ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL REACTORS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vyacheslav K. Mayevski
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a mathematical model of an industrial chemical reactor for production of synthetic rubber. During reactor operation the model parameters vary considerably. To create a control algorithm performed transformation of mathematical model of the reactor in order to obtain a dependency that can be used to determine the model parameters are changing during reactor operation.
Topics in industrial mathematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vatsya, S.R.
1992-01-01
Mathematical methods are widely used to solve practical problems arising in modern industry. This article outlines some of the topics relevant to AECL programmes. This covers the applications of transmission and neutron transport tomography to determine density distributions in rocks and two phase flow situations. Another example covered is the use of variational methods to solve the problems of aerosol migration and control theory. (author). 7 refs
Progress in Industrial Mathematics at ECMI 96
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
mathematicians get inspiration from industrial demands. The European Consortium for Mathematics in Industry aims to create contact between industry and academia, and to promote research in industrial mathematics. This book contains a broad spectrum of mathematics applied to industrial problems. Applied...... mathematics, case studies, and review papers in the following fields are included: Environmental modelling, railway systems, industrial processes, electronics, ships, oil industry, optimization, machine dynamics, fluids in industry. Applied mathematicians and other professionals working in academia...
Mathematical model of the reactor coolant pump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozuh, M.
1989-01-01
The mathematical model of reactor coolant pump is described in this paper. It is based on correlations for centrifugal reactor coolant pumps. This code is one of the elements needed for the simulation of the whole NPP primary system. In subroutine developed according to this model we tried in every possible detail to incorporate plant specific data for Krsko NPP. (author)
Innovative and collaborative industrial mathematics in Europe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Poul G.
2017-01-01
This paper presents a brief review of how industrial mathematics, inspired by the Oxford Study Group activity, organized itself in Europe, gave rise to the European Consortium for Mathematics in Industry, the series of European Study Groups with Industry, and to new modes of productive contacts b...... between industry and applied mathematicians in academia....
Construction Industry Related Mathematics: Seventh Grade.
Mundell, Scott
The field tested construction industry-related mathematics unit is intended to familiarize seventh grade students with various facets of the construction industry, including the various occupations available and the mathematical abilities and other skills and training necessary to pursue an occupation in the industry. The final set of activities…
Fast reactors: the industrial perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaughan, R.D.
1986-01-01
Industrial participation in the development of the fast reactor is reviewed, from the construction of PFR at Dounreay to the initial steps towards collaboration in Europe. The optimum design of the fast reactor has changed considerably from the days when it was needed urgently to forestall a shortage of uranium to today when uranium is abundant and cheap. The evolution of the reactor design over this period is described. Collaboration in Europe is shown to be the only answer to high development costs and the search for a reactor which will compete with thermal reactors in today's environment. The partner countries in this collaboration are all motivated differently, and this is leading to some delays in concluding the necessary agreements. The objective on the industrial front is now to participate in the two or three demonstration fast reactors that will be built in Europe during the remainder of the century leading, it is hoped, to a competitive reactor design by the year 2000. (author)
European Success Stories in Industrial Mathematics
Esteban, Maria J; Lery, Thibaut; Maday, Yvon
2011-01-01
This unique book presents real world success stories of collaboration between mathematicians and industrial partners, showcasing first-hand case studies, and lessons learned from the experiences, technologies, and business challenges that led to the successful development of industrial solutions based on mathematics. It shows the crucial contribution of mathematics to innovation and to the industrial creation of value, and the key position of mathematics in the handling of complex systems, amplifying innovation. Each story describes the challenge that led to the industrial cooperation, how the
Building up a reactor industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattick, W.
1977-01-01
The reactor industry has in common with any other industry the need to meet a requirement in a specific market with a specific product. However, it is distinguished from old established industries by its origins, its young age and by the fact that most of its development costs were paid by the governments in all developed countries. A comparison of the origins and the history of companies in this field in the United Kingdom , France and the Federal Republic of Germany should merit special interest. A historical survey of this kind is presented in this contribution. If a technological project acquires international ramifications in order to diminish the market risk, national goals frequently must give way to a common objective. Problems involving practical application must be solved by joint efforts of industrial consortia. In this way, these industries can both offer a commercially viable product and take into account national characteristics or habits in such a way as to improve the overall cost-benefit situation with all parties involved. (orig.) [de
Forum of Mathematics for Industry 2013
Anderssen, Robert; Cheng, Jin; Fukumoto, Yasuhide; McKibbin, Robert; Polthier, Konrad; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Toh, Kim-Chuan
2014-01-01
This book is a collection of papers presented at the Forum “The Impact of Applications on Mathematics” in October 2013. It describes an appropriate framework in which to highlight how real-world problems, over the centuries and today, have influenced and are influencing the development of mathematics and, thereby, how mathematics is reshaped, in order to advance mathematics and its application. The contents of this book address productive and successful interaction between industry and mathematicians, as well as the cross-fertilization and collaboration that result when mathematics is involved with the advancement of science and technology.
Forum of Mathematics for Industry 2014
Broadbridge, Philip; Fukumoto, Yasuhide; Kajiwara, Kenji; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Verbitskiy, Evgeny; Wakayama, Masato
2016-01-01
This book is a collection of papers presented at the conference “Forum Math-for-Industry 2014” for which the unifying theme was “Applications + Practical Conceptualization + Mathematics = fruitful Innovation” in October 2014. This epigram encapsulates the dynamics of the process that takes an application through to an innovation. Industrial mathematics can be viewed as the causal engine that implements the epigram by taking an Application such as input and convolving it with a mixture of Practical Conceptualization and Mathematics to generate a fruitful Innovation as output. The book illustrates various aspects of the two-way interaction between applications and their association highlighting how practical conceptualization assists with the linking of the question that encapsulates the current application to the relevant mathematics. The contents of this volume address productive and successful interaction between industry and mathematicians, as well as the cross-fertilization and collaboration that r...
Progress in Industrial Mathematics at ECMI 2000
Capasso, Vincenzo; Greco, Antonio
2002-01-01
The European Consortium for Mathematics in Industry (ECMI) was founded in 1986 by leading groups of mathematicians in Europe for the following scopes: i) direct involvement of mathematicians in R&D activities; ii) international cooperation at a European scale; iii) education of industrial mathematicians to meet the growing demand for such experts. ECMI 2000 shows that ECMI has offered a unique example of effective international cooperation thanks to the financial support of the European Framework programmes. In particular they have helped ECMI establishing a set of Special Interest Groups to favour interaction with industry . This volume includes minisymposia about their activities, in particular microelectronics, glass, polymers, finance, traffic, and textiles. Applied mathematicians and other professionals working in academia or industry will find the book to be a useful and stimulating source of mathematical applications related to industrial problems.
