium extraction from phosphoric acid on industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouriya, Govind; Singh, Dhirendra; Nath, A.K.; Majumdar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy Water Board (HWB) is a constituent unit of the Department of Atomic Energy. One of the diversified activities undertaken by HWB is pursuing exploitation of non-conventional resources for recovery of uranium from wet phosphoric acid being the most prominent one. Amongst the feasible processes for recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid is solvent extraction. Use of in-house solvent produced by HWB, is another key driver. To garner necessary information for developing the industrial scale facilities, the process has been studied in the laboratory scale, mini scale, bench scale at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher. The process was subsequently scaled up to an industrial prototype scale unit and was set up as a Technology Demonstration Plant coupled with a commercial phosphoric acid plant. The plant has successfully processed more than 2 lakh m 3 of wet phosphoric acid and all the parameters including the product, Yellow Cake have been qualified. No adverse effect has been observed in the fertilizer produced. The main characteristics of the process and subsequent process innovations are discussed in this paper. These innovations have been carried out to overcome hurdles faced during commissioning and subsequent operations of the Plant. The innovations include improved pretreatment of the wet phosphoric acid for feeding to the extraction cycle, improved control of the first cycle chemical environment, reducing the strength of the phosphoric acid used for stripping, reducing the number of equipment and machineries, alteration in solvent composition used in the first and second cycle in the solvent extraction units of the plant. (author)

  17. Probing Rubber Cross-Linking Generation of Industrial Polymer Networks at Nanometer Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielle, Brice; Gomez, Emmanuel; Korb, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-23

    We present improved analyses of rheometric torque measurements as well as (1)H double-quantum (DQ) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) buildup data on polymer networks of industrial compounds. This latter DQ NMR analysis allows finding the distribution of an orientation order parameter (Dres) resulting from the noncomplete averaging of proton dipole-dipole couplings within the cross-linked polymer chains. We investigate the influence of the formulation (filler and vulcanization systems) as well as the process (curing temperature) ending to the final polymer network. We show that DQ NMR follows the generation of the polymer network during the vulcanization process from a heterogeneous network to a very homogeneous one. The time variations of microscopic Dres and macroscopic rheometric torques present power-law behaviors above a threshold time scale with characteristic exponents of the percolation theory. We observe also a very good linear correlation between the kinetics of Dres and rheometric data routinely performed in industry. All these observations confirm the description of the polymer network generation as a critical phenomenon. On the basis of all these results, we believe that DQ NMR could become a valuable tool for investigating in situ the cross-linking of industrial polymer networks at the nanometer scale.

  18. Noise-induced hearing loss in small-scale metal industry in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, J D; Robinson, T; Acharya, A; Singh, D; Smith, M

    2014-10-01

    There has been no previous research to demonstrate the risk of noise-induced hearing loss in industry in Nepal. Limited research on occupational noise-induced hearing loss has been conducted within small-scale industry worldwide, despite it being a substantial and growing cause of deafness in the developing world. The study involved a cross-sectional audiometric assessment, with questionnaire-based examinations of noise and occupational history, and workplace noise level assessment. A total of 115 metal workers and 123 hotel workers (control subjects) were recruited. Noise-induced hearing loss prevalence was 30.4 per cent in metal workers and 4.1 per cent in hotel workers, with a significant odds ratio of 10.3. Except for age and time in occupation, none of the demographic factors were significant in predicting outcomes in regression analyses. When adjusted for this finding, and previous noise-exposed occupations, the odds ratio was 13.8. Workplace noise was significantly different between the groups, ranging from 65.3 to 84.7 dBA in metal worker sites, and from 51.4 to 68.6 dBA in the control sites. Metal workers appear to have a greater risk of noise-induced hearing loss than controls. Additional research on occupational noise-induced hearing loss in Nepal and small-scale industry globally is needed.

  19. Assessment of good manufacturing practice for small scale food industry in Malang region, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwantiningrum, I.; Widyhastuty, W.; Christian, J.; Sari, N.

    2018-03-01

    Enhancing food safety in developing countries, such as Indonesia, poses more challenges, especially those of the small- and medium-scale. Various food safety systems are available and readily implemented in the food industry. However, to ensure the effectiveness of such systems, pre-requisite programs should be applied prior to the implementation of food safety system. One of the most acknowledged pre-requisite program is Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). The aim of this study is to assess the GMP compliance of some small-scale food companies in East Java. Three types of traditional food product were selected, include tempe chips, palm sugar, and instant herbal drink. A survey involving three companies for each type of traditional food was conducted. Data was obtained through observation and assessment based on tabulated criteria in GMP criteria. In essential, the result revealed the compliment level of the food companies being surveyed. There was different level of compliment between each type of the food industry, where the palm sugar industry had the lowest level of compliment compared to the other two. This difference is due to the food safety awareness, social and cultural influences, and also knowledge on food safety and hygiene practice.

  20. Trends in size of tropical deforestation events signal increasing dominance of industrial-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kemen G.; González-Roglich, Mariano; Schaffer-Smith, Danica; Schwantes, Amanda M.; Swenson, Jennifer J.

    2017-05-01

    Deforestation continues across the tropics at alarming rates, with repercussions for ecosystem processes, carbon storage and long term sustainability. Taking advantage of recent fine-scale measurement of deforestation, this analysis aims to improve our understanding of the scale of deforestation drivers in the tropics. We examined trends in forest clearings of different sizes from 2000-2012 by country, region and development level. As tropical deforestation increased from approximately 6900 kha yr-1 in the first half of the study period, to >7900 kha yr-1 in the second half of the study period, >50% of this increase was attributable to the proliferation of medium and large clearings (>10 ha). This trend was most pronounced in Southeast Asia and in South America. Outside of Brazil >60% of the observed increase in deforestation in South America was due to an upsurge in medium- and large-scale clearings; Brazil had a divergent trend of decreasing deforestation, >90% of which was attributable to a reduction in medium and large clearings. The emerging prominence of large-scale drivers of forest loss in many regions and countries suggests the growing need for policy interventions which target industrial-scale agricultural commodity producers. The experience in Brazil suggests that there are promising policy solutions to mitigate large-scale deforestation, but that these policy initiatives do not adequately address small-scale drivers. By providing up-to-date and spatially explicit information on the scale of deforestation, and the trends in these patterns over time, this study contributes valuable information for monitoring, and designing effective interventions to address deforestation.

  1. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati, E-mail: suparnirahayu@yahoo.co.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Semarang, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia); Purwanto,, E-mail: p.purwanto@che.undip.ac.id; Budiyono, E-mail: budiyono@live.undip.ac.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH{sub 4}/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH{sub 4}: 81.23% and CO{sub 2}: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  2. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  3. Performance of small-scale aero-derivative industrial gas turbines derived from helicopter engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barinyima Nkoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers comparative assessment of simple and advanced cycle small-scale aero-derivative industrial gas turbines derived from helicopter engines. More particularly, investigation was made of technical performance of the small-scale aero-derivative engine cycles based on existing and projected cycles for applications in industrial power generation, combined heat and power concept, rotating equipment driving, and/or allied processes. The investigation was done by carrying out preliminary design and performance simulation of a simple cycle (baseline two-spool small-scale aero-derivative turboshaft engine model, and some advanced counterpart aero-derivative configurations. The advanced configurations consist of recuperated and intercooled/recuperated engine cycles of same nominal power rating of 1.567 MW. The baseline model was derived from the conversion of an existing helicopter engine model. In doing so, design point and off-design point performances of the engine models were established. In comparing their performances, it was observed that to a large extent, the advanced engine cycles showed superior performance in terms of thermal efficiency, and specific fuel consumption. In numerical terms, thermal efficiencies of recuperated engine cycle, and intercooled/recuperated engine cycles, over the simple cycle at DP increased by 13.5%, and 14.5% respectively, whereas specific fuel consumption of these cycles over simple cycle at DP decreased by 12.5%, and 13% respectively. This research relied on open access public literature for data.

  4. Implementation Of 5S Methodology In The Small Scale Industry A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Agrahari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 5S is a basic foundation of Lean Manufacturing systems. It is a tool for cleaning sorting organizing and providing the necessary groundwork for workpiece improvement. This paper dealt with the implementation of 5S methodology in the small scale industry. By following the 5S methodology it shows significant improvements to safety productivity efficiency and housekeeping. The improvements before and after 5S implementation is shown by pictures in the paper. It also intends to build a stronger work ethic within the management and workers who would be expected to continue the good practices.

  5. Stabilization of APC residues from waste incineration with ferrous sulfate on a semi-industrial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtorp, Kasper; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2002-01-01

    A stabilization method for air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) involving mixing of the residue with water and FeSO4 has been demonstrated on a semi-industrial scale on three types of APC residues: a semidy (SD) APC residue, a fly ash (FA), and an FA...... mixed with sludge (FAS) from a wet flue gas cleaning system. The process was performed in batches of 165-175 kg residue. It generates a wastewater that is highly saline but has a low content of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, and Pb. The stabilized and raw residues have been subject to a range of leaching...

  6. Reduction of uranium compounds to uranium dioxide in semi-industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogaca Filho, N.; Freitas, C.T. de; Ambrozio Filho, F.

    1982-01-01

    Developments leading to nuclear grade UO 2 production output in the hundreds of kilograms per day level have been presented. Details of the batch type;, semi-continuous and continuous furnaces utilized have been indicated and their respective operational behaviour evaluated in the context of impuritity pick-up during processing. Also described are the quality control procedures that assured consistence in the high purity grade of UO 2 produced, satisfying internationally adopted criteria. The proposed objective of attaining semi-industrial scale production capability was reached, with procedures and equipment preponderantly developed in Brazil; which will permit the expansion of production in the near future. (Author) [pt

  7. The validation of a workplace incivility scale within the South African banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Smidt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Workplace incivility holds consequences for both individuals and organisations. Managers are becoming increasingly aware of this phenomenon. Currently, there is no workplace incivility scale validated for use within the South African context. Research purpose: To investigate the reliability and validity of the adapted workplace incivility scale by Leiter and colleagues for use within South Africa. Motivation for the study: As it is currently difficult to measure workplace incivility within the South African context because of the lack of a valid and reliable scale, it is necessary to validate such a scale. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional research approach was used for the study. Convenience sampling (N = 345 was used within the South African banking industry. Specifically, the factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity and predictive validity were investigated in order to establish the overall validity of the scale. Main findings: The results confirmed that the scale showed a three-factor structure as bestfitting with acceptable reliability coefficients. Furthermore, discriminant validity could be shown between workplace incivility and workplace bullying, that is, supporting that these two constructs are not the same phenomenon. In terms of relationships, colleague incivility did not significantly predict any of the outcome variables and instigated incivility only being a negative predictor of job satisfaction and a borderline statistically significant negative predictor of work engagement. However, supervisor incivility predicted all the outcomes negatively. Practical/Managerial implications: Based on the results, workplace incivility should be addressed because of the harmful effects it can have, not only on employees but also on organisations. It is therefore necessary for managers to create awareness of workplace incivility in order to ensure that it does not integrate within the

  8. Baseload, industrial-scale wind power: An alternative to coal in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.J.; Williams, R.H. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Xie Shaoxiong; Zhang Shihui [Ministry of Electric Power, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a novel strategy for developing wind power on an industrial-scale in China. Oversized wind farms, large-scale electrical storage and long-distance transmission lines are integrated to deliver {open_quotes}baseload wind power{close_quotes} to distant electricity demand centers. The prospective costs for this approach to developing wind power are illustrated by modeling an oversized wind farm at Huitengxile, Inner Mongolia. Although storage adds to the total capital investment, it does not necessarily increase the cost of the delivered electricity. Storage makes it possible to increase the capacity factor of the electric transmission system, so that the unit cost for long-distance transmission is reduced. Moreover, baseload wind power is typically more valuable to the electric utility than intermittent wind power, so that storage can be economically attractive even in instances where the cost per kWh is somewhat higher than without storage. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. A greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries: Development and dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, Serm [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand)

    2012-07-01

    In this study, a greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries was developed and disseminated. The dryer consists of a parabolic roof structure covered with polycarbonate sheets on a concrete floor. The system is 8.0m in width, 20.0m in length and 3.5m in height, with a loading capacity about 1,000kg of fruits or vegetables. To ensure continuous drying operation, a 100kW-LPG gas burner was incorporated to supply hot air to the dryer during cloudy or rainy days. Nine 15-W DC fans powered by three 50-W PV modules were used to ventilate the dryer. This dryer was installed for a small-scale food industry at Nakhon Pathom in Thailand to produce osmotically dehydrated tomato. To investigate its performance, the dryer was used to dry 3 batches of osmotically dehydrated tomato. Results obtained from these experiments showed that drying air temperatures in the dryer varied from 35 C to 65 C. In addition, the drying time for these products was 2-3 days shorter than that of the natural sun drying and good quality dried products were obtained. A system of differential equations describing heat and moisture transfers during drying of osmotically dehydrated tomato was also developed. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental data. For dissemination purpose, other two units of this type of dryer were constructed and tested at two locations in Thailand and satisfactory results were obtained.

  10. Unraveling microbial ecology of industrial-scale Kombucha fermentations by metabarcoding and culture-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coton, Monika; Pawtowski, Audrey; Taminiau, Bernard; Burgaud, Gaëtan; Deniel, Franck; Coulloumme-Labarthe, Laurent; Fall, Abdoulaye; Daube, Georges; Coton, Emmanuel

    2017-05-01

    Kombucha, historically an Asian tea-based fermented drink, has recently become trendy in Western countries. Producers claim it bears health-enhancing properties that may come from the tea or metabolites produced by its microbiome. Despite its long history of production, microbial richness and dynamics have not been fully unraveled, especially at an industrial scale. Moreover, the impact of tea type (green or black) on microbial ecology was not studied. Here, we compared microbial communities from industrial-scale black and green tea fermentations, still traditionally carried out by a microbial biofilm, using culture-dependent and metabarcoding approaches. Dominant bacterial species belonged to Acetobacteraceae and to a lesser extent Lactobacteriaceae, while the main identified yeasts corresponded to Dekkera, Hanseniaspora and Zygosaccharomyces during all fermentations. Species richness decreased over the 8-day fermentation. Among acetic acid bacteria, Gluconacetobacter europaeus, Gluconobacter oxydans, G. saccharivorans and Acetobacter peroxydans emerged as dominant species. The main lactic acid bacteria, Oenococcus oeni, was strongly associated with green tea fermentations. Tea type did not influence yeast community, with Dekkera bruxellensis, D. anomala, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Hanseniaspora valbyensis as most dominant. This study unraveled a distinctive core microbial community which is essential for fermentation control and could lead to Kombucha quality standardization. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Evaluation of workload among industrial workers with the Need for Recovery Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Cristiane S; Alem, Michele E R; Coury, Helenice J C G

    2011-01-01

    Work conditions can overload a worker's capabilities and result in health complaints. The early identification of hazardous work conditions allows the definition of priorities for more efficient ergonomic interventions. To assess the need for recovery among industrial workers under different work conditions using the Need for Recovery Scale (NFR), and to verify the association between the scores and personal factors, occupational factors and daily activities. 191 workers (mean age of 34.5±8.3 years) from a manufactory industry participated in this study. Workers answered both a questionnaire regarding demographic and occupational factors, and daily activities as well as the NFR. Ergonomic assessment of workplace sectors was carried out based on the Ergonomic Workplace Analysis. The Pearson chi-square test (significance level 5%) was used to verify the association between NFR scores and the variables of interest. The only association was between work sector and NFR score. According to the ergonomic assessment, the work sector with the highest need for recovery also presented the worst environmental and organizational conditions. The Need for Recovery Scale proved to be a helpful tool for differentiating work sectors presenting different workload demands and contributed to the definition of intervention priorities for preserving worker health.

  12. Industrial scale production of stable isotopes employing the technique of plasma separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, N.R.; Bigelow, T.S.; Tarallo, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Calutrons, centrifuges, diffusion and distillation processes are some of the devices and techniques that have been employed to produce substantial quantities of enriched stable isotopes. Nevertheless, the availability of enriched isotopes in sufficient quantities for industrial applications remains very restricted. Industries such as those involved with medicine, semiconductors, nuclear fuel, propulsion, and national defense have identified the potential need for various enriched isotopes in large quantities. Economically producing most enriched (non-gaseous) isotopes in sufficient quantities has so far eluded commercial producers. The plasma separation process is a commercial technique now available for producing large quantities of a wide range of enriched isotopes. Until recently, this technique has mainly been explored with small-scale ('proof-of-principle') devices that have been built and operated at research institutes. The new Theragenics TM facility at Oak Ridge, TN houses the only existing commercial scale PSP system. This device, which successfully operated in the 1980's, has recently been re-commissioned and is planned to be used to produce a variety of isotopes. Progress and the capabilities of this device and it's potential for impacting the world's supply of stable isotopes in the future is summarized. This technique now holds promise of being able to open the door to allowing new and exciting applications of these isotopes in the future. (author)

  13. Evaluation method of economic efficiency of industrial scale research based on an example of coking blend pre-drying technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żarczyński Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on new and innovative solutions, technologies and products carried out on an industrial scale is the most reliable method of verifying the validity of their implementation. The results obtained in this research method give almost one hundred percent certainty although, at the same time, the research on an industrial scale requires the expenditure of the highest amount of money. Therefore, this method is not commonly applied in the industrial practices. In the case of the decision to implement new and innovative technologies, it is reasonable to carry out industrial research, both because of the cognitive values and its economic efficiency. Research on an industrial scale may prevent investment failure as well as lead to an improvement of technologies, which is the source of economic efficiency. In this paper, an evaluation model of economic efficiency of the industrial scale research has been presented. This model is based on the discount method and the decision tree model. A practical application of this proposed evaluation model has been presented based on an example of the coal charge pre-drying technology before coke making in a coke oven battery, which may be preceded by industrial scale research on a new type of coal charge dryer.

  14. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Techology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: • Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs. • Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF). • Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools. • Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems. • Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost. • Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project completion date was April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a

  15. An industrial perspective on bioreactor scale-down: what we can learn from combined large-scale bioprocess and model fluid studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorman, Henk

    2011-08-01

    For industrial bioreactor design, operation, control and optimization, the scale-down approach is often advocated to efficiently generate data on a small scale, and effectively apply suggested improvements to the industrial scale. In all cases it is important to ensure that the scale-down conditions are representative of the real large-scale bioprocess. Progress is hampered by limited detailed and local information from large-scale bioprocesses. Complementary to real fermentation studies, physical aspects of model fluids such as air-water in large bioreactors provide useful information with limited effort and cost. Still, in industrial practice, investments of time, capital and resources often prohibit systematic work, although, in the end, savings obtained in this way are trivial compared to the expenses that result from real process disturbances, batch failures, and non-flyers with loss of business opportunity. Here we try to highlight what can be learned from real large-scale bioprocess in combination with model fluid studies, and to provide suitable computation tools to overcome data restrictions. Focus is on a specific well-documented case for a 30-m(3) bioreactor. Areas for further research from an industrial perspective are also indicated. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The large-scale process of microbial carbonate precipitation for nickel remediation from an industrial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuejiao; Li, Weila; Zhan, Lu; Huang, Minsheng; Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Achal, Varenyam

    2016-12-01

    Microbial carbonate precipitation is known as an efficient process for the remediation of heavy metals from contaminated soils. In the present study, a urease positive bacterial isolate, identified as Bacillus cereus NS4 through 16S rDNA sequencing, was utilized on a large scale to remove nickel from industrial soil contaminated by the battery industry. The soil was highly contaminated with an initial total nickel concentration of approximately 900 mg kg -1 . The soluble-exchangeable fraction was reduced to 38 mg kg -1 after treatment. The primary objective of metal stabilization was achieved by reducing the bioavailability through immobilizing the nickel in the urease-driven carbonate precipitation. The nickel removal in the soils contributed to the transformation of nickel from mobile species into stable biominerals identified as calcite, vaterite, aragonite and nickelous carbonate when analyzed under XRD. It was proven that during precipitation of calcite, Ni 2+ with an ion radius close to Ca 2+ was incorporated into the CaCO 3 crystal. The biominerals were also characterized by using SEM-EDS to observe the crystal shape and Raman-FTIR spectroscopy to predict responsible bonding during bioremediation with respect to Ni immobilization. The electronic structure and chemical-state information of the detected elements during MICP bioremediation process was studied by XPS. This is the first study in which microbial carbonate precipitation was used for the large-scale remediation of metal-contaminated industrial soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  18. Reduced-scale experimental investigation on ventilation performance of a local exhaust hood in an industrial plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yanqiu; Wang, Yi; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    stratification in the working areas of industrial plants. Investigated factors were confined airflow boundaries, flow rates of the exhaust hoods, source strengths, airflow obstacles and distances between sources and exhaust hoods. Reduced-scale experiments were conducted with a geometric scale of 1...... efficiency. Hood performance was also evaluated by thermal stratification heights in the plants. This study could help improve the capture efficiency of local ventilation systems used in industrial plants. Safe operation heights are recommended in the upper space of industrial plants based on the thermal...

  19. Coarse grid simulation of bed expansion characteristics of industrial-scale gas–solid bubbling fluidized beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; van der Hoef, Martin Anton; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Two-fluid modeling of the hydrodynamics of industrial-scale gas-fluidized beds proves a long-standing challenge for both engineers and scientists. In this study, we suggest a simple method to modify currently available drag correlations to allow for the effect of unresolved sub-grid scale

  20. Isotope separations using chromatographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leseticky, L.

    1985-01-01

    A survey is given of chromatographic separations of compounds only differing in isotope composition. Isotope effects on physical properties which allow chromatographic separation (vapour tension, adsorption heat, partition coefficient) are very small, with the exception of the simplest molecules. Therefore, separation factors only assume the value of several per cent. From this ensues the necessity of using columns which are specially and very carefully prepared and have a separation efficiency of the order of 10 4 theoretical plates. Briefly discussed is liquid chromatography on ion exchangers which with a varied degree of success was used for separating simple inorganic compounds or ions. Ion exchange chromatography of amino acids labelled with tritium, and chromatography of tritium labelled steroids also provided only a certain degree of separation. A detailed analysis is presented of gas chromatography separation of various deuterium and tritium labelled low-molecular compounds, to which a number of studies has been devoted in the literature. Very promising is the method of complexation gas chromatography based on the reversible formation of a complex of the ligand (the compound being separated) and the compound of the (transition) metal as the steady-state phase. (author)

  1. Comparison of lab, pilot, and industrial scale low consistency mechanical refining for improvements in enzymatic digestibility of pretreated hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brandon W; Venditti, Richard; Park, Sunkyu; Jameel, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    Mechanical refining has been shown to improve biomass enzymatic digestibility. In this study industrial high-yield sodium carbonate hardwood pulp was subjected to lab, pilot and industrial refining to determine if the mechanical refining improves the enzymatic hydrolysis sugar conversion efficiency differently at different refining scales. Lab, pilot and industrial refining increased the biomass digestibility for lignocellulosic biomass relative to the unrefined material. The sugar conversion was increased from 36% to 65% at 5 FPU/g of biomass with industrial refining at 67.0 kWh/t, which was more energy efficient than lab and pilot scale refining. There is a maximum in the sugar conversion with respect to the amount of refining energy. Water retention value is a good predictor of improvements in sugar conversion for a given fiber source and composition. Improvements in biomass digestibility with refining due to lab, pilot plant and industrial refining were similar with respect to water retention value. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors and system developed for full-scale pavement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaping; Liu, Wanqiu; He, Jianping; Xing, Xiaoying; Cao, Dandan; Gao, Xipeng; Hao, Xiaowei; Cheng, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhi

    2014-05-19

    Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements.

  3. Scale up and application of equal-channel angular extrusion for the electronics and aerospace industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrasse, Stephane; Segal, V.M.; Alford, Frank; Kardokus, Janine; Strothers, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Two areas are critical to promote equal-channel angular extrusion beyond the stage of a laboratory curiosity: (i) tool/processing design and scale up; (ii) development of new submicrometer-grained products. Both goals are pursued at Honeywell. The first case is the successful commercialization of ECAE for the production of sputtering targets from single phase alloys in the electronic industry. Blank dimensions are significantly larger than those reported in the literature. Other described applications are targeted to the increase of tensile strength, high-cycle fatigue and toughness in medium-to-heavily alloyed Al materials used in aerospace. In these alloys, the optimal properties can be reached with better understanding of the interplay between plastic deformation and precipitation mechanisms

  4. Drivers and barriers to e-invoicing adoption in Greek large scale manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinagi, Catherine, E-mail: marinagi@teihal.gr, E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com, E-mail: preklitis@yahoo.com; Trivellas, Panagiotis, E-mail: marinagi@teihal.gr, E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com, E-mail: preklitis@yahoo.com; Reklitis, Panagiotis, E-mail: marinagi@teihal.gr, E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com, E-mail: preklitis@yahoo.com [Technological Educational Institute of Sterea Ellada, Department of Logistics management, 1st km of Old National Road Thiva-Elefsis-32200, Thiva (Greece); Skourlas, Christos, E-mail: cskourlas@teiath.gr [Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Department of Informatics, Ag. Spyridonos, Aigaleo-12210, Athens (Greece)

    2015-02-09

    This paper attempts to investigate the drivers and barriers that large-scale Greek manufacturing industries experience in adopting electronic invoices (e-invoices), based on three case studies with organizations having international presence in many countries. The study focuses on the drivers that may affect the increase of the adoption and use of e-invoicing, including the customers demand for e-invoices, and sufficient know-how and adoption of e-invoicing in organizations. In addition, the study reveals important barriers that prevent the expansion of e-invoicing, such as suppliers’ reluctance to implement e-invoicing, and IT infrastructures incompatibilities. Other issues examined by this study include the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the financial priorities of the organizations assumed to be supported by e-invoicing.

  5. Modelling an industrial anaerobic granular reactor using a multi-scale approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldman, Hannah; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Ramin, Pedram

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to show the results of an industrial project dealing with modelling of anaerobic digesters. A multi-scale mathematical approach is developed to describe reactor hydrodynamics, granule growth/distribution and microbial competition/inhibition for substrate/space within...... the biofilm. The main biochemical and physico-chemical processes in the model are based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1) extended with the fate of phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and ethanol (Et-OH). Wastewater dynamic conditions are reproduced and data frequency increased using the Benchmark...... simulations show the effects on the overall process performance when operational (pH) and loading (S:COD) conditions are modified. Lastly, the effect of intra-granular precipitation on the overall organic/inorganic distribution is assessed at: 1) different times; and, 2) reactor heights. Finally...

  6. INCREASING RETURNS TO SCALE, DYNAMICS OF INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE AND SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF FIRMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying FAN; Menghui LI; Zengru DI

    2006-01-01

    A multi-agent model is presented to discuss the market dynamics and the size distribution of firms.The model emphasizes the effects of increasing returns to scale and gives the description of the born and death of adaptive producers. The evolution of market structure and its behavior under the technological shocks are investigated. Its dynamical results are in good agreement with some empirical "stylized facts" of industrial evolution. With the diversity of demand and adaptive growth strategies of firms, the firm size in the generalized model obeys the power-law distribution. Three factors mainly determine the competitive dynamics and the skewed size distributions of firms: 1. Self-reinforcing mechanism; 2. Adaptive firm growing strategies; 3. Demand diversity or widespread heterogeneity in the technological capabilities of firms.

  7. Industrial scale garage-type dry fermentation of municipal solid waste to biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, M Y; Li, R H; Li, J; Wedwitschka, H; Nelles, M; Stinner, W; Zhou, H J

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study was to through monitoring the 1st industrial scale garage-type dry fermentation (GTDF) MSW biogas plant in Bin County, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province, China, to investigate its anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and the stability of process. After a monitoring period of 180days, the results showed that the volumetric biogas production of the digesters and percolate tank was 0.72 and 2.22m(3) (m(3)d)(-1), respectively, and the specific biogas yield of the feedstock was about 270m(3)CH4tVS(-1), which indicated that the GTDF is appropriate for the Chinese MSW. This paper also raised some problems aimed at improving the process stability and AD efficiency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of process parameters in the industrial scale production of fish nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the use of experimental design for the assessment of the effects of process parameters on the production of fish nuggets in an industrial scale environment. The effect of independent factors on the physicochemical and microbiological parameters was investigated through a full 24 experimental design. The studied factors included the temperature of fish fillet and pulp in the mixer, the temperature of the added fat, the temperature of water and the ratio of protein extraction time to emulsion time. The physicochemical analyses showed that the higher temperature of the pulp and fillet of fish, the lower the protein in the final product. Microbiological analyses revealed that the counting of Staphylococcus coagulase positive, total and thermo-tolerant coliforms were in accordance with the current legislation.

  9. Progress in Root Cause and Fault Propagation Analysis of Large-Scale Industrial Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In large-scale industrial processes, a fault can easily propagate between process units due to the interconnections of material and information flows. Thus the problem of fault detection and isolation for these processes is more concerned about the root cause and fault propagation before applying quantitative methods in local models. Process topology and causality, as the key features of the process description, need to be captured from process knowledge and process data. The modelling methods from these two aspects are overviewed in this paper. From process knowledge, structural equation modelling, various causal graphs, rule-based models, and ontological models are summarized. From process data, cross-correlation analysis, Granger causality and its extensions, frequency domain methods, information-theoretical methods, and Bayesian nets are introduced. Based on these models, inference methods are discussed to find root causes and fault propagation paths under abnormal situations. Some future work is proposed in the end.

  10. Drivers and barriers to e-invoicing adoption in Greek large scale manufacturing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinagi, Catherine; Trivellas, Panagiotis; Reklitis, Panagiotis; Skourlas, Christos

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the drivers and barriers that large-scale Greek manufacturing industries experience in adopting electronic invoices (e-invoices), based on three case studies with organizations having international presence in many countries. The study focuses on the drivers that may affect the increase of the adoption and use of e-invoicing, including the customers demand for e-invoices, and sufficient know-how and adoption of e-invoicing in organizations. In addition, the study reveals important barriers that prevent the expansion of e-invoicing, such as suppliers’ reluctance to implement e-invoicing, and IT infrastructures incompatibilities. Other issues examined by this study include the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the financial priorities of the organizations assumed to be supported by e-invoicing

  11. Functionality Enhancement of Industrialized Optical Fiber Sensors and System Developed for Full-Scale Pavement Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements.

  12. Turbostratic-like carbon nitride coatings deposited by industrial-scale direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louring, S.; Madsen, N.D.; Berthelsen, A.N.; Christensen, B.H.; Almtoft, K.P.; Nielsen, L.P.; Bøttiger, J.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nitride thin films were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering in an industrial-scale equipment at different deposition temperatures and substrate bias voltages. The films had N/(N + C) atomic fractions between 0.2 and 0.3 as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Raman spectroscopy provided insight into the ordering and extension of the graphite-like clusters, whereas nanoindentation revealed information on the mechanical properties of the films. The internal compressive film stress was evaluated from the substrate bending method. At low deposition temperatures the films were amorphous, whereas the film deposited at approximately 380 °C had a turbostratic-like structure as confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images. The turbostratic-like film had a highly elastic response when subjected to nanoindentation. When a CrN interlayer was deposited between the film and the substrate, XPS and Raman spectroscopy indicated that the turbostratic-like structure was maintained. However, it was inconclusive whether the film still exhibited an extraordinary elastic recovery. An increased substrate bias voltage, without additional heating and without deposition of an interlayer, resulted in a structural ordering, although not to the extent of a turbostratic-like structure. - Highlights: • Carbon nitride films were deposited by industrial-scale magnetron sputtering. • The deposition temperature and the substrate bias voltage were varied. • A turbostratic-like structure was obtained at an elevated deposition temperature. • The turbostratic-like film exhibited a very high elastic recovery. • The influence of a CrN interlayer on the film properties was investigated

  13. Removal of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and quinolones by industrial-scale composting and anaerobic digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Pu, Chengjun; Yu, Xiaolu; Sun, Ying; Chen, Junhao

    2018-02-15

    This study evaluated and compared the removal of antibiotics by industrial-scale composting and anaerobic digestion at different seasons. Twenty compounds belonged to three classes of widely used veterinary antibiotics (i.e., tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and quinolones) were investigated. Results show that of the three groups of antibiotics, tetracyclines were dominant in swine feces and poorly removed by anaerobic digestion with significant accumulation in biosolids, particularly in winter. Compared to that in winter, a much more effective removal (> 97%) by anaerobic digestion was observed for sulfonamides in summer. By contrast, quinolones were the least abundant antibiotics in swine feces and exhibited a higher removal by anaerobic digestion in winter than in summer. The overall removal of antibiotics by aerobic composting could be more than 90% in either winter or summer. Nevertheless, compost products from livestock farms in Beijing contained much higher antibiotics than commercial organic fertilizers. Thus, industrial composting standards should be strictly applied to livestock farms to further remove antibiotics and produce high quality organic fertilizer.

  14. Laboratory-scale trials of electrolytic treatment on industrial wastewaters: microbiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardini, E; Valle, A; Gigliotti, C; Papagno, G; Ranalli, G; Sorlini, C

    2002-09-01

    Animal, civil and industrial waste matter is a source of potential chemical, microbiological and air pollutants. In populated areas the presence of faecal bacteria and the production of malodorous compounds during waste storage and in the tanks of wastewater treatment plants, can cause concern. The general aim of the work was to study electrolytic waste treatment (recently applied on animal slurry) using low electric current across graphite and copper electrodes, determining its effect on the microflora of sludge, collected from the equalisation basin of an industrial aerobic wastewater treatment plant, and on odour emission abatement. Biochemical and enzymatic indicators like ATP content and a pool of 19 enzymatic activities were tested, comparing them with viable cell counts by traditional microbiological methods, to verify the validity of such indicators in monitoring the electrolytic treatment and to assess their correlation with odour reduction. The preliminary results of our laboratory-scale trials showed that in the presence of inert electrodes, such as graphite, metabolic activity is stimulated, whereas with copper electrodes the ATP content and some enzymatic activities are inhibited quite considerably after only four days, this being accompanied by a marked reduction in odour. Consideration was also given to the total copper released from the electrodes and its recovery using iron electrodes.

  15. On-line NIR analysis of fat, water and protein in industrial scale ground meat batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøgersen, G; Isaksson, T; Nilsen, B N; Bakker, E A; Hildrum, K I

    1999-01-01

    Fat, water and protein contents in industrial scale meat batches were determined on-line by near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. The NIR instrument was mounted at the outlet of a large meat grinder, and the measurements were performed in an industrial environment. Beef and pork samples, with chemical compositions of 7-26% fat, 58-75% water and 15-21% protein, were processed with hole diameters of 13mm in the grinder plate. Calibrations were made both for a combined set of beef and pork samples, and for separate sets of beef and pork samples. Validations were either done by full cross validation of the calibration set, or by bias corrected prediction of a test set. Prediction errors for the two sample sets, expressed as root mean square errors of cross validation or standard error of prediction, were in the ranges 0.82-1.49% fat, 0.94-1.33% water and 0.35-0.70% protein, depending of sample set and species of animal. The presented application is an improvement to the existing manual meat standardisation procedure, and has been implemented for regular use in a Norwegian meat manufacturing plant.

  16. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  17. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  18. ACTIVIS: Visual Exploration of Industry-Scale Deep Neural Network Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, Minsuk; Andrews, Pierre Y; Kalro, Aditya; Polo Chau, Duen Horng

    2017-08-30

    While deep learning models have achieved state-of-the-art accuracies for many prediction tasks, understanding these models remains a challenge. Despite the recent interest in developing visual tools to help users interpret deep learning models, the complexity and wide variety of models deployed in industry, and the large-scale datasets that they used, pose unique design challenges that are inadequately addressed by existing work. Through participatory design sessions with over 15 researchers and engineers at Facebook, we have developed, deployed, and iteratively improved ACTIVIS, an interactive visualization system for interpreting large-scale deep learning models and results. By tightly integrating multiple coordinated views, such as a computation graph overview of the model architecture, and a neuron activation view for pattern discovery and comparison, users can explore complex deep neural network models at both the instance- and subset-level. ACTIVIS has been deployed on Facebook's machine learning platform. We present case studies with Facebook researchers and engineers, and usage scenarios of how ACTIVIS may work with different models.

  19. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  20. Chemometric strategy for automatic chromatographic peak detection and background drift correction in chromatographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-Jie; Xia, Qiao-Ling; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Bing; Xie, Fu-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Ma, Yun-Ming; Wu, Hai-Long

    2014-09-12

    Peak detection and background drift correction (BDC) are the key stages in using chemometric methods to analyze chromatographic fingerprints of complex samples. This study developed a novel chemometric strategy for simultaneous automatic chromatographic peak detection and BDC. A robust statistical method was used for intelligent estimation of instrumental noise level coupled with first-order derivative of chromatographic signal to automatically extract chromatographic peaks in the data. A local curve-fitting strategy was then employed for BDC. Simulated and real liquid chromatographic data were designed with various kinds of background drift and degree of overlapped chromatographic peaks to verify the performance of the proposed strategy. The underlying chromatographic peaks can be automatically detected and reasonably integrated by this strategy. Meanwhile, chromatograms with BDC can be precisely obtained. The proposed method was used to analyze a complex gas chromatography dataset that monitored quality changes in plant extracts during storage procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Partial degradation of five pesticides and an industrial pollutant by ozonation in a pilot-plant scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, M.I.; Malato, S.; Perez-Estrada, L.A.; Gernjak, W.; Oller, I.; Domenech, Xavier; Peral, Jose

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry (α-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html[1

  2. Partial degradation of five pesticides and an industrial pollutant by ozonation in a pilot-plant scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, M.I. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Malato, S. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Perez-Estrada, L.A. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Gernjak, W. [PSA -Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Oller, I. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Peral, Jose [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.peral@uab.es

    2006-11-16

    Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry ({alpha}-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html[1

  3. Parallelization of Droplet Microfluidic Systems for the Sustainable Production of Micro-Reactors at Industrial Scale

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David

    2017-04-01

    At the cutting edge of the chemical and biological research, innovation takes place in a field referred to as Lab on Chip (LoC), a multi-disciplinary area that combines biology, chemistry, electronics, microfabrication, and fluid mechanics. Within this field, droplets have been used as microreactors to produce advanced materials like quantum dots, micro and nanoparticles, active pharmaceutical ingredients, etc. The size of these microreactors offers distinct advantages, which were not possible using batch technologies. For example, they allow for lower reagent waste, minimal energy consumption, increased safety, as well as better process control of reaction conditions like temperature regulation, residence times, and response times among others. One of the biggest drawbacks associated with this technology is its limited production volume that prevents it from reaching industrial applications. The standard production rates for a single droplet microfluidic device is in the range of 1-10mLh-1, whereas industrial applications usually demand production rates several orders of magnitude higher. Although substantial work has been recently undertaken in the development scaled-out solutions, which run in parallel several droplet generators. Complex fluid mechanics and limitations on the manufacturing capacity have constrained these works to explore only in-plane parallelization. This thesis investigates a three-dimensional parallelization by proposing a microfluidic system that is comprised of a stack of droplet generation layers working on the liquid-liquid ow regime. Its realization implied a study of the characteristics of conventional droplet generators and the development of a fabrication process for 3D networks of microchannels. Finally, the combination of these studies resulted in a functional 3D parallelization system with the highest production rate (i.e. 1 Lh-1) at the time of its publication. Additionally, this architecture can reach industrially relevant

  4. Chromatographic Separations of Enantiomers and Underivatized Oligosaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    My graduate research has focused on separation science and bioanalytical analysis, which emphasized in method development. It includes three major areas: enantiomeric separations using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Super/subcritical fluid chromatography (SFC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE); drug-protein binding behavior studies using CE; and carbohydrate analysis using liquid chromatograph-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Enantiomeric separations continue to be extremely important in the pharmaceutical industry. An in-depth evaluation of the enantiomeric separation capabilities of macrocyclic glycopeptides CSPs with SFC mobile phases was investigated using a set of over 100 chiral compounds. It was found that the macrocyclic based CSPs were able to separate enantiomers of various compounds with different polarities and functionalities. Seventy percent of all separations were achieved in less than 4 min due to the high flow rate (4.0 ml/min) that can be used in SFC. Drug-protein binding is an important process in determining the activity and fate of a drug once it enters the body. Two drug/protein systems have been studied using frontal analysis CE method. More sensitive fluorescence detection was introduced in this assay, which overcame the problem of low sensitivity that is common when using UV detection for drug-protein studies. In addition, the first usage of an argon ion laser with 257 nm beam coupled with CCD camera as a frontal analysis detection method enabled the simultaneous observation of drug fluorescence as well as the protein fluorescence. LC-ESI-MS was used for the separation and characterization of underivatized oligosaccharide mixtures. With the limits of detection as low as 50 picograms, all individual components of oligosaccharide mixtures (up to 11 glucose-units long) were baseline resolved on a Cyclobond I 2000 column and detected using ESI-MS. This system is characterized by high chromatographic

  5. Chromatographic Separations of Enantiomers and Underivatized Oligosaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Liu

    2004-01-01

    My graduate research has focused on separation science and bioanalytical analysis, which emphasized in method development. It includes three major areas: enantiomeric separations using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Super/subcritical fluid chromatography (SFC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE); drug-protein binding behavior studies using CE; and carbohydrate analysis using liquid chromatograph-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Enantiomeric separations continue to be extremely important in the pharmaceutical industry. An in-depth evaluation of the enantiomeric separation capabilities of macrocyclic glycopeptides CSPs with SFC mobile phases was investigated using a set of over 100 chiral compounds. It was found that the macrocyclic based CSPs were able to separate enantiomers of various compounds with different polarities and functionalities. Seventy percent of all separations were achieved in less than 4 min due to the high flow rate (4.0 ml/min) that can be used in SFC. Drug-protein binding is an important process in determining the activity and fate of a drug once it enters the body. Two drug/protein systems have been studied using frontal analysis CE method. More sensitive fluorescence detection was introduced in this assay, which overcame the problem of low sensitivity that is common when using UV detection for drug-protein studies. In addition, the first usage of an argon ion laser with 257 nm beam coupled with CCD camera as a frontal analysis detection method enabled the simultaneous observation of drug fluorescence as well as the protein fluorescence. LC-ESI-MS was used for the separation and characterization of underivatized oligosaccharide mixtures. With the limits of detection as low as 50 picograms, all individual components of oligosaccharide mixtures (up to 11 glucose-units long) were baseline resolved on a Cyclobond I 2000 column and detected using ESI-MS. This system is characterized by high chromatographic

  6. Modeling Aquatic Toxicity through Chromatographic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pumarega, Alejandro; Amézqueta, Susana; Farré, Sandra; Muñoz-Pascual, Laura; Abraham, Michael H; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí

    2017-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment requires information about the toxicity of the growing number of chemical products coming from different origins that can contaminate water and become toxicants to aquatic species or other living beings via the trophic chain. Direct toxicity measurements using sensitive aquatic species can be carried out but they may become expensive and ethically questionable. Literature refers to the use of chromatographic measurements that correlate to the toxic effect of a compound over a specific aquatic species as an alternative to get toxicity information. In this work, we have studied the similarity in the response of the toxicity to different species and we have selected eight representative aquatic species (including tadpoles, fish, water fleas, protozoan, and bacteria) with known nonspecific toxicity to chemical substances. Next, we have selected four chromatographic systems offering good perspectives for surrogation of the eight selected aquatic systems, and thus prediction of toxicity from the chromatographic measurement. Then toxicity has been correlated to the chromatographic retention factor. Satisfactory correlation results have been obtained to emulate toxicity in five of the selected aquatic species through some of the chromatographic systems. Other aquatic species with similar characteristics to these five representative ones could also be emulated by using the same chromatographic systems. The final aim of this study is to model chemical products toxicity to aquatic species by means of chromatographic systems to reduce in vivo testing.

  7. Monitoring of cotton dust and health risk assessment in small-scale weaving industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad Wajid; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Tauseef, Shanza; Sajjad, Muqadas; Nazeer, Awais; Farheen, Nazish; Iqbal, Muddsar

    2012-08-01

    The present study describes the estimation of particulate matter (cotton dust) with different sizes, i.e., PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0 μm) in small-scale weaving industry (power looms) situated in district Hafizabad, Punjab, Pakistan, and the assessment of health problems of workers associated with these pollutants. A significant difference was found in PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0) with reference to nine different sampling stations with p values 4.0), and PM(10.0), depict that PM(1.0) differs significantly from PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0), with p values 4.0), with a p value >0.05 in defined sampling stations on an average basis. Majority of the workers were facing several diseases due to interaction with particulate matter (cotton dust) during working hours. Flue, cough, eye, and skin infections were the most common diseases among workers caused by particulate matter (cotton dust).

  8. Development of industrial-scale fission {sup 99}Mo production process using low enriched uranium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Kon; Lee, Jun Sig [Radioisotope Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Beyer, Gerd J. [Grunicke Strasse 15, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Molybdenum-99 ({sup 99}Mo) is the most important isotope because its daughter isotope, technetium-99m ({sup 99}mTc), has been the most widely used medical radioisotope for more than 50 years, accounting for > 80% of total nuclear diagnostics worldwide. In this review, radiochemical routes for the production of {sup 99}Mo, and the aspects for selecting a suitable process strategy are discussed from the historical viewpoint of {sup 99}Mo technology developments. Most of the industrial-scale {sup 99}Mo processes have been based on the fission of {sup 235}U. Recently, important issues have been raised for the conversion of fission {sup 99}Mo targets from highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium (LEU). The development of new LEU targets with higher density was requested to compensate for the loss of {sup 99}Mo yield, caused by a significant reduction of {sup 235}U enrichment, from the conversion. As the dramatic increment of intermediate level liquid waste is also expected from the conversion, an effective strategy to reduce the waste generation from the fission {sup 99}Mo production is required. The mitigation of radioxenon emission from medical radioisotope production facilities is discussed in relation with the monitoring of nuclear explosions and comprehensive nuclear test ban. Lastly, the {sup 99}Mo production process paired with the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's own LEU target is proposed as one of the most suitable processes for the LEU target.

