WorldWideScience

Sample records for industrial roundwood production

  1. SOUTH AMERICA: INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD SUPPLY POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available South America has substantial potential to expand its forest plantations and raw material supply. From 1997 to 2005, South America had a high annual growth rate in the production of industrial roundwood, with Brazil and Chile being the most important countries. In the same period, Asia had the only negative regional production growth rate in the world, and China became the largest round wood importer in the world. This paper summarizes the status of production, consumption, imports, and exports of industrial roundwood and forest products in South America. Produc-tion and exports from South America have continually increased at annual growth rates exceeding the forestry sector in general and the U.S. in particular. Based on timber growing investments to date, a strong timber production and forest products manufacturing sector has developed in the Southern Cone countries of Chile, Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, and is increasing in other countries in Latin America. There will be continued opportunities for forest plantations and new manufacturing facilities throughout South America, tempered somewhat by perceived country financial and political risks. These opportunities will allow South America to increase its share of world production and increase imports to North America and to Asia.

  2. Imports and exports of roundwood in the upper Midwestern United States. Chapter 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry; Mark D. Nelson; Ronald J. Piva

    2010-01-01

    Industrial roundwood is the raw material produced from harvested trees that is used to manufacture a wide range of wood products. Roundwood is harvested from the forest and is transported to primary manufacturing facilities to be processed into primary and secondary wood products. Roundwood includes sawlogs that are processed into...

  3. A synopsis of the wood-based energy and heating industries in the northeastern United States with consideration of potential impacts on future demand for roundwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenback; Chuck D. Ray; Li. Ma

    2011-01-01

    The project team identified 323 facilities in the northeastern United States that input pulpwood or "energy wood." Of these, 88 are located in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia, part of the central hardwood forest region. In the 13-state northeastern region, 81 percent of the facilities that use pulp-type roundwood produce an energy-related product. For...

  4. Explorations of roundwood technology in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Cook

    2001-01-01

    A report and critical commentary is presented on the use of small diameter roundwood in building construction in the United States and England. Examples are discussed of roundwood joinery being evaluated at the USDA Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory, and joinery developed by the British engineering consulting firm Buro Happold, working over 15 years in...

  5. Florida's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; James W. Bentley; Michael Howell

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, volume of industrial roundwood output from Florida's forests totaled 445 million cubic feet, 13 percent less than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined to 146 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 214 million cubic feet;...

  6. Georgia's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Nathan McClure; John L. Wells

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, industrial roundwood output from Georgia's forests totaled 1.17 billion cubic feet, 1 percent more than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 4 percent to 433 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 543 million cubic feet...

  7. North Carolina's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Michael C. Mann

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, industrial roundwood output from North Carolina's forests totaled 784 million cubic feet, 1 percent more than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined 3 percent to 306 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 400 million cubic...

  8. Mississippi's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, industrial roundwood output from Mississippi's forests totaled 1.03 billion cubic feet, 11 percent more than in 2002. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers decreased 1 percent to 385 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 543 million cubic...

  9. The South's timber industry -- an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; James W. Bentley; Michael Howell

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, industrial roundwood output from the South's forests totaled 8.7 billion cubic feet, 6 percent more than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 1 percent to 3.2 billion cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 3.9 billion cubic...

  10. Louisiana's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, industrial roundwood output from Louisiana's forests totaled 866 million cubic feet, 20 percent more than in 2002. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 17 percent to 321 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 343 million cubic...

  11. South Carolina's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Nathan Smith

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, industrial roundwood output from South Carolina's forests totaled 645 million cubic feet, 13 percent more than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 10 percent to 186 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 318 million...

  12. Industrial Round-Wood Damage and Operational Efficiency Losses Associated with the Maintenance of a Single-Grip Harvester Head Model: A Case Study in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Syunev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A field-based study was performed to broaden our knowledge of operational efficiency losses associated with the neglect of the proper maintenance of the delimbing and feeding mechanisms of a harvester. The post-harvest assessments of industrial round-wood (IRW processing damage, fuel consumption and productivity were examined in clearcutting operations. Observations were made of seven combinations of wear levels of feed rollers (A—heavy, B—medium, C and C’—without wear and sharpening states of delimbing knives (1—incorrect, 2—correct, depending on the degree of feed roller wear and matching of angles of knife blades to the technical requirements. The processing defects of IRW were broken down into unprocessed branches, bark stripping, and damage caused by feed roller spikes. The results were then compared with the effective quality requirements, and the IRW losses in terms of the reject rates (RR were determined in the context of the technical condition. The most frequent damage was by unprocessed branches. The harvester with correctly sharpened knives produced the minimum RR (4% of pine, 6% of spruce and 6% birch logs. The quality of IRW harvested under B1 and C1 resulted in 6%, 6% and 8%. A1 turned out to be the lowest (12%, 10% and 8%. Improvement in the maintenance of delimbing knives can reduce the RR of IRW by 5%. Timely restoration of worn-out rollers can increase productivity by 2% and reduce fuel consumption by 5%.

  13. North Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Robert A. Harsel

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent North Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  14. South Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Gregory J. Josten

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent South Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  15. Oklahoma forest industries, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis; J. Greg Jones

    1978-01-01

    Oklahoma supplied 73 million cu ft of roundwood to forest industries in 1978, an increase of 13 percent since 1972, and 35 percent since 1975 (fig. 1). Pine made up four-fifths of the total. Sawlogs and pulpwood were the major products, accounting for 81 percent of the roundwood produced. Veneer logs accounted for 8 percent and the remainder was mostly posts.

  16. Roundwood markets and utilization in West Virginia and Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn T. Grushecky; Jan Wiedenbeck; Ben. Spong

    2011-01-01

    West Virginia and Ohio have similar forest resources and extensive forest-based economies. Roundwood is harvested throughout this central Appalachian region and supports a diverse primary and secondary forest products sector. The objective of this research was to investigate the utilization of the forest resource harvested in West Virginia and Ohio. Utilization and...

  17. Michigan timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1990. Forest Service resource bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, R.L.; Pilon, J.

    1993-01-01

    The bulletin discusses recent Michigan forest industry trends and reports the results of a detailed study of forest industry, industrial roundwood production, and associated primary mill wood and bark residue in Michigan in 1990. Such detailed information is necessary for intelligent planning and decisionmaking in wood procurement, forest resource management, and forest industry development. Likewise, researchers need current forest industry and industrial roundwood information for planning projects. All board foot data in the report have been converted to International 1/4 inch scale by applying a multiplier of 1.08 to all saw-log volume reported in Scribner Decimal C scale by sawmills, a multiplier of 1.04 to all veneer log volume reported in Scribner Decimal C scale by veneer mills, a multiplier of 1.38 to all saw-log volume reported in Doyle scale by sawmills, and a multiplier of 1.14 to all veneer log volume reported in Doyle scale by veneer mills

  18. Biofuels from stumps and small roundwood - Costs and CO{sub 2} benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa Naeslund; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    In this study, we analysed and compared costs, primary energy use and CO{sub 2} benefits of recovering stumps and small roundwood from thinnings, together with logging residues. Small roundwood, chipped at a terminal or end-user, has a cost comparable to the chip system and a primary energy use comparable to the bundle system used for recovery of logging residues. The small roundwood system with roadside chipping is more expensive. As productivity in the cutting process improves, the small roundwood alternatives become more cost-effective. The stump system has costs in the same range as or lower than the chip and bundle systems. Forestry operations for stump and small roundwood recovery require considerable primary energy, but net recovery per hectare is much greater than for the chip and bundle systems, which means that more fossil fuel can be displaced per hectare of clearcut than with a chip or a bundle system. Stumps and small roundwood from thinnings can become as cost-effective as logging residues in the near future. Furthermore, when stumps and small roundwood from thinnings are also used to replace fossil fuels, the potential CO{sub 2} reduction will be about four times as great as when only logging residues are used with a traditional chip system. (author)

  19. US forest products in the global economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave N Wear; Jeff Prestemon; Michaela O. Foster

    2015-01-01

    The United States’ shares of global industrial roundwood production and derivative products have declined precipitously since the 1990s. We evaluate the extent of these declines compared with those of major producing countries from 1961 to 2013. We find that the US global share of industrial roundwood peaked at 28% in 1999 but by 2013 was at 17%, with the decline...

  20. Non-energy markets for small roundwood, forest residues and short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, G.

    1995-06-01

    Competition for roundwood is intense at the present time with prices ranging from approximately Pound 20 to Pound 51 per green tonne delivered at mill. The sawmilling industry produces nearly 2 million green tonnes of residues annually from converting British roundwood and about 85% of this is used by the panelboard and paperboard mills. The remaining 15%, comprising mostly bark, and some of the unpeeled chips are used as material for mulching, landscaping and horticultural use, play areas, paths and horse gallops, soil composting and soil conditioning. Wood shavings and sawdust is produced by joinery and milling firms from imported sawn timber and amounts to about 300,000 tonnes/annum. Approximately 70% of this is used for higher priced markets, bedding for horses, chicken and turkeys, cattle and other uses. The remaining 30% is used in the wood processing industry. An increasing volume of solid wood waste which previously went for landfill sites is now being recycled and this trend is expected to continue. Only a very small proportion of the forest residues (tree tops and branches) produced each year is utilised and most of this material is used as mulch for horticultural and landscape uses. Markets for material from traditional short rotation coppice are limited relative to potential production but work is underway to develop new markets. There are no established markets for recently planted non-traditional coppice of willow and poplar with potential for energy production. Trials organised by ETSU and the DTI have indicated the suitability of the material for chipboard production provided the bark percentage is not too high. (author)

  1. Non-energy markets for small roundwood, forest residues and short rotation coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, G.

    1995-01-01

    Competition for roundwood is intense at the present time with prices ranging from approximately Pound 20 to Pound 51 per green tonne delivered at mill. The sawmilling industry produces nearly 2 million green tonnes of residues annually from converting British roundwood and about 85% of this is used by the panelboard and paperboard mills. The remaining 15%, comprising mostly bark, and some of the unpeeled chips are used as material for mulching, landscaping and horticultural use, play areas, paths and horse gallops, soil composting and soil conditioning. Wood shavings and sawdust is produced by joinery and milling firms from imported sawn timber and amounts to about 300,000 tonnes/annum. Approximately 70% of this is used for higher priced markets, bedding for horses, chicken and turkeys, cattle and other uses. The remaining 30% is used in the wood processing industry. An increasing volume of solid wood waste which previously went for landfill sites is now being recycled and this trend is expected to continue. Only a very small proportion of the forest residues (tree tops and branches) produced each year is utilised and most of this material is used as mulch for horticultural and landscape uses. Markets for material from traditional short rotation coppice are limited relative to potential production but work is underway to develop new markets. There are no established markets for recently planted non-traditional coppice of willow and poplar with potential for energy production. Trials organised by ETSU and the DTI have indicated the suitability of the material for chipboard production provided the bark percentage is not too high. (author)

  2. Arkansas's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, roundwood output from Arkansas's forests totaled 749 million cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers were 354 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used, primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 390 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 235 million cubic feet; and...

  3. Conditions for industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated.......The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated....

  4. Examination of roundwood utilization rates in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn T. Grushecky; Jan Wiedenbeck; Curt C. Hassler

    2013-01-01

    Forest harvesting is an integral part of the West Virginia forest economy. This component of the supply chain supports a diverse array of primary and secondary processors. A key metric used to describe the efficiency of the roundwood extraction process is the logging utilization factor (LUF). The LUF is one way managers can discern the overall use of harvested...

  5. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    OpenAIRE

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2009-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding...

  6. Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the forest products industry's research and development priorities. The original technology roadmap published by the industry in 1999 and was most recently updated in April 2010.

  7. Sustainable Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case is to create awareness about a somewhat unfamiliar industry that accounts for over €3 billion in Scandinavia and £5,6 billion in the UK, the Metals recycling industry. The case features a Scandinavian Company and includes several perspectives from managerial disciplines...

  8. Sustainable Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattebö, Helge; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Lorentzen, Børge

    The book discusses the concepts of waste minimization, cleaner technology and industrial ecology, including the experiences with employee participation in preventive environmental activities in companies.......The book discusses the concepts of waste minimization, cleaner technology and industrial ecology, including the experiences with employee participation in preventive environmental activities in companies....

  9. Oregon's forest products industry: 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin R. Ward

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of primary forest products industries in Oregon for 1994. The survey included the following sectors: lumber; veneer; pulp and board; shake and shingle; export; and post, pole, and piling. Tables, presented by sector and for the industry as a whole, include characteristics of the industry, nature and flow of logs consumed,...

  10. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  11. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrio, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. PMID:21326937

  12. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  13. Product Differentiation and Industrial Structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaked, Avner; Sutton, John

    1987-01-01

    Some recent literature on "vertical product differentiation" has d eveloped the idea that if the nature of technology and tastes in some industry take a certain form, then the industry must necessarily be "concentrated" and must remain so, no matter how large the economy becomes. The present paper develops this idea further and looks at so me of its implications. This approach offers a simple unified framewo rk within which to reexplore many issues that arise in considering th e relationship ...

  14. An Examination of Regional Hardwood Roundwood Markets in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Delton Alderman; Delton Alderman

    2005-01-01

    West Virginia?s hardwood resource is large and diverse ranging from oak-hickory forests in the southern and western portions of the state to northern hardwood stands in the northeastern region. West Virginia also has a diverse group of primary hardwood- processing industries, including hardwood grade mills, industrial hardwood sawmills, engineered wood-product...

  15. Chemical products and industrial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    A compilation of all universities, industrial and governmental agencies in Quebec which are actively involved in research and development of chemical products and industrial materials derived from biomass products, was presented. Each entry presented in a standard format that included a description of the major research activities of the university or agency, the principal technologies used in the research, available research and analytical equipment, a description of the research personnel, names, and addresses of contact persons for the agency or university. Thirty entries were presented. These covered a wide diversity of activities including biotechnological research such as genetic manipulations, bioconversion, fermentation, enzymatic hydrolysis and physico-chemical applications such as bleaching, de-inking, purification and synthesis. tabs

  16. Productivity improvement through industrial engineering in the semiconductor industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyersdorf, Doron

    1996-09-01

    Industrial Engineering is fairly new to the semiconductor industry, though the awareness to its importance has increased in recent years. The US semiconductor industry in particular has come to the realization that in order to remain competitive in the global market it must take the lead not only in product development but also in manufacturing. Industrial engineering techniques offer one ofthe most effective strategies for achieving manufacturing excellence. Industrial engineers play an important role in the success of the manufacturing facility. This paper defines the Industrial engineers role in the IC facility, set the visions of excellence in semiconductor manufacturing and highlights 10 roadblocks on the journey towards manufacturing excellence.

  17. Related regulation of quality control of industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This book introduce related regulation of quality control of industrial products, which includes regulations of industrial products quality control, enforcement ordinance of industrial products quality control, enforcement regulation of quality control of industrial products, designated items with industrial production quality indication, industrial production quality test, and industrial production quality test organization and management tips of factory quality by grade.

  18. Fuel consumption in the transport of technical broadleaf roundwood in lowland areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of fuel consumption in the transport of technical roundwood of soft broadleaves from the felling site to a roadside landing using forwarders and tractor assemblies. The research was performed in various operating conditions in the area of FE "Banat" Pančevo. On the basis of the results of the analysis of variance, the data recorded in a variety of conditions were grouped. In addition, the dependence of fuel consumption on the average volume of tour was estimated. The results of the conducted analysis indicate that operating conditions significantly affect fuel consumption of the investigated vehicles. The elements of statistical analysis of the dependence of fuel consumption on the volume of load indicate that an increase in load causes increased fuel consumption per unit of production. Having in mind the results of the analysis of variance, unique norms of fuel consumption were adopted for practical purposes. The highest average consumption (1.21 L/m3 was achieved by a tractor assembly (Same Laser 130 tractor and Imako TP12 trailer with a Loglift 61F hydraulic crane, while significantly lower consumption was achieved by a John Deere 1210E forwarder (1.06 L/m3. In favourable operating conditions, consumption of the forwarder was about 0.9 L/m3.

  19. Determinants of Industrial Production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA OZTURK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of emphasizing the importance of industrial production for the sustainable growth and development of Turkey has been a topic of discussion in political and academia circles. The growth in industrial production (output depends on the investment in manufacturing sectors and the demand for the products. Along with internal demand, Turkey tries to support its manufacturing base with export (incentives. Manufacturing items occupy the greatest share of products in export sales. The development of manufacturing capabilities of the country is clearly based on the demand from inside and out. The effect of Turkey’s export on its industrial production throughout 2000’s has been analyzed. For this purpose we developed a VAR model where industrial production index was the dependent variable and export, investment, and interest rate were independent variables. All independent variables were found to be significantly explaining industrial production.

  20. Biorefinery opportunities for the forest products industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie

    2013-01-01

    Wood residues offer biorefinery opportunities for new products in our industries including fuel and chemicals. But industry must have two capabilities to succeed with biorefineries. Most forest products companies already have the first capability: knowing where the resource is, how to get it, and how much it will cost. They will need to integrate the acquisition of...

  1. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  2. Total Productivity Management in Small Industries

    OpenAIRE

    FARAJPOUR-KHANAPOSHTANI, Ghassem; HAYATI, Seyyed Iman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The importance of small businesses and SME's has been well established in the literature of the world economy. Thus, both industrialized and developing countries, development, support of small businesses as part and parcel of their productivity strategies have. Small industries are a major driver of employment, economic growth and productivity. About 80% of all companies in the world are less than 10 cases of human resources, so 95% of industries in the UK, Spain and Finland and 94 ...

  3. Export of electric power through industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de; David, J.M.S.; Campos, J.M.; Perecmanis, J.; Carneiro, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    We forecast the electrical energy incorporated to the exports of products of the industrial sectors of steel, aluminium, ferro-alloys, chlorine and caustic soda, pulp and paper and petrochemistry, accordingly to scenarios for these sectors consistent with a macro economic reference scenario, for the period 1990/2000. We also compare the electrical energy exported through those industrial products with the forecasted industrial and total markets of electrical energy. (author)

  4. Explaining Spatial Convergence of China's Industrial Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the conditions that may auger a reversal of China's increasingly unequal levels of regional industrial productivity during China's first two decades of economic reform. Using international and Chinese firm and industry data over the period 1995–2004, we estimate a produc...... movement towards reversing growth in spatial income inequality.......This article investigates the conditions that may auger a reversal of China's increasingly unequal levels of regional industrial productivity during China's first two decades of economic reform. Using international and Chinese firm and industry data over the period 1995–2004, we estimate...... a productivity growth–technology gap reaction function. We find that as China's coastal industry has closed the technology gap with the international frontier, labour productivity growth in the coastal region has begun to slow in relation to the interior. This may serve as an early indicator of China's initial...

  5. Product Platform Development in Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Skold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the strategic issues involved in the deployment of product platform development in an industrial network. The move entails identifying the types and characteristics of generically different product platform strategies and clarifying strategic motives and differences. Number o...... of platforms and product brands serve as the key dimensions when distinguishing the different strategies. Each strategy has its own challenges and raises various issues to deal with.......The article examines the strategic issues involved in the deployment of product platform development in an industrial network. The move entails identifying the types and characteristics of generically different product platform strategies and clarifying strategic motives and differences. Number...

  6. Methodology for evaluation of industrial CHP production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, Nenad V.; Studovic, Milovan

    2000-01-01

    At the end of the century industry switched from exclusive power consumer into power consumer-producer which is one of the players on the deregulated power market. Consequently, goals of industrial plant optimization have to be changed, making new challenges that industrial management has to be faced with. In the paper is reviewed own methodology for evaluation of industrial power production on deregulated power market. The methodology recognizes economic efficiency of industrial CHP facilities as a main criterion for evaluation. Energy and ecological efficiency are used as additional criteria, in which implicit could be found social goals. Also, methodology recognizes key and limit factors for CHP production in industry. It could be successful applied, by use of available commercial software for energy simulation in CHP plants and economic evaluation. (Authors)

  7. Industrial production of RHIC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anerella, M.D.; Fisher, D.H.; Sheedy, E.; McGuire, T.

    1996-01-01

    RHIC 8 cm aperture dipole magnets and quadrupole cold masses are being built for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Northrop Grumman Corporation at a production rate of one dipole magnet and two quadrupole cold masses per day. This work was preceded by a lengthy Technology Transfer effort which is described elsewhere. This paper describes the tooling which is being used for the construction effort, the production operations at each workstation, and also the use of trend plots of critical construction parameters as a tool for monitoring performance in production. A report on the improvements to production labor since the start of the programs is also provided. The magnet and cold mass designs, and magnetic test results are described in more detail in a separate paper

  8. Towards the industrial solar production of lime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.; Bonaldi, E. [QualiCal SA, Bergamo (Italy); Cella, G.M. [QualiCal SA, Bergamo (Italy); Lipinski, W.; Palumbo, R.; Steinfeld, A. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland) and PSI; Wieckert, C.; Wuillemin, D.

    2002-03-01

    A new industrial concept that aims at the development of the chemical engineering technology for the solar production of lime is being examined. To establish the technical feasibility, a 10 kW solar reactor has been designed, constructed, and experimentally tested at a high-flux solar furnace. The quality of the produced solar lime meets industrial standards. (author)

  9. Consequences of increasing bioenergy demand on wood and forests: An application of the Global Forest Products Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buongiorno, J.; Raunikar, R.; Zhu, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) was applied to project the consequences for the global forest sector of doubling the rate of growth of bioenergy demand relative to a base scenario, other drivers being maintained constant. The results showed that this would lead to the convergence of the price of fuelwood and industrial roundwood, raising the price of industrial roundwood by nearly 30% in 2030. The price of sawnwood and panels would be 15% higher. The price of paper would be 3% higher. Concurrently, the demand for all manufactured wood products would be lower in all countries, but the production would rise in countries with competitive advantage. The global value added in wood processing industries would be 1% lower in 2030. The forest stock would be 2% lower for the world and 4% lower for Asia. These effects varied substantially by country. ?? 2011 Department of Forest Economics, SLU Ume??, Sweden.

  10. Personal Selling for the Forest Products Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Robert L. (Robert Lee), 1955 August 21-; Hansen, Eric, 1968-; Olah, David F.

    2009-01-01

    The role of salespeople in today's forest products industry is evolving from order taking and price quoting to promoting mutually profitable value exchanges. This publication details the salesperson's responsibilities, describes successful sales strategies, and lists additional available resources.

  11. DeUterium industrial production - tome 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagas, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Some selected bibliographical references about processes for deuterium industrial production are presented, as follow: isotope exchange H 2 S-H 2 O and NH 3 -H 2 , eletrolysis and distillation. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Industrial Products for Beam Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Schmickler, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    In various branches of high technology industry there has been considerable progress in the past years which could be used for beam instrumentation. The subject will be introduced by two short demonstrations: a demonstration of modern audio electronics with 24bit-96kHz ADC, digital signal electronics and application programs under windows on a PC, which allow to change the parameters of the signal treatment. Potential applications are data monitoring at constant sampling frequency, orbit feedbacks (including high power audio amplifiers), noise reduction on beam current transformers... digital treatment of video signals webcams, frame grabbers, CCD-data via USB, all one needs for image acquisitions, in particular interesting for profile measurements. These introductory demonstrations will not last longer than 30 minutes. The remaining time will be used to pass through the audience collecting information into a two dimensional table, which shall contain as row index the accelerator and as column index the t...

  13. Industrial production of products like petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baurier, P J.H.

    1925-02-25

    This invention has as its object a process for separating tars, oils, or gases coming from the distillation of carbonaceous materials, such as lignities or shales, to separate all other substances of the same kind and to prepare products like petroleum. The process for present consideration consists essentially in achieving simultaneously hydrogenation of the material (treated for conversion to stable products) and desulfurization of the materials showing the following characteristics: The substances to be treated are fed in the gaseous state, as vapors or pulverized and made to react at a temperature of 300 to 450/sup 0/C in the presence of excess water vapor, on divided metals capable of decomposing the water with release of hydrogen, at a temperature below 450/sup 0/C.

  14. Eco-efficiency in industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Raesfeld Meijer, Ariane M.; de Bakker, F.G.A.; Groen, Arend J.

    2001-01-01

    English AbstractThis report of the MATRIC project investigated 'Eco-efficiency in industrial production'. After a general introduction into the domain of eco-efficiency, the first part of this report further focusses on the organisation of Product-Oriented Environmental Management (POEM), which is

  15. Drivers for Cleaner Production in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2003-01-01

    This working paper tries to piece together information on regulatory initiatives promoting cleaner production (CP) in Malaysian industry, as well as points of discussion on environmental performance in the sector. It draws upon initial data collection by the team of the research project ‘A Study...... on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production’, which is coordinated by Institute of Environmental and Resource Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; the objective of this study...... is ‘to formulate, establish and develop a comprehensive "National Cleaner Production Promotion Program" for Malaysia’....

  16. Industrial requirements for interactive product configurators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queva, Matthieu Stéphane Benoit; Probst, Christian W.; Vikkelsøe, Per

    2009-01-01

    The demand for highly customized products at low cost is driving the industry towards Mass Customization. Interactive product configurators play an essential role in this new trend, and must be able to support more and more complex features. The purpose of this paper is, firstly, to identify...... requirements for modern interactive configurators. Existing modeling and solving technologies for configuration are then reviewed and their limitations discussed. Finally, a proposition for a future product configuration system is described....

  17. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  18. An investigation on roundwood extraction of Fagus orientalis lipsky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... uphill yarding by Urus MIII was more productive than downhill yarding on snow. .... The total area is 13314 ha. The vegetation type is forest vegetation and the dominant ..... skylines, carriage maintenance must be supplied and.

  19. Forest Products Industry of the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc

    2002-05-01

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc (LATA) conducted an evaluation of the potential impact and value of a portion of the current portfolio of r&d projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technology and the Forest Products Industry of the Future. The mission of the evaluation was to (a) assess the potential impact of the projects to meet the critical goals of the industry as identified in the vision and roadmapping documents. (b) Evaluate the relationship between the current portfolio of projects and the Agenda 202 Implementation Plan. In addition, evaluate the relationship between the portfolio and the newly revised draft technology strategy being created by the industry. (c) Identify areas where current efforts are making significant progress towards meeting industry goals and identify areas where additional work my be required to meet these goals. (d) Make recommendations to the DOE and the Forest Products Industry on possible improvements in the portfolio and in the current methodology that DOE uses to assess potential impacts on its R&D activities.

  20. Product modelling in the seafood industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Stella; Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    driven and proactive to comply with the increasing competition, in such a way that the fish processor issues new products covering both the current and especially latent future consumer demands. This implies a need for new systematic approaches in the NPD as procedures and tools, which integrate...... based integration obtained by the CE approach and tools. It is described how the knowledge and information of a seafood product can be modelled by using object oriented techniques.......The paper addresses the aspects of Concurrent Engineering (CE) as a means to obtain integrated product development in the seafood industry. It is assumed that the future New Product Development (NPD) in seafood industry companies will shift from being retailer driven and reactive to be more company...

  1. New Product Introduction in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus

    Due to the limited time of the monopoly provided by patent protection that is used for recouping the R&D investment, pharmaceutical companies focus on keeping time-to-market for new products as short as possible. This process is however getting more uncertain, as the outcome of clinical trials...... is unknown and negotiations with authorities have become harder, making market introduction more difficult. This dissertation treats the new product introduction process in the pharmaceutical industry from an operations perspective. The overarching aim of this dissertation is to improve the planning...... uncertainty and several important industry characteristics. The model is used to gain several insights on the use of risk packaging and on keeping time-to-market short. As capacity in secondary pharmaceutical production is critical for product availability, a capacity planning model for a new drug delivery...

  2. Opportunities for the forest products industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie

    2011-01-01

    The concept of sustainable harvests is not new to lumber and paper companies—they have been concerned about it and been practicing it for decades, long before it became the headline in a newspaper article. After decades of static products and markets, the industry is offered an opportunity to add products in a new business sector—fuels and chemicals. Although paper...

  3. GELCASTING: From laboratory development toward industrial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omatete, O.O.; Janney, M.A.; Nunn, S.D.

    1995-07-01

    Gelcasting, a ceramic forming process, was developed to overcome some of the limitations of other complex-shape forming techniques such as injection molding and slip casting. In gelcasting, a concentrated slurry of ceramic powder in a solution of organic monomers is poured into a mold and then polymerized in-situ to form a green body in the shape of the mold cavity. Thus, it is a combination of polymer chemistry with slip processing and represents minimal departure from standard ceramic processing. The simplicity of the process has attracted industrial partners and by collaboration between them and the developers, the process is being advanced from the laboratory toward industrial production.

  4. Geotourism products industry element: A community approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basi Arjana, I. W.; Ernawati, N. M.; Astawa, I. K.

    2018-01-01

    The ability of a tourism area to provide products that could satisfy the needs and desires of tourists is the key to success in developing tourism. Geotourists are a niche market that has specific needs. This study aims to identify the needs of geotourists, which is undertaken by evaluating the perceptions of geotourists with respect to 6 elements which are the industrial aspects of community-based tourism products, using a qualitative approach. In-depth interview technique is used as data collection method. These products are as follows: there are five major categories of geotourism commercial elements, which include: travel services, accommodation, transportation, food and beverage, souvenir and packaging. The research results show that there are various products which are the output of the industry elements desired by tourists in Batur representing the needs of different market segments and accommodating the sustainability of nature. These needs are arised and inspired by local culture. The necessity to offer an assortment of products packages is indicated to provide plentiful options for tourists, to lengthen tourist’s stay, and also to introduce various product components available in Batur. The research output could be used and contribute in providing a reference in developing geotourism products.

  5. Preparative electrophoresis of industrial fission product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret, Joel

    1971-07-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the development of the continuous electrophoresis technique while studying its application in the preparative electrophoresis of industrial fission product solutions. The apparatus described is original. It was built for the purposes of the investigation and proved very reliable in operation. The experimental conditions necessary to maintain and supervise the apparatus in a state of equilibrium are examined in detail; their stability is an important factor, indispensable to the correct performance of an experiment. By subjecting an industrial solution of fission products to preparative electrophoresis it is possible, according to the experimental conditions, to prepare carrier-free radioelements of radiochemical purity (from 5 to 7 radioelements): 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 141+144 Ce, 91 Y, 95 Nb, 95 Zr, 103+106 Ru. (author) [fr

  6. Overview and forecast on forestry productions worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjun, Zhang

    2007-02-01

    Our world is largely dependent upon the forestry productions. Through the exploitation of forest reserves, we manufacture various industrial products, furniture, and obtain fuel and energy. Forestry productions should be conducted without large-scale deforestation and environmental degradation. In present study we perform a review and forecast analysis on forestry productions worldwide, with the objectives of providing an insight into the trend for several types of forestry productions in the future, and providing referential data for sustainable forestry productions and environmental management. Polynomial functions are used to fit trajectories of forestry productions since 1961 and forecasts during the coming 20 years are given in detail. If the past pattern continues, world fibreboard production would dramatically grow and reach 224,300,000 +/- 44,400,000 m(3) by the year 2020, an increase up to 240.7 to 408.9% as compared to the present level. Roundwood production of the world would change by -55.5 to 70.4% and reach 3,526,600,000 +/- 2,066,800,000 m(3) by 2020. In 2020 world production of sawlogs and veneer logs would change by -100 to 164.6% and reach 1,212,900,000 +/- 1,242,600,000 m(3). Global wood fuel production would change by -68.9 to 1.4% and reach 1,130,900,000 +/- 600,800,000 m(3) by 2020. Forestry productions in developed countries would largely surpass productions in developing countries in the near future. World forestry production grew since 1961 excluding wood fuel. Roundwood and wood fuel account for the critical proportions in the forestry productions. Wood fuel production has being declined and rapid growing of roundwood production has slowed in recent years. Widespread use of regenerative wood substitutes and worldwide afforestation against deforestation will be among the most effective ways to reduce deforestation and environment degradation associated with forestry productions.

  7. Promotion on the industrial products market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Dania TODOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The literature abounds with articles and books on marketing and especially promoting consumer products. As consumers for these goods we are exposed each day to promotional messages of major product brands in order to attract or retain us when we are already buyers. Fewer things have been written about how to do promotion of industrial goods, which are a special category of goods, but have a very high quota in trade of goods, both nationally and internationally. This article will analy

  8. Biological hydrogen production from industrial wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Zaiat, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). School of Engineering. Dept. Hydraulics and Sanitation], Email: peixoto@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This research evaluates the potential for producing hydrogen in anaerobic reactors using industrial wastewaters (glycerol from bio diesel production, wastewater from the parboilization of rice, and vinasse from ethanol production). In a complementary experiment the soluble products formed during hydrogen production were evaluated for methane generation. The assays were performed in batch reactors with 2 liters volume, and sucrose was used as a control substrate. The acidogenic inoculum was taken from a packed-bed reactor used to produce hydrogen from a sucrose-based synthetic substrate. The methanogenic inoculum was taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Hydrogen was produced from rice parboilization wastewater (24.27 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) vinasse (22.75 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) and sucrose (25.60 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD), while glycerol only showed potential for methane generation. (author)

  9. Analysis of Expectations of Forest Products Industry from Forest Industry Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    GEDİK, Tarık; ÇİL, Muhammet; SEVİM KORKUT, Derya; CEMİL AKYÜZ, Kadri; KOŞAR, Gökşen; BEKAR, İlter

    2016-01-01

    Forest industry engineers, representing the qualified labor within the forest products industry, choose their field of study either deliberately or by chance. This study explores the main skill sets of forest industry engineers required by forest products industry. As representatives of forest industry owner of forest products companies were surveyed about their views on the qualifications a forest industry engineer must have.This study covered total 7111 companies registered to TOBB as a for...

  10. Production capability of the US uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deVergie, P.C.; Anderson, J.R.; Miley, J.W.; Frederick, C.J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Demand for U 3 O 8 through the late 1990s could be met at the grades and costs represented by the $30 resources, although for the next 3 or 4 years, production will probably be from the lower cost portions of these resources if prices remain low. However, to meet currently projected uranium requirements beyond the year 2000, there will have to be a transition by the mid-1990s to higher cost and lower grade production in order to include supply from the additional increment of resources available between the $30 and $50 levels. Plans and financial commitments required to accomplish such a transition must be initiated y the mid-1980s, since lead times are increasing for exploration and for mill licensing and construction. Engineering planning and feasibility analyses would have to be carried out under a more advanced time frame than previously required. The importance of the potential resources can easily be seen. In meeting the high-case demand during the years 2005 through 2019 more than 50% of the production would be from resources assigned to the $50 probable potential resource category. By about the year 2006, there will have had to be considerable development of the possible, and perhaps, some of the speculative resources to assure continued production expansion; by 2020, more than 50% of the production would depend on the previous successes in finding and developing such resources. The continuation of the current trend in production curtailment and decreasing exploration will significantly lessen the domestic uranium industry's ability to respond quickly to the projected increases in uranium requirements. The industry's future will be unsettled until it preceives clear indications of demand and price incentives that will justify long-term capital investments

  11. Isotopes for the improvement of industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze-Kraft, P.

    1978-01-01

    Full text: For many years the International Atomic Energy Agency has been giving technical assistance to developing countries on the application of radioisotopes in medicine, agriculture and hydrology. With increasing industrialization, these countries feel a growing need for the use of isotopic methods as a means of improving the control of production processes and the quality of industrial products. In response to the demand for training in this field, the IAEA recently held its first Regional Training Course in the Practical Use of Radioisotope Techniques in Industry for Process and Quality Control. The course was given from 27 March to 28 April 1978 at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) in Caracas, Venezuela, in co-operation with the Consejo Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Industria Nuclear (CONAN) and the Junta del Acuerdo de Cartagena. It was financed jointly by the IAEA and CONAN, and in addition received a special contribution by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany. Participants were 18 engineers and physicists from Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, and the lecturers came from Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Poland and the host country. Course directors were Dr. J.J. Henriquez (IVIC) and Dr. L. Wiesner (IAEA expert). The idea of the course was to demonstrate that radioisotope techniques can considerably reduce production costs by optimizing industrial processes and making more efficient use of raw materials. It is estimated that the paper industry in the USA, for example, is saving about 100 million dollars per year through the application of radioisotopes. During the training course, the participants gained practical experience in applying isotopic techniques in several fields: in a paper mill at Moron they measured the weight per surface area, and in the cement factory of Ocumare del Tuy the residence time of clinker, at the new international airport of Maiquetia they determined the

  12. Applying of the NVIDIA CUDA to the video processing in the task of the roundwood volume estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruglov Artem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the parallel computing. The algorithm for roundwood volume estimation had insufficient performance so it was decided to port its bottleneck part on the GPU. The analysis of various GPGPU techniques was observed and the NVIDIA CUDA technology was chosen for implementation. The results of the research have shown the high potential of the GPU implementation in the improvement performance of the computation. The speedup of the algorithm for the roundwood volume estimation is more than 300% after porting on GPU with implementation of the CUDA technology. This helps to apply the machine vision algorithm in real-time system.