Mathematical formulas for industrial and mechanical engineering
Kadry, Seifedine
2014-01-01
Mathematical Formulas For Industrial and Mechanical Engineering serves the needs of students and teachers as well as professional workers in engineering who use mathematics. The contents and size make it especially convenient and portable. The widespread availability and low price of scientific calculators have greatly reduced the need for many numerical tables that make most handbooks bulky. However, most calculators do not give integrals, derivatives, series and other mathematical formulas and figures that are often needed. Accordingly, this book contains that information in an easy way to
Structured Mathematical Modeling of Industrial Boiler
Aziz, Abdullah Nur; Nazaruddin, Yul Yunazwin; Siregar, Parsaulian; Bindar, Yazid
2014-01-01
As a major utility system in industry, boilers consume a large portion of the total energy and costs. Significant reduction of boiler cost operation can be gained through improvements in efficiency. In accomplishing such a goal, an adequate dynamic model that comprehensively reflects boiler characteristics is required. This paper outlines the idea of developing a mathematical model of a water-tube industrial boiler based on first principles guided by the bond graph method in its derivation. T...
Structured Mathematical Modeling of Industrial Boiler
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdullah Nur Aziz
2014-04-01
Full Text Available As a major utility system in industry, boilers consume a large portion of the total energy and costs. Significant reduction of boiler cost operation can be gained through improvements in efficiency. In accomplishing such a goal, an adequate dynamic model that comprehensively reflects boiler characteristics is required. This paper outlines the idea of developing a mathematical model of a water-tube industrial boiler based on first principles guided by the bond graph method in its derivation. The model describes the temperature dynamics of the boiler subsystems such as economizer, steam drum, desuperheater, and superheater. The mathematical model was examined using industrial boiler performance test data.It can be used to build a boiler simulator or help operators run a boiler effectively.
Industrial structure at research reactor suppliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roegler, H.-J.; Bogusch, E.; Friebe, T.
2001-01-01
Due to the recent joining of the forces of Framatome S. A. from France and the Nuclear Division of Siemens AG Power Generation (KWU) from Germany to a Joint Venture named Framatome Advanced Nuclear Power S.A.S., the issue of the necessary and of the optimal industrial structure for nuclear projects as a research reactor is, was discussed internally often and intensively. That discussion took place also in the other technical fields such as Services for NPPs but also in the field of interest here, i. e. Research Reactors. In summarizing the statements of this presentation one can about state that: Research Reactors are easier to build than NPPs, but not standardised; Research Reactors need a wide spectrum of skills and experiences; to design and build Research Reactors needs an experienced team especially in terms of management and interfaces; Research Reactors need background from built reference plants more than from operating plants; Research Reactors need knowledge of suitable experienced subsuppliers. Two more essential conclusions as industry involved in constructing and upgrading research reactors are: Research Reactors by far are more than a suitable core that generates a high neutron flux; every institution that designs and builds a Research Reactor lacks quality or causes safety problems, damages the reputation of the entire community
Identification of Chemical Reactor Plant’s Mathematical Model
Pyakullya, Boris Ivanovich; Kladiev, Sergey Nikolaevich
2015-01-01
This work presents a solution of the identification problem of chemical reactor plant’s mathematical model. The main goal is to obtain a mathematical description of a chemical reactor plant from experimental data, which based on plant’s time response measurements. This data consists sequence of measurements for water jacket temperature and information about control input signal, which is used to govern plant’s behavior.
Identification of Chemical Reactor Plant’s Mathematical Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pyakillya Boris
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This work presents a solution of the identification problem of chemical reactor plant’s mathematical model. The main goal is to obtain a mathematical description of a chemical reactor plant from experimental data, which based on plant’s time response measurements. This data consists sequence of measurements for water jacket temperature and information about control input signal, which is used to govern plant’s behavior.
Advances in Reactor Physics, Mathematics and Computation. Volume 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1987-01-01
These proceedings of the international topical meeting on advances in reactor physics, mathematics and computation, Volume 2, are divided into 7 sessions bearing on: - session 7: Deterministic transport methods 1 (7 conferences), - session 8: Interpretation and analysis of reactor instrumentation (6 conferences), - session 9: High speed computing applied to reactor operations (5 conferences), - session 10: Diffusion theory and kinetics (7 conferences), - session 11: Fast reactor design, validation and operating experience (8 conferences), - session 12: Deterministic transport methods 2 (7 conferences), - session 13: Application of expert systems to physical aspects of reactor design and operation.
13th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry
Mattheij, RMM; Peletier, MA
2006-01-01
ECMI has a brand name in Industrial Mathematics and organises successful biannual conferences. This time, the conference on Industrial Mathematics held in Eindhoven in June 2004 Mathematics focused on Aerospace, Electronic Industry, Chemical Technology, Life Sciences, Materials, Geophysics, Financial Mathematics and Water flow. The majority of the invited talks on these topics can be found in these proceedings. Apart form these lectures, a large number of contributed papers and minisymposium papers are included here. They give an interesting and impressive overview of the important place mathematics has achieved in solving all kinds of problems met in industry, and commerce in particular.
The Role and Relevance of Mathematics in the Maritime Industry
African Journals Online (AJOL)
kofi.mereku
symmetry in chemistry and physics; Calculus (differential equations) applicable in ... and engineering; and is a branch of applied mathematics. .... The maritime and offshore industries use advanced mathematical methods in the design of ships.
18th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry
Capasso, Vincenzo; Nicosia, Giuseppe; Romano, Vittorio
2016-01-01
This book presents a collection of papers emphasizing applications of mathematical models and methods to real-world problems of relevance for industry, life science, environment, finance, and so on. The biannual Conference of ECMI (the European Consortium of Mathematics in Industry) held in 2014 focused on various aspects of industrial and applied mathematics. The five main topics addressed at the conference were mathematical models in life science, material science and semiconductors, mathematical methods in the environment, design automation and industrial applications, and computational finance. Several other topics have been treated, such as, among others, optimization and inverse problems, education, numerical methods for stiff pdes, model reduction, imaging processing, multi physics simulation, mathematical models in textile industry. The conference, which brought together applied mathematicians and experts from industry, provided a unique opportunity to exchange ideas, problems and methodologies...
Advances in Reactor Physics, Mathematics and Computation. Volume 1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1987-01-01
These proceedings of the international topical meeting on advances in reactor physics, mathematics and computation, volume one, are divided into 6 sessions bearing on: - session 1: Advances in computational methods including utilization of parallel processing and vectorization (7 conferences) - session 2: Fast, epithermal, reactor physics, calculation, versus measurements (9 conferences) - session 3: New fast and thermal reactor designs (9 conferences) - session 4: Thermal radiation and charged particles transport (7 conferences) - session 5: Super computers (7 conferences) - session 6: Thermal reactor design, validation and operating experience (8 conferences).