  9. Large-Scale Selection and Breeding To Generate Industrial Yeasts with Superior Aroma Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Jan; Meersman, Esther; Snoek, Tim; Saels, Veerle

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations and relative ratios of various aroma compounds produced by fermenting yeast cells are essential for the sensory quality of many fermented foods, including beer, bread, wine, and sake. Since the production of these aroma-active compounds varies highly among different yeast strains, careful selection of variants with optimal aromatic profiles is of crucial importance for a high-quality end product. This study evaluates the production of different aroma-active compounds in 301 different Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces paradoxus, and Saccharomyces pastorianus yeast strains. Our results show that the production of key aroma compounds like isoamyl acetate and ethyl acetate varies by an order of magnitude between natural yeasts, with the concentrations of some compounds showing significant positive correlation, whereas others vary independently. Targeted hybridization of some of the best aroma-producing strains yielded 46 intraspecific hybrids, of which some show a distinct heterosis (hybrid vigor) effect and produce up to 45% more isoamyl acetate than the best parental strains while retaining their overall fermentation performance. Together, our results demonstrate the potential of large-scale outbreeding to obtain superior industrial yeasts that are directly applicable for commercial use. PMID:25192996

  10. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Entrepreneurial developments and small scale industry contribution to Nigerian national development- A marketing interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayozie Daniel Ogechukwu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available : In both developed and developing countries, the government is turning to small and medium scale industries and entrepreneurs, as a means of economic development and a veritable means of solving problems. It is a seedbed of innovations, inventions and employment. Entrepreneurship is as old as Nigeria and had contributed to the growth of the economy. Presently in Nigeria, SMEs assist in promoting the growth of the country’s economy, hence all the levels of government at different times havepolicies which promote the growth and sustenance of SMEs. This paper identifies the orientation of SME’s and entrepreneurial trends in Nigeria, tackles the operational definition and scopes, and describes the role of the Nigerian government as a participant, regulator and facilitator, both legally and politically in the growth of SMEs and entrepreneurship. It identifies the marketing problems of SMEs and entrepreneurships in Nigeria, the provision and enactment of beneficial and supportive laws, the provision of infrastructural facilities, constant man-power and development, direct financial assistance to SMEs and the establishment of finance institutions to support SMEs. It identifies the roles of SMEs in Nigeria’s development and growth. It discusses the entrepreneurial thoughts, problems and advance practical marketing solution. It concludes by clearly specifying the role of marketing to the survival of SMEsand entrepreneurship in Nigeria, and relevant recommendations. For SMEs to survive marketing practice and principles must be given prominence.

  12. Real-time monitoring of emissions from monoethanolamine-based industrial scale carbon capture facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Schade, Gunnar Wolfgang; Nielsen, Claus Jørgen

    2013-12-17

    We demonstrate the capabilities and properties of using Proton Transfer Reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) to real-time monitor gaseous emissions from industrial scale amine-based carbon capture processes. The benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) was used as an example of amines needing to be monitored from carbon capture facilities, and to describe how the measurements may be influenced by potentially interfering species in CO2 absorber stack discharges. On the basis of known or expected emission compositions, we investigated the PTR-ToF-MS MEA response as a function of sample flow humidity, ammonia, and CO2 abundances, and show that all can exhibit interferences, thus making accurate amine measurements difficult. This warrants a proper sample pretreatment, and we show an example using a dilution with bottled zero air of 1:20 to 1:10 to monitor stack gas concentrations at the CO2 Technology Center Mongstad (TCM), Norway. Observed emissions included many expected chemical species, dominantly ammonia and acetaldehyde, but also two new species previously not reported but emitted in significant quantities. With respect to concerns regarding amine emissions, we show that accurate amine quantifications in the presence of water vapor, ammonia, and CO2 become feasible after proper sample dilution, thus making PTR-ToF-MS a viable technique to monitor future carbon capture facility emissions, without conventional laborious sample pretreatment.

  13. Development of Industrial-Scale Fission 99Mo Production Process Using Low Enriched Uranium Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kon Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum-99 (99Mo is the most important isotope because its daughter isotope, technetium-99m (99mTc, has been the most widely used medical radioisotope for more than 50 years, accounting for > 80% of total nuclear diagnostics worldwide. In this review, radiochemical routes for the production of 99Mo, and the aspects for selecting a suitable process strategy are discussed from the historical viewpoint of 99Mo technology developments. Most of the industrial-scale 99Mo processes have been based on the fission of 235U. Recently, important issues have been raised for the conversion of fission 99Mo targets from highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium (LEU. The development of new LEU targets with higher density was requested to compensate for the loss of 99Mo yield, caused by a significant reduction of 235U enrichment, from the conversion. As the dramatic increment of intermediate level liquid waste is also expected from the conversion, an effective strategy to reduce the waste generation from the fission 99Mo production is required. The mitigation of radioxenon emission from medical radioisotope production facilities is discussed in relation with the monitoring of nuclear explosions and comprehensive nuclear test ban. Lastly, the 99Mo production process paired with the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's own LEU target is proposed as one of the most suitable processes for the LEU target.

  14. An industry-scale mass marking technique for tracing farmed fish escapees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fletcher Warren-Myers

    Full Text Available Farmed fish escape and enter the environment with subsequent effects on wild populations. Reducing escapes requires the ability to trace individuals back to the point of escape, so that escape causes can be identified and technical standards improved. Here, we tested if stable isotope otolith fingerprint marks delivered during routine vaccination could be an accurate, feasible and cost effective marking method, suitable for industrial-scale application. We tested seven stable isotopes, (134Ba, (135Ba, (136Ba, (137Ba, (86Sr, (87Sr and (26Mg, on farmed Atlantic salmon reared in freshwater, in experimental conditions designed to reflect commercial practice. Marking was 100% successful with individual Ba isotopes at concentrations as low as 0.001 µg. g-1 fish and for Sr isotopes at 1 µg. g-1 fish. Our results suggest that 63 unique fingerprint marks can be made at low cost using Ba (0.0002 - 0.02 $US per mark and Sr (0.46 - 0.82 $US per mark isotopes. Stable isotope fingerprinting during vaccination is feasible for commercial application if applied at a company level within the world's largest salmon producing nations. Introducing a mass marking scheme would enable tracing of escapees back to point of origin, which could drive greater compliance, better farm design and improved management practices to reduce escapes.

  15. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF; average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  16. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  17. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  18. The Indonesian tourism industry under crisis : a Bourdieuan perspective on social boundaries among small-scale business owners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, Julie E.; Dahles, Heidi; Prabawa, Titi Susilowati

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how small-scale business owners in the Indonesian tourism industry seek to overcome the consequences of multiple crises, over a 10-year period. Taking a Bourdieuan perspective, the authors emphasize the context-dependency and quality differences of various forms of capital,

  19. Occupational exposure and health problems in small-scale industry workers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a situation analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongo, L.M.B.; Barten, F.J.M.H.; Msamanga, G.I.; Heederik, D.; Dolmans, W.M.V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Workers in informal small-scale industries (SSI) in developing countries involved in welding, spray painting, woodwork and metalwork are exposed to various hazards with consequent risk to health. Aim To assess occupational exposure and health problems in SSI in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

  20. Standard Format for Chromatographic-polarimetric System small samples assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo, S.; Fajer, V.; Fonfria, C.; Patinno, R.

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of samples containing optically active substances to be evaluated as part of quality control of raw material entering industrial process, and also during the modifications exerted on it to obtain the desired final composition is still and unsolved problem for many industries. That is the case of sugarcane industry. Sometimes the troubles implied are enlarged because samples to be evaluated are not bigger than one milliliter. Reduction of gel beds in G-10 and G-50 chromatographic columns having an inner diameter of 16 mm, instead of 25, and bed heights adjustable to requirements by means of sliding stoppers to increase analytical power were evaluated with glucose and sucrose standards in concentrations from 1 to 10 g/dL, using aliquots of 1 ml without undesirable dilutions that could affect either detection or chromatographic profile. Assays with seaweed extracts gave good results that are shown. It is established the advantage to know concentration of a separated substance by the height of its peak and the savings in time and reagents resulting . Sample expanded uncertainty in both systems is compared. It is also presented several programs for data acquisition, storing and processing. (Author)

  1. Chromatographic and biological aspects of organomercurials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishbein, L

    1970-01-01

    A thorough review on the biological and chromatographic aspects of methylmercury, phenylmercurials, and miscellaneous organomercurials is presented. Areas covered include ecology, epidemiology, paper chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, metabolism and toxicity, and environmental degradation. 183 references.

  2. A Quantitative Gas Chromatographic Ethanol Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a gas chromatographic experiment for the quantitative determination of volume percent ethanol in water ethanol solutions. Background information, procedures, and typical results are included. Accuracy and precision of results are both on the order of two percent. (JN)

  3. Upgrading Wood-Based Industries: Harnessing the Social Network of Small-Scale Furniture Producers and Their Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melati ,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Furniture is a major export commodity in Indonesia with a total value of USD 1.96 million in 2007.  Jepara District is one of the key location for wood furniture production with 15,271 furniture related business units employing 176,469 workers.  However, inefficiencies and power imbalances throughout the furniture value chain have resulted in overharvesting and uneven distribution of gains among the industry’s actors.  In contrast to price-setting international furniture retailers, small-scale producers enjoy the least value from their products.  In order to increase added value and competitiveness, small-scale furniture producers have made efforts to upgrade by harnessing their social network and institutions.  This paper describes small-scale furniture producers’ efforts to upgrade by utilising their social network and institutions in Jepara.  Data was collected through in-depth interviews with members of the small-scale furniture producers’ association.  The research provides insight into the nature of social networks and information flow and develops future scenarios to upgrade.  The scenarios will not only benefit the furniture industry in Jepara, but may also be adopted for similar industries throughout Indonesia and the world, and potentially improve many people’s economies and livelihoods.Keywords: wood-based industry, furniture, small-scale, social network, institution

  4. Investigation of industrial-scale carbon dioxide reduction using pulsed electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, G. M.; Apruzese, J. P.; Petrova, Tz. B.; Wolford, M. F. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375-5346 (United States)

    2016-03-14

    Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas contributing to global warming. To help mitigate increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations, we investigate a method of carbon dioxide reduction using high-power electron beams, which can be used on an industrial scale. A series of experiments are conducted in which the reduction of CO{sub 2} is measured for different gas compositions and power deposition rates. An electron beam deposition model is applied to compute reduction rates of CO{sub 2} and energy cost for breaking a CO{sub 2} molecule in flue gas and pure carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure. For flue gas consisting of 82% N{sub 2}, 6% O{sub 2}, and 12% CO{sub 2}, the calculated energy cost is 85 eV per molecule. In order to dissociate 50% of the CO{sub 2} molecules, beam energy density deposition on the order of 20 J/cm{sup 3} is required. Electron beam irradiation of 12.6 liter gas volume containing 90% CO{sub 2} and 10% CH{sub 4} at beam energy density deposition of 4.2 J/cm{sup 3}, accumulated over 43 shots in a 20 min interval, reduced the CO{sub 2} concentration to 78%. Analogous experiments with a gas mixture containing 11.5% CO{sub 2}, 11.5% CH{sub 4}, and balance of Ar, reduced the CO{sub 2} concentration to below 11% with energy deposition 0.71 J/cm{sup 3}, accumulated over 10 shots in a 5 min interval. The experimental data and the theoretical predictions of CO{sub 2} reduction using pulsed electron beams are in agreement within the experimental error. Other techniques to enhance the removal of CO{sub 2} with pulsed electron beams are also explored, yielding new possible avenues of research.

  5. Industrial scale straw-to-biomethane conversion. A new bioenergy and business opportunity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonde, T.A. [BioFuel Technology ApS, Randers (Denmark); Sangaraju Raju, C.; Moeller, H.B. [Aarhus Univ., Forskningscenter Foulum, Tjele (Denmark); Slot Knudsen, M. [C.F. Nielsen A/S, Baelum (Denmark)

    2013-09-01

    The project resulted in the development, design, engineering, construction, and demonstration of a plant for industrial scale use of cereal straw for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The technology is based on the C. F. Nielsen A/S mechanical presses and adapted to the new purpose, to pre-treat and feed straw into a digester in one single step. A number of laboratory measurements as a function of variations of the pre-treatment showed, that under practical circumstances it is possible to achieve a biogas yield of 400 m{sup 3} per tons straw (corresponding to 300 m{sup 3} methane per tons volatile solids). The most significant effect was achieved by impregnating the straw with 1 % acetic acid before mechanical treatment. It was additionally shown that an extended incubation, after the mechanical treatment at 90 deg. C, resulted in a more pronounced effect than incubation at 140 deg. C. The maximum gas yield was 360 l methane per kg vs (volatile solids). This is equivalent to 290 l methane per kg straw (at 85 % dry matter, 95 % vs) or 450 l biogas per kg straw (at 65 % methane). A typical annual quantity of straw for anaerobic digestion would be 10.000 tons and more. A biogas plant digesting e.g. 100.000 tons liquid manure and 10.000 tons straw will produce a total of app. 6.5 mio. m{sup 3} biogas, of which 2.5 mio. m{sup 3} stems from the slurry and 4 mio. m{sup 3} from the straw. The result is a sustainable and robust biogas production and an equally sustainable economic performance of the biogas plant. (Author)

  6. Modelling an industrial anaerobic granular reactor using a multi-scale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, H; Flores-Alsina, X; Ramin, P; Kjellberg, K; Jeppsson, U; Batstone, D J; Gernaey, K V

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to show the results of an industrial project dealing with modelling of anaerobic digesters. A multi-scale mathematical approach is developed to describe reactor hydrodynamics, granule growth/distribution and microbial competition/inhibition for substrate/space within the biofilm. The main biochemical and physico-chemical processes in the model are based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1) extended with the fate of phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and ethanol (Et-OH). Wastewater dynamic conditions are reproduced and data frequency increased using the Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2) influent generator. All models are tested using two plant data sets corresponding to different operational periods (#D1, #D2). Simulation results reveal that the proposed approach can satisfactorily describe the transformation of organics, nutrients and minerals, the production of methane, carbon dioxide and sulfide and the potential formation of precipitates within the bulk (average deviation between computer simulations and measurements for both #D1, #D2 is around 10%). Model predictions suggest a stratified structure within the granule which is the result of: 1) applied loading rates, 2) mass transfer limitations and 3) specific (bacterial) affinity for substrate. Hence, inerts (X I ) and methanogens (X ac ) are situated in the inner zone, and this fraction lowers as the radius increases favouring the presence of acidogens (X su ,X aa , X fa ) and acetogens (X c4 ,X pro ). Additional simulations show the effects on the overall process performance when operational (pH) and loading (S:COD) conditions are modified. Lastly, the effect of intra-granular precipitation on the overall organic/inorganic distribution is assessed at: 1) different times; and, 2) reactor heights. Finally, the possibilities and opportunities offered by the proposed approach for conducting engineering optimization projects are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Sodium hypochlorite as an alternative to hydrogen peroxide in Fenton process for industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behin, Jamshid; Akbari, Abbas; Mahmoudi, Mohsen; Khajeh, Mehdi

    2017-09-15

    In present work, the treatment of aromatic compounds of simulated wastewater was performed by Fenton and NaOCl/Fe 2+ processes. The model solution was prepared based on the wastewater composition of Diisocyanate unit of Karoon Petrochemical Company/Iran containing Diamino-toluenes, Nitro-phenol, Mononitro-toluene, Nitro-cresol, and Dinitro-toluene. Experiments were conducted in a batch mode to examine the effects of operating variables such as pH, oxidant dosages, ferrous ion concentration and numbers of feeding on COD removal. Taguchi experimental design was used to determine the optimum conditions. The COD removal efficiency under optimum conditions (suggested by Taguchi design) in Fenton and NaOCl/Fe 2+ processes was 88.7% and 83.4%, respectively. The highest contribution factor in Fenton process belongs to pH (47.47%) and in NaOCl/Fe 2+ process belongs to NaOCl/pollutants (50.26%). High regression coefficient (R 2 : 0.98) obtained for Taguchi method, indicates that models are statistically significant and are in well agreement with each other. The NaOCl/Fe 2+ process utilizing a conventional oxidant, in comparison to hydrogen peroxide, is an efficient cost effective process for COD removal from real wastewater, although the removal efficiency is not as high as in Fenton process; however it is a suitable process to replace Fenton process in industrial scale for wastewater involved aromatic compounds with high COD. This process was successfully applied in Karoon Petrochemical Company/Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-contact multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy system for industrial-scale bio-impedance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Toole, M D; Marsh, L A; Davidson, J L; Tan, Y M; Armitage, D W; Peyton, A J

    2015-01-01

    Biological tissues have a complex impedance, or bio-impedance, profile which changes with respect to frequency. This is caused by dispersion mechanisms which govern how the electromagnetic field interacts with the tissue at the cellular and molecular level. Measuring the bio-impedance spectra of a biological sample can potentially provide insight into the sample’s properties and its cellular structure. This has obvious applications in the medical, pharmaceutical and food-based industrial domains. However, measuring the bio-impedance spectra non-destructively and in a way which is practical at an industrial scale presents substantial challenges. The low conductivity of the sample requires a highly sensitive instrument, while the demands of industrial-scale operation require a fast high-throughput sensor of rugged design. In this paper, we describe a multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy (MIS) system suitable for industrial-scale, non-contact, spectroscopic bio-impedance measurement over a bandwidth of 156 kHz–2.5 MHz. The system sensitivity and performance are investigated using calibration and known reference samples. It is shown to yield rapid and consistently sensitive results with good long-term stability. The system is then used to obtain conductivity spectra of a number of biological test samples, including yeast suspensions of varying concentration and a range of agricultural produce, such as apples, pears, nectarines, kiwis, potatoes, oranges and tomatoes. (paper)

  9. Engineering microbial cell factories for the production of plant natural products: from design principles to industrial-scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Ding, Wentao; Jiang, Huifeng

    2017-07-19

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are widely used as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, seasonings, pigments, etc., with a huge commercial value on the global market. However, most of these PNPs are still being extracted from plants. A resource-conserving and environment-friendly synthesis route for PNPs that utilizes microbial cell factories has attracted increasing attention since the 1940s. However, at the present only a handful of PNPs are being produced by microbial cell factories at an industrial scale, and there are still many challenges in their large-scale application. One of the challenges is that most biosynthetic pathways of PNPs are still unknown, which largely limits the number of candidate PNPs for heterologous microbial production. Another challenge is that the metabolic fluxes toward the target products in microbial hosts are often hindered by poor precursor supply, low catalytic activity of enzymes and obstructed product transport. Consequently, despite intensive studies on the metabolic engineering of microbial hosts, the fermentation costs of most heterologously produced PNPs are still too high for industrial-scale production. In this paper, we review several aspects of PNP production in microbial cell factories, including important design principles and recent progress in pathway mining and metabolic engineering. In addition, implemented cases of industrial-scale production of PNPs in microbial cell factories are also highlighted.

  10. Villacidro solar demo plant: Integration of small-scale CSP and biogas power plants in an industrial microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Demontis, V.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The integration of small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) in an industrial district, in order to develop a microgrid fully supplied by renewable energy sources, is presented in this paper. The plant aims to assess in real operating conditions, the performance, the effectiveness and the reliability of small-scale concentrating solar power technologies in the field of distributed generation. In particular, the potentiality of small scale CSP with thermal storage to supply dispatchable electricity to an industrial microgrid will be investigated. The microgrid will be realized in the municipal waste treatment plant of the Industrial Consortium of Villacidro, in southern Sardinia (Italy), which already includes a biogas power plant. In order to achieve the microgrid instantaneous energy balance, the analysis of the time evolution of the waste treatment plant demand and of the generation in the existing power systems has been carried out. This has allowed the design of a suitable CSP plant with thermal storage and an electrochemical storage system for supporting the proposed microgrid. At the aim of obtaining the expected energy autonomy, a specific Energy Management Strategy, which takes into account the different dynamic performances and characteristics of the demand and the generation, has been designed. In this paper, the configuration of the proposed small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and of its thermal energy storage, based on thermocline principle, is initially described. Finally, a simulation study of the entire power system, imposing scheduled profiles based on weather forecasts, is presented.

  11. Pilot-scale biopesticide production by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki using starch industry wastewater as raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndao, Adama; Sellamuthu, Balasubramanian; Gnepe, Jean R; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D; Valero, Jose R

    2017-09-02

    Pilot-scale Bacillus thuringiensis based biopesticide production (2000 L bioreactor) was conducted using starch industry wastewater (SIW) as a raw material using optimized operational parameters obtained in 15 L and 150 L fermenters. In pilot scale fermentation process the oxygen transfer rate is a major limiting factor for high product yield. Thus, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (K L a) remains a tool to determine the oxygen transfer capacity [oxygen utilization rate (OUR) and oxygen transfer rate (OTR)] to obtain better bacterial growth rate and entomotoxicity in new bioreactor process optimization and scale-up. This study results demonstrated that the oxygen transfer rate in 2000 L bioreactor was better than 15 L and 150 L fermenters. The better oxygen transfer in 2000 L bioreactor augmented the bacterial growth [total cell (TC) and viable spore count (SC)] and delta-endotoxin yield. Prepared a stable biopesticide formulation for field use and its entomotoxicity was also evaluated. This study result corroborates the feasibility of industrial scale operation of biopesticide production using starch industry wastewater as raw material.

  12. Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven T.; Huang, Xinqun; Cramer, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The commercial simulator Aspen Chromatography was employed to study and optimize an important new industrial separation process, weak partitioning chromatography. This case study on antibody purification was implemented in a chromatographic separations course. Parametric simulations were performed to investigate the effect of operating parameters…

  13. Comparing Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale across three UK post-industrial cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David; McCartney, Gerry; McCullough, Sarah; Buchanan, Duncan; Jones, Russell

    2014-11-25

    High levels of 'excess' mortality (ie, that seemingly not explained by deprivation) have been shown for Scotland compared to England and Wales and, especially, for its largest city, Glasgow, compared to the similarly deprived English cities of Liverpool and Manchester. It has been suggested that this excess may be related to differences in 'Sense of Coherence' (SoC) between the populations. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether levels of SoC differed between these cities and whether, therefore, this could be a plausible explanation for the 'excess'. Three post-industrial UK cities: Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. A representative sample of more than 3700 adults (over 1200 in each city). SoC was measured using Antonovsky's 13-item scale (SOC-13). Multivariate linear regression was used to compare SoC between the cities while controlling for characteristics (age, gender, SES etc) of the samples. Additional modelling explored whether differences in SoC moderated city differences in levels of self-assessed health (SAH). SoC was higher, not lower, among the Glasgow sample. Fully adjusted mean SoC scores for residents of Liverpool and Manchester were, respectively, 5.1 (-5.1 (95% CI -6.0 to -4.1)) and 8.1 (-8.1 (-9.1 to -7.2)) lower than those in Glasgow. The additional modelling confirmed the relationship between SoC and SAH: a 1 unit increase in SoC predicted approximately 3% lower likelihood of reporting bad/very bad health (OR=0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.98)): given the slightly worse SAH in Glasgow, this resulted in slightly lower odds of reporting bad/very bad health for the Liverpool and Manchester samples compared to Glasgow. The reasons for the high levels of 'excess' mortality seen in Scotland and particularly Glasgow remain unclear. However, on the basis of these analyses, it appears unlikely that a low SoC provides any explanation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  14. Scale-up and large-scale production of Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (Chlorophyta) for CO2 mitigation: from an agar plate to 100-m3 industrial photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Hugo; Páramo, Jaime; Silva, Joana; Marques, Ana; Barros, Ana; Maurício, Dinis; Santos, Tamára; Schulze, Peter; Barros, Raúl; Gouveia, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Varela, João

    2018-03-23

    Industrial production of novel microalgal isolates is key to improving the current portfolio of available strains that are able to grow in large-scale production systems for different biotechnological applications, including carbon mitigation. In this context, Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 was successfully scaled up from an agar plate to 35- and 100-m 3 industrial scale tubular photobioreactors (PBR). Growth was performed semi-continuously for 60 days in the autumn-winter season (17 th October - 14 th December). Optimisation of tubular PBR operations showed that improved productivities were obtained at a culture velocity of 0.65-1.35 m s -1 and a pH set-point for CO 2 injection of 8.0. Highest volumetric (0.08 ± 0.01 g L -1 d -1 ) and areal (20.3 ± 3.2 g m -2 d -1 ) biomass productivities were attained in the 100-m 3 PBR compared to those of the 35-m 3 PBR (0.05 ± 0.02 g L -1 d -1 and 13.5 ± 4.3 g m -2 d -1 , respectively). Lipid contents were similar in both PBRs (9-10% of ash free dry weight). CO 2 sequestration was followed in the 100-m 3 PBR, revealing a mean CO 2 mitigation efficiency of 65% and a biomass to carbon ratio of 1.80. Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 is thus a robust candidate for industrial-scale production with promising biomass productivities and photosynthetic efficiencies up to 3.5% of total solar irradiance.

  15. It was the demonstration of industrial steel production capacity ferritic-martensitic Spanish ASTURFER scale demand ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coto, R.; Serrano, M.; Moran, A.; Rodriguez, D.; Artimez, J. A.; Belzunce, J.; Sedano, L.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) structural steels are considered as candidate materials with notable possibilities to be incorporated to fusion reactor ITER, nowadays under construction, and future fusion reactor DEMO, involving a notable forecasting of supply materials, with a considerable limitation due to the few number of furnishes currently on the market. The manufacture at an industrial scale of the ASTURFER steel, developed at laboratory scale by ITMA Materials Technology and the Structural Materials Division of the Technology Division of CIEMAT would be a significant business opportunity for steelwork companies.

  16. Curbing variations in packaging process through Six Sigma way in a large-scale food-processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Darshak A.; Kotadiya, Parth; Makwana, Nikheel; Patel, Sonalinkumar

    2015-03-01

    Indian industries need overall operational excellence for sustainable profitability and growth in the present age of global competitiveness. Among different quality and productivity improvement techniques, Six Sigma has emerged as one of the most effective breakthrough improvement strategies. Though Indian industries are exploring this improvement methodology to their advantage and reaping the benefits, not much has been presented and published regarding experience of Six Sigma in the food-processing industries. This paper is an effort to exemplify the application of Six Sigma quality improvement drive to one of the large-scale food-processing sectors in India. The paper discusses the phase wiz implementation of define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) on one of the chronic problems, variations in the weight of milk powder pouch. The paper wraps up with the improvements achieved and projected bottom-line gain to the unit by application of Six Sigma methodology.

  17. The development of small-scale mechanization means positioning algorithm using radio frequency identification technology in industrial plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafiev, A.; Orlov, A.; Privezencev, D.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the development of technology and software for the construction of positioning and control systems for small mechanization in industrial plants based on radio frequency identification methods, which will be the basis for creating highly efficient intelligent systems for controlling the product movement in industrial enterprises. The main standards that are applied in the field of product movement control automation and radio frequency identification are considered. The article reviews modern publications and automation systems for the control of product movement developed by domestic and foreign manufacturers. It describes the developed algorithm for positioning of small-scale mechanization means in an industrial enterprise. Experimental studies in laboratory and production conditions have been conducted and described in the article.

  18. Continuous production of fullerenes and other carbon nanomaterials on a semi-industrial scale using plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenberger, T.M.; Gonzalez-Aguilar, J.; Fulcheri, L.; Fabry, F.; Grivei, E.; Probst, N.; Flamant, G.; Charlier, J.-C.

    2002-01-01

    A new production method is presented allowing the production of bulk quantities of fullerenes and other carbon nanomaterials using a 3-phase thermal plasma (260 kW). The main characteristics of this method lie in the independent control of the carbon throughput by injection of a solid carbon feedstock, and the immediate extraction of the synthesised product from the reactor, allowing production on a continuous basis. The currently investigated plasma facility is of an intermediate scale between lab-size and an industrial pilot plant, ready for further up scaling to an industrial size. The influence of a large number of different carbon precursors, plasma gases and operating conditions on the fullerene yield has been studied. At this state, quantities of up to 1 kg of carbon can be processed per hour with further scope for increase, leading to production rates for this type of materials not achievable with any other technology at present

  19. Economic scale of utilization of radiation (I): Industry. Comparison between Japan and the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Seiichi; Kashiwagi, Masayuki; Kamada, Toshimitsu; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Hosobuchi, Kazunari; Tominaga, Hiroshi; Ooka, Norikazu; Makuuchi, Keizo

    2002-01-01

    Utilization of radiation in the industrial field has been enlarged due to the variety of technologies. In the present paper, the economic scale between the U.S.A. and Japan is compared with selected industrial parameters such as sterilization, semiconductors, radiographic testing (RT) and radial tire production because the very large industrial markets make a whole comparison difficult. The economic scale revealed was about 56b$ (1$=121 yen) for the U.S.A. and 39b$ for Japan. The former is large in magnitude by a factor of 1.4. With respect to the relative ratio versus the GDP, the former was 0.7% and 0.9% for the latter. This implied that utilization of radiation in industry is large in magnitude and is expected to be further developed. Regarding electron beam (EB) accelerators, for example, 648 units were installed in North America and 308 units for Japan during the past 29 years. The large number of the former is attributed to use in curing and heat shrinkable tubes (film). (author)

  20. A Study on Time-Scales Ratio and Turbulent Prandtl Number in Ducts of Industrial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2006-01-01

    is solved using a two-equation heat flux model. The computed results compare satisfactory with the available experimental data. The time-scale ratio R is defined as the ratio between the dynamic time-scale (k/ε) and the scalar time-scale(0.5θθ/εθ). Based on existing DNS data and calculations in this work...... of heat exchangers for various applications area....

  1. Scale Economies and Industry Agglomeration Externalities: A Dynamic Cost Function Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Donald S. Siegel; Catherine J. Morrison Paul

    1999-01-01

    Scale economies and agglomeration externalities are alleged to be important determinants of economic growth. To assess these effects, the authors outline and estimate a microfoundations model based on a dynamic cost function specification. This model provides for the separate identification of the impacts of externalities and cyclical utilization on short- and long-run scale economies and input substitution patterns. The authors find that scale economies are prevalent in U.S manufacturing; co...

  2. Optimization of the gas chromatographic separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco Sanchez, L.

    1973-01-01

    A review and a critical study on the optimization of the gas chromatographic separations are made. After dealing with the fundamental gas chromatographic equations, some methods of expressing column performances are discussed: performance indices, performance parameters, resolution and effective plate number per unit time. This is completed with a comparative study on performances of various types of columns. Moreover, optimization methods for operating chromatographic conditions are extensively dealt with: as resolution optimization, separation time, and normalization techniques for the time of analysis in order to achieve the maximum resolution at constant time. Finally, some others non operating parameters such as: selectivity of stationary phases, column preparation and optimization methods by means of computers are studied. (Author) 68 refs

  3. Development of a simple measurement scale to evaluate the severity of non-specific low back pain for industrial ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kumashiro, Mashaharu

    2010-06-01

    This study developed an assessment scale that hierarchically classifies degrees of low back pain severity. This assessment scale consists of two subscales: 1) pain intensity; 2) pain interference. First, the assessment scale devised by the authors was used to administer a self-administered questionnaire to 773 male workers in the car manufacturing industry. Subsequently, the validity of the measurement items was examined and some of them were revised. Next, the corrected low back pain scale was used in a self-administered questionnaire, the subjects of which were 5053 ordinary workers. The hierarchical validity between the measurement items was checked based on the results of Mokken Scale analysis. Finally, a low back pain assessment scale consisting of seven items was perfected. Quantitative assessment is made possible by scoring the items and low back pain severity can be classified into four hierarchical levels: none; mild; moderate; severe. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The use of this scale devised by the authors allows a more detailed assessment of the degree of risk factor effect and also should prove useful both in selecting remedial measures for occupational low back pain and evaluating their efficacy.

  4. ROLE OF LAW IN CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES THROUGH NORMATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sutrisno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of law has become an absolute prerequisite that must exist in the dynamics of civil society. It is to achieve justice, certainty, and expediency, so the works of it will not be separated from such a noble mission. On the other side, the law is likely inseparable from the fields of meta-juridical, including economics. The expectations of the interference of law into economy, makes the existence of justice for the business players can be realized through the enacted product legislation. Regulations concerning investments and partnerships have the intent to build self-reliance and empowerment for small industry players so as to compete in the era of economic globalization. Laws employed as the instrument of social change to strengthen the capitalization of small industry and business empowerment through the training and development of small industries, as normatively mandated by law.

  5. Scale in technology and learning-by-doing in the windmill industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Jensen, Camilla; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    2003-01-01

    that learning-by-doing in the Danish windmill industry has contributed significantly to improve the cost efficiency of the producers. The technological development has been stimulated both by process and product innovations as the capacity of the individual mills has increased. The learning effect created......This paper examines the remarkable development of technology and the fast learning-by-doing in the windmill industry since it emerged in the beginning of the 1980s. Based on time series of prices of windmills, a dynamic cost function for producing windmills is tested. The estimations verified...... by early subsidies from the government has consolidated the competitive advantages of the windmill cluster in Denmark and preserved the first mover advantages at the world market. The article concludes that the industry probably will enter into a matured phase in the future with more modest technological...

  6. Scale in Technology and Learning-by-Doing in the Windmill Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Jensen, Camilla; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    that learning-by-doing in the Danish windmill industry has contributed significantly to improve the cost efficiency of the producers. The technological development has been stimulated both by process and product innovations as the capacity of the individual mills has increased. The learning effect created......This paper examines the remarkable development of technology and the fast learning-by-doing in the windmill industry since it emerged in the beginning of the 1980s. Based on time series of prices of windmills a dynamic cost function for producing windmills is tested. The estimations verified...... by early subsidies from the government has consolidated the competitive advantages of the windmill cluster in Denmark and preserved the first mover advantages at the world market. The article concludes that the industry probably will enter into a matured phase in the future with more modest technological...

  7. Scale in technology and learning-by-doing in the windmill industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Jensen, Camilla; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the remarkable development of technology and the fast learning-by-doing in the windmill industry since it emerged in the beginning of the 1980s. Based on time series of prices of windmills, a dynamic cost function for producing windmills is tested. The estimations verified...... that learning-by-doing in the Danish windmill industry has contributed significantly to improve the cost efficiency of the producers. The technological development has been stimulated both by process and product innovations as the capacity of the individual mills has increased. The learning effect created...... by early subsidies from the government has consolidated the competitive advantages of the windmill cluster in Denmark and preserved the first mover advantages at the world market. The article concludes that the industry probably will enter into a matured phase in the future with more modest technological...

  8. Shaping a novel security approach in chemical industrial clusters to prevent large-scale domino events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Dullaert, Wout; Soudan, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Two aspects are important when it comes to guaranteeing an effective and efficient security policy in a chemical industrial cluster. The first issue involves obtaining an acceptable level of collaboration between the different enterprises forming the cluster. The second topic is to ensure that an

  9. Coupling solar photo-Fenton and biotreatment at industrial scale: Main results of a demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malato, Sixto; Blanco, Julian; Maldonado, Manuel I.; Oller, Isabel; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Perez-Estrada, Leonidas

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the combined solar photo-Fenton/biological treatment of an industrial effluent (initial total organic carbon, TOC, around 500 mg L -1 ) containing a non-biodegradable organic substance (α-methylphenylglycine at 500 mg L -1 ), focusing on pilot plant tests performed for design of an industrial plant, the design itself and the plant layout. Pilot plant tests have demonstrated that biodegradability enhancement is closely related to disappearance of the parent compound, for which a certain illumination time and hydrogen peroxide consumption are required, working at pH 2.8 and adding Fe 2+ = 20 mg L -1 . Based on pilot plant results, an industrial plant with 100 m 2 of CPC collectors for a 250 L/h treatment capacity has been designed. The solar system discharges the wastewater (WW) pre-treated by photo-Fenton into a biotreatment based on an immobilized biomass reactor. First, results of the industrial plant are also presented, demonstrating that it is able to treat up to 500 L h -1 at an average solar ultraviolet radiation of 22.9 W m -2 , under the same conditions (pH, hydrogen peroxide consumption) tested in the pilot plant

  10. Solar-assisted drying of timber at industrial scale: management paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While ambient air drying depends on the weather conditions, conventional hightemperature dryers cause high investments and energy costs. Up to now, solar dryers could not be established in industrial timber production, due to their insufficient drying capacity and the lack of an adequate control of the drying conditions.

  11. Adoption and diffusion of natural gas in the small-scale industry of Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, Maarten; van Engelen, D.M.; Romijn, Henny

    2005-01-01

    The paper portrays the complexity of energy transitions drawing on the experience of the Bolivian National Biomass Programme. The transitions from wood to natural gas systems in the rural stucco and chicha (local beer) industries of Cochabamba serve as case-studies. A broad literature review of

  12. The Zambian wildlife ranching industry: scale, associated benefits, and limitations affecting its development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter A; Barnes, Jonathan; Nyirenda, Vincent; Pumfrett, Belinda; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; t'Sas Rolfes, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The number and area of wildlife ranches in Zambia increased from 30 and 1,420 km(2) in 1997 to 177 and ∼6,000 km(2) by 2012. Wild ungulate populations on wildlife ranches increased from 21,000 individuals in 1997 to ∼91,000 in 2012, while those in state protected areas declined steeply. Wildlife ranching and crocodile farming have a turnover of ∼USD15.7 million per annum, compared to USD16 million from the public game management areas which encompass an area 29 times larger. The wildlife ranching industry employs 1,200 people (excluding jobs created in support industries), with a further ∼1,000 individuals employed through crocodile farming. Wildlife ranches generate significant quantities of meat (295,000 kg/annum), of which 30,000 kg of meat accrues to local communities and 36,000 kg to staff. Projected economic returns from wildlife ranching ventures are high, with an estimated 20-year economic rate of return of 28%, indicating a strong case for government support for the sector. There is enormous scope for wildlife ranching in Zambia due to the availability of land, high diversity of wildlife and low potential for commercial livestock production. However, the Zambian wildlife ranching industry is small and following completion of field work for this study, there was evidence of a significant proportion of ranchers dropping out. The industry is performing poorly, due to inter alia: rampant commercial bushmeat poaching; failure of government to allocate outright ownership of wildlife to landowners; bureaucratic hurdles; perceived historical lack of support from the Zambia Wildlife Authority and government; a lack of a clear policy on wildlife ranching; and a ban on hunting on unfenced lands including game ranches. For the wildlife ranching industry to develop, these limitations need to be addressed decisively. These findings are likely to apply to other savanna countries with large areas of marginal land potentially suited to wildlife ranching.

  13. The Zambian Wildlife Ranching Industry: Scale, Associated Benefits, and Limitations Affecting Its Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter A.; Barnes, Jonathan; Nyirenda, Vincent; Pumfrett, Belinda; Tambling, Craig J.; Taylor, W. Andrew; Rolfes, Michael t’Sas

    2013-01-01

    The number and area of wildlife ranches in Zambia increased from 30 and 1,420 km2 in 1997 to 177 and ∼6,000 km2 by 2012. Wild ungulate populations on wildlife ranches increased from 21,000 individuals in 1997 to ∼91,000 in 2012, while those in state protected areas declined steeply. Wildlife ranching and crocodile farming have a turnover of ∼USD15.7 million per annum, compared to USD16 million from the public game management areas which encompass an area 29 times larger. The wildlife ranching industry employs 1,200 people (excluding jobs created in support industries), with a further ∼1,000 individuals employed through crocodile farming. Wildlife ranches generate significant quantities of meat (295,000 kg/annum), of which 30,000 kg of meat accrues to local communities and 36,000 kg to staff. Projected economic returns from wildlife ranching ventures are high, with an estimated 20-year economic rate of return of 28%, indicating a strong case for government support for the sector. There is enormous scope for wildlife ranching in Zambia due to the availability of land, high diversity of wildlife and low potential for commercial livestock production. However, the Zambian wildlife ranching industry is small and following completion of field work for this study, there was evidence of a significant proportion of ranchers dropping out. The industry is performing poorly, due to inter alia: rampant commercial bushmeat poaching; failure of government to allocate outright ownership of wildlife to landowners; bureaucratic hurdles; perceived historical lack of support from the Zambia Wildlife Authority and government; a lack of a clear policy on wildlife ranching; and a ban on hunting on unfenced lands including game ranches. For the wildlife ranching industry to develop, these limitations need to be addressed decisively. These findings are likely to apply to other savanna countries with large areas of marginal land potentially suited to wildlife ranching. PMID:24367493

  14. Cost evaluation of cellulase enzyme for industrial-scale cellulosic ethanol production based on rigorous Aspen Plus modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Cost reduction on cellulase enzyme usage has been the central effort in the commercialization of fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose biomass. Therefore, establishing an accurate evaluation method on cellulase enzyme cost is crucially important to support the health development of the future biorefinery industry. Currently, the cellulase cost evaluation methods were complicated and various controversial or even conflict results were presented. To give a reliable evaluation on this important topic, a rigorous analysis based on the Aspen Plus flowsheet simulation in the commercial scale ethanol plant was proposed in this study. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) was used as the indicator to show the impacts of varying enzyme supply modes, enzyme prices, process parameters, as well as enzyme loading on the enzyme cost. The results reveal that the enzyme cost drives the cellulosic ethanol price below the minimum profit point when the enzyme is purchased from the current industrial enzyme market. An innovative production of cellulase enzyme such as on-site enzyme production should be explored and tested in the industrial scale to yield an economically sound enzyme supply for the future cellulosic ethanol production.

  15. Enhancement of struvite pellets crystallization in a full-scale plant using an industrial grade magnesium product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchik, D; Morales, N; Vázquez-Padín, J R; Garrido, J M

    2017-02-01

    A full-scale struvite crystallization system was operated for the treatment of the centrate obtained from the sludge anaerobic digester in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Additionally, the feasibility of an industrial grade Mg(OH) 2 as a cheap magnesium and alkali source was also investigated. The struvite crystallization plant was operated for two different periods: period I, in which an influent with low phosphate concentration (34.0 mg P·L -1 ) was fed to the crystallization plant; and period II, in which an influent with higher phosphate concentration (68.0 mg P·L -1 ) was used. A high efficiency of phosphorus recovery by struvite crystallization was obtained, even when the effluent treated had a high level of alkalinity. Phosphorus recovery percentage was around 77%, with a phosphate concentration in the effluent between 10.0 and 30.0 mg P·L -1 . The experiments gained struvite pellets of 0.5-5.0 mm size. Moreover, the consumption of Mg(OH) 2 was estimated at 1.5 mol Mg added·mol P recovered -1 . Thus, industrial grade Mg(OH) 2 can be an economical alternative as magnesium and alkali sources for struvite crystallization at industrial scale.

  16. A landscape-scale approach to examining the fate of atmospherically derived industrial metals in the surficial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromsoe, Nicola; Marx, Samuel K; McGowan, Hamish A; Callow, Nikolaus; Heijnis, Henk; Zawadzki, Atun

    2015-02-01

    Industrial metals are now ubiquitous within the atmosphere and their deposition represents a potential source of contamination to surficial environments. Few studies, however, have examined the environmental fate of atmospheric industrial metals within different surface environments. In this study, patterns of accumulation of atmospherically transported industrial metals were investigated within the surface environments of the Snowy Mountains, Australia. Metals, including Pb, Sb, Cr and Mo, were enriched in aerosols collected in the Snowy Mountains by 3.5-50 times pre-industrial concentrations. In sedimentary environments (soils, lakes and reservoirs) metals showed varying degrees of enrichment. Differences were attributed to the relative degree of atmospheric input, metal sensitivity to enrichment, catchment area and metal behaviour following deposition. In settings where atmospheric deposition dominated (ombrotrophic peat mires in the upper parts of catchments), metal enrichment patterns most closely resembled those in collected aerosols. However, even in these environments significant dilution (by 5-7 times) occurred. The most sensitive industrial metals (those with the lowest natural concentration; Cd, Ag, Sb and Mo) were enriched throughout the studied environments. However, in alpine tarn-lakes no other metals were enriched, due to the dilution of pollutant-metals by catchment derived sediment. In reservoirs, which were located lower within catchments, industrial metals exhibited more complex patterns. Particle reactive metals (e.g. Pb) displayed little enrichment, implying that they were retained up catchment, whereas more soluble metals (e.g., Cu and Zn) showed evidence of concentration. These same metals (Cu and Zn) were depleted in soils, implying that they are preferentially transported through catchments. Enrichment of other metals (e.g. Cd) varied between reservoirs as a function of contributing catchment area. Overall this study showed that the fate

  17. Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Purpose: To develop and validate a simple, efficient and reliable Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of two dermatological drugs, ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  18. Liquid chromatographic analysis of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous assay of four anticonvulsant drugs, phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column is described. The method was developed by the systematic study of different types of co-polymer materials, type and ...

  19. Validated high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... specific and accurate high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of ZER in micro-volumes ... tional medicine as a cure for swelling, sores, loss of appetite and ... Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κ B Ligand .... The effect of ... be suitable for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies. The.

  20. Chromatographic characterisation, in vitro antioxidant and free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromatographic fractionation and spectroscopic analysis of the ME4 fraction revealed the presence of four compounds namely garcinia biflavonoids GB1 and GB2, garcinal and garcinoic acid. These findings show that these four compounds are partly responsible for the great antioxidant potential of G. kola seeds.

  1. Hydrothermal carbonization of organic industrial waste and sewage sludge in semi-industrial scale; Hydrothermale Carbonisierung von organischen Industrieabfaellen und Klaerschlaemmen im halbtechnischen Massstab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloehse, Dennis; Ramke, Hans-Guenter [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Hoexter (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfallwirtschaft und Deponietechnik; Lehmann, Hans-Joachim

    2012-12-15

    The hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a chemicalphysical process wherein the biomass of vegetal origin is converted into a lignite-like material. Only a few hours in an aqueous suspension at temperatures of 180-250 C and under pressure are needed for the transformation. Because of these reaction conditions highly aqueous wastes and residues are well suited materials for the HTC-process. The high calorific values of HTC Biochar enable efficient energy use of primary materials. A basic advantage is seen in the excellent dewatering properties of these biocoals. As part of an ongoing project by the BMBF a semi-industrial scale system was developed (200 liters) by the authors. There the HTC process is examined in a continuous process. After a description of the basic process concept first results of the continuous process are presented. These are compared with previous laboratory results on the example of organic industrial wastes. Further detailed results of continuous carbonization of sewage sludge and flanking batch studies are presented. The final issues to be worked on in the technical implementation are the specific energy consumption of the conversion and its potential for optimization. (orig.)