  13. Productive efficiency in the banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Leandro Dutto Giolongo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to estimate the productive efficiency of Argentine banks. For this purpose, panel data of the universe of banks under the supervision of the Central Bank of the Republic of Argentina (BCRA has been collected. In order to build the bank´s indicators, we used a database of 66 institutions, with annual information for the period 2009-2013. The sources of information were both the BCRA´s web site (www.bcra.gov.ar, and the Buenos Aires Stock Exchange´s web site (www.bolsar.com. It has been selected an efficiency indicator ranging between 0 and 1, meaning the lowest and highest level of efficiency, respectively. The concept of efficiency used here is a relative one, because it considers a Bank´s performance in relation to the behavior of the best players in the industry, being the latter the base of the industry benchmark or frontier. The results show that the mean efficiency of Argentine banks is 0,8277 in the specific period under consideration. The comparison with the results of other studies relating efficiency and competitive pressure, didn´t allow us to infer that the Argentine banking industry experienced in the period a high level of competition

  14. Factors Influencing Productivity Change in the Forest Products Industry,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    y Calificaciones. Una . Prueba De La Hipotesis de Hirschman Para La Industria 1 39 . * Lationoamericana. El Trimestre Economico XLVTI(3):613-650...Association federale des Syndicates de Producterus de Papiers, Cartons et Celluloses. 1958. Organization et Productivite dans les Industries du Papier, du...Carton et de la Cellulose. Summary in: - Productivity Measurement Review 13:41-46. Atkinson, R. C. 1980. Tax Incentives and Research. Science 208:449

  15. The impact of labour productivity on the Swedish construction industries

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Azam

    2007-01-01

    There have been debates concerning what can be done about the current low labour productivity in the Swedish construction industries. High production cost in the construction industries has been a burning issue for a long time. On the other hand, process industries and organisations have taken the advantage of labour productivity measurement to reduce their production cost and eliminate non value-added activities. The purpose of this paper is to examine, why and how the process industries and...

  16. Montana's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy P. Spoelma; Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Alfred L. Chase; Charles E. Keegan; Larry T. DeBlander

    2008-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Montana's 2004 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  17. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Jan.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis

  18. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Jan

    1999-07-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis.

  19. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Jan

    1999-06-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis

  20. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  1. Improving production control within the automotive industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, R L

    1982-01-01

    The problems of controlling and minimising design and manufacturing information within the automotive industry are both costly and do not make maximum use of previous experience. With the advent of CAD/CAM, many new techniques have evolved for the speedy construction of design and manufacturing data bases. A means of binding together these data bases and controlling the design and process planning information is now presented in the form of Computervision's Migraphics and Miplan software. This gives a data retrieval capability from all area's of the production cycle including design and detail, numerical control and robotics, process planning, manufacture and procurement. Together with its numerous analytical capabilities this sorftware provides an excellent tool for the optimisation of manufacturing techniques, thus providing a complete CAD/CAM system from a single data base.

  2. Palikur traditional roundwood construction in eastern French Guiana: ethnobotanical and cultural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogeron, Clémence; Odonne, Guillaume; Cristinoi, Antonia; Engel, Julien; Grenand, Pierre; Beauchêne, Jacques; Clair, Bruno; Davy, Damien

    2018-04-24

    Palikur Amerindians live in the eastern part of French Guiana which is undergoing deep-seated changes due to the geographical and economic opening of the region. So far, Palikur's traditional ecological knowledge is poorly documented, apart from medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to document ethnobotanical practices related to traditional construction in the region. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used. Thirty-nine Palikur men were interviewed in three localities (Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock, Regina and Trois-Palétuviers) between December 2013 and July 2014. Twenty-four inventories of wood species used in traditional buildings were conducted in the villages, as well as ethnobotanical walks in the neighboring forests, to complete data about usable species and to determine Linnaean names. After an ethnographic description of roundwood Palikur habitat, the in situ wood selection process of Palikur is precisely described. A total of 960 roundwood pieces were inventoried in situ according to Palikur taxonomy, of which 860 were beams and rafters, and 100 posts in 20 permanent and 4 temporary buildings. Twenty-seven folk species were identified. Sixty-three folk species used in construction were recorded during ethnobotanical walks. They correspond to 263 botanical species belonging to 25 families. Posts in permanent buildings were made of yawu (Minquartia guianensis) (51%) and wakap (Vouacapoua americana) (14%). Beams and rafters were made of wood from Annonaceae (79%) and Lecythidaceae (13%) families. The most frequently used species were kuukumwi priye (Oxandra asbeckii), kuukumwi seyne (Pseudoxandra cuspidata), and pukuu (Xylopia nitida and X. cayennensis). Although the Palikur's relationship with their habitat is undergoing significant changes, knowledge about construction wood is still very much alive in the Oyapock basin. Many people continue to construct traditional buildings alongside modern houses, using a wide array of species

  3. Alaska's timber harvest and forest products industry, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff M. Halbrook; Todd A. Morgan; Jason P. Brandt; Charles E. Keegan; Thale Dillon; Tara M. Barrett

    2009-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in Alaska during calendar year 2005, describes the composition and operations of the state's primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in timber harvest, production, and sales of primary wood products....

  4. Alaska’s timber harvest and forest products industry, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik C. Berg; Charles B. Gale; Todd A. Morgan; Allen M. Brackley; Charles E. Keegan; Susan J. Alexander; Glenn A. Christensen; Chelsea P. McIver; Micah G. Scudder

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in Alaska during calendar year 2011, describes the composition and operations of the state’s primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as trends in timber harvest, production, export, sales of primary wood products,...

  5. MODERN TOOLS OF PRODUCT PROMOTION OF MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    Tuliakova, I. R.; Chesnokova, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    This article is devoted to the promotion of production of the military-industrial complex. In the new economy require specially coordinated effort to promote products, was no exception and the military-industrial complex. The article notes that the way can be used as tools of industrial marketing, marketing tools and experience.

  6. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Simmons; Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Chris Witt

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho’s 2011 timber harvest through the primary industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho’s industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry trends are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales.

  7. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the textile-mill-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The Congress, in the National Energy Conservation and Policy Act of 1978 (NECPA), directed the Department of Energy to establish materials recovery targets for the metals and metal products, paper and allied products, rubber, and textile-mill-products industries. The targets were developed to provide incentives for using energy-saving recorded materials and to provied a yardstick for measuring progress and improvement in this endeavor. The NECPA indicates that the targets should represent the maximum technically and economically feasible increase in the use of energy-saving recovered materials that each industry can achieve progressively by January 1, 1987. Materials affected by recovered-materials targets include and are limited to aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, iron, steel, paper and associated products, textile-mill, products, and rubber. Using information gathered from the textile-mill-products industry and from other textile-relaed sources, DOE has developed recovered materials targets for that industry. This report presents those targets and their basis and justification. Following an overview of the textile industry, the chapters are: Textile-Mill-Products Industry Operations; Economic Analysis of the Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Governmental and Regulatory Influence on the US Textile Industry; Current Mill Use of Recovered Materials in the Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Limitations on the Use of Recovered Materials in the US Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Materials-Recovery Targets; and Government and Industry Actions That Could Increase the Use of Recovered Materials.

  8. [Guidelines to productivity bargaining in the health care industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottler, M D; Maloney, W F

    1979-01-01

    A potential conflict exists between the recent growth of unionization in the health care industry and management efforts to increase productivity. One method of managing this conflict is to link employee rewards to employee productivity through productivity bargaining.

  9. Partnership with Industry: Film Production Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, Richard; And Others

    The 1988 final report of a task force from the Florida Postsecondary Education Planning Commission stated that in order to ensure continued growth of the motion picture film industry in the state, the postsecondary community must provide a well-trained and competent work force adept in all aspects of the industry. The film industry is a growing…

  10. An Explanatory Study of Lean Practices in Job Shop Production/ Special Job Production/ Discrete Production/ Batch Shop Production Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Lavlesh Kumar Sharma; Ravindra Mohan Saxena

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the study explores the benefits and advantages of Lean Practices or Lean Thinking in Job shop production/ Special job production/ Discrete production/ Batch shop production industries. The Lean Practices have been applied more compatible in Job shop production than in the continuous/ mass production because of several barriers and hurdles in the industrial context that influence the whole processes again and again, this happens due to the lack of knowledge about...

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: Public Opinion, Brigade Contract, Cost Accounting, Industrial Trade, Agricultural Machine, Paperwork, Story Writer, Management Style, Monograph, Deficit Economics, Production, Theory, Turnover...

  12. PRODUCT PROMOTION STRATEGY IN SPORTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla V. Nosova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sports industry is presented like the partof entertainment industry. The authorsemphasize the main income items ofSnowsports unions in Russia and abroad.This paper presents the analysis of development of commercial successful productby foreign federations. The article gives new ways of raising the attractiveness and profitability of the Russian sport.

  13. Application of Specific Features of Industrial Products when Forming and Developing Brands of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsentiuk Stanislav V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses and structures approaches and principles of formulation of industrial products. It offers classification of goods and markets of industrial products by their characteristics and participants. It identifies main participants that make decisions at B2C and B2B markets and characterises their specific features and motivation when making decisions on purchase of products of industrial enterprises. It studies and analyses indicators of development of domestic markets of consumer goods and market of industrial products and dynamics of development of their relation in retrospective view.

  14. Project and Production Management in the Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Ho Ko

    2012-01-01

    In this issue, the Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management (EPPM-Journal) presents five original research papers related to project and production management in the construction industry from authors in Africa, Asia, and Europe.

  15. Industry of petroleum and its by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Antoine

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of petroleum industry and its by-products is presented. Petroleum, since its origin and all steps of its industry including its detection, production and transportation is described. A historical description of the production and formation of fuels under the ground strates through million of years, as well as its chemical composition are presented. A full description of refining petrol and all by-products derived is given. Pictures and tables enhance the explanation

  16. Product models for the Construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    1996-01-01

    Different types of product models for the building sector was elaborated and grouped. Some discussion on the different models was given. The "definition" of Product models was given.......Different types of product models for the building sector was elaborated and grouped. Some discussion on the different models was given. The "definition" of Product models was given....

  17. Productivity Continued to Increase in Many Industries during 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Arthur S.

    1986-01-01

    Productivity, as measured by output per employee hour, grew in 1984 in about three quarters of the industries for which the Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly publishes data. (A table shows productivity trends in industries measured by the Bureau, including mining, transportation and utilities, and trade and services.) (CT)

  18. Benefits of nitrogen for food, fibre and industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoumann Jensen, L.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Hoek, K.W. van der; Damgaard Poulsen, H.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Pallière, C.; Lammel, J.; Brentrup, F.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Willems, J.; Grinsven, H. van

    2011-01-01

    Nature of the issue • Reactive nitrogen (N r ) has well-documented positive eff ects in agricultural and industrial production systems, human nutrition and food security. Limited N r supply was a key constraint to European food and industrial production, which has been overcome by Nr from the

  19. The Four Corners timber harvest and forest products industry, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin B. Sorenson; Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Eric A. Simmons; Micah G. Scudder; Chelsea P. McIver; Mike T. Thompson

    2016-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in the "Four Corners" States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) during calendar year 2012, describes the composition and operations of the region’s primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Recent changes in the wood products industry are discussed, as well as trends...

  20. The Four Corners timber harvest and forest products industry, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Erik C. Berg; Jean M. Daniels; Mike Thompson

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in the "Four Corners" States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) during calendar year 2007, describes the composition and operations of the region's primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as...

  1. Intensity of rivalry in Czech furniture production industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Špačková; Pavel Žufan

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on furniture production industry in the Czech Republic and evaluates the influence of competition forces within this industry. These forces have a direct impact on success of competitive strategies of the firms. Furniture production industry is a typical branch occupied by numerous small and medium-sized firms. Small firms aim on satisfying domestic (or rather local) demand, medium-sized and big firms are much more aiming on exports. The methodical sources for evaluation of ...

  2. About the new industrial production management concept as the company strategy in the fourth industrial revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk Julia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new industrial production management requires a review of the third industrial revolution results and accounting for mass adoption of information and communication technologies to create the organizational basis of the fourth industrial revolution. The future changes will affect all components of the organization and management components of industrial enterprises, forming the potential of new competitive advantages in a global economy. The research included the identification of key factors of formation, development and destruction (absorption related branches of knowledge the industrial production management as the theory and practical activities, given the critical approach to its nature and processes. Revealed common signs of the industrial production management need as a field of knowledge in the framework of previous and current industrial revolutions. It is shown that the industrial production management effectively solves the problem of subsistence economy, and substantiates that the modern digital economy also has the characteristics of subsistence economy. It is important the necessity of formulation of a new organizational thinking, the implementation of which is possible in the modern interpretation of the project office. The article represents the theoretical basis for developing practical recommendations for the formation of the new concept of industrial production management to take advantage of the impact of engineering component on the economic results and the creation of project offices for the development of traditional and created markets in the organization of a new production mode (based on the digital economy.

  3. Operational impact of product variety in the process industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseley, Alexandria Lee; Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research article is to examine the impact of product variety on production performance in the process industry. As the number of product variants sold by a process company typically impacts the run length, production data from a mineral wool insulation manufacturer is analyzed...

  4. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2001. Production statistics (1992-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This is the thirty-fifth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1992-2001 for about 200 countries and areas

  5. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2002. Production statistics (1993-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the thirty-sixth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title 'The Growth of World industry' and the next eight editions under the title 'Yearbook of Industrial Statistics'. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1993-2002 for about 200 countries and areas

  6. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2000. Production statistics (1991-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This is the thirty-third in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1991-2000 for about 200 countries and areas

  7. Industrial water demand management and cleaner production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processes and systems using water today are being subjected to increasingly stringent environmental regulations on effluents and there is growing demand for fresh water. In Morocco, consumption of water by industries is estimated in 1994 at 1 billion m3, the drinking water constitutes 4%. Water used in the food and drink ...

  8. Development of the production of special steels for nuclear industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieillard-Baron, B.

    1977-01-01

    The development of electro-nuclear industries has a powerful impact on the production of special steels, although the quantity of material applied to the non-conventional parts of nuclear power plants is quite small as compared to the total production requirements in this industrial field. Evolution bears on the product research, development and testing methods, on the technical and marketing services - in particular the establishment of quality control teams and assurance manuals - and the implementation of high performance production equipments. Manufacturing must however take place under normal work load and productivity conditions of production tools, and thus ensure a satisfactory profitability on investments entailed [fr

  9. Product Life Cycle of the Manufactured Home Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Wherry

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Residential construction consumes an estimated 26 percent of the total U.S. wood harvest and thus plays an important role in the forest products value chain. While being a relatively small part of the U.S. residential construction market, the factory-built residential housing industry, originating from manufactured homes (e.g. mobile homes, is embracing emerging industry segments such as modular or panelized homes. Since indications exist that factory-built home production is slated to gain a more prominent role in the U.S. construction markets at the cost of traditional stick-built production, the factory-built home industry sub-segment is of considerable importance to the forest products industry. This research looks at manufactured home producers as a benchmark for analyzing the current economic state of the industry and discusses competitive strategies. The analysis concludes, through macroeconomic modeling, that manufactured homes are in the declining stage of their product life cycle due to changes to the U.S. residential construction sector and the factory-built home industry and by advancements of rival industry-segments. As market share continues to decline, firms operating in this industry-segment seek to either hedge their losses through product diversification strategies or remain focused on strategically repositioning the manufactured home segment.

  10. Cleaner production technology for the NDT industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relunia, Estrella D.; Mateo, Alejandro J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses te wastes generated from the conduct of nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and operations like NDT film processing and the systems to reduce water pollution and the film system quality control. Discussions on clean technology production concepts and philosophy is also discussed. A case study on cleaner production technology where a process and equipment modifications and a product substitution were implemented is presented. The equipment modification and product substitution eliminated the use of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in its cleaning operation. (Author)

  11. Traceability: a demand of agro industrial chain for special products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Verissimo Foggiatto Silveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of agricultural products with different nutritional features has altered the relationship, the upstream and the downstream of enterprises that produce and commercialize them. Coordination in the Agro Industrial System is demanded, including traceability as a way to guarantee the conformity of products, attending external clients and agricultural industries that require quality certification. This quality tool enables the identification of some details in the productive chain, such as seeds, farming, harvesting, storage, transportation and industrialization of products. Thus, this essay describes the concept of traceability and provides information of special products from a cooperative from Paraná, which has controlled process in the productive chain, demanded by contractual partnerships done with enterprises that provide fertilizers and food processors. It was identified that this cooperative commercializes three products that need traceability: two special kinds of corn and the regular kind of soybean.

  12. The Forest Products Industry in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    1988, 1992, 1996 and 2010 respectively while particle board production has also been dwindling in .... manufactured and exported by a few large companies in Nigeria. Wooden .... and design procedures (Ogunwusi, 2011). Vol. 6 (4) Serial ...

  13. Improving productivity in the gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, F F; Portsmouth, D J

    1982-05-01

    A study course designed to help BGC managers improve employee productivity reflected four main themes: evaluating quality and performance standards, examining new technologies, exploiting manpower resources, and improving usage of equipment and materials. Visiting speakers' contributions included 1) BGC's broad objectives and its methods of deploying financial resources effectively, 2) creativity as it relates to productivity and to the need for forecasts of risk and catastrophes, and 3) the paramount importance of management's commitment to formally stated objectives.

  14. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Grunow, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates are

  15. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  16. Industrial agglomeration and production costs in Norwegian salmon aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Tveterås, Ragnar

    2002-01-01

    During the last decade, empirical evidence of regional agglomeration economies has emerged for some industries. This paper argues that externalities from agglomeration are not only present in some manufacturing and service sectors, but can also occur in primary industries, such as aquaculture. Econometric analyses in this literature have primarily estimated rather restrictive production function specifications on aggregated industry data. Here, cost functions are estimated o...

  17. Productive efficiency of tea industry: A stochastic frontier approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an economy where recourses are scarce and opportunities for a new technology are lacking, studies will be able to show the possibility of raising productivity by improving the industry's efficiency. This study attempts to measure the status of technical efficiency of tea-producing industry for panel data in Bangladesh using ...

  18. Developing engineering design core competences through analysis of industrial products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2011-01-01

    Most product development work carried out in industrial practice is characterised by being incremental, i.e. the industrial company has had a product in production and on the market for some time, and now time has come to design a new and upgraded variant. This type of redesign project requires...... that the engineering designers have core design competences to carry through an analysis of the existing product encompassing both a user-oriented side and a technical side, as well as to synthesise solution proposals for the new and upgraded product. The authors of this paper see an educational challenge in staging...... a course module, in which students develop knowledge, understanding and skills, which will prepare them for being able to participate in and contribute to redesign projects in industrial practice. In the course module Product Analysis and Redesign that has run for 8 years we have developed and refined...

  19. Official Reports: Inventions, useful models, industrial samples, product certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This serial collection presents brief information on patents, useful models, industrial samples, product certificates and trade marks registered in Uzbekistan. They comprise different branches of human activities including peaceful uses of atomic energy. (A.A.D.)

  20. Official Reports: Inventions, useful models, industrial samples, product certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This serial collection presents brief information on patents, useful models, industrial samples, product certificates and trade marks registered in Uzbekistan. They comprise different branches of human activities including peaceful uses of atomic energy. (A.A.D.)

  1. Official Reports: Inventions, useful models, industrial samples, product certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This serial collection presents brief information on patents, useful models, industrial samples, product certificates and trade marks registered in Uzbekistan. They comprise different branches of human activities including peaceful uses of atomic energy. (A.A.D.)

  2. Perspectives for the industrial enzymatic production of glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roode, B Mattheus; Franssen, Maurice C R; van der Padt, Albert; Boom, Remko M

    2003-01-01

    Glycosides are of commercial interest for industry in general and specifically for the pharmaceutical and food industry. Currently chemical preparation of glycosides will not meet EC food regulations, and therefore chemical preparation of glycosides is not applicable in the food industry. Thus, enzyme-catalyzed reactions are a good alternative. However, until now the low yields obtained by enzymatic methods prevent the production of glycosides on a commercial scale. Therefore, high yields should be established by a combination of optimum reaction conditions and continuous removal of the product. Unfortunately, a bioreactor for the commercial scale production of glycosides is not available. The aim of this article is to discuss the literature with respect to enzymatic production of glycosides and the design of an industrially viable bioreactor system.

  3. Industrial use of agricultural products: European prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocchini, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first discusses how the GATT internal trade agreement has affected Italian and European agricultural practices, especially in that which regards the production of soybean and other vegetable oils. It then assesses how current Italian agricultural policies impact on proposals now being designed to encourage the production of vegetable oils for use as ecological automotive fuel alternatives. The paper cites the need for a greater say by farming associations, and cooperation among fuel oil producers and government bodies in the drafting up of future policies

  4. Nanotechnology applications in the forest products industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Moon; Charles R. Frihart; Theodore Wegner

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the study and engineering of matter at the dimensions of 1 to 100 nanometers, where the physical, chemical, or biological properties are fundamentally different from those of the bulk material. By expanding our understanding and control of matter at such levels, new avenues in product development can be opened. Nanoscale-based science has...

  5. Industrial Upgrading in Global Production Networks: The Case of the Chinese Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yansheng LI; Xin Xin KONG; Miao ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the development of China’s automotive industry. The evidence shows that integration in global production networks has stimulated upgrading of technological capabilities among automotive firms. However, the competitiveness and intra-industry analyses show mixed results. Although intraindustry trade in automotive products has improved since 2000, the trade competitiveness of completely built up vehicles has largely remained in low value added activities. Nevertheless, firm...

  6. CONTRIBUTION TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTS QUALITY IN BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Marić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food industry occupies special place in the processing industry, especially when we talk on the manufacturing of bakery products. Variable products quality on the market initiated the authors of this study to make an attempt, using comparative analysis of methods for quality control that are at most applied in bakery plants and other "convenient" methods to indicate the shortcomings and to argue convenience of using of methods that would improve testing of the quality. That approach could create a base for designing of model of quality improvement the baking industry.

  7. Fungal Morphology in Industrial Enzyme Production - Modelling and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla, D.; Hagemann, T.; Hansen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are widely used in the biotechnology industry for the production of industrial enzymes. Thus, considerable work has been done with the purpose of characterizing these processes. The ultimate goal of these efforts is to be able to control and predict fermentation performance......, and on the way the data is interpreted-i.e. which models were applied. The main filamentous fungi used in industrial fermentation are introduced, ranging from Trichoderma reesei to Aspergillus species. Due to the fact that secondary metabolites, like antibiotics, are not to be considered bulk products, organisms...

  8. Implementation of NFC technology for industrial applications: case flexible production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallinen, Mikko; Strömmer, Esko; Ylisaukko-oja, Arto

    2007-09-01

    Near Field communication (NFC) technology enables a flexible short range communication. It has large amount of envisaged applications in consumer, welfare and industrial sector. Compared with other short range communication technologies such as Bluetooth or Wibree it provides advantages that we will introduce in this paper. In this paper, we present an example of applying NFC technology to industrial application where simple tasks can be automatized and industrial assembly process can be improved radically by replacing manual paperwork and increasing trace of the products during the production.

  9. Microbial xylanases: engineering, production and industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juturu, Veeresh; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2012-01-01

    and paper industries for a longer time but more and more attention has been paid to using them in producing sugars and other chemicals from lignocelluloses in recent years. Mining new genes from nature, rational engineering of known genes and directed evolution of these genes are required to get tailor-made xylanases for various industrial applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Productivity and Openness: Firm Level Evidence in Brazilian Manufacturing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjun Liu; Shoji Nishijima

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the productivity of Brazilian manufacturing industries, particularly addressing the influence of liberalization on productivity. We first calculate total factor productivity (TFP) by estimating the stochastic frontier production function and the inefficiency determination equation simultaneously. Then TFP growth rates are regressed on openness-related variables and other firm characteristics. The results show that firm openness to the world is a crucial determinant of ...

  11. Supply of the Industrial Products in Romania. A Territorial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Grigorescu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The industrial products and services supply was analyzed in the present paper through the statistical indicators of the industrial production, applied for Romania (2005, both at macroeconomic and regional level (on development regions. The first part of the paper presents some of the methodological reglamentations used in determining the “industrial production” statistical indicator, according to the European Union statistical practices (Pack, 2000; *** ìMethodology of short-term business statisticsî, 2006; Peneder, 2001. In the second part of the paper, the authors analyze the main industrial policy previsions in Romania in order to accelerate the process of resource allocation among and within the various sectors, to improve the competitiveness, to attenuate the discrepancies between the economic development level of Romanian regions and to become part of a common European industrial policy. Regional analysis is a domain largely studied by Kangas, Leskinen, Kangas, 2007; Leskinen, Kangas, 2005; Rondinelli, 1996; Banai-Kashani, Reza, 1989.  

  12. Efficiency and Import Penetration on the Productivity of Textile Industry and Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Basuki Rakhmawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although textile industry and textile products belong to the strategic sub-sector of manufacturing industry in Indonesia, they are facing problems on the availability of energy, old production machines, and the flooding of imported products into the domestic market. This study is aimed to analyze the efficiency and productivity as performance indicators and how the efficiency and import penetration affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The methods of data analysis used in this research are divided in two phases. The first phase, the non-metric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is applied to measure the efficiency and productivity. Secondly, the fixed effect model of econometric regression approach is used to find out the effects of efficiency and import penetration on the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The result shows that the average level of efficiency of textile industry and textile products during the period of 2004 – 2008 is about 40 percent with a growth rate of average productivity increases 2.4 percent. Whereas, the econometric estimation results indicate that the increase of efficiency will positively and significantly affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. On the other hand, the increase of import penetration will negatively affect the productivity of this industry.

  13. Efficiency and Import Penetrationon the Productivity of Textile Industry and Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Basuki Rakhmawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although textile industry and textile products belong to the strategic sub-sector of manufacturing industry in Indonesia, they are facing problems on the availability of energy, old production machines, and the flooding of imported products into the domestic market. This study is aimed to analyze the efficiency and productivity as performance indicators and how the efficiency and import penetration affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The methods of data analysis used in this research are divided in two phases. The first phase, the non-metric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is applied to measure the efficiency and productivity. Secondly, the fixed effect model of econometric regression approach is used to find out the effects of efficiency and import penetration on the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The result shows that the ave-rage level of efficiency of textile industry and textile products during the period of 2004 – 2008 is about 40 percent with a growth rate of average productivity increases 2.4 percent. Whereas, the econometric estimation results indicate that the increase of efficiency will positively and significantly affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. On the other hand, the increase of import penetration will negatively affect the productivity of this industry.

  14. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel [Department of Economics, University of South Africa, P.O Box 392, UNISA 0003 (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    This paper tries to assess the relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in South Africa by undertaking a cointegration analysis using annual data from 1980 to 2005. We also investigate the causal relationships between the various disaggregate forms of energy consumption and industrial production. Our results imply that industrial production and employment are long-run forcing variables for electricity consumption. Applying the [Toda, H.Y., Yamamoto, T., 1995. Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes. Journal of Econometrics 66, 225-250] technique to Granger-causality, we find bi-directional causality between oil consumption and industrial production. For the other forms of energy consumption, there is evidence in support of the energy neutrality hypothesis. There is also evidence of causality between employment and electricity consumption as well as coal consumption causing employment. (author)

  15. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to assess the relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in South Africa by undertaking a cointegration analysis using annual data from 1980 to 2005. We also investigate the causal relationships between the various disaggregate forms of energy consumption and industrial production. Our results imply that industrial production and employment are long-run forcing variables for electricity consumption. Applying the [Toda, H.Y., Yamamoto, T., 1995. Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes. Journal of Econometrics 66, 225-250] technique to Granger-causality, we find bi-directional causality between oil consumption and industrial production. For the other forms of energy consumption, there is evidence in support of the energy neutrality hypothesis. There is also evidence of causality between employment and electricity consumption as well as coal consumption causing employment.

  16. Industrial Hemp in North America: Production, Politics and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome H. Cherney

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Western World banned the cultivation of Cannabis sativa in the early 20th century because biotypes high in ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the principal intoxicant cannabinoid are the source of marijuana. Nevertheless, since 1990, dozens of countries have authorized the licensed growth and processing of “industrial hemp” (cultivars with quite low levels of THC. Canada has concentrated on hemp oilseed production, and very recently, Europe changed its emphasis from fiber to oilseed. The USA, historically a major hemp producer, appears on the verge of reintroducing industrial hemp production. This presentation provides updates on various agricultural, scientific, social, and political considerations that impact the commercial hemp industry in the United States and Canada. The most promising scenario for the hemp industry in North America is a continuing focus on oilseed production, as well as cannabidiol (CBD, the principal non-intoxicant cannabinoid considered by many to have substantial medical potential, and currently in great demand as a pharmaceutical. Future success of the industrial hemp industry in North America is heavily dependent on the breeding of more productive oilseed cultivars, the continued development of consumer goods, reasonable but not overly restrictive regulations, and discouragement of overproduction associated with unrealistic enthusiasm. Changing attitudes have generated an unprecedented demand for the cannabis plant and its products, resulting in urgent needs for new legislative, regulatory, and business frameworks, as well as scientific, technological, and agricultural research.

  17. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials in the metals and metal products industries (ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead) are discussed. Data preparation and methodology development and analysis of the technological and economic factors in order to prepare draft targets for the use of recovered materials are covered. Chapter 2 provides an introductory discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33, including industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends for the 5 industries: ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead. Chapter 4 presents the evaluation of recycling targets for those industries. (MCW)

  18. Adoption of innovative production technologies in the road construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, M.J.M.; van der Sijde, Peter; Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2007-01-01

    New procurement methods encourage the adoption of innovative production technologies. This triggers the need for entrepreneurship in the construction industry. The purpose of this study is to provide insights into the adoption processes of a particular set of new production technologies in the Dutch

  19. From a homemade to an industrial product : manufacturing Bulgarian yogurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoilova, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in yogurt production in the first half of the twentieth century were related to the transformation of dairy manufacturing through the incorporation of science and technology into the production process. The modernization of the dairy industry affected yogurt, which Bulgarians considered a

  20. A resource efficiency assessment of the industrial mushroom production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Becerra Ramírez, Henry A.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Boom, Remko M.

    2016-01-01

    We compare the exergetic performance of a conventional industrial mushroom production chain with a mushroom production chain where part of the compost waste is recycled and reused as raw material. The critical exergy loss points (CEPs) identified are the cooking-out process of the spent mushroom

  1. California’s forest products industry and timber harvest, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Morgan; Jason P. Brandt; Kathleen E. Songster; Charles E. Keegan; Glenn A. Christensen

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of California’s 2006 timber harvest through the primary wood products industry (i.e., firms that process timber into manufactured products such as lumber, as well as facilities such as pulp mills and particleboard plants, which use the wood fiber or mill residue directly from timber processors) and provides a description of the structure,...

  2. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Products It Makes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    This section of the annual report on the chemical industry presents data on these areas of chemical production: growth rates, man-made fibers; the 50 largest volume chemicals, major inorganics and organics, plastics, drugs, magnesium, and paint. Includes production figures for 1961, 1969, 1970, 1971 and percent change for 1970-71 and for 1961-71.…

  3. Competition and product quality in the supermarket industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsa, David A

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of competition on a supermarket firm's incentive to provide product quality. In the supermarket industry, product availability is an important measure of quality. Using U.S. Consumer Price Index microdata to track inventory shortfalls, I find that stores facing more intense competition have fewer shortfalls. Competition from Walmart—the most significant shock to industry market structure in half a century—decreased shortfalls among large chains by about a third. The risk that customers will switch stores appears to provide competitors with a strong incentive to invest in product quality.

  4. Biodiesel production from algae grown on food industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureed, Khadija; Kanwal, Shamsa; Hussain, Azhar; Noureen, Shamaila; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Waqas, Rashid

    2018-04-10

    Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater. This study was conducted to optimize the growth of microalgal strains and to assess biodiesel production potential of algae using untreated food industry wastewater as a source of nutrients. The food industry wastewater was collected and analyzed for its physicochemical characteristics. Different dilutions (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100%) of this wastewater were made with distilled water, and growth of two microalgal strains (Cladophora sp. and Spyrogyra sp.) was recorded. Each type of wastewater was inoculated with microalgae, and biomass was harvested after 7 days. The growth of both strains was also evaluated at varying temperatures, pH and light periods to optimize the algal growth for enhanced biodiesel production. After optimization, biodiesel production by Spyrogyra sp. was recorded in real food industry wastewater. The algal biomass increased with increasing level of food industry wastewater and was at maximum with 100% wastewater. Moreover, statistically similar results were found with algal growth on 100% wastewater and also on Bristol's media. The Cladophora sp. produced higher biomass than Spyrogyra sp. while growing on food industry wastewater. The optimal growth of both microalgal strains was observed at temperature 30 °C, pH: 8, light 24 h. Cladophora sp. was further evaluated for biodiesel production while growing on 100% wastewater and found that this strain produced high level of oil and biodiesel. Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater.

  5. Product Innovation Development in the Companies of Creative Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolandas Strazdas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Many authors distinguish product innovation as a key factor for long-term competitiveness. Dominant narrow perception of a product is leading towards incorrect product development process and the consequent result is a bad product. Narrow perception of a product is one of the main paralysing factors affecting the creator in the process of product development, which leads towards a low level of product innovation. As a result, a company is losing its uniqueness, originality, and is not of  interest neither for consumers nor the product developers themselves. This article deals with the product perception problems in the companies of creative industries. The main limiting factors for the perception of a product are analysed in the article as well as possibilities to expand the perception of a product. Five main product development methods: conservative, delegative, holistic, limited open, fully open are described in the article. The choice of the product development methods is especially important for the creative industries companies whose product development process is very intensive. 

  6. 77 FR 9947 - Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing... ``Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing... for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and...

  7. Electricity consumption, industrial production, and entrepreneurship in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Sizhong; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of a tri-variate vector autoregressive framework that includes entrepreneurship, this paper examines the link between electricity consumption and industrial production in Singapore's manufacturing sector. Unlike the existing studies, this paper focuses on one sector of the economy and utilises a unique monthly dataset. Empirical analysis based on Johansen's cointegration approach shows that the three variables are cointegrated – i.e., a stable long-run relationship exists among electricity consumption, output and entrepreneurship in Singapore's manufacturing sector. Empirical analysis based on data from January 1983 to February 2014 reveals that electricity consumption adjusts very slowly to shocks to industrial production and entrepreneurship. Furthermore, entrepreneurship Granger causes electricity consumption, which causes industrial production. As electricity consumption causes industrial output, the growth hypothesis concerning energy consumption and economic growth holds in Singapore's manufacturing sector and policies that restrict electricity production, without electricity imports, are likely to lead to a decline in the manufacturing output. - Highlights: • Using a unique monthly dataset, we focus on Singapore's manufacturing sector. • Electricity consumption, output and entrepreneurship are cointegrated. • Electricity consumption adjusts very slowly to shocks to the other variables. • Entrepreneurship causes electricity consumption which causes industrial production. • We find that growth hypothesis governs the electricity consumption and real output

  8. Applications of Mass Customization Production Mode in Chinese Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouShichun; DingJianhua; ChenChao

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the conflict between individual needs of market and the efficient mass production requirement of manufacture under the background of market globalization is discussed, a trend that the main production mode for domestic steel industry should be the mass customization is pointed out, and the problems to be solved for domestic enterprise are analyzed. Summarizing the practice of Baosteel Co. LTD on the new production mode, the achievements and experiences are presented.

  9. Innovation and productivity: empirical evidence for Brazilian industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to carry out an empirical investigation into the relationship between innovation and the productive performance of Brazilian businesses measured by Work Productivity and Total Factor Productivity. Data taken from the Research of Innovation and estimated cross section models and panel data was used. The results suggest that innovation produces an incipient impact on competition in the national industry, reflected in the small magnitude of coefficients associated with the diverse indicators of innovation.