A TRIGA reactor in an industrial laboratory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anders, Oswald U.
1980-01-01
The Dow TRIGA Reactor is a well established facility in its industrial environment. It is used extensively for internal Dow projects. The primary use of the TRIGA is as neutron source for NAA. It faces similar technical and organizational challenges as other TRIGA installations and over the years developed its own solutions
Advances in Reactor physics, mathematics and computation. Volume 3
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1987-01-01
These proceedings of the international topical meeting on advances in reactor physics, mathematics and computation, volume 3, are divided into sessions bearing on: - poster sessions on benchmark and codes: 35 conferences - review of status of assembly spectrum codes: 9 conferences - Numerical methods in fluid mechanics and thermal hydraulics: 16 conferences - stochastic transport and methods: 7 conferences.
17th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry
Günther, Michael; Marheineke, Nicole
2014-01-01
This book contains the proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry, ECMI2012, held in Lund, Sweden, July 2012, at which ECMI celebrated its 25th anniversary. It covers mathematics in a wide range of applications and methods, from circuit and electromagnetic devices, environment, fibers, flow, medicine, robotics and automotive industry, further applications to methods and education. The book includes contributions from leading figures in business, science and academia who promote the application of mathematics to industry and emphasize industrial sectors that offer the most exciting opportunities. The contributions reinforce the role of mathematics as being a catalyst for innovation as well as an overarching resource for industry and business. The book features an accessible presentation of real-world problems in industry and finance, provides insight and tools for engineers and scientists which will help them to solve similar problems, and offers modeling and simulation techniques ...
Mathematical modelling of fluidized bed reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Werther, J [BASF A.G., Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany, F.R.)
1978-11-01
Among the many fluidized bed models to be found in the literature, the two-phase model originally proposed by May has proved most suitable for accomodation of recent advances in flow mechanics: this model resolves the gas/solids fluidized bed into a bubble phase and a suspension phase surrounding the bubbles. Its limitation to slow reactions is a disadvantage. On the basis of the analogy between fluidized beds and gas/liquid systems, a general two-phase model that is valid for fast reactions has therefore been developed and its validity is confirmed by comparison with the experimental results obtained by others. The model describes mass transfer across the phase interface with the aid of the film theory known from gas/liquid reactor technology, and the reaction occurring in the suspension phase as a pseudo-homogeneous reaction. Since the dependence of the performance of fluidized bed reactors upon geometry is accounted for, the model can also be used for scale-up calculations. Its use is illustrated with the aid of design diagrams.
BR2 reactor: medical and industrial applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ponsard, B.
2005-01-01
The radioisotopes are produced for various applications in the nuclear medicine (diagnostic, therapy, palliation of metastatic bone pain), industry (radiography of welds, ...), agriculture (radiotracers, ...) and basic research. Due to the availability of high neutron fluxes (thermal neutron flux up to 10 15 n/cm 2 .s), the BR2 reactor is considered as a major facility through its contribution for a continuous supply of products such 99 Mo ( 99 mTc), 131 I, 133 Xe, 192 Ir, 186 Re, 153 Sm, 90 Y, 32 P, 188 W ( 188 Re), 203 Hg, 82 Br, 41 Ar, 125 I, 177 Lu, 89 Sr, 60 Co, 169 Yb, 147 Nd, and others. Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) silicon is produced for the semiconductor industry in the SIDONIE (Silicon Doping by Neutron Irradiation Experiment) facility, which is designed to continuously rotate and traverse the silicon through the neutron flux. These combined movements produce exceptional dopant homogeneity in batches of silicon measuring 4 and 5-inches in diameter by up to 750 mm in length. The main objectives of work performed were to provide a reliable and qualitative supply of radioisotopes and NTD-silicon to the customers in accordance with a quality system that has been certified to the requirements of the EN ISO 9001: 2000. This new Quality System Certificate has been obtained in November 2003 for the Production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications and the Production of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) Silicon in the BR2 reactor
Rotating Algal Biofilm Reactors: Mathematical Modeling and Lipid Production
Woolsey, Paul A.
2011-01-01
Harvesting of algal biomass presents a large barrier to the success of biofuels made from algae feedstock. Small cell sizes coupled with dilute concentrations of biomass in lagoon systems make separation an expensive and energy intense-process. The rotating algal biofilm reactor (RABR) has been developed at USU to provide a sustainable technology solution to this issue. Algae cells grown as a biofilm are concentrated in one location for ease of harvesting of high density biomass. A mathematic...
Industrial process heat from CANDU reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hilborn, J.S.; Seddon, W.A.; Barnstaple, A.G.
1980-08-01
It has been demonstrated on a large scale that CANDU reactors can produce industrial process steam as well as electricity, reliably and economically. The advantages of cogeneration have led to the concept of an Industrial Energy Park adjacent to the Bruce Nuclear Power Development in the province of Ontario. For steam demands between 300,000 and 500,00 lb/h (38-63 kg/s) and an annual load factor of 80%, the estimated cost of nuclear steam at the Bruce site boundary is $3.21/MBtu ($3.04GJ), which is at least 30% cheaper than oil-fired steam at the same site. The most promising near term application of nuclear heat is likely to be found within the energy-intensive chemical industry. Nuclear energy can substitute for imported oil and coal in the eastern provinces if the price remains competitive, but low cost coal and gas in the western provinces may induce energy-intensive industries to locate near those sources of energy. In the long term it may be feasible to use nuclear heat for the mining and extraction of oil from the Alberta tar sands. (auth)
Mathematical modeling of water radiolysis in the Syrian MNSR reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soukieh, M.