  2. Simulation of municipal-industrial full scale WWTP in an arid climate by application of ASM3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelsalam Elawwad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, and due to the high cost of treatment of industrial wastewater, municipal wastewater treatment facilities usually receive a mixture of municipal wastewater and partially treated industrial wastewater. As a result, an increased potential for shock loads with high pollutant concentrations is expected. The use of mathematical modelling of wastewater treatment is highly efficient in such cases. A dynamic model based on activated sludge model no. 3 (ASM3 describing the performance of the activated sludge process at a full scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP receiving mixed domestic–industrial wastewater located in an arid area is presented. ASM3 was extended by adding the Arrhenius equation to respond to changes in temperature. BioWin software V.4 was used as the model platform. The model was calibrated under steady-state conditions, adjusting only three kinetic and stoichiometric parameters: maximum heterotrophic growth rate (μH = 8 d−1, heterotrophic aerobic decay rate (bH, O2 = 0.18 d−1, and aerobic heterotrophic yield (YH,O2 = 0.4 (gCOD/gCOD. ASM3 was successful in predicting the WWTP performance, as the model was validated with 10 months of routine daily measurements. ASM3 extended with the Arrhenius equation could be helpful in the design and operation of WWTPs with mixed municipal–industrial influent in arid areas.

  3. Development of large scale industrial complex and its pollution. Case study of Kashima area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, S

    1975-01-01

    The development of Kashima industrial complex which embraces three townships started in 1960 to promote both agricultural and industrial developments using the most advanced techniques available for environmental pollution control. The chronological development progress is described with reference to the capital investment, gross product, employment and labor supply, population, status of the use of agricultural land, annual revenue and expenditure of three townships, and township tax. The environmental pollution control policies and measures taken since 1964 are reviewed. The emphasis was placed on preliminary investigations by various means and emission standards were applied. However, many incidences of pollution damage occurred due to operational errors and accidental causes. The emission quantity of sulfur dioxide is to be reduced from 8212 N cu m/h in 1973 to 4625 N cu m/h in 1976.

  4. An Investigation of Damage Factors in Industrial Scale of Light-Weight Bricks Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Wulandari Kiki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A damage case of light weight brick’s production approximately at 6-7% of total production was found daily in one industry in East Jawa, Indonesia. The physical damage of product always occured. This paper investigates some factors that affect the lost in laboratory analysis. The analysis includes the chemical analysis of raw materials, reactivity of pozzolanic materials, and observation of strength based upon the position of light-weight bricks during autoclaving process. In addition, fly ash is introduced as mineral additive as one of the alternatives to improve the product’s quality. It is also concluded that grinding the silica sands particles is the optimum way to improve the quality, but the adding class F of fly ash to five percent in mixture is the most effective solution. Furthermore, maintaining quality of raw materials, curing process, and maintaining the machine will either reduce the product damage that occurred during the fabrication process in industry.

  5. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech

  6. Monitoring of metabolites and by-products in a down-scaled industrial lager beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöström, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The sugar composition of the wort and how these sugars are utilised by the yeast affects the organoleptic properties of the beer. To monitor the saccharides in the wort before inoculation and during fermentation is important in modern brewing industry. Reducing the duration of the brewing process is valuable and can be achieved by reducing the fermentation time by an increase in temperature. However, this must be done without changing the quality and characteristics of the end product, anothe...

  7. Control Optimization through Simulations of Large Scale Solar Plants for Industrial Heat Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hassine, Ilyes Ben; Sehgelmeble., Mariela Cotrado; Söll, Robert; Pietruschka, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The European FP7 Project InSun; which started in April 2012; aims to demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of three different collector technologies suitable for heat production employed in diverse industrial processes in different climatic regions. These collectors are installed and will be monitored in detail over a period of almost two years. One of the plants is installed at Fleischwaren Berger GmbH located in Sieghartskirchen, Austria, a company which produces meat and sausage p...

  8. Improving extreme-scale problem solving: assessing electronic brainstorming effectiveness in an industrial setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornburg, Courtney C; Stevens, Susan M; Hendrickson, Stacey M L; Davidson, George S

    2009-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming to address difficult, real-world challenges. Although industrial reliance on electronic communications has become ubiquitous, empirical and theoretical understanding of the bounds of its effectiveness have been limited. Previous research using short-term laboratory experiments have engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The present experiment extends current findings beyond the laboratory to larger groups of real-world employees addressing organization-relevant challenges during the course of 4 days. Employees and contractors at a national laboratory participated, either in a group setting or individually, in an electronic brainstorm to pose solutions to a real-world problem. The data demonstrate that (for this design) individuals perform at least as well as groups in producing quantity of electronic ideas, regardless of brainstorming duration. However, when judged with respect to quality along three dimensions (originality, feasibility, and effectiveness), the individuals significantly (p industrial reliance on electronic problem-solving groups should be tempered, and large nominal groups may be more appropriate corporate problem-solving vehicles.

  9. Test plan for demonstrating plutonium extraction from 10-L solutions using EIChrom extraction chromatographic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    Corrosive plutonium solutions stored in 10-L containers at the Plutonium Finishing Plant must be treated to convert the plutonium to a safe, solid form for storage and to remove the americium so that radiation exposure can be reduced. Extraction chromatographic resins will be tested for separating plutonium from these solutions in the laboratory. Separation parameters will be developed during the testing for large scale processing of the 10-L solutions and solutions of similar composition. Use of chromatographic resins will allow plutonium separation with minimum of chemical addition to the feed and without the need for plutonium valence adjustment. The separated plutonium will be calcined to plutonium oxide by direct solution calcination

  10. Firm Efficiency and Returns-to-Scale in the Honey Bee Pollination Services Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones Ritten, Chian; Peck, Dannele; Ehmke, Mariah; Patalee, M A Buddhika

    2018-04-03

    While the demand for pollination services have been increasing, continued declines in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), colonies have put the cropping sector and the broader health of agro-ecosystems at risk. Economic factors may play a role in dwindling honey bee colony supply in the United States, but have not been extensively studied. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA), we measure technical efficiency, returns to scale, and factors influencing the efficiency of those apiaries in the northern Rocky Mountain region participating in the pollination services market. We find that, although over 25% of apiaries are technically efficient, many experience either increasing or decreasing returns to scale. Smaller apiaries (under 80 colonies) experience increasing returns to scale, but a lack of available financing may hinder them from achieving economically sustainable colony levels. Larger apiaries (over 1,000 colonies) experience decreasing returns to scale. Those beekeepers may have economic incentivizes to decrease colony numbers. Using a double bootstrap method, we find that apiary location and off-farm employment influence apiary technical efficiency. Apiaries in Wyoming are found to be more efficient than those in Utah or Montana. Further, engagement in off-farm employment increases an apiary's technical efficiency. The combined effects of efficiency gains through off-farm employment and diseconomies of scale may explain, in part, the historical decline in honey bee numbers.

  11. Measurement of residence time distribution of liquid phase in an industrial-scale continuous pulp digester using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheoran, Meenakshi; Goswami, Sunil; Pant, Harish J; Biswal, Jayashree; Sharma, Vijay K; Chandra, Avinash; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K; Rao, S Madhukar; Dash, A

    2016-05-01

    A series of radiotracer experiments was carried out to measure residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase (alkali) in an industrial-scale continuous pulp digester in a paper industry in India. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer. Experiments were carried out at different biomass and white liquor flow rates. The measured RTD data were treated and mean residence times in individual digester tubes as well in the whole digester were determined. The RTD was also analyzed to identify flow abnormalities and investigate flow dynamics of the liquid phase in the pulp digester. Flow channeling was observed in the first section (tube 1) of the digester. Both axial dispersion and tanks-in-series with backmixing models preceded with a plug flow component were used to simulate the measured RTD and quantify the degree of axial mixing. Based on the study, optimum conditions for operating the digester were proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Zambian wildlife ranching industry: scale, associated benefits, and limitations affecting its development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Lindsey

    Full Text Available The number and area of wildlife ranches in Zambia increased from 30 and 1,420 km(2 in 1997 to 177 and ∼6,000 km(2 by 2012. Wild ungulate populations on wildlife ranches increased from 21,000 individuals in 1997 to ∼91,000 in 2012, while those in state protected areas declined steeply. Wildlife ranching and crocodile farming have a turnover of ∼USD15.7 million per annum, compared to USD16 million from the public game management areas which encompass an area 29 times larger. The wildlife ranching industry employs 1,200 people (excluding jobs created in support industries, with a further ∼1,000 individuals employed through crocodile farming. Wildlife ranches generate significant quantities of meat (295,000 kg/annum, of which 30,000 kg of meat accrues to local communities and 36,000 kg to staff. Projected economic returns from wildlife ranching ventures are high, with an estimated 20-year economic rate of return of 28%, indicating a strong case for government support for the sector. There is enormous scope for wildlife ranching in Zambia due to the availability of land, high diversity of wildlife and low potential for commercial livestock production. However, the Zambian wildlife ranching industry is small and following completion of field work for this study, there was evidence of a significant proportion of ranchers dropping out. The industry is performing poorly, due to inter alia: rampant commercial bushmeat poaching; failure of government to allocate outright ownership of wildlife to landowners; bureaucratic hurdles; perceived historical lack of support from the Zambia Wildlife Authority and government; a lack of a clear policy on wildlife ranching; and a ban on hunting on unfenced lands including game ranches. For the wildlife ranching industry to develop, these limitations need to be addressed decisively. These findings are likely to apply to other savanna countries with large areas of marginal land potentially suited to wildlife

  13. Denitrification of high strength nitrate waste from a nuclear industry using acclimatized biomass in a pilot scale reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamole, Pradip B; Nair, Rashmi R; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Lele, S S

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the performance of acclimatized biomass for denitrification of high strength nitrate waste (10,000 mg/L NO3) from a nuclear industry in a continuous laboratory scale (32 L) and pilot scale reactor (330 L) operated over a period of 4 and 5 months, respectively. Effect of substrate fluctuations (mainly C/NO3-N) on denitrification was studied in a laboratory scale reactor. Incomplete denitrification (95-96 %) was observed at low C/NO3-N (≤2), whereas at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25) led to ammonia formation. Ammonia production increased from 1 to 9 % with an increase in C/NO3-N from 2.25 to 6. Complete denitrification and no ammonia formation were observed at an optimum C/NO3-N of 2.0. Microbiological studies showed decrease in denitrifiers and increase in nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25). Pilot scale studies were carried out with optimum C/NO3-N, and sustainability of the process was checked on the pilot scale for 5 months.

  14. A modified indirect mathematical model for evaluation of ethanol production efficiency in industrial-scale continuous fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco Grellet, M A; Castagnaro, A; Dantur, K I; De Boeck, G; Ahmed, P M; Cárdenas, G J; Welin, B; Ruiz, R M

    2016-10-01

    To calculate fermentation efficiency in a continuous ethanol production process, we aimed to develop a robust mathematical method based on the analysis of metabolic by-product formation. This method is in contrast to the traditional way of calculating ethanol fermentation efficiency, where the ratio between the ethanol produced and the sugar consumed is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical conversion yield. Comparison between the two methods, at industrial scale and in sensitivity studies, showed that the indirect method was more robust and gave slightly higher fermentation efficiency values, although fermentation efficiency of the industrial process was found to be low (~75%). The traditional calculation method is simpler than the indirect method as it only requires a few chemical determinations in samples collected. However, a minor error in any measured parameter will have an important impact on the calculated efficiency. In contrast, the indirect method of calculation requires a greater number of determinations but is much more robust since an error in any parameter will only have a minor effect on the fermentation efficiency value. The application of the indirect calculation methodology in order to evaluate the real situation of the process and to reach an optimum fermentation yield for an industrial-scale ethanol production is recommended. Once a high fermentation yield has been reached the traditional method should be used to maintain the control of the process. Upon detection of lower yields in an optimized process the indirect method should be employed as it permits a more accurate diagnosis of causes of yield losses in order to correct the problem rapidly. The low fermentation efficiency obtained in this study shows an urgent need for industrial process optimization where the indirect calculation methodology will be an important tool to determine process losses. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Effects of chromatographic fractions of Euphorbia hirta on the rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the chromatographic fractions of Euphorbia hirta Linn on the serum biochemical parameters in rats were investigated. The ethanolic extract of this plant was subjected to chromatographic separation using the vacuum liquid chromatographic technique, a modified form of classical column chromatography.

  16. The relationship between job satisfaction and general health in workers and workplace accidents in medium-scale industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khandan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Job satisfaction and high levels of general health in workers can lead to their better performance, the reduction of workplace accidents and ultimately the improved productivity of the organization. The present study was therefore conducted to assess the relationship between these variables and the incidence of workplace accidents in medium-scale industries in 2014-15. Methods: : The entire population of workers in three medium-scale industries (n=163 entered the study. Data collection was conducted using Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire, the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire containing items on age, gender and the number of workplace accidents. The data obtained were then analyzed in SPSS-20 using the multiple-linear and the Poisson regression models. Results: The general health scores obtained by the participants ranged from 4 to 68 and had a mean and standard deviation of 25.87±13.085. The job satisfaction scores obtained ranged from 31 to 100 and had a mean and standard deviation of 63.45±11.462. The Poisson regression model showed that the level of education, age, physical symptoms and anxiety and insomnia had a significant relationship with the rate of accidents (P<0.05. The model also showed a significant relationship between job satisfaction and general health ( =-0.417 and P =0.001. Conclusion: The general health of the study participants can be said to be unacceptable and their job satisfaction to be medium. Devising plans for controlling and improving psychological and psycho-social factors such as job satisfaction is essential for workplace decision-makers, particularly in small and medium-scale industries. These plans can facilitate the achievement of higher health and safety levels in workers.

  17. Untargeted GC-MS Metabolomics Reveals Changes in the Metabolite Dynamics of Industrial Scale Batch Fermentations of Streptoccoccus thermophilus Broth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Christiansen, Lene D.; Heins, Anna-Lena

    2017-01-01

    An industrial scale biomass production using batch or fed-batch fermentations usually optimized by selection of bacterial strains, tuning fermentation media, feeding strategy, and temperature. However, in-depth investigation of the biomass metabolome during the production may reveal new knowledge...... shows that in-depth metabolic analysis of fermentation broth provides a new tool for advanced optimization of high-volume-low-cost biomass production by lowering the cost, increase the yield, and augment the product quality....... for better optimization. In this study, for the first time, the authors investigated seven fermentation batches performed on five Streptoccoccus thermophilus strains during the biomass production at Chr. Hansen (Denmark) in a real life large scale fermentation process. The study is designed to investigate...

  18. Industrial-scale preparation of akebia saponin D by a two-step macroporous resin column separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Ji, De; Liu, Yunfei; Zhang, Chunfeng; Yang, Zhonglin

    2012-06-26

    A simple and efficient procedure for the industrial preparation of akebia saponin D, one of the bioactive compounds commonly found in the well-known Chinese Medicinal herb Dipsaci Radix, was developed. First, HPD-722 was selected from among 10 kinds of macroporous absorption resins. Following this step, the purity of akebia saponin D was increased about 10 times from 6.27% to 59.41%. In order to achieve a higher purity, ADS-7 was chosen from among five kinds of macroporous absorption resins, and the purity of akebia saponin D was increased from 59.41% to 95.05%. The result indicated HPD-722 and ADS-7 were the most suitable resins to purify akebia saponin D from Dipsaci Radix. Under these conditions, large-scale preparation of akebia saponin D was carried out successfully. The preparation method is simple, efficient, and has been demonstrated to be effective for large scale preparations of akebia saponin D from Dipsaci Radix.

  19. The development of a cell-assembly for the treatment of irradiated fuels on a semi-industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.; Couture, J.; Lefort, G.

    1961-01-01

    The main studies and experiments involved in the development of a cell-assembly for the treatment of irradiated fuels on a semi-industrial scale are described. It must be possible to modify or transform each of these cells without interrupting the rest of the pilot. A full-scale prototype cell (3 x 4 x 6 m) has been built with an α-protection independent of the γ-protection. It features all the main characteristics: tightness to γ losses, dense glass lighting, ventilation. This cell has made possible trials on transfer, remote-controls and tele-dismantling, as well as the development of new methods of rapidly connecting hydraulic circuits. In conclusion the final form is given of the cells selected for the pilot. (author) [fr

  20. Determination of radioactive scales in oil industry using naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.

    2006-06-01

    In the present study, naturally occurring radioactive materials (Radium isotopes) present in produced water and radiation measurements have been used to study the formation of scales, evaluate their age, determination of geological formations and between wells interactions. Produced water samples were collected and analyzed monthly for 5 months from 11 oil wells in three Syrian oil fields. Analysis includes radium isotopes and anions and cations concentrations in addition to radiation measurements at the well heads. The highest mean values of radium 226, Radium 228 and Radium 224 concentration in produced were 41 Bq/1, 57.1 Bq/1 and 1.1 Bq/1, respectively. The values obtained for Radium 226, Radium 228 and the activity ratio were statistically evaluated and the results were presented using the box plot method. The mean value of the activity ration of Radium 226 and Radium 228 was used to determine the age of scales accumulated inside tubulars. (author)

  1. Radon Emanation from NORM-Contaminated Pipe Scale, Soil, and Sediment at Petroleum Industry Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, A.S.; White, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a study of radon (Rn) emanation from pipe scale and soil samples contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Samples were collected at petroleum production sites in Oklahoma, Michigan, Kentucky, and Illinois. For comparison, data are also presented from preliminary studies conducted at sites in Texas and Wyoming. All samples collected were analyzed for their Rn emanation fraction, defined as the fraction of 222Rn produced that enters the interconnected pore space within a medium contaminated with 226Ra before the 222Rn undergoes radioactive decay. This measure represents one of the important parameters that determine the overall Rn activity flux from any solid medium. The goal of this project was to determine whether Rn emanation from pipe scale and soil is similar to emanation from uranium mill tailings

  2. Critical evaluation and comparison of fluid distribution systems for industrial scale expanded bed adsorption chromatography columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    distributor at large scale were apparent: dead zones were present which could not be removed by increasing rotation rates or flow rates, and such changes led to a deterioration in hydrodynamic properties. In contrast, during fluid introduction through a rotating distributor no dead zones were observed....... The results imply that further improvement in distributor design is needed and careful attention should be given to the trade off between turbulence and adequate fluid distribution....

  3. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in scales produced in oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Masri, M S; Ali, A F; Kitue, M; Kawash, A [Atomic Energy Commission, Dept. of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1997-04-01

    Scales produced by Oil production operations contain relatively high concentrations of natural radionuclides especially radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228, Ra-224) and their daughters. These scales deposit in oil surface equipment such as separator tanks, tubular, and storage tanks. In this work, naturally occurring radionuclides and radiation exposure levels in some Syrian oil lines have been determined. Radiation measurements have shown high radiation exposure in some production sites and reached about 23 {mu}Sv/hr (production wellhead) which is higher than the normal background (0.09 - 012 {mu}Sv/hr). The highest value of the exposure around storage tanks was about o.5 {mu}Sv/hr. Moreover, the highest concentration of radionuclides in scales were found to be 47000 Bq/Kg and 55000 Bq/Kg for Ra-226 and Ra-228 respectively while in sludge samples, the Ra-226 concentration was about 24.2 Bq/Kg, a relatively very low activity. In addition, results have shown that soil contamination can occur by disposal of produced water to the surrounding environment. Furthermore, the present paper shows some of protection procedures, which should be followed by workers for radiation protection. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Principles of qualitative analysis in the chromatographic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, M; Cárdenas, S; Simonet, B M; Carrillo-Carrión, C

    2007-07-27

    This article presents the state of the art of qualitative analysis in the framework of the chromatographic analysis. After establishing the differences between two main classes of qualitative analysis (analyte identification and sample classification/qualification) the particularities of instrumental qualitative analysis are commented on. Qualitative chromatographic analysis for sample classification/qualification through the so-called chromatographic fingerprint (for complex samples) or the volatiles profile (through the direct coupling headspace-mass spectrometry using the chromatograph as interface) is discussed. Next, more technical exposition of the qualitative chromatographic information is presented supported by a variety of representative examples.

  5. Study PWA8 resin for chromatographic uranium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coceancigh, Herman; Ramella, J. L.; Marrero, Julieta; Jiménez Rebagliati, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    For many years nuclear industry have been using resins as filler of chromatographic columns. These methods are specific and give reliable results in different applications, for those reasons are extremely useful as separation process. Currently the nuclear industry is growing and this brings new issues such as the need of reduction of the amount of waste, the optimization of the production process and others that the chromatography could solve with great results. AMBERLITETM PWA8 resin is an anion exchange resin which can be used for the removal of uranium from drinking water. In addition to high exchange capacity, this resin has excellent physical stability and a wide range of pH in which is operational. With the idea of concentrating uranium from wastes solution as main goal we made different experiments to understand the AMBERLITETM PWA8 and obtain the most important characteristics like; pH working range; capacity; activation and elution procedures. These procedures were developed and optimized the capacity was determined using a batch experiment and we obtain that the maximum capacity is 882,5 U ug /resin gr at a pH of 4,2. Following on from these results chromatographic experiments were performed in which both were obtained the percentage of recovery and the concentration factor. The percent recovery (% R) calculated as the percentage ratio between the total mass and the load mass eluted (% R = eluted mass / total mass * 100) was 94% with a concentration factor of 5 times From these results it is intended to concentrate wastes solutions from the fuel cycle processes with two main goals: decreasing volume for storage and for future reusing of the uranium coming from production. (author)

  6. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-01-01

    This Topical Report outlines guidelines and key considerations for design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers for oxy-combustion. The scope addressed includes only the boiler island, not the entire oxy-fired CO{sub 2} capture plant. These guidelines are primarily developed for tangential-fired boilers and focus on designs capable of dual air and oxy-fired operation. The guidelines and considerations discussed are applicable to both new units and existing boiler retrofits. These guidelines are largely based on the findings from the extensive 15 MW{sub th} pilot testing and design efforts conducted under this project. A summary level description is provided for each major aspect of boiler design impacted by oxy-combustion, and key considerations are discussed for broader application to different utility and industrial designs. Guidelines address the boiler system arrangement, firing system, boiler thermal design, ducting, materials, control system, and other key systems.

  7. An overview of the photovoltaic, wind power, solar water heating and small-scale hydropower supply industries in South Africa up to 1994/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassen, G.; Holm, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper contains a broad overview of the South African photovoltaic, solar water heating, wind power and small-scale hydropower industries. Against the general lack of a comprehensive national database on renewable energy supply and demand, this overview attempts to provide general background information on these commercial industries, market trends, local sales figures, export volumes and installed capacity estimates. It also identifies the industry's major constraints, as well as their future outlook. (author). 12 refs., 13 tabs., 4 figs

  8. Small-scale CDM projects in a competitive electricity industry: How good is a simplified baseline methodology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Abeygunawardana, A.M.A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Setting baseline emissions is one of the principal tasks involved in awarding credits for greenhouse gas emission (GHG) mitigation projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). An emission baseline has to be project-specific in order to be accurate. However, project-specific baseline calculations are subject to high transaction costs, which disadvantage small-scale projects. For this reason, the CDM-Executive Board (CDM-EB) has approved simplified baseline methodologies for selected small-scale CDM project categories. While the simplified methods help reduce the transaction cost, they may also result in inaccuracies in the estimation of emission reductions from CDM projects. The purpose of this paper is to present a rigorous economic scheduling method for calculating the GHG emission reduction in a hypothetical competitive electricity industry due to the operation of a renewable energy-based power plant under CDM and compare the GHG emission reduction derived from the rigorous method with that obtained from the use of a simplified (i.e., standardized) method approved by the CDM-EB. A key finding of the paper is that depending upon the level of power demand, prices of electricity and input fuels, the simplified method can lead to either significant overestimation or substantial underestimation of emission reduction due to the operation of renewable energy-based power projects in a competitive electricity industry

  9. Energy generation by air gasification of two industrial plastic wastes in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Two plastic wastes obtained as co-products from an industrial process were fed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having an internal diameter of 0.38 m and a maximum thermal output of about 400 kW. The experimental runs were carried out by reaching a condition of thermal and chemical steady state under values of equivalence ratio ranging from 0.2 to 0.3. Olivine, a neo-silicate of Fe and Mg, already tested as a good catalyst for tar removal during gasification of polyolefin plastic wastes, was used as bed material. The results provide the complete composition of the syngas, including the tar, particulate and acid/basic gas contents as well as the chemical and physical characterization of the bed material and entrained fines. The gasification process appears technically feasible, yielding a producer gas of valuable quality for energy applications in an appropriate plant configuration. On the other hand, under the experimental conditions tested, olivine particles show a strongly reduced catalytic activity in all the runs. The differences in the gasification behaviour of the two industrial plastics are explained on the basis of the structure and composition of the wastes, taking also into account the results of a combined material and substance flow analysis. - Highlights: • Pilot-scale investigation of fluidized bed gasification of two industrial plastic wastes. • Tests under conditions of thermal/chemical steady state at various equivalence ratios. • Complete composition of the producer gas, including tar, particulate and acid/basic gases. • Differences in the gasification behaviour of plastic wastes. • Material, substance, and feedstock energy flow analysis for different gasification tests

  10. Potential use of pyrite cinders as raw material in cement production: results of industrial scale trial operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, I; Deveci, H; Yazici, E Y; Türk, T; Süngün, Y H

    2009-07-15

    Pyrite cinders, which are the waste products of sulphuric acid manufacturing plants, contain hazardous heavy metals with potential environmental risks for disposal. In this study, the potential use of pyrite cinders (PyCs) as iron source in the production of Portland cement clinker was demonstrated at the industrial scale. The chemical and mineralogical analyses of the PyC sample used in this study have revealed that it is essentially a suitable raw material for use as iron source since it contains >87% Fe(2)O(3) mainly in the form of hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). The samples of the clinkers produced from PyC in the industrial scale trial operation of 6 months were tested for the conformity of their chemical composition and the physico-mechanical performance of the resultant cement products. The data were compared with the clinker products of the iron ore, which is used as the raw material for the production Portland cement clinker in the plant. The chemical compositions of all the clinker products of PyC appeared to conform to those of the iron ore clinker, and hence, a Portland cement clinker. The mechanical performance of the mortars prepared from the PyC clinker was found to be consistent with those of the industrial cements e.g. CEM I type cements. It can be inferred from the leachability tests (TCLP and SPLP) that PyC could be a potential source of heavy metal pollution while the mortar samples obtained from the PyC clinkers present no environmental problems. These findings suggest that the waste pyrite cinders can be readily used as iron source for the production of Portland cement. The availability of PyC in large quantities at low cost provides further significant benefits for the management/environmental practices of these wastes and for the reduction of mining and processing costs of cement raw materials.

  11. Quantifying the uncertainties of China's emission inventory for industrial sources: From national to provincial and city scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Yaduan; Qiu, Liping; Zhang, Jie

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive uncertainty analysis was conducted on emission inventories for industrial sources at national (China), provincial (Jiangsu), and city (Nanjing) scales for 2012. Based on various methods and data sources, Monte-Carlo simulation was applied at sector level for national inventory, and at plant level (whenever possible) for provincial and city inventories. The uncertainties of national inventory were estimated at -17-37% (expressed as 95% confidence intervals, CIs), -21-35%, -19-34%, -29-40%, -22-47%, -21-54%, -33-84%, and -32-92% for SO2, NOX, CO, TSP (total suspended particles), PM10, PM2.5, black carbon (BC), and organic carbon (OC) emissions respectively for the whole country. At provincial and city levels, the uncertainties of corresponding pollutant emissions were estimated at -15-18%, -18-33%, -16-37%, -20-30%, -23-45%, -26-50%, -33-79%, and -33-71% for Jiangsu, and -17-22%, -10-33%, -23-75%, -19-36%, -23-41%, -28-48%, -45-82%, and -34-96% for Nanjing, respectively. Emission factors (or associated parameters) were identified as the biggest contributors to the uncertainties of emissions for most source categories except iron & steel production in the national inventory. Compared to national one, uncertainties of total emissions in the provincial and city-scale inventories were not significantly reduced for most species with an exception of SO2. For power and other industrial boilers, the uncertainties were reduced, and the plant-specific parameters played more important roles to the uncertainties. Much larger PM10 and PM2.5 emissions for Jiangsu were estimated in this provincial inventory than other studies, implying the big discrepancies on data sources of emission factors and activity data between local and national inventories. Although the uncertainty analysis of bottom-up emission inventories at national and local scales partly supported the ;top-down; estimates using observation and/or chemistry transport models, detailed investigations and

  12. Industrial-scale spray layer-by-layer assembly for production of biomimetic photonic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogman, K C; Cohen, R E; Hammond, P T; Rubner, M F; Wang, B N

    2013-12-01

    Layer-by-layer assembly is a powerful and flexible thin film process that has successfully reproduced biomimetic photonic systems such as structural colour. While most of the seminal work has been carried out using slow and ultimately unscalable immersion assembly, recent developments using spray layer-by-layer assembly provide a platform for addressing challenges to scale-up and manufacturability. A series of manufacturing systems has been developed to increase production throughput by orders of magnitude, making commercialized structural colour possible. Inspired by biomimetic photonic structures we developed and demonstrated a heat management system that relies on constructive reflection of near infrared radiation to bring about dramatic reductions in heat content.

  13. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peroxyformic acid prepared in-situ was employed for epoxidation of canola oil in the presence of toluene. Gas chromatographic analysis of the product revealed the following species: C16:0; C18:0; C18:1; C18:2; C18:3; monoepoxy C18:0; monoepoxy C18:1; monoepoxy C18:2; diepoxy C18:0; diepoxy C18:1 and triepoxy ...

  14. Amalgam-chromatographic separation of magnesium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinskij, G.D.; Levkin, A.V.; Ivanov, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Separation of magnesium isotopes within Mg(Hg)-MgI 2 system (in dimethylformamide) is conducted under amalgam-chromatographic conditions. Separation maximal degree, that is (1.09), for 24 Mg and 26 Mg and separation coefficient (α = 1.0089±0.006) are determined. Light isotopes are found to concentrate in the amalgam. Technique of thermal conversion of flows within amalgam-dimethylformamide system is suggested on the basis of reversible reaction of Ca-Mg element exchange

  15. Validation for chromatographic and electrophoretic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ribani, Marcelo; Bottoli, Carla Beatriz Grespan; Collins, Carol H.; Jardim, Isabel Cristina Sales Fontes; Melo, Lúcio Flávio Costa

    2004-01-01

    The validation of an analytical method is fundamental to implementing a quality control system in any analytical laboratory. As the separation techniques, GC, HPLC and CE, are often the principal tools used in such determinations, procedure validation is a necessity. The objective of this review is to describe the main aspects of validation in chromatographic and electrophoretic analysis, showing, in a general way, the similarities and differences between the guidelines established by the dif...

  16. Analyzing chromatographic data using multilevel modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiczling, Paweł

    2018-06-01

    It is relatively easy to collect chromatographic measurements for a large number of analytes, especially with gradient chromatographic methods coupled with mass spectrometry detection. Such data often have a hierarchical or clustered structure. For example, analytes with similar hydrophobicity and dissociation constant tend to be more alike in their retention than a randomly chosen set of analytes. Multilevel models recognize the existence of such data structures by assigning a model for each parameter, with its parameters also estimated from data. In this work, a multilevel model is proposed to describe retention time data obtained from a series of wide linear organic modifier gradients of different gradient duration and different mobile phase pH for a large set of acids and bases. The multilevel model consists of (1) the same deterministic equation describing the relationship between retention time and analyte-specific and instrument-specific parameters, (2) covariance relationships relating various physicochemical properties of the analyte to chromatographically specific parameters through quantitative structure-retention relationship based equations, and (3) stochastic components of intra-analyte and interanalyte variability. The model was implemented in Stan, which provides full Bayesian inference for continuous-variable models through Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Graphical abstract Relationships between log k and MeOH content for acidic, basic, and neutral compounds with different log P. CI credible interval, PSA polar surface area.

  17. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m3using a liquid lipase formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m3 along with the design of a 4 m3continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalysed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot plant...... the fed-batch and CSTR cases. Given similar operating conditions, the CSTR operation on average, has a reaction time which is 1.3 times greater than the fed-batch operation. We also showed how the process metrics can be used to quickly estimate the selling price of the enzyme. Assuming a biodiesel selling...... price of 0.6 USD/kg and a one-time use of the enzyme (0.1% (w/woil) enzyme dosage); the enzyme can then be sold for 30 USD/kg which ensures that that the enzyme cost is not more than 5% of the biodiesel revenue. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...

  18. Data Assimilation for Management of Industrial Groundwater Contamination at a Regional Scale

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is one of the main sources for drinking water and agricultural activities. Various activities of both humans and nature may lead to groundwater pollution. Very often, pollution, or contamination, of groundwater goes undetected for long periods of time until it begins to a ect human health and/or the environment. Cleanup technologies used to remediate pollution can be costly and remediation processes are often protracted. A more practical and feasible way to manage groundwater contamination is to monitor and predict contamination and act as soon as there is risk to the population and the environment. Predicting groundwater contamination requires advanced numerical models of groundwater ow and solute transport. Such numerical modeling is increasingly becoming a reference criterion for water resources assessment and environmental protection. Subsurface numerical models are, however, subject to many sources of uncertainties from unknown parameters and approximate dynamics. This dissertation considers the sequential data assimilation approach and tackles the groundwater contamination problem at the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. Industrial concentration data are used to monitor and predict the fate of organic contaminants using a threedimensional coupled ow and reactive transport model. We propose a number of 5 novel assimilation techniques that address di erent challenges, including prohibitive computational burden, the nonlinearity and coupling of the subsurface dynamics, and the structural and parametric uncertainties. We also investigate the problem of optimal observational designs to optimize the location and the number of wells. The proposed new methods are based on the ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), which provides an e cient numerical solution to the Bayesian ltering problem. The dissertation rst investigates in depth the popular joint and dual ltering formulations of the state-parameters estimation problem. New methodologies, algorithmically

  19. Microbial dynamics during production of lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus) for human consumption at industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynants, E; Crauwels, S; Verreth, C; Gianotten, N; Lievens, B; Claes, J; Van Campenhout, L

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the microbial dynamics during an industrial production cyle of lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus), sold for human consumption, were characterised. The microbial numbers as well as the microbial diversity were generally higher for the substrate, existing of remaining feed, faeces and exuviae, than for the larvae. Most of the species-level operational taxonomic units, identified using Illumina MiSeq sequencing, that were present in the feed were also detected in the larvae and vice versa. However, bacterial diversity decreased in the larvae during rearing. These results suggested that the feed is an important determinant of the insect bacterial community, but that some bacterial species show a competitive advantage inside the insect gut and become dominant. A blanching treatment of the larvae after harvest reduced most microbial counts, but the number of aerobic endospores remained at 4.0 log cfu/g. Whereas food pathogens Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus or coagulase-positive staphylococci were not detected in our study, fungal isolates corresponding to the genera Aspergillus and Fusarium were recovered. Therefore, it cannot be excluded that mycotoxins were present. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the microbial dynamics and food safety aspects during the production of edible insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Experience with LHC Magnets from Prototyping to Large Scale Industrial Production and Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Rossi, L

    2004-01-01

    The construction of the LHC superconducting magnets is approaching its half way to completion. At the end of 2003, main dipoles cold masses for more than one octant were delivered; meanwhile the winding for the second octant was almost completed. The other large magnets, like the main quadrupoles and the insertion quadrupoles, have entered into series production as well. Providing more than 20 km of superconducting magnets, with the quality required for an accelerator like LHC, is an unprecedented challenge in term of complexity that has required many steps from the construction of 1 meterlong magnets in the laboratory to today’s production of more than one 15 meter-long magnet per day in Industry. The work and its organization is made even more complex by the fact that CERN supplies most of the critical components and part of the main tooling to the magnet manufacturers, both for cost reduction and for quality issues. In this paper the critical aspects of the construction will be reviewed and the actual ...

  1. Carbon dioxide recycling: emerging large-scale technologies with industrial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrelli, Elsje Alessandra; Centi, Gabriele; Duplan, Jean-Luc; Perathoner, Siglinda

    2011-09-19

    This Review introduces this special issue of ChemSusChem dedicated to CO(2) recycling. Its aim is to offer an up-to-date overview of CO(2) chemical utilization (inorganic mineralization, organic carboxylation, reduction reactions, and biochemical conversion), as a continuation and extension of earlier books and reviews on this topic, but with a specific focus on large-volume routes and projects/pilot plants that are currently emerging at (pre-)industrial level. The Review also highlights how some of these routes will offer a valuable opportunity to introduce renewable energy into the existing energy and chemical infrastructure (i.e., "drop-in" renewable energy) by synthesis of chemicals from CO(2) that are easy to transport and store. CO(2) conversion therefore has the potential to become a key pillar of the sustainable and resource-efficient production of chemicals and energy from renewables. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Effect of using dissolved air flotation system on industrial wastewater treatment in pilot scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, Habibzadeh

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper the application of Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) system for wastewater treatment, especially for industrial wastewater on a designed pilot system has been investigated. It is for the first time in dissolved air flotation system that instead of air dissolving tube, hydro cyclone technology is used to dissolve air in water with ratio of 1:1 (almost 100 percent) in the form of small air bubbles and a circular flotation tank instead of rectangular tank. The advantage of usage of circular tank in DAF system is the capability of being treated in higher rate of mass, so less space is needed. Although application of hydro cyclone with different diameters of holes for producing mixing energy which also has the capability of direct injection of chemical coagulant and polymeric materials leads to the higher efficiency of treatment and so reduces the cost of pump and consumed air. Investigations on the efficiency of this system was done by providing and analyzing samples of wastewater with and without adding of PAC (Poly-Aluminium-Chloride). Sampling and analyzing was done according to standard methods. The results of the analyses show that pilot system has high efficiency, especially for oil removal

  3. Catalytic oxidation efficiencies for tritium and tritiated methane in a mature, industrial-scale decontamination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, J.M.; Gildea, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    Almost all tritium decontamination systems proposed for fusion facilities employ catalytic oxidation to water, followed by drying, to remove tritium and tritiated hydrocarbons from gas streams. One such large-scale system, the gas purification system (GPS), has been operating in the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, since October 1977. A series of experiments have recently been conducted there to assesss the current operating characteristics of the GPS catalyst. The experiments used tritium and tritiated methane and covered a range of temperatures, flow rates, and concentration levels. When contrasted with 1977 data, the results indicate that no measurable degradation of catalyst function had occurred. However, some reduction in active metal surface area, as indicated by B.E.T. surface area measurements (approx. 100 → 90m 2 /g) and AES scans (approx. 1.4 → 0.9 at. % Pt), had occurred. Kinetic rate coefficients were also derived and a rough temperature dependence obtained

  4. Catalytic oxidation efficiencies for tritium and tritiated methane in a mature, industrial-scale decontamination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, J.M.; Gildea, P.D.

    1980-10-01

    Almost all tritium decontamination systems proposed for fusion facilities employ catalytic oxidation to water, followed by drying, to remove tritium and tritiated hydrocarbons from gas streams. One such large-scale system, the gas purification system (GPS), has been operating in the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, since October 1977. A series of experiments have recently been conducted there to assess the current operating characteristics of the GPS catalyst. The experiments used tritium and tritiated methane and covered a range of temperatures, flow rates, and concentration levels. When contrasted with 1977 data, the results indicate that no measurable degradation of catalyst function had occurred. However, some reduction in active metal surface area, as indicated by B.E.T. surface area measurements (approx. 100 → 90 m 2 /g) and AES scans (approx. 1.4 → 0.9 at% Pt), had occurred. Kinetic rate coefficients were also derived and a rough temperature dependence obtained

  5. Self-heating of dried industrial wastewater sludge: lab-scale investigation of supporting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Zassa, M; Biasin, A; Zerlottin, M; Refosco, D; Canu, P

    2013-06-01

    We studied the reactivity of dried sludge produced by treatment of wastewater, mainly from tanneries. The solids transformations have been first characterized with thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) proving that exothermic transformation takes place at fairly low temperature, before the total organic combustion that occurs in air above 400°C. The onset of low temperature reactions depends on the heating rate and it can be below 100°C at very small heating rate. Then, we reproducibly determined the conditions to trigger dried sludge self-heating at the laboratory scale, on samples in the 0.2-0.3 kg size. Thermal insulation, some aeration and addition of water are key factors. Mastering the self-heating at this scale allows more detailed investigations as well as manipulation of conditions, to understand its nature, course and remediation. Here we report proves and discussions on the role of air, water, particle size, porosity and biological activity, as well as proving that also dried sludge from similar sources lead to self-heating. Tests demonstrate that air and water are simultaneously required for significant self-heating to occur. They act in diverging directions, both triggering the onset of the reactions and damping the temperature rise, by supporting heat loss. The higher the O2 concentration, the higher the solids heating rate. More added water prolongs the exothermic phase. Further additions of water can reactivate the material. Water emphasizes the exothermic processes, but it is not sufficient to start it in an air-free atmosphere. The initial solid moisture concentration (between 8% and 15%) affects the onset of self-heating as intuitive. The sludge particles size strongly determines the strength and extent of the heat release, indicating that surface reactions are taking place. In pelletized particles, limitations to water and air permeability mitigates the reaction course. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chromatography in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Peter

    2009-07-01

    This review focuses on the chromatography research that has been carried out within industry or in close cooperation with industry and that has been reported in the scientific literature between 2006 and mid-2008. Companies in the health care sector, such as pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, are the largest contributors. Industrial research seems to take place in an open environment in cooperation with academia, peer companies, and institutions. Industry appears ready to embrace new technologies as they emerge, but they focus strongly on making chromatography work robustly, reliably, rapidly, and automatically. “Hyphenated” systems that incorporate on-line sample-preparation techniques and mass-spectrometric detection are the rule rather than the exception. Various multidimensional separation methods are finding numerous applications. Strategies aimed at speeding up the development of new chromatographic methods remain the focus of attention. Also, there is a clear trend toward exploring chromatographic methods for parallel processing along with other strategies for high-throughput analysis.

  7. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  8. Reactive distillation : The front-runner of industrial process intensification - A full review of commercial applications, research, scale-up, design and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, G. Jan

    Most industrial scale reactive distillations (presently more than 150), operated worldwide today at capacities of 100-3000 ktonnes/y, and are reported in this paper. Most of these plants started up less than 15 years ago. The drivers, processes, systems, scale-up methods and partner collaborations

  9. The DOPAS full scale seal experiment (FSS): An industrial prototype for Cigeo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosgiraud, J.M.; Bourbon, X.; Pineau, F.; Foin, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Full Scale Seal (FSS) Experiment is one of different experiments implemented by ANDRA to demonstrate the technical construction feasibility and assess the performance of the horizontal seals to be built underground, at time of the progressive closure of the French Deep Geological Repository (Cigeo). FSS is built inside a reinforced concrete drift model (at scale 1:1 of a Cigeo drift) constructed for the purpose. The test site location is a warehouse in Saint-Dizier, France. The drift model has a 7.60 m long internal diameter and is 36 m long. Representative underground ambient conditions (temperature and hygrometry) are maintained within the drift during the seal construction operations. The seal per se is made of 3 components: a 14 m long bentonitic swelling core between 2 low pH self-compacting concrete/shotcrete 5 m long containment walls. The low pH self-compacting concrete (SCC) containment wall (some 240 m 3 ) is cast in one continuous pass (to avoid discontinuities), while the low pH shotcrete containment wall (some 240 m 3 ) is applied in multiple layers, with minimum curing time between two layers. The swelling clay core (some 750 m 3 ) is made of a bentonite pulverulent admixture, emplaced by using 2 augers working at a time in a continuous mode (the objective is to obtain a bentonite core as compact and homogeneous as possible before the re-saturation process start-up). On the drift model periphery, polycarbonate windows are provided for observation needs and reservations are integrated to the model structure for monitoring and coring needs. All the work sequences are video-taken and a timetable of operations is established to assess the overall time needed for building a complete seal at Cigeo. The present paper focuses on the construction story of the first low pH SCC containment wall as developed for FSS, the first technical outcomes and on the planned investigations to assess its construction compliance (via monitoring, coring and dismantling

  10. FULL-SCALE TREATMENT WETLANDS FOR METAL REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E; John Gladden, J

    2007-01-01

    The A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site receives process wastewater discharges and stormwater runoff from the Savannah River National Laboratory. Routine monitoring indicated that copper concentrations were regularly higher than discharge permit limit, and water routinely failed toxicity tests. These conditions necessitated treatment of nearly one million gallons of water per day plus storm runoff. Washington Savannah River Company personnel explored options to bring process and runoff waters into compliance with the permit conditions, including source reduction, engineering solutions, and biological solutions. A conceptual design for a constructed wetland treatment system (WTS) was developed and the full-scale system was constructed and began operation in 2000. The overall objective of our research is to better understand the mechanisms of operation of the A-01 WTS in order to provide better input to design of future systems. The system is a vegetated surface flow wetland with a hydraulic retention time of approximately 48 hours. Copper, mercury, and lead removal efficiencies are very high, all in excess of 80% removal from water passing through the wetland system. Zinc removal is 60%, and nickel is generally unaffected. Dissolved organic carbon in the water column is increased by the system and reduces toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of metals in the A-01 WTS sediments generally decrease with depth and along the flow path through the wetland. Sequential extraction results indicate that most metals are tightly bound to wetland sediments

  11. FULL-SCALE TREATMENT WETLANDS FOR METAL REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E; John Gladden, J

    2007-03-22

    The A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site receives process wastewater discharges and stormwater runoff from the Savannah River National Laboratory. Routine monitoring indicated that copper concentrations were regularly higher than discharge permit limit, and water routinely failed toxicity tests. These conditions necessitated treatment of nearly one million gallons of water per day plus storm runoff. Washington Savannah River Company personnel explored options to bring process and runoff waters into compliance with the permit conditions, including source reduction, engineering solutions, and biological solutions. A conceptual design for a constructed wetland treatment system (WTS) was developed and the full-scale system was constructed and began operation in 2000. The overall objective of our research is to better understand the mechanisms of operation of the A-01 WTS in order to provide better input to design of future systems. The system is a vegetated surface flow wetland with a hydraulic retention time of approximately 48 hours. Copper, mercury, and lead removal efficiencies are very high, all in excess of 80% removal from water passing through the wetland system. Zinc removal is 60%, and nickel is generally unaffected. Dissolved organic carbon in the water column is increased by the system and reduces toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of metals in the A-01 WTS sediments generally decrease with depth and along the flow path through the wetland. Sequential extraction results indicate that most metals are tightly bound to wetland sediments.