  10. Product development in the European and overseas food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Balogh, Sandor

    2007-01-01

    In the present study various product development trends in the food industry are reviewed with the main focus on convenience, organic and functional foods. Also highlighted are differences between the U.S. and Europe in terms of consumer habits and food supply trends. Through exploring the reasons behind differences in the extent of product innovation, the author illustrates the different role convenience products have in the US and European markets. Also revealed is the relationship linking ...

  11. Sustainable Product Strategy in Apparel Industry with Consumer Behavior Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yang; Shaozeng Dong

    2017-01-01

    The article attempts to analyze sustainable product strategy in apparel industry specifically addressing a firm that is considering launching a sustainable product partly made from recycled materials. There are two types of consumers under consideration, environmentally conscious and regular consumers, as they have different perceived values for the sustainable products. The article provides an analytical model aimed to identify conditions under which a firm could benefit from adopting sustai...

  12. Lean production and willingness to change: German industrial survey

    OpenAIRE

    Roessler, Markus Philipp; Spiertz, Daniel; Metternich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology led a global benchmark analysis within the automotive industry in the late 1980s. The results showed significant differences in the organization of production between Western and Japanese companies. For these differences one of the researchers involved, John Kraftcik, distinguished between “lean” and “buffered” production systems. In addition to the fact that Japanese car builders met higher quality standards, also productivity and flexibility were si...

  13. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Thrane, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were...... examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B(2), B(4), and B(6)) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83......%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also...

  14. Analyzing the competences of production engineering graduates: an industry perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Fernanda dos Santos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aims at conducting an analysis the competences of production engineering graduates, building on an industry view. To this end, we conducted a survey addressing 103 medium and large companies within the Brazilian manufacturing industry. The results suggest that companies do recognize the importance of competences. Some gaps in the competences of graduates were also pointed out by respondents. This study suggests the need for the development of efforts for providing the production engineer with a better professional background. The links between university and industry are likely to contribute towards such direction, notably as a starting point for institutions and industries to foster their student’s competences, aiming their aptitude for an ever-competitive job market, which values the flexible, creative being, who is capable of creating innovative solutions.

  15. Energy and Production Planning for Process Industry Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Waldemarsson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses industrial energy issues from a production economic perspective. During the past decade, the energy issue has become more important, partly due to rising energy prices in general, but also from a political pressure on environmental awareness concerning the problems with climate change. As a large user of energy the industry sector is most likely responsible for a lot of these problems. Things need to change and are most likely to do so considering current and assumed fut...

  16. Bioactive compounds in industrial red seaweed used in carrageenan production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naseri, Alireza; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The main seaweed species used in industrial scale for carrageenan production are Kappaphycus alvarezii, Eucheuma denticulatum, Chondrus crispus, Gigartina sp. and also Furcellaria lumbricalis as a source of furcellaran (Danish Agar) is also classified together with carrageenan. The chemical...... compositions of these five industrial red seaweeds were evaluated. Protein, lipid and total phenolic content, total amino acid and composition, fatty acid profile, tocopherol content and pigment composition were analyzed. The results demonstrate that there is potential possibility to develop a method...

  17. Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    2001-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper

  18. Waterpipe industry products and marketing strategies: analysis of an industry trade exhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Nakkash, Rima T; Hawkins, Ben; Akl, Elie A

    2015-12-01

    Understanding product development and marketing strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) has been of vital importance in developing an effective tobacco control policy. However, comparatively little is known of the waterpipe tobacco industry, which TTCs have recently entered. This study aimed to gain an understanding of waterpipe tobacco products and marketing strategies by visiting a waterpipe trade exhibition. In April 2014, the first author attended an international waterpipe trade exhibition, recording descriptions of products and collecting all available marketing items. We described the purpose and function of all products, and performed a thematic analysis of messages in marketing material. We classified waterpipe products into four categories and noted product variation within categories. Electronic waterpipe products (which mimic electronic cigarettes) rarely appeared on waterpipe tobacco marketing material, but were displayed just as widely. Claims of reduced harm, safety and quality were paramount on marketing materials, regardless of whether they were promoting consumption products (tobacco, tobacco substitutes), electronic waterpipes or accessories. Waterpipe products are diverse in nature and are marketed as healthy and safe products. Furthermore, the development of electronic waterpipe products appears to be closely connected with the electronic cigarette industry, rather than the waterpipe tobacco manufacturers. Tobacco control policy must evolve to take account of the vast and expanding array of waterpipe products, and potentially also charcoal products developed for waterpipe smokers. We recommend that tobacco substitutes be classified as tobacco products. Continued surveillance of the waterpipe industry is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Intensity of rivalry in Czech furniture production industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Špačková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on furniture production industry in the Czech Republic and evaluates the influence of competition forces within this industry. These forces have a direct impact on success of competitive strategies of the firms. Furniture production industry is a typical branch occupied by numerous small and medium-sized firms. Small firms aim on satisfying domestic (or rather local demand, medium-sized and big firms are much more aiming on exports. The methodical sources for evaluation of rivalry represent particular influences defined by Porter in his model of five competitive forces. Main influences identified by Porter, which are increasing the intensity of competition in the furniture production industry in the Czech Republic include low industry concentration, relatively low diversity of competitors, decline in sales, low (or none switching costs, and existing excessive capacity within the industry. Further development will be most significantly influenced by a growing concentration of the bigger Czech producers on domestic market and overall economic development.

  20. Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous for the industrial production of astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sáiz, Marta; de la Fuente, Juan Luis; Barredo, José Luis

    2010-10-01

    Astaxanthin is a red xanthophyll (oxygenated carotenoid) with large importance in the aquaculture, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The green alga Haematococcus pluvialis and the heterobasidiomycetous yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous are currently known as the main microorganisms useful for astaxanthin production at the industrial scale. The improvement of astaxanthin titer by microbial fermentation is a requirement to be competitive with the synthetic manufacture by chemical procedures, which at present is the major source in the market. In this review, we show how the isolation of new strains of X. dendrorhous from the environment, the selection of mutants by the classical methods of random mutation and screening, and the rational metabolic engineering, have provided improved strains with higher astaxanthin productivity. To reduce production costs and enhance competitiveness from an industrial point of view, low-cost raw materials from industrial and agricultural origin have been adopted to get the maximal astaxanthin productivity. Finally, fermentation parameters have been studied in depth, both at flask and fermenter scales, to get maximal astaxanthin titers of 4.7 mg/g dry cell matter (420 mg/l) when X. dendrorhous was fermented under continuous white light. The industrial scale-up of this biotechnological process will provide a cost-effective method, alternative to synthetic astaxanthin, for the commercial exploitation of the expensive astaxanthin (about $2,500 per kilogram of pure astaxanthin).

  1. Chemistry in production of heavy water and industrial solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.G.

    2015-01-01

    Industries are the temples of modern science built on the robust foundation of science and technology. The genesis of giant chemical industries is from small laboratories where the scientific thoughts are fused and transformed into innovative technologies Heavy water production is an energy intensive giant chemical industry where various hazardous and flammable chemicals are handled, extreme operating conditions are maintained and various complex chemical reactions are involved. Chemistry is the back bone to all chemical industrial activities and plays a lead role in heavy water production also. Heavy Water Board has now mastered the technology of design, construction, operation and maintenance of Heavy Water plants as well as fine tuning of the process make it more cost effective and environment friendly. Heavy Water Board has ventured into diversified activities intimately connected with our three stages of Nuclear Power Programme. Process development for the production of nuclear grade solvents for the front end and back end of our nuclear fuel cycle is one area where we have made significant contributions. Heavy Water Board has validated, modified and fine-tuned the synthesis routes for TBP, D2EHPA, TOPO, TAPO TIAP, DNPPA, D2EHPA-II, DHOA etc and these solvents were accepted by end users. Exclusive campaigns were carried out in laboratory scale, bench scale and pilot plant scale before scaling up to industrial scale. The process chemistry is understood very well and chemical parameters were monitored in every step of the synthesis. It is a continual improvement cycle where fine tuning is carried out for best quality and yield of product at lowest cost. In this presentation, an attempt is made to highlight the role of chemistry in the production of Heavy Water and industrial solvents

  2. Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Köhler, Jonathan

    regulation could create innovation in green products and services in the maritime retrofitting industry?” Our case study focus on business models for the development, installation and operation of ballast water management systems in Denmark. We engaged the perspectives of ship-owners, equipment manufacturers....... Similarly, given the deindustrialisation dynamics to regions with lower manufacturing costs, it is argued that a combination of knowledge intensive and service-based economy will eventually fill the gap left by manufacturing industries. To create added value to their products, some leading firms...... are increasingly developing product-service systems. It is however, argued that product-service systems are not always sustainable, and thus little evidence connect them with green growth. To fill in this gap, we are carrying a case study guided by the following research question: “How the ballast water treatment...

  3. Industrial production and professional application of manufactured nanomaterials-enabled end products in Dutch industries: potential for exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Cindy; Brouwer, Derk H; Tielemans, Erik; Pronk, Anjoeka

    2013-04-01

    In order to make full use of the opportunities while responsibly managing the risks of working with manufactured nanomaterials (MNM), we need to gain insight into the potential level of exposure to MNM in the industry. Therefore, the goal of this study was to obtain an overview of the potential MNM exposure scenarios within relevant industrial sectors, applied exposure controls, and number of workers potentially exposed to MNM in Dutch industrial sectors producing and applying MNM-enabled end products in the Netherlands. A survey was conducted in three phases: (i) identification of MNM-enabled end products; (ii) identification of relevant industrial sectors; and (iii) a tiered telephone survey to estimate actual use of the products among 40 sector organizations/knowledge centres (Tier 1), 350 randomly selected companies (Tier 2), and 110 actively searched companies (Tier 3). The most dominant industrial sectors producing or applying MNM-enabled end products (market penetration >5%) are shoe repair shops, automotive, construction, paint, metal, and textile cleaning industry. In the majority of the companies (76%), potential risks related to working with MNM are not a specific point of interest. The total number of workers potentially exposed to MNM during the production or application of MNM-enabled end products was estimated at approximately 3000 workers in the Netherlands. The results of this study will serve as a basis for in-depth exposure and health surveys that are currently planned in the Netherlands. In addition, the results can be used to identify the most relevant sectors for policy makers and future studies focussing on evaluating the risks of occupational exposure to MNM.

  4. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF RUBBER & PLASTIC PRODUCTS INDUSTRY IN PUNJAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GULSHAN KUMAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study is an endeavour to investigate growth pattern and productivity trends in small scale rubber and plastic products industry of Punjab. The growth of industry has been gauged in terms of variables - number of units, fixed investment, employment and production. Yearly growth rates have been computed to catch year- to- year fluctuations in growth and compound annual growth rates (CAGRs have been worked out to ascertain the impact of the policies of liberalized regime on growth of this industry. Productivity trends have been sketched in terms of partial factor productivities of labour and capital. In order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the industry, SWOT analysis has been conducted. The study revealed that the liberalisation has promoted the use of capital intensive and labour saving techniques of production leading to a dismal growth of employment and sluggish growth of number of units.

  5. Production in Italian industry: Electric power demand indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajello, V.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the recession in Italy were first evidenced during the period spanning 1990-1992 with a sharp drop in the international competitiveness of Italian products. This phase was then followed by a significant drop in internal demand, the devaluation of the Italian Lira and subsequent market uncertainty. This paper presents graphs of national and regional electric power production and consumption figures which reflect the downturn in the viability of the Italian economy, especially in the industrial sector

  6. Innovations for production optimization in the petroleum industry: conference reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This Insight conference was held to review the methods by which the petroleum industry could optimize production. Presentations from nine guest speakers were included. The issues addressed included the use of computer software for integrated data systems such as SCADA and GIS, the use of remote sensing and real-time systems to monitor well production and reserves capability more effectively, and innovations to minimize finding and development costs and their effect on financial markets. figs

  7. Product costing practices in the North American hardwood component industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jan Wiedenbeck; Steve Lawser

    2011-01-01

    Companies, when bidding for jobs, need to be able to price products competitively while also assuring that the necessary profitability can be achieved. These goals, competitive pricing and profitability, cannot be reliably achieved unless industry participants possess a full understanding of their company's cost structure. Competitors blame companies without...

  8. Ethanol production in Brazil: a bridge between science and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lucio Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the last 40 years, several scientific and technological advances in microbiology of the fermentation have greatly contributed to evolution of the ethanol industry in Brazil. These contributions have increased our view and comprehension about fermentations in the first and, more recently, second-generation ethanol. Nowadays, new technologies are available to produce ethanol from sugarcane, corn and other feedstocks, reducing the off-season period. Better control of fermentation conditions can reduce the stress conditions for yeast cells and contamination by bacteria and wild yeasts. There are great research opportunities in production processes of the first-generation ethanol regarding high-value added products, cost reduction and selection of new industrial yeast strains that are more robust and customized for each distillery. New technologies have also focused on the reduction of vinasse volumes by increasing the ethanol concentrations in wine during fermentation. Moreover, conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for second-generation ethanol production is a promising alternative to meet future demands of biofuel production in the country. However, building a bridge between science and industry requires investments in research, development and transfer of new technologies to the industry as well as specialized personnel to deal with new technological challenges.

  9. Measuring industry productivity and cross-country convergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert; Diewert, W. Erwin

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for simultaneously comparing industry productivity across countries and over time. The new method is similar to the method for making multilateral comparisons of Caves, Christensen and Diewert (1982b) but their method can only compare gross outputs across

  10. Grid-based Simulation of Industrial Thin Film Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Gorbachev, Y.E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce a Grid-based virtual reactor, a High Level Architecture (HLA)-supported problem-solving environment that allows for detailed numerical study of industrial thin-film production in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) reactors. They briefly describe

  11. Successful new product development in the food packaging industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... In the context of the food industry, process and product innovations are usually the ... The analysis is proposed in the form of a case study-based research, which was carried out ...

  12. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry. ... From the processes, wastes are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. In developing countries including Ethiopia, many ... The solid waste inventory of the factory has been carried out. The major problems ...

  13. The Experience on Geopolymer Technology in Semi-Industrial Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boura, P.; Ertl, Z.; Hanzlíček, Tomáš; Perná, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2012), s. 300-305 ISSN 2161-6221 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : geopolymer * semi-industrial * production Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials http://davidpublishing.org/journals_show_abstract.html?5272-0

  14. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, F.K.; Moejes, S.N.; Rossier Miranda, F.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy

  15. Improving the Management of Innovative Development of Industrial Production According to Industry Specifics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papizh Yuliia S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of improvement of management efficiency of innovative development of industrial enterprises in modern economic conditions is indicated. The dynamics of innovative processes in Ukraine together with volumes of innovative activity of domestic enterprises are analyzed. The basic principles of formation and efficient functioning of the organizational-economic mechanism of innovative development of industrial production are substantiated. The branch specificity in management of innovative development of coal enterprises is identified. Directions of improvement of the organizational-economic mechanism of management of innovative development of enterprises of coal industry are defined. The basic principles of introduction of the mechanism for stimulation of innovative development of enterprises of coal industry are suggested.

  16. Description of the production process - industrial phase; Descricao do processo produtivo - fase industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter presents the description of the present state-of-art, in this paper called first generation of the productive process of sugar-cane bio ethanol in Brazil, related to the industrial phase involving their improvements and also the aspects related to the second generation technologies, particularly the hydrolysis and gasification of the biomass technologies. The chapter also approaches the aspects referred to the use of sugar cane bagasse and the straw cape, and also the production of electric power surplus.

  17. The forest products industry at an energy/climate crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Marilyn A.; Baek, Youngsun

    2010-01-01

    Transformational energy and climate policies are being debated worldwide that could have significant impact upon the future of the forest products industry. Because woody biomass can produce alternative transportation fuels, low-carbon electricity, and numerous other 'green' products in addition to traditional paper and lumber commodities, the future use of forest resources is highly uncertain. Using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), this paper assesses the future of the forest products industry under three possible U.S. policy scenarios: (1) a national renewable electricity standard, (2) a national policy of carbon constraints, and (3) incentives for industrial energy efficiency. In addition, we discuss how these policy scenarios might interface with the recently strengthened U.S. renewable fuels standards. The principal focus is on how forest products including residues might be utilized under different policy scenarios, and what such market shifts might mean for electricity and biomass prices, as well as energy consumption and carbon emissions. The results underscore the value of incentivizing energy efficiency in a portfolio of energy and climate policies in order to moderate electricity and biomass price escalation while strengthening energy security and reducing CO 2 emissions. - Research highlights: →Transformational energy and climate policies such as a national renewable electricity standard, a national policy of carbon constraints, and incentives for industrial energy efficiency could have significant impact upon the future of the forest products industry. →Each policy scenario reduces CO 2 emissions over time, compared to the business-as-usual forecast, with the carbon constrained policy producing the largest decline. As a package, the three policies together could cut CO 2 emissions from the electricity sector by an estimated 41% by 2030. →This study underscores the value of incentivizing energy efficiency in a portfolio of energy and

  18. Agrification: Agriculture for the industry and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The new aspect of agrification is the production of alternative products, which can replace fossil sources. This substitution is necessary in order to replace hazardous materials and to find a solution for the problem of depletion of conventional energy sources and basic materials. Attention is paid to some developments in Germany: agricultural products for the production of energy, and new industrial applications for vegetable filaments. With regard to energy production from agricultrual products one should distinguish between (a) solid energy sources (biomass), f.e. straw, fast-growing wood, elephant's grass, hay and rapeseed, and (b) fluid and gaseous energy sources, f.e. purified and partly refined rapeseed oil, rapeseed oil methyl-ester (RME), ethanol from sugar beet, methanol from straw and hydrogen from straw and/or elephant's grass. 4 figs., 7 refs

  19. New Product Development (NPD) Process - An Example of Industrial Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierska, Marianna; Grębosz-Krawczyk, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    This aim of this article is to present the process of new product introduction on example of industrial sector in context of new product development (NPD) concept. In the article, the concept of new product development is discussed and the different stages of the process of new electric motor development are analysed taking into account its objectives, implemented procedures, functions and responsibilities division. In the article, information from secondary sources and the results of empirical research - conducted in an international manufacturing company - are used. The research results show the significance of project leader and regular cooperation with final client in the NPD process.

  20. Design and industrial production of frequency standards in the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, Nikolai A.; Uljanov, Adolph A.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of research development and production of quantum frequency standards, carried out in QUARTZ Research and Production Association (RPA), Gorky, U.S.S.R., were investigated for the last 25 to 30 years. During this period a number of rubidium and hydrogen frequency standards, based on the active maser, were developed and put into production. The first industrial model of a passive hydrogen maser was designed in the last years. Besides frequency standards for a wide application range, RPA QUARTZ investigates metrological frequency standards--cesium standards with cavity length 1.9 m and hydrogen masers with a flexible storage bulb.

  1. Industrial waste treatment and application in rubber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, I. N.; Popova, L. V.; Repin, P. S.; Molokanova, L. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper provides for the relevance of various industrial waste treatment and application, as well as their secondary commercialization. It considers treatment of secondary polymer materials turning to additives applied in rubber production, in particular, in production of conveyor and V-type belts used in mechanical engineering. It is found that oligomers obtained from petroleum by-products can be used as an impregnating compound for fiber materials. Such adhesive treatment prior to introduction of impregnating compounds into elastomeric materials improves adhesion and complements performance of obtained composites.

  2. Gamma radiodecontamination of natural products uses in Cuban pharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Lopez, M.; Guerra, M.; Lastra, H.; Prieto, E.; Padron, E.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to carry out the gamma radiodecontamination of industrial productions from there medicinal plant species (C. officinalis, P. incarta and M. recuttia) and two pharmaceuticals forms (S. platensis and bee pollen tabs) which presented high levels of microbiological count. Adequate irradiation doses calculated for each product were used in decontamination. The results obtained showed the effectiveness of the process in the elimination of microbial contamination from theses natural products. No changes in nutritional constituents or physico-chemical properties were observed

  3. New Product Development in Traditional Industries: Decision-Making Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Mikel Zabala-Iturriagagoitia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether decisions considered as common in new product development literature are also valid in a region characterized by traditional industries. The research is grounded on innovative companies in the Valencian Region (Spain. Using the statistical tool of factor analysis, we test if the groups of decisions identified by the literature can be confirmed in our empirical sample. Therewith, we aim to link the theoretical and empirical fields in the context of new product development and product innovation management.

  4. Towards eco-agro industrial clusters in aquatic production: the case of shrimp processing industry in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Thi Ahn,; Tran Thi My Dieu,; Mol, A.P.J.; Kroeze, C.; Bush, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of industrial ecology has been applied in this research to study possibilities to develop an eco-industrial cluster model for fishery production industry in Vietnam. By learning from experiments of other developed countries, we apply the principles of Industrial Ecology and of Ecological

  5. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Moejes, Sanne N.; Rossier-Miranda, Francisco J.; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Boom, Remko M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy consumed in all the industrial bread chains studied. The par-baked brown bun production chain had the best thermodynamic performance because of the highest rational exergetic efficiency (71.2%), the lowest specific exergy losses (5.4 MJ/kg brown bun), and the almost lowest cumulative exergy losses (4768 MJ/1000 kg of dough processed). However, recycling of bread waste is also exergetically efficient when the total fermented surplus is utilizable. Clearly, preventing material losses (i.e. utilizing raw materials maximally) improves the exergetic efficiency of industrial bread chains. In addition, most of the physical (non-material related) exergy losses occurred at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. Consequently, any additional improvement in industrial bread production should focus on the design of thermodynamically efficient baking and cooling processes, and on the use of technologies throughout the chain that consume the lowest possible physical exergy. - Highlights: • Preventing material losses is the best way to enhance the exergetic efficiency. • Most of the physical exergy losses occur at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. • Par-baking “saves” chemical exergy but consumes an equal amount of physical exergy

  6. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

  7. GGDC Productivity Level Database : International Comparisons of Output, Inputs and Productivity at the Industry Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert; Timmer, Marcel P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the GGDC Productivity Level database. This database provides comparisons of output, inputs and productivity at a detailed industry level for a set of thirty OECD countries. It complements the EU KLEMS growth and productivity accounts by providing comparative levels and

  8. Integrated production planning and water management in the food industry: A cheese production case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulluru, Sai Jishna; Akkerman, Renzo; Hottenrott, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Efficient water management is increasingly relevant in the food industry. Exploiting water reuse opportunities in planning production activities is a key part of this. We study integrated water management and production planning in cheese production. For this, we develop a water-integrated lot

  9. Industrial production of insulators using isostatic compaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drugoveiko, O.P.; Ermolaeva, L.V.; Koren' , M.G.; Kreimer, B.D.; Panichev, G.I.; Ponomarev, A.P.; Rutkovskii, V.N.

    1985-07-01

    The process of shaping ceramic products from powders using isostatic compaction method is finding increasing industrial application. The production of electrical-engineering porcelain using isostatic compaction method is, according to the authors, a promising direction since this method permits one to obtain large and complex shaped products having uniform density distribution. The authors introduce an automatic isostatic compaction line at the ''Proletarii'' Factory for the production of the IOS-110-20000UKhL, T1 type insulators having the described dimensions. According to the technological process developed at the ''Elektrokeramika'' Production Complex, insulators were manufactured on the isostatic compaction line from the G-33 mass. Presspowder having a moisture content of 0.3-0.6% and a particle size of 90-160 micrometers was obtained in a spray dryer using disk spraying. The authors studied saturability by moisture of the powder obtained.

  10. DETECTING VERTICAL INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE IN CULTURAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affortunato Francesca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process has always since markedly characterized by the increasing incidence of Intra-Industry Trade. This has been theoretically justified on the grounds of the new approaches emerging in international trade literature, based on imperfect competition and differentiated products. In recent years another distinctive economic feature of European Union is the importance gained by the so called “cultural and creative sectors”, which are often studied and monitored by reports for their great growth potential. We provide here a systematic decomposition of world trade in “cultural/creative goods” for the year 2009 (using harmonised bilateral flows for some 213 products defined as “cultural products” by UNESCO, 2009 into three trade types: inter-industry, intra-industry (IIT in horizontally versus vertically differentiated products. We show that the world trade in cultural goods is significantly characterised by two-way trade of vertically differentiated products. Moreover we specifically focus on the Italian peculiarities in the “cultural trade”: therefore we first work out which ones of the world countries are the “top exporters” of these categories of products and then we compute an indicator of the Italian goods’ quality relative to each of these competitors. Not surprisingly, we find that the most important bilateral IIT intensities in cultural products are observed in Europe. However the presence of developing countries is not unimportant. This can be explained partly to as a consequence of the increasing level of trade integration among some Asian countries and as a consequence of an increasing despecialization of firstly industrialized countries in the production and trading of these products. Finally, with reference to the relative quality of Italian cultural products compared with that of the other top-exporters in these sectors, we find that Italian

  11. Green perspective in food industry production line design: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, C. Y.; Sin, T. C.; Liyana, M. R. N.; Awang, A.; Fathullah, M.

    2017-09-01

    The design of green manufacturing process in food industries is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Several process such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, bleaching, sterilization, extraction and filtering have been applied efficiency in the food industry. Due to the rapid development of food and peripheral technology, the use of new physical processing or auxiliary processing methods can maintain food inherent nutrients, texture, color, and freshness and also reduce environmental pollution and energy consumption in food processing. Hence, this review paper will study and summarize the effects of green manufacturing process in food industries in term of waste reduction, materials and sustainability manufacturing. In any case, All the food processing equipment must comply with strict standards and regulation, this action will ensure the securing the food quality and safety of food products to consumers.

  12. Ergonomic evaluation of cheese production process in dairy industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Brito Rodrigues

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work consisted of an analysis of work conditions aspects in small dairy industries from southwest region of Bahia state. The study considered the analysis of environmental variables and the organization of the work in the production process of cheeses. The analysis was performed by means of observations in loco and measurement of the environmental variables related to noise, illumination and temperature. The main problems are related to posture and inadequate illumination. The parameters were evaluated according to the norms and legislation available in order to propose suggestions for the identified problems, objectifying the comfort and safety of workers and the consequent improvement of activities developed in these industries. Keywords: Ergonomics, Dairy industries, Environmental comfort.

  13. Integration of Mobile Manipulators in an Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole; Bøgh, Simon; Schou, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the technology of autonomous mobile manipulation in a real world industrial manufacturing environment. The objective has been to obtain experience in the integration with existing equipment and determine key challenges in maturing...... reports from such a real-world industrial experiment with two mobile manipulators. Design/methodology/approach – In the experiment, autonomous industrial mobile manipulators are integrated into the actual manufacturing environment of the pump manufacturer Grundfos. The two robots together solve the task...... of producing rotors; a task constituted by several sub-tasks ranging from logistics to complex assembly. With a total duration of 10 days, the experiment includes workspace adaptation, safety regulations, rapid robot instruction and running production. Findings – With a setup time of less than one day...

  14. The Productivity Analysis of Chennai Automotive Industry Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2014-07-01

    Chennai, also called the Detroit of India, is India's second fastest growing auto market and exports auto components and vehicles to US, Germany, Japan and Brazil. For inclusive growth and sustainable development, 250 auto component industries in Ambattur, Thirumalisai and Thirumudivakkam Industrial Estates located in Chennai have adopted the Cluster Development Approach called Automotive Component Cluster. The objective is to study the Value Chain, Correlation and Data Envelopment Analysis by determining technical efficiency, peer weights, input and output slacks of 100 auto component industries in three estates. The methodology adopted is using Data Envelopment Analysis of Output Oriented Banker Charnes Cooper model by taking net worth, fixed assets, employment as inputs and gross output as outputs. The non-zero represents the weights for efficient clusters. The higher slack obtained reveals the excess net worth, fixed assets, employment and shortage in gross output. To conclude, the variables are highly correlated and the inefficient industries should increase their gross output or decrease the fixed assets or employment. Moreover for sustainable development, the cluster should strengthen infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing interrelationships to decrease costs and to increase productivity and efficiency to compete in the indigenous and export market.

  15. Plans for industrial production of the SSC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, V.N.; Rardin, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Universities Research Association through its Central Design Group is currently conducting research and development for the Department of Energy on a superconducting super collider (SSC). The proposed SSC is a device in which protons would be accelerated around a ring approximately 50 miles in circumference. The protons would be kept in their path by means of thousands of powerful superconducting magnets. Two such rings of magnets would be housed in a common underground tunnel, allowing groups of protons to be accelerated in opposite directions and collided, in order to study the fundamental nature of matter and energy. The magnet system is a major element of the SSC in terms of technical requirements, quantity of components and cost. In order to meet technical and production requirements imposed by this system early participation of industry is necessary. The program plans were developed with the objective to involve industry in the early stages of research and development of superconducting magnets, leading to cost effective processes of potential mass production of high quality accelerator magnets by industry. While a decision has not been made by the Department of Energy on whether or not to request construction of the SSC project, if such a request is made and the project is authorized and funded, it would lead to industrial manufacture of a large quantity of superconducting magnets

  16. Product differentiation, competition and prices in the retail gasoline industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuszak, Mark David

    This thesis presents a series of studies of the retail gasoline industry using data from Hawaii. This first chapter examines a number of pricing patterns in the data and finds evidence that gasoline stations set prices which are consistent with a number of forms of price discrimination. The second chapter analyzes various patterns of cross-sectional, cross-market and intertemporal variation in the data to investigate their suitability for use in structural econometric estimation. The remainder of the dissertation consists of specification and estimation of a structural model of supply and demand for retail gasoline products sold at individual gasoline stations. This detailed micro-level analysis permits examination of a number of important issues in the industry, most notably the importance of spatial differentiation in the industry. The third chapter estimates the model and computes new equilibria under a number of asymmetric taxation regimes in order to examine the impact of such tax policies on producer and consumer welfare as well as tax revenue. The fourth chapter examines whether there is any evidence of tacitly collusive behavior in the Hawaiian retail gasoline industry and concludes that, in fact, conduct is fairly competitive in this industry and market.

  17. Risk Management for New Product Development Projects in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porananond, D.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Project risk management provides a guideline for decision making in new product development (NPD projects, reducing uncertainty and increasing success rate. However, the acceptance of formal risk management applications in industry, especially for NPD projects is still in question. A study of a food conglomerate in Thailand found that only 9% of NPD projects used a systematic approach for managing risk. 61% of the projects realised the importance of risk management, while the remaining 30% did not involve risk management at all. This study aims to develop a risk management model for NPD projects in the food industry. The first section of this paper reviews the literature on risk management theory, including international standards for risk and project management (ISO31000 and ISO21500, publications for the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, by a professional organisation the Project Management Institute (PMI, and also academic research. 182 academic papers, published between January 2002 and August 2012 were selected. The second part interviews conducted with eight NPD experts from five of the major food manufacturers in Thailand to examine their risk management practices and problems. Conclusions are made on five topics : classification of research method, project type and industrial segment, distribution of articles by region, tools & techniques for risk management and risk factors in projects. Specific requirements of risk management for NPD projects in the food industry are identified. A risk management model and the concept of risk management applications for the food industry are proposed.

  18. BUSINESS CLIMATE INDICATOR AS A PREDICTOR OF CROATIAN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Čižmešija

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Business and Consumer Surveys (BCS are one of the most frequently used tools to assess economy’s cyclical behavior. Croatia has been conducting the surveys continually since 1995. Nevertheless, there is still a research niche in the Croatian BCS framework that has not been adequately represented. The Joint Harmonised EU Programme of Business and Consumer Surveys suggests Business Climate Indicator (BCI as a composite leading indicator of the economy as a whole. In accordance to the EU methodology, this paper examines managers’ qualitative assessments on five important variables related to their economic environment. Using factor analysis one factor was extracted from those five variables, representing the BCI. It’s predictive properties were analyzed with regards to Croatian industrial production using Granger causality test, impulse response and variance decomposition analysis. Results strongly confirm the precedence of BCI to the changes of Croatian industrial production, validating the importance of its introduction and utilization in Croatian economic cycles analysis.

  19. Industrialization and production of neutral beam ion sources for MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, W.S.

    1981-01-01

    The existing LLNL designs of the 20 and 80kV deuterium fueled Neutral Beam Ion Source Modules (NBSM) have been industrialized and are being produced successfully for the MFTF. Industrialization includes value engineering, production engineering, cost reduction, fixturing, facilitation and procurement of components. Production assembly, inspection and testing is being performed in a large electronics manufacturing plant. Decades of experience in high voltage, high vacuum power tubes is being applied to the procedures and processes. Independent quality and reliability assurance criteria are being utilized. Scheduling of the various engineering, procurement and manufacturing task is performed by the use of a Critical Path Method (CPM) computer code, Innovative, computerized grid alignment methods were also designed and installed specifically for this project. New jointing and cleaning techniques were devised for the NBSMs. Traceability and cost control are also utilized

  20. Supply chain management in industrial production. A retrospective view

    OpenAIRE

    Stocchetti, Andrea; Scattola, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The article presents a retrospective review on key-issues about how the management discipline evolved up to the current view about supply-chain management (SCM) in industrial production. Specifically, the article resumes: a) the reasons that led to the transition from the traditional procurement policies to the SCM approach, b) the variables involved in the process of defining SCM relations and c) the key managerial principles underlying SCM policies and strategies. In the manufacturing in...

  1. Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry Vision and Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalla, Rajai [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Beecher, James [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Caron, Robert [Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, Peachtree Corners, GA (United States); Catchmark, Jeffrey [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Deng, Yulin [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Glasser, Wolfgang [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Gray, Derek [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Haigler, Candace [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Jones, Philip [Imerys, Paris (France); Joyce, Margaret [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Kohlman, Jane [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Koukoulas, Alexander [Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, Peachtree Corners, GA (United States); Lancaster, Peter [Weyerhaeuser Company, Longview, WA (United States); Perine, Lori [American Forest and Paper Association, Washington, DC (United States); Rodriguez, Augusto [Georgia-Pacific Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wegner, Theodore [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Zhu, Junyong [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    2005-03-01

    A roadmap for Nanotechnology in the Forest Products Industries has been developed under the umbrella of the Agenda 2020 program overseen by the CTO committee. It is expected that the use of new analytical techniques and methodologies will allow us to understand the complex nature of wood based materials and allow the dramatically enhanced use of the major strategic asset the US has in renewable, recyclable resources based on its well managed Forests.

  2. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Jovanović; Milana Popović

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor...

  3. Robust control charts in industrial production of olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Luís M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.; Alves, Ana C.; Grilo, Helena L.

    2014-10-01

    Acidity is one of the most important variables in the quality analysis and characterization of olive oil. During the industrial production we use individuals and moving range charts to monitor this variable, which is not always normal distributed. After a brief exploratory data analysis, where we use the bootstrap method, we construct control charts, before and after a Box-Cox transformation, and compare their robustness and performance.

  4. Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) in industry trial testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris

    2006-12-01

    To identify patterns in trial testimony that may reflect on the intentions or expectations of tobacco manufacturers with regard to the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs). Research was conducted using the Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA) collection of trial testimony and depositions housed online at Tobacco Documents Online (www.tobaccodocuments.org). Relevant testimony was identified through full-text searches of terms indicating PREPs or harm reduction strategies. The role and function of PREPs in testimony were classified according to common and contrasting themes. These were analysed in the context of broader trial arguments and against changes in time period and the market. Analysis of testimony suggests that the failure of PREPs in the market tempered initial industry enthusiasm and made protection of the conventional cigarette market its major priority. The "breakthrough" character of PREPs has been de-emphasised, with trial arguments instead positioning PREPs as simply another choice for consumers. This framework legitimises the sale of conventional brands, and shifts the responsibility for adoption of safer products from the manufacturer to the consumer. Likewise, testimony has abandoned earlier dramatic health claims made with regard to PREPs, which had undermined industry arguments regarding efforts to reduce harm in conventional products. More recent testimony advocates the broad acceptance of independent guidelines that would validate use of health claims and enable the industry to market PREPs to consumers. Trial testimony reflects the changing role and positioning of PREPs by the tobacco industry. The findings are of particular importance with regard to future evaluation and potential regulation of reduced harm products.

  5. Process Integration Analysis of an Industrial Hydrogen Production Process

    OpenAIRE

    Stolten, Detlef; Grube, Thomas; Tock, Laurence; Maréchal, François; Metzger, Christian; Arpentinier, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The energy efficiency of an industrial hydrogen production process using steam methane reforming (SMR) combined with the water gas shift reaction (WGS) is analyzed using process integration techniques based on heat cascade calculation and pinch analysis with the aim of identifying potential measures to enhance the process performance. The challenge is to satisfy the high temperature heat demand of the SMR reaction by minimizing the consumption of natural gas to feed the combustion and to expl...