2009-11-01
Because it is difficult to measure the concentration of the radiolytic species in reactors under operating conduction, they must be estimated by computer simulation techniques. This study discusses the mathematical modeling of water radiolysis modeling of the MNSR nuclear reactor cooling water. The mathematical model comprising of 13 differential equations describe 55 chemical reactions of radiolytic species e - a q H + , OH - , H, H 2 , OH, HO 2 , O 2 , HO - 2 , O - , O - 2 , O - 3 . The mathematical model have been tested and it shows a good agreement of the computed values in this work with the results cited in references [1,18] in case of only γray irradiation of pure water with dose rate of 1.18x10 19 eV/L s. The neutron fluxes and dose rates at the interface of cladding-water for the different fuel rings in the MNSR core are determined using MCNP-4C code. In addition, the time dependent of the radiolytic specie concentrations were estimated for max. and min. dose rates and at temperature of 20 degree centigrade in the MNSR. The radiolytic specie concentrations reach the steady sate after about 200-400 s. The radiolytic specie concentrations order of H 2 , O 2 , H 2 O 2 were about ppb. Also this study shows the possibility of suppressed the water radiolysis reactions by adding hydrogen to the MNSR reactor cooling water. (author)
Currents in industrial mathematics from concepts to research to education
Prätzel-Wolters, Dieter
2015-01-01
Mathematics has many branches: there are the pure, the applied, and the applicable; the theoretical and the practical. There is mathematics for school, for college, and for industry. All these belong to the same family and are bound together by a "mathematical way of thinking." Some mathematicians devote themselves entirely to the well being of this family by preserving it, developing it, and teaching it to the next generation. Others use the familial attributes to help outsiders by taking up their problems and transforming them into mathematical questions in order to solve them. The work of these mathematicians is thus problem driven, based on mathematical models, and oriented on the goal of offering practicable solutions. This second group is sizeable; its members include almost all college graduates working in industry, in the private sector, or in the Fraunhofer Institutes, for example. This group is hardly visible, however, and one seldom hears its voices either. This book remedies this situation by rela...
Modified Mathematical Model For Neutralization System In Stirred Tank Reactor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmmed Saadi Ibrehem
2011-05-01
Full Text Available A modified model for the neutralization process of Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTR reactor is presented in this study. The model accounts for the effect of strong acid [HCL] flowrate and strong base [NaOH] flowrate with the ionic concentrations of [Cl-] and [Na+] on the Ph of the system. In this work, the effect of important reactor parameters such as ionic concentrations and acid and base flowrates on the dynamic behavior of the CSTR is investigated and the behavior of mathematical model is compared with the reported models for the McAvoy model and Jutila model. Moreover, the results of the model are compared with the experimental data in terms of pH dynamic study. A good agreement is observed between our model prediction and the actual plant data. © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 1st March 2011, Revised: 28th March 2011; Accepted: 7th April 2011[How to Cite: A.S. Ibrehem. (2011. Modified Mathematical Model For Neutralization System In Stirred Tank Reactor. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6(1: 47-52. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.825.47-52][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.825.47-52 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/825 ] | View in
Mathematical game type optimization of powerful fast reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavelesku, M.; Dumitresku, Kh.; Adam, S.
1975-01-01
To obtain maximum speed of putting into operation fast breeders it is recommended on the initial stage of putting into operation these reactors to apply lower power which needs less fission materials. That is why there is an attempt to find a configuration of a high-power reactor providing maximum power for minimum mass of fission material. This problem has a structure of the mathematical game with two partners of non-zero-order total and is solved by means of specific aids of theory of games. Optimal distribution of fission and breeding materials in a multizone reactor first is determined by solution of competitive game and then, on its base, by solution of the cooperation game. The second problem the solution for which is searched is developed from remark on the fact that a reactor with minimum coefficient of flux heterogenity has a configuration different from the reactor with power coefficient heterogenity. Maximum burn-up of fuel needs minimum heterogenity of the flux coefficient and the highest power level needs minimum coefficient of power heterogenity. That is why it is possible to put a problem of finding of the reactor configuration having both coefficients with minimum value. This problem has a structure of a mathematical game with two partners of non-zero-order total and is solved analogously giving optimal distribution of fuel from the new point of view. In the report is shown that both these solutions are independent which is a result of the aim put in the problem of optimization. (author)
Industrial and commercial applications for a Triga reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, D.
1986-01-01
The Physics and Radioisotope Services Group of ICI operates a Triga Reactor in support of a commercial, Industrial Radioisotope Technology Service. The technical and commercial development of this business is discussed in the context of operating a Triga Reactor in an Industrial Environment. (author)
19th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry
Barral, Patricia; Gómez, Dolores; Pena, Francisco; Rodríguez, Jerónimo; Salgado, Pilar; Vázquez-Méndez, Miguel; ECMI 2016; Progress in industrial mathematics
2017-01-01
This book addresses mathematics in a wide variety of applications, ranging from problems in electronics, energy and the environment, to mechanics and mechatronics. Using the classification system defined in the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation H2020, several of the topics covered belong to the challenge climate action, environment, resource efficiency and raw materials; and some to health, demographic change and wellbeing; while others belong to Europe in a changing world – inclusive, innovative and reflective societies. The 19th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry, ECMI2016, was held in Santiago de Compostela, Spain in June 2016. The proceedings of this conference include the plenary lectures, ECMI awards and special lectures, mini-symposia (including the description of each mini-symposium) and contributed talks. The ECMI conferences are organized by the European Consortium for Mathematics in Industry with the aim of promoting interaction between academy and industry, leading...
The Role and relevance of mathematics in the maritime industry ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Maritime activities occupy more than three-quarters of the world space and provide a huge occupational industry for mankind. Of late, ship construction and usage including space management onboard the vessels and the ports have brought about a great dependency on mathematical principles or models such as time ...
Mathematical modeling of a three-phase trickle bed reactor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. D. Silva
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The transient behavior in a three-phase trickle bed reactor system (N2/H2O-KCl/activated carbon, 298 K, 1.01 bar was evaluated using a dynamic tracer method. The system operated with liquid and gas phases flowing downward with constant gas flow Q G = 2.50 x 10-6 m³ s-1 and the liquid phase flow (Q L varying in the range from 4.25x10-6 m³ s-1 to 0.50x10-6 m³ s-1. The evolution of the KCl concentration in the aqueous liquid phase was measured at the outlet of the reactor in response to the concentration increase at reactor inlet. A mathematical model was formulated and the solutions of the equations fitted to the measured tracer concentrations. The order of magnitude of the axial dispersion, liquid-solid mass transfer and partial wetting efficiency coefficients were estimated based on a numerical optimization procedure where the initial values of these coefficients, obtained by empirical correlations, were modified by comparing experimental and calculated tracer concentrations. The final optimized values of the coefficients were calculated by the minimization of a quadratic objective function. Three correlations were proposed to estimate the parameters values under the conditions employed. By comparing experimental and predicted tracer concentration step evolutions under different operating conditions the model was validated.
Utility industry evaluation of the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burstein, S.; DelGeorge, L.O.; Tramm, T.R.; Gibbons, J.P.; High, M.D.; Neils, G.H.; Pilmer, D.F.; Tomonto, J.R.; Wells, J.T.