  12. Status of industrial scale radiation treatment of wastewater and its future. Proceedings of a consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    Providing access to clean water resources is one of the most important objectives of the UN's Millennium Project. Contamination of surface water is a big problem for many, mostly developing countries. The main sources of liquid polluted effluents are municipalities and industry. Effective, mostly biological wastewater technologies for wastewater purification are available nowadays. However, they cannot be applied to solve all existing problems. Destruction of non-biodegradable organic compounds is one problem and biological contamination (caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) of sludge is another. Methods of their purification are sought. Ionizing radiation (gamma or X rays, electron beams) is a very effective form of energy, which can destroy organic or biological contaminants. The IAEA promotes and supports research on radiation treatment of liquid effluents. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Remediation of Polluted Waters and Wastewater by Radiation Processing aims to establish optimal treatment methodologies to disinfect and decontaminate actual samples of drinking water and wastewater by using ionizing radiation. Quite a few technical cooperation (TC) projects concerning radiation treatment of wastewater and sludge are under development. In the frame of one of such TC projects pilot plant for electron beam treatment of textile dyeing complex wastewater was constructed in the Republic of Korea. To discuss developments achieved under these projects and results of the pilot plant operation, the IAEA organized a consultants meeting in Daejon, Republic of Korea, 13-16 October 2003. These proceedings will be of value to research groups working in the field of radiation technology development. Developing Member States with radiation technology programmes will benefit from research in this area. The meeting dealt with advanced radiation processing of wastewater and its technical and economical aspects. It informed about high power accelerators ELV-12

  13. Double disordered YBCO coated conductors of industrial scale: high currents in high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraimov, D; Francis, A; Jaroszynski, J; McCallister, J; Polyanskii, A; Santos, M; Viouchkov, Y L; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Rossi, L; Barth, C; Senatore, C; Dietrich, R; Rutt, A; Schlenga, K; Usoskin, A; Majkic, G S; Selvamanickam, V

    2015-01-01

    A significant increase of critical current in high magnetic field, up to 31 T, was recorded in long tapes manufactured by employing a double-disorder route. In a double-disordered high-temperature superconductor (HTS), a superimposing of intrinsic and extrinsic disorder takes place in a way that (i) the intrinsic disorder is caused by local stoichiometry deviations that lead to defects of crystallinity that serve as pining centers in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x−δ matrix and (ii) the extrinsic disorder is introduced via embedded atoms or particles of foreign material (e.g. barium zirconate), which create a set of lattice defects. We analyzed possible technological reasons for this current gain. The properties of these tapes over a wider field-temperature range as well as field anisotropy were also studied. Record values of critical current as high as 309 A at 31 T, 500 A at 18 Tm and 1200 A at 5 T were found in 4 mm wide tape at 4.2 K and B perpendicular to tape surface. HTS layers were processed in medium-scale equipment that allows a maximum batch length of 250 m while 22 m long batches were provided for investigation. Abnormally high ratios (up to 10) of critical current density measured at 4.2 K, 19 T to critical current density measured at 77 K, self-field were observed in tapes with the highest in-field critical current. Anisotropy of the critical current as well as angular dependences of n and α values were investigated. The temperature dependence of critical current is presented for temperatures between 4.2 and 40 K. Prospects for the suppression of the dog-bone effect by Cu plating and upscale of processing chain to >500 m piece length are discussed. (paper)

  14. Occupational noise exposure in small scale hand tools manufacturing (forging) industry (SSI) in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, K K; Bedi, Raman

    2009-08-01

    Occupational noise has been recognized as hazardous for the human beings. A high noise level in forging shops is considered to lower the labour productivity and cause illness however occupational noise is being accepted as an integral part of the job. The present study has been carried out in 5 small scale hand tool forging units (SSI) of different sizes in Northern India in Punjab. Noise levels at various sections were measured. OSHA norms for hearing conservation has been incorporated which includes an exchange rate of 5 dB (A), criterion level at 90 dB (A), criterion time of 8 h, threshold level=80 dB (A), upper limit=140 dB (A) and with F/S response rate. Equivalent sound pressure level (L(eq)) has been measured in various sections of these plants. Noise at various sections like hammer section, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barrelling process was found to be >90 dB (A), which is greater than OSHA norms. A cross-sectional study on the basis of questionnaire has been carried out. The results of which revealed that 68% of the workers are not wearing ear protective equipments out of these 50% were not provided with PPE by the company. About 95% of the workers were suffering speech interference though high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. It has been established that the maximum noise exposure is being taken by the workers as they are working more than 8h a day for six days per week. More than 90% workers are working 12 to 24 h over time per week which lead to very high noise exposure i.e. 50 to 80% per week higher than exposure time/week in USA or European countries(15, 16)).

  15. Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhwinder Pal Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002 type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A, criterion level at 90dB(A, criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A, upper limit is equal to 140dB(A and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A. About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE. The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures.

  16. Double disordered YBCO coated conductors of industrial scale: high currents in high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraimov, D.; Ballarino, A.; Barth, C.; Bottura, L.; Dietrich, R.; Francis, A.; Jaroszynski, J.; Majkic, G. S.; McCallister, J.; Polyanskii, A.; Rossi, L.; Rutt, A.; Santos, M.; Schlenga, K.; Selvamanickam, V.; Senatore, C.; Usoskin, A.; Viouchkov, Y. L.

    2015-11-01

    A significant increase of critical current in high magnetic field, up to 31 T, was recorded in long tapes manufactured by employing a double-disorder route. In a double-disordered high-temperature superconductor (HTS), a superimposing of intrinsic and extrinsic disorder takes place in a way that (i) the intrinsic disorder is caused by local stoichiometry deviations that lead to defects of crystallinity that serve as pining centers in the YBa2Cu3O x-δ matrix and (ii) the extrinsic disorder is introduced via embedded atoms or particles of foreign material (e.g. barium zirconate), which create a set of lattice defects. We analyzed possible technological reasons for this current gain. The properties of these tapes over a wider field-temperature range as well as field anisotropy were also studied. Record values of critical current as high as 309 A at 31 T, 500 A at 18 Tm and 1200 A at 5 T were found in 4 mm wide tape at 4.2 K and B perpendicular to tape surface. HTS layers were processed in medium-scale equipment that allows a maximum batch length of 250 m while 22 m long batches were provided for investigation. Abnormally high ratios (up to 10) of critical current density measured at 4.2 K, 19 T to critical current density measured at 77 K, self-field were observed in tapes with the highest in-field critical current. Anisotropy of the critical current as well as angular dependences of n and α values were investigated. The temperature dependence of critical current is presented for temperatures between 4.2 and 40 K. Prospects for the suppression of the dog-bone effect by Cu plating and upscale of processing chain to >500 m piece length are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of Changes in Effluent Quality from Industrial Complexes on the Korean Nationwide Scale Using a Self-Organizing Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Jung Bae

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues related to the environment in the 21st century is sustainable development. The innovative economic growth policy has supported relatively successful economic development, but poor environmental conservation efforts, have consequently resulted in serious water quality pollution issues. Hence, assessments of water quality and health are fundamental processes towards conserving and restoring aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we characterized spatial and temporal changes in water quality (specifically physico-chemical variables plus priority and non-priority pollutants of discharges from industrial complexes on a national scale in Korea. The data were provided by the Water Quality Monitoring Program operated by the Ministry of Environment, Korea and were measured from 1989 to 2008 on a monthly basis at 61 effluent monitoring sites located at industrial complexes. Analysis of monthly and annual changes in water quality, using the seasonal Mann-Kendall test, indicated an improvement in water quality, which was inferred from a continuous increase in dissolved oxygen and decrease in other water quality factors. A Self-Organizing Map, which is an unsupervised artificial neural network, also indicated an improvement of effluent water quality, by showing spatial and temporal differences in the effluent water quality as well as in the occurrence of priority pollutants. Finally, our results suggested that continued long-term monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for wastewater management and health assessment.

  18. Advanced chip designs and novel cooling techniques for brightness scaling of industrial, high power diode laser bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, S.; McDougall, S. D.; Ryu, G.; Zhao, L.; Liu, X.; Holy, C.; Jiang, C.-L.; Modak, P.; Xiong, Y.; Vethake, T.; Strohmaier, S. G.; Schmidt, B.; Zimer, H.

    2018-02-01

    The advance of high power semiconductor diode laser technology is driven by the rapidly growing industrial laser market, with such high power solid state laser systems requiring ever more reliable diode sources with higher brightness and efficiency at lower cost. In this paper we report simulation and experimental data demonstrating most recent progress in high brightness semiconductor laser bars for industrial applications. The advancements are in three principle areas: vertical laser chip epitaxy design, lateral laser chip current injection control, and chip cooling technology. With such improvements, we demonstrate disk laser pump laser bars with output power over 250W with 60% efficiency at the operating current. Ion implantation was investigated for improved current confinement. Initial lifetime tests show excellent reliability. For direct diode applications 96% polarization are additional requirements. Double sided cooling deploying hard solder and optimized laser design enable single emitter performance also for high fill factor bars and allow further power scaling to more than 350W with 65% peak efficiency with less than 8 degrees slow axis divergence and high polarization.

  19. Measurement of residence time distribution of liquid phase in an industrial-scale continuous pulp digester using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheoran, Meenakshi; Goswami, Sunil; Pant, Harish J.; Biswal, Jayashree; Sharma, Vijay K.; Chandra, Avinash; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K.; Rao, S. Madhukar; Dash, A.

    2016-01-01

    A series of radiotracer experiments was carried out to measure residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase (alkali) in an industrial-scale continuous pulp digester in a paper industry in India. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer. Experiments were carried out at different biomass and white liquor flow rates. The measured RTD data were treated and mean residence times in individual digester tubes as well in the whole digester were determined. The RTD was also analyzed to identify flow abnormalities and investigate flow dynamics of the liquid phase in the pulp digester. Flow channeling was observed in the first section (tube 1) of the digester. Both axial dispersion and tanks-in-series with backmixing models preceded with a plug flow component were used to simulate the measured RTD and quantify the degree of axial mixing. Based on the study, optimum conditions for operating the digester were proposed. - Highlights: • Radiotracer experiments were conducted to measure RTD of liquid phase in a pulp digester • Mean residence times of white liquor were measured • Axial dispersion and tanks-in-series models were used to investigate flow patterns • Parallel flow paths were observed in first section of the digester • Optimized flow rates of biomass and liquor were obtained

  20. Evaluation of Changes in Effluent Quality from Industrial Complexes on the Korean Nationwide Scale Using a Self-Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Mi-Jung; Kim, Jun-Su; Park, Young-Seuk

    2012-01-01

    One of the major issues related to the environment in the 21st century is sustainable development. The innovative economic growth policy has supported relatively successful economic development, but poor environmental conservation efforts, have consequently resulted in serious water quality pollution issues. Hence, assessments of water quality and health are fundamental processes towards conserving and restoring aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we characterized spatial and temporal changes in water quality (specifically physico-chemical variables plus priority and non-priority pollutants) of discharges from industrial complexes on a national scale in Korea. The data were provided by the Water Quality Monitoring Program operated by the Ministry of Environment, Korea and were measured from 1989 to 2008 on a monthly basis at 61 effluent monitoring sites located at industrial complexes. Analysis of monthly and annual changes in water quality, using the seasonal Mann-Kendall test, indicated an improvement in water quality, which was inferred from a continuous increase in dissolved oxygen and decrease in other water quality factors. A Self-Organizing Map, which is an unsupervised artificial neural network, also indicated an improvement of effluent water quality, by showing spatial and temporal differences in the effluent water quality as well as in the occurrence of priority pollutants. Finally, our results suggested that continued long-term monitoring is necessary to establish plans and policies for wastewater management and health assessment. PMID:22690190

  1. Facile room-temperature solution-phase synthesis of a spherical covalent organic framework for high-resolution chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Liu, Chang; Cao, Yi-Meng; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2015-08-07

    A simple and facile room-temperature solution-phase synthesis was developed to fabricate a spherical covalent organic framework with large surface area, good solvent stability and high thermostability for high-resolution chromatographic separation of diverse important industrial analytes including alkanes, cyclohexane and benzene, α-pinene and β-pinene, and alcohols with high column efficiency and good precision.

  2. Chromatographic monitoring procedures in laboratory practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplina, E G; Belova, O I; Lasunina, N A

    1976-01-01

    The Moscow Coke and Chemical Works consist of three plants in combination, viz., the coking plant, the synthetic ammonia plant using coke-oven-gas hydrogen and the oxygen plant. The plant requirements include daily analyses not only of the coke-oven gas but also of a rich gas and an ethylene fraction. The analyses are carried out in VTI-2 apparatus. The analytical data are used to calculate the calorific values and densities of the gases. The time requirements are very considerable and the laboratory has long been engaged in developing and introducing chromatographic procedures for the major constituents of coke-oven gas, rich gas and ethylene fraction. The procedure developed for the coke-oven and rich gases uses two parallel columns, one packed with molecular sieves and the other with grade KSM silica gel. Hydrogen was determined with argon as the carrier gas, and all other constituents with helium. The procedure was time-consuming and complicated. An attempt was made to separate the gases in an LKhM-7a chromatograph with a programme-controlled 50 to 250/sup 0/C heating cycle, but the procedure still had a number of serious defects and could not be recommended for regular quality control. The final variant involved two parallel columns and a procedure based on that in GOST 14920 (''Dry gas. Proximate analysis''). The chromatograph was a type KhL-69 with a 6-way cock in the gas line so that each of the columns could be brought on stream in succession. The analytical column packings were zeolite (in a 2 m column) and diatomaceous brick with 25% n-hexadecane (in a 6 m column).

  3. Simple gas chromatographic method for furfural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Elvira M S M; Lopes, João F

    2009-04-03

    A new, simple, gas chromatographic method was developed for the direct analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), 2-furfural (2-F) and 5-methylfurfural (5-MF) in liquid and water soluble foods, using direct immersion SPME coupled to GC-FID and/or GC-TOF-MS. The fiber (DVB/CAR/PDMS) conditions were optimized: pH effect, temperature, adsorption and desorption times. The method is simple and accurate (RSDfurfurals will contribute to characterise and quantify their presence in the human diet.

  4. Toward industrial scale synthesis of ultrapure singlet nanoparticles with controllable sizes in a continuous gas-phase process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jicheng; Biskos, George; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Continuous gas-phase synthesis of nanoparticles is associated with rapid agglomeration, which can be a limiting factor for numerous applications. In this report, we challenge this paradigm by providing experimental evidence to support that gas-phase methods can be used to produce ultrapure non-agglomerated “singlet” nanoparticles having tunable sizes at room temperature. By controlling the temperature in the particle growth zone to guarantee complete coalescence of colliding entities, the size of singlets in principle can be regulated from that of single atoms to any desired value. We assess our results in the context of a simple analytical model to explore the dependence of singlet size on the operating conditions. Agreement of the model with experimental measurements shows that these methods can be effectively used for producing singlets that can be processed further by many alternative approaches. Combined with the capabilities of up-scaling and unlimited mixing that spark ablation enables, this study provides an easy-to-use concept for producing the key building blocks for low-cost industrial-scale nanofabrication of advanced materials.

  5. Home brew technetium : clinical scale desktop plasma fusion neutron source to produce Tc99m as an alternative to industrial scale fission reactor sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosi, S.G.; Khachan, J.; Oborn, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Tc-99m (decay product of Mo-99) accounts for ∼ 90% of world's production of radiopharmaceuticals. Recent unexpected shutdowns of two fission reactors and routine maintenance closures .e created a global shortage of Tc-99m, hence the large global effort to find alternative sources. This project aims to design and produce a novel prototype Mo-99/Tc-99m source. An operational desktop neutron source is available at the University of Sydney, employing a deuterium fusion-plasma to create 2.45 MeV neutrons. These neutrons will be used to activate Mo-98 thin an activation vessel. In one embodiment, the activation vessel contains an aqueous slurry or gel containing Mo-98 which converts to 0-99 upon activation. The decay product Tc-99m could then be milked, similar to existing Tc-99m generators. Monte Carlo will be :ed to assess yield versus size and geometry for various vessel designs. The neutron source filled with deuterium operating at 250 W, produces 3 x 106 neutrons continuously. The neutron flux can be increased ∼ 100-fold if the fill gas is 50% tritium and by another ∼ 100-1000-fold by increasing the power. This is being designed for local use, perhaps on the scale f one or a few hospitals, so the yield would not need to be industrial ;ale as with fission reactor sources. This device is low cost <$300 K) compared with cyclotrons and fission reactors.

  6. Fermented Nut-Based Vegan Food: Characterization of a Home made Product and Scale-Up to an Industrial Pilot-Scale Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanelli, Giulia; Pasini, Federica; Riciputi, Ylenia; Vannini, Lucia; Gozzi, Giorgia; Balestra, Federica; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Gardini, Fausto; Montanari, Chiara

    2018-03-01

    Because of the impossibility to consume food of animal origin, vegan consumers are looking for substitutes that could enrich their diet. Among many substitutes, fermented nut products are made from different nut types and obtained after soaking, grinding, and fermentation. Although other fermented vegetable products have been deeply investigated, there are few data about the fermentative processes of nut-based products and the microbial consortia able to colonize these products are not yet studied. This study characterized a hand-made vegan product obtained from cashew nut. Lactic acid bacteria responsible for fermentation were identified, revealing a succession of hetero- and homo-fermentative species during process. Successively, some lactic acid bacteria isolates from the home-made vegan product were used for a pilot-scale fermentation. The products obtained were characterized and showed features similar to the home-made one, although the microbiological hazards have been prevented through proper and rapid acidification, enhancing their safety features. Spontaneous fermented products are valuable sources of microorganisms that can be used in many food processes as starter cultures. The lactic acid bacteria isolated in this research can be exploited by industries to develop new foods and therefore to enter new markets. The use of selected starter cultures guarantees good organoleptic characteristics and food safety (no growth of pathogens). © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Determination of solute descriptors by chromatographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, Colin F.; Atapattu, Sanka N.; Poole, Salwa K.; Bell, Andrea K.

    2009-01-01

    The solvation parameter model is now well established as a useful tool for obtaining quantitative structure-property relationships for chemical, biomedical and environmental processes. The model correlates a free-energy related property of a system to six free-energy derived descriptors describing molecular properties. These molecular descriptors are defined as L (gas-liquid partition coefficient on hexadecane at 298 K), V (McGowan's characteristic volume), E (excess molar refraction), S (dipolarity/polarizability), A (hydrogen-bond acidity), and B (hydrogen-bond basicity). McGowan's characteristic volume is trivially calculated from structure and the excess molar refraction can be calculated for liquids from their refractive index and easily estimated for solids. The remaining four descriptors are derived by experiment using (largely) two-phase partitioning, chromatography, and solubility measurements. In this article, the use of gas chromatography, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and two-phase partitioning for determining solute descriptors is described. A large database of experimental retention factors and partition coefficients is constructed after first applying selection tools to remove unreliable experimental values and an optimized collection of varied compounds with descriptor values suitable for calibrating chromatographic systems is presented. These optimized descriptors are demonstrated to be robust and more suitable than other groups of descriptors characterizing the separation properties of chromatographic systems.

  8. Determination of solute descriptors by chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Colin F; Atapattu, Sanka N; Poole, Salwa K; Bell, Andrea K

    2009-10-12

    The solvation parameter model is now well established as a useful tool for obtaining quantitative structure-property relationships for chemical, biomedical and environmental processes. The model correlates a free-energy related property of a system to six free-energy derived descriptors describing molecular properties. These molecular descriptors are defined as L (gas-liquid partition coefficient on hexadecane at 298K), V (McGowan's characteristic volume), E (excess molar refraction), S (dipolarity/polarizability), A (hydrogen-bond acidity), and B (hydrogen-bond basicity). McGowan's characteristic volume is trivially calculated from structure and the excess molar refraction can be calculated for liquids from their refractive index and easily estimated for solids. The remaining four descriptors are derived by experiment using (largely) two-phase partitioning, chromatography, and solubility measurements. In this article, the use of gas chromatography, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and two-phase partitioning for determining solute descriptors is described. A large database of experimental retention factors and partition coefficients is constructed after first applying selection tools to remove unreliable experimental values and an optimized collection of varied compounds with descriptor values suitable for calibrating chromatographic systems is presented. These optimized descriptors are demonstrated to be robust and more suitable than other groups of descriptors characterizing the separation properties of chromatographic systems.

  9. Study on Growth of China’s Agricultural Industrial Chain from the Perspective of Large Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianhui; Zhang, Yingliang; Yang, Taiyan

    2014-01-01

    The growth of agricultural industrial chain is the result of market demand, fund, technology, industrial development and policy guidance. At present, separate and small peasant operating model has become one of important factors restricting growth of agricultural industrial chain. From growth mechanism of agricultural industrial chain and actual situation of China, this paper analyzed actual factors restricting growth of agricultural industrial chain, and believed that it is required to break...

  10. The gas-chromatographic and gas-chromatographic-mass-spectrometric identification of halogen-containing organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidaspov, B. V.; Zenkevich, I. G.; Rodin, A. A.

    1989-09-01

    The problem of identifying halogen-containing organic compounds in their gas-chromatographic and gas-chromatographic-mass-spectrometric (GC-MS) determination in different materials has been examined. Particular attention has been paid not to the complete characterisation of methods for carrying out this analysis but to the most important problem of increasing the selectivity at the stages of sampling, separation, and interpretation of the gas-chromatographic and GC-MS information. The bibliography contains 292 references.

  11. Secretory immunoglobulin purification from whey by chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlschweiger, Alexander; Engelmaier, Hannah; Himmler, Gottfried; Hahn, Rainer

    2017-08-15

    Secretory immunoglobulins (SIg) are a major fraction of the mucosal immune system and represent potential drug candidates. So far, platform technologies for their purification do not exist. SIg from animal whey was used as a model to develop a simple, efficient and potentially generic chromatographic purification process. Several chromatographic stationary phases were tested. A combination of two anion-exchange steps resulted in the highest purity. The key step was the use of a small-porous anion exchanger operated in flow-through mode. Diffusion of SIg into the resin particles was significantly hindered, while the main impurities, IgG and serum albumin, were bound. In this step, initial purity was increased from 66% to 89% with a step yield of 88%. In a second anion-exchange step using giga-porous material, SIg was captured and purified by step or linear gradient elution to obtain fractions with purities >95%. For the step gradient elution step yield of highly pure SIg was 54%. Elution of SIgA and SIgM with a linear gradient resulted in a step yield of 56% and 35%, respectively. Overall yields for both anion exchange steps were 43% for the combination of flow-through and step elution mode. Combination of flow-through and linear gradient elution mode resulted in a yield of 44% for SIgA and 39% for SIgM. The proposed process allows the purification of biologically active SIg from animal whey in preparative scale. For future applications, the process can easily be adopted for purification of recombinant secretory immunoglobulin species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulated pre-industrial climate in Bergen Climate Model (version 2: model description and large-scale circulation features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Otterå

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bergen Climate Model (BCM is a fully-coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate. Here, a pre-industrial multi-century simulation with an updated version of BCM is described and compared to observational data. The model is run without any form of flux adjustments and is stable for several centuries. The simulated climate reproduces the general large-scale circulation in the atmosphere reasonably well, except for a positive bias in the high latitude sea level pressure distribution. Also, by introducing an updated turbulence scheme in the atmosphere model a persistent cold bias has been eliminated. For the ocean part, the model drifts in sea surface temperatures and salinities are considerably reduced compared to earlier versions of BCM. Improved conservation properties in the ocean model have contributed to this. Furthermore, by choosing a reference pressure at 2000 m and including thermobaric effects in the ocean model, a more realistic meridional overturning circulation is simulated in the Atlantic Ocean. The simulated sea-ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere is in general agreement with observational data except for summer where the extent is somewhat underestimated. In the Southern Hemisphere, large negative biases are found in the simulated sea-ice extent. This is partly related to problems with the mixed layer parametrization, causing the mixed layer in the Southern Ocean to be too deep, which in turn makes it hard to maintain a realistic sea-ice cover here. However, despite some problematic issues, the pre-industrial control simulation presented here should still be appropriate for climate change studies requiring multi-century simulations.

  13. Liquid chromatographic determination of saccharin in beverages and desserts: complementary collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, A M

    1988-01-01

    A complementary collaborative study was conducted on a liquid chromatographic method for determination of saccharin in accordance with the latest international recommendations. One industrial and 6 official food control laboratories analyzed 3 samples of a juice, a soft drink, and a dessert at concentration levels of 26-90 mg/L, 33-73 mg/L, and 56-147 mg/kg, respectively. Blind duplicates and a blank were supplied for each type of material at each concentration level. The beverage was chromatographed directly and the dessert was extracted with ethanol before chromatography. Average recoveries were 95-107%. The reproducibility relative standard deviations were 6.4-7.3% for the juice, 9.2-20.6% for the soft drink, and 13.4-16.2% for the dessert. The outlier percentage was 14.3%. The results were compared with those of an earlier collaborative study by Nordic laboratories and with general collaborative results obtained by AOAC.

  14. ENHANCED PROACTIVE PLANNING APPROACH: A CRUCIAL TO AN IMPROVED WORKERS’ SAFETY IN WESTERN NIGERIA SMALL SCALE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O. ADEYEMI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated managements’ proactive planning approach (PPA to enhance safety among workers in South-western Nigeria small scale industry (SSI. The main objective was to rate the managements’ efforts at eliminating risk among their employees. By worker participatory and psychological survey approach, three tools were used; workplace observation (visual, management safety culture (questionnaire and managers interviews (oral. The survey included 200 workers, 120 supervisors and 80 managers, in 82 SSI. Four steps to a safety proactive action plans (PAP, (looking for clues, prioritization of identified potential hazard, making improvements to eliminate the risk and follow up, were rated by employees on a scale from 0 to 5. Paired t-test was used to appraise the significant difference between the managers’ mean scores rated by the supervisors and other workers. 77.1% of workers and 64.2% supervisors rated their managers as either “not done at all” or “poorly done”. Workers’ scores for managers PPA had statistically significantly lower ratings (mean=1.09, SEM = 0.22 compared to that of the supervisors rating (mean= 1.55, SEM = 0.32, with t (14 = -1.185, p = 0.784. There is a closed poor performance perception gaps, of managers’ PPA, of the two groups of employees. It can be concluded that safety is not emphasized, by managers of SSI, as overriding priority and this may have contributed to high reported injuries among their workforce. Courses to enhance managements’ understanding for inclusion of safety among the leading priorities becomes necessary. This will reduce work-related risks and promotes occupational safety and health among the group of workers.

  15. Just in Time Strategy and Financial Performance of Small Scale Industry in Ogun State: A Study of ADO-ODO/OTA Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Amaechi Egbunike

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many manufacturing firms have decided to implement just in time technique as a strategic cost management to survive and remain competitive in their business environment. The study examines how just in time technique has assisted in reducing inventory cost management and improve the firm profit level. The specific objective is to ascertain the influence of purchases and sales on return on equity of small scale manufacturing industry. Survey design was used for the study. Sample frame was purposively selected for convenience sake. Data was collected though secondary source. Regression analysis was employed to analyze the data. The study found positive relationship between just in time implementation and profit level of small scale business industry. We recommend other small scale businesses that have not started implementing just in time strategy to start the strategy. We encourage future researcher to examine the efficiency of just in time strategy among petty small scale trader in our urban centers.

  16. Research on the enhancement of biological nitrogen removal at low temperatures from ammonium-rich wastewater by the bio-electrocoagulation technology in lab-scale systems, pilot-scale systems and a full-scale industrial wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Qian, Guangsheng; Ye, Linlin; Hu, Xiaomin; Yu, Xin; Lyu, Weijian

    2018-04-17

    In cold areas, nitrogen removal performance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) declines greatly in winter. This paper systematically describes the enhancement effect of a periodic reverse electrocoagulation technology on biological nitrogen removal at low temperatures. The study showed that in the lab-scale systems, the electrocoagulation technology improved the biomass amount, enzyme activity and the amount of nitrogen removal bacteria (Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, Paracoccus, Thauera and Enterobacter). This enhanced nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge at low temperatures. In the pilot-scale systems, the electrocoagulation technology increased the relative abundance of cold-adapted microorganisms (Luteimonas and Trueperaceae) at low temperatures. In a full-scale industrial WWTP, comparison of data from winter 2015 and winter 2016 showed that effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH 4 + -N, and NO 3 - -N reduced by 10.37, 3.84, and 136.43 t, respectively, throughout the winter, after installation of electrocoagulation devices. These results suggest that the electrocoagulation technology is able to improve the performance of activated sludge under low-temperature conditions. This technology provides a new way for upgrading of the performance of WWTPs in cold areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gas-Chromatographic Determination Of Water In Freon PCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Donald M.

    1994-01-01

    Gas-chromatographic apparatus measures small concentrations of water in specimens of Freon PCA. Testing by use of apparatus faster and provides greater protection against accidental contamination of specimens by water in testing environment. Automated for unattended operation. Also used to measure water contents of materials, other than Freon PCA. Innovation extended to development of purgeable sampling accessory for gas chromatographs.

  18. Probabilistic peak detection for first-order chromatographic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopatka, M.; Vivó-Truyols, G.; Sjerps, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for probabilistic peak detection in first-order chromatographic data. Unlike conventional methods that deliver a binary answer pertaining to the expected presence or absence of a chromatographic peak, our method calculates the probability of a point being affected by

  19. Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of Brandes, Dharwadkar, and Dean’s (1999) Organizational Cynicism Scale: The Case of Organized Industrial Zone, Kayseri

    OpenAIRE

    Karacaoglu, Korhan; Ince, Fatma

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the validity and reliability of Turkish version of Organizational Cynicism Scale developed by Brandes et al. (1999). The research was conducted on 300 workers employed in the manufacturing entreprises of Kayseri Organized Industrial Zone. The psychometric properties of the scale were examined by cronbach alpha and item-total corelations for the reliability, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses for the validity. As a result of the factor a...

  20. Walnut and almond oil screw-press extraction at industrial scale: Effects of process parameters on oil yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Martínez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Walnut and almond kernels are highly nutritious mainly due to their high oil contents. In this study, 32 factorial experimental designs were used to optimize processes for oil extraction by screw-pressing at industrial scale. Experimental designs included seed moisture content (SMC, and restriction die (RD as the main processing parameters. Theoretical models were scanned against experimental data in order to optimize oil extraction conditions. The response variables analyzed were oil yield (OY, fine solid content (FC in oil, and oil quality parameters. Fitted models for OY indicated maximum predicted values similar to the highest experimental values. Walnut oil extractions showed a maximum OY (84.5 ± 2.3 % at 7.21% SMC, and 10 mm RD. For almond kernels, maximum OY (71.9 ± 3.5% was obtained at 9.42% SMC, and 12 mm RD. Chemical quality parameters from both oils were in the ranges stated in Codex (FAO/WHO standards for virgin (non-refined oils.

  1. Design and scale-up of a semi-industrial downer-reactor for the rounding of irregular polymer particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, Marius; Schmidt, Jochen; Peukert, Wolfgang; Wirth, Karl-Ernst [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute of Particle Technology, Cauerstr. 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-03-09

    The recent development of rapid prototyping technologies towards additive manufacturing reveals some major drawbacks of processes such as laser beam melting (LBM). This contribution focuses on the lack of suitable polymer material with a fine particle size and good flowability. Polymer particles obtained by a wet grinding process 1 are treated in a heated downer reactor. This treatment changes the particles’ morphology from a chiselled state towards a spherical form by surface tension forces in a molten state 2 and leads to an improved flowability. To reach the required amount of rounded polymer powder, a downer reactor in semi-industrial scale has been established and will be characterized in this article. For the purpose of particle rounding it is necessary to avoid contact of molten particles with each other and with the hot reactor walls. Furthermore, the heat distribution has been investigated as one of the key parameters of the process. Finally, a proof of concept by rounding wet grinded PBT material was successfully conducted. The product was examined to obtain data about a change in particle size and flowability.

  2. Walnut and almond oil screw-press extraction at industrial scale: Effects of process parameters on oil yield and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, M. L.; Bordón, M.G.; Bodoira, R. M.; Penci, M.C.; Ribotta, P.D.; Maestri, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    Walnut and almond kernels are highly nutritious mainly due to their high oil contents. In this study, 32 factorial experimental designs were used to optimize processes for oil extraction by screw-pressing at industrial scale. Experimental designs included seed moisture content (SMC), and restriction die (RD) as the main processing parameters. Theoretical models were scanned against experimental data in order to optimize oil extraction conditions. The response variables analyzed were oil yield (OY), fine solid content (FC) in oil, and oil quality parameters. Fitted models for OY indicated maximum predicted values similar to the highest experimental values. Walnut oil extractions showed a maximum OY (84.5 ± 2.3 %) at 7.21% SMC, and 10 mm RD. For almond kernels, maximum OY (71.9 ± 3.5%) was obtained at 9.42% SMC, and 12 mm RD. Chemical quality parameters from both oils were in the ranges stated in Codex (FAO/WHO) standards for virgin (non-refined) oils. [es

  3. Developing a Steady-state Kinetic Model for Industrial Scale Semi-Regenerative Catalytic Naphtha Reforming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif Mohaddecy, R.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the demand for high octane gasoline as a transportation fuel, the catalytic naphtha reformer has become one of the most important processes in petroleum refineries. In this research, the steady-state modelling of a catalytic fixed-bed naphtha reforming process to predict the momentous output variables was studied. These variables were octane number, yield, hydrogen purity, and temperature of all reforming reactors. To do such a task, an industrial scale semi-regenerative catalytic naphtha reforming unit was studied and modelled. In addition, to evaluate the developed model, the predicted variables i.e. outlet temperatures of reactors, research octane number, yield of gasoline and hydrogen purity were compared against actual data. The results showed that there is a close mapping between the actual and predicted variables, and the mean relative absolute deviation of the mentioned process variables were 0.38 %, 0.52 %, 0.54 %, 0.32 %, 4.8 % and 3.2 %, respectively.

  4. Chromatographic and electrophoretic approaches in ink analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick, J A; Smith, F P

    1999-10-15

    Inks are manufactured from a wide variety of substances that exhibit very different chemical behaviors. Inks designed for use in different writing instruments or printing methods have quite dissimilar components. Since the 1950s chromatographic and electrophoretic methods have played important roles in the analysis of inks, where compositional information may have bearing on the investigation of counterfeiting, fraud, forgery, and other crimes. Techniques such as paper chromatography and electrophoresis, thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, gel electrophoresis, and the relatively new technique of capillary electrophoresis have all been explored as possible avenues for the separation of components of inks. This paper reviews the components of different types of inks and applications of the above separation methods are reviewed.

  5. New extraction chromatographic material for rhenium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucanikova, M.; Czech Technical University, Prague; Kucera, J.; Czech Technical University, Prague; Sebesta, F.

    2008-01-01

    Three types of the extraction chromatographic materials, composed from Aliquat R 336 deposited in the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) beads and prepared by different procedures, were compared for extraction of rhenium. The best properties were exhibited when the solid extractant was prepared by impregnation of the ready-made PAN beads. Solid extractant prepared by direct coagulation of the beads from the suspension of Aliquat R 336 in solution of PAN in nitric acid differs only by lower capacity in dynamic conditions. Material prepared from the PAN solution in dimethylsulfoxide was the worst because Aliquat R 336 was washed out from the beads during coagulation of the polymer and the extraction capacity was low. As it is shown, the first two solid extractants are fully comparable with the commercial TEVA Resin. (author)

  6. Aligning of single and multiple wavelength chromatographic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels-Peter Vest; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    1998-01-01

    optimised warping (COW) using two input parameters which can be estimated from the observed peak width. COW is demonstrated on constructed single trace chromatograms and on single and multiple wavelength chromatograms obtained from HPLC diode detection analyses of fungal extractsA copy of the C program......The use of chemometric data processing is becoming an important part of modern chromatography. Most chemometric analyses are performed on reduced data sets using areas of selected peaks detected in the chromatograms, which means a loss of data and introduces the problem of extracting peak data from...... to utilise the entire data matrix or rely on peak detection, thus having the same limitations as the commonly used chemometric procedures. The method presented uses the entire chromatographic data matrices and does not require any preprocessing e.g., peak detection. It relies on piecewise linear correlation...

  7. Inkjet printing as a roll-to-roll compatible technology for the production of large area electronic devices on a pre-industrial scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, P.; Rubingh, E.; Lammeren, T. van; Abbel, R.J.; Groen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Inkjet printing is a promising approach towards the solution processing of electronic devices on an industrial scale. Of particular interest is the production of high-end applications such as large area OLEDs on flexible substrates. Roll-to-roll (R2R) processing technologies involving inkjet

  8. Flexible versus common technology to estimate economies of scale and scope in the water and sewerage industry: an application to England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Maziotis, Alexandros

    2018-03-09

    The water industry presents several structures in different countries and also within countries. Hence, several studies have been conducted to evaluate the presence of economies of scope and scale in the water industry leading to inconclusive results. The lack of a common methodology has been identified as an important factor contributing to divergent conclusions. This paper evaluates, for the first time, the presence of economies of scale and scope in the water industry using a flexible technology approach integrating operational and exogenous variables of the water companies in the cost functions. The empirical application carried out for the English and Welsh water industry evidenced that the inclusion of exogenous variables accounts for significant differences in economies of scale and scope. Moreover, completely different results were obtained when the economies of scale and scope were estimated using common and flexible technology methodological approaches. The findings of this study reveal the importance of using an appropriate methodology to support policy decision-making processes to promote sustainable urban water activities.

  9. A novel in-line NIR spectroscopy application for the monitoring of tablet film coating in an industrial scale process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möltgen, C-V; Puchert, T; Menezes, J C; Lochmann, D; Reich, G

    2012-04-15

    Film coating of tablets is a multivariate pharmaceutical unit operation. In this study an innovative in-line Fourier-Transform Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) application is described which enables real-time monitoring of a full industrial scale pan coating process of heart-shaped tablets. The tablets were coated with a thin hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) film of up to approx. 28 μm on the tablet face as determined by SEM, corresponding to a weight gain of 2.26%. For a better understanding of the aqueous coating process the NIR probe was positioned inside the rotating tablet bed. Five full scale experimental runs have been performed to evaluate the impact of process variables such as pan rotation, exhaust air temperature, spray rate and pan load and elaborate robust and selective quantitative calibration models for the real-time determination of both coating growth and tablet moisture content. Principal Component (PC) score plots allowed each coating step, namely preheating, spraying and drying to be distinguished and the dominating factors and their spectral effects to be identified (e.g. temperature, moisture, coating growth, change of tablet bed density, and core/coat interactions). The distinct separation of HPMC coating growth and tablet moisture in different PCs enabled a real-time in-line monitoring of both attributes. A PLS calibration model based on Karl Fischer reference values allowed the tablet moisture trajectory to be determined throughout the entire coating process. A 1-latent variable iPLS weight gain calibration model with calibration samples from process stages dominated by the coating growth (i.e. ≥ 30% of the theoretically applied amount of coating) was sufficiently selective and accurate to predict the progress of the thin HPMC coating layer. At-line NIR Chemical Imaging (NIR-CI) in combination with PLS Discriminant Analysis (PLSDA) verified the HPMC coating growth and physical changes at the core/coat interface during the initial

  10. Development and validation of micellar liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of antibiotics in different matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Esteve-Romero, Josep; Carda-Broch, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotics are the most important bioactive and chemotherapeutic compounds to be produced by microbiological synthesis, and they have proved their worth in a variety of fields, such as medicinal chemistry, agriculture, and the food industry. Interest in antibiotics has grown in parallel with an increasingly high degree of productivity in the field of analytical applications. Therefore, it is necessary to develop chromatographic procedures capable of determining various drugs simultaneously in the shortest possible time. Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) is an RP-HPLC technique that offers advantages over conventional HPLC as far as sample preparation, selectivity, and versatility are concerned. Its main advantage is that samples can be injected directly into the chromatographic system with no previous preparation step. This paper mainly focuses on the results of the authors' own recent research and reports the chromatographic conditions for determination of various antibiotics (penicillins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) in different matrixes (pharmaceuticals, biological fluids, and food). The work of other authors on MLC-based antibiotic determination has been included.

  11. It was the demonstration of industrial steel production capacity ferritic-martensitic Spanish ASTURFER scale demand ITER; Hacia la demostracion de capacidad de produccion industrial del acero ferritico-martensitico espanol ASTURFER a escala de demanda ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coto, R.; Serrano, M.; Moran, A.; Rodriguez, D.; Artimez, J. A.; Belzunce, J.; Sedano, L.

    2013-07-01

    Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) structural steels are considered as candidate materials with notable possibilities to be incorporated to fusion reactor ITER, nowadays under construction, and future fusion reactor DEMO, involving a notable forecasting of supply materials, with a considerable limitation due to the few number of furnishes currently on the market. The manufacture at an industrial scale of the ASTURFER steel, developed at laboratory scale by ITMA Materials Technology and the Structural Materials Division of the Technology Division of CIEMAT would be a significant business opportunity for steelwork companies.

  12. In the Shadow of Coal: How Large-Scale Industries Contributed to Present-Day Regional Differences in Personality and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Stuetzer, Michael; Rentfrow, Peter J; Shaw-Taylor, Leigh; Satchell, Max; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D

    2017-11-20

    Recent research has identified regional variation of personality traits within countries but we know little about the underlying drivers of this variation. We propose that the Industrial Revolution, as a key era in the history of industrialized nations, has led to a persistent clustering of well-being outcomes and personality traits associated with psychological adversity via processes of selective migration and socialization. Analyzing data from England and Wales, we examine relationships between the historical employment share in large-scale coal-based industries (coal mining and steam-powered manufacturing industries that used this coal as fuel for their steam engines) and today's regional variation in personality and well-being. Even after controlling for possible historical confounds (historical energy supply, education, wealth, geology, climate, population density), we find that the historical local dominance of large-scale coal-based industries predicts today's markers of psychological adversity (lower Conscientiousness [and order facet scores], higher Neuroticism [and anxiety and depression facet scores], lower activity [an Extraversion facet], and lower life satisfaction and life expectancy). An instrumental variable analysis, using the historical location of coalfields, supports the causal assumption behind these effects (with the exception of life satisfaction). Further analyses focusing on mechanisms hint at the roles of selective migration and persisting economic hardship. Finally, a robustness check in the U.S. replicates the effect of the historical concentration of large-scale industries on today's levels of psychological adversity. Taken together, the results show how today's regional patterns of personality and well-being (which shape the future trajectories of these regions) may have their roots in major societal changes underway decades or centuries earlier. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Development and Application of Environmental Quality of Life Scale among People Residing near Three Types of Industrial Areas, Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopsuk, Jirawan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Hasuwanakit, Supat

    2013-01-01

    To compare QOL among rural people living in three different industrial areas and one non-industrial area in southern Thailand. A questionnaire based on the WHOQOL-BREF with environmental assessment was initially developed. After consultation with experts and pilot study, it was tested to check internal reliability and further modified as…

  14. Determining the platinum loading and distribution of industrial scale polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrodes using low energy X-ray imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, T.; Vassiliev, Anton; Kerr, R.

    2014-01-01

    Low energy X-ray imaging (E <25 keV) is herein demonstrated to be a rapid, effective and non-destructive tool for the quantitative determination of the platinum loading and distribution over the entire geometric area of gas diffusion electrodes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. A linea...... of electrodes fabricated using an industrial spraying process. This technique proves to be an attractive option for the electrode performance study, the process optimization and quality control of electrode fabrication on an industrial scale....

  15. Method for chromatographically recovering scandium and yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, T.S.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a method for chromatographically recovering scandium and yttrium from the residue of a sand chlorinator. It comprises: providing a residue from a sand chlorinator, the residue containing scandium, yttrium, sodium, calcium and at least one radioactive metal of the group consisting of radium, thorium and uranium; digesting the residue with an acid to produce an aqueous liquid containing scandium, yttrium, sodium, calcium and at least one radioactive metal of the group consisting of radium, thorium and uranium; feeding the metal containing liquid through a cation exchanger; eluding the cation exchanger with an acid eluant to to produce: a first eluate containing at least half of the total weight of the calcium and sodium in the feed liquid; a second eluate containing at least half of the total weight of the one or more radioactive metals in the feed liquid; a third eluate containing at least half of the yttrium in the feed liquid, and a fourth eluate containing at least half of the weight of the scandium in the feed liquid

  16. Chromatographic Techniques for Rare Earth Elements Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Zhang, Huashan; Jiang, Zucheng; Hu, Bin

    2017-04-01

    The present capability of rare earth element (REE) analysis has been achieved by the development of two instrumental techniques. The efficiency of spectroscopic methods was extraordinarily improved for the detection and determination of REE traces in various materials. On the other hand, the determination of REEs very often depends on the preconcentration and separation of REEs, and chromatographic techniques are very powerful tools for the separation of REEs. By coupling with sensitive detectors, many ambitious analytical tasks can be fulfilled. Liquid chromatography is the most widely used technique. Different combinations of stationary phases and mobile phases could be used in ion exchange chromatography, ion chromatography, ion-pair reverse-phase chromatography and some other techniques. The application of gas chromatography is limited because only volatile compounds of REEs can be separated. Thin-layer and paper chromatography are techniques that cannot be directly coupled with suitable detectors, which limit their applications. For special demands, separations can be performed by capillary electrophoresis, which has very high separation efficiency.

  17. Chromatographic Separation of Vitamin E Enantiomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yen Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E is recognized as an essential vitamin since its discovery in 1922. Most vegetable oils contain a mixture of tocopherols and tocotrienols in the vitamin E composition. Structurally, tocopherols and tocotrienols share a similar chromanol ring and a side chain at the C-2 position. Owing to the three chiral centers in tocopherols, they can appear as eight different stereoisomers. Plant sources of tocopherol are naturally occurring in the form of RRR while synthetic tocopherols are usually in the form of all-racemic mixture. Similarly, with only one chiral center, natural tocotrienols occur as the R-isoform. In this review, we aim to discuss a few chromatographic methods that had been used to separate the stereoisomers of tocopherols and tocotrienols. These methods include high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and combination of both. The review will focus on method development including selection of chiral columns, detection method and choice of elution solvent in the context of separation efficiency, resolution and chiral purity. The applications for separation of enantiomers in vitamin E will also be discussed especially in terms of the distinctive biological potency among the stereoisoforms.