  6. Addressing IT Productivity Paradox in Hotel Industry; Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    İlkan, Mustafa; Olya, Hossein; Rezapouraghdam, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    This study attempts to explore the moderating role of Information Technology (IT) capability on the association between the investment on the information technology and the performance outcome of the hotels. An online survey has been utilized to identify the effect of three indicators of IT capability, according to the resource based theory, on the relationship between IT investment and performance in the hotel industry of India. Findings confirmed the phenomenon of “IT productivity paradox” ...

  7. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K Thomas; Mullen, Robert T; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2016-02-26

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds.

  8. Applied TRIZ in Improving Productivity in Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Aminah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available TRIZ is a methodology and a collection of problem solving tools and strategies that has been used in many other fields. Therefore, this paper proposes TRIZ method for improving the productivity in a textile industry. It focuses at the packing department in a textile company situated in Malaysia. The process was monitored and the problem was observed. TRIZ method is applied in this problem using Functional Analysis and trimming method. A comparison between before and after implementation is done in order to evaluate the productivity effectiveness.

  9. Industrial plants for production of highly enriched nitrogen-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krell, E.; Jonas, C.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the present stage of development of large-scale enrichment of 15 N. The most important processes utilized to separate nitrogen isotopes, namely chemical exchange in the NO/NO 2 /HNO 3 system and low-temperature distillation of NO at -151 0 C, are compared, especially with respect to their economics and use of energy. As examples, chemical exchange plants in the GDR are discussed, and the research activities necessary to optimize the process, especially to solve aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, interface and processing problems, are reviewed. Good results were obtained by the choice of an optimum location and the design of a plant for pre-enrichment to 10 at.% 15 N and an automatically operating two-section cascade for the high enrichment of 15 N to more than 99 at.%. The chemical industry has taken over operation of the plant with the consequence that the raw materials are all available without additional transport. All by-products (nitrous gases and sulphuric acid) are returned for use elsewhere within the industry. The technology of the plant has been chosen so that the quantity of highly enriched product can be varied within a wide range. The final product is used to synthesize more than 250 different 15 N-labelled compounds which are also produced on an industrial scale. (author)

  10. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  11. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  12. [Example of product development by industry and research solidarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    When the industrial firms develop the product, the research result from research institutions is used or to reflect the ideas from users on the developed product would be significant in order to improve the product. To state the software product which developed jointly as an example to describe the adopted development technique and its result, and to consider the modality of the industry solidarity seen from the company side and joint development. The software development methods have the merit and demerit and necessary to choose the optimal development technique by the system which develops. We have been jointly developed the dose distribution browsing software. As the software development method, we adopted the prototype model. In order to display the dose distribution information, it is necessary to load four objects which are CT-Image, Structure Set, RT-Plan, and RT-Dose, are displayed in a composite manner. The prototype model which is the development technique was adopted by this joint development was optimal especially to develop the dose distribution browsing software. In a prototype model, since the detail design was created based on the program source code after the program was finally completed, there was merit on the period shortening of document written and consist in design and implementation. This software eventually opened to the public as an open source. Based on this developed prototype software, the release version of the dose distribution browsing software was developed. Developing this type of novelty software, it normally takes two to three years, but since the joint development was adopted, it shortens the development period to one year. Shortening the development period was able to hold down to the minimum development cost for a company and thus, this will be reflected to the product price. The specialists make requests on the product from user's point of view are important, but increase in specialists as professionals for product

  13. Opportunities, perspectives and limits in lactic acid production from waste and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Dragana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the goals of sustainable development and environmental protection today great attention is directed towards new technologies for waste and industrial by-products utilization. Waste products represent potentially good raw material for production other valuable products, such as bioethanol, biogas, biodiesel, organic acids, enzymes, microbial biomass, etc. Since the first industrial production to the present, lactic acid has found wide application in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In recent years, the demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably owing to its potential use as a monomer for the production of poly-lactic acid (PLA polymers which are biodegradable and biocompatible with wide applications. Waste and industrial by-products such are whey, molasses, stillage, waste starch and lignocellulosic materials are a good source of fermentable sugars and many other substances of great importance for the growth of microorganisms, such as proteins, minerals and vitamins. Utilization of waste products for production of lactic acid could help to reduce the total cost of lactic acid production and except the economic viability of the process offers a solution of their disposal. Fermentation process depends on chemical and physical nature of feedstocks and the lactic acid producer. This review describes the characteristics, abilities and limits of microorganisms involved in lactic acid production, as well as the characteristics and types of waste products for lactic acid production. The fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production are summarized and compared. In order to improve processes and productivity, fed-batch fermentation, fermentation with immobilized cell systems and mixed cultures and opportunities of open (non-sterilized fermentation have been investigated.

  14. Tobacco industry use of flavourings to promote smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostygina, Ganna; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-11-01

    While fruit, candy and alcohol characterising flavours are not allowed in cigarettes in the USA, other flavoured tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco (ST) continue to be sold. We investigated tobacco manufacturers' use of flavoured additives in ST products, the target audience(s) for flavoured products, and marketing strategies promoting products by emphasising their flavour. Qualitative analysis of internal tobacco industry documents triangulated with data from national newspaper articles, trade press and internet. Internally, flavoured products have been consistently associated with young and inexperienced tobacco users. Internal studies confirmed that candy-like sweeter milder flavours (eg, mint, fruit) could increase appeal to starters by evoking a perception of mildness, blinding the strong tobacco taste and unpleasant mouth feel; or by modifying nicotine delivery by affecting product pH. Similar to cigarettes, flavoured ST is likely to encourage novices to start using tobacco, and regulations limiting or eliminating flavours in cigarettes should be extended to include flavoured ST products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Joint production and corporate pricing: An empirical analysis of joint products in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimnejad, H.

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the pricing mechanism of joint products in large multi-plant and multi-product corporations. The primary objective of this dissertation is to show the consistency of classical theories of production with corporate pricing of joint products. This dissertation has two major parts. Part One provides a theoretical framework for joint production and corporate pricing. In this part, joint production is defined and its historical treatment by classical and contemporary economists is analyzed. Part Two conducts an empirical analysis of joint products in the US petroleum industry. Methods of cost allocation are used in the pricing of each individual petroleum product. Three methods are employed to distribute joint production costs to individual petroleum products. These methods are, the sales value method, the barrel gravity method and the average unit cost method. The empirical findings of dissertation provide useful guidelines for pricing policies of large multi-product corporations

  16. Bio production of Vanillin from Agro-Industrial Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd EI-Aziz, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes an environmentally friendly vanillin production processes from agro industrial wastes. Ferulic 'acid is a well-known product of cereal. brans and sugarcane bagasse lignin degradation, ferulic acid and cellulose degradation sugars were used as feedstock for the vanillin bio production by Debaryomyces hansenii. The bioconversion of ferulic into vanillin by Debaryomyces hansenii was affected by the type and amount of ferulic acid. Addition of purified ferulic acid (2 g/l) and using of adapted yeast cells. increase the yield of vanillin and decrease the secondary products. Yeast extract (3 g/l) and glucose (20 g/l) proved to be the best component as co-substrates for bio production of vanillin. Variable aeration conditions were tested by simultaneously vanilIin the ratio of medium to vessel volume and the agitation speed. under excess aeration, oxidation of a, significant portion of vanillin to vanillic acid occur, thus reducing the vanillin yield. Increasing the inoculum size up to 1 g/I and using low doses of gamma irradiation (0.25 kGy) increase the vanillin production. Under optimum conditions vanillin production from ferulic acid by Debaryomyces attained very high level of 1531 mg/1 with a molar yield of 76.5%

  17. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  18. Radioactive sealed sources production process for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Paulo de S.; Ngunga, Daniel M.G.; Camara, Julio R.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S.

    2017-01-01

    providing products and services to the private and governmental Brazilian users of industrial radiography and nucleonic control systems. Radioactive sealed sources are commonly used in nondestructive tests as radiography to make inspections and verify the internal structure and integrity of materials and in nucleonic gauges to control level, density, viscosity, etc. in on-line industrial processes. One of the most important activities carried out by this laboratory is related to the inspection of source projectors devices used in industrial radiography and its constituent parts as well as remote handle control assembly drive cable and guide tube systems. The laboratory also provide for the users iridium-192, cobalt-60 and selenium-75 sealed sources and performs quality control tests replacing spent or contaminated radiative sources. All discard of radioactive source is treated as radioactive waste. Additionally, administrative and commercial processes and protocols for exportation and transport of radioactive material are developed by specialized departments. In this work are presented the mean processes and procedures used by the Sealed Source Production Laboratory such as the arrival of the radioactive material to the laboratory and the source projectors, mechanical inspections, source loading, source leaking tests, etc. (author)

  19. Radioactive sealed sources production process for industrial radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo de S.; Ngunga, Daniel M.G.; Camara, Julio R.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S., E-mail: psantos@ipen.br, E-mail: hobeddaniel@gmail.com, E-mail: jrcamara@ipen.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energética s e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    providing products and services to the private and governmental Brazilian users of industrial radiography and nucleonic control systems. Radioactive sealed sources are commonly used in nondestructive tests as radiography to make inspections and verify the internal structure and integrity of materials and in nucleonic gauges to control level, density, viscosity, etc. in on-line industrial processes. One of the most important activities carried out by this laboratory is related to the inspection of source projectors devices used in industrial radiography and its constituent parts as well as remote handle control assembly drive cable and guide tube systems. The laboratory also provide for the users iridium-192, cobalt-60 and selenium-75 sealed sources and performs quality control tests replacing spent or contaminated radiative sources. All discard of radioactive source is treated as radioactive waste. Additionally, administrative and commercial processes and protocols for exportation and transport of radioactive material are developed by specialized departments. In this work are presented the mean processes and procedures used by the Sealed Source Production Laboratory such as the arrival of the radioactive material to the laboratory and the source projectors, mechanical inspections, source loading, source leaking tests, etc. (author)

  20. Industrial Law and the Productive Capacity of Labour in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Enya Nwocha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This Paper has discussed the various employment laws in the country and the inherent defects in them that have impacted negatively on staff productivity. The Paper came against the background of the low productive output of the Nigerian worker that has adversely affected the growth of the national economy and created room for fraud and corruption in the public service as well as the private sector. The Paper has found that aside of defective labour laws, the mentality of Nigerian courts to labour disputes, the negative attitude of Nigerian workers and poor work ethics, and the poor conditions of service in the labour sector all contribute to low output and productivity. Therefore, the Paper has suggested ways that these negative trends can be reversed among them, the amendment of the extant industrial laws and improvement of the working conditions of the Nigerian employee.

  1. Economic evaluation of the industrial solar production of lime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Anton; Gremaud, Nicolas; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    The use of concentrated solar energy in place of fossil fuels for driving the endothermic calcination reaction CaCO 3 → CaO + CO 2 at above 1300 K has the potential of reducing CO 2 emissions by 20% in a state-of-the-art lime plant and up to 40% in a conventional cement plant. An economic assessment for an industrial solar calcination plant with 25 MW th solar input indicates that the cost of solar produced lime ranges between 128 and 157 $/t, about twice the current selling price of conventional lime. The solar production of high purity lime for special sectors in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry might be competitive with conventional fossil fuel based calcination processes at current fuel prices

  2. Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Köhler, Jonathan; Scheepens, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Eco-innovation research pays increasing attention to business models and their contribution to the diffusion of environmental technology into socio-technological systems. The extent to which a business model hampers or promotes certain types of eco-innovations remains an open question. In order...... to shed light on this issue, the authors develop a conceptual framework to show how a specific type of business model (Product-Service Systems) could be applied to the context of the maritime industry. With a focus on the Danish maritime industry, the case study addresses two questions: Which business...... models are being used to develop, install and service the ballast water treatment technology? And, How can these business models add value to the ballast water treatment systems in the market? The case shows that different business models are applied depending on whether the installation is on new...

  3. India's Fertilizer Industry: Productivity and Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's fertilizer sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Our analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the fertilizer sector increased by 2.3% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's fertilizer sector has been biased towards the use of energy, while it has been capital and labor saving. The increase in productivity took place during the era of total control when a retention price system and distribution control was in effect. With liberalization of the fertilizer sector and reduction of subsidies productivity declined substantially since the early 1990s. Industrial policies and fiscal incentives still play a major role in the Indian fertilizer sect or. As substantial energy savings and carbon reduction potential exists, energy policies can help overcome barriers to the adoption of these measures in giving proper incentives and correcting distorted prices.

  4. Development of Product Availability Monitoring System In Production Unit In Automotive Component Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono, Rachmad; Raharno, Sri; Yuwana Martawirya, Yatna; Arthaya, Bagus

    2018-03-01

    This paper described a methodology to monitor the availability of products in a production unit in the automotive component industry. Automotive components made are automotive components made through sheet metal working. Raw material coming into production unit in the form of pieces of plates that have a certain size. Raw materials that come stored in the warehouse. Data of raw each material in the warehouse are recorded and stored in a data base system. The material will then undergo several production processes in the production unit. When the material is taken from the warehouse, material data are also recorded and stored in a data base. The data recorded are the amount of material, material type, and date when the material is out of the warehouse. The material coming out of the warehouse is labeled with information related to the production processes that the material must pass. Material out of the warehouse is a product will be made. The products have been completed, are stored in the warehouse products. When the product is entered into the product warehouse, product data is also recorded by scanning the barcode contained on the label. By recording the condition of the product at each stage of production, we can know the availability of the product in a production unit in the form of a raw material, the product being processed and the finished product.

  5. NEW ECO-EFFICIENT PRODUCTS USED IN LEATHER INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSU Dan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In today's move to "sustainable production" the leather industry, as well as many other industries is recognized as a polluting one. Traditional chemical operations are polluting because of the levels of inorganic chemical waste. Process chemicals which are not consumed within the reactions necessary to convert collagen to leather are currently discharged to waste. These are usually applied during bulk production, such as inorganic agents from beam house and tanning processes, e.g. lime, sulphide, ammonium salts, sulphuric acid and sodium chloride, mineral tanning agents – mainly Cr(III and the less common Al(III, Zr(III, Ti(III, Fe(III salts -, whereas depending on the tanning process and the leather article produced organic chemical waste discharged comprises aldehydic and polyphenolic tanning products, bating enzymes, organic carboxylic acids and excess electrolyte stable synthetic fat liquors. It is rare for chemicals and water to be recovered for re-use from several of these process steps. Moreover, tanners worldwide are required to operate within strict legislative boundaries. Serious drawbacks continuously arise concerning the chrome–tanning process in leather industry and the environmental hazardous consequences of chromium containing effluents. In order to overcome this impediment, a great deal of research has been focused on developing chrome–free tanning methods in the past years, such as titanium tanning. In the present study, Ti–Al tanned bovine leather was characterized by means of SEM microscopy, EDAX elemental analysis, ATR–FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry TGA, and differential scanning calorimetry DSC techniques.

  6. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  7. Sustainable Product Strategy in Apparel Industry with Consumer Behavior Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to analyze sustainable product strategy in apparel industry specifically addressing a firm that is considering launching a sustainable product partly made from recycled materials. There are two types of consumers under consideration, environmentally conscious and regular consumers, as they have different perceived values for the sustainable products. The article provides an analytical model aimed to identify conditions under which a firm could benefit from adopting sustainable product strategy. The level of sustainability is determined by the trade-off between profitability and costs occurred and if more consumers value sustainable products, the firm will increase its sustainable level and get a higher profit. This is because of a combination effect of an increasing marginal profit and demand expansion. Moreover, the model has been further extended to address a situation where the firm could manage consumer segmentation. Depending on parameter settings, the firm may target different consumer segments and there is always a threshold of cost for managing consumer segments. When converting regular consumers to be environmentally conscious is not costly, the firm will convert all consumers to be environmentally conscious with great efforts; otherwise, the firm will convert part of consumers to be environmentally conscious.

  8. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. From product to service orientation in the maritime equipment industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Detlef; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2008-01-01

    of their products in operation. In this paper we present a case study of a shipping equipment manufacturer that is currently shifting business focus from manufacturing towards services delivery. Using a modelling scheme to differentiate and categorise different development tasks within the frame of business......In the shipping industry, operational performance of ships and their equipment is crucial to business. Suppliers of machinery and equipment are aware of this situation and see business development potential in setting up service systems that are dedicated to ensuring the performance...... development towards service oriented business, the case delivers insights into the broader context and product related parameters influencing the options and requirements for service system development....

  10. Technology for Price Management in Industrial Differential Product Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Orlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies price behavior of oligopolies in industrial market where price competition is replaced by non-price competition. There is a developed technology for pricing management of the products of industrial enterprises, which, unlike the existing ones, takes into account the dynamics of changes in consumer preferences and changes in the pricing policy of the enterprise competitor and is based on usage of system dynamics models to simulate the financial and economic performance of enterprises and the fuzzy model for situational analysis and decisionmaking on changes in prices for the products. A pricing simulation model is offered. It is based on system-dynamic modeling method, which takes into account the complex cause-to-effect concatenation of factors on price such as product quality, cost, price competition, price elasticity of economic demand, competitors’ quantity of output and estimates the impact of changing factors of internal and external enterprise environment on the effectiveness of its activities.The simulation model allows us to conduct diverse experiments and analyze the impact of management decisions on the efficiency of the enterprise. Based on the fuzzy approach a price decision-making model is developed. It operates not only precise (numeric values, but also qualitative assessments of variables and provides an adequate use of logical relationships and the laws of the mutual influence of market and production and economic factors. Qualitative dependences, which establish the influence of external and internal factors on the price change, are identified as a result of the study of economic laws and legal conformity that are in the context of rapid economic change and market turbulence may not be strictly formalized and take the form of linguistic statements, which express the conditional relationship between the qualitative assessments of initial factors and changes in the relative price.

  11. Labour Productivity Convergence in 52 Industries: A Panel Data Analysis of Some European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta convergence and the speed of convergence of labour productivity for 52 industries are studied with a panel of data including 13 European countries. We use fixed effect approach to model the heterogeneity across countries. In primary sector and in service sector, the existence of -convergence is found for all industries. In manufacturing sector, convergence is found for all industries except for electronic and computing equipment industries. In general the speed of convergence estimates show slow adjustment. Speed is highest in the capital intensive industries. In primary production the convergence is slowest in agriculture and fastest in fishing industry. In manufacturing sector the convergence is slowest in food, drink and tobacco, and it is fastest in oil refining and nuclear fuel manufacturing industries. By augmenting the productivity models with labour utilization variable speeds up the convergence. Labour utilization is positively related to productivity growth in primary production industries, ICT producing manufacturing industries, and ICT producing services industries.

  12. Accumulation of logging residue in first thinnings of Scots pine and Norway spruce. Impact of top bucking diameter of roundwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeisaenen, T.; Nurmi, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), e-mail: tommi.raisanen@metla.fi

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of changes in the minimum top diameter of roundwood on the accumulation of logging residue. The aim was also to compare estimates of residue accumulation calculated by tree-specific biomass models with field measurements from thinnings. Felling experiments were performed in first thinnings of pine and spruce to evaluate the model calculations. In the felling, mean relative masses of the tree tops of spruce were nearly doubled with each increment of 2 cm in the top diameter. Respectively in pine, the mean relative tree top mass was increased by 50-60 % when the top diameter was increased by 2 cm. The mass of total residue (tree top and all delimbed branches) was similarly increased, but the differences were not as large. Compared to pine, a lesser variation in the crown mass of the spruce sample resulted in a more accurate model prediction of masses of tree tops and total residue. The results indicate that the residue accumulation from a small group of trees cannot be predicted very reliably, but when a larger tree population or area is considered, the model predictions are enhanced to a more practicable level. (orig.)

  13. Example of industrial valorisation of derivative products of Castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borg Patrick

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Known since antiquity, Castor Oil has been first used in medicine. Now, even if it remains present in small quantities as an excipient in many pharmaceutical specialties, it finds a lot of applicationsin cosmetics, industrial applications and chemical industry. Castor Oil specificity comes from its high content of ricinoleic acid (up to 85% that combines a double bond and an hydroxyl function in the heart of a 18 carbons linear chain. This particular structure is the key of an unique chemistry developed by ARKEMA that gives by thermal cracking a wide range of compounds with either 7 or 11 carbon atoms. A whole range of innovative chemistries and end use products are generated from these base reaction products. They are used in every-day life, to improve our comfort and safety but also in very specific applications with very high technical requirements. Synthesized from undecylenic acid, 11-amino-undecanoic acid, 100% based on renewable resources, is the precursor to biobased polymers combining high performance and sustainability: Rilsan®, Rilsan Fine Powder®, Pebax Rnew®.

  14. Utilization of agro-based industrial by-products for biogas production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoc, U.N.; Schnitzer, H. [Graz Univ. of Technology, (Austria). Inst. for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems; Berghold, H. [Joanneum Research Inst. for Sustainable Techniques and Systems (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    Due to the rapid rates of urbanization occurring in many countries in the world, the importance of an efficient and effective solid waste management system and the utilization/reuse of waste are more critical than ever before, especially for agricultural residues and agro-based industrial by-products. Over the past decade, the amount of solid waste generated in Vietnam has been increasing steadily. Numbers are predicted to continue to increase as well. There is significant potential to use the large amount of wastes for biogas conversion processes and for further production of commercial energy. This paper presented starts with estimation and analysis of the amounts of organic waste, agricultural residues, and agro-based industrial by-products generated from food industrial processes using general data sources for Vietnam. A laboratory study examined the use of agro-based industrial by-products and agricultural residues from cassava, sweet potato, pineapple residues, organic wastes, manures as input materials for biogas production in the anaerobic process. This paper provided an overview of Vietnam as a country, as well as a general overview of the amount of organic waste generated in the country. It also discussed the fermentation tests that were conducted to find out the potential of biogas production from some residues. It was concluded that a significant portion of waste could be reused as an environmentally sound source of energy. The utilization of agricultural residues and industrial byproducts as input materials for biogas production will not only reduce the quantity of organic waste thrown into landfills, but also reduce the negative impact on the environment. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  15. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-07-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102-138 g · water/g · dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7-9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1-2672.8, stress at break of 72.3-139.5 MPa and Young's modulus of 0.97-1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  16. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminda Tsouko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  17. Alabama's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the State's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur R. Maki; Con H Schallau; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1986-01-01

    Employment and earnings in Alabama's forest products industry, like those of most Southern States, grew significantly between 1970 and 1980. The forest products industry accounted for a larger share of the State's economic base. in 1980 than in 1970. Of the 13 Southern States, only 5 had more forest products industry employment than Alabama. Moreover, during...

  18. 77 FR 24722 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and... safety assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetic products. This guidance is intended to assist industry in... Cosmetic Products.'' The draft guidance is intended to assist industry in identifying the potential safety...

  19. Biodiesel production using oil from fish canning industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.F.; Almeida, M.F.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Dias, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A process was established to produce biodiesel from fish canning industry wastes. • Biodiesel production was enabled by an acid esterification pre-treatment. • Optimization studies showed that the best catalyst concentration was 1 wt.% H 2 SO 4 . • There was no advantage when a two-step alkali transesterification was employed. • Waste oil from olive oil bagasse could be used to improve fuel quality. - Abstract: The present study evaluated biodiesel production using oil extracted from fish canning industry wastes, focusing on pre-treatment and reaction conditions. Experimental planning was conducted to evaluate the influence of acid catalyst concentration (1–3 wt.% H 2 SO 4 ) in the esterification pre-treatment and the amount of methanolic solution (60–90 vol.%) used at the beginning of the further two-step alkali transesterification reaction. The use of a raw-material mixture, including waste oil obtained from olive oil bagasse, was also studied. The results from experimental planning showed that catalyst concentration mostly influenced product yield and quality, the best conditions being 1 wt.% catalyst and 60 vol.% of methanolic solution, to obtain a product yield of 73.9 wt.% and a product purity of 75.5 wt.%. Results from a one-step reaction under the selected conditions showed no advantage of performing a two-step alkali process. Although under the best conditions several of the biodiesel quality parameters were in agreement with standard specifications, a great variation was found in the biodiesel acid value, and oxidation stability and methyl ester content did not comply with biodiesel quality standards. Aiming to improve fuel quality, a mixture containing 80% waste olive oil and 20% of waste fish oil was evaluated. Using such mixture, biodiesel purity increased around 15%, being close to the standard requirements (96.5 wt.%), and the oxidation stability was in agreement with the biodiesel quality standard values (⩾6 h), which

  20. Briquette fuel production from wastewater sludge of beer industry and biodiesel production wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusong, P.; Puajindanetr, S.

    2018-04-01

    The production of industrial wastes is increasing each year. Current methods of waste disposal are severely impacting the environment. Utilization of industrial wastes as an alternative material for fuel is gaining interest due to its environmental friendliness. Thus, the objective of this research was to study the optimum condition for fuel briquettes produced from wastewater sludge of the beer industry and biodiesel production wastes. This research is divided into two parts. Part I will study the effects of carbonization of brewery wastewater sludge for high fixed carbon. Part II will study the ratio between brewery wastewater sludge and bleaching earth for its high heating value. The results show that the maximum fixed carbon of 10.01% by weight was obtained at a temperature of 350 °C for 30 minutes. The appropriate ratio of brewery wastewater sludge and bleaching earth by weight was 95:5. This condition provided the highest heating value of approximately 3548.10 kcal/kg.

  1. Workshop on Indian Chemical Industry: perspectives on safety, cleaner production and environment production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A Workshop on "Indian Chemical Industry: Perspectives on Safety, Cleaner Production and Environmental Protection" was held on 3, 4 and 5 January 1996, in Bombay, India. The main objective of the workshop, which was organised jointly by the Government of India, UNIDO/UNDP and the Indian Chemical

  2. Manufacturing processes in the textile industry. Expert Systems for fabrics production

    OpenAIRE

    Bullon, Juan; González Arrieta, Angélica; Hernández Encinas, Ascensión; Queiruga Dios, Araceli

    2017-01-01

    The textile industry is characterized by the economic activity whose objective is the production of fibres, yarns, fabrics, clothing and textile goods for home and decoration,as well as technical and industrial purposes. Within manufacturing, the Textile is one of the oldest and most complex sectors which includes a large number of sub-sectors covering the entire production cycle, from raw materials and intermediate products, to the production of final products. Textile industry activities pr...

  3. Factors driving and restraining adoption of Automation technologies in Swedish wood product industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Mapulanga, Mwanza; Saladi, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Swedish wood product industry contributes significantly to the economy of the country. This industry adds more value to the sawn timber produced in order to manufacture different wooden products. Companies in Swedish wood product industry are presently seen as underdeveloped in terms of investments and developments in automation technologies. Automation technologies are seen by companies as a solution for improving productivity, product quality, manufacturing cost reduction and ultimately imp...

  4. The oil and gas industry in Alberta: drilling and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-11-01

    This document outlined the impacts of drilling and production on the forest structure and integrity. The cumulative impact of all 11,898 wells drilled in 2000 in Alberta, coupled with previously drilled wells that is of primary concern. It is estimated that an 886 square kilometres area of the boreal forest has been cleared as a result of well drilling, based on an assumption of 1 hectare cleared per well site. No regulations govern the reforestation of the areas once the activities have been terminated, and nothing to regulate the cumulative road densities or pipeline densities. A progressive loss and fragmentation of habitat, increased access, and damage to aquatic systems are all consequences of the drilling and production activities. These activities also lead to the contamination of soil and water. Reductions in air quality are associated with drilling and production activities, mainly through the release of various gases in the atmosphere, such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, both responsible for acid rain deposition. Explicit limits on cumulative densities of well sites, pipelines and access roads are part of best practices that can result in a minimization of the negative environmental impacts. Integrated planning with the forest industry, the development and implementation of new operating practices, and a reduction in the pace of development would also go a long way toward the reduction of the ecological footprint

  5. Ion beam system for implanting industrial products of various shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, A.S.; Wittkower, A.

    1985-01-01

    Implantation of metals and ceramics with ions of nitrogen and other species has improved surface properties such as friction, wear and corrosion in numerous industrial applications. Zymet has built a production machine to take advantage of this process which can implant a 2 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 dose of nitrogen ions into a 20 cm x 20 cm area in about 30 min using a 100 keV beam. Treatment is accomplished by mounting the product on a cooled, tiltable, turntable which rotates continuously, or is indexed in 15 0 steps to expose different surfaces in fixed position. Product cooling is accomplished by using a chilled eutectic metal to mount and grip the variously shaped objects. A high voltage supply capable of 10 mA at 100 kV is used, and the equipment is microcomputer controlled via serial light links. All important machine parameters are presented in sequenced displays on a CRT. Uniformity of treatment and accumulated dose are monitored by a Faraday cup system which provides the microprocessor with data for display of time to completion on the process screen. For routine implants the operator requires only two buttons; one for chamber vacuum control, and the other for process start and stop. (orig.)

  6. Bacterial community changes in an industrial algae production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright, Scott P; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Knight, Rob; Reardon, Kenneth F; Chisholm, Stephen T

    2018-04-01

    While microalgae are a promising feedstock for production of fuels and other chemicals, a challenge for the algal bioproducts industry is obtaining consistent, robust algae growth. Algal cultures include complex bacterial communities and can be difficult to manage because specific bacteria can promote or reduce algae growth. To overcome bacterial contamination, algae growers may use closed photobioreactors designed to reduce the number of contaminant organisms. Even with closed systems, bacteria are known to enter and cohabitate, but little is known about these communities. Therefore, the richness, structure, and composition of bacterial communities were characterized in closed photobioreactor cultivations of Nannochloropsis salina in F/2 medium at different scales, across nine months spanning late summer-early spring, and during a sequence of serially inoculated cultivations. Using 16S rRNA sequence data from 275 samples, bacterial communities in small, medium, and large cultures were shown to be significantly different. Larger systems contained richer bacterial communities compared to smaller systems. Relationships between bacterial communities and algae growth were complex. On one hand, blooms of a specific bacterial type were observed in three abnormal, poorly performing replicate cultivations, while on the other, notable changes in the bacterial community structures were observed in a series of serial large-scale batch cultivations that had similar growth rates. Bacteria common to the majority of samples were identified, including a single OTU within the class Saprospirae that was found in all samples. This study contributes important information for crop protection in algae systems, and demonstrates the complex ecosystems that need to be understood for consistent, successful industrial algae cultivation. This is the first study to profile bacterial communities during the scale-up process of industrial algae systems.

  7. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  8. Energy consumption restricted productivity re-estimates and industrial sustainability analysis in post-reform China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shiyi; Santos-Paulino, Amelia U.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of energy on China's industrial sustainability by using a novel approach to estimate real total factor productivity. The growth accounting indicates that the substantial industrial reforms in China have led to productivity growth. Energy and capital are also important factors driving China's industrial growth. Productivity growth in China's industry is mostly attributable to the high-tech light industrial sectors. - Highlights: ► Productivity has become the most important growth engine in majority of sectors. ► Energy and capital are also important factors promoting China's industrial growth. ► The productivity improvement is more attributable to high-tech light industry. ► The heavy industry performs worse than the light one in terms of productivity

  9. Process model economics of xanthan production from confectionery industry wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajić, Bojana Ž; Vučurović, Damjan G; Dodić, Siniša N; Grahovac, Jovana A; Dodić, Jelena M

    2017-12-01

    In this research a process and cost model for a xanthan production facility was developed using process simulation software (SuperPro Designer ® ). This work represents a novelty in the field for two reasons. One is that xanthan gum has been produced from several wastes but never from wastewaters from confectionery industries. The other more important is that the aforementioned software, which in intended exclusively for bioprocesses, is used for generating a base case, i.e. starting point for transferring the technology to industrial scales. Previously acquired experimental knowledge about using confectionery wastewaters from five different factories as substitutes for commercially used cultivation medium have been incorporated into the process model in order to obtain an economic viability of implementing such substrates. A lower initial sugar content in the medium based on wastewater (28.41 g/L) compared to the synthetic medium (30.00 g/L) gave a lower xanthan content at the end of cultivation (23.98 and 26.27 g/L, respectively). Although this resulted in somewhat poorer economic parameters, they were still in the range of being an investment of interest. Also the possibility of utilizing a cheap resource (waste) and reducing pollution that would result from its disposal has a positive effect on the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacterial laccase: recent update on production, properties and industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prakram Singh; Goradia, Bindi; Saxena, Arunika

    2017-10-01

    Laccases (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of phenolic and non-phenolic aromatic compounds in the presence or absence of a mediator. Till date, laccases have mostly been isolated from fungi and plants, whereas laccase from bacteria has not been well studied. Bacterial laccases have several unique properties that are not characteristics of fungal laccases such as stability at high temperature and high pH. Bacteria produce these enzymes either extracellularly or intracellularly and their activity is in a wide range of temperature and pH. It has application in pulp biobleaching, bioremediation, textile dye decolorization, pollutant degradation, biosensors, etc. Hence, comprehensive information including sources, production conditions, characterization, cloning and biotechnological applications is needed for the effective understanding and application of these enzymes at the industrial level. The present review provides exhaustive information of bacterial laccases reported till date.

  11. Lipase production by Penicillium restrictum using solid waste of industrial babassu oil production as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, M B; Pinto, A L; Gombert, A K; Seitz, K H; Kivatinitz, S C; Castilho, L R; Freire, D M

    2000-01-01

    Lipase, protease, and amylase production by Penicillium restrictum in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The basal medium was an industrial waste of babassu oil (Orbignya oleifera) production. It was enriched with peptone, olive oil, and Tween-80. The supplementation positively influenced both enzyme production and fungal growth. Media enriched with Tween-80 provided the highest protease activity (8.6 U/g), whereas those enriched with peptone and olive oil led to the highest lipase (27.8 U/g) and amylase (31.8 U/g) activities, respectively.

  12. Oregon’s forest products industry and timber harvest, 2008: industry trends and impacts of the Great Recession through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Gale; Charles E. Keegan; Erik C. Berg; Jean Daniels; Glenn A. Christensen; Colin B. Sorenson; Todd A. Morgan; Paul. Polzin

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Oregon’s 2008 timber harvest through the primary timber processing industry and provides a description of the structure, operation, and condition of Oregon’s forest products industry as a whole. It is the second in a series of reports that update the status of the industry every 5 years. Based on a census conducted in 2009 and 2010, we...

  13. Plastic Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a plastic technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  14. Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassib, Hisham B.

    2010-01-01

    The basic premise of this paper is the fact that science has become a major industry: the knowledge industry. The paper throws some light on the reasons for the transformation of science from a limited, constrained and marginal craft into a major industry. It, then, presents a productivist industrial model of knowledge production, which shows its…

  15. Trends in the US hardwood lumber distribution industry: changing products, customers, and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Omar Espinoza; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Efficient and effective supply chains are the backbone of any industry, including the forest products industry. As the US secondary hardwood industry has undergone a profound transformation and large parts of the industry have moved offshore, the supply chain is adapting to these new realities. Remaining and new customers of US hardwood lumber distributors tend to be...

  16. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  17. Fish burger enriched by olive oil industrial by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedola, Annamaria; Cardinali, Angela; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Conte, Amalia

    2017-07-01

    Oil industry produces large volume of waste, which represents a disposal and a potential environmental pollution problem. Nevertheless, they are also promising sources of compounds that can be recovered and used as valuable substances. The aim of this work is to exploit solid olive by-products, in particular dry olive paste flour (DOPF) coming from Coratina cultivar, to enrich fish burger and enhance the quality characteristics. In particular, the addition of olive by-products leads to an increase of the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity; however, it also provokes a deterioration of sensory quality. Therefore, to balance quality and sensory characteristics of fish burgers, three subsequent phases have been carried out: first, the quality of DOPF in terms of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity has been assessed; afterward, DOPF has been properly added to fish burgers and, finally, the formulation of the enriched fish burgers has been optimized in order to improve the sensory quality. Results suggested that the enriched burgers with 10% DOPF showed considerable amounts of polyphenols and antioxidant activity, even though they are not very acceptable from the sensory point of view. Pre-treating DOPF by hydration/extraction with milk, significantly improved the burger sensory quality by reducing the concentration of bitter components.

  18. Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulko, J. B.