1990-02-01
A team of utility industry representatives evaluated the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor plant design, a current liquid metal reactor design created by an industrial team led by Rockwell International under Department of Energy sponsorship. The utility industry team concluded that the plant design offers several attractive characteristics, especially in the safety arena, as well as preserving the traditional attraction of liquid metal reactors, very high fuel utilization. Specific comments and recommendations are provided as a contribution towards improving an already attractive plant design. 18 refs
Applied mathematical modelling for Industrial Engineers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josefa Mula
2011-06-01
Full Text Available El aprendizaje de técnicas de modelización matemática puede resultar en un proceso largo y tedioso para estudiantes de Ingeniería de Organización Industrial. Es necesario combinar de una forma equilibrada las enseñanzas teóricas con el modelado de casos de estudio reales. Para hacer más flexible el proceso de enseñanza teórica, se proporcionan herramientas multimedia de aprendizaje autónomo. Un factor clave es evolucionar de modelos simples resueltos a través de programas educativos, tales como WinQSB u hojas de cálculo con solucionadores embebidos a modelos más complejos desarrollados con diversos solucionadores comerciales (CPLEX, GUROBI, XPRESS, etc. El objetivo de esta comunicación es presentar una metodología innovadora para enseñar técnicas de modelización matemática basada en: (a el equilibrio de las enseñanzas teóricas y prácticas; (b el uso de herramientas multimedia autodidácticas; y (c la formulación y resolución de casos de estudio reales a través de diferentes solucionadores.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zaidon M. Shakoor
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In this research, two models are developed to simulate the steady state fixed bed reactor used for styrene production by ethylbenzene dehydrogenation. The first is one-dimensional model, considered axial gradient only while the second is two-dimensional model considered axial and radial gradients for same variables.The developed mathematical models consisted of nonlinear simultaneous equations in multiple dependent variables. A complete description of the reactor bed involves partial, ordinary differential and algebraic equations (PDEs, ODEs and AEs describing the temperatures, concentrations and pressure drop across the reactor was given. The model equations are solved by finite differences method. The reactor models were coded with Mat lab 6.5 program and various numerical techniques were used to obtain the desired solution.The simulation data for both models were validated with industrial reactor results with a very good concordance.
Mathematical models in Slowpoke reactor internal irradiation site
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raza, J.
2007-01-01
The main objective is to build representative mathematical models of neutron activation analysis in a Slowpoke internal irradiation site. Another significant objective is to correct various elements neutron activation analysis measured mass using these models. The neutron flux perturbation is responsible for the measured under-estimation of real masses. We supposed that neutron flux perturbation measurements taken during the Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal Slowpoke reactor first fuel loading were still valid after the second fuelling. .We also supposed that the thermal neutrons spatial and kinetic energies distributions as well as the absorption microscopic cross section dependence on the neutrons kinetic energies were important factors to satisfactorily represent neutron activation analysis results. In addition, we assumed that the neutron flux is isotropic in the laboratory system. We used experimental results from the Slowpoke reactor internal irradiation sites, in order to validate our mathematical models. Our models results are in close agreement with these experimental results..We established an accurate global mathematical correlation of the neutron flux perturbation in function of samples volumes and macroscopic neutron absorption cross sections. It is applicable to sample volumes ranging from 0,1 to 1,3 ml and macroscopic neutron absorption cross section up to 5 moles-b for seven (7) elements with atomic numbers (Z) ranging from 5 to 79. We first came up with a heuristic neutron transport mathematical semi-analytical model, in order to better understand neutrons behaviour in presence of one of several different nuclei samples volumes and mass. In order to well represent the neutron flux perturbation, we combined a neutron transport solution obtained from the spherical harmonics method of a finite cylinder and a mathematical expression combining two cylindrical harmonic functions..With the help of this model and the least squares method, we made extensive
Industrial applications of multi-functional, multi-phase reactors
Harmsen, G.J.; Chewter, L.A.
1999-01-01
To reveal trends in the design and operation of multi-functional, multi-phase reactors, this paper describes, in historical sequence, three industrial applications of multi-functional, multi-phase reactors developed and operated by Shell Chemicals during the last five decades. For each case, we
Assessment of a small pressurized water reactor for industrial energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klepper, O.H.; Fuller, L.C.; Myers, M.L.
1977-01-01
An evaluation of several recent ERDA/ORNL sponsored studies on the application of a small, 365 MW(t) pressurized water reactor for industrial energy is presented. Preliminary studies have investigated technical and reliability requirements; costs for nuclear and fossil based steam were compared, including consideration of economic inflation and financing methods. For base-load industrial steam production, small reactors appear economically attractive relative to coal fired boilers that use coal priced at $30/ton
Mathematical modelling of a continuous biomass torrefaction reactor: TORSPYDTM column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ratte, J.; Fardet, E.; Mateos, D.; Hery, J.-S.
2011-01-01
Torrefaction is a soft thermal process usually applied to cocoa or coffee beans to obtain the Maillard reaction to produce aromatics and enhance the flavour. In the case of biomass the main interest of torrefaction it is to break the fibers. To do so, Thermya company has developed and patented a biomass torrefaction/depolymerisation process called TORSPYD TM . It is a homogeneous 'soft' thermal process that takes place in an inert atmosphere. The process progressively eliminates the biomass water content transforms a portion of the biomass organic matter and breaks the biomass structure by depolymerisation of the fibers. This produces a high performance solid fuel, called Biocoal, which offers a range of benefits over and above that of normal biomass fuel. To develop such a process, this company has developed two main tools: - a continuous torrefaction laboratory pilot with a capacity to produce 3 - 8 kg/h of torrefied biomass; - a mathematical model dedicated to the design and optimisation of the TORSPYD reactor. The mathematical model is able to describe the chemical and physical processes that take place in the torrefaction column at two different scales, namely: the particle, and the surrounding gas. The model enables the gas temperature profiles inside the column to be predicted, and the results of the model are then validated through experiment in the laboratory pilot. The model also allows us to estimate the thermal power necessary to torrefy any type of biomass for a given moisture content. -- Highlights: → We model a patented torrefaction/depolymerisation biomass process: TORPSPYD. → We compare simulated results to experimental data obtained from our torrefaction pilot plant. → We describe phenomenon that occurs in our torrefaction reactor and discuss about the influence of moisture of the input biomass.
Industrial tomography applied to reactor safety
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruger, R.P.
1977-01-01
Work has begun which explores the use of Computed Axial Tomography (CAT), boundary detection, and internal surface reconstruction techniques in industrial nondestructive testing applications. This initial work is intended to inform the reader of the existence and interrelated nature of these techniques through the use of a realistic simulation of an industrial inspection problem
The utility industry and reactor surveillance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jenkins, R.B.