  18. Liquid chromatographic separation of zalcitabine and its stereoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scypinski, S; Ross, A J

    1994-10-01

    A liquid chromatographic method capable of separating and quantitating the stereoisomers of zalcitabine has been developed and validated. The separation was achieved with an Astec Cyclobond I--RSP column and a mobile phase of 0.25% triethylamine in water adjusted to a pH of 6.5 with glacial acetic acid. All enantiomers were found to exhibit a linear response in the range of 0.1-10% in the presence of 100% zalcitabine. Precision of analysis was found to be less than 1.5% at a level of 1% relative to zalcitabine. The limit of detection for two of the three enantiomeric impurities was determined to be 0.05% relative to zalcitabine. The detection limit for the third was found to be 0.1%. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of reference standards and several production scale batches. All of these materials were found to be stereochemically pure to a level of 99.8% or better.

  19. Chromatographic air analyser microsystem for the selective and sensitive detection of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Jean-Baptiste; Lahlou, Houda; Mohsen, Yehya; Berger, Franck; Vilanova, Xavier; Correig, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The development of industry and automotive trafic produces Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) whose toxicity can affect seriously human health and environment. The level of those contaminants in air must be as low as possible. In this context, there is a need for in situ systems that could monitor selectively the concentration of these compounds. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the efficiency of a system build with a pre-concentrator, a chromatographic micro-column and a tin oxide-based gas sensor for the selective and sensitive detection of atmospheric pollutants. In particular, this study is focused on the selective detection of benzene and 1,3 butadiene.

  20. Numerical study of SNCR application to a full-scale stoker incinerator at Daejon 4th industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey-Suk Kim; Mi-Soo Shin; Dong-Soon Jang; Tae-In Ohm

    2004-01-01

    Considering the rapid variation of waste composition and the more severe regulation trend of pollutant emission in this country, the importance of the development of a reliable computer program for a full-scale, stoker-type incinerator cannot be emphasized too much, especially in the view of proper design and optimal determination of operating condition of existing and future constructed facility. To this end, a comprehensive, numerical model related with the process of the waste-off gaseous combustion with the capacity of 200 tons/day is successfully made. This includes development of several phenomenological models such as municipal waste-off gaseous reaction, NO pollutant generation and destruction in turbulence-related environment. Especially in this study a number of sound assumptions have been made for the NO reaction model, 3-D geometry of incinerator and waste-bed model to achieve the efficient incorporation of the empirical models and enhancement of the stability of calculation process. First of all, the turbulence-related, complex combustion chemistry involved with NO reaction is modeled by the harmonic mean method, which is given by the relative strength of the rates of chemistry and turbulent mixing. Further, the 3-D rectangular shape of the incinerator is simply approximated by a 3-D axi-symmetric geometry with equivalent area. And the modeling of complex waste-burning process on moving grate is described by a pure gaseous combustion process of waste off-gas. The program developed in this study is successfully validated by comparing with the experimental data such as temperature and NO concentration profiles in the incinerator located at 4th industrial complex of Daejon, S. Korea. Using the program developed, a series of parametric investigations have been made for the evaluation of SNCR process and thereby evaluate various important design and the operating variables. The major parameters considered in this parametric study are heating value of

  1. Evaluation of pesticide adsorption in gas chromatographic injector and column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevany Paulino de Pinho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Components in complex matrices can cause variations in chromatographic response during analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. These variations are related to the competition between analytes and matrix components for adsorption sites in the chromatographic system. The capacity of the pesticides chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin to be adsorbed in the injector and chromatographic column was evaluated by constructing three isotherms and changing the column heating rate to 10 and 30 ºC min-1. By using ANCOVA to compare the slope of calibration graphs, results showed that the higher the injector temperature (310 ºC the lower the pesticide adsorption. Also, deltamethrin influenced the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on the column chromatographic.

  2. Chromatographic separation of low-temperature tar. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terres, E; Gebert, F; Huelsemann, H; Petereit, H; Toepsch, H; Ruppert, W

    1955-01-01

    Chromatographic methods and apparatus are discussed. The Folin-Denis reagent (Na tungstate molybdate in H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) is used for developing paper chromatograms of phenol mixtures. Other reagents are given.

  3. Ion Chromatographic Analyses of Sea Waters, Brines and Related Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Gros

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the ion chromatographic methods for the analyses of natural waters with high ionic strength. At the beginning a natural diversity in ionic composition of waters is highlighted and terminology clarified. In continuation a brief overview of other review articles of potential interest is given. A review of ion chromatographic methods is organized in four sections. The first section comprises articles focused on the determination of ionic composition of water samples as com...

  4. Analysis and chromatographic purification of eicosanoids multiply labeled by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Nagaev, I.Yu.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    We show the possibility of analysis and chromatographic purification of eicosanoids triply labeled by tritium. The described methods allow us to isolate chromatographically pure products obtained by selective hydrogenatin, chemical, and enzyme methods, with radiochemical purity at least 95-97%. The following methods are used to analyze the reaction mixtures and to isolate the tritium-labeled eicosanoids: gas-liquid chromatography, high-efficiency liquid chromatography, and thin-layer chromatography on supports impregnated with silver nitrate

  5. Enhanced binding by dextran-grafting to Protein A affinity chromatographic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan; Zhu, Kai; Huang, Yongdong; Li, Qiang; Li, Xiunan; Zhang, Rongyue; Su, Zhiguo; Wang, Qibao; Ma, Guanghui

    2017-04-01

    Dextran-grafted Protein A affinity chromatographic medium was prepared by grafting dextran to agarose-based matrix, followed by epoxy-activation and Protein A coupling site-directed to sulfhydryl groups of cysteine molecules. An enhancement of both the binding performance and the stability was achieved for this dextran-grafted Protein A chromatographic medium. Its dynamic binding capacity was 61 mg immunoglobulin G/mL suction-dried gel, increased by 24% compared with that of the non-grafted medium. The binding capacity of dextran-grafted medium decreased about 7% after 40 cleaning-in-place cycles, much lower than that of the non-grafted medium as decreased about 15%. Confocal laser scanning microscopy results showed that immunoglobulin G was bound to both the outside and the inside of dextran-grafted medium faster than that of non-grafted one. Atomic force microscopy showed that this dextran-grafted Protein A medium had much rougher surface with a vertical coordinate range of ±80 nm, while that of non-grafted one was ±10 nm. Grafted dextran provided a more stereo surface morphology and immunoglobulin G molecules were more easily to be bound. This high-performance dextran-grafted Protein A affinity chromatographic medium has promising applications in large-scale antibody purification. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Chemical analysis of industrial scale deposits by combined use of correlation coefficients with emission line detection of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siozos, P.; Philippidis, A.; Hadjistefanou, M.; Gounarakis, C.; Anglos, D.

    2013-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to determine the mineral composition of various industrial scale samples. The aim of the study has been to investigate the capacity of LIBS to provide a fast, reliable analytical tool for carrying out routine analysis of inorganic scales, potentially on site, as a means to facilitate decision making concerning scale removal procedures. LIBS spectra collected in the range of 200–660 nm conveyed information about the metal content of the minerals. Via a straightforward analysis based on linear correlation of LIBS spectra it was possible to successfully discriminate scale samples into three main groups, Fe-rich, Ca-rich and Ba-rich, on the basis of correlation coefficients. By combining correlation coefficients with spectral data collected in the NIR, 860–960 nm, where sulfur emissions are detected, it became further possible to discriminate sulfates from carbonates as confirmed by independent analysis based on Raman spectroscopy. It is emphasized that the proposed LIBS-based method successfully identifies the major mineral or minerals present in the samples classifying the scales into relevant groups hence enabling process engineers to select appropriate scale dissolution strategies. - Highlights: • LIBS was used to determine the mineral composition of industrial scale samples. • Three groups of inorganic scales were identified: Ca rich, Ba rich and Fe rich. • A method that combines correlation coefficients and line detection is proposed. • The method successfully identifies the main mineral, or minerals, in the samples. • The results were compared with results obtained by use of Raman analysis

  7. Chemical durability of glass and glass-ceramic materials, developed in laboratory scale, from industrial oil shale residue. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Fonseca, M.V. de; Souza Santos, P. de

    1990-01-01

    Industrial developments frequently drive to the natural resources extinction. The recycling era has come out a long time ago and it has been evident that great part of industrial work's problems are related to the pollution and the raw materials extinction. These problems should be solved, with advantages, through industrial residues recycling. This study deals with glass and glass-ceramics materials obtained from oil shale (Irati Formation-Sao Mateus do Sul-Parana State) industrialization residues. The reached results show that a controled devitrification of retorted oil shale glass improves its performance related to chemical attack. The crystallinity caracterization of the oil shales glass-ceramic was made through X-ray diffraction. (author) [pt

  8. Experimental Evaluation for the Microvibration Performance of a Segmented PC Method Based High Technology Industrial Facility Using 1/2 Scale Test Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijun Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The precast concrete (PC method used in the construction process of high technology industrial facilities is limited when applied to those with greater span lengths, due to the transport length restriction (maximum length of 15~16 m in Korea set by traffic laws. In order to resolve this, this study introduces a structural system with a segmented PC system, and a 1/2 scale model with a width of 9000 mm (hereafter Segmented Model is manufactured to evaluate vibration performance. Since a real vibrational environment cannot be reproduced for vibration testing using a scale model, a comparative analysis of their relative performances is conducted in this study. For this purpose, a 1/2 scale model with a width of 7200 mm (hereafter Nonsegmented Model of a high technology industrial facility is additionally prepared using the conventional PC method. By applying the same experiment method for both scale models and comparing the results, the relative vibration performance of the Segmented Model is observed. Through impact testing, the natural frequencies of the two scale models are compared. Also, in order to analyze the estimated response induced by the equipment, the vibration responses due to the exciter are compared. The experimental results show that the Segmented Model exhibits similar or superior performances when compared to the Nonsegmented Model.

  9. Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, Florian; Graham, Neil D; Chiaradia, Massimo; Arpagaus, Philippe; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2011-12-15

    This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750-1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (>100 μg Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Propylene/Nitrogen Separation in a By-Stream of the Polypropylene Production: From Pilot Test and Model Validation to Industrial Scale Process Design and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Guler Narin; Ana Ribeiro; Alexandre Ferreira; Young Hwang; U-Hwang Lee; José Loureiro; Jong-San Chang; Alírio Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Two industrial-scale pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes were designed and optimized by simulations: recovery of only nitrogen and recovery of both nitrogen and propylene from a polypropylene manufacture purge gas stream. MIL-100(Fe) granulates were used as adsorbent. The mathematical model employed in the simulations was verified by a PSA experiment. The effect of several operating parameters on the performance of the proposed PSA processes was investigated. For the nitrogen recovery, ...

  11. Formation of metal agglomerates during carbonisation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste: Comparison between a lab scale and an industrial plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helsen, Lieve [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Applied Mechanics and Energy Conversion, Celestijnenlaan 300A, B-3001 Leuven (Heverlee) (Belgium)]. E-mail: lieve.helsen@mech.kuleuven.be; Hacala, Amelie [Company Thermya, 1 rue Nicolas Appert, 33140 Villenave d' Ornon (France)]. E-mail: hacala@thermya.com

    2006-10-11

    This paper compares the results obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled to X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA) of the solid product after carbonisation of treated wood waste in a lab scale and in an industrial installation. These setups (lab scale and industrial) are characterized by different operating conditions of the carbonisation process. Moreover, the wood waste input to the processes differs significantly. From this study, it is clear that some similarities but also some differences exist between the lab scale study and the study with the industrial Chartherm plant. In both reactors, a metal (and mineral) agglomeration process takes place, even in the case of untreated wood. The agglomerates initially present in the wood input may serve as a seed for the metal agglomeration process during 'chartherisation'. The industrial setup leads to a broader range of agglomerates' size (0.1-50 {mu}m) and composition (all possible combinations of Cu, Cr, As and wood minerals). Some agglomerates contain the three metals but the major part is a combination of wood minerals and one or two of the three preservative metals, while all agglomerates analysed in the lab scale product contain the three metals. The separate influence of wood input characteristics and process conditions cannot be derived from these experiments, but the observations suggest that the higher the CCA retention in the wood input is, the easier is the metal agglomeration process during chartherisation of CCA treated wood waste. From the analyses performed in this study it seems that copper behaves differently in the sense that it agglomerates easily, but the resulting particles are small (<1 {mu}m)

  12. Formation of metal agglomerates during carbonisation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste: Comparison between a lab scale and an industrial plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsen, Lieve; Hacala, Amelie

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the results obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled to X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA) of the solid product after carbonisation of treated wood waste in a lab scale and in an industrial installation. These setups (lab scale and industrial) are characterized by different operating conditions of the carbonisation process. Moreover, the wood waste input to the processes differs significantly. From this study, it is clear that some similarities but also some differences exist between the lab scale study and the study with the industrial Chartherm plant. In both reactors, a metal (and mineral) agglomeration process takes place, even in the case of untreated wood. The agglomerates initially present in the wood input may serve as a seed for the metal agglomeration process during 'chartherisation'. The industrial setup leads to a broader range of agglomerates' size (0.1-50 μm) and composition (all possible combinations of Cu, Cr, As and wood minerals). Some agglomerates contain the three metals but the major part is a combination of wood minerals and one or two of the three preservative metals, while all agglomerates analysed in the lab scale product contain the three metals. The separate influence of wood input characteristics and process conditions cannot be derived from these experiments, but the observations suggest that the higher the CCA retention in the wood input is, the easier is the metal agglomeration process during chartherisation of CCA treated wood waste. From the analyses performed in this study it seems that copper behaves differently in the sense that it agglomerates easily, but the resulting particles are small (<1 μm)

  13. Just in Time Strategy and Financial Performance of Small Scale Industry in Ogun State: A Study of ADO-ODO/OTA Local Government

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Amaechi Egbunike; Osazee Graham Imade

    2017-01-01

    Many manufacturing firms have decided to implement just in time technique as a strategic cost management to survive and remain competitive in their business environment. The study examines how just in time technique has assisted in reducing inventory cost management and improve the firm profit level. The specific objective is to ascertain the influence of purchases and sales on return on equity of small scale manufacturing industry. Survey design was used for the study. Sample frame was purpo...

  14. Chromatographic separation of fructose from date syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eid, Salah M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a process for separating fructose from a mixture of sugars containing essentially fructose and glucose, obtained from date palm fruits. The extraction procedure of date syrup from fresh dates gave a yield of 86.5% solids after vacuum drying. A process for separating fructose from an aqueous solution of date syrup involved adding the date syrup solutions (20, 30 and 40% by weight) to a chromatographic column filled with Dowex polystyrene strong cation exchange gel matrix resin Ca2 + and divinylbenzene, a functional group, sulfonic acid, particle size 320 microm, with a flow rate of 0.025 and 0.05 bed volume/min, under 30 and 70 degrees C column temperature. After the date sugar solution batch, a calculated quantity of water was added to the column. Glucose was retained by the resin more weakly than fructose and proceeded faster into the water batch flowing ahead. Three fractions were collected: a glucose-rich fraction, a return fraction, and a fructose-rich fraction. The return fraction is based on when the peaks of fructose and glucose were reached, which could be determined by means of an analyzer (polarimeter) based on the property of glucose and fructose solutions to turn the polarization level of polarized light. A high yield of fructose is obtained at 70 degrees C column temperature with a flow rate of 0.025 bed volume/min and date syrup solution containing 40% sugar concentration. The low recovery by weight obtained using date syrup solutions having a sugar concentration of 20 and 30%, encourages the use of a concentration of 40%. However, with the 40% date syrup supply the average concentrations of glucose and fructose in the return fractions were more than 40%, which can be used for diluting the thick date syrup solution extracted from dates.

  15. Batch-to-batch quality consistency evaluation of botanical drug products using multivariate statistical analysis of the chromatographic fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Haoshu; Yu, Lawrence X; Qu, Haibin

    2013-06-01

    Botanical drug products have batch-to-batch quality variability due to botanical raw materials and the current manufacturing process. The rational evaluation and control of product quality consistency are essential to ensure the efficacy and safety. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an important and widely used tool to characterize the chemical composition of botanical drug products. Multivariate statistical analysis has showed its efficacy and applicability in the quality evaluation of many kinds of industrial products. In this paper, the combined use of multivariate statistical analysis and chromatographic fingerprinting is presented here to evaluate batch-to-batch quality consistency of botanical drug products. A typical botanical drug product in China, Shenmai injection, was selected as the example to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. The high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint data of historical batches were collected from a traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing factory. Characteristic peaks were weighted by their variability among production batches. A principal component analysis model was established after outliers were modified or removed. Multivariate (Hotelling T(2) and DModX) control charts were finally successfully applied to evaluate the quality consistency. The results suggest useful applications for a combination of multivariate statistical analysis with chromatographic fingerprinting in batch-to-batch quality consistency evaluation for the manufacture of botanical drug products.

  16. Comparison of two different methods for evaluating the hydrodynamic performance of an industrial-scale fish-rearing unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; McLean, Ewen

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory-scale physical and mathematical models were evaluated for their utility in examining the hydrodynamic performance of a commercial fish-rearing tank. Each method was appraised with the common objective of predicting characteristic hydrodynamic behaviour of a full-scale tank. The two...

  17. Upscaling from benchtop processing to industrial scale production: More factors to be considered for pulsed electric field food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing has been intensively studied with benchtop scale experiments. However, there is still limited information regarding critical factors to be considered for PEF efficacy in microbial reduction with PEF processing at a pilot or commercial scale production of juice....

  18. Semi-industrial scale (30 m3) fed-batch fermentation for the production of D-lactate by Escherichia coli strain HBUT-D15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiangmin; Wang, Yongze; Wang, Jinhua; Garza, Erin; Manow, Ryan; Zhou, Shengde

    2017-02-01

    D(-)-lactic acid is needed for manufacturing of stereo-complex poly-lactic acid polymer. Large scale D-lactic acid fermentation, however, has yet to be demonstrated. A genetically engineered Escherichia coli strain, HBUT-D, was adaptively evolved in a 15% calcium lactate medium for improved lactate tolerance. The resulting strain, HBUT-D15, was tested at a lab scale (7 L) by fed-batch fermentation with up to 200 g L -1 of glucose, producing 184-191 g L -1 of D-lactic acid, with a volumetric productivity of 4.38 g L -1  h -1 , a yield of 92%, and an optical purity of 99.9%. The HBUT-D15 was then evaluated at a semi-industrial scale (30 m 3 ) via fed-batch fermentation with up to 160 g L -1 of glucose, producing 146-150 g L -1 of D-lactic acid, with a volumetric productivity of 3.95-4.29 g L -1  h -1 , a yield of 91-94%, and an optical purity of 99.8%. These results are comparable to that of current industrial scale L(+)-lactic acid fermentation.

  19. An outlook into energy consumption in large scale industries in India: The cases of steel, aluminium and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Monica; Mukherjee, Saptarshi

    2010-01-01

    All the growth-oriented sectors in a developing economy consume enormous energy in their production processes. Steel, aluminium and cement are the key manufacturing industries in India which provide inputs to various other sectors such as construction, transportation, power transmission, etc. As a result, their demand is consistently rising. These industries are heavily energy-intensive and use raw materials such as iron ore, coal, electricity, steam, and fuel oil, whose supply can act as severe production constraints over a period of time and can hinder sustainable development. Hence it becomes imperative for these industries to continuously innovate more energy efficient techniques. This paper makes a foray into the energy demand for these industries and explores the potential of any future reduction in their energy consumption. The paper offers a projection scenario for 2001-2031 (based on the MARKAL Modeling exercise for India) for possible catching up in reduction in energy consumptions in these sectors under alternative situations. The analysis suggests the existence of some plausible energy efficiency enhancing techniques in these industries. Exploring these options will definitely ensure cost effectiveness and competitiveness of these three key sectors in the global market. -- Research highlights: →Energy reduction potential exists in Indian steel, aluminium and cement sectors and can go up to 8%, 17% and 6% respectively in these sectors in 2031 if appropriate energy saving technologies are introduced and implemented. →In aluminium industry energy reduction potential is huge in fabrication stage in the production process and extensive improvement can be done in terms of energy efficiency in this stage. Cogeneration of power through waste heat recovery, change in norms in standard to take advantage of producing composite cements using more than one industrial waste, like both fly ash and slag are important required changes in Indian cement sector.

  20. Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenon, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Thevenon@yahoo.fr [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland); Graham, Neil D. [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland); Chiaradia, Massimo [Department of Mineralogy, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Arpagaus, Philippe; Wildi, Walter; Pote, John [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland)

    2011-12-15

    This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750-1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (> 100 {mu}g Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Natural sources

  1. Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenon, Florian; Graham, Neil D.; Chiaradia, Massimo; Arpagaus, Philippe; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2011-01-01

    This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750–1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (> 100 μg Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents. Highlights: ► Natural sources dominated trace element

  2. Towards an Agro-Industrial Ecology: A review of nutrient flow modelling and assessment tools in agro-food systems at the local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mena, Hugo; Nesme, Thomas; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2016-02-01

    Improvement in nutrient recycling in agriculture is essential to maintain food production while minimising nutrient pollution of the environment. For this purpose, understanding and modelling nutrient cycles in food and related agro-industrial systems is a crucial task. Although nutrient management has been addressed at the plot and farm scales for many years now in the agricultural sciences, there is a need to upscale these approaches to capture the additional drivers of nutrient cycles that may occur at the local, i.e. district, scale. Industrial ecology principles provide sound bases to analyse nutrient cycling in complex systems. However, since agro-food social-ecological systems have specific ecological and social dimensions, we argue that a new field, referred to as "Agro-Industrial Ecology", is needed to study these systems. In this paper, we review the literature on nutrient cycling in complex social-ecological systems that can provide a basis for Agro-Industrial Ecology. We identify and describe three major approaches: Environmental Assessment tools, Stock and Flow Analysis methods and Agent-based models. We then discuss their advantages and drawbacks for assessing and modelling nutrient cycles in agro-food systems in terms of their purpose and scope, object representation and time-spatial dynamics. We finally argue that combining stock-flow methods with both agent-based models and environmental impact assessment tools is a promising way to analyse the role of economic agents on nutrient flows and losses and to explore scenarios that better close the nutrient cycles at the local scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of oil and grease removal by adsorptive polymeric resins in semi-industrial scale: influence of temperature; Avaliacao da remocao de oleos e graxas por resinas polimericas adsorventes em escala semi-industrial: influencia da temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luis F.S. de; Silva, Carla M.F. da; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of polymeric resins packed in a fixed bed eluted in semi-industrial scale for oil and greases removal disposed in synthetic oily water in different temperature conditions. For this work, columns packed with vinyl and acryl polymer-base were tested and their efficiency of oil removal was evaluated by fluorimetry technique in two different temperatures: 25 and 60 deg C, in a flow rate condition of 200 mL/min. The experimental results were very good: the removal efficiencies were above 98% in both cases. At 60 deg C, the system keep the efficiency for a longer time: no significant loss in the efficiency was observed after eluting 1,000 times of the column bed volume at 25 deg C and 2,000, at 60 deg C. This result characterizes a great potential of application in the industry. (author)

  4. Chromatographic 188W →188Re generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The main purpose of the generator - reception of daughter radioisotope Rhenium-188 from it by periodic elution for a long period of time (more than half-year). It is generally known that Rhenium-188, in the form of its complex connections, is applied in nuclear medicine in treatment and removal of painful syndromes. The generator possesses convenient nuclear-physical characteristics of a daughter radioisotope Rhenium-188. It is a source of (Irradiation with energy 2.12 MeV (98 %) with small contribution soft γ-radiation with energy 0.155 MeV (15 %). The Period of half-life destruction of radioisotope is 17 hours. The 188 W parent radioisotope for the generator is formed by irradiation of 186 W neutrons based on the following reaction: 186 W (n,γ) 187 W (n,γ) 188 W (69 days) → 188 Re (17 hours) + β The following were used as targets for irradiation: 1) Metal Tungsten (powder) of natural structure; 2) Metal Tungsten (plate) of natural structure; 3) Metal Tungsten (wire) of natural structure, d = 12 mm; 4) Metal Tungsten (powder) with enrichment on isotope 186 W - 99.79 %. The irradiated material was exposed to chemical processing with reception of radioactive solution of tungsten-188, from which sorption Tungsten was carried out onto sorbent as poly-wolframate-ions. It is established that Tungsten sorption depends on many factors as there are various chemical forms of Tungsten (VI) in water solutions, ratio of which depends on pH of the solution, concentration of Tungsten in the solution and presence of foreign ions. Tungsten sorption was carried out in static and in dynamic regimes. At dynamic regime the sorbent was placed directly in the generating column. The generator consisted of chromatographic columns with sorbent and radioisotope 188 W, eluting system and radiation protection. Rhenium-188 was taken from the generator as perrhenate sodium by elution of 0.9 % solution of chloride sodium in 10 ml. Technical characteristics of the generator

  5. Small-scale non-industrial private forest ownership in the United States: rationale and implications for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoqi Zhang; Daowei Zhang; John Schelhas

    2005-01-01

    The transaction cost approach is used to explain why small non-industrial private forest (NIPF) ownerships are increasing in the U.S. We argue that the number of small NIPF owners have increased because: 1) a significant amount of forestland is no longer used economically if primarily for timber production, but rather for non-timber forest products and environmental...

  6. Estimation of Chromatographic Columns Performances using Computer Tomography and CFD Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Irma; Lottes, Florian; Minceva, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    The flow inside a chromatographic column depends decisively on the packed bed inside. Non‐destructive X‐ray computed tomography (CT) was applied as a novel measurement technique to visualize the distribution of velocity and axial dispersion coefficients in preparative scale columns. The results...... show, that spherical particles seem to be more efficient than irregular ones in terms of HETP, which has to be partly a result of the more homogeneous flow profile they induce. The prediction of column performance in dependence of the structure of the packed bed was simulated by CFD (Computational...

  7. Activity concentrations of 238U and 226Ra in scales formed on pipes of industrial boilers in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggi, Claudia M.B.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Gazineu, Maria H.P.

    2015-01-01

    The procedures employed in the industry can generate significant amounts of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes that usually contain toxic or materials of difficulty degradation. One of the facts that contribute to the formation of such wastes is the generation of steam used in operating processes and industry segments. Currently, steam supplied by boilers is the most economical and practical mode of heat transfer in industrial processes. Due to the high temperature of water used in these processes, compounds which were previously soluble become insoluble, generating residues called scales. This material, which contains stable ions, can also present naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238 U and 226 Ra, which concentrate over time in piping and equipment surfaces. If not disposed correctly, this material also can contaminate the environment. The main origin of these radionuclides is the use of groundwater in industrial processes. Thus, in regions of naturally enriched in radionuclides such as the Region of Pernambuco, including the municipalities of Paulista and Goiana, there is a greater possibility of radioactive scale formation. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the activity concentrations of 238 U and 226 Ra present in the solid wastes generated by industries situated in Paulista and Goiana, in order to assess radionuclide disequilibrium. For the sake of comparison, scale samples collected from industries located in the municipality of Caruaru, far from the previous municipalities, were also analyzed. The determination of the activity concentrations for 238 U and 226 Ra was performed by High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry. Samples were collected, prepared, packed in plastic containers and set aside for a minimum time of 21 days, for the secular equilibrium to occur between 226 Ra and its short lived descendants. The counting time was 80,000 seconds. Gamma energies used for determination of activity concentrations were 1001 keV for 238 U, and 352 ke

  8. Activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra in scales formed on pipes of industrial boilers in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggi, Claudia M.B.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de, E-mail: claudiapoggi04@gmail.com, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Franca, Elvis J.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Gazineu, Maria H.P., E-mail: helena@unicap.br [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia

    2015-07-01

    The procedures employed in the industry can generate significant amounts of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes that usually contain toxic or materials of difficulty degradation. One of the facts that contribute to the formation of such wastes is the generation of steam used in operating processes and industry segments. Currently, steam supplied by boilers is the most economical and practical mode of heat transfer in industrial processes. Due to the high temperature of water used in these processes, compounds which were previously soluble become insoluble, generating residues called scales. This material, which contains stable ions, can also present naturally occurring radionuclides such as {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra, which concentrate over time in piping and equipment surfaces. If not disposed correctly, this material also can contaminate the environment. The main origin of these radionuclides is the use of groundwater in industrial processes. Thus, in regions of naturally enriched in radionuclides such as the Region of Pernambuco, including the municipalities of Paulista and Goiana, there is a greater possibility of radioactive scale formation. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra present in the solid wastes generated by industries situated in Paulista and Goiana, in order to assess radionuclide disequilibrium. For the sake of comparison, scale samples collected from industries located in the municipality of Caruaru, far from the previous municipalities, were also analyzed. The determination of the activity concentrations for {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra was performed by High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry. Samples were collected, prepared, packed in plastic containers and set aside for a minimum time of 21 days, for the secular equilibrium to occur between {sup 226}Ra and its short lived descendants. The counting time was 80,000 seconds. Gamma energies used for determination of activity concentrations

  9. Probabilistic peak detection for first-order chromatographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatka, M; Vivó-Truyols, G; Sjerps, M J

    2014-03-19

    We present a novel algorithm for probabilistic peak detection in first-order chromatographic data. Unlike conventional methods that deliver a binary answer pertaining to the expected presence or absence of a chromatographic peak, our method calculates the probability of a point being affected by such a peak. The algorithm makes use of chromatographic information (i.e. the expected width of a single peak and the standard deviation of baseline noise). As prior information of the existence of a peak in a chromatographic run, we make use of the statistical overlap theory. We formulate an exhaustive set of mutually exclusive hypotheses concerning presence or absence of different peak configurations. These models are evaluated by fitting a segment of chromatographic data by least-squares. The evaluation of these competing hypotheses can be performed as a Bayesian inferential task. We outline the potential advantages of adopting this approach for peak detection and provide several examples of both improved performance and increased flexibility afforded by our approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Demonstration of a full-scale plant using an UASB followed by a ceramic MBR for the reclamation of industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Terutake; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takase, Osamu; Kekre, Kiran A; Ang, Wui Seng; Tao, Guihe; Seah, Harry; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    This study comprehensively evaluated the performance of a full-scale plant (4550m(3)d(-1)) using a UASB reactor followed by a ceramic MBR for the reclamation and reuse of mixed industrial wastewater containing many inorganics, chemical, oil and greases. This plant was demonstrated as the first full-scale system to reclaim the mixed industrial wastewater in the world. During 395days of operation, influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) fluctuated widely, but this system achieved COD removal rate of 91% and the ceramic MBR have operated flux of 21-25LMH stably. This means that this system adsorbed the feed water fluctuation and properly treated the water. Energy consumption of this plant was achieved 0.76kWhmm(-3) and this value is same range of domestic sewage MBR system. The combination of an UASB reactor and ceramic MBR is the most economical and feasible solution for water reclamation of mixed industrial wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of crude oils and petroleum products: (I Elution liquid chromatographic separation and gas chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Odebunmi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Some physical and chemical properties of samples of light, medium and heavy Nigerian crude oils and petroleum products including gasoline, kerosene and engine oil have been measured and are reported in this paper. The crude oils and petroleum products have also been characterized by fractional distillation and elution liquid chromatography. The fractions obtained from elution liquid chromatography were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC. The GC fractions were identified by comparing the retention time of peaks in the unknown samples with those of components of calibration standard mixtures. The importance of the physico-chemical properties and the significance of the fractional distillation and chromatographic separation methods to industrial process operations have been discussed.

  12. Characterisation of heat transfer and flame length in a semi-scale industrial furnace equipped with HiTAC burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Nehme, W.; Biswas, A.K.; Yang, W.; Blasiak, W.; Bertin, D. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    This paper investigates the effects of multiple burner nozzles on the combustion characteristics, such as flame volume, heat transfer and NOx emission in a high temperature air combustion (HiTAC) industrial furnace. Experiments were carried out in one semi-industrial furnace located in Kungliga Tekniska Hogskolan (Stockholm, Sweden). Three different types of burners were tested, including both regenerative and recuperative types. Variable flame temperature and oxygen concentration were applied in experiments. Heat transfer characteristics of HiTAC are studied in this paper, and the influences of a variety of inertial fuel/air jets are investigated for both flame length and NOx emission. One improved correlation between chemical flame length and flame Froude number is established for HiTAC with manifold nozzles. NOx emission is also correlated to the flame Froude number. The HiTAC recirculation system effects on flame shape, NOx emission and heat transfer were also examined.

  13. Assessment of consolidation of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels by spark plasma sintering: from laboratory scale to industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulnat, X.; Fabregue, D.; Perez, M.; Urvoy, S.; Hamon, D.; Carlan, Y. de

    2014-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened steels are new generation alloys that are usually processed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). In this study, spark plasma sintering (SPS) was studied as an alternative consolidation technique. The influence of the processing parameters on the microstructure was quantified. The homogeneity of the SPSed materials was characterised by electron microprobe and microhardness. A combination of limited grain growth and minimised porosity can be achieved on semi-industrial compact. Excellent tensile properties were obtained compared to the literature. (authors)

  14. Miniaturized chromatographic radiochemical procedure for 131I - MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, M.F. de; Pereira, N.S. de; Colturato, M.T.; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1989-12-01

    Different solvents were used in paper chromatographic methods to obtain the best system in routine radiochemical control for 131 I-MIBG produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The dates were compared with those obtained with eletrophoresis method in buffer acetate, pH=4.5, 350V, during 40 minutes. The stability of the labeled compound store under 4 0 C was studied during 15 days. Miniaturized chromatographic procedures were established using Whatman 3MM (8x1cm) and n-butanol-:acetic acid: water (S:2:1) as a solvent. the Rf values were: 0.3 (I - ) and 1.0 (MIBG). The radiochemical purity was 99.3 and 99.2% (first day) obtained with eletrophoresis and miniaturized chromatographic procedures, respectively and, 84.7% after 15 days of its preparation. It is a rapid, practical and reproductive method. (author) [pt

  15. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away.

  16. Large-scale separation of amino acids by continuous displacement chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCarli, J.P. II; Carta, G.; Byers, C.H.

    1989-10-01

    Continuous annular chromatography (CAC) is a developing technology that allows truly continuous chromatographic separations. Previous work has demonstrated the utility of this technology for the separation of various materials by isocratic elution on a bench scale. Novel applications and improved operation of the process were studied in this work, demonstrating that CAC is a versatile apparatus which is capable of separations at high throughput. Three specific separation systems were investigated. Pilot-scale separations at high loadings were performed using an industrial sugar mixture as an example of scale-up for isocratic separations. Bench-scale experiments of a low concentration metal ion mixture were performed to demonstrate stepwise elution, a chromatographic technique which decreases dilution and increases sorbent capacity. Finally, the separation of mixtures of amino acids by ion exchange was investigated to demonstrate the use of displacement development on the CAC. This technique, which perhaps has the most potential, when applied to the CAC allowed simultaneous separation and concentration of multicomponent mixtures on a continuous basis. Mathematical models were developed to describe the CAC performance and optimize the operating conditions. For all the systems investigated, the continuous separation performance of the CAC was found to be very nearly the same as the batchwise performance of conventional chromatography. The technology appears, thus, to be very promising for industrial applications.

  17. Towards an Agro-Industrial Ecology: A review of nutrient flow modelling and assessment tools in agro-food systems at the local scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Mena, Hugo; Nesme, Thomas; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in nutrient recycling in agriculture is essential to maintain food production while minimising nutrient pollution of the environment. For this purpose, understanding and modelling nutrient cycles in food and related agro-industrial systems is a crucial task. Although nutrient management has been addressed at the plot and farm scales for many years now in the agricultural sciences, there is a need to upscale these approaches to capture the additional drivers of nutrient cycles that may occur at the local, i.e. district, scale. Industrial ecology principles provide sound bases to analyse nutrient cycling in complex systems. However, since agro-food social-ecological systems have specific ecological and social dimensions, we argue that a new field, referred to as “Agro-Industrial Ecology”, is needed to study these systems. In this paper, we review the literature on nutrient cycling in complex social-ecological systems that can provide a basis for Agro-Industrial Ecology. We identify and describe three major approaches: Environmental Assessment tools, Stock and Flow Analysis methods and Agent-based models. We then discuss their advantages and drawbacks for assessing and modelling nutrient cycles in agro-food systems in terms of their purpose and scope, object representation and time-spatial dynamics. We finally argue that combining stock-flow methods with both agent-based models and environmental impact assessment tools is a promising way to analyse the role of economic agents on nutrient flows and losses and to explore scenarios that better close the nutrient cycles at the local scale. - Highlights: • An Agro-Industrial Ecology perspective is essential to model local agro-food systems. • We provide a classification of nutrient (N, P) models, methods and assessment tools. • We distinguished Environmental Assessment, Stock and flow and Agent-based approaches. • The pros and cons of these nutrient cycle models, methods and tools are discussed.

  18. Towards an Agro-Industrial Ecology: A review of nutrient flow modelling and assessment tools in agro-food systems at the local scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Mena, Hugo, E-mail: hugo.fernandez@bordeaux.inra.fr [Bordeaux Sciences Agro, Univ. Bordeaux, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33175 Gradignan (France); INRA, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33883 Villenave d' Ornon (France); Nesme, Thomas [Bordeaux Sciences Agro, Univ. Bordeaux, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Pellerin, Sylvain [INRA, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33883 Villenave d' Ornon (France)

    2016-02-01

    Improvement in nutrient recycling in agriculture is essential to maintain food production while minimising nutrient pollution of the environment. For this purpose, understanding and modelling nutrient cycles in food and related agro-industrial systems is a crucial task. Although nutrient management has been addressed at the plot and farm scales for many years now in the agricultural sciences, there is a need to upscale these approaches to capture the additional drivers of nutrient cycles that may occur at the local, i.e. district, scale. Industrial ecology principles provide sound bases to analyse nutrient cycling in complex systems. However, since agro-food social-ecological systems have specific ecological and social dimensions, we argue that a new field, referred to as “Agro-Industrial Ecology”, is needed to study these systems. In this paper, we review the literature on nutrient cycling in complex social-ecological systems that can provide a basis for Agro-Industrial Ecology. We identify and describe three major approaches: Environmental Assessment tools, Stock and Flow Analysis methods and Agent-based models. We then discuss their advantages and drawbacks for assessing and modelling nutrient cycles in agro-food systems in terms of their purpose and scope, object representation and time-spatial dynamics. We finally argue that combining stock-flow methods with both agent-based models and environmental impact assessment tools is a promising way to analyse the role of economic agents on nutrient flows and losses and to explore scenarios that better close the nutrient cycles at the local scale. - Highlights: • An Agro-Industrial Ecology perspective is essential to model local agro-food systems. • We provide a classification of nutrient (N, P) models, methods and assessment tools. • We distinguished Environmental Assessment, Stock and flow and Agent-based approaches. • The pros and cons of these nutrient cycle models, methods and tools are discussed.

  19. On-line gas chromatographic analysis of airborne particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Susanne V [Berkeley, CA; Goldstein, Allen H [Orinda, CA

    2012-01-03

    A method and apparatus for the in-situ, chemical analysis of an aerosol. The method may include the steps of: collecting an aerosol; thermally desorbing the aerosol into a carrier gas to provide desorbed aerosol material; transporting the desorbed aerosol material onto the head of a gas chromatography column; analyzing the aerosol material using a gas chromatograph, and quantizing the aerosol material as it evolves from the gas chromatography column. The apparatus includes a collection and thermal desorption cell, a gas chromatograph including a gas chromatography column, heated transport lines coupling the cell and the column; and a quantization detector for aerosol material evolving from the gas chromatography column.

  20. Managing environmental issues at large-scale industrial estates: Problems and initiatives in central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, R.

    1996-01-01

    A great many large-scale industrial sites are undergoing major transformation and restructuring in central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The EBRD's portfolio of investment projects increasingly includes such sites, presenting the Bank with environmental challenges related to their size, complexity and history. Both technological improvements and changes in management structure are needed in order to address environmental, and health and safety, issues. The EBRD requires ''environmental due diligence'' on all of its projects under preparation. Requirements vary, depending on the nature of each project. (author)

  1. Fenton chemistry-based detemplation of an industrially relevant microcrystalline beta zeolite. Optimization and scaling-up studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz-Iniesta, Maria Jesus; Melian-Cabrera, Ignacio

    A mild template removal of microcrystalline beta zeolite, based on Fenton chemistry, was optimized. Fenton detemplation was studied in terms of applicability conditions window, reaction rate and scale up. TGA and CHN elemental analysis were used to evaluate the detemplation effectiveness, while 'CP,

  2. Tools for organisational risk evaluation for occupational health stressors (OREOHS) for the small-scale mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, AL

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available access to knowledge and tools that will raise awareness and disseminate affordable, best practice methods for use by small-scale mines. With this in mind, the CSIR Occupational Health and Ergonomics research group have developed the OREOHS tool which is a...

  3. Marketing Strategy Analysis for Small and Medium Scale Business Enterprise (SMEs) for Home Industry Furniture in Leilem, the Regency of Minahasa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangemanan, S. A.; Walukow, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    Leilem is a small village located in Minahasa Regency. This village is well known for furniture products made of Timber. Eventhough the village has been producing various furniture products with high quality since many decades ago, it has not been able to compete with other new entries such furniture from Java, Synthetic Ratan, Plywood and plastic based furniture. The monotonous design and the finishing works done on the furniture have been some of the major issues in the decline of home furniture. The research explores problems and challenges faced by the furniture home Industry. It will also aim at identifying the internal and external factors that prevent the home industry to compete and survive. In the end the research will develop the strategic positioning of the home industry in the midst of competition. The research methodology employs descriptive analysis in which data are collected through observation, interview, and questionnaire. This methodology is combined with IFE (Internal Factor Evaluation) and EFE (External Factor Evaluation) Matrix, SPACE Matrix and SWOT Analysis and QSPM (Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix). The sample is 66 business people, of 823 craftsmen who are working in this business. The result shows this home industry is very competitive in terms of consistency, but in terms of promotion, product quality, price, product diversification, design training of furniture, management and economic scale, it is lagging behind. The home industry should be able to develop marketing networking, improve design and product quality, promotion and cost control, product diversification and these can only be done by intensive training in managing business and investment.

  4. Heat recovery networks synthesis of large-scale industrial sites: Heat load distribution problem with virtual process subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouransari, Nasibeh; Maréchal, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesizing industrial size heat recovery network with match reduction approach. • Targeting TSI with minimum exchange between process subsystems. • Generating a feasible close-to-optimum network. • Reducing tremendously the HLD computational time and complexity. • Generating realistic network with respect to the plant layout. - Abstract: This paper presents a targeting strategy to design a heat recovery network for an industrial plant by dividing the system into subsystems while considering the heat transfer opportunities between them. The methodology is based on a sequential approach. The heat recovery opportunity between process units and the optimal flow rates of utilities are first identified using a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model. The site is then divided into a number of subsystems where the overall interaction is resumed by a pair of virtual hot and cold stream per subsystem which is reconstructed by solving the heat cascade inside each subsystem. The Heat Load Distribution (HLD) problem is then solved between those packed subsystems in a sequential procedure where each time one of the subsystems is unpacked by switching from the virtual stream pair back into the original ones. The main advantages are to minimize the number of connections between process subsystems, to alleviate the computational complexity of the HLD problem and to generate a feasible network which is compatible with the minimum energy consumption objective. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated through a number of case studies, discussed and compared with the relevant results from the literature

  5. Scale-up of bioreactors: The concept of bioreactor number and its relation to the physiology of industrial microorganisms at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ford, D

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this research is to provide a novel approach to the problem of scale-up of fermentations. The work subscribes the idea that two regions appear in bioreactors as the volume increases. The first is where high oxygen transfer occurs and the second is where low oxygen transfer occurs. It is assumed that organisms grown in a stirred tank fermenter travel in a cyclical manner through these two regions. A dimensionless factor is developed, the bioreactor number. Using this number the performance of any stirred tank fermenter can be described as a function of its geometry, operating conditions and physical properties of media. A mathematical model for the prediction of the physiological response of aerobic micro-organisms (specific growth rate, final cell concentration and product synthesis) as a function of the bioreactor number is also developed. It was adjusted by using the results of fermentations performed in a specially designed experimental rig allowing the simulation of fermenters with various bioreactor numbers. If the bioreactor and physiological models are linked it is possible to predict how micro-organisms respond when geometry, operating conditions or media properties are changed in a bioreactor. This approach is a tool for decision making in the design and operation of fermenters.

  6. Defect detection in industrial radiography: a multi-scale approach; Detection de defauts en radiographie industrielle: approches multiechelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, M

    1995-10-01

    Radiography is used by Electricite de France for pipe inspection in nuclear power plant in order to detect defects. For several years, the RD Division of EDF has undertaken research to define image processing methods well adapted to radiographic images. The main issues raised by these images are their low contrast, their high level of noise, the presence of a trend and the variable size of the defects. A data base of digitized radiographs of pipes has been gathered and the statistical, topological and geometrical properties of all of these images have been analyzed. From this study, a global indicator of the presence of defects and local features, leading to a classification of images into areas with or without defects, have been extracted. The defect localisation problem has been considered in a multi-scale framework based on the creation of a family of images with increasing regularity and defined as a solution of a partial differential equation. From a choice of axioms, a set of equations may be deduced which define various multi-scale analyses. The survey of the properties of such analysed, when applied to images altered with different types of noise, has lead to the selection of the digitized radiographs best adapted multi-scale analysis. The segmentation process, uses the geodesic information attached to defects via connection cost concept. The final decision is based on a summary of the information extracted at several scales. A fuzzy logic approach has been proposed to solve this part. We then developed methods and tools for expertise guidance and validated them on a complete data base of images. Some global indicators have been extracted and a detection and localisation process has been achieved for large defects. (author). 117 refs., 73 figs.