    2003-10-23

    The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF{sub 4} and WF{sub 6} for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF{sub 4} was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO{sub 2}. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor sweep gas contained a small fraction of dry air (10-12 vol%) along with helium. The lab-synthesized product was shown to contain the least amount of infrared active and elemental impurities when compared with a reference material certified at 99.99% purity. Analysis of the ''as-produced'' gas using ICP-MS showed that uranium could not be detected at a detection limit of 0.019ppm-wt. A process to make WF{sub 6} from WO{sub 2}, and UF{sub 4}, produced a WOF{sub 4} intermediate, which proved difficult to convert to tungsten hexafluoride using titanium fluoride as a fluorinating agent.

  19. Semi-industrial production of methane from textile wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opwis, Klaus; Mayer-Gall, Thomas; Gutmann, Jochen S. [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West e.V., Krefeld (DE)] (and others)

    2012-12-15

    The enzymatic desizing of starch-sized cotton fabrics leads to wastewaters with an extremely high chemical oxygen demand due to its high sugar content. Nowadays, these liquors are still disposed without use, resulting in a questionable ecological pollution and high emission charges for cotton finishing manufacturers. In this paper, an innovative technology for the production of energy from textile wastewaters from cotton desizing was developed. Such desizing liquors were fermented by methane-producing microbes to biogas. For this purpose, a semi-industrial plant with a total volume of more than 500 L was developed and employed over a period of several weeks. The robust and trouble-free system produces high amounts of biogas accompanied by a significant reduction of the COD of more than 85%. With regard to growing standards and costs for wastewater treatment and disposal, the new process can be an attractive alternative for textile finishing enterprises in wastewater management, combining economic and ecological benefits. Moreover, the production of biogas from textile wastewaters can help to overcome the global energy gap within the next decades, especially with respect to the huge dimension of cotton pretreatment and, therefore, huge desizing activities worldwide.

  20. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California's residential marketplace

  1. Traceability in the pharmaceutical industry: application to radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanette, Camila; Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Araujo, Elaine B. de; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Katia S. de S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of tools to promote the traceability of the drugs in the pharmaceutical industry during all the production chain is a necessary requisite. The traceability system is applied to enable the identification of the origin, destination and exact location of the drug. Traceability optimizes the process chain, reduces errors, is a requirement for quality process, promotes safety for the user and assists in pharmacovigilance. The health regulatory agency in Brazil (ANVISA) will implement a tracking system for medicaments with RDC no. 59 of 2009, to control distribution since the producer until the patients in order to prevent the traffic and adulteration of drugs. Thus, this study discusses the importance and impact of the new traceability system proposed by ANVISA in the production and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals from the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN). The radiopharmaceuticals have a difference track when compared with another drug classes. In this context, this RDC would increase the price of the medicines by up to 10%, since it provides deployment of a single stamp supplied by the Mint. Considering that radiopharmaceuticals are not sold to the final consumer (patients), but only for accredited medical clinics and nuclear medicine physicians, and the transport of radiopharmaceuticals is performed by specialized companies licensed by CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission), the use of the stamp to ensure authenticity and prevent falsification should not be appropriated and represents and additional cost for the radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  2. Production optimisation in the petrochemical industry by hierarchical multivariate modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Magnus; Furusjoe, Erik; Jansson, Aasa

    2004-06-01

    This project demonstrates the advantages of applying hierarchical multivariate modelling in the petrochemical industry in order to increase knowledge of the total process. The models indicate possible ways to optimise the process regarding the use of energy and raw material, which is directly linked to the environmental impact of the process. The refinery of Nynaes Refining AB (Goeteborg, Sweden) has acted as a demonstration site in this project. The models developed for the demonstration site resulted in: Detection of an unknown process disturbance and suggestions of possible causes; Indications on how to increase the yield in combination with energy savings; The possibility to predict product quality from on-line process measurements, making the results available at a higher frequency than customary laboratory analysis; Quantification of the gradually lowered efficiency of heat transfer in the furnace and increased fuel consumption as an effect of soot build-up on the furnace coils; Increased knowledge of the relation between production rate and the efficiency of the heat exchangers. This report is one of two reports from the project. It contains a technical discussion of the result with some degree of detail. A shorter and more easily accessible report is also available, see IVL report B1586-A.

  3. Cyclotron for industrial production of radioisotopes: relevants characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Wanderley de

    1997-01-01

    The industrial production of radioisotopes requests cyclotrons with easy maintenance services, high productivity and low operation costs. To obtain this performance the experts on the have achieved excellent results, taking advantage of modern resources in calculation and modeling. Only by the maximum exploitation of the azimutal variation of the magnetic field, a physical concept introduced in 1967 with the isocronous cyclotrons, it was possible to construct cyclotrons with only 30% of the electrical consumption required by the former cyclotrons. On the other hand, the acceleration of negative ions enable the 100% accelerated beam utilization, without internal energy dissipation, obtaining beam intensities up to 1mA in continuous running which represents an increased factor of 15. Other construction parameters were optimized aiming at reliability and reduction in the components activation. Concerning energy consumption and the beam intensity supplied, a present cyclotron with 30 MeV and 300μA of protons current is 15 times more efficient than its precedent. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Innovation in the forest products industry: an analysis of companies in Alaska and Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abra Hovgaard; Eric Hansen; Joseph. Roos

    2005-01-01

    Because there is a lack of innovation research in the forest products industry and innovative activities in the industry are not well documented, this study attempted to fill that void. The objectives of this study were to understand the process and definition of innovation in the forest products industry, identify the constraints on innovative activities, identify...

  5. Engineering microbial cell factories for the production of plant natural products: from design principles to industrial-scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Ding, Wentao; Jiang, Huifeng

    2017-07-19

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are widely used as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, seasonings, pigments, etc., with a huge commercial value on the global market. However, most of these PNPs are still being extracted from plants. A resource-conserving and environment-friendly synthesis route for PNPs that utilizes microbial cell factories has attracted increasing attention since the 1940s. However, at the present only a handful of PNPs are being produced by microbial cell factories at an industrial scale, and there are still many challenges in their large-scale application. One of the challenges is that most biosynthetic pathways of PNPs are still unknown, which largely limits the number of candidate PNPs for heterologous microbial production. Another challenge is that the metabolic fluxes toward the target products in microbial hosts are often hindered by poor precursor supply, low catalytic activity of enzymes and obstructed product transport. Consequently, despite intensive studies on the metabolic engineering of microbial hosts, the fermentation costs of most heterologously produced PNPs are still too high for industrial-scale production. In this paper, we review several aspects of PNP production in microbial cell factories, including important design principles and recent progress in pathway mining and metabolic engineering. In addition, implemented cases of industrial-scale production of PNPs in microbial cell factories are also highlighted.

  6. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium componen...

  7. Perspectives for the Industrial Enzymatic Production of Glycosides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roode, de B.M.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Padt, van der A.; Boom, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Glycosides are of commercial interest for industry in general and specifically for the pharmaceutical and food industry. Currently chemical preparation of glycosides will not meet EC food regulations, and therefore chemical preparation of glycosides is not applicable in the food industry. Thus,

  8. National pulpwood production, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; James W. Bentley; Steven W. Hayes

    2014-01-01

    U.S. pulpwood production amounted to 86.5 million cords in 2010, a decrease of 4 percent from 2008. Roundwood production totaled 65.7 million cords and accounted for 76 percent of the Nation's total pulpwood production. The Southern Region led the Nation in total production with 65.5 million cords, followed by the Northern Region with 12.8 million cords, and the...

  9. National pulpwood production, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Ronald J. Piva; Brian F. Walters; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    United States’ pulpwood production amounted to 89.2 million cords in 2008. Roundwood production totaled 63.0 million cords and accounted for 71 percent of the Nation’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue totaled 26.2 million cords. Georgia led the Nation in total production, with 11.6 million cords. In 2008, 146 mills were operating and drawing wood from...

  10. Southern pulpwood production, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton; James w. Bentley

    2009-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 64.7 million cords in 2006 to 65.7 million cords in 2007. Roundwood production increased 1.2 million cords to 47.6 million cords and accounted for 72 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue declined 1 percent to 18.2 million cords. Alabama led the South in total production at 10.6 million cords...

  11. Multidisciplinary Graduate Curriculum in Support of the Biobased Products Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Dorgan

    2005-07-31

    The project had a dominant education component. The project involved revising curriculum to educate traditional engineering students in the emerging field of industrial biotechnology. New classes were developed and offered. As a result, the curriculum of the Colorado School of Mines was expanded to include new content. Roughly 100 undergraduates and about 10 graduate students each year benefit from this curricular expansion. The research associated with this project consisted of developing new materials and energy sources from renewable resources. Several significant advances were made, most importantly the heat distortion temperature of polylactide (PLA) was increased through the addition of cellulosic nanowhiskers. The resulting ecobionanocomposites have superior properties which enable the use of renewable resource based plastics in a variety of new applications. Significant amounts of petroleum are thereby saved and considerable environmental benefits also result. Effectiveness and economic feasibility of the project proved excellent. The educational activities are continuing in a sustainable fashion, now being supported by tuition revenues and the normal budgeting of the University. The PI will be teaching one of the newly developed classes will next Fall (Fall 2006), after the close of the DOE grant, and again repeatedly into the future. Now established, the curriculum in biobased products and energy will grow and evolve through regular teaching and revision. On the research side, the new plastic materials appear economically feasible and a new collaboration between the PI’s group and Sealed Air, a major food-packaging manufacturer, has been established to bring the new green plastics to market. Public benefits of the project are noteworthy in many respects. These include the development of a better educated workforce and citizenry capable of providing technological innovation as a means of growing the economy and providing jobs. In particular, the

  12. Experiences with the design and production of an industrial, flexible and demountable (IFD) building system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassel, van F.J.M.; Stone, W.C.

    2002-01-01

    The Dutch government encourages innovative construction by subsidizing cohesive industrial, flexible and demountable building (lFD) pilot projects. Industrial building concerns the process-related aspects of production. robotization, mechanization, automation, prefabrication, communication, etc.

  13. Industrial production of MgH2 and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesugi, H.; Sugiyama, T.; Nii, H.; Ito, T.; Nakatsugawa, I.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Tablet and powder Mg were hydrogenated in a 50 kg batch furnace based on thermal equilibrium method. → Compression of Mg tablet improved the hydrogenation yield. → Hydrolysis of MgH 2 using citric acid generated hydrogen under 373 K. → A MgH 2 -hydrogen reactor utilizing hydraulic head pressure was developed. → - Abstract: A process for the industrial production of magnesium hydride (MgH 2 ) based on a thermal equilibrium method and its application to portable hydrogen sources is proposed. Mg powders and tablets compressed with mechanically ground Mg ribbons were successfully hydrogenated in a 50-kg-batch furnace. The resultant MgH 2 showed a hydrogen yield of around 96% with good reproducibility. The compression ratio of Mg tablets was found to be an important factor in the hydrogenation yield. A hydrolysis technique using citric acid as an additive was employed to generate hydrogen under 373 K. Increasing the concentration of citric acid and the temperature accelerated the hydrolysis reactivity. A hydrogen reactor utilizing hydraulic head pressure was developed. It generated hydrogen continuously for 1 h at a flow rate of 100 ml min -1 with hydrolysis of 5 g of tablet-form MgH 2 . The conversion yield was around 70%, regardless of the flow rate.

  14. Feed Additives Production Out of Dairy Industry Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrikh, EV

    2017-05-01

    Application of macro- and microelements in animal feed is the most effective in the case of their industrial brining in mixed feeds, feed mixes, and protein-vitamin supplements in the form of various complex salts. Application of the product contributes to the body’s needs of broiler chickens in vitamins and minerals, normalization of metabolism, and ensures a high rate of growth and development. The composition of the premix can be adjusted depending on the actual proportion of biologically active substances in the feed used by a consumer. It is possible to include in the premix other biologically active substances. Assessing the slaughter qualities of experimental pigs, it was found (Table. 2) that the pigs of group II has a tendency toward greater weight of hot carcass (4.5 kg), of slaughter yelts (by 3.83%) and toward a smaller thickness of fat over the spinous processes of the 6-7th thoracic vertebrae (1.67 mm). The performed investigations have established that there is no significant difference between groups I and II in the content of certain amino acids, however, group I shows poorer results in the content of valine, isoleucine, leucine and lysine by 0.16 g / 100 g of protein (P> 0.999) 0.2 (P> 0.90), 0.46 (P> 0.999) and 0.39 (P> 0.999) g / 100 g protein respectively.

  15. STANDARD CALCULATION PER PRODUCT IN THE CHEMICAL FERTILIZER INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ionescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the research is to present a way of organising the managerial accounting of totally and semi finished product obtained in chemical fertilizer industry entities. For this study, we analyzed the current principle of managerial accounting to an entity in the studied area, in order to emphasize the need of organizing and implementing a modern accounting management to control the cost and increase the performance of the entities in this area, starting from the premise that there are sufficient similarities between entities in the field. Research carried out has revealed that currently, the costing is organized in terms of using traditional methods and that it is necessary to organize and implement an accounting management based on the use of modern methods, namely the method of standard costs combined with the method of centres of costs. The major implications of the proposed system for the investigated field consist of determining a relevant cost-oriented management entity, highlighting the shortcomings of traditional methods of cost

  16. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The introductory chapter provides a discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. It discusses these industries in terms of resource characteristics, industry technology, pollution control requirements, market structure, the economics of recycling, and the issues involved in econometrically estimating scrap supply response behavior. It further presents the methodology established by DOE for the metals, textiles, rubber, and pulp and paper industries. The areas in which government policies might have a significant impact on the utilization of primary and secondary metals and on any recycling targets between now and 1987 are noted. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33. The profiles include such topics as industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends. Chapter 4 specifically covers the evaluation of recycling targets for the ferrous, aluminum, copper, zinc, and lead industries. (MCW)

  17. Toyota production system - one example to shipbuilding industry

    OpenAIRE

    Delmo Alves de Moura; Rui Carlos Botter

    2017-01-01

    The shipbuilding system can use the techniques used in the Toyota Production System as an example for its production process. Production should be lean, minimize defects, stop production and reduce or eliminate inventories. Lean production is regarded by many as simply an enhancement of mass production methods, whereas agility implies breaking out of the mass production mould and producing much more highly customized products - where the customer wants them in any quantity. In a product line ...

  18. 76 FR 9028 - Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and... Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance document provides manufacturers of cellular and gene... for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance...

  19. Industrial Security – a Component of the Production Operational Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie GHEORGHE; Roxana STEFANESCU

    2005-01-01

    The problem of the industrial objectives security imposes as a fundamental condition of economic efficiency. This is why is necessary the elaboration of a new concept regarding industrial security. This concept must integrate quality problems, with technological and ecological characteristics of the industrial objective with the security problems of the business environment and to protect physical and informational objective against fires or natural calamities. Another role of the new industr...

  20. Improvement of productivity in low volume production industry layout by using witness simulation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrey, V.; Mohamed, N. M. Z. N.; Rose, A. N. M.

    2017-10-01

    In almost all manufacturing industry, increased productivity and better efficiency of the production line are the most important goals. Most factories especially small scale factory has less awareness of manufacturing system optimization and lack of knowledge about it and uses the traditional way of management. Problems that are commonly identified in the factory are a high idle time of labour and also small production. This study is done in a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) low volume production company. Data collection and problems affecting productivity and efficiency are identified. In this study, Witness simulation software is being used to simulate the layout and the output is focusing on the improvement of layout in terms of productivity and efficiency. In this study, the layout is rearranged by reducing the travel time from a workstation to another workstation. Then, the improved layout is modelled and the machine and labour statistic of both, original and improved layout is taken. Productivity and efficiency are calculated for both layout and then being compared.

  1. Southern pulpwood production, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton; James W. Bentley

    2010-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 65.7 million cords in 2007 to 67.0 million cords in 2008. Roundwood production increased by 1.2 million cords to 48.8 million cords and accounted for 73 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue remained stable at 18.2 million cords. Georgia led the South...

  2. Southern pulpwood production, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper

    2015-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 62.7 million cords in 2011 to 63.7 million cords in 2012. Roundwood production decreased by 770,000 cords to 49.3 million cords and accounted for 78 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue dropped 15 percent to 14.4 million cords in 2012. Georgia and Alabama led the South in total...

  3. Southern pulpwood production, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2013-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood declined from 65.5 million cords in 2010 to 62.7 million cords in 2011. Roundwood production decreased by 878,000 cords to 50.1 million cords and accounted for 80 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue dropped 14 percent to 12.6 million cords in 2011. Georgia and Alabama led the South in total...

  4. Product waste in the automotive industry : Technology and environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Peter; Hond, Frank Den

    1993-01-01

    In this article the changes in technology and industry structure forced by waste management in the automotive industry are explored. The analysis is based on (1) a characterisation of corporate response to environmental issues, and (2) the management of technology applied to the car manufacturing

  5. Triacetic acid lactone production in industrial Saccharomyces yeast strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical that can be produced in yeast. To evaluate the potential for industrial yeast strains to produce TAL, the g2ps1 gene encoding 2-pyrone synthase was transformed into thirteen industrial yeast strains of varied genetic background. TAL produ...

  6. Preparing skilled labor in industry through production-based curriculum approach in vocational high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoto

    2017-09-01

    Vocational high school (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan / SMK) aims to prepare mid-level skilled labors to work in the industry and are able to create self-employment opportunities. For those reasons, the curriculum in SMK should be based on meeting the needs of the industries and is able to prepare learners to master the competence in accordance with the skills program of their choice. Production based curriculum is the curriculum which the learning process is designed together with the production process or using production process as a learning medium. This approach with the primary intention to introduce students with the real working environment and not merely simulations. In the production-based curriculum implementation model, students are directly involved in the industry through the implementation of industrial working practices, do work on production units in school, and do practical work in school by doing the job as done in the industry by using industry standards machines.

  7. Wood product industry - present state and studies of the development alternatives; Puuteollisuuden nykytilan ja haasteiden arviointia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmijoki, O.; Paajanen, T.; Kairi, M.

    2007-07-01

    In this research project the development of the wood products industry and its operating environment in Finland was studied using statistical data mainly from years 1995 - 2003. In this context, the wood products industry includes the sawmilling industry, the plywood and other wood panel industry, prefabricated wooden housing and the building joinery industry, wood packing manufacture and the manufacture of other wooden products. The development of the wood products industry and its operating environment has been estimated by combining statistical data about the business economy, production economy and the national economy from the Central Statistical Office of Finland together with data from the Finnish Forest Research Institute. Based on statistical data, the wood product markets, profitability and cost structure of branches, input market, use of labour force and investments have been studied. The economic importance of the wood products industry has been estimated at a national and a local level. Challenges facing wood products industry branches have been analysed using example calculations based on input-output theory. In the evaluation method, the business environment of the wood products industry branches and related branches, have been described with a use table at basic prices commonly using in the national economy. This method has enabled the direct and indirect effects of simultaneous quantity and price changes occurring in the wood product markets and markets related to the wood product industry, to be analysed. In the example calculations, variation of sawn timber production and log import, as well as the increments of sawn timber upgrading, wood product usage in building, wood panel production and purchase energy price, were reviewed

  8. EFFECTS OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN THE EUROZONE MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz BAYAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production is one of the leading indicators of gross domestic product which reflects the overall economic performance of a country. In other words decreases or increases in industrial production point out a contracting or expanding economy. Therefore, changes in prices of oil and natural gas which are the crucial inputs to the industrial production are also important for the overall economy. This study examines the effects of changes in oil and natural gas prices on the industrial production in the 18 Eurozone member countries during the period January 2001-September 2013 by using panel regression. We found that oil prices and natural gas prices had negative effect on industrial production in the Eurozone member countries.

  9. Sustainable Industrial Product Systems. Integration of Life Cycle Assessment in Product development and Optimization of Product Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Ole Joergen

    1997-12-31

    This thesis contributes to the development and testing of environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) in product development and management in industry. It is based on systems theory and systems engineering. It develops a method for sustainable product development that has been successfully tested in the Nordic project called NEP. The LCA method is also a basis for an optimization model, where life cycle economy and environmental impacts from product systems are optimized with a non-linear model. A more complete mathematical model for LCA, based on the functional requirements on a product system, is also developed. The statistical properties of emission factors are studied using a data set from the Swedish Kraft Mill industry. It is shown that emission factors may be assumed constants in the LCA model, but with rather large variations within a population of Kraft mills. It is shown that there are a few environmental impacts which are important for most types of products under Scandinavian conditions, especially global warming potential, acidification, human toxicity and fossil energy depletion. There are significant differences between the contribution to these impacts from different life cycle stages, where raw material processing and use of products are generally more important than the other stages. Test cases indicate that there are no large conflicts between improvements in environmental impacts and customer requirements. Environmental improvements seem to increase purchase cost of products in some cases, but the life cycle cost of the products seem in most cases to be reduced. It is concluded that there are opportunities for 30-50% improvements in product system, based on relatively simple modifications of the systems. 246 refs., 63 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. A production model and maintenance planning model for the process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Teelen, A.; Selen, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper a model is developed to simultaneously plan preventive maintenance and production in a process industry environment, where maintenance planning is extremely important. The model schedules production jobs and preventive maintenance jobs, while minimizing costs associated with

  11. 75 FR 63188 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September 2010. The draft guidance provides... Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September 2010. The draft guidance...

  12. Mathematical model for production of an industry focusing on worker status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalakshi, V.; kiran kumari, Sheshma

    2018-04-01

    Productivity improvement is posing a great challenge for industry everyday because of the difficulties in keeping track and priorising the variables that have significant impact on the productivity. The variation in production depends on the linguistic variables such as worker commitment, worker motivation and worker skills. Since the variables are linguistic we try to propose a model which gives an appropriate production of an industry. Fuzzy models aids the relationship between the factors and status. The model will support the industry to focus on the mentality of worker to increase the production.

  13. Productive efficiency of tea industry: A stochastic frontier approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Key words: Technical efficiency, stochastic frontier, translog ... present low performance of the tea industry in Bangladesh. ... The Technical inefficiency effect .... administrative, technical, clerical, sales and purchase staff.

  14. Identifying the comparative advantage of products and industries of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (as in the H-O theory) and that industries utilise different factor proportions ... theorem and the self-selection hypothesis are important stylised facts of firm- ...... RCAs are highly concentrated are labour intensive, and this provides verification of.

  15. The impact of internationalisation and rationalisation of production on the Spanish automobile industry, 1950 - 90

    OpenAIRE

    A Lagendijk

    1995-01-01

    The author examines the impact of the internationalisation of automobile production on the local production system in Spain, with emphasis on the relationship between the assembly and supply industries. After an introduction to the issue of linkage formation in the automobile industry, a historical overview of the development of the Spanish production system since the 1950s is presented. This is followed by an analysis of recent changes in the production and procurement strategies of internat...

  16. Mechanism of management of competitiveness of production of agrarian and industrial complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buryak E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available the concept of competitiveness and mechanisms of management of competitiveness of production is considered. Major factors of ensuring competitiveness of production of agrarian and industrial complex are allocated. The main problems of production of wheat in the Republic of Crimea making negative impact on the level of her competitiveness are revealed. The mechanism of management of competitiveness of production of agrarian and industrial complex is developed.

  17. Decomposition of Productivity Considering Multi-environmental Pollutants in Chinese Industrial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Cao, Jing; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to calculate and decompose productivity incorporating multi-environmental pollutants in Chinese industrial sectors from 1992 to 2008. We apply a weighted Russell directional distance model to calculate productivity from both the economic and environmental performance. The main findings are: (1) Chinese industrial sectors increased productivity, with the main contributing factors being labor saving prior to 2000; (2) The main contributing factors for productivity...

  18. Industrial powder metallurgy processing for production of high field Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, A.; Gregory, E.; Wong, J.; Thieme, C.L.H.; Foner, S.

    1988-01-01

    Technology transfer is discussed for fabricating Nb 3 Sn(Ti) via powder metallurgy methods from laboratory scale production at MIT to industrial production at Supercon Inc. Industrial production techniques such as hydrostatic extrusion and drawing have produced superconducting wires with promising critical current densities in preliminary field measurements. Initial steps toward process modification and optimization to improve the commercial feasibility of the powder metallurgy process are evaluated. These modifications are aimed at reducing production time and increasing process flexibility

  19. Total Factor Productivity Growth, Technical Progress & Efficiency Change in Vietnam Coal Industry - Nonparametric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Vu Hung

    2018-03-01

    This research applies Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach to analyze Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and efficiency changes in Vietnam coal mining industry from 2007 to 2013. The TFP of Vietnam coal mining companies decreased due to slow technological progress and unimproved efficiency. The decadence of technical efficiency in many enterprises proved that the coal mining industry has a large potential to increase productivity through technical efficiency improvement. Enhancing human resource training, technology and research & development investment could help the industry to improve efficiency and productivity in Vietnam coal mining industry.

  20. Innovation Barriers and Enablers that Affect Productivity in Uganda Building Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe, , and; Kristian Widén; Jackson Mwakali; Bengt Hansson

    2007-01-01

    The construction industry has of recent been blamed for lack of innovation. Lack of innovation in the industry is believed to be responsible for the decreasing or stagnant levels of productivity in comparison with other industries. This paper reviews the major barriers and enablers to innovation in general. Propositions were made about the factors that affect innovation in the construction industry which were then formulated into a questionnaire. A survey was made on building contractors in U...

  1. Cleaner production options for reducing industrial waste: the case of batik industry in Malang, East Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirait, M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to conduct cleaner production options for improving the environmental performance during the production of batik industry, the case of UKM batik, Malang, East Java. Batik industry is one of small and medium textile industry which has contribution to economic growth in Malang. However, during production the batik, it generates wastewater that has potential to decrease the environmental performance. Wastewater from Celaket batik industry has BOD, COD, TSS, and pH level is far larger than the threshold of water quality standard as a result of use chemical substance during the dyes processing. In order to prevent generating wastewater, this study utilized cleaner production options, such as substitution of input material.Substitution of input material for dyes process was implemented by replacement chemical dyes (e.g.indigosol, nafthol, rapid) with natural dyes (e.g. Indigofero Tintoria). Modifying of technology/equipment was conducted by developing wastewater treatment equipment to reduce waste of batik production. The implementation of this strategy was carried out by changing input material from chemical dyes with natural dyes. The CP uptake could reduce significantly the environmental impact in term of reduction of COD, BOD, and TSS.

  2. Process improvement of knives production in a small scale industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Muktasim, Irfan

    2017-06-01

    Small scale industry that produces several kinds of knive should increase its capacity due to the demand from the market. Qualitatively, this case study consisted of formulating the problems, collecting and analyzing the necessary data, and determining the possible recommendations for the improvement. While the current capacity is only 9 (nine), it is expected that 20 units of knife will produced per month. The processes sequence are: profiling (a), truing (b), beveling (c), heat treatment (d), polishing (e), assembly (f), sharpening (g) and finishing (h). The first process (a) is held by out-house vendor company while other steps from (b) to (g) are executed by in-house vendor. However, there is a high dependency upon the high skilled operator who executes the in -house processes that are mostly held manually with several unbalance successive tasks, where the processing time of one or two tasks require longer duration than others since the operation is merely relied on the operator's skill. The idea is the improvement or change of the profiling and beveling process. Due to the poor surface quality and suboptimal hardness resulted from the laser cut machine for profiling, it is considered to subst itute this kind of process with wire cut that is capable to obtain good surface quality with certain range levels of roughness. Through simple cutting experiments on the samples, it is expected that the generated surface quality is adequate to omit the truing process (b). In addition, the cutting experiments on one, two, and four test samples resulted the shortest time that was obtained through four pieces in one cut. The technical parameters were set according to the recommendation of machine standard as referred to samples condition such as thickness and path length that affect ed the rate of wear. Meanwhile, in order to guarantee the uniformity of knife angles that are formed through beveling process (c), a grinding fixture was created. This kind of tool diminishes the

  3. Toyota production system - one example to shipbuilding industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmo Alves de Moura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The shipbuilding system can use the techniques used in the Toyota Production System as an example for its production process. Production should be lean, minimize defects, stop production and reduce or eliminate inventories. Lean production is regarded by many as simply an enhancement of mass production methods, whereas agility implies breaking out of the mass production mould and producing much more highly customized products - where the customer wants them in any quantity. In a product line context, it amounts to striving for economies of scope, rather than economies of scale ideally serving ever smaller niche markets, even quantities of one, without the high cost traditionally associated with customization. A lean company may be thought of as a very productive and cost efficient producer of goods or services.

  4. Variations in productivity and performance in grade lumber industries in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1987-01-01

    Sawmill effectiveness is crucial to the growth and development of wood industries among locales, states, regions, and countries. Productivity ratios, structural factors, and other indicators of economic performance were used to measure the relative productive efficiency of the grade hardwood lumber industries in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Despite...

  5. Cost competitive “soft sensor” for determining product recovery in industrial methanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.B.A. Udugama, Isuru; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of ratio of product recovery in industrial methanol distillation is of high economic importance and represent a key performance index (KPI) of the distillation unit. In current operations, the product recovery of many industrial distillation units are not actively monitored, instead...

  6. 41 CFR 101-26.702 - Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 101-26.702 Section 101-26.702 Public Contracts and Property... Defense § 101-26.702 Purchase of products manufactured by the Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (a) Purchases by executive agencies of prison-made products carried in GSA supply distribution facilities must...

  7. Product modeling standards for the building and construction industry : Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolman, F.P.

    1999-01-01

    For the past ten years most sectors of industry have been developing standards for the electronic sharing and exchange of product model data. While several related industries, such as automotive and shipbuilding manufacturing have been relatively successful in integrating electronic product models

  8. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 directs DOE to set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials for certain industries. These targets are to be established at levels representing the maximum feasible increase in utilization of recovered materials that can be achieved progressively by January 1, 1987 and is consistent with technical and economic factors. A benefit to be derived from the increased use of recoverable materials is in energy savings, as state in the Act. Therefore, emhasis on different industries in the metals sector has been related to their energy consumption. The ferrous industry (iron and steel, ferrour foundries and ferralloys), as defined here, accounts for approximately 3%, and all others for the remaining 3%. Energy consumed in the lead and zinc segments is less than 1% each. Emphasis is placed on the ferrous scrap users, followed by the aluminum and copper industries. A bibliography with 209 citations is included.

  9. The ABCs of Cost Allocation in the Wood Products Industry: Applications in the Furniture Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada-Pineda, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Discusses the basics of cost accounting and explains the strengths and weaknesses of two cost accounting techniques - the direct method and the activity-based costing method - using simple examples and applications to the furniture industry.

  10. Engineering Ashbya gossypii strains for de novo lipid production using industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Martínez, Patricia; Buey, Rubén M; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2017-03-01

    Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous fungus that naturally overproduces riboflavin, and it is currently exploited for the industrial production of this vitamin. The utilization of A. gossypii for biotechnological applications presents important advantages such as the utilization of low-cost culture media, inexpensive downstream processing and a wide range of molecular tools for genetic manipulation, thus making A. gossypii a valuable biotechnological chassis for metabolic engineering. A. gossypii has been shown to accumulate high levels of lipids in oil-based culture media; however, the lipid biosynthesis capacity is rather limited when grown in sugar-based culture media. In this study, by altering the fatty acyl-CoA pool and manipulating the regulation of the main ∆9 desaturase gene, we have obtained A. gossypii strains with significantly increased (up to fourfold) de novo lipid biosynthesis using glucose as the only carbon source in the fermentation broth. Moreover, these strains were efficient biocatalysts for the conversion of carbohydrates from sugarcane molasses to biolipids, able to accumulate lipids up to 25% of its cell dry weight. Our results represent a proof of principle showing the promising potential of A. gossypii as a competitive microorganism for industrial biolipid production using cost-effective feed stocks. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Implementation of new technologies in wood industry and their effect in wood products quality

    OpenAIRE

    ELVA ÇAUSHI; PANDELI MARKU

    2014-01-01

    There are about 300 companies producing furniture and about 250 small and medium enterprises (SME) producing sawn timber, which operate in the field of wood industry in Albania. This wood industry production is being challenged by the increasing demand in the domestic market, ranging from kitchen furniture to office and schools furniture, bedroom furniture, doors, windows, and saw timber in different dimensions. The production from the wood industry can fulfill about 80% of the domestic mark...

  12. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  13. Development of industrial yeast for second generation bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X

    2012-01-15

    The cost of lignocellulose-based bioethanol needs to be reduced, in order to commercialize this clean and sustainable fuel substitute for fossil fuels. A microorganism that can completely and efficiently convert all the sugars in lignocellulose into ethanol is one of the prerequisites of a cost-effective production process. In addition, the microorganisms should also have a high tolerance towards the inhibitory compounds present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate, which are formed during the pretreatment of lignocellulose. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is generally regarded as a robust microorganism and can efficiently ferment glucose. But it lacks the ability to ferment xylose which comprises 20-35% of lignocellulose. Naturally xylose-fermenting yeast such as Pichia stipitis is much more sensitive to inhibitors than S. cerevisiae and it requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, a novel xylose fermenting yeast Spathaspora passalidarum displayed fast cell growth and efficient xylose fermentation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, P. stipitis was almost unable to utilize xylose under the same conditions. It is further demonstrated that S. passalidarum converts xylose by means of NADH-preferred xylose reductase (XR) and NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). Thus, the capacity of S. passalidarum to utilize xylose under anaerobic conditions is possibly due to a balance between supply and demand of cofactor through this XR-XDH pathway. Only one other XR with NADH preference has been reported so far. Unfortunately, S. passalidarum also has a low tolerance towards inhibitors generated during pretreatment, which prevents immediate use of this yeast in industrial application. S. passalidarum is able to convert the inhibitor furfural to furfuryl alcohol in a synthetic medium when the addition of furfural is low. The enzymes involved

  14. Development of industrial yeast for second generation bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X.

    2012-01-15

    The cost of lignocellulose-based bioethanol needs to be reduced, in order to commercialize this clean and sustainable fuel substitute for fossil fuels. A microorganism that can completely and efficiently convert all the sugars in lignocellulose into ethanol is one of the prerequisites of a cost-effective production process. In addition, the microorganisms should also have a high tolerance towards the inhibitory compounds present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate, which are formed during the pretreatment of lignocellulose. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is generally regarded as a robust microorganism and can efficiently ferment glucose. But it lacks the ability to ferment xylose which comprises 20-35% of lignocellulose. Naturally xylose-fermenting yeast such as Pichia stipitis is much more sensitive to inhibitors than S. cerevisiae and it requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, a novel xylose fermenting yeast Spathaspora passalidarum displayed fast cell growth and efficient xylose fermentation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, P. stipitis was almost unable to utilize xylose under the same conditions. It is further demonstrated that S. passalidarum converts xylose by means of NADH-preferred xylose reductase (XR) and NAD+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). Thus, the capacity of S. passalidarum to utilize xylose under anaerobic conditions is possibly due to a balance between supply and demand of cofactor through this XR-XDH pathway. Only one other XR with NADH preference has been reported so far. Unfortunately, S. passalidarum also has a low tolerance towards inhibitors generated during pretreatment, which prevents immediate use of this yeast in industrial application. S. passalidarum is able to convert the inhibitor furfural to furfuryl alcohol in a synthetic medium when the addition of furfural is low. The enzymes

  15. Monitoring and evaluation of production processes an analysis of the automotive industry

    CERN Document Server

    Panda, Anton; Pandová, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    This book presents topics on monitoring and evaluation of production processes in the automotive industry. Regulation of production processes is also described in details. The text deals with the implementation and evaluation of these processes during the mass production of components useful in the automotive industry. It evaluates the effects and results achieved after implementation in practice. The book takes into account the different methodologies of the world's automakers and applicable standards, such as standard EN ISO 9001 and the requirements of VDA and ISO/TS 16949. The content is used to those working with the development, production and quality control of new products in the demanding automotive industry. The information provided may also be useful to engineers and technical staff in organizations working with series production and production of spare parts for the automotive and other demanding industries. The content presented was written based on discussions with various companies and organiza...

  16. The research of the production function of an industrial enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezepin Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of a production function model for the description of production process and the solution of practical problems, such as choice of technological method of production, rational and effective use of invested funds. Analysis of the production process is carried out by the example of Urals Stampings Plant. The analysis consists of two parts. In the first part with the use of regression analysis the production function is evaluated and the elasticity of revenue is calculated on the cost for main types of resources. In the second part of the analysis with the help of artificial neural networks constructing authors investigate the significance of influence the dynamics in the number of production factors and productivity on the physical volume of the issue. In conclusion, the authors provide recommendations for the implementation to increase the level of productivity of the investment strategy for the Urals Stampings Plant.