1983-01-01
Every commercial nuclear power reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is required to have a reactor vessel surveillance program at the time of plant licensing. The program is part of a continuing structural integrity assessment of the RPV. As such, the surveillance program supplements Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code (1), which is the design basis for nuclear power plant component pressure boundaries. The Code assumes that the materials of construction are ductile in the evaluation and design of all components. The surveillance program for each RPV is intended to provide assurance of continued applicability of the ASME Code, Appendix G, assessment of that RPV's operating limits. This assessment ensures that the RPV is always in a condition which precludes the unstable propagation of flaws in the vessel wall material. The potential presence of flaws and the desire to ensure ductility are significant considerations in ferritic steels such as those used to fabricate nuclear reactor pressure vessels. These materials are known to exhibit transition from ductile-to-brittle fracture behavior over a determined temperature range. Neutron irradiation tends to shift this ductile-to-brittle behavior transition zone to a temperature higher than unirradiated materials
Mathematical modelling of thermal storage systems for the food industry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez, A.; Lacarra, G. [Universidad Publica de Navarra Campus Arrosadia, Pamplona (Spain). Area de Tecnologia de Alimentos
1999-07-01
Dynamic mathematical models of two thermal storage systems used in the food industry to produce chilled water are presented; an ice-bank system and a holding tank system. The variability of the refrigeration demand with time was taken into account in the model. A zoned approach using mass and energy balances was applied. Heat transfer phenomena in the evaporator were modelled using empirical correlations. The experimental validation of the mathematical models on an ice-bank system at pilot plant scale, and a centralized refrigeration system with a holding tank in a winery, showed accurate prediction. Simple models are adequate to predict the dynamic behaviour of these refrigeration systems under variable heat loads. (Author)
From USA operation experience of industrial uranium-graphite reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burdakov, N.S.
1996-01-01
The review on materials, presented by a group of the USA specialists at the seminar in Moscow on October 9-11, 1995 is considered. The above specialists shared their experience in operation of the Hanford industrial reactors, aimed at plutonium production for atomic bombs. The purpose of the above visit consisted in providing assistance to the Russian specialists by evaluation and modernization of operational conditions safety improvement of the RBMK type reactors. Special attention is paid to the behaviour of the graphite lining and channel tubes with an account of possible channel power interaction with the reactor structural units. The information on the experience of the Hanford reactor operation may be useful for specialists, operating the RBMK type reactors
Reactor neutron activation analysis of industrial materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niese, S.
1983-01-01
The specific application of neutron activation analysis (n.a.a.) for industrial materials is demonstrated by the determination of impurities in BeO, Al, Si, Cu, Ge, GaP, GaAs, steel, and irradiated uranium. A group scheme gives an orientation about the possibilities of n.a.a. The use of different standards, methods for the measurement of low radioactivities and errors caused by recoil reaction and radiation stimulated diffusion are discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Severin, V.P.
2007-01-01
The mathematical modeling of automatic control systems of reactor facility WWER-1000 with various regulator types is considered. The linear and nonlinear models of neutron power control systems of nuclear reactor WWER-1000 with various group numbers of delayed neutrons are designed. The results of optimization of direct quality indexes of neutron power control systems of nuclear reactor WWER-1000 are designed. The identification and optimization of level control systems with various regulator types of steam generator are executed
The industry/EPRI advanced light water reactor program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stahlkopf, K.E.; Noble, D.M.; Sugnet, W.R.; Bilan, W.J.
1986-01-01
For the United States nuclear power industry to remain viable, it must be prepared to meet the expected need for new generating capacity in the late 1990s with an improved reactor system. The best hope of meeting this requirement is with evolutionary changes in current LWR systems through system simplification and reevaluation of safety and operational design margins. The grid characteristics and the difficulty in raising capital for large projects indicate that smaller light water reactors (400 to 600 MWe) may play an important role the next generation
Hazards of nuclear reactors and other major industrial complexes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farmer, F.R.
1982-01-01
Some of the problems of quantified risk analysis of the hazards of nuclear reactors and other major industrial complexes are raised particularly as seen by the proponents and opponents of atomic energy. These are exemplified by discussing the chemical accidents at Flixborough and Canvey Island and the Light Water Reactor Studies. The role of risk analysis in improving knowledge of the systems studies, improving methods of analysis, identifying weaknesses in systems and in improving engineering/maintenance/operation is also stressed. (U.K.)
Nuclear reactor application for high temperature power industrial processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dollezhal', N.A.; Zaicho, N.D.; Alexeev, A.M.; Baturov, B.B.; Karyakin, Yu.I.; Nazarov, E.K.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protzenko, A.M.; Chernyaev, V.A.
1977-01-01
This report gives the results of considerations on industrial heat and technology processes (in chemistry, steelmaking, etc.) from the point of view of possible ways, technical conditions and nuclear safety requirements for the use of high temperature reactors in these processes. Possible variants of energy-technological diagrams of nuclear-steelmaking, methane steam-reforming reaction and other processes, taking into account the specific character of nuclear fuel are also given. Technical possibilities and economic conditions of the usage of different types of high temperature reactors (gas cooled reactors and reactors which have other means of transport of nuclear heat) in heat processes are examined. The report has an analysis of the problem, that arises with the application of nuclear reactors in energy-technological plants and an evaluation of solutions of this problem. There is a reason to suppose that we will benefit from the use of high temperature reactors in comparison with the production based on high quality fossil fuel [ru
Modelling an industrial anaerobic granular reactor using a multi-scale approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feldman, Hannah; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Ramin, Pedram
2017-01-01
The objective of this paper is to show the results of an industrial project dealing with modelling of anaerobic digesters. A multi-scale mathematical approach is developed to describe reactor hydrodynamics, granule growth/distribution and microbial competition/inhibition for substrate/space within...... the biofilm. The main biochemical and physico-chemical processes in the model are based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1) extended with the fate of phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and ethanol (Et-OH). Wastewater dynamic conditions are reproduced and data frequency increased using the Benchmark...... simulations show the effects on the overall process performance when operational (pH) and loading (S:COD) conditions are modified. Lastly, the effect of intra-granular precipitation on the overall organic/inorganic distribution is assessed at: 1) different times; and, 2) reactor heights. Finally...
Adapting Dynamic Mathematical Models to a Pilot Anaerobic Digestion Reactor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Haugen, R. Bakke, and B. Lie
2013-04-01
Full Text Available A dynamic model has been adapted to a pilot anaerobic reactor fed diarymanure. Both steady-state data from online sensors and laboratory analysis anddynamic operational data from online sensors are used in the model adaptation.The model is based on material balances, and comprises four state variables,namely biodegradable volatile solids, volatile fatty acids, acid generatingmicrobes (acidogens, and methane generating microbes (methanogens. The modelcan predict the methane gas flow produced in the reactor. The model may beused for optimal reactor design and operation, state-estimation and control.Also, a dynamic model for the reactor temperature based on energy balance ofthe liquid in the reactor is adapted. This model may be used for optimizationand control when energy and economy are taken into account.
Mathematical modeling of a fast-breeder-reactor generating unit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, V.E.; Golovach, E.A.; Senkin, V.I.