  7. Chemical evaluation of chars produced by thermochemical conversion (gasification, pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization) of agro-industrial biomass on a commercial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedner, Katja; Rumpel, Cornelia; Steiner, Christoph; Pozzi, Alessandro; Maas, Robert; Glaser, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Technologies for agro-industrial feedstock utilization such as pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal carbonization at industrial scale develop rapidly. The thermochemically converted biomasses of these production technologies have fundamentally different properties controlled by the production technology. This is reflected by general properties such as pH or elemental composition. The 13 C NMR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and black carbon results confirmed these observations showing that hydrochars have lower proportions of aromatic compounds than biochars (less stable) but are rich in functional groups (higher cation exchange capacity) than biochars. Analyses of pollutants indicate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as dioxin contents of most samples were under the threshold values recommended by International Biochar Initiative and European Biochar Certificate. In conclusion, biochars and hydrochars are entirely different from each other and these materials will probably have a complementary reaction in a soil environment. -- Highlights: • Production technologies influences fundamentally chemical properties of chars. • Carbonized materials have different behaviour in soil environment. • Environmental risk of chars is low with respect to PAH and dioxin contents. • Certification standard for biochars is not suitable for hydrochars. • Commercial scale reactors are able to produce high quality biochars according to the regulations of the EBC or IBI

  8. Biotrickling filter modeling for styrene abatement. Part 1: Model development, calibration and validation on an industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Valero, Pau; Dorado, Antonio D; Martínez-Soria, Vicente; Gabaldón, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    A three-phase dynamic mathematical model based on mass balances describing the main processes in biotrickling filtration: convection, mass transfer, diffusion, and biodegradation was calibrated and validated for the simulation of an industrial styrene-degrading biotrickling filter. The model considered the key features of the industrial operation of biotrickling filters: variable conditions of loading and intermittent irrigation. These features were included in the model switching from the mathematical description of periods with and without irrigation. Model equations were based on the mass balances describing the main processes in biotrickling filtration: convection, mass transfer, diffusion, and biodegradation. The model was calibrated with steady-state data from a laboratory biotrickling filter treating inlet loads at 13-74 g C m -3 h -1 and at empty bed residence time of 30-15 s. The model predicted the dynamic emission in the outlet of the biotrickling filter, simulating the small peaks of concentration occurring during irrigation. The validation of the model was performed using data from a pilot on-site biotrickling filter treating styrene installed in a fiber-reinforced facility. The model predicted the performance of the biotrickling filter working under high-oscillating emissions at an inlet load in a range of 5-23 g C m -3 h -1 and at an empty bed residence time of 31 s for more than 50 days, with a goodness of fit of 0.84. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental sustainability of the solar photo-Fenton process for wastewater treatment and pharmaceuticals mineralization at semi-industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Monteagudo, Jose Maria; Durán, Antonio; Chatzisymeon, Efthalia

    2018-01-15

    The environmental sustainability of a semi-industrial solar photo-Fenton reactor, treating real effluents emanating from a pharmaceutical laboratory, is assessed herein. The life cycle assessment/analysis (LCA) methodology was employed and real life cycle inventory (LCI) data was collected from a ferrioxalate-assisted homogeneous solar photo-Fenton wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), at Ciudad Real, Spain. Electricity was provided by photovoltaic (PV) panels in tandem with a battery bank, making the plant autonomous from the local grid. The effective treatment of 1m 3 of secondary-treated pharmaceutical wastewater, containing antipyrine, was used as a functional unit. The main environmental hotspot was identified to be the chemical reagents used to enhance treatment efficiency, mainly hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and to a smaller degree oxalic acid. On the other hand, land use, PV panels, battery units, compound parabolic collectors (CPC), tanks, pipes and pumps, as materials, had a low contribution, ranging from as little as 0.06% up to about 2% on the total CO 2eq emissions. Overall, the solar photo-Fenton process was found to be a sustainable technology for treating wastewater containing micropollutants at semi-industrial level, since the total environmental footprint was found to be 2.71kgCO 2 m -3 or 272mPtm -3 , using IPCC 2013 and ReCiPe impact assessment methods, respectively. A sensitivity analysis revealed that if the excess of solar power is fed back into the grid then the total environmental footprint is reduced. Depending on the amount of solar power fed back into the grid the process could have a near zero total environmental footprint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new simple, sensitive, cost-effective and reproducible high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of proguanil (PG) and its metabolites, cycloguanil (CG) and 4-chlorophenylbiguanide (4-CPB) in urine and plasma is described. The extraction procedure is a simple three-step process ...

  11. Bioanalytical method transfer considerations of chromatographic-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williard, Clark V

    2016-07-01

    Bioanalysis is an important part of the modern drug development process. The business practice of outsourcing and transferring bioanalytical methods from laboratory to laboratory has increasingly become a crucial strategy for successful and efficient delivery of therapies to the market. This chapter discusses important considerations when transferring various types of chromatographic-based assays in today's pharmaceutical research and development environment.

  12. Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatographic Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of six human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors, indinavir, saquinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, nelfinavir and lopinavir, was developed and validated. Optimal separation was achieved on a PLRP-S 100 Å, 250 x 4.6 mm I.D. column maintained ...

  13. Performance of chromatographic systems to model soil-water sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Rodríguez, Marta; Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí

    2012-08-24

    A systematic approach for evaluating the goodness of chromatographic systems to model the sorption of neutral organic compounds by soil from water is presented in this work. It is based on the examination of the three sources of error that determine the overall variance obtained when soil-water partition coefficients are correlated against chromatographic retention factors: the variance of the soil-water sorption data, the variance of the chromatographic data, and the variance attributed to the dissimilarity between the two systems. These contributions of variance are easily predicted through the characterization of the systems by the solvation parameter model. According to this method, several chromatographic systems besides the reference octanol-water partition system have been selected to test their performance in the emulation of soil-water sorption. The results from the experimental correlations agree with the predicted variances. The high-performance liquid chromatography system based on an immobilized artificial membrane and the micellar electrokinetic chromatography systems of sodium dodecylsulfate and sodium taurocholate provide the most precise correlation models. They have shown to predict well soil-water sorption coefficients of several tested herbicides. Octanol-water partitions and high-performance liquid chromatography measurements using C18 columns are less suited for the estimation of soil-water partition coefficients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gas chromatographic column for the Viking 1975 molecular analysis experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, M.; Hayes, J. M.; Bruner, F.; Simmonds, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    A gas chromatographic column has been developed for use in the remote analysis of the Martian surface. The column, which utilizes a liquid-modified organic adsorbent (Tenax) as the stationary phase, provides efficient transmission and resolution of nanogram quantities of organic materials in the presence of millionfold excesses of water and carbon dioxide.

  15. Optimizing Chromatographic Separation: An Experiment Using an HPLC Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalliker, R. A.; Kayillo, S.; Dennis, G. R.

    2008-01-01

    Optimization of a chromatographic separation within the time constraints of a laboratory session is practically impossible. However, by employing a HPLC simulator, experiments can be designed that allow students to develop an appreciation of the complexities involved in optimization procedures. In the present exercise, a HPLC simulator from "JCE…

  16. Radioimmunoassay of methaqualone in human urine compared with chromatographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mule, S.J.; Kogan, M.; Jukofsky, D.

    1978-01-01

    The 125 I-radioimmunoassay for methaqualone in human urine was evaluated by a comparison with newly modified gas-liquid chromatographic and thin-layer chromatographic methods. The statistically significant sensitivity value for the radioimmunoassay was at 2 μg of methaqualone per liter of urine. The coefficient of variation was 2.88 -+ 0.16% intraassay. There was cross-reactivity only with metabolites of methaqualone, 4'-hydroxymethaqualone being twice as sensitively measured as methaqualone. There was complete agreement between results by radioimmunoassay and by gas-liquid chromatography in 96.7% of the samples analyzed. Only 1.2% of the radioimmunoassay values were false positives, and 2.1% false negatives (phi = 0.8917, P < 0.001). Comparisons between the thin-layer chromatographic data and the gas--liquid chromatographic or radioimmunoassay data showed less agreement because of the 50- to 200-fold higher sensitivity of the latter techniques. Gas--liquid chromatography therefore appears to represent the best reference method for the evaluation of the radioimmunoassay, which appears to be a very sensitive and reliable technique for detecting methaqualone and its metabolites in human urine

  17. Applications of Neutron Scattering in the Chemical Industry: Proton Dynamics of Highly Dispersed Materials, Characterization of Fuel Cell Catalysts, and Catalysts from Large-Scale Chemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Peter W.; Parker, Stewart F.

    The attractiveness of neutron scattering techniques for the detailed characterization of materials of high degrees of dispersity and structural complexity as encountered in the chemical industry is discussed. Neutron scattering picks up where other analytical methods leave off because of the physico-chemical properties of finely divided products and materials whose absorption behavior toward electromagnetic radiation and electrical conductivity causes serious problems. This is demonstrated by presenting typical applications from large-scale production technology and industrial catalysis. These include the determination of the proton-related surface chemistry of advanced materials that are used as reinforcing fillers in the manufacture of tires, where interrelations between surface chemistry, rheological properties, improved safety, and significant reduction of fuel consumption are the focus of recent developments. Neutron scattering allows surface science studies of the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on nanodispersed, supported precious metal particles of fuel cell catalysts under in situ loading at realistic gas pressures of about 1 bar. Insight into the occupation of catalytically relevant surface sites provides valuable information about the catalyst in the working state and supplies essential scientific input for tailoring better catalysts by technologists. The impact of deactivation phenomena on industrial catalysts by coke deposition, chemical transformation of carbonaceous deposits, and other processes in catalytic hydrogenation processes that result in significant shortening of the time of useful operation in large-scale plants can often be traced back in detail to surface or bulk properties of catalysts or materials of catalytic relevance. A better understanding of avoidable or unavoidable aspects of catalyst deactivation phenomena under certain in-process conditions and the development of effective means for reducing deactivation leads to more energy

  18. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with agro-industrial by-products for increased biogas production of existing digesters at wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkaki, A E; Fountoulakis, M; Gypakis, A; Kyriakou, A; Lasaridi, K; Manios, T

    2017-01-01

    Due to low degradability of dry solids, most of the digesters at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) operate at low loading rates resulting in poor biogas yields. In this study, co-digestion of sewage sludge (SS) with olive mill wastewater (OMW), cheese whey (CW) and crude glycerol (CG) was studied in an attempt to improve biogas production of existing digesters at WWTPs. The effect of agro-industrial by-products in biogas production was investigated using a 220L pilot-scale (180L working volume) digester under mesophilic conditions (35°C) with a total feeding volume of 7.5L daily and a 24-day hydraulic retention time. The initial feed was sewage sludge and the bioreactor was operated using this feed for 40days. Each agro-industrial by-product was then added to the feed so that the reactor was fed continuously with 95% sewage sludge and 5% (v/v) of each examined agro-industrial by-product. The experiments showed that a 5% (v/v) addition of OMW, CG or CW to sewage sludge significantly increased biogas production by nearly 220%, 350% and 86% as values of 34.8±3.2L/d, 185.7±15.3L/d and 45.9±3.6L/d respectively, compared to that with sewage sludge alone (375ml daily, 5% v/v in the feed). The average removal of dissolved chemical oxygen demand (d-COD) ranged between 72 and 99% for organic loading rates between 0.9 and 1.5kgVSm -3 d -1 . Reduction in the volatile solids ranged between 25 and 40%. This work suggests that methane can be produced very efficiently by adding a small concentration (5%) of agro-industrial by-products and especially CG in the inlet of digesters treating sewage sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Abatement of mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining industry: restructuring the policy and research agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilson, Gavin

    2006-06-01

    This paper critiques contemporary research and policy approaches taken toward the analysis and abatement of mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining sector. Unmonitored releases of mercury from gold amalgamation have caused considerable environmental contamination and human health complications in rural reaches of sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia. Whilst these problems have caught the attention of the scientific community over the past 15-20 years, the research that has since been undertaken has failed to identify appropriate mitigation measures, and has done little to advance understanding of why contamination persists. Moreover, the strategies used to educate operators about the impacts of acute mercury exposure, and the technologies implemented to prevent further pollution, have been marginally effective at best. The mercury pollution problem will not be resolved until governments and donor agencies commit to carrying out research aimed at improving understanding of the dynamics of small scale gold mining communities. Acquisition of this knowledge is the key to designing and implementing appropriate support and abatement measures.

  20. Assessing climate risks across different business sectors and industries: an investigation of methodological challenges at national scale for the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surminski, Swenja; Di Mauro, Manuela; Baglee, J. Alastair R.; Connell, Richenda K.; Hankinson, Joel; Haworth, Anna R.; Ingirige, Bingunath; Proverbs, David

    2018-06-01

    Climate change poses severe risks for businesses, which companies as well as governments need to understand in order to take appropriate steps to manage those. This, however, represents a significant challenge as climate change risk assessment is itself a complex, dynamic and geographically diverse process. A wide range of factors including the nature of production processes and value chains, the location of business sites as well as relationships and interdependencies with customers and suppliers play a role in determining if and how companies are impacted by climate risks. This research explores the methodological challenges for a national-scale assessment of climate risks through the lens of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (UKCCRA) process and compares the approaches adopted in the first and second UKCCRA (2011, 2016), while also reflecting on international experiences elsewhere. A review of these issues is presented, drawing on a wide body of contemporary evidence from a range of sources including the research disciplines, grey literature and government policy. The study reveals the methodological challenges and highlights six broad themes, namely scale, evidence base, adaptation responses, scope, interdependencies and public policy. The paper concludes by identifying suitable lessons for future national climate risk assessments, which should guide the next phase of research in preparation for UKCCRA3 and those of national-level risk assessments elsewhere. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  1. Could the Pharmaceutical Industry Benefit from Full-Scale Adoption of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology with New Regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustasse, Alberto; Kimble, Craig A; Stanton, Robert B; Naylor, Mariah

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare regulators are directing attention to the pharmaceutical supply chain with the passage of the Drug Quality and Security Act (DQSA) and the Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA). Adoption of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has the ability to improve compliance, reduce costs, and improve safety in the supply chain but its implementation has been limited; primarily because of hardware and tag costs. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the benefits to the pharmaceutical industry and healthcare system of the adoption of RFID technology as a result of newly implemented supply chain regulations. The methodology was a review following the steps of a systematic review with a total of 96 sources used. With the DSCSA, pharmaceutical companies must track and trace prescription drugs across the supply chain, and RFID can resolve many track-and-trace issues with manufacturer control of data. The practical implication of this study is that pharmaceutical companies must continue to have the potential to increase revenues, decrease associated costs, and increase compliance with new FDA regulations with RFID. Still, challenges related to regulatory statute wording, implementation of two-dimensional barcode technology, and the variety of interfaces within the pharmaceutical supply chain have delayed adoption and its full implementation.

  2. Uses of extraction and ion exchange chromatography in the thorium and rare earths separation from industrial residue generated in thorium purification unity at IPEN. Application of rare earths as catalysts for generation of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, Josiane

    2010-01-01

    In the 70's a pilot plant for studies of different concentrates processing obtained from the chemical processing of monazite was operated at IPEN / CNEN-SP, with a view to obtaining thorium of nuclear purity. This unity was operated on an industrial scale since 1985, generating around 25 metric tons of residue and was closed in 2002. This waste containing thorium and rare earths was named Retoter (Rejeito de Torio e Terras Raras, in portuguese) and stored in the IPEN Safeguards shed. This paper studies the treatment of the waste, aimed at environmental, radiological and technology. Were studied two cases for the chromatographic separation of thorium from rare earths. One of them was the chromatographic extraction, where the extracting agent tributyl phosphate was supported on polymeric resins Amberlite XAD16. The other method is studied for comparison purposes, since the material used in chromatographic extraction is unprecedented with regard to the separation of thorium, was the ion-exchange chromatography using DOWEX 1-X8 strong cationic resin. Was studied also the chromatographic process of extraction with the extracting agent DEHPA supported on Amberlite XAD16 for the fractionation in groups of rare earths elements. Thorium was separated with high purity for strategic purposes and rare earths recovered free from thorium, were tested as a catalyst for ethanol reforming to hydrogen obtaining which is used in fuel cells for power generation. (author)

  3. Large-Scale Land Concessions, Migration, and Land Use: The Paradox of Industrial Estates in the Red River Delta of Vietnam and Rubber Plantations of Northeast Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Fox

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the implications of large-scale land concessions in the Red River Delta, Vietnam, and Northeast Cambodia with regard to urban and agricultural frontiers, agrarian transitions, migration, and places from which the migrant workers originated. Field interviews conducted near large-scale land concessions for industrial estates in the Red River Delta and rubber plantations in Northeast Cambodia suggest that these radically different concessions are paradoxically leading to similar reconfigurations of livelihoods, labor patterns, and landscapes despite basic differences in these forms of land use. Both the Red River Delta and Northeast Cambodia are frontier environments undergoing extensive agrarian change with migration to work in the large-scale land concessions leading to a shortage of farm labor that anticipates changes in farming practices and farm livelihoods. These population movements will lead to further land-use changes as governments invest in the infrastructure and services needed to support increased population density in the receiving areas. In addition, labor migrations associated with these investments affect land-use practices both at the site of the concession and the places from where the migrants originate.

  4. Project desk evaluation of a model project CPR/5/009 industrial scale irradiation of rice and other foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The project CPR/5/009 was approved in 1993 as a model project. The project objective was to build an industrial food irradiation facility for high quality rice and other foodstuffs, with a processing capacity of 5000-9000 tonnes per year. This capacity is large compared to many other facilities of the same type elsewhere. The success of the project waste to be measured against the full utilization of the facility with an acceptable availability factor. Disbursements on Agency inputs up to the end of June 1996 were $294,716 and consisted of one 100 kCi Co-60 source, quality control equipment, bag heat sealers, one expert mission and 13.5 months of training abroad. The current budget is $323,870, following two programme changes. The total cost of the project was estimated at $1,331,300 with the Chinese Government providing the balance. The major conclusions of this evaluation are as follows: Initially, the Agency overestimated the project and business management experience of the counterpart, and consequently underestimated the extent of support required. Providing support to counterparts in facing the key challenges of project management and business operation must be considered by the Agency in future projects of this type. The counterpart institution is also encouraged to emphasize these management issues in order to maximize sustainable and cost-effective utilization of such facilities. A new operational plan has been prepared by the counterpart for 1996 through 1998 which identifies seven customers requiring treatment of a total of 1000 tonnes per year of cereal grains and 1500 tonnes per year of other foodstuffs. This plan reflects a change in overall emphasis from supporting food supply security to ensuring the safety of foodstuffs. It is not clear whether this plan will support operation of the facility at full capacity. The team in place to operate the facility also needs further strengthening. (author). Figs, tabs

  5. Dynamic simulation and optimization of an industrial-scale absorption tower for CO2 capturing from ethane gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Pouladi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers a process technology based on absorption for CO2 capturing of ethane gas in phase 9 and 10 of south pars in Iran using diethanolamine (DEA as absorbent solvent. This CO2 capture plant was designed to achieve 85% CO2 recovery and obtain 19 ppm the CO2 concentration in the outlet of absorber. ASPEN–HYSYS software was used for the dynamic simulation of a commercial-scale CO2 capture plant and amine Pkg equation was chosen from the fluid property package for calculating the thermodynamic properties of the process. A static approach for optimization was used to evaluate the optimum conditions. This research revealed that pressure variation does not have any considerable changes in the absorption process, while both amine inlet temperature and volumetric flow rate increment enhance the absorption tower efficiency. The effect of temperature was very significant as shown in the dynamic study plots. The optimum condition for CO2 absorption from a stream of ethane gas with molar flow rate of 2118 kg mol h−1 was obtained 75 m3  h−1 of amine at 53 °C and 24 bar. This optimized condition is acceptable from economical, safe as well as feasible point of view.

  6. Scaling up close-range surveys, a challenge for the generalization of as-built data in industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullo, J.-F.; Thibault, G.

    2014-06-01

    As-built CAD data reconstructed from Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) data are used for more than two decades by Electricité de France (EDF) to prepare maintenance operations in its facilities. But today, the big picture is renewed: "as-built virtual reality" must address a huge scale-up to provide data to an increasing number of applications. In this paper, we first present a wide multi-sensor multi-purpose scanning campaign performed in a 10 floor building of a power plant in 2013: 1083 TLS stations (about 40.109 3D points referenced under a 2 cm tolerance) and 1025 RGB panoramic images (340.106 pixels per point of view). As expected, this very large survey of high precision measurements in a complex environment stressed sensors and tools that were developed for more favourable conditions and smaller data sets. The whole survey process (tools and methods used from acquisition and processing to CAD reconstruction) underwent a detailed follow-up in order to state on the locks to a possible generalization to other buildings. Based on these recent feedbacks, we have highlighted some of these current bottlenecks in this paper: sensors denoising, automation in processes, data validation tools improvements, standardization of formats and (meta-) data structures.

  7. Scaling up close-range surveys, a challenge for the generalization of as-built data in industrial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Hullo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As-built CAD data reconstructed from Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS data are used for more than two decades by Electricité de France (EDF to prepare maintenance operations in its facilities. But today, the big picture is renewed: "as-built virtual reality" must address a huge scale-up to provide data to an increasing number of applications. In this paper, we first present a wide multi-sensor multi-purpose scanning campaign performed in a 10 floor building of a power plant in 2013: 1083 TLS stations (about 40.109 3D points referenced under a 2 cm tolerance and 1025 RGB panoramic images (340.106 pixels per point of view. As expected, this very large survey of high precision measurements in a complex environment stressed sensors and tools that were developed for more favourable conditions and smaller data sets. The whole survey process (tools and methods used from acquisition and processing to CAD reconstruction underwent a detailed follow-up in order to state on the locks to a possible generalization to other buildings. Based on these recent feedbacks, we have highlighted some of these current bottlenecks in this paper: sensors denoising, automation in processes, data validation tools improvements, standardization of formats and (meta- data structures.

  8. The solar chimney. Power from solar radiation on an industrial scale; Das Aufwindkraftwerk. Strom aus der Sonne im grosstechnischen Massstab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaich, J. [Schlaich und Partner, Beratende Ingenieure im Bauwesen, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    The author looks at the relationships between population growth, standard of living, gross social product and energy. Development needs energy. Energy consumption grows in proportion to gross social product or prosperity, while population growth goes down exponentially. If distribution-related armed conflicts and fundamentalism are to be avoided, developing countries must be provided with energy enabling their peoples to live in dignity. Even though the required amount of energy is much smaller than the energy demand of industrialized countries, it means that world energy consumption will soar to several times what it is now. Where should this energy come from without causing the environment to collapse (because developing countries lack funds for environmental protection) and without threats to safety from nuclear power stations (because of inadequate knowledge of safety standards)? Poor countries have abundant solar radiation and large desert areas; so it is obvious to use technologically mature, large solar power plants, especially solar chimneys. They are described by means of some detailed drawings and graphs. A solar chimney corresponds in principle to a hydro-electric power station but uses hot air instead of water. Heat stored during the daytime is released during the nighttime to a 200 MW vertical-axis turbine, permitting non-stop 24-hour operation. (AKV) [Deutsch] Im Beitrag beleuchtet der Verfasser die Zusammenhaenge zwischen Bevoelkerungszuwachs, Lebensstandard, Bruttosozialprodukt und Energie. Entwicklung braucht Energie. Proportional zum Bruttosozialprodukt oder Wohlstand waechst der Energieverbrauch, waehrend der Bevoelkerungszuwachs exponentiell sinkt. Um Verteilungskriege und Fundamentalismus zu verhindern, muss den Entwicklungslaendern Energie bereitgestellt werden, so dass ein menschenwuerdiges Leben ermoeglicht wird. Obwohl diese Menge wesentlich niedriger als die den Industrielaendern bereitgestellte Energie anzusetzen ist, wuerde damit der

  9. Chromatographic Monoliths for High-Throughput Immunoaffinity Isolation of Transferrin from Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Trbojević-Akmačić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in protein glycosylation are related to different diseases and have a potential as diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers. Transferrin (Tf glycosylation changes are common marker for congenital disorders of glycosylation. However, biological interindividual variability of Tf N-glycosylation and genes involved in glycosylation regulation are not known. Therefore, high-throughput Tf isolation method and large scale glycosylation studies are needed in order to address these questions. Due to their unique chromatographic properties, the use of chromatographic monoliths enables very fast analysis cycle, thus significantly increasing sample preparation throughput. Here, we are describing characterization of novel immunoaffinity-based monolithic columns in a 96-well plate format for specific high-throughput purification of human Tf from blood plasma. We optimized the isolation and glycan preparation procedure for subsequent ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC analysis of Tf N-glycosylation and managed to increase the sensitivity for approximately three times compared to initial experimental conditions, with very good reproducibility. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  10. A general technoeconomic and environmental procedure for assessment of small-scale cogeneration scheme installations: Application to a local industry operating in Thrace, Greece, using microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsigiannis, P.A.; Papadopoulos, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper describes a proposed general systematic procedure for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) exploitation (where 'small-scale CHP' refers to CHP installations with electric capacities up to 1 MW). The mentioned systematic procedure is implemented through a developed computer code and may be applied to any such small-scale project in order to assess its suitability based on technoeconomic and environmental considerations. A dynamic database based on small-scale CHP units (available in the world market) and their pertinent technical, economical and environmental features is created and, in conjunction with the developed program, is used for determination of a suitable CHP unit (or system) size and the selection of the associated proper prime mover type for any project of interest. Using well-known economic criteria, the economic analysis is performed, including the sensitivity analysis of the considered project based on the main key system parameters. In terms of the socioeconomic analysis, a carbon tax (CT) scenario is considered, and its effect on the economic behavior of the project is investigated. Last, with respect to environmental considerations, the program calculates, for any such project, the avoided main pollutants and the fuel savings when a CHP system is applied. As a case study, a small textile industry operating in the Eastern Macedonia-Thrace Region of Greece is considered, and its associated (electrical and thermal) data are used as input data to the proposed computer program. In this application, two microturbine units are selected and thoroughly evaluated, and the pertinent simulation results are presented and discussed accordingly

  11. Validation of the design of small diameter pulsed columns for the process line DRA. Tests reliability compared with the industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leybros, J.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the Spin program related to the management of nuclear wastes, studies have been undertaken to develop partitioning processes like Diamex process. The process line CCBP/DRA in Atalante facility forms one of the main equipment devoted to these studies. On this line industrial apparatus are used but some like pulsed columns need to be adapted because of the specificity of the installation: limiting amount of nuclear matter, gaseous waste minimization, safety, limiting amounts of new extractants,... This article presents the comparison of 2 air pulsed columns, one with a standard diameter of 25 (DN25), the other with a reduced diameter of 15 (DN15). This comparison is based on 3 main criteria: pulsation capability, superficial throughput and mass transfer efficiency. The overall comparison shows that a DN15 pulsed column can be considered as a representative tool of research and development. Particularly, the study demonstrates the possibility of scaling up the results

  12. Advanced scale conditioning agent and consolidated deposit extraction planning, application experience, and results at Comanche Peak Unit 2 and industrial super critical water oxidation waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forney, M.; Ramaley, D. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Bryant, W. [Luminant Energy, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Advance Scale Conditioning Agent (ASCA) technology has been applied more than forty times worldwide since its inception in 2000. This technology has continually grown in popularity since its development due to the combination of several process benefits and minimal outage impacts. Comanche Peak Unit 2 applied a Top of Tubesheet (TTS) ASCA in 2014 for partial dissolution and softening of consolidated TTS collars. In addition to the ASCA application, a Consolidated Deposit Extraction (CODE) step was applied to the TTS. CODE is a chemical treatment technology that effectively targets and dissolves 'binding species' such as those containing aluminum and silicon from steam generator deposits. Since magnetite dissolution technologies are not wholly effective in removing consolidated TTS 'collars' CODE technology was developed to address this need in the industry. This paper will discuss both the Westinghouse and utility perspective on TTS ASCA/CODE application planning, site execution, and process results. (author)

  13. Consequences of long-term severe industrial pollution for aboveground carbon and nitrogen pools in northern taiga forests at local and regional scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Sirkku; Zverev, Vitali; Bergman, Igor; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2015-12-01

    Boreal coniferous forests act as an important sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. The overall tree carbon (C) sink in the forests of Europe has increased during the past decades, especially due to management and elevated nitrogen (N) deposition; however, industrial atmospheric pollution, primarily sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, still negatively affect forest biomass production at different spatial scales. We report local and regional changes in forest aboveground biomass, C and N concentrations in plant tissues, and C and N pools caused by long-term atmospheric emissions from a large point source, the nickel-copper smelter in Monchegorsk, in north-western Russia. An increase in pollution load (assessed as Cu concentration in forest litter) caused C to increase in foliage but C remained unchanged in wood, while N decreased in foliage and increased in wood, demonstrating strong effects of pollution on resource translocation between green and woody tissues. The aboveground C and N pools were primarily governed by plant biomass, which strongly decreased with an increase in pollution load. In our study sites (located 1.6-39.7 km from the smelter) living aboveground plant biomass was 76 to 4888 gm(-2), and C and N pools ranged 35-2333 g C m(-2) and 0.5-35.1 g N m(-2), respectively. We estimate that the aboveground plant biomass is reduced due to chronic exposure to industrial air pollution over an area of about 107,200 km2, and the total (aboveground and belowground) loss of phytomass C stock amounts to 4.24×10(13) g C. Our results emphasize the need to account for the overall impact of industrial polluters on ecosystem C and N pools when assessing the C and N dynamics in northern boreal forests because of the marked long-term negative effects of their emissions on structure and productivity of plant communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development, implementation, and analysis of desktop-scale model industrial equipment and a critical thinking rubric for use in chemical engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golter, Paul B.

    In order to address some of the challenges facing engineering education, namely the demand that students be better prepared to practice professional as well as technical skills, we have developed an intervention consisting of equipment, assessments and a novel pedagogy. The equipment consists of desktop-scale replicas of common industrial equipment. These are implemented in the form of modular cartridges that can be interchanged in a base unit containing water, power and instrumentation. These Desktop Learning Modules (DLMs) are effective at providing a hands on experience in most classroom environments without requiring either water or power hook-ups. Furthermore, the DLMs respond quickly enough that multiple experiments by multiple groups can be run in a single one hour class. We refined an existing critical thinking rubric to be more specific to the realm of engineering problem solving. By altering our pedagogy to a project based environment using the critical thinking rubric as a primary grading tool, we are able to observe and measure the critical thinking skills of student groups. This rubric is corroborated with an industrial perspective and measures constructs that are important to the students' future careers.

  15. Study of technical, economic and environmental feasibility of industrial scale production of nanocellulose obtained from the agroindustrial wastes from pineapple peel (Ananas comosus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho Elizondo, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Technical, economic and environmental study is realized to determine the feasibility of the industrial production of nanocellulose, from agroindustrial wastes of pineapple (Ananas comosus) market oriented of plastic packaging. The market bibliographical studies (national and international) and real capacities of national institutions have determined the most adequate and competitive method for the production of nanocellulose. The conditions to produce nanocellulose are described from agroindustrial wastes of pineapple in an industrial scale, according with the predominant factors in the plastic market. The equilibrium point, cost and price of nanocellulose produced are analyzed for the national market of plastics. The producing unit implemented is evaluated within the general framework of national and international economy and market to contribute the conditions that may to affect the feasibility and profitability of the project. The technical study has demonstrated to count with the adequate technology for the project execution. The economic study of the project has indicated to be economically profitable, considering the results of the NPV ($ 110 031,73), IRR (46,42%) and MARR (19,19%). The SuperPro Designer program has been used as a tool to corroborate the results in the technical-economic study and these have shown that the project has been feasible [es

  16. Relationship between human resource ability and market access capacity on business performance. (case study of wood craft micro- and small-scale industries in Gianyar Regency, Bali)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukartini, N. W.; Sudarmini, N. M.; Lasmini, N. K.

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this research are to: (1) analyze the influence of Human Resource Ability on market access capacity in Wood Craft Micro and Small Industry; (2) to analyze the effect of market access capacity on business performance; (3) analyze the influence of Human Resources ability on business performance. Data were collected using questionnaires, interviews, observations, and literature studies. The resulting data were analyzed using Struture Equation Modeling (SEM). The results of the analysis show that (1) there is a positive and significant influence of the ability of Human Resources on market access capacity in Wood Craft Micro-and Small-Scale Industries in Gianyar; (2) there is a positive and significant influence of market access capacity on business performance; and (3) there is a positive and significant influence of Human Resource ability on business performance. To improve the ability to access the market and business performance, it is recommended that human resource ability need to be improved through training; government and higher education institutions are expected to play a role in improving the ability of human resources (craftsmen) through provision of training programs

  17. Treatment of a chocolate industry wastewater in a pilot-scale low-temperature UASB reactor operated at short hydraulic and sludge retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Soto, M; Arzate-Archundia, O; Solís-Morelos, C; Fall, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of a 244-L pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor during the treatment of chocolate-processing industry wastewater under low-temperature conditions (18 ± 0.6 °C) for approximately 250 d. The applied organic loading rate (OLR) was varied between 4 and 7 kg/m(3)/d by varying the influent soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODsol), while keeping the hydraulic retention time constant (6.4 ± 0.3 h). The CODsol removal efficiency was low (59-78%). The measured biogas production increased from 240 ± 54 to 431 ± 61 L/d during the experiments. A significant linear correlation between the measured biogas production and removed OLR indicated that 81.69 L of biogas were produced per kg/m(3) of CODsol removed. Low average reactor volatile suspended solids (VSS) (2,700-4,800 mg/L) and high effluent VSS (177-313 mg/L) were derived in a short sludge retention time (SRT) (4.9 d). The calculated SRT was shorter than those reported in the literature, but did not affect the reactor's performance. Average sludge yield was 0.20 kg-VSS/kg-CODsol. The low-temperature anaerobic treatment was a good option for the pre-treatment of chocolate-processing industry wastewater.

  18. Industrial application of fluidized bed combustion. Phase I, task 4: sub-scale unit testing and data analysis. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodstine, S.L.; Accortt, J.I.; Harris, R.D.; Kantersaria, P.P.; Matthews, F.T.; Jones, B.C.; Jukkola, G.D.

    1979-12-01

    Combustion Engineering, under contract with the Department of Energy, has developed, designed, and is constructing a 50,000 lbs steam/hr Industrial FBC Demonstration Plant. The plant will provide steam for space heating at the Great Lakes Naval Base in North Chicago, Illinois. Its operation will enable industry to objectively appraise the performance, reliability, and economics of FBC technology. A hot sub-scale unit (SSU), simulating the operating conditions of the demonstration plant, has been constructed and operated at Combustion Engineering's Kreisinger Development Laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. The SSU facility has served as a valuable developmental tool in establishing the performance characteristics of the FBC process and equipment as used in the larger Demonstration Plant. Experience gained during more than 2000 hours of operation, including the analytical results derived from an extensive test program of 1500 hours operation, has defined problems and identified solutions in engineering the larger FBC Demonstration Plant. This report presents documentation of the results of the SSU test program.

  19. Micro-column plasma emission liquid chromatograph. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, D.D.

    1982-08-12

    In a direct current plasma emission spectrometer for use in combination with a microcolumn liquid chromatograph, an improved plasma source unit is claimed. The plasma source unit includes a quartz capillary tube having an inlet means, outlet off gas means and a pair of spaced electrodes defining a plasma region in the tube. The inlet means is connected to and adapted to receive eluant of the liquid chromatograph along with a stream of plasma-forming gas. There is an opening through the wall of the capillary tube penetrating into the plasma region. A soft glass capillary light pipe is disposed at the opening, is connected to the spectrometer, and is adapted to transmit light passing from the plasma region to the spectrometer. There is also a source of electromotive force connected to the electrodes sufficient to initiate and sustain a plasma in the plasma region of the tube.

  20. Chiral ionic liquids in chromatographic and electrophoretic separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapnissi-Christodoulou, Constantina P; Stavrou, Ioannis J; Mavroudi, Maria C

    2014-10-10

    This report provides an overview of the application of chiral ionic liquids (CILs) in separation technology, and particularly in capillary electrophoresis and both gas and liquid chromatography. There is a large number of CILs that have been synthesized and designed as chiral agents. However, only a few have successfully been applied in separation technology. Even though this application of CILs is still in its early stages, the scientific interest is increasing dramatically. This article is focused on the use of CILs as chiral selectors, background electrolyte additives, chiral ligands and chiral stationary phases in electrophoretic and chromatographic techniques. Different examples of CILs, which contain either a chiral cation, a chiral anion or both, are presented in this review article, and their major advantages along with their potential applications in chiral electrophoretic and chromatographic recognition are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gas-chromatographic separation of hydrogen isotopic mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, Anisoara; Bidica, Nicolae

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Gas chromatographic separation of hydrogen isotopes have been reported in the literature since late of 1950's. Gas chromatography is primarily an analytical method, but because of its properties it may be used in many other fields with excellent results. A simple method is proposed for the gas-chromatographic analysis of complex gas mixtures containing hydrogen isotopes; the method is based on the substantial difference in the thermal conductivity of these isotopes. One of the main disadvantages of the conventional gas chromatography is the long retention times required for the analysis of hydrogen gas mixtures while the column is operated at very low temperature. The method described in this paper was based on using a capillary molecular sieve 5A column operated for this kind of separation at 173 K. The carrier gas was Ne and the detector was TCD. In the paper chromatograms for various carrier flow rates and various hydrogen isotope mixtures are presented. (authors)

  2. Chromatographic determination of Terbinafine in presence of its Photodegradation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Moety, E.M.; Kelani, K.O.; Abou Al-Alamein, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Two different chromatographic techniques have been developed for the determination of terbinafine hydrochloride in presence of its photodegradation products. The first method depends on coupling the TLC- fractionation, on silicia gel 60F254 utilizing chloroform+methanol+25% aq. ammonia ( 12: 0.1:0.1,by volumes), with the direct scanning at 284nm. The second method describes a liquid chromatographic separation of terbinafine and its photolytic degradates on a reversed-phase column[u-Bondapak-TMC 18 (10um,25cmx4.6mm,i.d.)] using a mobile phase containing methanol+water= 80:20 (v/v) with UV-detection at 284 nm. The proposed methods showed significant stability-indication with good linearity, precision and reproducibility. (author)

  3. Paper chromatographic behavior of tetranitronitrosylruthenate and its decomposition products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Eiko

    1981-01-01

    The paper chromatographic behavior of tetranitronitrosylruthenate was examined together with its decomposition products. First, Rf values at various eluting conditions were studied with five kinds of papers, since there was a discrepancy among the reported Rf values. Usually Rf of 0.9 was obtained by the recommended procedure of Wain, et al. Second, stability of the tetranitrosylruthenate in water was followed by paper chromatography. No change was found until 200 days passed. Third, the tetranitronitrosylruthenate was warmed in acid, and its decomposition products were studied through the paper chromatography. The paper chromatographic behavior showed that the sample kept in water more than 200 days seemed to contain a dinitro complex, and the sample warmed in acid seemed to be decomposed to a mononitro complex of further. (author)

  4. Studies on Brucella interferon: Chromatographic behaviour and purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousquet-Ucla, C.; Wietzerbin, J.; Falcoff, E.

    1980-01-01

    Interferon was induced by infecting mice with Brucella suis. Serum containing interferon activity was analyzed by chromatography on Concanavalin A-Sepharose and Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B columns. Antiviral activity was completely retained by the lectin column indicating that all the interferon molecules are glycosylated. The chromatographic behaviour of Brucella interferon on Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B show that, like other interferons, Brucella interferon displays hydrophobic properties. However, the hydrophobicity of the interferon molecule was masked in the crude preparation and was only detectable when purified Brucella interferon was used for chromatography. The antigenic properties of Brucella interferon provided the means for developing an affinity chromatographic method resulting in about 60.000 fold purification. As in the case of viral interferon, treatment of L cells with Brucella interferon induced specific enhanced in vitro phosphorylation of a 67.000 molecular weight protein after incubation of cell extracts with doublestranded RNA and [γ- 32 p]ATP. (auth.)

  5. Chromatographic decontamination of medium-activity waste concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faubel, W.; Menzler, P.M.; Sameh, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The chromatographic decontamination of a MAW concentrate was carried out in a laboratory plant in 1-l-batches in the following way: In order to purify the nitric MAW concentrate from its solid and organic contamination products, it is passed through a filter and an absorber (SM7) for organic species. Subsequently the purified solution runs on-line through all following columns. First the main activity carrier cesium ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs) is transferred to ammonium molybdate phosphate (AMP-1) by means of a newly developed fluidized bed process. In the further course, 125 Sb is separated on metal oxides (Sb 2 O 5 , MnO 2 ) and the three-valued actinides/lanthanides on an extraction-chromatographic CMPO column. Finally the remaining 106 Ru and 60 Co activities are separated on dimethylglyoximes (DMG) coated on active carbon. (orig./RB) [de

  6. Measurement Uncertainty of Liquid Chromatographic Analyses Visualized by Ishikawa Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Veronika R.

    2017-01-01

    Ishikawa, or cause-and-effect diagrams, help to visualize the parameters that influence a chromatographic analysis. Therefore, they facilitate the set up of the uncertainty budget of the analysis, which can then be expressed in mathematical form. If the uncertainty is calculated as the Gaussian sum of all uncertainty parameters, it is necessary to quantitate them all, a task that is usually not practical. The other possible approach is to use the intermediate precision as a base for the uncer...

  7. Liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric assay for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Blood and urine samples were obtained from healthy volunteers who admitted to not being on any medications. The investigated analytes were chromatographically separated on a C18 column (Luna®-PFP 100Å column, 50 mm × 2.0 mm i.d., 3.0 μm) with the aid of a mobile phase containing A; acetonitrile (ACN) ...

  8. Correlations between chromatographic parameters and bioactivity predictors of potential herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Małgorzata

    2014-08-01

    Different liquid chromatography techniques, including reversed-phase liquid chromatography on Purosphere RP-18e, IAM.PC.DD2 and Cosmosil Cholester columns and micellar liqud chromatography with a Purosphere RP-8e column and using buffered sodium dodecyl sulfate-acetonitrile as the mobile phase, were applied to study the lipophilic properties of 15 newly synthesized phenoxyacetic and carbamic acid derivatives, which are potential herbicides. Chromatographic lipophilicity descriptors were used to extrapolate log k parameters (log kw and log km) and log k values. Partitioning lipophilicity descriptors, i.e., log P coefficients in an n-octanol-water system, were computed from the molecular structures of the tested compounds. Bioactivity descriptors, including partition coefficients in a water-plant cuticle system and water-human serum albumin and coefficients for human skin partition and permeation were calculated in silico by ACD/ADME software using the linear solvation energy relationship of Abraham. Principal component analysis was applied to describe similarities between various chromatographic and partitioning lipophilicities. Highly significant, predictive linear relationships were found between chromatographic parameters and bioactivity descriptors. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Energy performance strategies for the large scale introduction of geothermal energy in residential and industrial buildings: The GEO.POWER project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambastiani, B.M.S.; Tinti, F.; Mendrinos, D.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of shallow geothermal energy, in terms of ground coupled heat pumps (GCHP) for heating and cooling purposes, is an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective alternative with potential to replace fossil fuels and help mitigate global warming. Focusing on the recent results of the GEO.POWER project, this paper aims at examining the energy performance strategies and the future regional and national financial instruments for large scale introduction of geothermal energy and GCHP systems in both residential and industrial buildings. After a transferability assessment to evaluate the reproducibility of some outstanding examples of systems currently existing in Europe for the utilisation of shallow geothermal energy, a set of regulatory, economic and technical actions is proposed to encourage the GCHP market development and support geothermal energy investments in the frame of the existing European normative platforms. This analysis shows that many European markets are changing from a new GCHP market to growth market. However some interventions are still required, such as incentives, regulatory framework, certification schemes and training activities in order to accelerate the market uptake and achieve the main European energy and climate targets. - Highlights: • Potentiality of geothermal applications for heating and cooling in buildings. • Description of the GEO.POWER project and its results. • Local strategies for the large scale introduction of GCHPs

  10. Impacts of Small-Scale Industrialized Swine Farming on Local Soil, Water and Crop Qualities in a Hilly Red Soil Region of Subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrialized small-scale pig farming has been rapidly developed in developing regions such as China and Southeast Asia, but the environmental problems accompanying pig farming have not been fully recognized. This study investigated 168 small-scale pig farms and 29 example pig farms in Yujiang County of China to examine current and potential impacts of pig wastes on soil, water and crop qualities in the hilly red soil region, China. The results indicated that the small-scale pig farms produced considerable annual yields of wastes, with medians of 216, 333 and 773 ton yr−1 per pig farm for manure, urine and washing wastewater, respectively, which has had significant impact on surface water quality. Taking NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN or total phosphorus (TP as a criterion to judge water quality, the proportions of Class III and below Class III waters in the local surface waters were 66.2%, 78.7% and 72.5%. The well water (shallow groundwater quality near these pig farms met the water quality standards by a wide margin. The annual output of pollutants from pig farms was the most important factor correlated with the nutrients and heavy metals in soils, and the relationship can be described by a linear equation. The impact on croplands was marked by the excessive accumulation of available phosphorus and heavy metals such as Cu and Zn. For crop safety, the over-limit ratio of Zn in vegetable samples reached 60%, other heavy metals in vegetable and rice samples tested met the food safety standard at present.

  11. Impacts of Small-Scale Industrialized Swine Farming on Local Soil, Water and Crop Qualities in a Hilly Red Soil Region of Subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhou, Zhigao

    2017-12-06

    Industrialized small-scale pig farming has been rapidly developed in developing regions such as China and Southeast Asia, but the environmental problems accompanying pig farming have not been fully recognized. This study investigated 168 small-scale pig farms and 29 example pig farms in Yujiang County of China to examine current and potential impacts of pig wastes on soil, water and crop qualities in the hilly red soil region, China. The results indicated that the small-scale pig farms produced considerable annual yields of wastes, with medians of 216, 333 and 773 ton yr -1 per pig farm for manure, urine and washing wastewater, respectively, which has had significant impact on surface water quality. Taking NH₄⁺-N, total nitrogen (TN) or total phosphorus (TP) as a criterion to judge water quality, the proportions of Class III and below Class III waters in the local surface waters were 66.2%, 78.7% and 72.5%. The well water (shallow groundwater) quality near these pig farms met the water quality standards by a wide margin. The annual output of pollutants from pig farms was the most important factor correlated with the nutrients and heavy metals in soils, and the relationship can be described by a linear equation. The impact on croplands was marked by the excessive accumulation of available phosphorus and heavy metals such as Cu and Zn. For crop safety, the over-limit ratio of Zn in vegetable samples reached 60%, other heavy metals in vegetable and rice samples tested met the food safety standard at present.