  17. Expanding Canadian natural gas production will strengthen growth of LP-gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, over 86% of Canadian propane and 70% of Canadian butane production originated in gas plants. Propane and butane production not recovered at gas plants is recovered in other processing facilities, primarily refineries and heavy oil upgraders. As a result, supplies of both products are largely tied to natural gas production, and the outlook for natural gas therefore provides the basis for any discussion on the outlook for gas processing and NGL industry infrastructure. The paper discusses gas processing, economies of scale, NGL supply, expected declines, industry structure and infrastructure, the two major centers of the Canadian NGL industry, new shippers, and required pipeline expansion

  18. Machine Learning for Mass Production and Industrial Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Pfingsten, Jens Tobias

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of data from simulations and experiments in the development phase and measurements during mass production plays a crucial role in modern manufacturing: Experiments and simulations are performed during the development phase to ensure the design's fitness for mass production. During production, a large number of measurements in the automated production line controls a stable quality. As the number of measurements grows, the conventional, largely manual data analysis approach...

  19. PECULIARITIES OF THE ELECTROTECHNICAL INDUSTRY AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE PRODUCTION COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU (COSTACHE LUMINITA NICOLETA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrotechnical industry is in the top branch within the industrial development and the technical progress, currently providing a wide range of innovative products and services, and as a result of this dynamic development, the electrotechnical industry has currently become a key industry for many other industrial sectors. Electricity has established itself in most areas of activity due to its easy use, easy distance transport, the fact that it can be turned into other forms of energy and because it is the most suitable for the supply of automation processes. Consequently, given that industry is the key factor for the recovery, modernization and economic revival of the country, we can say that the electrotechnical industry also has a crucial influence on Romania’s social and economic evolution, and this evolution is in its turn the result of the production cost monitoring and control in this sector.

  20. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  1. Import Substitution in Regional Industrial Production: Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Georgievich Animitsa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the important role of import substitution in the economic security protection of state and its regions, especially in times of crisis, geopolitical and economical instability. The authors argue that the problem of import substitution is not modern, trendy scientific stream. The issue of displacement of import goods by domestic ones was brought up in famous classic theories of mercantilists. The particular emphasis is placed on the analysis and systematization of different scientific approaches, which are utilized by native and foreign scientists to bring out the matter of “import substitution,” to determine its essential characteristics. The authors suggest their own interpretation of the import substitution notion. In the article, the most significant pro and contra arguments in import substitution policy are defined. The regional aspects in the import substitution are approved: case study — organization of industrial import substitution in the Sverdlovsk region. In the article, the authors analyze the subject matter of the Program “Development of Intraregional Industrial Cooperation and Implementation of an Import Substitution in Branches of Industry in the Sverdlovsk Region.” It is resumed, that active policy of import substitution in the industry may become the driver of regional economic development.

  2. The Effect of Improved Productivity of the Manufacturing Industries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    producing basic consumer goods; with agro processing industries dictating in terms of growth ... Ethiopian Journal of Economics Vol. XXII No 1, April ... After the recent global economic recession, there was an urgency to rethink economic .... on the adaptive expectations behaviour of agents, where agents make decisions on ...

  3. Regulatory reforms and productivity: An empirical analysis of the Japanese electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Makiko; Managi, Shunsuke

    2008-01-01

    The Japanese electricity industry has experienced regulatory reforms since the mid-1990s. This article measures productivity in Japan's steam power-generation sector and examines the effect of reforms on the productivity of this industry over the period 1978-2003. We estimate the Luenberger productivity indicator, which is a generalization of the commonly used Malmquist productivity index, using a data envelopment analysis approach. Factors associated with productivity change are investigated through dynamic generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation of panel data. Our empirical analysis shows that the regulatory reforms have contributed to productivity growth in the steam power-generation sector in Japan

  4. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...... methodology can assist the product developer in development of more environmentally friendly products. Finally, common experience gained will be discussed....

  5. Who gains when workers train? Training and corporate productivity in a panel of British industries

    OpenAIRE

    John Van Reenen

    2000-01-01

    There is a vast empirical literature of the effects of training on wages that are taken as an indirect measure of productivity. This paper is part of a smaller literature on the effects of training on direct measures of industrial productivity. We analyse a panel of British industries between 1983 and 1996. Training information (and other individual productivity indicators such as education and experience) is derived from a question that has been asked consistently over time in the Labour For...

  6. Who gains when workers train? Training and corporate productivity in a panel of British industries

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, Lorraine; Reed, Howard; Van Reenen, John

    2000-01-01

    There is a vast empirical literature on the effects of training on wages that are taken as an indirect measure of productivity. This paper is part of a smaller literature on the effects of training on direct measures of industrial productivity. We analyse a panel of British industries between 1983 and 1996. Training information (and other individual productivity indicators such as education and experience) is derived from a question that has been asked consistently over time in the Labour For...

  7. Establishing a Commercialization Model for Innovative Products in the Residential Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Andrew Patton

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the world, innovation is viewed as a critical factor in the future health of the construction industry. There is universal interest in successful commercialization of innovative construction products. This thesis focuses on the US construction industry's ability to successfully commercialize innovative products. US small, limited-resource innovators will be key players in this success. Recent failures of entrepreneurial business ventures in the commercialization of such product...

  8. [Fermentation production of microbial catalase and its application in textile industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongxu; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2010-11-01

    Microbial catalase is an important industrial enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. This enzyme has great potential of application in food, textile and pharmaceutical industries. The production of microbial catalase has been significantly improved thanks to advances in bioprocess engineering and genetic engineering. In this paper, we review the progresses in fermentation production of microbial catalase and its application in textile industry. Among these progresses, we will highlight strain isolation, substrate and environment optimization, enzyme induction, construction of engineering strains and application process optimization. Meanwhile, we also address future research trends for microbial catalase production and its application in textile industry. Molecular modification (site-directed mutagenesis and directed revolution) will endue catalase with high pH and temperature stabilities. Improvement of catalase production, based on the understanding of induction mechanism and the process control of recombinant stain fermentation, will further accelerate the application of catalase in textile industry.

  9. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

  10. Operations management in automotive industries from industrial strategies to production resources management, through the industrialization process and supply chain to pursue value creation

    CERN Document Server

    Gobetto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This book has proved its worth over the years as a text for courses in Production Management at the Faculty of Automotive Engineering in Turin, Italy, but deserves a wider audience as it presents a compendium of basics on Industrial Management, since it covers all major topics required. It treats all subjects from product development and “make or buy”-decision strategies to the manufacturing systems setting and management through analysis of the main resources needed in production and finally exploring the supply chain management and the procurement techniques. The very last chapter recapitulates the previous ones by analysing key management indicators to pursue the value creation that is the real purpose of every industrial enterprise. As an appendix, a specific chapter is dedicated to the basics of production management where all main relevant definitions, techniques and criteria are treated, including some numerical examples, in order to provide an adequate foundation for understanding the other chapte...

  11. Proposed industrial recoverd materials utilization targets for the textile mill products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Materials recovery targets were established to represent the maximum technically and economically feasible increase in the use of energy-saving materials by January 1, 1987. This report describes targets for the textile industry and describes how those targets were determined. (MCW)

  12. The development of industrial production of high alloy steel intended for the electronuclear industries and its effect on fine steelmaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieillard-Baron, B.

    1977-01-01

    The aim is to show how the high alloy steel manufacturers in France attempted to meet increasing demand by the electronuclear industries by the design and development at moderate cost and within a rather short period, of high level products intended to meet specific requirements. In this prospect, the qualitative and quantitative requirements are determined, the evolutions of the working methods connected to the design and manufacture of steel products are analysed. The economic implications which resulted and a few examples of the manufacture of particularly well suited products are evoked [fr

  13. Big data to optimise product strategy in electronic industry

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Nawaz; Lakshmi Sabih, Vijay; Georgiadou, Elli; Repanovich, Angela

    2016-01-01

    This research identifies the success factors for new product development and competitive advantage as well as argues how big data can expedite the process of launching a new product initiative. By combining the research findings and the patterns of background theories, an inquisitive framework for the new product development and competitive advantage is proposed. This model and framework is a prototype, which with the aid of scenario recommends the parsimonious and an unified way to elucidate...

  14. Nuclear industry and production of energy: arguments for a discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, F.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the advantages of nuclear energy (nuclear energy increases the energy autonomy of France, provides cheap energy, does not generate greenhouse effect gases and concerns an exporting high-tech industry that generates qualified jobs and added-value to French industry) and highlights its ability to fill the gap before renewable energies are efficient and reliable to produce large amounts of electric power and to face the present and future challenges like the progressive running dry of fossil energy sources or the compliance with the Kyoto agreement. The 2 controversial issues: the consequences of a terrorist attack on a nuclear facility and what to do with radioactive wastes are for the first one exaggerated in public opinion (some figures and facts concerning the resistance of the concrete containment that encloses a PWR type reactor are given in this article) and for the second the disposal in deep underground storage sites appears to be a solution. (A.C.)

  15. Comparative life cycle assessment of industrial multi-product processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The demand for environmentally safe industrial processes is increasing. Therefore, environmental impacts of new processes have to be examined at an early stage. A method for analyzing environmental impacts is life cycle assessment (LCA). A major trouble of LCA are multi-functionality problems. Multi-functionality problems can be fixed using alternative methods such as system expansion, avoided burden and allocation. Each of the three methods requires choices by the LCA-practitioner. The choic...

  16. Energy productivity growth in the Dutch Greenhouse Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Ondersteijn, C.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Profitability of Dutch greenhouse firms is largely dependent on energy costs, and policy makers focus on reducing the use of energy by these firms. This article uses Russell measures of TE to develop indicators of energy productivity growth. Results show that energy productivity grew by 2.8%

  17. Production yield analysis in the poultry processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper outlines a case study where the PYA-method (production yield analysis) was implemented at a poultry-slaughtering line, processing 9000 broiler chicks per hour. It was shown that the average live weight of a flock of broilers could be used to predict the maximum production yield of the

  18. Optimization of industrial production of rifamycin B by Amycolatopsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    further advantage of reduced variation in colony morphology with predominance of the most productive colony type. .... Figure 3. Comparison between F1 and F2 media with respect to rifamycin B production (P), remaining glucose concentration (S), biomass (X) and pH by variant NCH. failing to ..... Basel, Marcel Decker, Inc.

  19. Designing Integrated Product- Service System Solutions in Manufacturing Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Nina; Patrício, Lia; Morelli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing firms are increasingly evolving towards the design of integrated product-service solutions but servitization literature does not provide specific guidance on how to design these integrated solutions. Building upon ProductService System (PSS) and Service Design (SD) approaches...... how it brings new insights to manufacturing companies moving to a service, value cocreation perspective....

  20. Modifying sales summaries can aid forest products industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. B. Harpole

    1976-01-01

    This Note illustrates how a sales summary can be modified to separately identify changes in sales realization caused by changes in market prices and by changes in the product mix sold. With this information, a sales summary can become a helpful record to gage effects of past production and marketing decisions.

  1. Agro-industrial by-products as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1986-01-01

    A marked imbalance exists in many parts of the world between the number of ruminants and the availability of good quality fodder. The low feeding value of natural pastures, their seasonality of production, and the increasing cost of feed grain, have increased the dependence of ruminant animals on crop residues and by-products of agriculture for their nutrient requirements. Intensive animal production systems suitable for developed temperate regions have not been successful in the developing tropical countries, where appropriate farming systems for livestock production should have an integrated approach, combining both crop and livestock husbandry. Adoption of nutritional principles with a view to eliminating or reducing imbalances and optimizing rumen function have yielded excellent results, illustrating the future potential of fibrous residues and other agricultural by-products in ruminant feeding systems in developing countries. (author)

  2. Industrial Production and Professional Application of Manufactured Nanomaterials-Enabled End Products in Dutch Industries: Potential for Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, C.; Brouwer, D.H.; Tielemans, E.; Pronk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In order to make full use of the opportunities while responsibly managing the risks of working with manufactured nanomaterials (MNM), we need to gain insight into the potential level of exposure to MNM in the industry. Therefore, the goal of this study was to obtain an overview of the

  3. Industry 4.0 - How will the nonwoven production of tomorrow look like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloppenburg, F.; Münkel, A.; Gloy, Y.; Gries, T.

    2017-10-01

    Industry 4.0 stands for the on-going fourth industrial revolution, which uses cyber physical systems. In the textile industry the terms of industry 4.0 are not sufficiently known yet. First developments of industry 4.0 are mainly visible in the weaving industry. The cost structure of the nonwoven industry is unique in the textile industry. High shares of personnel, energy and machine costs are distinctive for nonwoven producers. Therefore the industry 4.0 developments in the nonwoven industry should concentrate on reducing these shares by using the work force efficiently and by increasing the productivity of first-rate quality and therefore decreasing waste production and downtimes. Using the McKinsey digital compass three main working fields are necessary: Self-optimizing nonwoven machines, big data analytics and assistance systems. Concepts for the nonwoven industry are shown, like the “EasyNonwoven” concept, which aims on economically optimizing the machine settings using self-optimization routines.

  4. Improving product development performance through knowledge outsourcing: a study of the Iranian automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazdeh, Mohammad Mahdavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the dynamics of the knowledge supply process for new product development in the automotive industry, and to evaluate the impact of knowledge outsourcing on new product development performance. The model was developed using a literature review and a multiple case study approach that looked at ten research and development companies from the automotive industry in Iran. The results indicate that knowledge outsourcing would improve new product development performance by increasing the flexibility of the new product development process to react to the environment’s volatility, with few penalties in time and costs for automotive product development.

  5. Projecting county pulpwood production with historical production and macro-economic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consuelo Brandeis; Dayton M. Lambert

    2014-01-01

    We explored forecasting of county roundwood pulpwood produc-tion with county-vector autoregressive (CVAR) and spatial panelvector autoregressive (SPVAR) methods. The analysis used timberproducts output data for the state of Florida, together with a set ofmacro-economic variables. Overall, we found the SPVAR specifica-tion produced forecasts with lower error rates...

  6. Industrial open source solutions for product life cycle management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors go through the open source for product life cycle management (PLM and the efforts done from communities such as the open source initiative. The characteristics of the open source solutions are highlighted as well. Next, the authors go through the requirements for PLM. This is an area where more attention has been given as the manufacturers are competing with the quality and life cycle costs of their products. Especially, the need of companies to try to get a strong position in providing services for their products and thus to make themselves less vulnerable to changes in the market has led to high interest in product life cycle simulation. The potential of applying semantic data management to solve these problems discussed in the light of recent developments. In addition, a basic roadmap is presented as to how the above-described problems could be tackled with open software solutions.

  7. Technology Licensing Strategy for Network Product in a Service Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianpei Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology licensing has gained significant attention in literature and practice as a rapid and effective way to improve firm’s capability of technology innovation. In this paper, we investigate a duopolistic service provider competition market, where service providers develop and sell a kind of network product. In this setting, we analyze the innovating service provider’s four licensing strategies: no licensing, fixed fee licensing, royalty licensing, and two-part tariff licensing. The literature suggests that when the network products can be completely substituted, two-part tariff licensing is the optimal strategy of the innovating service provider. We find that when the network products cannot be completely substituted, two-part tariff licensing is not always optimal. The degree of the product differentiation, the intensity of the network effects, and the R&D cost of the potential licensee play a key role in determining the innovating service provider’s optimal licensing strategies.

  8. Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Y. S. Y.

    2010-08-01

    There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

  9. Pharmaceutical product cross-contamination: industrial and clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problems. Pharmaceutical product cross-contamination is a serious problem which has been detected as an obstacle ... In the pharmaceutical care of patients in developed countries, cross-contamination ..... neonatal intensive care units.

  10. Alabama's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Jim R. Gober; J. Stephen Nix

    1998-01-01

    Output of Industrial Timber Products.Note: The reader must understand that certain terms, namely-retained, export, import, production, and receipts-have specialized meanings and relationships. unique to the Forest Inventory and Analysis Units across the country that deal with timber products output.In 1995, the combined...

  11. Missouri timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad. Smith; Shelby Jones

    1990-01-01

    Discusses recent Missouri forest industry trends; production and receipts of saw logs; and production of charcoal, veneer logs, cooperage logs, and other products in 1987. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this residue.

  12. The Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products : Life-cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogtlander, J.G.; Van der Lugt, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis on a selection of industrial bamboo products. The LCA is made for cradle-to-gate, plus the end-of-life stages of the bamboo products. For end-of-life it is assumed that 90% of the bamboo products are incinerated in an

  13. Wisconsin timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; James W. Whipple

    1990-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1988. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.

  14. Recognizing the needs for improving the portfolio management for new products in the industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Flemming; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2004-01-01

    The lack of sound portfolio management for new products increases the probability that the company’s product portfolio will have a potential low business value. This research reveals that portfolio management for new products seems to be a problem in the Danish industry. Existing methods described...

  15. Top of the food chain: Product services in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Andrew M.; Simon, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the environmental impact of the food industry supply chain and explore the potential for new product-service systems in the food sector, which has not been subject to a great deal of eco-design research. Data from a cross-sector analysis of UK industry, concentrating on the sectors representing the food industry supply chain, is utilised. These sectors are agriculture, food processing, retailing, food services, and kitchen equipment. The analysis combines economic ...

  16. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... misrepresentation as to source or origin (e.g., “Colorado Blue Spruce,” “Arizona Cypress,” “Black Hills Spruce... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception as to origin or source of industry... GUIDES FOR THE NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.8 Deception as to origin or source of industry products. (a) It is...

  17. Compilation of the Regional-Level Japan Industrial Productivity Database (R-JIP) (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    TOKUI Joji; MAKINO Tatsuji; FUKAO Kyoji; MIYAGAWA Tsutomu; ARAI Nobuyuki; ARAI Sonoe; INUI Tomohiko; KAWASAKI Kazuyasu; KODAMA Naomi; NOGUCHI Naohiro

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of the Regional-Level Japan Industrial Productivity Database (R-JIP), which covers the period from 1970 through 2008 and comprises annual industrial output and factor input data of Japan's 47 prefectures classified by 23 industry. Output is measured in terms of value added, while the input data consist of labor input and capital service input, which take both (time series) quality changes and (cross-sectional) quality differences into account. This databa...

  18. Ergonomics study for workers at food production industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fazi Hamizatun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The health constraint faced by production workers affects the quality of the work. The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD which limits the movement of the workers. The comfort workplace condition, known as ergonomic environment is important to prevent the occurrence of the WMSD. Proper ergonomic workplace considers the condition of the workers while doing the assigned work. The objectives of this study are to identify the current problems related to ergonomic in food production process, to analyse the actual production data by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA and to recommend the ergonomic workplace environment based on the condition of the study. The study was done at a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME food production company in the Klang Valley of Malaysia. The condition of the workers affects the productivity of the company due to workers’ health deficiency. From the findings, the workers are exposed to the awkward postures which leads to the Work-Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs. Besides, the best height of the worker at the study area (critical area to prevent the worker from WMSDs is within 155 cm to 160 cm. The results show that the workers are exposed to the WMSD in different level of risks which causes high absenteeism among the workers.

  19. Computer-aided production in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Castellanos, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In these centres, chlorine is produced by means of electrochemical reactions which, moreover, originate other products such as soda and potash. Both the chlorine and the soda and potash are sold on demand in markets associated to the production centres and at prices which vary depending on the period of sale and the centre. Production surpluses of any one of the centres may be transported to any other so as to optimize the overall supply-demand combination of all the plants. The relevant transport and storage costs may also vary depending on the centre and on the time of year. The main problem lies in controlling the multiple combinations which permit a determined overall annual production of chlorine at the lowest possible cost. What is important is not only the quantity manufactured per month (for sale and self-consumption, or storage), but also how much is manufactured at each production centre. The monthly production of a plant could be obtained in different ways (modulations) giving rise to different production power costs (due to the electrolysis process itself, or because of the structure of electricity rates). In the first step towards solving the problem, for each plant and each month, a range of chlorine productions was selected -per plant and per month- with their corresponding electricity bills for the entire plant (once again, the rating structure makes it difficult to distinguish which part of the bill refers to electrolysis and which does not). These electric bills can be considered to be optimum in that they are minimal for a determined production of chlorine. Otherwise, in view of the targeted monthly production of chlorine, the current in the electrolysis is modulated so that the electricity bill shows the lowest possible amount, while minimum technical conditions are respected and the rest of the plant remains constant. In the assumptions described, the essence of the problem consists in deciding how much to produce every month and where to

  20. Science and production laboratories: integration between the industry and universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, A.N.; Sivokon', V.P.; Rakitin, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    Industry laboratories provide students with an opportunity to resolve real serious tasks and be exposed to a wide range of professional activities. Staffing in the Russian nuclear industry is a serious concern. There is a shortage of experienced specialists, and it is impossible to train a replacement for them quickly. Creation of a true professional is a long and thorough process, whereby the amount of knowledge and experience very slowly transforms into quality of performance. The authors underline that the teacher of a modern technical university should not and must not act as a middle man between the textbook and the students. The teacher must instead become a holder of the latest technological knowledge, which he will pass to students during lessons. The authors report on the ERGOLAB, a problematic science and research laboratory for ergonomic research and development in the nuclear field. Ergonomic support is one of the more important factors in the prevention of human errors, maintenance of professional health and improvement of performance efficiency [ru

  1. How integrating industrial design in the product development process impacts on company performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemser, G; Leenders, MAAM

    There is a growing belief that investing in industrial design is beneficial to company performance. This article sheds more light on how and when integrating industrial design in the product development process can enhance a company's competitive position. The basic premise is that the impact of

  2. Greening production and consumption: the case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thongplew, N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Natapol Thongplew

    Thesis title: Greening production and consumption: The case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand

    This research looked into the greening of the appliance and dairy industries in

  3. Creative Industries and Regional Productivity Growth in the Developing Economy : Evidence from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahmi, Fikri Zul; Koster, Sierdjan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the degree to which creative industries stimulate regional productivity growth in a developing country, Indonesia. The Indonesian government promotes long-established traditional craft businesses as creative industries, but they pay less attention to new knowledge creation and

  4. New Product Development in the Fashion Industry: An Empirical Investigation of Italian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Bandinelli, Romeo; Rinaldi, Rinaldo; Rossi, Monica; Terzi, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how companies in the fashion industry organize, plan and perform their New Product Development process (NPD). The results have been achieved through an empirical study carried out by the authors with the support of the GeCo Observatory, an Italian research initiative launched in 2012. This paper shows the details of eight selected case studies from the Italian fashion industry.

  5. Matching supply networks to a modular product architecture in the house-building industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Erwin; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2009-01-01

    Notions of aligning modular product architectures and buyer-supplier relationships, which have spread widely through other industrial and retail sectors, have largely bypassed the house-building industry. The major question posed in this study is: what types of contractor-supplier relationships are

  6. Monitoring of industrial products, in the key market of security in modern times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Val, J. M.; Valcarcel, M.; Rodriguez Herrerias, J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the European Union methodology for keeping a high level of safety standards of industrial products in the general market, while fostering the dynamics of such market. It includes the explanation of how this methodology is applied in Spain particularly through the campaigns of the Ministry of Industry with the assistance of Foundation F2I2. (Author)

  7. A Review of the Poultry Meat Production Industry for Food Safety in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyono, N. D.; Utami, M. M. D.

    2018-01-01

    Poultry meat is an indispensable source of animal protein in human growth and development, so it is in great demand by people all over the world. Poultry meat has several advantages, namely the quality of nutrition is good enough, delicious taste, relatively affordable price, easy to get and accepted all levels of society with diverse backgrounds. The era of globalization requires competitive products, such as chicken meat in Indonesia, the current chicken meat industry is not only based on high production capacity and decreased production costs but also chicken products are safe to eat. As a consequence of trade liberalization, the poultry industry faces the threat of competition with cheaper products with better quality. The food safety of chicken meat starts from the farm, processing process until consumed. Food safety is a requirement of food products that must be handled by involving government, industry and consumers.

  8. The Vegetable industry in China; Developments in policies, production, marketing and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.M.; Jinsong, C.; Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Kamphuis, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Development of Chinese vegetable industry over the past three decades. The changes of governmental vegetable policy and the major institutions involved. The major production regions in China, their leading vegetable varieties and cultivation technology. The reform of vegetable marketing structure

  9. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoping Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  10. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoping Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  11. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoping Zhou; Debra D Warren

    2012-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  12. 5th CIRP international conference on industrial product-service systems

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    “An Industrial Product-Service System is characterized by the integrated and mutually  determined planning, development, provision and use of product and service shares including its immanent software components in Business-to-Business applications and represents a knowledge-intensive socio-technical system.” – Meier, Roy, Seliger (2010) Since the first conference in 2009, the CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems has become a well-established international forum for the review and discussion of advances, research results and industrial improvements. Researchers from all over the world have met at previous IPS² conferences in Cranfield (2009), Linköping (2010), Braunschweig (2011) and Tokyo (2012). In 2013, the 5th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems is held in Bochum. Important topics of IPS² research presented at the conference are: planning and development, sustainability, business models, operation, service engineering, knowledge mana...

  13. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Unlocking Streptomyces spp. for use as sustainable industrial production platforms by morphological engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, G.P. van; Krabben, P.; Traag, B.A.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Kerste, R.; Vijgenboom, E.; Heijnen, J.J.; Kraal, B.

    2006-01-01

    Filamentous actinomycetes are commercially widely used as producers of natural products (in particular antibiotics) and of industrial enzymes. However, the mycelial lifestyle of actinomycetes, resulting in highly viscous broths and unfavorable pellet formation, has been a major bottleneck in their

  15. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played...... chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes....... an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine...

  16. Production, prices, employment, and trade in Northwest forest industries, all quarters 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoping Zhou; Jean M. Daniels

    2018-01-01

    Provides current information on lumber and plywood production and prices; employment in the forest industries; international trade in logs, lumber, and plywood; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  17. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  18. Industrial symbiosis and biofuels industry : Business value and organisational factors within cases of ethanol and biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Mirata, Murat; Eklund, Mats; Gundberg, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) involves collaborations among diverse, and predominantly local and re- gional, actors that create additional economic and environmental value through by-product ex- changes, utility and service sharing, and joint innovations. While the importance of IS for the de- velopment of biofuels is commonly recognised hypothetically, this study aims at advancing under- standing of the actual contribution provided in two real life examples–one focusing on grain-based ethanol pr...

  19. Sustainable production program in the Mexican mining industry: occupational risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zavala Reyna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Speaking of mining and sustainability sounds contradictory, as the environmental impact generated by resource extraction is well known. However, there are mining companies that are working to be safe and environmentally friendly. An example of this is presented in this study aimed at identifying occupational risks generated by the activities of a small-scale gold and silver mine located in northwestern Mexico. The methodology followed was a Sustainable Production Program (SPP based on a continuous cycle of five steps in which the tools of cleaner production and pollution prevention are adapted. As a result of this project, it was possible to implement SPP activities: training for workers, use of personal protective equipment and adequate handling of chemicals. As a conclusion, it was verified that SPP application helped this mining company move towards sustainable patterns of production.

  20. ADDED VALUE AS EFFICIENCY CRITERION FOR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Korotkevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Literary analysis has shown that the majority of researchers are using classical efficiency criteria for construction of an optimization model for production process: profit maximization; cost minimization; maximization of commercial product output; minimization of back-log for product demand; minimization of total time consumption due to production change. The paper proposes to use an index of added value as an efficiency criterion because it combines economic and social interests of all main interested subjects of the business activity: national government, property owners, employees, investors. The following types of added value have been considered in the paper: joint-stock, market, monetary, economic, notional (gross, net, real. The paper makes suggestion to use an index of real value added as an efficiency criterion. Such approach permits to bring notional added value in comparable variant because added value can be increased not only due to efficiency improvement of enterprise activity but also due to environmental factors – excess in rate of export price increases over rate of import growth. An analysis of methods for calculation of real value added has been made on a country-by-country basis (extrapolation, simple and double deflation. A method of double deflation has been selected on the basis of the executed analysis and it is counted according to the Laspeyires, Paasche, Fischer indices. A conclusion has been made that the used expressions do not take into account fully economic peculiarities of the Republic of Belarus: they are considered as inappropriate in the case when product cost is differentiated according to marketing outlets; they do not take account of difference in rate of several currencies and such approach is reflected in export price of a released product and import price for raw material, supplies and component parts. Taking this into consideration expressions for calculation of real value added have been specified

  1. Compressed air production with waste heat utilization in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, E.

    1984-06-01

    The centralized power-heat coupling (PHC) technique using block heating power stations, is presented. Compressed air production in PHC technique with internal combustion engine drive achieves a high degree of primary energy utilization. Cost savings of 50% are reached compared to conventional production. The simultaneous utilization of compressed air and heat is especially interesting. A speed regulated drive via an internal combustion motor gives a further saving of 10% to 20% compared to intermittent operation. The high fuel utilization efficiency ( 80%) leads to a pay off after two years for operation times of 3000 hr.

  2. Product innovation and persistence of leadership: theory with evidence from the semiconductor industry

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Gruber

    1990-01-01

    This paper sets out to model the evolution of market shares in the semiconductor industry. The time profile of market shares for different firms in this industry has shown a striking regularity over successive generations of products. In a model of vertical product differentiation three distinct patterns of market shares emerge as an equilibrium outcome, reflecting three distinct strategies in respect of timing of entry into new generations. The main novelty of the model developed here, relat...

  3. [Evaluating work intensity in major and auxiliary occupations of by-product coke industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagulov, N K; Alpysbayeva, Zh T

    2015-01-01

    The article covers evaluation of work strain in major and auxiliary occupations of by-product coke industry. The study results conclude that occupational activity of by-product coke industry workers, under exposure to occupational hazards, affects the workers' performance. Major occupations workers demonstrate higher level of functional strain of CNS, poor concentration of attention and lower ability to switch over, decreased general performance, vs. the auxiliary occupations workers who demonstrated increased cardiovascular and neuro-muscular strain due to occupational activity.

  4. MULTI-CRITERIA PROGRAMMING METHODS AND PRODUCTION PLAN OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM SOLVING IN METAL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Tunjo Perić; Željko Mandić

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the production plan optimization in the metal industry considered as a multi-criteria programming problem. We first provided the definition of the multi-criteria programming problem and classification of the multicriteria programming methods. Then we applied two multi-criteria programming methods (the STEM method and the PROMETHEE method) in solving a problem of multi-criteria optimization production plan in a company from the metal industry. The obtained resul...

  5. Analyze of Predictive Model of Innovation Management in Processing and Complementary Industries of Livestock Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Reza Ommani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was designing predictive model for innovation management in processing and complementary industries of livestock products. The method of research was correlative descriptive. The population of this research was managers in processing and complementary industries of livestock products of Khouzestan Province (N=486). By stratified random sampling, a random sample (n=125) was selected for participation in the study. A questionnaire was developed to ...

  6. Availability Evaluation of the serial processes in a Paper Production Industry-A Numerical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sharma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compute availability of the process of a paper production industry consisting of four subsystems. Mathematical formulation of the problem is carried out using probability considerations and the governing differential equations are solved using Runge-Kutta method of order four. Availability of the serial process in the paper production industry have been computed for various choice of failure and repair rates of subsystems of this plant.

  7. Mechanical behavior of sustainable building materials using PET waste and industrial by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez, C. A; Mendoza-Rangel, J. M; González, J. R; Rodríguez, J. A; Valdez, P

    2015-01-01

    The building industry is facing the challenge of satisfying a growing demand for housing spaces that can be mitigated by the use of construction materials manufactured with industrial by-products that allow the production of low-cost housing with a low environmental impact. In this research, an alternative building system to manufacture lightweight masonry blocks with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and fiber-reinforced panels using binary mixture (Portland cement and fly ash), was s...

  8. Technology transfer for industrial production of superconducting magnets for the RHIC project at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.D.; Greene, A.F.; Kelly, E.; Willen, E.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial production of superconducting magnets for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has begun. The R ampersand D for the magnets was carried out at BNL. Following the award of built-to-print contracts, staff from the laboratory and the vendors worked toward transferring both design principles and practical details to an industrial framework for cost effective production. All magnets made thus far have been acceptable for use in RHIC

  9. Challenges in Shortening New Product Introduction in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Drug developing companies are forced to utilize the effective protection of the patent by focusing on shortening the new product introduction [NPI] process measured as Time-to-Market [TTM]. Here the NPI process is considered and the trade-offs, which have to be address in the future are identifie...

  10. Industrial enzymatic production of cephalosporin-based beta-lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Michael S; Giesecke, Ulrich; Reichert, Arno; Minas, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Cephalosporins are chemically closely related to penicillins both work by inhibiting the cell wall synthesis of bacteria. The first generation cephalosporins entered the market in 1964. Second and third generation cephalosporins were subsequently developed that were more powerful than the original products. Fourth generation cephalosporins are now reaching the market. Each newer generation of cephalosporins has greater Gram-negative antimicrobial properties than the preceding generation. Conversely, the 'older' generations of cephalosporins have greater Gram-positive (Staphylococcus and Streptococcus) coverage than the 'newer' generations. Frequency of dosing decreases and palatability generally improve with increasing generations. The advent of fourth generation cephalosporins with the launch of cefepime extended the spectrum against Gram-positive organisms without a significant loss of activity towards Gram-negative bacteria. Its greater stability to beta-lactamases increases its efficacy against drug-resistant bacteria. In this review we present the current situation of this mature market. In addition, we present the current state of the technologies employed for the production of cephalosporins, focusing on the new and environmentally safer 'green' routes to the products. Starting with the fermentation and purification of CPC, enzymatic conversion in conjunction with aqueous chemistry will lead to some key intermediates such as 7-ACA, TDA and TTA, which then can be converted into the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), again applying biocatalytic technologies and aqueous chemistry. Examples for the costing of selected products are provided as well.

  11. HLW immobilization in glass: industrial operation and product quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Leroy, P.; Runge, S.

    1992-01-01

    This extended summary discusses the immobilization of high level wastes from the viewpoint of the quality of the final product, i.e. the HLW glass. The R and D studies comprise 3 steps: glass formulation, glass characterization and long term behaviour studies

  12. Wintelism and Production Networks in the Electronics Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gevel, A.J.W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with two interrelated elements of globalization: Wintelism and cross national production networks which have been underexposed in discussions about globalization.Wintelism refers to the shift in competition away from final assembly and vertical control of markets by final assemblers

  13. Machine Vision Technology for the Forest Products Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman; Thomas T. Drayer

    1997-01-01

    From forest to finished product, wood is moved from one processing stage to the next, subject to the decisions of individuals along the way. While this process has worked for hundreds of years, the technology exists today to provide more complete information to the decision makers. Virginia Tech has developed this technology, creating a machine vision prototype for...

  14. Product focused process improvement in the embedded systems industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solingen, van D.M.; Derks, P.; Hirvensalo, J.; Kusters, R.J.; Cowderoy, A.; Heemstra, F.J.; Veenendaal, E.P.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Software specific problems have been handled in the software community through focusing on the software process, and continuous improvement of that software process. However, the contribution of software process improvement (SPI) to product quality has not been proven yet. The PROFES project

  15. Optimization of industrial production of rifamycin B by Amycolatopsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Glucose syrup was obtained from the. Egyptian Co. for Production of Starch and Glucose, Cairo. Media used for propagation, selection and maintenance as well as the vegetative medium V2 and the fermentation medium F2m1 were those previously reported by El-Tayeb et al. (2004a, b). The. El-Tayeb et al. 433 modified ...

  16. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.S.; Miller, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  17. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery...... productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149 kg of EtOH and 115 kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1 ton of dry hemp....... Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery....

  18. Product Stewardship in Uranium: A Way for the Industry to Demonstrate its High Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Product stewardship is an means for communicating the high performance on health, safety and environment of the nuclear fuel cycle including uranium mining. • It has been effective with other products and is appropriate for uranium. • Can be a vehicle for addressing public concerns across the industry. • Due to uranium’s unique characteristics it has the potential to be a best practice example of product stewardship. • Work is underway in the international arena to progress uranium product stewardship and it represent a unique opportunity to provide whole of industry benefits

  19. EFFECTIVE FACTORS AND MODEL SYSTEMS IN THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF NISIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer ŞİMŞEK

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is the first bacteriocin identified in Lactococcus lactis and belongs to type 1 lanthibiotic group. High nisin production in cultured media is related with the composition of fermentation medium, pH, produced nisin concentration and most importantly growth amount of cell. For industrial purpose, batch, fed-batch and continue fermentation systems were developed by regarding these factors. Maintaining efficient production of nisin having important potential at preservation of foods is important for both industrial production and using as starter culture. In this review the fermentation factors at nisin production were outlined and constructed model systems were compared.