1984-01-01
Dynamics equations are given for a reactor, intermediate heat exchanger, steam generator, and turbogenerator. The dynamic characteristics of the generating unit are described when perturbations occur in grid frequency, turbine valves, and feedwater consumption
Modeling Clinic for Industrial Mathematics: A Collaborative Project Under Erasmus+ Program
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jurlewicz, Agnieszka; Nunes, Claudia; Russo, Giovanni
2018-01-01
Modeling Clinic for Industrial Mathematics (MODCLIM) is a Strategic Partnership for the Development of Training Workshops and Modeling Clinic for Industrial Mathematics, funded through the European Commission under the Erasmus Plus Program, Key Action 2: Cooperation for innovation and the exchang...
VIPRE-01. a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for reactor cores. Volume 1. Mathematical modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stewart, C.W.; Cuta, J.M.; Koontz, A.S.; Kelly, J.M.; Basehore, K.L.; George, T.L.; Rowe, D.S.
1983-04-01
VIPRE (Versatile Internals and Component Program for Reactors; EPRI) has been developed for nuclear power utility thermal-hydraulic analysis applications. It is designed to help evaluate nuclear reactor core safety limits including minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR), critical power ratio (CPR), fuel and clad temperatures, and coolant state in normal operation and assumed accident conditions. This volume (Volume 1: Mathematical Modeling) explains the major thermal hydraulic models and supporting correlations in detail
Siting study for small platform-mounted industrial energy reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1975-07-01
Utilizing an existing 313 MW(t) ship propulsion reactor design, a concept has been formulated for a floating platform-mounted nuclear plant and an evaluation has been made to determine reductions in construction time and cost achievable by repetitive platform construction in a shipyard. Concepts and estimates are presented for siting platform-mounted nuclear plants at the location of industrial facilities where the nuclear plants would furnish industrial process heat and/or electrical power. The representative industrial site designated for this study is considered typical of sites that might be used along the extensive network of navigable canals adjacent to the ocean and is similar to potential sites along the inland waterways of the United States
A Long-Term Mathematical Model for Mining Industries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Achdou, Yves; Giraud, Pierre-Noel; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Lions, Pierre-Louis
2016-01-01
A parcimonious long term model is proposed for a mining industry. Knowing the dynamics of the global reserve, the strategy of each production unit consists of an optimal control problem with two controls, first the flux invested into prospection and the building of new extraction facilities, second the production rate. In turn, the dynamics of the global reserve depends on the individual strategies of the producers, so the models leads to an equilibrium, which is described by low dimensional systems of partial differential equations. The dimensionality depends on the number of technologies that a mining producer can choose. In some cases, the systems may be reduced to a Hamilton–Jacobi equation which is degenerate at the boundary and whose right hand side may blow up at the boundary. A mathematical analysis is supplied. Then numerical simulations for models with one or two technologies are described. In particular, a numerical calibration of the model in order to fit the historical data is carried out.
A Long-Term Mathematical Model for Mining Industries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Achdou, Yves, E-mail: achdou@ljll.univ-paris-diderot.fr [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, UMR 7598, UPMC, CNRS (France); Giraud, Pierre-Noel [CERNA, Mines ParisTech (France); Lasry, Jean-Michel [Univ. Paris Dauphine (France); Lions, Pierre-Louis [Collège de France (France)
2016-12-15
A parcimonious long term model is proposed for a mining industry. Knowing the dynamics of the global reserve, the strategy of each production unit consists of an optimal control problem with two controls, first the flux invested into prospection and the building of new extraction facilities, second the production rate. In turn, the dynamics of the global reserve depends on the individual strategies of the producers, so the models leads to an equilibrium, which is described by low dimensional systems of partial differential equations. The dimensionality depends on the number of technologies that a mining producer can choose. In some cases, the systems may be reduced to a Hamilton–Jacobi equation which is degenerate at the boundary and whose right hand side may blow up at the boundary. A mathematical analysis is supplied. Then numerical simulations for models with one or two technologies are described. In particular, a numerical calibration of the model in order to fit the historical data is carried out.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassin, Joao P.; Dezotti, Marcia; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L.
2011-01-01
Nitrification of saline wastewaters was investigated in bench-scale moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBR). Wastewater from a chemical industry and domestic sewage, both treated by the activated sludge process, were fed to moving-bed reactors. The industrial wastewater contained 8000 mg Cl - /L and the salinity of the treated sewage was gradually increased until that level. Residual substances present in the treated industrial wastewater had a strong inhibitory effect on the nitrification process. Assays to determine inhibitory effects were performed with the industrial wastewater, which was submitted to ozonation and carbon adsorption pretreatments. The latter treatment was effective for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and improved nitrification efficiency. Nitrification percentage of the treated domestic sewage was higher than 90% for all tested chloride concentrations up to 8000 mg/L. Results obtained in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were consistent with those attained in the MBBR systems, allowing tertiary nitrification and providing adequate conditions for adaptation of nitrifying microorganisms even under stressing and inhibitory conditions.
ASTRID, Generation IV advanced sodium technological reactor for industrial demonstration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauche, F.
2013-01-01
ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) is an integrated technology demonstrator designed to demonstrate the operability of the innovative choices enabling fast neutron reactor technology to meet the Generation IV criteria. ASTRID is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with an electricity generating power of 600 MWe. In order to meet the generation IV goals, ASTRID will incorporate the following decisive innovations: -) an improved core with a very low, even negative void coefficient; -) the possible installation of additional safety devices in the core. For example, passive anti-reactivity insertion devices are explored; -) more core instrumentation; -) an energy conversion system with modular steam generators, to limit the effects of a possible sodium-water reaction, or sodium-nitrogen exchangers; -) considerable thermal inertia combined with natural convection to deal with decay heat; -)elimination of major sodium fires by bunkerization and/or inert atmosphere in the premises; -) to take into account off-site hazards (earthquake, airplane crash,...) right from the design stage; -) a complete rethink of the reactor architecture in order to limit the risk of proliferation. ASTRID will also include systems for reducing the length of refueling outages and increasing the burn-up and the duration of the cycle. In-service inspection, maintenance and repair are also taken into account right from the start of the project. The ASTRID prototype should be operational by about 2023. (A.C.)
Industrial opportunities on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, W.R.