  12. Liquid-chromatographic analysis for cyclosporine with use of a microbore column and small sample volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesley, T; Matz, K; Balogh, L; Clayton, L; Giacherio, D

    1986-07-01

    This liquid-chromatographic assay requires 0.2 to 0.5 mL of whole blood, avoids the use of diethyl ether, and consumes only 10 to 20% of the solvents used in prior methods. Sample preparation involves an acidic extraction with methyl-t-butyl ether, performed in a 13 X 100 mm disposable glass tube, then a short second extraction of the organic phase with sodium hydroxide. After evaporation of the methyl-t-butyl ether, chromatography is performed on an "Astec" 2.0-mm (i.d.) octyl column. We compared results by this procedure with those by use of earlier larger-scale extractions and their respective 4.6-mm (i.d.) columns; analytical recoveries of cyclosporins A and D were comparable with previous findings and results for patients' specimens were equivalent, but the microbore columns provided greatly increased resolution and sensitivity.

  13. A new highly productive Propionibacterium acidipropionici FL-48 strain with increased resistance to propionic acid and the scaling up of its production for industrial bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kartashov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acid bacteria, including Propionibacterium acidipropionici, are widely used in the chemical industry to produce propionic acid and also for food and feed preservation. However, the efficiency of the industrial production of these bacteria is limited by their sensitivity to high concentrations of propionic acid excreted into the cultivation medium. Therefore, the development of new biotechnological processes and strains able to overcome this limitation and to improve the profitability of the microbiological production remains  a relevant problem. A new P. acidipropionici FL-48 strain characterized by an increased resistance to 10 g/L of propionic acid (the number of viable cells after 24-h cultivation reached 1.05 × 106 was developed by a two-step induced mutagenesis using UV and diethyl sulphate from the P. acidipropionici VKPM B-5723 strain. The mutant strain exceeded the parental strain in the biomass accumulation rate and the amount of produced propionic and acetic acids by 35%, 20%, and 16%, respectively. The stability of such important characteristics as the biomass accumulation rate and the viability on media containing heightened concentrations of propionic acid was confirmed by three sequential monoclonal subculturings on a medium supplemented with 10 g/L of propionic acid. The optimization of the cultivation technology made it possible to determine the optimum seed inoculum dose (10% of the fermentation medium volume and the best pH level for the active growth stage (6.1 ± 0.1. The scaling up of the fermentation to a 100-L bioreactor under observance of optimum cultivation conditions demonstrated a high biomass growth rate with a sufficient reproducability; after 20 h of fermentation, the number of viable cells in the culture broth exceeded 1 × 1010 CFU/mL. The new strain could be interesting as the component of silage and haylage biopreservatives and also could be used as an efficient producer of propionic acid.

  14. Bringing the world to a standstill: an investigation into the effects of a Novarupta scale volcanic eruption on today's aviation industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchman, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Novarupta erupted in Alaska on 6th June 1912 and was the biggest of the 21st century. It erupted for 60 hours and sent an ash cloud over 32,000m into the air. People were stranded for several days, houses destroyed, villages abandoned and food supplies disrupted for a long period after the eruption. Ash was recorded to have travelled over 9,500km away in Africa, demonstrating potentially global impacts. The eruption occurred when Alaska had very little aviation industry, today however the airspace above Alaska is one of the busiest in the world. The eruption in Iceland in 2010 which disrupted the European airspace for several weeks and closed it completely for five days, brought to light just how disruptive a volcanic eruption can be, even in countries where volcanic activity is not considered a hazard. It was an expensive event for the aviation industry and caused much disruption. Simulations of a Katmai scale eruption were run in the ‘present-day’, using the PUFF ash fall model. Simulations were run for one week from the start the eruption. A ‘worst-case’ scenario is presented based on data from 2005-2009. It is a hypothetical eruption started on 17th January 2005 and it shows that ash is likely to cause havoc in North America, Europe and parts of Asia. At least 43 airports on average would be severely affected each day of the simulation, leading to several of the major air routes being affected. Where financial data is available, an estimated cost of this event is presented. A 500 hr simulation is presented to demonstrate the possible global effects that could occur within three weeks of an eruption. It shows ash being transported across the equator at high altitudes to the southern hemisphere in Asia as well as the whole of the northern hemisphere being engulfed. The complex implications an eruption like this would have on national and international infrastructures is presented. The results could aid further scientific studies, governmental bodies and

  15. Superconductivity at the industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Lebrun, Ph.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of superconductivity is 100 years old but theoretical works are still necessary: the BCS theory does not apply to the new families of high temperature superconducting materials discovered after 1986. In 2001 it was discovered that MgB 2 is superconducting at 39 K, this critical temperature is not the highest but MgB 2 is easy to produce and cheap. Today's highest critical temperature under atmospheric pressure is that of the HgTlBaCaCuO compound: 138 K. The complexity and the cost of cryogenic systems restrain the applications of superconductivity. The author reviews the applications of superconducting in medical imaging, particle detectors, and in the safety systems of power networks. (A.C.)

  16. Chromatographic fingerprinting as a strategy to identify regulated plants in illegal herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, D; Van Praag, N; Courselle, P; Apers, S; Deconinck, E

    2017-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a sexual disorder characterized by the inability to achieve or maintain a sufficiently rigid erection. Despite the availability of non-invasive oral treatment options, many patients turn to herbal alternatives. Furthermore, herbal supplements are increasingly gaining popularity in industrialized countries and, as a consequence, quality control is a highly important issue. Unfortunately, this is not a simple task since plants are often crushed and mixed with other plants, which complicates their identification by usage of classical approaches such as microscopy. The aim of this study was to explore the potential use of chromatographic fingerprinting to identify plants present in herbal preparations intended for the treatment of ED. To achieve this goal, a HPLC-PDA and a HPLC-MS method were developed, using a full factorial experimental design in order to acquire characteristic fingerprints of three plants which are potentially beneficial for treating ED: Epimedium spp., Pausinystalia yohimbe and Tribulus terrestris. The full factorial design demonstrated that for all three plant references a C8 column (250mm×4.6mm; 5µm particle size) is best suited; methanol and an ammonium formate buffer (pH 3) were found to be the best constituents for the mobile phase. The suitability of this strategy was demonstrated by analysing several self-made triturations in three different botanical matrices, which mimic the influential effects that could be expected when analysing herbal supplements. To conclude, this study demonstrates that chromatographic fingerprinting could provide a useful means to identify plants in a complex herbal mixture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chromatographic resolution of closely related species in pharmaceutical chemistry: dehalogenation impurities and mixtures of halogen isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Erik L; Zhuang, Ping; Chen, Yadan; Makarov, Alexey A; Schafer, Wes A; McGachy, Neil; Welch, Christopher J

    2014-01-07

    In recent years, the use of halogen-containing molecules has proliferated in the pharmaceutical industry, where the incorporation of halogens, especially fluorine, has become vitally important for blocking metabolism and enhancing the biological activity of pharmaceuticals. The chromatographic separation of halogen-containing pharmaceuticals from associated isomers or dehalogenation impurities can sometimes be quite difficult. In an attempt to identify the best current tools available for addressing this important problem, a survey of the suitability of four chromatographic method development platforms (ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), core shell HPLC, achiral supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and chiral SFC) for separating closely related mixtures of halogen-containing pharmaceuticals and their dehalogenated isosteres is described. Of the 132 column and mobile phase combinations examined for each mixture, a small subset of conditions were found to afford the best overall performance, with a single UHPLC method (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.9 μm Hypersil Gold PFP, acetonitrile/methanol based aqueous eluents containing either phosphoric or perchloric acid with 150 mM sodium perchlorate) affording excellent separation for all samples. Similarly, a survey of several families of closely related halogen-containing small molecules representing the diversity of impurities that can sometimes be found in purchased starting materials for synthesis revealed chiral SFC (Chiralcel OJ-3 and Chiralpak IB, isopropanol or ethanol with 25 mM isobutylamine/carbon dioxide) as well as the UHPLC (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 μm ZORBAX RRHD Eclipse Plus C18 and the Gold PFP, acetonitrile/methanol based aqueous eluents containing phosphoric acid) as preferred methods.

  18. Zero Nuisance Piggeries: long-term performance of MBR (membrane bioreactor) for dilute swine wastewater treatment using submerged membrane bioreactor in semi-industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Nolwenn; Ochoa, Juan; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2009-04-01

    Effective aerobic/anoxic treatment of piggery manure wastewater was achieved in a real farm scale using a small piggery (72 pigs) with reuse of the treated water. The experimental procedure was followed for 9 months. Fresh manure (FM) is formed by daily flush on piggeries and biologically treated after centrifuge pre-treatment. For upgrade liquid/solid separation and pathogen retention in biological treatment, a membrane system was used with the aim of effluent reuse in flush. Despite an evolution of FM through time, centrifuge pre-treatment and bioreactor performances stayed at high level. An elimination of 86% of the suspended solids occurred through pre-treatment, and nitrogen and COD biological degradation remains at 90% all time long. Moreover, interestingly about half of the soluble part of phosphorus (20% of the global phosphorus content) was biologically removed via the recirculation between the anoxic and the aerobic tank which acted as an intermittent aerobic/anoxic sequence. A part of COD was proved not biodegradable and was accumulated via the reuse of the treated water for flushing purpose. This accumulation justifies washing of the biomass between two runs in purpose to enhance the treated water quality and also to meet the membrane tolerance. The membrane was proved reliable as far as the maintenance procedure was respected. Maintenance cleaning had to be operated as soon as the TransMembrane Pressure (TMP) achieved 50 mbar and curative washing was necessary if the TMP increased over 90 mbar or between 2 runs. The temperature was proved to influence both the bioactivity and the membrane fouling kinetic. Finally, it was demonstrated that the process was sustainable for long-term management of swine wastewater at semi-industrial scale.

  19. Similarity analyses of chromatographic herbal fingerprints: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Russell, Paul J; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2013-12-04

    Herbal medicines are becoming again more popular in the developed countries because being "natural" and people thus often assume that they are inherently safe. Herbs have also been used worldwide for many centuries in the traditional medicines. The concern of their safety and efficacy has grown since increasing western interest. Herbal materials and their extracts are very complex, often including hundreds of compounds. A thorough understanding of their chemical composition is essential for conducting a safety risk assessment. However, herbal material can show considerable variability. The chemical constituents and their amounts in a herb can be different, due to growing conditions, such as climate and soil, the drying process, the harvest season, etc. Among the analytical methods, chromatographic fingerprinting has been recommended as a potential and reliable methodology for the identification and quality control of herbal medicines. Identification is needed to avoid fraud and adulteration. Currently, analyzing chromatographic herbal fingerprint data sets has become one of the most applied tools in quality assessment of herbal materials. Mostly, the entire chromatographic profiles are used to identify or to evaluate the quality of the herbs investigated. Occasionally only a limited number of compounds are considered. One approach to the safety risk assessment is to determine whether the herbal material is substantially equivalent to that which is either readily consumed in the diet, has a history of application or has earlier been commercialized i.e. to what is considered as reference material. In order to help determining substantial equivalence using fingerprint approaches, a quantitative measurement of similarity is required. In this paper, different (dis)similarity approaches, such as (dis)similarity metrics or exploratory analysis approaches applied on herbal medicinal fingerprints, are discussed and illustrated with several case studies. Copyright © 2013

  20. Chromatographic fingerprint similarity analysis for pollutant source identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Juan-Ping; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a similarity analysis method was proposed to evaluate the source-sink relationships among environmental media for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which were taken as the representative contaminants. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis has been widely used in the fields of natural products chemistry and forensic chemistry, but its application to environmental science has been limited. We established a library of various sources of media containing contaminants (e.g., plastics), recognizing that the establishment of a more comprehensive library allows for a better understanding of the sources of contamination. We then compared an environmental complex mixture (e.g., sediment, soil) with the profiles in the library. These comparisons could be used as the first step in source tracking. The cosine similarities between plastic and soil or sediment ranged from 0.53 to 0.68, suggesting that plastic in electronic waste is an important source of PBDEs in the environment, but it is not the only source. A similarity analysis between soil and sediment indicated that they have a source-sink relationship. Generally, the similarity analysis method can encompass more relevant information of complex mixtures in the environment than a profile-based approach that only focuses on target pollutants. There is an inherent advantage to creating a data matrix containing all peaks and their relative levels after matching the peaks based on retention times and peak areas. This data matrix can be used for source identification via a similarity analysis without quantitative or qualitative analysis of all chemicals in a sample. - Highlights: • Chromatographic fingerprint analysis can be used as the first step in source tracking. • Similarity analysis method can encompass more relevant information of pollution. • The fingerprints strongly depend on the chromatographic conditions. • A more effective and robust method for identifying similarities is required

  1. Chromatographic separation of europium and gadolinum mixtures by ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolleganov, M.Yu.; Nazarov, P.P.; Martynenko, L.I.; Mtrofanova, N.D.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    Comparative investigation of chromatographic separation of impurities of Eu and Gd micro- and macroquantities by means of ethylenediaminedisuccinic (EDDS) and ethylene-diaminetetraacetic (EDTA) acids is performed. It is shown that EDTA is a sufficiently effective agent for separation of this pair of elements. The values of EU and Gd separation coefficients obtained in experiments with RE microquantities are not realized at Eu-Gd, macroquantities separation which probably is connected with the influence of polymerization processes in the systems containing RE and EDDS complexes

  2. Diffusion and flow of water vapours in chromatographic Alumina gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Shah, H. U.

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of sorption of water vapours in chromatographic alumina gel was studied. Water vapours are adsorbed on the gel at temperature (15 degree C) at different constant relative pressure from 0.1-0.93 p/p. Rate constant, Effective diffusivities, Knudsen diffusivities and bulk diffusivities were determined through Fick type equation. Total pore volume is 0.498 cc g-1 and specific surface area comes to be 465 m2 g-1 as obtained by Gurvitsch rule and Kieselve's quantities respectively. An average pore radius (hydraulic) is 1.1x10/sub -7/ cm. The study of these quantities provide a strong basis for evaluating surface properties. (author)

  3. Gas chromatographic determination of impurities of inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drugov, Yu.S.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of concentration, separation, detection in gas chromatographic determination of impurities of inorganic compounds including low-boiling gases, reactive gases, organometallic compounds, free metals, anions, etc. are reviewed. Methods of reaction gas chromatography for determining reactive gases, water, anions, metal chelates are considered in detail as well as methods of reaction-sorption concentration and reaction gas extraction. The application of gas chromatograpny ior anaiysis of water and atmosphere contamination, for determination of impurities in highly pure solid substances and gases is described

  4. Chromatographic separation of alkaline phosphatase from dental enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S; Salling, E

    1989-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) was prepared from partly mineralized bovine enamel by extraction in phosphate buffer, centrifugation and various chromatographic techniques. Chromatofocusing showed that the enamel enzyme possessed five isoelectric points at the acid pH level ranging from pH 5.7 to pH 4.......4. Three enzyme peaks were eluted using low pressure chromatography with a Bio-gel column. With a HPLC gel filtration column the separation of the enamel extract resulted in only one peak with AP activity. The fractions of this peak were used to produce an antibody against bovine AP....

  5. Chromatographic analysis and purification of multiply tritium-labelled eicosanoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Nagaev, I.Yu.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative study of different chromatographic techniques (gas-liquid (GLC), thin-layer (TLC), liquid (LC), high-pressure liquid (HPLC) chromatography) is presented. They were applied to the analysis and preparative purification of tritium-labelled eicosanoids with a molar radioactivity of 1.8-8.8 TBq/mmol, obtained by selective hydrogenation and by chemical or enzymic methods. The possibility of analyzing reaction mixtures and isolating individual multiply labelled eicosanoids with a chemical and radiochemical purity of 95-98% was demonstrated. Special features of HPLC for high molar radioactivity eicosanoids are considered. (author) 9 refs.; 6 tabs

  6. Gas chromatographic method fr determination of carbon in metallic uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikol'skij, V.A.; Markov, V.K.; Evseeva, T.I.; Cherstvenkova, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    Gas chromatographic device to determine carbon in metal uranium is developed. Burnout unite, permitting to load in the burnout tube simultaneously quite a few (up to 20) weight amounts of materials to be burned is a characteristic feature of the device. As a result amendments for control experiment and determination limit are decreased. The time of a single determination is also reduced. Conditions of carbon burn out from metal uranium are studied and temperature and time of complete extraction of carbon in the form of dioxide from weight amount into gaseous phase are established

  7. Microbial community response reveals underlying mechanism of industrial-scale manganese sand biofilters used for the simultaneous removal of iron, manganese and ammonia from groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Rui; Zhou, Aijuan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Luan, Yunbo; Jia, Jianna; Yue, Xiuping; Zhang, Jie

    2018-01-08

    Most studies have employed aeration-biofiltration process for the simultaneous removal of iron, manganese and ammonia in groundwater. However, what's inside the "black box", i.e., the potential contribution of functional microorganisms behavior and interactions have seldom been investigated. Moreover, little attention has been paid to the correlations between environmental variables and functional microorganisms. In this study, the performance of industrial-scale biofilters for the contaminated groundwater treatment was studied. The effluent were all far below the permitted concentration level in the current drinking water standard. Pyrosequencing illustrated that shifts in microbial community structure were observed in the microbial samples from different depths of filter. Microbial networks showed that the microbial community structure in the middle- and deep-layer samples was similar, in which a wide range of manganese-oxidizing bacteria was identified. By contrast, canonical correlation analysis showed that the bacteria capable of ammonia-oxidizing and nitrification was enriched in the upper-layer, i.e., Propionibacterium, Nitrosomonas, Nitrosomonas and Candidatus Nitrotoga. The stable biofilm on the biofilter media, created by certain microorganisms from the groundwater microflora, played a crucial role in the simultaneous removal of the three pollutants.

  8. The influence of industrial-scale canning on cadmium and lead levels in sardines and anchovies from commercial fishing centres of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitsopoulou, Augoustina; Georgantelis, Dimitrios; Kontominas, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The current study encompassed a survey on the levels of toxic trace elements in two highly consumed fish species in commercial fishing centres of western, central and eastern Mediterranean Sea. A Zeeman GTA-AAS graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry system was used throughout the study. Toxicological evaluation of the samples revealed a low Cd content in the raw samples, ranging between 0.003 and 0.027 mg kg⁻¹. Pb presented significantly higher values, from 0.037 to 0.297 mg kg⁻¹, occasionally reaching the limit of 0.3 mg kg⁻¹. Heavy metal levels were particularly higher in bones, thus raising queries about the safe consumption of fish intended to be eaten as a whole, a very common practice for small fish and canned products. The influence of industrial-scale canning showed that canning enhanced heavy metal levels by 35%-80%. The effect of canning depended on metal type and reduction of moisture loss after the steam-roasting step of the canning procedure.

  9. Influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration treatment on aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in different industrial scale fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Lu, Lin; Lan, Yi-Bin; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2014-07-01

    The influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration (CM) on Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in two different industrial-scale fermenters was studied. CM treatment had different effects on wine aroma depending on the types of fermenter, being more effective for automatic pumping-over tank (PO-tank) than automatic punching-down tank (PD-tank). When PO-tank was used, CM-treated wine showed a decrease in some fusel alcohols (isobutanol and isopentanol) and an increase in some esters (especially acetate esters). However, no significant changes were detected in these compounds when PD-tank was used. Ethyl 2-hexenoate and diethyl succinate were decreased, while geranylacetone was increased by the CM treatment in both fermenters. β-Damascenone was increased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines but decreased in PD-tank fermented wines. The fruity, caramel and floral aroma series were enhanced while chemical series were decreased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines. The content of (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol in the final wines was positively correlated to CM treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of non-destructive examinations in leak testing of glove boxes for industrial scale plutonium handling at nuclear fuel fabrication facility along with case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aher, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Non Destructive Examinations has the prominent role at Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facilities. Specifically NDE has contributed at utmost stratum in Leak Testing of Glove Boxes and qualifying them as a Class-I confinement for safe Plutonium handling at industrial scale. Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, BARC, Tarapur is engaged in fabrication of Plutonium based MOX (PuO 2 , DDUO 2 ) fuel with different enrichments for first core of PFBR reactor. Alpha- Leak Tight Glove Boxes along with HEPA Filters and dynamic ventilation form the promising engineering system for safe and reliable handling of plutonium bearing materials considering the radiotoxicity and risk associated with handling of plutonium. Leak Testing of Glove Boxes which involves the leak detection, leak rectification and leak quantifications is major challenging task. To accomplish this challenge, various Non Destructive Testing methods have assisted in promising way to achieve the stringent leak rate criterion for commissioning of Glove Box facilities for plutonium handling. This paper highlights the Role of various NDE techniques like Soap Solution Test, Argon Sniffer Test, Pressure Drop/Rise Test etc. in Glove Box Leak Testing along with procedure and methodology for effective rectification of leakage points. A Flow Chart consisting of Glove Box leak testing procedure starting from preliminary stage up to qualification stage along with a case study and observations are discussed in this paper. (author)

  11. Pyrolysis of biomass in a semi-industrial scale reactor: Study of the fuel-nitrogen oxidation during combustion of volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mura, E.; Debono, O.; Villot, A.; Paviet, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, an experimental study of the NOx-fuel formation, carried out on a semi-industrial scale reactor during combustion of volatiles of the pyrolysis, is performed. Two different biomasses with different nitrogen contents such as a mixture of organic sludge and wood were tested. Results show that the temperature of pyrolysis does not obviously affect the production of NOx-fuel because of the most active precursors (NH 3 and HCN) are already released at low temperatures (400 °C). In the case of sludge mixture, the combustion conditions play the discriminating role in the production of NOx-fuel: the higher the excess air ratio the larger the production of nitrogen oxides from N-fuel. -- Highlights: • An experimental study of the pyrolysis of biomass from waste has been carried out. • The study consists in the analysis of NOx-fuel production during combustion. • The temperature of pyrolysis does not affect the production of NOx. • Only a small part of the N-fuel released in the volatile fraction is oxidized. • In the case of sewage sludge the excess air ratio affects the NOx production

  12. Microbial population dynamics during startup of a full-scale anaerobic digester treating industrial food waste in Kyoto eco-energy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Michihiko; Inoue, Daisuke; Miyano, Tomoki; Liu, Tong Tong; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Kadoshin, Shiro

    2010-06-01

    The microbial community in a full-scale anaerobic digester (2300m3) treating industrial food waste in the Kyoto Eco-Energy Project was analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Both thermophilic and mesophilic sludge of treated swine waste were seeded to the digestion tank. During the 150-day startup period, coffee grounds as a main food waste, along with potato, kelp and boiled beans, tofu, bean curd lees, and deep-fried bean curd were fed to the digestion process step-by-step (max. 40t/d). Finally, the methane yield reached 360m3/t-feed with 40days' retention time, although temporary accumulation of propionate was observed. Eubacterial communities that formed in the thermophilic digestion tank differed greatly from both thermophilic and mesophilic types of seed sludge. Results suggest that the Actinomyces/Thermomonospora and Ralstonia/Shewanella were contributors for hydrolyzation and degradation of food waste into volatile fatty acids. Acetate-utilizing methanogens, Methanosaeta, were dominant in seed sludges of both types, but they decreased drastically during processing in the digestion tank. Methanosarcina and Methanobrevibacter/Methanobacterium were, respectively, possible main contributors for methane production from acetate and H2 plus CO2. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Temperature Control of Gas Chromatograph Based on Switched Delayed System Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Liang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the temperature control problem of the gas chromatograph. We model the temperature control system of the gas chromatograph into a switched delayed system and analyze the stability by common Lyapunov functional technique. The PI controller parameters can be given based on the proposed linear matrix inequalities (LMIs condition and the designed controller can make the temperature of gas chromatograph track the reference signal asymptotically. An experiment is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the stability criterion.

  14. Authentication of commercial spices based on the similarities between gas chromatographic fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Takaya; Zhao, Jing Jing; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2018-06-01

    A simple and solvent-free method was developed for the authentication of commercial spices. The similarities between gas chromatographic fingerprints were measured using similarity indices and multivariate data analyses, as morphological differentiation between dried powders and small spice particles was challenging. The volatile compounds present in 11 spices (i.e. allspice, anise, black pepper, caraway, clove, coriander, cumin, dill, fennel, star anise, and white pepper) were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction, and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The largest 10 peaks were selected from each total ion chromatogram, and a total of 65 volatiles were tentatively identified. The similarity indices (i.e. the congruence coefficients) were calculated using the data matrices of the identified compound relative peak areas to differentiate between two sets of fingerprints. Where pairs of similar fingerprints produced high congruence coefficients (>0.80), distinctive volatile markers were employed to distinguish between these samples. In addition, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to visualise the similarity among fingerprints, and the analysed spices were grouped and characterised according to their distinctive major components. This method is suitable for screening unknown spices, and can therefore be employed to evaluate the quality and authenticity of various spices. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Efficient fabrication of high-capacity immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic media: The role of the dextran-grafting process and its manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan; Zhang, Jingfei; Huang, Yongdong; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Rongyue; Zhu, Kai; Suo, Jia; Su, Zhiguo; Zhang, Zhigang; Ma, Guanghui

    2016-03-01

    Novel high-capacity Ni(2+) immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic media were prepared through the dextran-grafting process. Dextran was grafted to an allyl-activated agarose-based matrix followed by functionalization for the immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic media. With elaborate regulation of the allylation degree, dextran was completely or partly grafted to agarose microspheres, namely, completely dextran-grafted agarose microspheres and partly dextran-grafted ones, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscope results demonstrated that a good adjustment of dextran-grafting degree was achieved, and dextran was distributed uniformly in whole completely dextran-grafted microspheres, while just distributed around the outside of the partly dextran-grafted ones. Flow hydrodynamic properties were improved greatly after the dextran-grafting process, and the flow velocity increased by about 30% compared with that of a commercial chromatographic medium (Ni Sepharose FF). A significant improvement of protein binding performance was also achieved by the dextran-grafting process, and partly dextran-grafted Ni(2+) chelating medium had a maximum binding capacity for His-tagged lactate dehydrogenase about 2.5 times higher than that of Ni Sepharose FF. The results indicated that this novel chromatographic medium is promising for applications in high-efficiency and large-scale protein purification. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Determination of hexachlorocyclohexane pesticide residues in wool fat by a combined high-performance liquid chromatographic-gas-liquid chromatographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    Beta- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane residues were determined in twelve wool fat samples by using a combined high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC)-gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) method. After extraction and chromatographic clean-up on a silca-gel column, the sample was further purified by HPLC on a reversed-phase C-18 column with methanol as the mobile phase. The final determination was effected by GLC with a 1-mCi nickel-63 electron-capture detector. The analytical method was checked by addition of carbon-14-labelled lindane and measurement of the radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. (Auth.)

  17. Separation and determination of high-carbon alcohols using method of column chromatographic and gas-chromatographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Zhongrong; Li Biping; Zeng Yongchang

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the separation and determination of high-carbon alcohols from amine extractant by using the method of column chromatography of aluminium oxide and gas-chromatographic analysis. The total conent of high-carbon alcohols is determined by the method of column chromatography, while the components of the high-carbon alcohols and their relative contents are determined by the method of gas-chromatography. A simple reliable and practical method is provided for the analysis of high-carbon alcohol from the amine extractant in this paper

  18. Warping methods for spectroscopic and chromatographic signal alignment: A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloemberg, Tom G., E-mail: T.Bloemberg@science.ru.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Radboud University Nijmegen, Education Institute for Molecular Sciences, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Gerretzen, Jan; Lunshof, Anton [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Wehrens, Ron [Centre for Research and Innovation, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via E. Mach, 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige, TN (Italy); Buydens, Lutgarde M.C. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2013-06-05

    Highlights: •The concepts of warping and alignment are introduced. •The most important warping methods are critically reviewed and explained. •Reference selection, evaluation and place of warping in preprocessing are discussed. •Some pitfalls, especially for LC–MS and similar data, are addressed. •Examples are provided, together with programming scripts to rework and extend them. -- Abstract: Warping methods are an important class of methods that can correct for misalignments in (a.o.) chemical measurements. Their use in preprocessing of chromatographic, spectroscopic and spectrometric data has grown rapidly over the last decade. This tutorial review aims to give a critical introduction to the most important warping methods, the place of warping in preprocessing and current views on the related matters of reference selection, optimization, and evaluation. Some pitfalls in warping, notably for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) data and similar, will be discussed. Examples will be given of the application of a number of freely available warping methods to a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic dataset and a chromatographic dataset. As part of the Supporting Information, we provide a number of programming scripts in Matlab and R, allowing the reader to work the extended examples in detail and to reproduce the figures in this paper.

  19. Technical artifacts in chromatographic analysis of Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalsky, R.J.; Creekmore, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Technical artifacts produced during chromatographic analysis of technetium radiopharmaceuticals were investigated. Such artifacts are, we found, caused by improper spotting and drying techniques; these in turn produce spuriously high impurities in Tc-99m complexes of DTPA, MDP, PPi, and GH. The ITLC-SG/acetone system produces considerable streaking of Tc-complex if the applied spot is large and not dried before development. This results in activity in the solvent front portion of the chromatographic strip indicating falsely high levels of pertechnetate impurity. Proper drying of the applied spot eliminates the artifact. The ITLC-SG/saline system yields falsely high, hydrolyzed-reduced technetium impurities if the spot is allowed to enter the solvent during development. Correct spot placement and size eliminate this problem. Strips that are allowed to dry in room air for several minutes may indicate considerable pertechnetate impurity on the chromatogram; yet this may not actually be present in the radiopharmaceutical vial. Drying spots rapidly with hot air or in a nitrogen atmosphere before development eliminates this problem

  20. Gas chromatographic isolation technique for compound-specific radiocarbon analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, M.; Kumamoto, Y.; Shibata, Y.; Yoneda, M.; Morita, M.; Kawamura, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We present here a gas chromatographic isolation technique for the compound-specific radiocarbon analysis of biomarkers from the marine sediments. The biomarkers of fatty acids, hydrocarbon and sterols were isolated with enough amount for radiocarbon analysis using a preparative capillary gas chromatograph (PCGC) system. The PCGC systems used here is composed of an HP 6890 GC with FID, a cooled injection system (CIS, Gerstel, Germany), a zero-dead-volume effluent splitter, and a cryogenic preparative collection device (PFC, Gerstel). For AMS analysis, we need to separate and recover sufficient quantity of target individual compounds (>50 μgC). Yields of target compounds from C 14 n-alkanes to C 40 to C 30 n-alkanes and approximately that of 80% for higher molecular weights compounds more than C 30 n-alkanes. Compound specific radiocarbon analysis of organic compounds, as well as compound-specific stable isotope analysis, provide valuable information on the origins and carbon cycling in marine system. Above PCGC conditions, we applied compound-specific radiocarbon analysis to the marine sediments from western north Pacific, which showed the possibility of a useful chronology tool for estimating the age of sediment using organic matter in paleoceanographic study, in the area where enough amounts of planktonic foraminifera for radiocarbon analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are difficult to obtain due to dissolution of calcium carbonate. (author)

  1. Chromatographic separation of Iodine species for environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, E.C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geoquimica]. E-mail: geoedin@vm.uff.br; Bellido, A.V.B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisico-Quimica]. E-mail: alf@risc2.rmn.uff.br; Bellido, L.F. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lbellido@cnen.gov.br

    1999-07-01

    In this work a experimental method was developed to separate iodine species from environmental samples by using adsorption chromatography. The radionuclide {sup 123} I which has a half-life of 13 h and a convenient gamma ray of 159 keV was used to investigate a fast and efficient procedure for the separation of iodide and iodate ions in seawater from mangrove samples. The radio-iodine tracer technique is very useful, particularly in kinetic studies because it is easy to detect without any interference of concentration due to the small amount of tracer that is spiked. It is also possible to add two tracers (I-123 and I-131) in different oxidation states. Three chromatographic methods were studied: paper, thin layer and adsorption chromatography with silica and alumina. It was found that paper chromatography is very useful for checking the valence adjustment of the radioiodine species. Initially, several coefficient distributions of iodine species by adsorption in silica and alumina from NaOH, NaHCO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3} solutions (in the range 05. - 0.0001 m) were determined. The best separation so far was achieved by loading the sample (after adjusting the concentration to 0.1 NNaNO{sub 3}) into a chromatographic column with Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}. The iodide passes through the column and after washing the column, the iodate was removed by eluting with 1.0 M NaHCO{sub 3} solution. (author)

  2. Chromatographic separation of Iodine species for environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, E.C.

    1999-01-01

    In this work a experimental method was developed to separate iodine species from environmental samples by using adsorption chromatography. The radionuclide 123 I which has a half-life of 13 h and a convenient gamma ray of 159 keV was used to investigate a fast and efficient procedure for the separation of iodide and iodate ions in seawater from mangrove samples. The radio-iodine tracer technique is very useful, particularly in kinetic studies because it is easy to detect without any interference of concentration due to the small amount of tracer that is spiked. It is also possible to add two tracers (I-123 and I-131) in different oxidation states. Three chromatographic methods were studied: paper, thin layer and adsorption chromatography with silica and alumina. It was found that paper chromatography is very useful for checking the valence adjustment of the radioiodine species. Initially, several coefficient distributions of iodine species by adsorption in silica and alumina from NaOH, NaHCO 3 and NaNO 3 solutions (in the range 05. - 0.0001 m) were determined. The best separation so far was achieved by loading the sample (after adjusting the concentration to 0.1 NNaNO 3 ) into a chromatographic column with Al 2 O 3 . The iodide passes through the column and after washing the column, the iodate was removed by eluting with 1.0 M NaHCO 3 solution. (author)

  3. Ion Chromatographic Analyses of Sea Waters, Brines and Related Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the ion chromatographic methods for the analyses of natural waters with high ionic strength. At the beginning a natural diversity in ionic composition of waters is highlighted and terminology clarified. In continuation a brief overview of other review articles of potential interest is given. A review of ion chromatographic methods is organized in four sections. The first section comprises articles focused on the determination of ionic composition of water samples as completely as possible. The sections—Selected Anions, Selected Cations and Metals—follow. The most essential experimental conditions used in different methods are summarized in tables for a rapid comparison. Techniques encountered in the reviewed articles comprise: direct determinations of ions in untreated samples with ion- or ion-exclusion chromatography, or electrostatic ion chromatography; matrix elimination with column-switching; pre-concentration with a chelation ion chromatography and purge-and-trap pre-concentration. Different detection methods were used: non-suppressed conductometric or suppressed conductometric, direct spectrometric or spectrometric after a post-column derivetization, and inductively coupled plasma in combination with optical emission or mass spectrometry.

  4. Distribution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef: Assessing the clustering intensity for an industrial-scale grinder and a low and localized initial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukiadis, Estelle; Bièche-Terrier, Clémence; Malayrat, Catherine; Ferré, Franck; Cartier, Philippe; Augustin, Jean-Christophe

    2017-06-05

    Undercooked ground beef is regularly implicated in food-borne outbreaks involving pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. The dispersion of bacteria during mixing processes is of major concern for quantitative microbiological risk assessment since clustering will influence the number of bacteria the consumers might get exposed to as well as the performance of sampling plans used to detect contaminated ground beef batches. In this study, batches of 25kg of ground beef were manufactured according to a process mimicking an industrial-scale grinding with three successive steps: primary grinding, mixing and final grinding. The ground beef batches were made with 100% of chilled trims or with 2/3 of chilled trims and 1/3 of frozen trims. Prior grinding, one beef trim was contaminated with approximately 10 6 -10 7 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 on a surface of 0.5cm 2 to reach a concentration of 10-100cells/g in ground beef. The E. coli O157:H7 distribution in ground beef was characterized by enumerating 60 samples (20 samples of 5g, 20 samples of 25g and 20 samples of 100g) and fitting a Poisson-gamma model to describe the variability of bacterial counts. The shape parameter of the gamma distribution, also known as the dispersion parameter reflecting the amount of clustering, was estimated between 1.0 and 1.6. This k-value of approximately 1 expresses a moderate level of clustering of bacterial cells in the ground beef. The impact of this clustering on the performance of sampling strategies was relatively limited in comparison to the classical hypothesis of a random repartition of pathogenic cells in mixed materials (purely Poisson distribution instead of Poisson-gamma distribution). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Similarity analyses of chromatographic herbal fingerprints: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Russell, Paul J.; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Similarity analyses of herbal fingerprints are reviewed. •Different (dis)similarity approaches are discussed. •(Dis)similarity-metrics and exploratory-analysis approaches are illustrated. •Correlation and distance-based measures are overviewed. •Similarity analyses illustrated by several case studies. -- Abstract: Herbal medicines are becoming again more popular in the developed countries because being “natural” and people thus often assume that they are inherently safe. Herbs have also been used worldwide for many centuries in the traditional medicines. The concern of their safety and efficacy has grown since increasing western interest. Herbal materials and their extracts are very complex, often including hundreds of compounds. A thorough understanding of their chemical composition is essential for conducting a safety risk assessment. However, herbal material can show considerable variability. The chemical constituents and their amounts in a herb can be different, due to growing conditions, such as climate and soil, the drying process, the harvest season, etc. Among the analytical methods, chromatographic fingerprinting has been recommended as a potential and reliable methodology for the identification and quality control of herbal medicines. Identification is needed to avoid fraud and adulteration. Currently, analyzing chromatographic herbal fingerprint data sets has become one of the most applied tools in quality assessment of herbal materials. Mostly, the entire chromatographic profiles are used to identify or to evaluate the quality of the herbs investigated. Occasionally only a limited number of compounds are considered. One approach to the safety risk assessment is to determine whether the herbal material is substantially equivalent to that which is either readily consumed in the diet, has a history of application or has earlier been commercialized i.e. to what is considered as reference material. In order

  6. Similarity analyses of chromatographic herbal fingerprints: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Center for Pharmaceutical Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Russell, Paul J. [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Vander Heyden, Yvan, E-mail: yvanvdh@vub.ac.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Center for Pharmaceutical Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Similarity analyses of herbal fingerprints are reviewed. •Different (dis)similarity approaches are discussed. •(Dis)similarity-metrics and exploratory-analysis approaches are illustrated. •Correlation and distance-based measures are overviewed. •Similarity analyses illustrated by several case studies. -- Abstract: Herbal medicines are becoming again more popular in the developed countries because being “natural” and people thus often assume that they are inherently safe. Herbs have also been used worldwide for many centuries in the traditional medicines. The concern of their safety and efficacy has grown since increasing western interest. Herbal materials and their extracts are very complex, often including hundreds of compounds. A thorough understanding of their chemical composition is essential for conducting a safety risk assessment. However, herbal material can show considerable variability. The chemical constituents and their amounts in a herb can be different, due to growing conditions, such as climate and soil, the drying process, the harvest season, etc. Among the analytical methods, chromatographic fingerprinting has been recommended as a potential and reliable methodology for the identification and quality control of herbal medicines. Identification is needed to avoid fraud and adulteration. Currently, analyzing chromatographic herbal fingerprint data sets has become one of the most applied tools in quality assessment of herbal materials. Mostly, the entire chromatographic profiles are used to identify or to evaluate the quality of the herbs investigated. Occasionally only a limited number of compounds are considered. One approach to the safety risk assessment is to determine whether the herbal material is substantially equivalent to that which is either readily consumed in the diet, has a history of application or has earlier been commercialized i.e. to what is considered as reference material. In order

  7. Mixed-mode chromatographic matrices for the resolution of transfer ribonucleic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, Rainer; Mclaughlin, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    Modification of approximately 65% of the amine groups of an aminopropylsilyl bonded-phase silica high-performance liquid chromatographic anion exchanger (APS-Hypersil) with organic acids containing n-alkyl moieties of different chain lengths, results in mixed mode chromatographic matrices of varying

  8. Multiple chromatographic fingerprinting and its application to the quality control of herbal medicines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Xiaohui [Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cheng Yiyu [Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: chengyy@zju.edu.cn; Ye Zhengliang [Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin Ruichao [National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing 100050 (China); Qian Zhongzhi [Committee of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Beijing 100061 (China)

    2006-01-12

    Recently, chromatographic fingerprinting has become one of the most powerful approaches to quality control of herbal medicines. However, the performance of reported chromatographic fingerprinting constructed by single chromatogram sometimes turns out to be inadequate for complex herbal medicines, such as multi-herb botanical drug products. In this study, multiple chromatographic fingerprinting, which consists of more than one chromatographic fingerprint and represents the whole characteristics of chemical constitutions of the complex medicine, is proposed as a potential strategy in this complicated case. As a typical example, a binary chromatographic fingerprinting of 'Danshen Dropping Pill' (DSDP), the best-sold traditional Chinese medicine in China, was developed. First, two HPLC fingerprints that, respectively, represent chemical characteristics of depsides and saponins of DSDP were developed, which were used to construct binary chromatographic fingerprints of DSDP. Moreover, the authentication and validation of the binary fingerprints were performed. Then, a data-level information fusion method was employed to capture the chemical information encoded in two chromatographic fingerprints. Based on the fusion results, the lot-to-lot consistency and frauds can be determined either using similarity measure or by chemometrics approach. The application of binary chromatographic fingerprinting to consistency assessment and frauds detection of DSDP clearly demonstrated that the proposed method was a powerful approach to quality control of complex herbal medicines.

  9. Multiple chromatographic fingerprinting and its application to the quality control of herbal medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiaohui; Cheng Yiyu; Ye Zhengliang; Lin Ruichao; Qian Zhongzhi

    2006-01-01

    Recently, chromatographic fingerprinting has become one of the most powerful approaches to quality control of herbal medicines. However, the performance of reported chromatographic fingerprinting constructed by single chromatogram sometimes turns out to be inadequate for complex herbal medicines, such as multi-herb botanical drug products. In this study, multiple chromatographic fingerprinting, which consists of more than one chromatographic fingerprint and represents the whole characteristics of chemical constitutions of the complex medicine, is proposed as a potential strategy in this complicated case. As a typical example, a binary chromatographic fingerprinting of 'Danshen Dropping Pill' (DSDP), the best-sold traditional Chinese medicine in China, was developed. First, two HPLC fingerprints that, respectively, represent chemical characteristics of depsides and saponins of DSDP were developed, which were used to construct binary chromatographic fingerprints of DSDP. Moreover, the authentication and validation of the binary fingerprints were performed. Then, a data-level information fusion method was employed to capture the chemical information encoded in two chromatographic fingerprints. Based on the fusion results, the lot-to-lot consistency and frauds can be determined either using similarity measure or by chemometrics approach. The application of binary chromatographic fingerprinting to consistency assessment and frauds detection of DSDP clearly demonstrated that the proposed method was a powerful approach to quality control of complex herbal medicines

  10. High-pressure liquid chromatographic assay of Bay n 7133 in human serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Fasching, C E; Hughes, C E; Hector, R F; Peterson, L R

    1984-01-01

    A high-pressure liquid chromatographic method that includes a Sep-Pak (Waters Associates, Inc., Milford , Mass.) preparation of human serum was employed for the quantitative assay of Bay n 7133. Drug levels of 0.1 to 20 micrograms/ml could be detected. No interference from amphotericin B was found in the chromatographic analysis of Bay n 7133.

  11. Effect of chromatographic separation on ASP system interface tension and the countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei REN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of the existing chromatographic separation phenomenon, ASP flooding changes original nature of the system. Therefore, in laboratory ultra-low interfacial tension ASP system is preferred for sand packs flow experiment to research on the effect of chromatographic separation on ASP system interface tension. The two parameters of "breakthrough time" and "output difference" are used to describe the degree of chromatographic separation, and the produced fluid interfacial tensions at the outlet end at 120 min is measured. The research shows that there exists chromatographic separation between three chemicals of ASP system, with first polymer breakthrough and finally surfactant breakthrough; there is most serious chromatographic separation between surfactant and polymer, while minimum chromatographic separation between alkali and polymer; chromatographic separation makes ASP interfacial tension increase from 10-3 magnitude to 10-2 magnitude, affecting flooding effect of ASP system. Thus, reducing the loss of surfactant in the formation will be the main measure to reduce the degree of chromatographic separation. Using sophorolipid as sacrificial agent to replace part of the surfactant injected into formation before ASP system can effectively reduce the impact of chromatography separation and more effectively improve the ultimate recovery ratio.

  12. Measurement uncertainty of liquid chromatographic analyses visualized by Ishikawa diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Veronika R

    2003-09-01

    Ishikawa, or cause-and-effect diagrams, help to visualize the parameters that influence a chromatographic analysis. Therefore, they facilitate the set up of the uncertainty budget of the analysis, which can then be expressed in mathematical form. If the uncertainty is calculated as the Gaussian sum of all uncertainty parameters, it is necessary to quantitate them all, a task that is usually not practical. The other possible approach is to use the intermediate precision as a base for the uncertainty calculation. In this case, it is at least necessary to consider the uncertainty of the purity of the reference material in addition to the precision data. The Ishikawa diagram is then very simple, and so is the uncertainty calculation. This advantage is given by the loss of information about the parameters that influence the measurement uncertainty.

  13. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for guanylhydrazone compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerami, C; Zhang, X; Ulrich, P; Bianchi, M; Tracey, K J; Berger, B J

    1996-01-12

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for a series of aromatic guanylhydrazones that have demonstrated therapeutic potential as anti-inflammatory agents. The compounds were separated using octadecyl or diisopropyloctyl reversed-phase columns, with an acetonitrile gradient in water containing heptane sulfonate, tetramethylammonium chloride, and phosphoric acid. The method was used to reliably quantify levels of analyte as low as 785 ng/ml, and the detector response was linear to at least 50 micrograms/ml using a 100 microliters injection volume. The assay system was used to determine the basic pharmacokinetics of a lead compound, CNI-1493, from serum concentrations following a single intravenous injection in rats.

  14. Chromatographic assay of degradation products of tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.C.; Ramanujam, A.; Nadkarni, M.N.; Rao, K.A.; Bandyopadhyay, C.