  20. Energy use in the food-products (not elsewhere classified) industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.

    1980-06-01

    Energy consumption data in the food products industry were collected by a postal survey and by factory energy surveys. Average levels of energy consumption were evaluated for various product types, sugar refining was found to require 4.0 MJ/kg, fat and oil processing 8.5 MJ/kg, pasta product manufacture 4.3 MJ/kg, instant coffee production 48 MJ/kg, roasting of coffee beans 2.2 MJ/kg, vinegar production 3.3 MJ/litre, compressed yeast production 5.4 MJ/kg, sandwich spread preparation 5.3 MJ/kg, drying of products with initial moisture contents below 30% 8.2 MJ/kg, drying of products with initial moisture contents of 70 to 90% 39 MJ/kg and dry mixing of powders 0.46 MJ/kg. Data were also obtained for a variety of other minor products. For any particular product, differences in energy use that occurred between factories could largely be explained by differences in types of factory services and processes. Some data were available for equivalent US industries and in general, the New Zealand industy uses either a similar amount of or less energy than these United States industries. Possible areas for energy conservation in the industry are discussed.

  1. Enhancing engineering practices for productivity and profits in agro-allied industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esan, A. A.

    2000-08-01

    The word productivity is a part of everyday vocabulary of industrial engineers and managers. Terms such as optimum utilization of resources, operational efficiency, product competitiveness, maintenance culture, etc., are mentioned with regular frequency. This is healthy, because productivity improvement does not happen by wishing for it or trying harder but by deliberately planning for it. The rewards of higher productivity are immense. At the firm level, such benefit include high production rates, higher profits, better quality products and services, customer satisfaction, higher take home pay for employees and high employee morale. Many of these benefits can be derived through the application of simple potential productivity improvement tools that are hinged on engineering practices

  2. Environmental Design of Industrial Products (EDIP), anchoring of the life cycle concept in industry and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1999-01-01

    The Danish methodology and tools for environmental assessment of products (EDIP) became public available in 1996-97. Following the EDIP-project, projects reflecting methodological developments and simplifications for a broader use have been lanuched, also taking the methodology beyond Danish bord...

  3. Towards total productive maintenance in the Eastern European mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, J.D. [Kepner-Tregoe (United Kingdom) Ltd., Windsor

    1999-08-01

    An European Union consultancy project was undertaken to install a `best-in-class` maintenance system for the lignite mines of Romania. The project, funded by PHARE, started with a critical analysis of the maintenance and repair systems of equipment in both the open-pit and underground mines operated by RALO (Regia Autonoma a Lignitului Octenia). This study paved the way for the introduction of a computerised maintenance system and the inception of a planned preventative maintenance scheme. A development strategy leading by a structural methodology towards predictive maintenance and total productive maintenance was drawn up and attention was given to multi-skilling, training and further facilitating activities to enable the success of the total productive maintenance strategy. An abridged version of the paper was presented at MAINTE 97, held in Birmingham, UK in 1997. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Benefits of nitrogen for food, fibre and industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Schjoerring, J K; van der Hoek, K W

    2011-01-01

    threats. Approaches • When reviewing trends in European N r production rates, including those from chemical and biological fi xation processes, and the consumption of this N r in human activities, agriculture is by far the largest sector driving N r creation. • Particular attention has been given...... value of N benefi ts to the European economy is very substantial. Almost half of the global food can be produced because of N r from the Haber–Bosch, and cereal yields in Europe without fertilizer would only amount to half to two-thirds of those with fertilizer application at economically optimal rates...... value crops. However, recent initiatives to reduce environmental impacts of N r losses have led to an increase of N use effi ciency in both crop and livestock production. • Increasing fertilizer prices and climate change will create new incentives to increase N use effi ciency. Th ere are ample options...

  5. New electron beam facility for R and D and production at acsion industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopata, V.J.; Barnard, J.W.; Saunders, C.B.; Stepanik, T.M. E-mail: stepanik@acsion.com

    2003-08-01

    Since its incorporation in 1998, Acsion Industries Inc. has been working with clients to develop industrial uses of electron processing for improving products and manufacturing processes. Acsion has promoted this technology for sterilizing medical devices and pharmaceuticals, for treating wood pulp in the viscose/rayon process, for reducing pathogens in food and animal feed, and for curing advanced composites for the aerospace industry. As a result of significant developments in its composite curing programs, Acsion has recently made major modifications to its facility to increase its production and R and D capabilities. These modifications are described in this paper.

  6. Green Acquisitions And Lifecycle Management Of Industrial Products In The Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Vasile N.; Popa, Luminita I.

    2016-11-01

    The article addresses the issue of green acquisitions which occur within an industrial company focused on reducing inputs while maintaining output (substitution and efficiency). These processes characterize a circular economy oriented on resource efficiency (costs saved by reducing purchasing inputs). In our article, we focus on the industrial procurement practice which can help businesses save money and materials. Besides the possibility to negotiate prices, buyers can influence suppliers to offer products and services in an efficient manner in terms of green resources. The life cycle of industrial products is used to demonstrate the environmental advantages and disadvantages of various options for acquisitions and initiatives to totally reuse them.

  7. New electron beam facility for R&D and production at acsion industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, V. J.; Barnard, J. W.; Saunders, C. B.; Stepanik, T. M.

    2003-08-01

    Since its incorporation in 1998, Acsion Industries Inc. has been working with clients to develop industrial uses of electron processing for improving products and manufacturing processes. Acsion has promoted this technology for sterilizing medical devices and pharmaceuticals, for treating wood pulp in the viscose/rayon process, for reducing pathogens in food and animal feed, and for curing advanced composites for the aerospace industry. As a result of significant developments in its composite curing programs, Acsion has recently made major modifications to its facility to increase its production and R&D capabilities. These modifications are described in this paper.

  8. Modernisation of production as a factor of influence on economic stability of the industrial enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varkova N.Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article considers key problems of modernising production process at industrial enterprises, also referred to as reengineering, in modern conditions of Russian economics. Having analysed factors that affect operation of business, the author presents the model of interdependence between modernisation of production and sustainable development of the enterprise. Based upon analysis of Russian and foreign sources there were formulated fundamentals of the modernisation process and presented an algorithmic mechanism of enabling modernisation at the industrial enterprise. The said mechanism takes into account main aspects of sustainable development of the industrial enterprise and evaluation parameters as to the modernisation efficiency.

  9. Systems of attitudes towards production in the pork industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia; Veflen Olsen, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Existing research on public attitudes towards agricultural production systems is largely descriptive, abstracting from the processes through which members of the general public generate their evaluations of such systems. The present paper adopts a systems perspective on such evaluations, understa...... by attitudes of an intermediate level of generality, suggesting that the dependent variables in the particular attitude system that was modelled here can be understood as value judgments in a literal sense....

  10. Mergers and Product Quality: Evidence from the Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yongmin; Gayle, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective studies of horizontal mergers have focused on their price effects, leaving the important question of how mergers affect product quality largely unanswered. This paper empirically investigates this issue for two recent airline mergers: Delta/Northwest and Continental/United. Consistent with the theoretical premise that mergers improve coordination but diminish competitive pressure for quality provision, we find: (i) each merger is associated with a quality increase in markets whe...

  11. Machine vision systems using machine learning for industrial product inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Chen, Tie Q.; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Tisler, Anthony

    2002-02-01

    Machine vision inspection requires efficient processing time and accurate results. In this paper, we present a machine vision inspection architecture, SMV (Smart Machine Vision). SMV decomposes a machine vision inspection problem into two stages, Learning Inspection Features (LIF), and On-Line Inspection (OLI). The LIF is designed to learn visual inspection features from design data and/or from inspection products. During the OLI stage, the inspection system uses the knowledge learnt by the LIF component to inspect the visual features of products. In this paper we will present two machine vision inspection systems developed under the SMV architecture for two different types of products, Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and Vacuum Florescent Displaying (VFD) boards. In the VFD board inspection system, the LIF component learns inspection features from a VFD board and its displaying patterns. In the PCB board inspection system, the LIF learns the inspection features from the CAD file of a PCB board. In both systems, the LIF component also incorporates interactive learning to make the inspection system more powerful and efficient. The VFD system has been deployed successfully in three different manufacturing companies and the PCB inspection system is the process of being deployed in a manufacturing plant.

  12. The Impact of Job Stress and Job Satisfaction on Workforce Productivity in an Iranian Petrochemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hoboubi, Naser; Choobineh, Alireza; Kamari Ghanavati, Fatemeh; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Akbar Hosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Job stress and job satisfaction are important factors affecting workforce productivity. This study was carried out to investigate the job stress, job satisfaction, and workforce productivity levels, to examine the effects of job stress and job satisfaction on workforce productivity, and to identify factors associated with productivity decrement among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry. Methods: In this study, 125 randomly selected employees of an Iranian petrochemic...

  13. Cost-effective production of bacterial cellulose using acidic food industry by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revin, Victor; Liyaskina, Elena; Nazarkina, Maria; Bogatyreva, Alena; Shchankin, Mikhail

    2018-03-13

    To reduce the cost of obtaining bacterial cellulose, acidic by-products of the alcohol and dairy industries were used without any pretreatment or addition of other nitrogen sources. Studies have shown that the greatest accumulation of bacterial cellulose (6.19g/L) occurs on wheat thin stillage for 3 days of cultivation under dynamic conditions, which is almost 3 times higher than on standard Hestrin and Schramm medium (2.14g/L). The use of whey as a nutrient medium makes it possible to obtain 5.45g/L bacterial cellulose under similar conditions of cultivation. It is established that the pH of the medium during the growth of Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans B-11267 depends on the feedstock used and its initial value. By culturing the bacterium on thin stillage and whey, there is a decrease in the acidity of the waste. It is shown that the infrared spectra of bacterial cellulose obtained in a variety of environments have a similar character, but we found differences in the micromorphology and crystallinity of the resulting biopolymer. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Oil cakes - a by-product of agriculture industry as a fortificant in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Satyabadi; Indumathi, K; Mahadevamma, S; Sudha, M L

    2013-11-01

    Groundnut cake (GNC) and soybean cake (SBC) by-product of agriculture industry had protein and protein digestibility in the range of 42.7-50.5 and 71.3-76.8%, respectively. Polyphenols present in GNC and SBC were cholorogenic acid, syringic acid and p-coumaric acid. The number of bands separated in soybean meal was greater than the bands observed in GNC flour as seen in SDS-PAGE pattern, respectively. SEM of groundnut flour showed distension of protein bodies due to roasting of the oil cakes. The water absorption of wheat flour GNC blends decreased from 59.2 to 57.3% and increased in wheat flour SBC blends from 59.2 to 68.3% with an increase in oil cake from 0 to 20%. With increase in either GNC or SBC, the biscuits became harder. Addition of glycerol monostearate and sodium stearoyl lactylate in combination with 20% blend of GNC/SBC decreased the breaking strength values and increased the sensory parameters of the biscuits. Nutritionally rich biscuits were thus prepared by incorporating GNC/SBC.

  15. The Meaning of Life-long Education for Contemporal' Industrial Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Tušek

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the significance of and the need for permanent education of the people employed in industry who want to update production, implement novelties, monitor competition, and constantly increase productivity. Besides general needs and principles of life-long education there are some basic and general needs of education for modern industrial production. There is a special emphasis on education for overall quality, the significance of standardisation, protection of the environment, job satisfaction, safety at work, and dealing with customers. One chapter is dedicated to training for development and improvement of products, patent protection of new products, learning from competition, use of internet and other sources. At the end there are some cases of successful education in Slovenian industry.

  16. Industrial production of the interbelic German from the Banat Highland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, C.; Hatiegan, C.; Pellac, A.; Bogdan, S. L.; Paduraru, L.; Varga, A.

    2018-01-01

    The historian Fernand Braudel considered that geography dictates history because a certain region or a certain state requires a characteristic of its economic life. Commerce was often called in mercantilist period the blood that provides life of the nation. These data imply progress in terms of demographic beyond doubt, especially in the employment of the German minority living in the urban communes of the Banat Mountain. We retain the dual nature of their occupations, with farm work kept in the background, but the main plane dominated the gradual effect of industrial labour and business activities. Along with farmers, most Germans residing in villages and hamlets in the mountains of Banat were devoted to jobs in the service sector and small crafts area. They worked both as employers and employees in the stores and workshops in rural and urban areas where they resided. Working as sellers, barbers, blacksmiths, carpenters, tailors, butchers, tanners, plumbers, painters or as doctors, dentists, teachers, lawyers, they have contributed to the development of material and spiritual not only their own minority but of communities within which they were born and prospered.

  17. The outlook for the Canadian petroleum industry development and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orman, R.

    1992-01-01

    Alberta's policies relevant to the petroleum industry are discussed, including support of deregulation and free trade agreements, market accessibility, and environmental and economic issues. Producers in the province have had to come to terms with the consequences of deregulation, such as chronic oversupply, constrained capacity, distressed prices, and regulatory uncertainty. This situation could lead to producers becoming disinclined to replace reserves. Surges in spot prices have not been experienced in Alberta as they have in the USA. On the positive side, Alberta producers have seen their U.S. market share double to ca 10% and an increasing popularity of natural gas as a fuel of choice. The expectations of high oil prices in the 1970s-1980s led to the Alberta government getting into debt and spending money based on anticipated revenue. However, in 1985-86, Alberta lost 64% of its resource revenue from the drop in oil prices and government goals are to balance the consequences of those decisions of the 1970s-early 1980s. One measure is a restructuring of the royalty regime to be more sensitive to prices

  18. The production of precipitated calcium carbonate from industrial gypsum wastes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available -step) process was tested. Although only a low-grade CaCO3 product (86-88 mass% as CaCO3) could be produced, experimental results on the characteristics of CaS in the presence of CO2 in the CaS-H2O-CO2 system showed that the reaction proceeded in two distinct... stages. In the first stage, CaS dissolution took place, with H2S stripping occurring in the second stage. Calcium carbonation and the resulting precipitation of CaCO3 were concurrent with the CaS dissolution and the H2S stripping reactions. Because...

  19. The management of steel industry by-products and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The report considers the management of solid and semi-solid wastes that are reused or disposed of outside steelworks. Headings are: introduction; ironmaking slags (including generation, properties, processing, uses and disposal); (steelmaking slag from hot metal pretreatment, and primary and secondary steelmaking); ironmaking dust and sludges; steelmaking dust and sludges; millscale and sludge from continuous casting and rolling mills; treatment and handling of used oils and greases; refractory waste from refining of metallurgical furnaces and vessels; by-products, waste and wastewater arising from coke oven batteries; treatment of stainless steel waste; characterisation of waste by leaching tests; dumping technology; and conclusions.

  20. The Canadian Natural Health Products (NHP) regulations: industry compliance motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeeque, Hina; Boon, Heather; Kachan, Natasha; Cohen, Jillian Clare; D'Cruz, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    This qualitative study explores corporations' motivations to comply with new natural health products (NHP) Regulations in Canada. Interviews were conducted with representatives from 20 Canadian NHP companies. Findings show that the rationale for compliance differs for large compared to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Large firms are motivated to comply with the regulations because of the deterrent fear of negative media coverage, social motivations, ability to comply and maintaining a competitive market advantage. In contrast, SMEs are motivated to comply due to the deterrent fear of legal prosecution and a sense of duty.

  1. Automation and robotics - Key to productivity. [in industry and space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A.

    1985-01-01

    The automated and robotic systems requirements of the NASA Space Station are prompted by maintenance, repair, servicing and assembly requirements. Trend analyses, fault diagnoses, and subsystem status assessments for the Station's electrical power, guidance, navigation, control, data management and environmental control subsystems will be undertaken by cybernetic expert systems; this will reduce or eliminate on-board or ground facility activities that would otherwise be essential, enhancing system productivity. Additional capabilities may also be obtained through the incorporation of even a limited amount of artificial intelligence in the controllers of the various Space Station systems.

  2. Protein co-products and by-products of the biodiesel industry for ruminants feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrés Botero Carrera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to classify 20 protein co-products and by-products of the biodiesel industry with potential to use in ruminant feeding. The meals evaluated were: cottonseed, canudo-de-pito, crambe, sunflower, castor-oil seeds detoxified with calcium, non-detoxified castor-oil seeds and soybean; and the cakes were: cottonseed, peanut, babassu, crambe, palm oil, sunflower, licuri, macauba seeds, non-detoxified castor-oil seeds, turnip and jatropha. The samples were quantified to determine dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, acid detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (ADFap, lignin, cutin and starch levels. The CP profile was characterized in fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C. The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, rumen degradable and undegradable protein, intestinal digestibility, indigestible neutral detergent fiber and undegradable neutral detergent insoluble protein were evaluated. The OM, CP, EE, NDFap, NFC, ADFap, lignin, cutin and starch contents varied from 81.95 to 95.41%, 18.92 to 57.75%, 0.56 to 18.40%, 10.13 to 62.30%, 3.89 to 27.88%, 6.15 to 36.86%, 1.19 to 5.04%, 0 to 17.87% and 0.68 to 14.50%, respectively. The values of fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C ranged from 5.40 to 43.31%, 0.08 to 37.63%, 16.75 to 79.39%, 1.86 to 59.15% and 0.60 to 11.47%, respectively. Concentrations of IVDMD, IVNDFD, rumen-degradable and undegradable protein, intestinal digestibility, indigestible NDF and undegradable neutral detergent insoluble protein ranged from 31.00 to 95.92%, 55.04 to 97.74%, 41.06 to 97.61%, 2.39 to 58.94, 9.27 to 94.26%, 1.05 to 40.80% and 0.29 to 2.92%, respectively. Some of these products can replace soybean meal, specially the Macauba seeds cake, cottonseed meal and peanut and turnip cakes based on digestive

  3. Industrial halal meat production and animal welfare: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M M; Pufpaff, K M; Amir, M

    2016-10-01

    Islam teaches zero-tolerance to all forms of animal abuse throughout the halal meat production supply chain and demands that when animals are slaughtered, they must be slaughtered in the mindful and attentive way espoused by the Prophet Muhammad. Why then are poor practices and animal welfare abuses still occurring during halal meat production, and how can they be reduced or eliminated? In this review we discuss how improvements might be achieved through: (1) training of staff regarding the religious and regulatory requirements of animal welfare from on-farm to slaughter; (2) empathy and compassion assessment of applicants prior to employment; (3) installation of CCTV cameras around lairage and slaughter sites; (4) regular employee follow-up training to minimise 'compassion fatigue'; (5) incorporating animal welfare requirements in halal certification; (6) using mosque-based sermons by Imams to increase awareness of animal welfare issues; and (7) making portable humane slaughter units available to small cottage operations and home/neighbourhood-kills through mosque-based organizations/structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between lighting and noise levels and productivity of the occupants in automotive assembly industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Jafar; Dehghan, Habibollah; Azmoon, Hiva; Forouharmajd, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Work environment affects human productivity and his performance. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of lighting and noise levels on human productivity in the automotive assembly industry. Subjects were 181 workers from different parts of an automobile assembly industry. Illuminance (Lx) at the height of 30 inches from the surface of work station and noise (dBA) were locally measured. Also human productivity by the Goldsmith and Hersey scale (1980) was measured. Data were analyzed by using SPSS v20 Pearson correlation coefficient. The results showed that the relationship between noise level and human productivity is negative and significant (P productivity (P > 0.05). Based on the results, in assembly tasks, noise has a negative impact on human productivity, and lighting does not affect this. So, in order to increase employee productivity, noise control and reduction to less than the standard values (less than 85 dB) is necessary.

  5. Which variety is free? Discerning the impact of product variety in the process industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trattner, Alexandria Lee; Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    In the pursuit of mass customization, it is a great challenge for companies to maintain mass production efficiencies while producing a wide range of prod-ucts. This poses an even a greater challenge to process industry manufactur-ing systems which are built for high volume, low variety operations...... and which are sensitive to changes in process parameters. Many studies have been performed to quantify the impact of product variety on the efficiency of automotive assembly processes, but little work has been done to address pro-cess manufacturing systems. This study aims to determine the effects of in......-dividual product features on machine productivity at a process industry manufacturer. A lasso regression model is developed and tested using actual product and process level data from a stone wool manufacturer in central Eu-rope. Results show that product features are less correlated to machine effi-ciency than...

  6. The Use of Modelling Methods for Product Configuration in Industrial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Bonev, Martin; Haug, Anders

    2014-01-01

    reported. This article investigates the challenge on how industrial companies model their product CSs. The study is based on interviews of 18 industrial companies using CSs for configuring customer-tailored products. It investigates the relationship between using a structured modelling technique...... for modelling product families relative to less or no formal approaches. Furthermore, the study explores the specific characteristics of configuration set-ups with respect to size and complexity and their effect on product variant management and availability of product knowledge in organizations. The results......Developing product configuration system (CS) requires extracting and representing domain expert knowledge in appropriate product models. As acknowledged by researchers, this is often one of the most challenging activities in configuration projects, where only little empirical insights have yet been...

  7. UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCT OF CHEESEMAKING AGRIBUSINESS INDUSTRY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND REDUCTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Becker Rohlfes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The uses of by-products of cheese industry is still not significant in Brazil, since about 15% of liquid whey is used as raw material in food industry technology. The liquid whey has excellent technological properties, making it an alternative to minimize environmental impacts, besides it enables the use of the same nutritional properties in the production of new food products or adding value to the existing ones. The present study aimed to use liquid whey as an ingredient in the formulation of ice cream, hard candies, ham and breads, as well as to evaluate the influence of it in technological characteristics of the products and to quantify the volume of whey used. In order to evaluate the use of liquid whey, the products were developed with partial or total replacement of milk or water by whey, being the substitution accompanied by the determination of centesimal composition, as well as evaluating the visual characteristics of each product. The results show that the preparation of the products under study with substitution of raw milk or water is viable, proving that using liquid whey is a technological possibility of using a by-product considered to be an environmental pollutant. It was concluded that the use of liquid whey in the food industry reduces the environmental impact, since there is a reduction in the volume of whey discharged into the environment.

  8. The impact of new product introduction on plant productivity in the North American automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gopal, A.; Goyal, M.; Netessine, S.; Reindorp, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Product launch—an event when a new product debuts for production in a plant—is an important phase in product development. But launches disrupt manufacturing operations, resulting in productivity losses. Using data from North American automotive plants from years 1999–2007, we estimate that a product

  9. A Study on an Executive Technique and Activation of Clean Production in Chemical Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Seong Yong; Lee, Hee Seok; Kim, Kang Seok [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Clean production does not only make the sustainable development possible through preventing the deterioration of the environmental pollution from the expansion of industrialization but also enhance the company's competitiveness. Clean production is required by all industrial fields but is the most important in chemical industry. The Government has made efforts to change the domestic industrial structure to the environmental-friendly structure through developing the research. However, the domestic industry has not yet activated overall except some large companies, which has concretized the activation of clean production. Especially, the medium and small companies are more sluggish due to the inferiority of capital and technology. With recognizing that the main body of clean production is a company, the effort based on the Government and the academic world, without companies' positive, will cannot help being limited in effects. Therefore, it is necessary to trigger the schemes that urge the companies' motivation to show the effects from the support that have concentrated in hardware like technology until now. It seems to be very important that the guidebook for clean production, which a company can easily adopt, is developed and spread. This report provides the guidebook for clean production that managers and engineers can easily understand and approach in a producing field and presents the scheme to promote clean production, for chemical industry that is seriously required clean production. Even if the presented contents are not perfect, they can be applied to the development of the Government's policy and the administrative activities of companies for clean production as a useful data. 53 refs., 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  10. Labour Productivity in the New Zealand Construction Industry: A Thorough Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Tookey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Productivity growth is strongly correlated to economic growth and increases in welfare. This fact also holds true at the industry level and is particularly true in the NZ construction industry, since productivity growth in this sector may have significant effects on the affordability of housing in the country. In recent years construction in NZ has been subjected to a series of reports that have either highlighted ‘failure’ to grow productivity or have exhorted the industry to improve its ‘poor performance’.  However thus far little by way of analysis has gone into the productivity figures that have been quoted, nor has much been done to explain and justify if or why these figures are correct or incorrect.This research seeks to deconstruct construction productivity figures in NZ and explain the patterns over recent years of ‘poor performance’ in comparison with other industries.  As such it will examine the nature of the NZ construction industry and analyse the historic statistics related to its labour productivity. This will provide an overall understanding of the sector as well as those extraneous factors that may have significant influences on the NZ construction sector.The research found that while factors influencing inputs of labour productivity measure such as labour and material costs remained stable, factors impacting the corresponding outputs such as house and land prices, value of work in Non-residential and Infrastructure construction grew significantly between 1997 and 2007. Given the positive skewing effect of standard economic indicators (inflation etc on construction labour productivity figures, the relatively poor performance of construction is worrying for the industry. The paper concludes by demonstrating labour productivity in construction is significantly worse performing than previously suspected.

  11. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  12. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  13. Noise and vibrations theory applied to industrial production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelluccio, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    This work discusses different techniques for the detection and control of incandescent slag slopping in B.O.F. converters (Basic Oxygen Furnace), using on line measures of vibrations and noise.The slag slopping usually occurs during the process which refines the steel and it goes against the production indexes.It was chosen for this work the technique which analyzes the sound coming from the converter.The method requires to measures the sound in gases at high temperatures.For fulfill this requirement it was designed a prototype that allows to take the sound signal from atmospheres at very high temperature (the order of 1000 0 C) and in corrosive conditions.There were carried out test in laboratory scale to validate the concepts proponed and the results were satisfactory.The equipment for measuring allowed recording the sound in gases at 850 ± 50 0 C in a trustable manner [es

  14. Thin film silicon modules: contributions to low cost industrial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A. [Universite de Neuchatel, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the research work done during the two-year period 2003-04 at the Thin-Film Solar Cell Laboratory of the Institute of Microtechnology (IMT) at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland. The transition from fundamental research work to concrete industrialisation issues, and changes within the research staff are discussed. The main results of the work done are presented, including basic techniques for the production of p-i-n solar cells on glass, new technologies for the deposition of n-i-p cells on low-cost flexible substrates and the optimisation of zinc oxide deposition methods. The key role played by substrate chemistry and roughness in the nucleation and growth of micro-crystalline silicon layers is looked at and diagnostic tools for the analysis of micro-crystalline solar cells are discussed.

  15. Factors affecting RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry: empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping; Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an exploratory investigation of factors influencing the adoption of radio frequency identification (RFID) methods in the agricultural product distribution industry. Through a literature review and field research, and based on the technology-organization-environment (TOE) theoretical framework, this paper analyzes factors influencing RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry in reference to three contexts: technological, organizational, and environmental contexts. An empirical analysis of the TOE framework was conducted by applying structural equation modeling based on actual data from a questionnaire survey on the agricultural product distribution industry in China. The results show that employee resistance and uncertainty are not supported by the model. Technological compatibility, perceived effectiveness, organizational size, upper management support, trust between enterprises, technical knowledge, competitive pressure and support from the Chinese government, which are supported by the model, have significantly positive effects on RFID adoption. Meanwhile, organizational size has the strongest positive effect, while competitive pressure levels have the smallest effect. Technological complexities and costs have significantly negative effects on RFID adoption, with cost being the most significantly negative influencing factor. These research findings will afford enterprises in the agricultural products supply chain with a stronger understanding of the factors that influence RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry. In addition, these findings will help enterprises remain aware of how these factors affect RFID adoption and will thus help enterprises make more accurate and rational decisions by promoting RFID application in the agricultural product distribution industry.

  16. Output, input and productivity measures at the industry level : The EU KLEMS Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Mahony, M.; Timmer, M.P.

    This article describes the contents and the construction of the EU KLEMS Growth and Productivity Accounts. This database contains industry-level measures of output, inputs and productivity for 25 European countries, Japan and the US for the period from 1970 onwards. The article considers the

  17. Forest products industries of the southern Middle-Atlantic states, 1985 - 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric H. Wharton; Kevin Mullarkey; Kevin Mullarkey

    1993-01-01

    Evaluates regional timber output of Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey. Results are based on a survey of primary processing mills located in these states and of mills in other states that used wood from the region. Contains statistics on industrial timber production and mill receipts and the production and final end use of manufacturing residues. Comparisons are made...

  18. Utilization of various industrial wastes for the production of poly-b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHB production in various industrial waste based medium and nitrogen limited minimal agar synthetic medium was studied by crotonic acid method. The pure form of PHB was collected and qualitatively analyzed by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance methods. Highest PHB production was found in nitrogen limited ...

  19. Resource Communication Technology and Marketing of Textile Products: A U.S. Textile Industry Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative positivistic case study was to explore whether resource communication technology has helped or would help the marketing of textile products in the U.S. textile industry. The contributions of human capital in the marketing department, the marketing-demand information system function, and the product supply chain…

  20. Influence of demographic characteristics on production practices within the Ohio maple syrup industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Graham; P. Charles Goebel; Randall B. Heiligmann; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2007-01-01

    Maple syrup production contributes approximately $5 million annually to Ohio's economy and provides supplemental nontimber forest product income for forestland owners. To better understand the factors that influence this important nontimber forest industry in Ohio, including producer heritage, producer age, sap collection methods, size of maple operation, and...

  1. Metabollic Engineering of Saccharomyces Cereviae a,omi acid metabolism for production of products of industrial interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiao

    -based processes. This study has focused on metabolic engineering of the amino acid metabolism in S. cerevisiae for production of two types of chemicals of industrial interest. The first chemical is δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)–L-cysteinyl–D-valine (LLD-ACV). ACV belongs to non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs), which......Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used in microbial production of chemicals, metabolites and proteins, mainly because genetic manipulation of S. cerevisiae is relatively easy and experiences from its wide application in the existing industrial fermentations directly benefit new S. cerevisiae...

  2. Intra-industry momentum and product market competition around the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between product market competition and intra-industry momentum returns. Based on 12,982 firm observations from 19 developed markets for the period of 1990–2010, I find that buying winners and selling losers in competitive industries generates significantly higher momentum profits than that in concentrated industries. The higher the intensity of product market competition, the larger are the intra-industry momentum returns. The results are robust to sub-samples (periods of the U.S., non-U.S. countries, the G7 countries, 1990–2000, and 2001–2010. I further employ the nearness of a stock's price to the 52-week high to determine past winners and losers and find stronger results. I also compare intra-industry momentum returns with Jegadeesh and Titman (1993 individual stock momentum and Moskowitz and Grinblatt (1999 inter-industry momentum strategies. My results suggest that intra-industry momentum strategy outperforms the latter two strategies in most cases. The overall results are consistent with the notion that severe product market competition induces managers to improve financial performance.

  3. The environmental suitability of industrial secondary products used as covering materials in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine-Ylijoki, J.; Wahlstroem, M.; Maekelae, E.

    2001-01-01

    The industrial secondary products and landmasses polluted in a minor way can be used as coverings and sealing materials and also restricted in the ground construction of landfills. By using suitable secondary products, natural materials can be reduced. Substitutes are needed due to the fact that the availability of natural materials is poor in many areas. The presented project is a part of the Streams technology programme financed by Tekes. It includes the development of the measuring methods to study the environmental suitability of industrial secondary products, which will be used as covering materials of landfills. Based on the results, a handbook addressing the environmental suitability procedure will be compiled

  4. Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar, Beatriz; Javier Ramos-Real, Francisco; De Almeida, Edmar Fagundes

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. (author)

  5. EDUCATION AS BASIS OF FORMATION OF «NEW PRODUCTIVE FORCES» IN POST-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Grechko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Search of trajectories of transformation of domestic economy and society, in aspect of transition to a post-industrial stage of development, is actual and significant for today. In the author presented to article it is reasoned that synchronous formation of the «new productive forces» adequate to the formed relations of production in post-industrial society has to become the main imperative of development of domestic economy. Taking into account conceptual results of the political economic, evolutionary and institutional economic theory, the author put forward and proved situation that the new productive forces serving subsequently as basis for formation of relations of production adequate to them in borders of a post-industrial stage of development, have to be formed in sectors of generation of knowledge, thus the special part is assigned to educational sector. In the conclusion the main conclusions on the conducted research are systematized.

  6. Mass Customisation and Highly Individualised Solutions. Stretching Mass Customisation Beyond the Traditional Paradigm of Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola; Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2007-01-01

    and consumption patterns. The reference to a paradigm shift helps emphasising the inherent limits of industrial production and the elements of changes brought about by the possibility to generate highly individualised solutions. The concept of mass customisation was introduced to extend the domain of industrial...... production beyond its original limitations, however it is strongly linked to the paradigm of industrial production and not always usable to support and explain new ways of organising value creation. This paper proposes an analysis of this paradigm shift through three cases, which emphasise some elements...... of mass customisation that are still relevant to the new paradigm. At the same time the paper emphasises the limits of this concept and the need for a new perspective view to interpret the ongoing change in production and consumption systems....

  7. NASA Symposium on Productivity and Quality: Strategies for Improving Operations in Government and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the Symposium is to increase the awareness of productivity and quality issues in the United States, and to foster national initiatives through government and industry executive leadership. The Symposium will provide a forum for discussion of white-collar productivity issues by experienced executives from successful organizations and an opportunity to share information learned through Productivity initiatives in govemment, industry and academic organizations. It will focus on white-collar organizational issues that are common to large companies and technology oriented organizations. The Symposium program will include strategies for improving operations in government and industry and will be responsive to the management issues viewed necessary to increase our nation's productivity growth rate.

  8. Production of Enzymes From Agricultural Wastes and Their Potential Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathiraja, S; Suriya, J; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is the significant technique for the conversion of agricultural wastes into valuable products. Agroindustrial wastes such as rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, and corncob are cheapest and plentifully available natural carbon sources for the production of industrially important enzymes. Innumerable enzymes that have numerous applications in industrial processes for food, drug, textile, and dye use have been produced from different types of microorganisms from agricultural wastes. Utilization of agricultural wastes offers great potential for reducing the production cost and increasing the use of enzymes for industrial purposes. This chapter focuses on economic production of actinobacterial enzymes from agricultural wastes to make a better alternative for utilization of biomass generated in million tons as waste annually. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Innovation Barriers and Enablers that Affect Productivity in Uganda Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe, , and

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has of recent been blamed for lack of innovation. Lack of innovation in the industry is believed to be responsible for the decreasing or stagnant levels of productivity in comparison with other industries. This paper reviews the major barriers and enablers to innovation in general. Propositions were made about the factors that affect innovation in the construction industry which were then formulated into a questionnaire. A survey was made on building contractors in Uganda, a developing country, targeting those with financial strength, large in size, and with high capacity to carry out big projects. The identified factors were then ranked and correlated. The level of training in science, engineering and technical education, and the level of research and development at the industry level are looked at as the greatest innovation enablers in building that will drive forward labour productivity. The size of the domestic market and the level of security are the worst innovation barriers that lead to low productivity in the building industry in Uganda. Contractors, policy makers and the government should address the identified factors in order to improve productivity.

  10. Improved coordination of the production cycle in the paper industry : To manage a wide product range and sequence-dependent changeovers

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Carl; Strandberg, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Today the manufacturing industry is faced with the challenge to stay competitive in an era of shorter product lifecycles and increased product variety. This has forced manufacturing companies to deal with an increased amount of products and more and faster changes to the product line. The same trend can also be seen in the paper industry where bulk products decreasing and more diversified products in smaller lot-sizes increasing, with a greater focus on customer specific products. Traditional...

  11. Effect of base media on the stability of annatto dye in industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audetuyi, A.O.; Lajide, L.; Popoola, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Colour stability of the versatile annatto dye was examined to monitor the effects of base media on industrial products. The dye was incorporated in two media, namely, palm kernel oil used in products such as body cream and soap, and paraffin wax used in shoe polish and household candle wax. These products were exposed to various light conditions for a specific period before assessment. The melting point of the dye was determined as 176-178 degree C with a molar absorptivity of 13,600 mol/sub -1/ cm/sub -1/ at 545 nm. It imparted its brilliant yellow/orange colouration in industrial products as the colour stability depends on the compounding base media of the products. Losses of beta-carotene was higher and faster in nonaqueous environment as paraffin wax showed low fastness rating values, than in the palm kernel oil based aqueous medium products. (author)

  12. Industrial alcohol production via whey and grain fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friend, B A; Cunningham, M L; Shahani, K M

    1982-01-01

    Six strains of a trained lactose fermenting Kluyveromyces yeast were examined for their ability to utilise lactose in sweet-whey permeate. All strains of K. fragilis tested reduced the concentration of the 5.1% lactose, initially present in whey permeate, to 0.1-0.2% within 48h. Periodic adjustment to maintain the pH during fermentation did not alter the lactose utilisation. The fermentation efficiency of K. fragilis was then compared with that of a mixture of K. fragilis and the classical alcohol fermenter Saccharomyces cerevisiae to verify that no unfavourable interactions occurred in the mixed culture. There were no differences in lactose utilisation or ethanol production between the two groups; both produced approximately 2% ethanol within 24h. This represented approximately 80% of the alcohol which theoretically could be produced from the 5.1% lactose present in the permeate. Whey permeate was also incorporated into the classical grain fermentation by substitution for one-half the water normally added to produce the mash. Fermentation was nearly complete by 36h and alcohol levels ranged from 9.7% for the mixed culture to 9.4% for the K. fragilis and 9.3% for the S. cerevisiae. Since the whey provided significant levels of fermentable sugars, studies were also conducted in which undiluted whey permeate was substituted for all of the water in the mash and the amount of grain was reduced by 20%. At the end of 36h K. fragilis produced 10.9% alcohol and at 60 h of fermentation the level had reached 12.2%. When whole sweet-whey was used, similar levels of alcohol were produced. (Refs. 20).

  13. Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Usage of Oil Industry Products and Wastes as Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek BOLAT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for oil industry products has been increasing in parallel to the rapid population growth and industrialization. Physical and chemical properties of these products change after usage based on the media and operating conditions. Then, these products lose the eligibility and turn into the form of waste. The most commonly used method for the disposal of waste oils is combustion due to its high calorific value. In this study, the possible effects on the environment and human health of combustion of oil industry products and wastes are evaluated. Poor combustion conditions lead emissions from the process depending on the ingredients of wastes in addition to incomplete combustion products such as particulate matter, carbon monoxide, volatile organic chemicals polyaromatic hydrocarbons, metals etc. that may occur according to the type of waste. These emissions are released into the environment and partition between soil, water and air media related to their physicochemical characteristics. In addition to environmental problems, these emissions are a risk factor for human health in terms of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Regulations and control measures should be put into practice in order to get rid of the effects of non-standard diesel like product named number 10 lube on human health and environment. In this context, emission measurements should be done simultaneously to determine the effects of combustion of these wastes and products of oil industry.

  14. Trade Liberalization and Productivity-A Panel Study of the Mexican Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Talan Iscan

    1998-01-01

    In recent years there has been a revival of interest in the trade-growth nexus. A number of authors have suggested that regional economic integration and liberalization of international trade are likely to have positive effects not only on productivity levels but also on long-term productivity growth rates in developing countries. Using a panel of Mexican manufacturing industries, this paper examines several alternative mechanisms through which trade contributes positively to productivity lev...

  15. COMPETITIVE PRESSURE AND PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH: THE CASE OF THE FLORIDA VEGETABLE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas G.; Taylor, Timothy G.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the degree of competitive market pressure and the rate of productivity growth is empirically investigated with a case study of the Florida fresh winter vegetable industry. The results indicate that crops which faced considerable competitive pressure exhibited significant productivity growth while the crops that faced minimal competitive pressure generally exhibited little growth in productivity. Thus, the hypothesis that competitive pressure is positively related to p...

  16. Supply chain optimization in the newspaper industry: Integrated production allocation, scheduling and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Furnes, Kaia Kristina; Ravlo, Espen Huse

    2014-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of the newspaper industry is that the products are virtually worthless at the end of the day; nobody wants to pay for yesterday s news. In addition, strict delivery deadlines and no inventory lead to very short time frames for production and distribution. Consequently production and outbound distribution are intimately linked and should be coordinated in order to achieve the objective of on-time delivery performance at minimum total cost. The increase in on...

  17. Productivity Change, Technical Progress, and Relative Efficiency Change in the Public Accounting Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Hsihui Chang; Ram Natarajan

    2005-01-01

    We present evidence on components of productivity change in the public accounting industry toward the end of the 20th century. Using revenue and human resource data from 64 of the 100 largest public accounting firms in the United States for the 1995--1999 period, we analyze productivity change, technical progress, and relative efficiency change over time. The average public accounting firm experienced a productivity growth of 9.5% between 1995 and 1999. We find support for the hypothesis that...

  18. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    OpenAIRE

    Aulia Firda Alfiana; Purwanto

    2018-01-01

    In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint ...

  19. BRAND AND QUALITY CONTROL OF GARMENT PRODUCTS IN THE BANGLADESH GARMENT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshen, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis paper contains information on the garment industry of Bangladesh. The garment business plays a vital part in global market. There are a large numbers of world renowned apparel companies that outsource their products in Bangladesh. The aim of the thesis is to explicate quality management in garment production and the brand protection process during outsourcing in Bangladesh. The theoretical part of the thesis provides basic information about garment products, the glo...

  20. Productivity in Information Service Industries: a Panel Analysis of Japanese Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Futoshi Kurokawa; Kiyohiko G. Nishimura

    2006-01-01

    We examine factors determining productivity of information-technology service activities at firm level, using most comprehensive data of information service industries in Japan. We focus on the degree of modularisation and resulting outsourcing and economies/diseconomies of scale in software development, and changes. We find that outsourcing has persistent negative effects on total factor productivity, suggesting not only productivity-enhancing modularisation is not fully utilised but also pr...

  1. PRODUCT RETURNS MANAGEMENT IN THE CLOTHING INDUSTRY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jeszka

    2014-12-01

    logistics of product returns. It emphasises the role of cooperation in the supply chain, the experience and competencies of employees and the importance of computerization of the process as well as the impact of those factors on the efficiency of returns management and any potential savings. 

  2. Aggregate Production Planning, Casestudy in a Medium-sized Industry of the Rubber Production Line in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Mantilla, César; Sánchez-Sailema, Mayra; Sánchez-Rosero, Carlos; Galleguillos-Pozo, Rosa

    2017-06-01

    This research aims to improve the productivity in the rubber line of a medium-sized industry by increasing the production capacities through the use of the Aggregate Production Planning model. For this purpose an analysis of the production processes of the line was made and the aggregate plan was defined evaluating two strategies: Exact Production Plan (Zero Inventory) and Constant Workforce Plan (Vary Inventory) by studying the costs of both inventory maintenance and workforce. It was also determined how the installed capacity was used with the standards of the rubber line and measures for decreasing production costs were proposed. It was proven that only 70% of the plant capacity was being used so it could be possible to produce more units and to obtain a bigger market for the products of this line.+

  3. Strategies for reconciling environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector: Analytic framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The project is motivated by recommendations that were made by industry in a number of different forums: the Industry Workshop of the White House Conference on Climate Change, and more recently, industry consultations for EPAct Section 131(c) and Section 160(b). These recommendations were related to reconciling conflicts in environmental goals, productivity improvements and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  4. The Instrumentarium for Providing the Competitiveness of Exports of the Food Industry Products of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Tunitska Julia M.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at analyzing the dynamics, structure, and problems of the innovation development of the food industry and substantiating the directions of its intensification as a factor in the development of a competitive exports of Ukrainian food products. The article carries out a detailed analysis of the dynamics and structure of the innovation activity of Ukrainian food industry in the period from 2007 to 2015, in particular the characteristics of its resource and innovation provisi...

  5. The emerging "fans economy" marketing mode in digital consuming products industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to identify the new marketing mode in the consuming products industry and to discuss its feasibility to apply the emerging marketing mode into other industries or countries. The new marketing mode is called the “Fans economy” marketing mode. The objectives of the thesis are comparing the new marketing mode with the traditional one rather than challenging it, so that the thesis can make the analysis about the advantages and the disadvantages of the new marketing ...

  6. Coherence in product-oriented policies and environmental management systems in the car industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla Kornelia; Nielsen, Eskild Holm

    more traditional process-oriented policies and are a challenge for companies. The article presents some of the authors  investigations on how the car industry has dealt with both process-oriented and product-oriented policies. [1] EPR refers to extending producer responsibility for products beyond......Over the last decade, product-oriented policies as Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Integrated Product Policy (IPP) are more and more recognised as a target for both corporate environmental strategy and government environmental policy. These product-oriented policies are distinct from...

  7. High-throughput screening for industrial enzyme production hosts by droplet microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjostrom, Staffan L.; Bai, Yunpeng; Huang, Mingtao

    2014-01-01

    A high-throughput method for single cell screening by microfluidic droplet sorting is applied to a whole-genome mutated yeast cell library yielding improved production hosts of secreted industrial enzymes. The sorting method is validated by enriching a yeast strain 14 times based on its α......-amylase production, close to the theoretical maximum enrichment. Furthermore, a 105 member yeast cell library is screened yielding a clone with a more than 2-fold increase in α-amylase production. The increase in enzyme production results from an improvement of the cellular functions of the production host...

  8. Physical, chemical and radioactive characterization of co-products from titanium dioxide industry for valorization in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazquez, M.J.; Mantero, J.; Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Vaca, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the raw materials (ilmenite and slag), waste (red gypsum) and several co-products (sulphate monohydrate and sulphate heptahydrated) form the titanium dioxide industry in relation to their elemental composition (major, minor and trace elements), granulometry, mineralogy, microscopic morphology, physical composition and radioactive content in order to apply this knowledge in the valorization of the co-products in the fields such a as construction, civil engineering, etc. In particular, the main properties of cements produced with different proportions of red gypsum were studied, and the obtained improvements, in relation to Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC) were evaluated. It was also demonstrated that the levels of pollutants and the radioactive content in the produced RG cements, remain within the regulated safety limits. (Author). 38 refs.

  9. The impact of energy prices on industrial energy efficiency and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Energy prices moved into the forefront of concern in the mid and late seventies when two oil price shocks drove up energy prices dramatically. The analysis of the subsequent increase in industrial energy efficiency, i.e., decline in energy use per unit of industrial output, has filled volumes of government and private studies. Despite the volumes of analysis, there remains no consensus on the magnitude of the effect of energy prices on industrial energy efficiency or the effect of the change in energy prices on productivity. This paper examines some sources of the controversy to initiate a dialog between policy makers, analysts, and the energy consumers and producers

  10. A future perspective on the role of industrial biotechnology for chemicals production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John; Breuer, Michael; Mink, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The development of recombinant DNA technology, the need for renewable raw materials and a green, sustainable profile for future chemical processes have been major drivers in the implementation of industrial biotechnology. The use of industrial biotechnology for the production of chemicals is well...... established in the pharmaceutical industry but is moving down the value chain toward bulk chemicals. Chemical engineers will have an essential role in the development of new processes where the need is for new design methods for effective implementation, just as much as new technology. Most interesting...

  11. 77 FR 64999 - Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility Registrations and... industry entitled ``Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility Registrations and... made available a draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food [[Page...

  12. Dynamics of productivity change in the Australian electricity industry: Assessing the impacts of electricity reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghdam, Reza Fathollahzadeh, E-mail: reza_f_a@yahoo.com [Department of Finance and Economics, College of Industrial Management, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, PO Box 257, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-06-15

    The Australian electricity industry has undergone a significant reform, since the mid-1990s. Key changes comprised functional unbundling, market restructuring, regulatory reform, public corporatisation and privatisation. Technological development has been another indisputable constituent of these changes, in the wake of ICT revolution. The principle rationale behind these changes has been that they would improve productivity of the industry and social well-being of people. This paper examines the dynamics of productivity changes in the Australian electricity industry and conducts several hypotheses-testings to identify whether industry's efficiency measures are truly improved as a result of the reform-driven changes. Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index approach and ANOVA are used for this purpose. The results reveal that the productivity gains in the industry have been largely driven by technological improvements and, to a lesser extent, by reform-induced comparative efficiency gains. On average at national level and for the entire industry, there are efficiency gains that, to large extents, can be attributed to functional unbundling and public corporatisation and, to a lesser extent, to market restructuring and privatisation. The results, however, reveal that the reform-driven changes have made insignificant contribution to comparative efficiency, at the level of thermal generation. - Highlights: > Dynamics of productivity changes in Australian electricity industry are examined. > Several hypotheses are also tested against reform-driven changes. > Technology impact is proved to be far larger than reform-induced impacts. > Unbundling and corporatisation had larger impacts than market restructuring and privatisation. > At thermal generation level, no reform-induced impact is encountered.

  13. Dynamics of productivity change in the Australian electricity industry: Assessing the impacts of electricity reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghdam, Reza Fathollahzadeh

    2011-01-01

    The Australian electricity industry has undergone a significant reform, since the mid-1990s. Key changes comprised functional unbundling, market restructuring, regulatory reform, public corporatisation and privatisation. Technological development has been another indisputable constituent of these changes, in the wake of ICT revolution. The principle rationale behind these changes has been that they would improve productivity of the industry and social well-being of people. This paper examines the dynamics of productivity changes in the Australian electricity industry and conducts several hypotheses-testings to identify whether industry's efficiency measures are truly improved as a result of the reform-driven changes. Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index approach and ANOVA are used for this purpose. The results reveal that the productivity gains in the industry have been largely driven by technological improvements and, to a lesser extent, by reform-induced comparative efficiency gains. On average at national level and for the entire industry, there are efficiency gains that, to large extents, can be attributed to functional unbundling and public corporatisation and, to a lesser extent, to market restructuring and privatisation. The results, however, reveal that the reform-driven changes have made insignificant contribution to comparative efficiency, at the level of thermal generation. - Highlights: → Dynamics of productivity changes in Australian electricity industry are examined. → Several hypotheses are also tested against reform-driven changes. → Technology impact is proved to be far larger than reform-induced impacts. → Unbundling and corporatisation had larger impacts than market restructuring and privatisation. → At thermal generation level, no reform-induced impact is encountered.

  14. New Product Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Evidence from a generic market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Nazila; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Yousefi, Mina

    2017-01-01

    In today's competitive world, there are several strategies to deal with the fast changing environment, among which New product development (NPD) is a common strategy. However, almost half of the resources that companies devote to NPD are spent on products that may fail. This issue is particularly highlighted in the pharmaceutical industry mainly because of a long development-time, low success rate, high capital requirement, and market uncertainty. This study identifies critical success factors of NPD based on the relevant literatures and expert opinions in Iranian pharmaceutical industry, then prioritizes them using the methodology of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) through analyzing 50 filled questionnaires structured based on the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) approach. Although the NPD success factors seem the same in both generic and bio-generic pharmaceutical industries, the underlying factors and related sub-factors show the different importance in these two industries. However, this study reveal that, the company capabilities is the most important factor affecting new product development success in both pharmaceutical generic and bio-generic industry. The results of this study contribute to create baseline information for pharmaceutical industry especially Iranian pharmaceutical companies to be more effective in budget allocation on improving NPD success factors so that they can boost the success rate of NPD more effectively.

  15. Comparative analysis of automation of production process with industrial robots in Asia/Australia and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Karabegović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "INDUSTRY 4.0" or "fourth industrial revolution" was first introduced at the fair in 2011 in Hannover. It comes from the high-tech strategy of the German Federal Government that promotes automation-computerization to complete smart automation, meaning the introduction of a method of self-automation, self-configuration, self-diagnosing and fixing the problem, knowledge and intelligent decision-making. Any automation, including smart, cannot be imagined without industrial robots. Along with the fourth industrial revolution, ‘’robotic revolution’’ is taking place in Japan. Robotic revolution refers to the development and research of robotic technology with the aim of using robots in all production processes, and the use of robots in real life, to be of service to a man in daily life. Knowing these facts, an analysis was conducted of the representation of industrial robots in the production processes on the two continents of Europe and Asia /Australia, as well as research that industry is ready for the introduction of intelligent automation with the goal of establishing future smart factories. The paper gives a representation of the automation of production processes in Europe and Asia/Australia, with predictions for the future.

  16. Implementing Cleaner Production as an Environmental Management Efforts in Small Industries of Cassava Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadyanti Erina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs is one of the major driving factors for Indonesian economy, especially in food processing industries. The cassava-based industry is one type of food and beverage industry with chips as its major product. The limitations of knowledge caused their activities to only aim at pursuing economic benefits and ignoring the environmental balance. The most appropriate preventive method used, according to the characteristics of SMEs in Indonesia, is Cleaner Production. This study aims to reduce the risk of environmental pollution caused by the waste production of small chips industries by implementing cleaner production. The method used in this study is quick scanning by analyzing mass balance, energy, and utilities that aim to find an inefficient process to minimize losses. Implementation of cleaner production may include good housekeeping, reducing, and reusing. Based on the assessment of alternative eligibility criteria, the equipment modifications are the main factor in implementing cleaner production that drives the profits by providing efficiency of cutting as much as 80 percent and optimizes the profits into 57.62 kg in a month or 691.44 kg in a year. If the price of cassava chips is IDR 40,000 in a kg, then it would save IDR 27,657,600 in a year.

  17. Manufacturing processes in the textile industry. Expert Systems for fabrics production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan BULLON

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is characterized by the economic activity whose objective is the production of fibres, yarns, fabrics, clothing and textile goods for home and decoration,as well as technical and industrial purposes. Within manufacturing, the Textile is one of the oldest and most complex sectors which includes a large number of sub-sectors covering the entire production cycle, from raw materials and intermediate products, to the production of final products. Textile industry activities present different subdivisions, each with its own traits. The length of the textile process and the variety of its technical processes lead to the coexistence of different sub-sectors in regards to their business structure and integration. The textile industry is developing expert systems applications to increase production, improve quality and reduce costs. The analysis of textile designs or structures includes the use of mathematical models to simulate the behavior of the textile structures (yarns, fabrics and knitting. The Finite Element Method (FEM has largely facilitated the prediction of the behavior of that textile structure under mechanical loads. For classification problems Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs haveproved to be a very effective tool as a quick and accurate solution. The Case-Based Reasoning (CBR method proposed in this study complements the results of the finite element simulation, mathematical modeling and neural networks methods.

  18. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X. H.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity. PMID:23365517

  19. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Tao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  20. Rfa method application for determination of heavy metals content in foods and industrial raw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveeva, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of improvement of the people's lives quality is considered to be of the highest priority according to the U N classification. It is known that its solution lies with the quality of drinking water and foods, which is defined, to a great extent, by the ecological situation of a concrete living region. As a rule, the existing methods of food analysis are mostly meant for determination of one chemical substance in a certain food. The analysis methods developed by authors are versatile and allow determining the quantitative content of Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Pb, Bi in the widely used basic foods and industrial raw products according to the common analytical scheme. The methods sensitivity allows determining the MCL of the toxic substances in foods and industrial raw products, specified in 'Medical and biological requirements and health-related quality standards in regards to the industrial raw products and foods

  1. Global product development interaction between local networks: A study of the Danish food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Preben Sander

    A study of the Danish foods industry shows that producers of food products largely ignore home marekt demand in their product development activities. They have built up and maintain development of end-user products in interaction with customers in distant sophisticated markets. Concurrently...... view of actors in the global end-user customer market and companies' euclidean view of actors in thelocal business-to-business market. In pr companies combine these two market views by interacting in networks: The global industrial network links various functions which again are each part of a local...... their development of end-user pr through global interaction. It is precisely by not interacting with home market end-user demand, but rather by deriving an industrial home market demand from changing end-user markets that the complex has avoided being insulated....

  2. Impact of product platforms on lean production systems : evidence from industrial machinery manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, A.A.; Wortmann, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes the effects of product platform changes on lean production systems. Current research into product platforms focuses mostly on the development stage. However, although the initial development of platforms is an important issue, product platforms often evolve during later

  3. Relationship Between Lean Production and Operational Performance in the Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasi, Raja Zuraidah R. M.; Syamsyul Rakiman, Umol; Ahmad, Md Fauzi Bin

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, more and more manufacturing firms have started to implement lean production system in their operations. Lean production viewed as one of the mechanism to maintain the organisation's position and to compete globally. However, many fail to apply the lean concepts successfully in their operations. Based on previous studies, implementation of lean production in the manufacturing industry is more focused on the relationship between Lean and Operational Performance of one dimension only. Therefore, this study attempted to examine the relationship between Lean Production (LP) and Operational Performance in 4 dimensions which are quality, delivery, cost and flexibility. This study employed quantitative study using questionnaires. Data was collected from 50 manufacturing industries. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 22.0. This study is hoped to shed new understanding on the concept of Lean Production (LP) in regards of Operational Performance covering the 4 dimensions.

  4. 78 FR 69691 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and... entitled ``Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and Promotional Labeling.'' When... promotional labeling and advertising for prescription human drugs, including biological drug products, and...

  5. From Garment to Fashion Production: An Analysis of the Evolution of the Apparel Industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Machado Barbosa Pinto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the analysis of the evolution of apparel industry in Brazil by answering the following questions: (a Does global sourcing still explain the value upgrading process in the apparel production chains?; (b Are there new sources of value upgrading to be considered?; (c Is the dynamics of the apparel production pervaded by a phenomenon that is strongly related to a cultural and creative know-how? Two theoretical approaches are considered to unveil the value upgrading process in the apparel production: (a theory about global value chains and (b studies about cultural and creative industries. To investigate the research questions we analyzed the case of the Brazilian apparel industry evolution through the use of a methodological perspective nurtured by aspects of grounded theory. The findings of this study indicate that companies are able to upgrade not only through improvements in manufacturing steps but also by means of incorporating elements of cultural distinction in the apparel production. Analysis of the Brazilian case led us to propose an integrative theoretical approach where elements of the global apparel value chains are combined with studies of cultural and creative industries. We consider that an integrative approach can better explain value creation in the apparel industry in a context of new markets, where there is not only the development of apparel manufacturing clusters but also the emergence of a unique and local fashion apparel chain.

  6. Evaluation of the Environmental Performance and rationing of Water Consumption in Industrial Production of Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Miranda Cavalcante

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region, with a high hydric potential, has attracted companies that require significant volumes of water; therefore, control instruments are necessary to monitor this trend. In this study, the degree of rationing of water use by beverage industries in Para state and the behavior of the sector are discussed. The subjects’ variables were classified according to four study dimensions (environmental management, water management, wastewater management, and advanced measures for rationing that compose the rationing level of water industrial management. The independent variables were associated by size, industry type, packaging used, water availability and the economic value of water. The data show that beverage production has a significant water footprint, higher than 15,250 m3/day, and that small industries have the highest relative consumptions (more than 7 L of water/beverage L. In general, the sector does not ration significant quantities of water; a better result was obtained for water management. However, some more efficient measures could be adopted, especially with regard to water reuse in cooling towers. Analysis of the variables shows that the rationing level is directly dependent on the size of the industry and on the type of product. Consumption tends to be lavish. In response to this situation, public policies should be prioritized to determine the water footprint of products and environmental cost should be considered in the overall cost of production.

  7. INNOVATIVE RESERVES OF LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVE IN NATIONAL ENTERPRISES OF SUGAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kostenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the innovative inertia and effective use of innovative reserves of labor productivity increase in domestic sugar factories is an important step towards the revival of strategically important sector for Ukraine’s economy and the key to its future development in the long run. The aim of the article is to search and study of innovative reserves of labor productivity increase in domestic enterprises of sugar industry. The international experience of innovation implementing in sugar industry enterprises is studied. The paper proves that management innovation is innovative reserves of labor productivity improve in the domestic sugar enterprises. The study analyzes overall trends of innovation development and dynamics of labor productivity in the sugar factories of Ukraine during the period of 2003-2013. The benefits and risks of laboratory tests of sugar beets and sugar are overviewed for the optimal technological mode of production installation on terms of outsourcing. The necessity and economic effectiveness of laboratory research outsourcing is proved to create the optimal technological mode of sugar production. It will improve labor productivity and quality of sugar, increase production and develop new profitable activities of sugar industry enterprises.

  8. Strain selection and medium optimization for glucoamylase production from industrial potato waste by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Glucoamylase is one of the most common enzymes used in the food industry to break down starch into its monomers. Glucoamylase production and its activity are highly dependent on medium composition. Starch is well known as a glucoamylase inducer, and utilization of industrial starchy potato waste is an inexpensive way of improving glucoamylase production. Since glucoamylase production is highly dependent on medium composition, in this study medium optimization for glucoamylase production was considered to enhance glucoamylase activity. Among the evaluated microbial species, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem was found to be the best glucoamylase-producing fungus. The Plackett-Burman design was used to screen various medium ingredients, and malt extract, FeSO4 .7H2 O and CaCl2 ·2H2 O were found to have significant effects on glucoamylase production. Finally, malt extract, FeSO4 .7H2 O and CaCl2 .2H2 O were optimized by using a central composite design of response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal medium composition for A. niger van Tieghem was 50 g L(-1) industrial waste potato mash supplemented with 51.82 g L(-1) malt extract, 9.27 g L(-1) CaCl2 ·2H2 O and 0.50 g L(-1) FeSO4 .7H2 O. At the end of optimization, glucoamylase activity and glucose production were improved 126% and 98% compared to only industrial waste potato mash basal medium; 274.4 U mL(-1) glucoamylase activity and 41.7 g L(-1) glucose levels were achieved, respectively. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Developing a new production host from a blueprint: Bacillus pumilus as an industrial enzyme producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küppers, Tobias; Steffen, Victoria; Hellmuth, Hendrik; O'Connell, Timothy; Bongaerts, Johannes; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Wiechert, Wolfgang

    2014-03-24

    Since volatile and rising cost factors such as energy, raw materials and market competitiveness have a significant impact on the economic efficiency of biotechnological bulk productions, industrial processes need to be steadily improved and optimized. Thereby the current production hosts can undergo various limitations. To overcome those limitations and in addition increase the diversity of available production hosts for future applications, we suggest a Production Strain Blueprinting (PSB) strategy to develop new production systems in a reduced time lapse in contrast to a development from scratch.To demonstrate this approach, Bacillus pumilus has been developed as an alternative expression platform for the production of alkaline enzymes in reference to the established industrial production host Bacillus licheniformis. To develop the selected B. pumilus as an alternative production host the suggested PSB strategy was applied proceeding in the following steps (dedicated product titers are scaled to the protease titer of Henkel's industrial production strain B. licheniformis at lab scale): Introduction of a protease production plasmid, adaptation of a protease production process (44%), process optimization (92%) and expression optimization (114%). To further evaluate the production capability of the developed B. pumilus platform, the target protease was substituted by an α-amylase. The expression performance was tested under the previously optimized protease process conditions and under subsequently adapted process conditions resulting in a maximum product titer of 65% in reference to B. licheniformis protease titer. In this contribution the applied PSB strategy performed very well for the development of B. pumilus as an alternative production strain. Thereby the engineered B. pumilus expression platform even exceeded the protease titer of the industrial production host B. licheniformis by 14%. This result exhibits a remarkable potential of B. pumilus to be the

  10. Determination and Comparision of Hydroxymethylfurfural in Industrial and Traditional Date Syrup Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Jafarnia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF is a common Maillard reaction product directly formed from dehydration of sugars under acidic conditions during heating and storage in carbohydrate rich foods. The aim of the present study was to detect and quantify the amount of HMF in date syrup by HPLC method. In addition, the amount of HMF in date syrup produced by traditional and industrial methods were compared. Methods: A HPLC method for determination of HMF in date syrup was developed and validated. The amount of HMF in date syrup products produced by the traditional and industrial methods was compared. In addition, to determine whether HMF was produced during storage in date syrup, its amount was measured in fresh and old samples. Results: The HMF content of fresh traditional products varied between 1000 to 2675 mg⁄kg and in the old products varied between 2580 to 6450 mg⁄kg. The HMF concentration of the fresh industrial products varied between 12 to 456 mg⁄kg and 611 to 943 mg⁄kg in the old ones. The HMF concentration of the traditionally produced products was significantly higher than industrial products (P<0.001. Moreover, the HMF content in old products significantly was more than fresh ones (P<0.001. Wide variation was found in HMF content of the traditionally produced products. Conclusion: HMF was produced in date syrup during preparation and storage. Because HMF is recognized as an indicator of quality deterioration in a wide range of foods and is still under investigation for possible toxic effects, it is recommended that the amount of HMF is measured in date syrup and considered as an indicator of the quality control of this product.

  11. Productivity Improvement in a Steel Industry using Supply Chain Management Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Soltani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost reduction is one of the methods applied for improving the productivity of organizations. In productivity literature, particularly in nonparametric methods, cost reduction related methods are regarded as input oriented models. This paper presents a Supply Chain Management (SCM model in which purchasing iron ore and coke from different resources, along with production and distribution of steel products were investigated to improve the productivity of a steel making plant in Iran. The model was designed based on a single objective concept with a focus on total cost minimization. The constraints of the model consisted principal restriction concerning mines, coke plant and products. The model was implemented in steel factories (blast furnace affiliated with Iranian Mines and Mining Industries Development and Renovation Organization (IMIDRO.The results showed that the priority for providing iron ore should be given to Iran Central Iron Ore Company (ICIOC which has enough production capacity to satisfy the required ores. The results further suggested that at the best productivity condition, Isfahan steel plant should focus on the beam and bar production. The other plants, i.e. Zagros plant, should focus on L-beam and slab and finally Meibod steel plant should concentrate on slab production. It was also showed that the coke production plants cannot supply the required tonnage of the steel plants. Therefore, some new plants should be established to achieve self-sufficiency in this industry. This model can be used as a support tool for decision-makers at strategic and tactical decision levels.

  12. Process development of continuous glycerolysis in an immobilized enzyme-packed reactor for industrial monoacylglycerol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, Marianne; Kiil, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2007-01-01

    Continuous and easily operated glycerolysis was studied in different lipase-packed columns to evaluate the most potential process set-ups for industrial monoacylglycerol (MAG) production. Practical design-related issues such as enzyme-filling degree, required reaction time, mass transfer investig......Continuous and easily operated glycerolysis was studied in different lipase-packed columns to evaluate the most potential process set-ups for industrial monoacylglycerol (MAG) production. Practical design-related issues such as enzyme-filling degree, required reaction time, mass transfer...

  13. MULTI-CRITERIA PROGRAMMING METHODS AND PRODUCTION PLAN OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM SOLVING IN METAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunjo Perić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the production plan optimization in the metal industry considered as a multi-criteria programming problem. We first provided the definition of the multi-criteria programming problem and classification of the multicriteria programming methods. Then we applied two multi-criteria programming methods (the STEM method and the PROMETHEE method in solving a problem of multi-criteria optimization production plan in a company from the metal industry. The obtained results indicate a high efficiency of the applied methods in solving the problem.

  14. A new productivity index to measure economic sustainability of the mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Xose A

    2010-01-01

    This document aims to introduce a total productivity index to measure the economic sustainability of the mining industry. This index will take into account any technical developments, means of use of productive factors (i.e. inefficiencies and scale effects) and the effects on the growth of the geological properties in the resources to be exploited (particularly the effects of resource reduction or reserves depletion). This new index will then be applied to the example of the Spanish mining industry, with some interesting findings regarding the configuration of sustainable mining policies.

  15. Spatial econometric analysis of China’s province-level industrial carbon productivity and its influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Ruyin; Shao, Tianxiang; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate the industrial carbon productivity of China’s provinces. • The regional disparity and clustering features exist simultaneously. • There is evident spatial dependence in regional industrial carbon productivity. • We employ spatial panel data models to examine the impact factors. • Spatial effects are found to be important in understanding industrial CO_2 emissions. - Abstract: This study measured the industrial carbon productivity of 30 provinces in China from 2005 to 2012 and examined the space–time characteristics and the main factors of China’s industrial carbon productivity using Moran’s I index and spatial panel data models. The empirical results indicate that there is significant positive spatial dependence and clustering characteristics in China’s province-level industrial carbon productivity. The spatial dependence may create biased estimated parameters in an ordinary least squares framework; according to the analysis of our spatial panel models, industrial energy efficiency, the opening degree, technological progress, and the industrial scale structure have significantly positive effects on industrial carbon productivity whereas per-capita GDP, the industrial energy consumption structure, and the industrial ownership structure exert a negative effect on industrial carbon productivity.

  16. Local agro-industrial by-products with potential use in Ghanaian aquaculture: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    plant by-products for use in fish grow-out facilities, particularly in tilapia production, which accounts for over 80 % of aquaculture production. This review thus identifies local agro-industrial byproducts with potential use in fish feeds based on their nutritional composition, total annual production......, competition for and seasonal availability and dynamics of these products as well as prices. The effects of dietary inclusions of these by-products on fish growth and feed utilisation are also reviewed. Based on the published works and other practical information reviewed, these by-products represent huge...... regions of the world where these crops and their resulting by-products are produced in commercial quantities...

  17. The structure of atomic power industry with allowance for energy production other than electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.P.; Legasov, V.A.; Sidorenko, V.A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protsenko, A.N.; Grebennik, V.N.; Glushkov, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    The important tendency in the development of nuclear power is broadening the scope of its application for substitution of mineral fuel by the nuclear one not only at the electrical power production but in other energy consuming fields of industry. The development of large-scale nuclear power plants permits the provision of the significant part of energy supply of all kinds and save on oil and gas. Scales and rates of development of nuclear power are estimated for the model society on the basis of predicted need energy consumption per capita. The possible rates and scales of nuclear power development are determined at some alternative amounts of potential reserves of organic fuel (oil, gas) per capita and within the economically and ecologically reasonable scales of coal utilization. There has been given the analysis of possible scopes of application of nuclear power industry: for production of electricity, central heating, hydrogen generation, gasification of coals, metallurgy, chemistry by means of medium- and high-temperature reactors. The conceivable relation between electrical energy and heat production in energetics and the nuclear power industry and the dynamics of change in this relation is being forecasted. The promising development of high temperature helium reactors has been discussed. Considerations on possible effect of thorium cycle on the structure of nuclear power industry are outlined. The nuclear power industry is being developed mainly on the basis of nuclear power plants with thermal reactors and it should not be expected for the next decade that its structure is to change significantly. However, the development of only this type reactors will require, as early as the end of this century, the significant consumption of natural uranium and considerable increase in capacities of uranium output and uranium enrichment industry. Therefore, in the following stages of development of nuclear power industry it is necessary to introduce fast breeders

  18. Utilization of the waste products from the forest industry as raw materials for the production. [In Swedish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kringstad, K

    1977-02-01

    The economic and marketing possibilitiesof industrial production of chemicals and/or proteins by utilizing waste liquor from processes at pulp mills or bark and needles was investigated. A survey of known processes for such production is given. The costs of producing several chemicals and proteins were estimated and compared with costs of producing these products via petrochemistry. The present as well as the future market of the different chemicals and of proteins were estimated. The present investigation was performed due to the rapidly increasing oil prices.

  19. Biogas production supported by excess heat – A systems analysis within the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broberg Viklund, Sarah; Lindkvist, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A systems analysis when moving from external to internal production and use of biogas at an industry. • The aim is to study the impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and economics from this switch. • The study compares the choice of using biogas or industrial excess heat to heat the digester. • Internal biogas production supported by excess heat has environmental and economic benefits. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to study the effects on greenhouse gases and economics when a change is made in the use of industrial organic waste from external production and use of biogas (A) to internal production and use (B). The two different system solutions are studied through a systems analysis based on an industrial case. The baseline system (A) and a modified system (B) were compared and analysed. Studies show that industrial processes considered as integrated systems, including the exchange of resources between industries, can result in competitive advantages. This study focuses on the integration of internally produced biogas from food industry waste produced by a food company and the use of excess heat. Two alternative scenarios were studied: (1) the use of available excess heat to heat the biogas digester and (2) the use of a part of the biogas produced to heat the biogas digester. This study showed that the system solution, whereby excess heat rather than biogas is used to heat the biogas digester, was both environmentally and economically advantageous. However, the valuation of biomass affects the magnitude of the emissions reduction. Implementing this synergistic concept will contribute to the reaching of European Union climate targets

  20. 4th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kimita, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS2), which is defined as “an integrated industrial product and service offering that delivers value in use,” has expanded rapidly over the last decade. IPS2 has allowed us to achieve both high added value and high productivity and has enriched our QOL by improving the performance of products and services. We are now struggling with many awkward issues related to sustainability, but IPS2 is expected to be the “philosopher’s stone” for solving these issues. Following the pattern of conferences held in Cranfield in 2009, Linköping in 2010, and Braunschweig in 2011, the fourth International CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, held on November 8-9, 2012, in Tokyo, will cover various aspects of IPS2. Topics planned for this year’s conference reflect the latest IPS2 information in both the natural sciences and humanities and include case studies from various industries. IPS2 is still a relatively new field, so it is important to keep track of the ...