    1985-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) procedures have been developed for the estimation of monobutyl phosphoric acid (H 2 MBP) and dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP) present in tributyl phosphate (TBP). Less than one microgram of H 2 MBP and HDBP is visually detected on TLC plate made of silicagel-cellulose (1:1). HDBP as separated by TLC has been quantitatively estimated in the range of 40-260 μg using an indirect spectrophotometric method. GLC method using 10 percent (W/W) XE-60 column can be effectively used for the simultaneous determination of 0.25 percent W/V H 2 MBP and HDBP present in 30 percent TBP-n-dodecane. The sensitivity may be enhanced 100 fold by careful column conditioning and judicious control of operational parameters. (author)

  15. Modification of ion chromatograph for analyses of radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curfman, L.L.; Johnson, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    In ion chromatographic analysis, the sample is injected through a sample loop onto an analytical column where separation occurs. The sample then passes through a suppressor column to remove or neutralize background ions. A flow-through conductivity cell is used as a detector. Depending upon column and eluent selection, ion chromatography can be used for anion or cation analyses. Ion chromatography has proven to be a versatile analytical tool for the analysis of anions in Hanford waste samples. These radioactive samples range from caustic high salt solutions to hydrochloric acid dissolutions of insoluble sludges. Instrument modifications which provide safe and convenient handling of these samples without lengthening analysis time or altering instrument performance are described

  16. Resolving and quantifying overlapped chromatographic bands by transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski

    2000-09-15

    A new chemometric technique called "transmutation" is developed for the purpose of sharpening overlapped chromatographic bands in order to quantify the components. The "transmutation function" is created from the chromatogram of the pure component of interest, obtained from the same instrument, operating under the same experimental conditions used to record the unresolved chromatogram of the sample mixture. The method is used to quantify mixtures containing toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, naphthalene, and biphenyl from unresolved chromatograms previously reported. The results are compared to those obtained using window factor analysis, rank annihilation factor analysis, and matrix regression analysis. Unlike the latter methods, the transmutation method is not restricted to two-dimensional arrays of data, such as those obtained from HPLC/DAD, but is also applicable to chromatograms obtained from single detector experiments. Limitations of the method are discussed.

  17. Gas chromatographic measurement in water-steam circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschetke, J.; Nieder, R.

    1984-01-01

    A gas chromatographic technique for measurements in water-steam circuits, which has been well known for many years, has been improved by design modifications. A new type of equipment developed for special measuring tasks on nuclear engineering plant also has a general application. To date measurements have been carried out on the ''Otto Hahn'' nuclear powered ship, on the KNK and AVR experimental nuclear power plants at Karlsruhe and Juelich respectively and on experimental boiler circuits. The measurements at the power plants were carried out under different operating conditions. In addition measurements during the alkali operating mode and during combined cycle operation were carried out on the AVR reactor. It has been possible to draw new conclusion from the many measurements undertaken. (orig.) [de

  18. Chromatographic separation of radioactive noble gases from xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Coffey, T.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Pech, K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.

    2018-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment operates at the Sanford Underground Research Facility to detect nuclear recoils from the hypothetical Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) on a liquid xenon target. Liquid xenon typically contains trace amounts of the noble radioactive isotopes 85Kr and 39Ar that are not removed by the in situ gas purification system. The decays of these isotopes at concentrations typical of research-grade xenon would be a dominant background for a WIMP search experiment. To remove these impurities from the liquid xenon, a chromatographic separation system based on adsorption on activated charcoal was built. 400 kg of xenon was processed, reducing the average concentration of krypton from 130 ppb to 3.5 ppt as measured by a cold-trap assisted mass spectroscopy system. A 50 kg batch spiked to 0.001 g/g of krypton was processed twice and reduced to an upper limit of 0.2 ppt.

  19. Automated chromatographic laccase-mediator-system activity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Nico; Schelden, Maximilian; Roth, Simon; Spiess, Antje C

    2017-08-01

    To study the interaction of laccases, mediators, and substrates in laccase-mediator systems (LMS), an on-line measurement was developed using high performance anion exchange chromatography equipped with a CarboPac™ PA 100 column coupled to pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The developed method was optimized for overall chromatographic run time (45 to 120 min) and automated sample drawing. As an example, the Trametes versicolor laccase induced oxidation of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,3-dihydroxypropane (adlerol) using 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) as mediator was measured and analyzed on-line. Since the Au electrode of the PAD detects only hydroxyl group containing substances with a limit of detection being in the milligram/liter range, not all products are measureable. Therefore, this method was applied for the quantification of adlerol, and-based on adlerol conversion-for the quantification of the LMS activity at a specific T. versicolor laccase/HBT ratio. The automated chromatographic activity assay allowed for a defined reaction start of all laccase-mediator-system reactions mixtures, and the LMS reaction progress was automatically monitored for 48 h. The automatization enabled an integrated monitoring overnight and over-weekend and minimized all manual errors such as pipetting of solutions accordingly. The activity of the LMS based on adlerol consumption was determined to 0.47 U/mg protein for a laccase/mediator ratio of 1.75 U laccase/g HBT. In the future, the automated method will allow for a fast screening of combinations of laccases, mediators, and substrates which are efficient for lignin modification. In particular, it allows for a fast and easy quantification of the oxidizing activity of an LMS on a lignin-related substrate which is not covered by typical colorimetric laccase assays. ᅟ.

  20. Chromatographic profiles of extractives from leaves of Eugenia uniflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle C.F. Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, popularly known as “pitanga”, is used in traditional medicine due the properties attributed to its chemical content, these being mainly hydrolysable tannins and flavonoids. This study provides a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of chemical profile from leaves of E. uniflora. The HPLC analysis was carried out on a C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 µm by gradient elution with methanol and water (acidified with trifluoracetic acid; and silica gel Plates 60-F 254 with 10–12 µm and 5–6 µm particles, respectively for TLC and High HPTLC analysis. The chromatographic data obtained from HPLC, TLC and HPTLC presented bands and peaks related to flavonoids (myricitrin and derivatives and tannins (gallic and ellagic acids, which were observed from different samples. The chromatographic similarities enabled the building of a typical fingerprint for the herbal material. The similarity analysis of the sample data by Pearson correlation showed R values >0.9 among peaks (HPLC and bands (HPTLC. In addition, the analytical methodology developed by HPLC enabled the satisfactory quantification of marker substances [ellagic acid = 0.22% and 0.20% (m/m; gallic acid = 0.20% and 0.43%; myricitrin = 0.42 and 1.74% (m/m in herbal drug and crude extract, respectively]. The procedure was also validated in accordance with the assays required by Brazilian legislation. Thus, the HPTLC and HPLC methods developed in this study provide helpful and simple tools for the quality evaluation both qualitatively and quantitatively of raw materials and extractives from leaves of E. uniflora.

  1. Parameter selection for peak alignment in chromatographic sample profiling: Objective quality indicators and use of control samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.; van Velzen, E.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2009-01-01

    In chromatographic profiling applications, peak alignment is often essential as most chromatographic systems exhibit small peak shifts over time. When using currently available alignment algorithms, there are several parameters that determine the outcome of the alignment process. Selecting the

  2. Design of pulsed perforated-plate columns for industrial scale mass transfer applications - present experience and the need for a model based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    Mass transfer is a vital unit operation in the processing of spent nuclear fuel in the backend of closed fuel cycle and Pulsed perforated plate extraction columns are used as mass transfer device for more than five decades. The pulsed perforated plate column is an agitated differential contactor, which has wide applicability due to its simplicity, high mass transfer efficiency, high through put, suitability for maintenance free remote operation, ease of cleaning/decontamination and cost effectiveness. Design of pulsed columns are based on a model proposed to describe the hydrodynamics and mass transfer. In equilibrium stage model, the HETS values are obtained from pilot plant experiments and then scaled empirically to design columns for industrial application. The dispersion model accounts for mass transfer kinetics and back-mixing. The drop population balance model can describe complex hydrodynamics of dispersed phase, that is, drop formation, break-up and drop-to-drop interactions. In recent years, significant progress has been made to model pulsed columns using CFD, which provides complete mathematical description of hydrodynamics in terms of spatial distribution of flow fields and 3D visualization. Under the condition of pulsation, the poly-dispersed nature of turbulent droplet swarm renders modeling difficult. In the absence of industry acceptance of proposed models, the conventional chemical engineering practice is to use HETS-NTS concept or HTU-NTU approach to design extraction columns. The practicability of HTU-NTU approach has some limitations due to the lack of experimental data on individual film mass transfer coefficients. Presently, the HETS-NTS concept has been used for designing the columns, which has given satisfactory performance. The design objective is mainly to arrive at the diameter and height of the mass transfer section for a specific plate geometry, fluid properties and pulsing condition to meet the intended throughput (capacity) and mass

  3. Screw compressor system for industrial-scale helium refrigerators or industrial ammonia screw compressors for helium refrigeration systems; Schraubenkompressor-System fuer Helium-Grosskaelteanlage oder Ammoniak-Schraubenverdichter aus Industrieanwendungen fuer Helium-Kaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrich, O.; Mosemann, D.; Zaytsev, D. [GEA Grasso GmbH Refrigeration Technology, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Material characteristics, requirements and measured data of ammonia and helium compression are compared. The compressor lines for industrial ammonia and helium refrigerators are presented, and important characteristics of the compressors are explained. The test stand for performance measurements with helium and ammonia is described, and results are presented. In spite of the different characteristics of the fluids, the compressor-specific efficiencies (supply characteristic, quality characteristic) were found to be largely identical. The values calculated for helium on the basis of NH3 test runs were found to be realistic, which means that the decades of experience with ammonia in industrial applications can be applied to helium compression as well. The design of screw compressor aggregates (skids) in industrial refrigeration is discussed and illustrated by examples. (orig.)

  4. Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Thevenon F; Graham ND; Chiaradia M; Arpagaus P; Wildi W; Pote J

    2011-01-01

    This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century i...

  5. The efficiency at industrial scale of a thermodynamic model for desulphurization of aluminium killed steels using slags in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2.

    OpenAIRE

    Butnariu, I.; Constantin, N.; Nita, P. S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper are presented the results of some desulphurization trials in the ladle carried out at industrial scale for steels with low carbon, low alloyed and aluminum killed, using basic slag and argon bubbling. The main variables of treatment have been established on the basis of a thermodynamic model that includes parameters as sulphur capacity of the slag, optical basicity of oxides and of the slags, the activities of oxides in the slags and activities of elements in the liquid steel. S...

  6. Radio Column Chromatographic Assay of H3-Labelled Substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharpenseel, H.W.; Menke, K.H.

    1962-01-01

    Combined radio-chromatographic investigations of H 3 -labelled substances are an integral part of the majority of biochemical experiments with H 3 -labelled compounds. H 3 -radio paper chromatography yields, in a scanner with a windowless flow counter, a counting efficiency of 0,5 -1,5%, depending largely on the thickness of the paper and the self-absorption of the labelled compound. The radio gas chromatography of tritiated compounds presents no major problem. Successful use is being made of a combination of a gas chromatograph with a flow ionization chamber and vibrating reed electrometer, a system originated by K. E. Wilzbach and P. Riessz, and improved by H. Dutton, L. Mason and L. Blair. Through the use of ''Teflon'' and silicone-rubber for the insulating parts of the flow ion chamber, it can be operated at close to 300 o C. Radio column chromatography with tritium holds little promise, when the column effluent is spread out as a shallow layer and slowly passes under a windowless flow counter or a scintillation counter, as was successfully tried with C 14 . Liquid scintillation spectrometry is likely to be the chosen method. Essentially, there are two different approaches feasible. These have been compared: 1. The column effluent is passed through a coil of plastic scintillator tubing, which is wound around a ''Plexiglas'' cylinder and placed in a bath of silicone oil in a light pipe with TiO 2 -reflector. Similarly, the HP-containing effluent can be directed through a test vial, filled - very much as in Steinberg's method - with plastic scintillator beads. These two approaches, that operate highly satisfactorily in the case of C 14 , offer low counting efficiencies of less than 1% for H 3 due to the unfavourable surface to volume ratio. 2. The column effluent is combined 1:30 with a mixture of 3:2 toluene/ethanol by the action of a magnet-vibrator before being assayed while passing through a K 40 -free glass - coiled between the analyser- and monitor

  7. Use of coextraction and suppression of extraction in extraction-chromatographic separation of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karandashev, V.K.; Kuznetsov, R.A.; Grazhulene, S.S.; Usmanova, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    TBP, solutions of hydrobromic acid, indium and polytetrafluoroethylene powder, carrier for TBP, were used to study the effects of coextraction and extraction suppression on extraction-chromatographic behaviour of microamounts of elements in the presence of macroamounts of other elements. Possibility of using these effects under extraction-chromatographic element separation were considered. A new method for extraction-chromatographic separation of scandium microamounts from the mixture of large amount of elements (Y, Cd, Ce, Eu, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Np and other) was suggested. 15 refs.; 3 figs

  8. Pyrolysis-gas chromatographic method for kerogen typing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larter, S.R.; Douglas, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The classification of kerogens according to their type and rank is important for the definition of any kerogen assemblage. Whereas optical methods of rank determination are well known, vitrinite reflectance and spore coloration being the most widely accepted chemical methods for typing kerogens are less developed. In this work we show that pyrograms, produced by pyrolyzing microgram quantities of solvent-extracted kerogens, enable not only their characterization in terms of a chromatographic fingerprint but also the production of a numerical type index determined as the ratio of m(+p)-xylene/n-octene (oct-1-ene) in the pyrogram. This index appears to be a close function of kerogen type. Type 3 kerogens (Tissot et al., 1974), including vitrinite, provide a high type index and have pyrolysates dominated by aromatic and phenolic compounds whereas type 1 kerogens provide an aliphatic-rich pyrolysate and consequently a low type index. The type index described here correlates well with microscopic and elemental analysis data and the pyrogram fingerprint provides an additional level of characterization not attainable with other current typing techniques.

  9. Liquid chromatographic determination of sennosides in Cassia angustifolia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Alpuna; Pandey, Richa; Verma, Ram K; Gupta, Madan M

    2006-01-01

    A simple liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of sennosides B and A in leaves of Cassia angustifolia. These compounds were extracted from leaves with a mixture of methanol-water (70 + 30, v/v) after defatting with hexane. Analyte separation and quantitation were achieved by gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography and UV absorbance at 270 nm using a photodiode array detector. The method involves the use of an RP-18 Lichrocart reversed-phase column (5 microm, 125 x 4.0 mm id) and a binary gradient mobile-phase profile. The various other aspects of analysis, namely, peak purity, similarity, recovery, repeatability, and robustness, were validated. Average recoveries of 98.5 and 98.6%, with a coefficient of variation of 0.8 and 0.3%, were obtained by spiking sample solution with 3 different concentration solutions of standards (60, 100, and 200 microg/mL). Detection limits were 10 microg/mL for sennoside B and 35 microg/mL for sennoside A, present in the sample solution. The quantitation limits were 28 and 100 microg/mL. The analytical method was applied to a large number of senna leaf samples. The new method provides a reliable tool for rapid screening of C. angustifolia samples in large numbers, which is needed in breeding/genetic engineering and genetic mapping experiments.

  10. Brazilian organic sugarcane spirits: Physicochemical and chromatographic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cimino Duarte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There has been a growing demand for products from organic agriculture for the food market. Brazil leads the production of sugarcane spirits and produces about 1.6 billion liters/year. New technologies have been sought throughout the supply chain to improve production, and organic raw material has been used in the production of sugar cane for the production of beverages. This study aimed to define the physicochemical and chromatographic profiles of eleven organic sugarcane spirits samples from various Brazilian states. The secondary components and contaminants were identified and quantified through physicochemical analyses, HPLC and gas chromatography (GC. A significant percentage of the organic sugarcane spirits samples contained concentrations of components that were above the limits required by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Provisioning (MAPA, specifically the esters (18.20%, copper and dry extract (9.10%. This contamination is caused by bad conditions employed during the production process, which are not in compliance with the good manufacturing practices determined and legislated by Brazilian law.

  11. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic analysis of poloxamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Sanghoon; Chang, Taihyun

    2016-04-15

    Poloxamers are low molar mass triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), having number of applications as non-ionic surfactants. Comprehensive one and two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of these materials is proposed in this study. The separation of oligomers of both types (PEO and PPO) is demonstrated for several commercial poloxamers. This is accomplished at the critical conditions for one of the block while interaction for the other block. Reversed phase LC at CAP of PEO allowed for oligomeric separation of triblock copolymers with regard to PPO block whereas normal phase LC at CAP of PPO renders oligomeric separation with respect to PEO block. The oligomeric separation with regard to PEO and PPO are coupled online (comprehensive 2D-LC) to reveal two-dimensional contour plots by unconventional 2D IC×IC (interaction chromatography) coupling. The study provides chemical composition mapping of both PEO and PPO, equivalent to combined molar mass and chemical composition mapping for several commercial poloxamers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterisation of wax works of art by gas chromatographic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regert, M; Langlois, J; Colinart, S

    2005-10-14

    To identify the various natural and synthetic substances used by sculptors at the end of the 19th century, several contemporary reference samples were investigated by high temperature gas chromatography (HT GC) and HT GC-MS. Using specific chromatographic conditions and minimising sample preparation, we could separate, detect and identify a wide range of biomolecular markers covering a great variety of molecular weights and volatilities, with a minimum amount of sample, in a single run. Beeswax, spermaceti, carnauba, candellila and Japan waxes as well as pine resin derivatives, animal fats, paraffin, ozokerite and stearin, used as additives in wax works of art, were chemically investigated. In the case of low volatile compounds, transbutylation was performed. The structure of long-chain esters of spermaceti was elucidated for the first time by HT GC-MS analysis. Such a method was then carried out on 10 samples collected on a statuette of Junon by Antoine-Louis Barye (Louvre Museum, Paris, France) and on a sculpture by Aimé-Jules Dalou (Musée de la Révolution Française, Vizille, France). The analytical results obtained provide new data on the complex recipes elaborated by sculptors at the end of the 19th century.

  13. Chemical Compositions, Chromatographic Fingerprints and Antioxidant Activities of Andrographis Herba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an HPLC-UV-MS method for quantitative determination of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide in Andrographis Herba and establishment of its chromatographic fingerprint. The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection and quantification, inter- and intra-day precisions, repeatability, stability and recovery. All the validation results of quantitative determination and fingerprinting methods were satisfactory. The developed method was then applied to assay the contents of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide and to acquire the fingerprints of all the collected Andrographis Herba samples. Furthermore, similarity analysis and principal component analysis were used to reveal the similarities and differences between the samples on the basis of the characteristic peaks. More importantly, the DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric reducing capacities of the Andrographis Herba samples were assayed. By bivariate correlation analysis, we found that six compounds are positively correlated to DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacities, and four compounds are negatively correlated to DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacities.

  14. Gas chromatographic analysis of volatiles in fluid and gas inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrawes, F.; Holzer, G.; Roedder, E.; Gibson, E.K.; Oro, John

    1984-01-01

    Most geological samples and some synthetic materials contain fluid inclusions. These inclusions preserve for us tiny samples of the liquid and/or the gas phase that was present during formation, although in some cases they may have undergone significant changes from the original material. Studies of the current composition of the inclusions provide data on both the original composition and the change since trapping.These inclusions are seldom larger than 1 millimeter in diameter. The composition varies from a single major compound (e.g., water) in a single phase to a very complex mixture in one or more phases. The concentration of some of the compounds present may be at trace levels.We present here some analyses of inclusions in a variety of geological samples, including diamonds. We used a sample crusher and a gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC—MS) system to analyze for organic and inorganic volatiles present as major to trace constituents in inclusions. The crusher is a hardened stainless-steel piston cylinder apparatus with tungsten carbide crusing surfaces, and is operated in a pure helium atmosphere at a controlled temperature.Samples ranging from 1 mg to 1 g were crushed and the released volatiles were analyzed using multi-chromatographic columns and detectors, including the sensitive helium ionization detector. Identification of the GC peaks was carried out by GC—MS. This combination of procedures has been shown to provide geochemically useful information on the process involved in the history of the samples analyzed.

  15. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of glucosamine in rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh-Habashi, Ali; Sattari, Saeed; Pasutto, Franco; Jamali, Fakhreddin

    2002-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of glucosamine (GlcN) in rat plasma. Internal standard, galactosamine, was added to 100 micro L of plasma containing GlcN followed by precipitation of plasma proteins with acetonitrile. Evaporation of the decanted supernatant solution was accelerated by the addition of methanol. GlcN was derivatized by addition of a solution containing 1-naphthyl isothiocyanate. Sample cleanup included passage through an anion exchange cartridge. Analysis was accomplished by injection of 0.1 mL of the sample solution into an isocratic HPLC system consisting of a C18 column, a mobile phase of acetonitrile: water: acetic acid: triethylamine (4.5: 95.5:0.1:0.05), a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min, and a UV detector set at 254 nm. Galactosamine and GlcN appeared 26 and 29 min post-injection, respectively. The assay was linear over the range of 1.25-400 micro g/mL (CV<10%) with a detection limit of 0.63 microg/mL and a limit of quantification of 1.25 microg/mL. The method was applied to the determination of GlcN in rat plasma after oral administration of 350 mg/kg of GlcN hydrochloride. The present assay is specific, sensitive, precise, and accurate and is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies.

  16. Recent Advances in Water Analysis with Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAskill, John A.; Tsikata, Edem

    2014-01-01

    We report on progress made in developing a water sampling system for detection and analysis of volatile organic compounds in water with a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS). Two approaches are described herein. The first approach uses a custom water pre-concentrator for performing trap and purge of VOCs from water. The second approach uses a custom micro-volume, split-splitless injector that is compatible with air and water. These water sampling systems will enable a single GC-based instrument to analyze air and water samples for VOC content. As reduced mass, volume, and power is crucial for long-duration, manned space-exploration, these water sampling systems will demonstrate the ability of a GCMS to monitor both air and water quality of the astronaut environment, thereby reducing the amount of required instrumentation for long duration habitation. Laboratory prototypes of these water sampling systems have been constructed and tested with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer as well as a thermal conductivity detector. Presented herein are details of these water sampling system with preliminary test results.

  17. Chromatographic separation of low-temperature tar. Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terres, E; Gebert, F; Huelsemann, H; Petereit, H; Toepsch, H; Ruppert, W

    1955-01-01

    Experiments with crude phenolic mixtures in benzene-MeOH over an alumina chromatographic column are reported. The most effective separation into crude fractions was obtained from a petroleum-ether solution with benzene and benzene-MeOH elution. These fractions are analyzed by paper chromatography. R/sub f/ values for 29 phenols and benzoic acid from water-saturated AmOH are given. Folin-Denis reagent and ultraviolet absorption is used for identification of the phenolic compounds. R/sub f/ values for monohydroxy compounds are larger than 0.9, dihydroxy 0.80 to 0.9, trihydroxy 0.6, hydroxytoluic acids 0.39 to 0.56. R/sub f/ values of Na and K salts are different from those of the free phenols. Tests in aqueous solution near 0/sup 0/ gave important results. R/sub f/ values of the less polar materials decrease and less material is lost through evaporation, smaller and sharper spots are obtained and liquids move at a more even rate. A series of isomeric alkyl phenols is reported; ortho alkyl groups decrease the migration rate most effectively.

  18. Autonomous gas chromatograph system for Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) proof of concept demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, F.J.; Laguna, G.R.

    1996-09-01

    An autonomous gas chromatograph system was designed and built to support the Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) demonstration. TEVES is a remediation demonstration that seeks to enhance an existing technology (vacuum extraction) by adding a new technology (soil heating). A pilot scale unit was set up at one of the organic waste disposal pits at the Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) in Tech Area 3. The responsibility for engineering a major part of the process instrumentation for TEVES belonged to the Manufacturing Control Subsystems Department. The primary mission of the one-of-a-kind hardware/software system is to perform on-site gas sampling and analysis to quantify a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from various sources during TEVES operations. The secondary mission is to monitor a variety of TEVES process physical parameters such as extraction manifold temperature, pressure, humidity, and flow rate, and various subsurface pressures. The system began operation in September 1994 and was still in use on follow-on projects when this report was published

  19. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers as Extracting Media for the Chromatographic Determination of Antibiotics in Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Bitas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk-producing animals are typically kept stationary in overcrowded large-scale farms and in most cases under unsanitary conditions, which promotes the development of infections. In order to maintain sufficient health status among the herd or promote growth and increase production, farmers administer preventative antibiotic doses to the animals through their feed. However, many antibiotics used in cattle farms are intended for the treatment of bacterial infections in humans. This results in the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria which pose a great risk for public health. Additionally, antibiotic residues are found in milk and dairy products, with potential toxic effects for the consumers. Hence the need of antibiotic residues monitoring in milk arises. Analytical methods were developed for the determination of antibiotics in milk, with key priority given to the analyte extraction and preconcentration step. Extraction can benefit from the production of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs that can be applied as sorbents for the extraction of specific antibiotics. This review focuses on the principals of molecular imprinting technology and synthesis methods of MIPs, as well as the application of MIPs and MIPs composites for the chromatographic determination of various antibiotic categories in milk found in the recent literature.

  20. Gas chromatographic isolation of individual compounds from complex matrices for radiocarbon dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglinton, T I; Aluwihare, L I; Bauer, J E; Druffel, E R; McNichol, A P

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the application of a novel, practical approach for isolation of individual compounds from complex organic matrices for natural abundance radiocarbon measurement. This is achieved through the use of automated preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC) to separate and recover sufficient quantities of individual target compounds for (14)C analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We developed and tested this approach using a suite of samples (plant lipids, petroleums) whose ages spanned the (14)C time scale and which contained a variety of compound types (fatty acids, sterols, hydrocarbons). Comparison of individual compound and bulk radiocarbon signatures for the isotopically homogeneous samples studied revealed that Δ(14)C values generally agreed well (±10%). Background contamination was assessed at each stage of the isolation procedure, and incomplete solvent removal prior to combustion was the only significant source of additional carbon. Isotope fractionation was addressed through compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analyses. Fractionation of isotopes during isolation of individual compounds was minimal (radiocarbon measurements. The addition of carbon accompanying derivatization of functionalized compounds (e.g., fatty acids and sterols) prior to chromatographic separation represents a further source of potential error. This contribution can be removed using a simple isotopic mass balance approach. Based on these preliminary results, the PCGC-based approach holds promise for accurately determining (14)C ages on compounds specific to a given source within complex, heterogeneous samples.

  1. Nuclear industry takes off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, A.; Stevens, R.C.B.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade irradiation sterilisation of medical and pharmaceutical products proved a highly successful semi-commercial operation at Pelindaba, until it made way recently for the first full-scale radiation processing industry in SA - a classic case of science transferring technology to industry

  2. Stochastic Industrial Source Detection Using Lower Cost Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, E.; George, I. J.; Brantley, H.; Deshmukh, P.; Cansler, J.; Tang, W.

    2017-12-01

    Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) can be emitted from a variety of sources in industrial facilities, energy production, and commercial operations. Stochastic industrial sources (SISs) represent a subcategory of emissions from fugitive leaks, variable area sources, malfunctioning processes, and improperly controlled operations. From the shared perspective of industries and communities, cost-effective detection of mitigable SIS emissions can yield benefits such as safer working environments, cost saving through reduced product loss, lower air shed pollutant impacts, and improved transparency and community relations. Methods for SIS detection can be categorized by their spatial regime of operation, ranging from component-level inspection to high-sensitivity kilometer scale surveys. Methods can be temporally intensive (providing snap-shot measures) or sustained in both time-integrated and continuous forms. Each method category has demonstrated utility, however, broad adoption (or routine use) has thus far been limited by cost and implementation viability. Described here are a subset of SIS methods explored by the U.S EPA's next generation emission measurement (NGEM) program that focus on lower cost methods and models. An emerging systems approach that combines multiple forms to help compensate for reduced performance factors of lower cost systems is discussed. A case study of a multi-day HAP emission event observed by a combination of low cost sensors, open-path spectroscopy, and passive samplers is detailed. Early field results of a novel field gas chromatograph coupled with a fast HAP concentration sensor is described. Progress toward near real-time inverse source triangulation assisted by pre-modeled facility profiles using the Los Alamos Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) model is discussed.

  3. The behaviour of radionuclides in gas adsorption chromatographic processes with superimposed chemical reactions (chlorides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, B.

    1996-01-01

    Thermochemical relationships are derived describing the gas adsorption chromatographic transport of carrier-free radionuclides. Especially, complex adsorption processes such as dissociative, associative and substitutive adsorption are dealt with. The comparison of experimental with calculated data allows the determination of the type of adsorption reaction, which is the basis of the respective gas chromatographic process. The behaviour of carrier-free radionuclides of elements Pu, Ce, Ru, Co and Cr in thermochromatographic experiments with chlorinating carrier gases can be described as dissociative adsorption of chlorides in higher oxidation states. The gas adsorption chromatographic transport of Zr with oxygen and chlorine containing carrier gas is shown to be a substitutive adsorption process. The consequences of superimposed chemical reactions on the interpretation of results and the conception of gas adsorption chromatographic experiments with carrier-free radionuclides in isothermal columns and in temperature gradient tubes is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Impurity analysis in EC-99mTC radiotracer using chromatographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, E.V.; Fukumori, N.T.O.; Mengatti, J.; Silva, C.P.G.; Matsuda, M.M.N.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop two chromatographic methods of impurity analysis in radiotracer 99m Tc-EC: the Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and the High Performance Liquid Chromatography Reversed Phase (HPLC-RP)

  5. Gas chromatographic analysis of simmondsins and simmondsin ferulates in jojoba meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, M; Holser, R; Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Decuypere, E

    2000-09-01

    A capillary gas chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of simmondsins and simmondsin ferulates in jojoba meal, in detoxified jojoba meal, in jojoba meal extracts, and in animal food mixtures.

  6. Derivatization reactions in the gas—liquid chromatographic analysis of drugs in biological fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff, A.; Lingeman, H.

    1984-01-01

    Alkylation, acylation, silylation and other derivatization reactions applied to the gas chromatographic analysis of drugs in biological matrices are reviewed. Reaction conditions are discussed in relation to reaction mechanisms. Detector-oriented labelling of drugs, and derivatization with chiral

  7. Computational fluid dynamics simulation of an industrial P. chrysogenum fermentation with a coupled 9-pool metabolic model : Towards rational scale-down and design optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haringa, C.; Tang, W.; Wang, G.; Deshmukh, A.T.; van Winden, Wouter A.; Chu, Ju; van Gulik, W.M.; Heijnen, J.J.; Mudde, R.F.; Noorman, H.J.

    2018-01-01

    We assess the effect of substrate heterogeneity on the metabolic response of P. chrysogenum in industrial bioreactors via the coupling of a 9-pool metabolic model with Euler-Lagrange CFD simulations. In this work, we outline how this coupled hydrodynamic-metabolic modeling can be utilized in 5

  8. Deployment pathways for decarbonising industry and electricity generation : System analysis of the techno-economic feasibility and implementation of CO2 capture and transport for different geographical scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to assess promising deployment pathways for CO2 capture and transport in industry and the electricity generation sector. To meet this objective, the following three research questions were formulated: I. What are cost effective CO2 capture and transport

  9. Mars Solar Balloon Landed Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P.; Harpold, D.; Niemann, H.; Atreya, S.; Gorevan, S.; Israel, G.; Bertaux, J. L.; Jones, J.; Owen, T.; Raulin, F.

    1999-01-01

    A Mars surface lander Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) is described to measure the chemical composition of abundant and trace volatile species and isotope ratios for noble gases and other elements. These measurements are relevant to the study of atmospheric evolution and past climatic conditions. A Micromission plan is under study where a surface package including a miniaturized GCMS would be delivered to the surface by a solar heated hot air balloon based system. The balloon system would be deployed about 8 km above the surface of Mars, wherein it would rapidly fill with Martian atmosphere and be heated quickly by the sun. The combined buoyancy and parachuting effects of the solar balloon result in a surface package impact of about 5 m/sec. After delivery of the package to the surface, the balloon would ascend to about 4 km altitude, with imaging and magnetometry data being taken for the remainder of the daylight hours as the balloon is blown with the Martian winds. Total atmospheric entry mass of this mission is estimated to be approximately 50 kg, and it can fit as an Ariane 5 piggyback payload. The GCMS would obtain samples directly from the atmosphere at the surface and also from gases evolved from solid phase material collected from well below the surface with a Sample Acquisition and Transport Mechanism (SATM). The experiment envisioned in the Mars Micromission described would obtain samples from a much greater depth of up to one meter below the surface, and would search for organic molecules trapped in ancient stratified layers well below the oxidized surface. Insitu instruments on upcoming NASA missions working in concert with remote sensing measurement techniques have the potential to provide a more detailed investigation of mineralogy and the extent of simple volatiles such as CO2 and H2O in surface and subsurface solid phase materials. Within the context of subsequent mission opportunities such as those provided by the Ariane 5 piggyback

  10. Gas chromatographic determination of yohimbine in commercial yohimbe products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, J M; White, K D; der Marderosian, A H

    1995-01-01

    The bark of Pausinystalia yohimbe [K. Schumann] Pierre (Rubiaceae), long valued as an aphrodisiac in West Africa, recently has been promoted in the United States as a dietary supplement alternative to anabolic steroids for enhancement of athletic performance. As the number of yohimbe products on the retail market increases, concerns about their safety are raised because of the reported toxicity of yohimbine (the major alkaloid of the plant). Although plant materials are usually identified microscopically, we were unable to identify them in many of the products, because as their labels indicated, the products were mixtures of various botanicals or were bark extracts and contained little or no plant material. A method for extraction and capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation of the alkaloids of P. yohimbe was, therefore, developed and used to analyze a number of commercial yohimbe products. The method involved solvent extraction and partitioning in chloroform-water followed by separation on a methyl silicone capillary GC column (N-P detection). Comparisons of chromatograms of extracts of authentic bark with those of commercial products indicated that, although many products contained measurable quantities of the alkaloid yohimbine, they were largely devoid of the other alkaloids previously reported in this species. Concentrations of yohimbine in the commercial products ranged from < 0.1 to 489 ppm, compared with 7089 ppm in the authentic material. Authentic bark has been reported to contain up to 6% total alkaloids, 10-15% of which are yohimbine. The possible presence of undeclared diluents in the products was indicated by peaks in product chromatograms but not in those of authentic bark.

  11. Chromatographic analysis of toxic phosphylated oximes (POX): a brief overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christian; Worek, Franz; John, Harald

    2010-10-01

    Poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OP), e.g. pesticides and nerve agents, causes inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by phosphylation of the active site serine residue. Consequently, accumulation of stimulating acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft induces cholinergic crisis which ultimately may lead to death. For standard causal therapy, enzyme reactivators are administered representing oxime derivatives of quarternary pyridinium compounds, e.g. pralidoxime (2-PAM), obidoxime and HI 6. The mechanism of action includes removal of the phosphyl moiety by a nucleophilic attack of the oximate molecule substituting the enzyme and forming a phosphylated oxime (POX). POX is produced in stoichiometric amounts of reactivated enzyme and exhibits a significantly enhanced toxicity (inhibition rate constant) when compared to the parent OP. However, stability of POX under physiological conditions appears to be highly limited. Nevertheless, the presence of POX reveals a potential critical issue for both therapeutic efficacy in vivo and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modelling based on cholinesterase activity data. Detailed characterization represents an important need for elaboration of the entire oxime pharmacology.Nevertheless, reports on POX toxicity and analysis are quite rare and may therefore be indicative of the challenge of POX analysis. This review provides a concise overview of chromatographic approaches applied to POX separation. Chromatography represents the key technology for POX purification and quantification in kinetic in vitro studies using buffers and biological fluids. Applications based on reversed-phase chromatography (RPC), ion pair chromatography (IPC) and an affinity approach as well as thin layer chromatography (TLC) are discussed and novel applications and data are presented. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Liquid chromatographic determination of seven antioxidants in dry food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, B D; Charbonneau, C F

    1989-01-01

    The liquid chromatographic determinative step of the official method for propyl gallate, trihydroxybutyrophenone, tert-butylhydroquinone, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxymethylphenol, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in fats and oils has been applied to their determination in a number of dry foods. A representative sample (10 g) is homogenized first with hexane (25 mL), then with 5 mL added water, and finally with 75 mL added acetonitrile. The hexane and acetonitrile are decanted, filtered, and separated; the hexane and rehydrated food are reextracted with 2 additional portions of acetonitrile, and the combined acetonitrile extracts are concentrated and diluted to 10 mL. An aliquot is analyzed as described in the official method, using a 150 x 4.6 mm 5 microns C-18 column. The need for rehydration to maximize the recovery of BHA and other antioxidants from marketplace dry food samples such as potato flakes, dry coffee whiteners, and dessert topping mixes was demonstrated. Rehydration was not required for cheese snacks, breakfast cereals, cake mixes, and some other foods. The need for rehydration should be determined by analyzing other foods with and without the addition of water. Potato and corn chips, popcorn and cheese snacks, breakfast cereals, dry beverage mixes, rice, potato flakes, french fried potatoes, and cake mixes were spiked with the above antioxidants at 10-50 ppm. Overall recoveries ranged from 64.3 to 105.6% and repeatabilities ranged from 0.7 to 10.8%. A total of 109 samples of the above foods were analyzed, and 64% contained detectable (greater than 1-2 ppm) antioxidants, mainly BHA and BHT.

  13. Ethanol dehydration via azeotropic distillation with gasoline fraction mixtures as entrainers: A pilot-scale study with industrially produced bioethanol and naphta

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Pedraza Berenguer, Ricardo; Saquete Ferrándiz, María Dolores; Font, Alicia; Garcia-Cano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Various hydrocarbons (n-hexane, cyclohexane, toluene, isooctane) and mixtures of them (binary, ternary or quaternary), as well as two different types of industrially produced naphtha (one obtained by direct distillation and the other from a catalytic cracking process), have been tested as candidate entrainers to dehydrate ethanol. The tests were carried out in an azeotropic distillation column on a semi pilot plant. The results show that it is possible to dehydrate bioethanol using naphtha as...

  14. LDRD final report for improving human effectiveness for extreme-scale problem solving : assessing the effectiveness of electronic brainstorming in an industrial setting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Davidson, George S.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2008-09-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming in order to address difficult, real world challenges. While industrial reliance on electronic communications has become ubiquitous, empirical and theoretical understanding of the bounds of its effectiveness have been limited. Previous research using short-term, laboratory experiments have engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The present experiment extends current findings beyond the laboratory to larger groups of real-world employees addressing organization-relevant challenges over the course of four days. Employees and contractors at a national security laboratory participated, either in a group setting or individually, in an electronic brainstorm to pose solutions to a 'wickedly' difficult problem. The data demonstrate that (for this design) individuals perform at least as well as groups in producing quantity of electronic ideas, regardless of brainstorming duration. However, when judged with respect to quality along three dimensions (originality, feasibility, and effectiveness), the individuals significantly (p<0.05) out-performed the group working together. When idea quality is used as the benchmark of success, these data indicate that work-relevant challenges are better solved by aggregating electronic individual responses, rather than electronically convening a group. This research suggests that industrial reliance upon electronic problem solving groups should be tempered, and large nominal groups might be the more appropriate vehicle for solving wicked corporate issues.

  15. The growing importance of staple foods and condiments used as ingredients in the food industry and implications for large-scale food fortification programs in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohrer, Rebecca; Larson, Melanie; Maurin, Clémence; Laillou, Arnaud; Capanzana, Mario; Garrett, Greg S

    2013-06-01

    Food fortification is a viable strategy to improve the nutritional status of populations. In Southeast Asia, recent growth and consolidation of the food industry provides an opportunity to explore whether certain widely consumed processed foods could contribute to micronutrient status if they are made with adequately fortified staples and condiments. To estimate the potential contribution certain processed foods can make to micronutrient intake in Southeast Asia if they are made with fortified staples and condiments; e.g., via the inclusion of iodized salt in various processed foods in the Philippines, fortified wheat flour in instant noodles in Indonesia, and fortified vegetable oil in biscuits in Vietnam. For Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, a review of consumption trends, relevant policies, and industry practices was conducted using publicly available sources,food industry market data and research reports, and oral communication. These informed the estimates of the proportion of the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) that could be delivered via select processed foods. In the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, the processed food industry is not always required to use fortified staples and condiments. In the Philippines, dried salted fish with iodized salt would provide 64% to 85% of the iodine RNI for women of reproductive age and 107% to 141% of the iodine RNI for children 1 to 6 years of age. In Indonesia, a 75-g pack of instant noodles (a highly consumed product) with fortified wheat flour would provide 45% to 51% of the iron RNI for children 4 to 6 years of age and 10% to 11% of the iron RNI for women of reproductive age. In Vietnam, biscuits containing vegetable oil are increasingly popular. One 35-g biscuit serving with fortified vegetable oil would provide 13% to 18% of the vitamin A RNI for children 4 to 6 years of age and 12% to 17% of the vitamin A RNI for women of reproductive age. Ensuring that fortified staples and condiments such as flour

  16. Dynamic olfactometry and GC–TOFMS to monitor the efficiency of an industrial biofilter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez, M.C.; Martín, M.A. [University of Cordoba, Department of Inorganic Chemical and Chemical Engineering, Campus Universitario de Rabanales, Carretera N-IV, km 396, Edificio Marie Curie, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Pagans, E.; Vera, L. [Odournet SL, Parc de Recerca UAB, Edificio Eureka, Espacio P2M2, 08193, Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); García-Olmo, J. [NIR/MIR Spectroscopy Unit, Central Service for Research Support (SCAI), University of Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Chica, A.F., E-mail: afchica@uco.es [University of Cordoba, Department of Inorganic Chemical and Chemical Engineering, Campus Universitario de Rabanales, Carretera N-IV, km 396, Edificio Marie Curie, 14071 Córdoba (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Biofiltration is the most widely used technique for eliminating odours in waste treatment plants. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are among the odorous compounds emitted by waste management plants, and serve as variables to measure odour emissions depending on the type of aeration process used. In this work, we assess the performance of an industrial-scale biofilter where composting is the main source of VOCs and odour emissions. Dynamic olfactometry is the sensorial technique used to determine odour concentration, while gas chromatography–time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC–TOFMS) is used to perform the chemical characterization. This work examines a total of 82 compounds belonging to 15 odorous families of VOCs, particularly mercaptans, sulphur-containing compounds, alcohols and terpenes, among others. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to assess the influence of each of these families of VOCs on the total variance of the measure with regard to both the input and output flow of the biofilter. Finally, partial least-squares (PLS) regression is used to estimate the odour concentration in each of the samples taken at the inlet and outlet of the biofilter in each of the samples based on the chemical information provided by chromatographic analysis. The study shows that there is an adequate correlation (r = 0.9751) between real and estimated odour concentrations, both of which are expressed in European odour units per cubic metre (ou{sub E}·m{sup −3}). - Highlights: • Odour and VOC removal by industrial biofilter was evaluated. • Dynamic olfactometry and GC-TOF MS were the techniques used. • The compost aeration mode was considered in this study. • The influence of 15 VOC families on sample variance was demonstrated by PCA. • Odour concentration was predicted from selected chromatographic information by PLS.

  17. Polyphenolic characterization and chromatographic methods for fast assessment of culinary Salvia species from South East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovikj, I; Stefkov, G; Acevska, J; Stanoeva, J Petreska; Karapandzova, M; Stefova, M; Dimitrovska, A; Kulevanova, S

    2013-03-22

    Although the knowledge and use of several Salvia species (Salvia officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, and Salvia pomifera) can be dated back to Greek Era and have a long history of culinary and effective medicinal use, still there is a remarkable interest concerning their chemistry and especially the polyphenolic composition. Despite the demand in the food and pharmaceutical industry for methods for fast quality assessment of the herbs and spices, even now there are no official requirements for the minimum content of polyphenols in sage covered by current regulations neither the European Pharmacopoeia monographs nor the ISO 11165 standard. In this work a rapid analytical method for extraction, characterization and quantification of the major polyphenolic constituents in Sage was developed. Various extractions (infusion - IE; ultrasound-assisted extraction - USE and microwave-assisted extraction - MWE) were performed and evaluated for their effectiveness. Along with the optimization of the mass-detector and chromatographic parameters, the applicability of three different reverse C18 stationary phases (extra-density bonded, core-shell technology and monolith column) for polyphenolics characterization was evaluated. A comprehensive overview of the very variable polyphenolic composition of 118 different plant samples of 68 populations of wild growing culinary Salvia species (S. officinalis: 101; S. fruticosa: 15; S. pomifera: 2) collected from South East Europe (SEE) was performed using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and more than 50 different compounds were identified and quantified. With this work the knowledge about polyphenols of culinary Sage was expanded thus the possibility for gaining an insight into the chemodiversity of culinary Salvia species in South East Europe was unlocked. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development, Implementation, and Analysis of Desktop-Scale Model Industrial Equipment and a Critical Thinking Rubric for Use in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golter, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    In order to address some of the challenges facing engineering education, namely the demand that students be better prepared to practice professional as well as technical skills, we have developed an intervention consisting of equipment, assessments and a novel pedagogy. The equipment consists of desktop-scale replicas of common industrial…

  19. Industrial clusters and social networks and their impact on the performance of micro- and small-scale enterprises: evidence from the handloom sector in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically investigates how clustering and social networks affect the performance of micro- and small-scale enterprises by looking at the evidence from Ethiopia. By contrasting the performance of clustered micro enterprises with that of dispersed ones, it was first shown that

  20. Performance of electrodialysis reversal and reverse osmosis for reclaiming wastewater from high-tech industrial parks in Taiwan: A pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Feng-Chi; You, Sheng-Jie; Chang, Tien-Chin

    2017-02-01

    Wastewater reclamation is considered an absolute necessity in Taiwan, as numerous industrial parks experience water shortage. However, the water quality of secondary treated effluents from sewage treatment plants generally does not meet the requirements of industrial water use because of the high inorganic constituents. This paper reports experimental data from a pilot-plant study of two treatment processes-(i) fiber filtration (FF)-ultrafiltration (UF)-reverse osmosis (RO) and (ii) sand filtration (SF)-electrodialysis reversal (EDR)-for treating industrial high conductivity effluents from the Xianxi wastewater treatment plant in Taiwan. The results demonstrated that FF-UF was excellent for turbidity removal and it was a suitable pretreatment process for RO. The influence of two membrane materials on the operating characteristics and process stability of the UF process was determined. The treatment performance of FF-UF-RO was higher than that of SF-EDR with an average desalination rate of 97%, a permeate conductivity of 272.7 ± 32.0, turbidity of 0.183 ± 0.02 NTU and a chemical oxigen demand of <4.5 mg/L. The cost analysis for both processes in a water reclamation plant of 4000 m 3 /d capacity revealed that using FF-UF-RO had a lower treatment cost than using SF-EDR, which required activated carbon filtration as a post treatment process. On the basis of the results in this study, the FF-UF-RO system is recommended as a potential process for additional applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.