1996-01-01
Industry has been a long-term contributor to the magnetic fusion program, playing a variety of important roles over the years. Manufacturing firms, engineering-construction companies, and the electric utility industry should all be regarded as legitimate stakeholders in the fusion energy program. In a program focused primarily on energy production, industry's future roles should follow in a natural way, leading to the commercialization of the technology. In a program focused primarily on science and technology, industry's roles, in the near term, should be, in addition to operating existing research facilities, largely devoted to providing industrial support to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project. Industrial opportunities on the ITER Project will be guided by the amount of funding available to magnetic fusion generally, since ITER is funded as a component of that program. The ITER Project can conveniently be discussed in terms of its phases, namely, the present Engineering Design Activities (EDA) phase, and the future (as yet not approved) construction phase. 2 refs., 3 tabs
Mathematical model for safety analysis of heavy water power reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milovanovic, M.; Humo, E.; Mitrovic, S.
1966-01-01
Fundamental information in formulating the mathematical model for accident analysis is concerned with reactivity changes of the system. These parameters are: changes of fuel and moderator temperature, changes of the upper reflector thickness, reactivity changes due to moderator density variation dependent on the steam quantity and neutron flux distribution in the core
Gas cooled fast reactor background, facilities, industries and programmes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalle Donne, M.
1980-05-01
This report was prepared at the request of the OECD-NEA Coordinating Group on Gas Cooled Fast Reactor Development and it represents a contribution (Vol.II) to the jointly sponsored Vol.I (GCFR Status Report). After a chapter on background with a brief description of the early studies and the activities in the various countries involved in the collaborative programme (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States), the report describes the facilities available in those countries and at the Gas Breeder Reactor Association and the industrial capabilities relevant to the GCFR. Finally the programmes are described briefly with programme charts, conclusions and recommendations are given. (orig.) [de
Optimisation of gas-cooled reactors with the aid of mathematical computers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Margen, P H
1959-04-15
Reactor optimisation is the task of finding the combination of values of the independent variables in a reactor design producing the lowest cost of electricity. In a gas-cooled reactor the number of independent variables is particularly large and the optimisation process is, therefore, laborious. The present note describes a procedure for performing the entire optimisation procedure with the aid of a mathematical computer in a single operation, thus saving time for the design staff. Detailed equations and numerical constants are proposed for the thermal and cost relations involved. The reactor physics equations, on the other hand are merely stated as general functions of the relevant variables. The task of expressing these functions as detailed equations will be covered by separate documents prepared by the reactor physics department.
Optimisation of gas-cooled reactors with the aid of mathematical computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Margen, P.H.
1959-04-01
Reactor optimisation is the task of finding the combination of values of the independent variables in a reactor design producing the lowest cost of electricity. In a gas-cooled reactor the number of independent variables is particularly large and the optimisation process is, therefore, laborious. The present note describes a procedure for performing the entire optimisation procedure with the aid of a mathematical computer in a single operation, thus saving time for the design staff. Detailed equations and numerical constants are proposed for the thermal and cost relations involved. The reactor physics equations, on the other hand are merely stated as general functions of the relevant variables. The task of expressing these functions as detailed equations will be covered by separate documents prepared by the reactor physics department
A small modular fast reactor as starting point for industrial deployment of fast reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Yoon I.; Lo Pinto, Pierre; Konomura, Mamoru
2006-01-01
The current commercial reactors based on light water technology provide 17% of the electricity worldwide owing to their reliability, safety and competitive economics. In the near term, next generation reactors are expected to be evolutionary type, taking benefits of extensive LWR experience feedbacks and further improved economics and safety provisions. For the long term, however, sustainable energy production will be required due to continuous increase of the human activities, environmental concerns such as greenhouse effect and the need of alternatives to fossil fuels as long term energy resources. Therefore, future generation commercial reactors should meet some criteria of sustainability that the current generation cannot fully satisfy. In addition to the current objectives of economics and safety, waste management, resource extension and public acceptance become other major objectives among the sustainability criteria. From this perspective, two questions can be raised: what reactor type can meet the sustainability criteria, and how to proceed to an effective deployment in harmony with the high reliability and availability of the current nuclear reactor fleet. There seems to be an international consensus that the fast spectrum reactor, notably the sodium-cooled system is most promising to meet all of the long term sustainability criteria. As for the latter, we propose a small modular fast reactor project could become a base to prepare the industrial infrastructure. The paper has the following contents: - Introduction; - SMFR project; - Core design; - Supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle; - Near-term reference plant; - Advanced designs; - Conclusions. To summarize, the sodium-cooled fast reactor is currently recognized as the technology of choice for the long term nuclear energy expansion, but some research and development are required to optimize and validate advanced design solutions. A small modular fast reactor can satisfy some existing near-term market niche
Mathematical simulation of hazardous ion retention from radioactive waste in fixed bed reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sohsah, M.A.; Gohneim, M.M.; Othman, S.H.; El-Anadouli, B.E.
2007-01-01
Reactor design for fluid-solid, noncatalytic reaction depends on the prediction of the performance of the reactor kinetically. The most mathematical models used to handle fixed bed reactor in which the solid bed constitute one of the reactants, while a second reactant is in the fluid phase are complex and difficult to handle. A new mathematical model which easier to handle has been developed to describe the system under investigation. The model was examined theoretically and experimentally. A column backed with chelating cloth filter to separate radionuclide form radioactive waste solution is used as a practical application for the model. Comparison of the model predictions with the experimental results gives satisfactory agreement at most of the process stages
How to Introduce Mathematic Modeling in Industrial Design Education
Langereis, G.R.; Hu, J.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Stillmann, G.A.; Kaiser, G.; Blum, W.B.; Brown, J.P.
2013-01-01
With competency based learning in a project driven environment, we are facing a different perspective of how students perceive mathematical modelling. In this chapter, a model is proposed where conventional education is seen as a process from mathematics to design, while competency driven approaches
Industrial treatment from distilleries vinasses in UASB reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lorenzo-Acosta, Yaniris; Doménech-López, Fidel; Eng-Sánchez, Felipe; Olmo, Oscar Almazán-del; Chanfón-Curbelo, Juana Ma.
2015-01-01
The anaerobic digestion in UASB reactors is well known since the 80´, at industrial scale, in Latin American countries, for the treatment of liquid wastes, including the ethanol vinasses. That´s the importance to present the equations used in the design and the results of the actual potentiality of a biogas plant, using as a case of study an, the vinasses treatment of a distillery of a capacity of 500 HL of ethanol per day. The flow sheet of the technology and an explanation of the stages are also shown. The results of the mass balance confirm that to treat the whole vinasses generated with a COD of 50 kg per cubic meter, to be converted in electric energy, it´s necessary to install two UASB reactors f 1160 cubic meters each , being the production potential of this technology of 12821 cubic meters of desulphurized biogas per day, 21796 kWh of electric energy, 4.33 t per day of dry mud and 716 cubic meters of vinasses with only 15 kg of COD per cubic meters, that could be used for ferti-irrigation of the cane fields, as an option to close the treatment cycle and waste disposal . All this drive to the conclusion that the anaerobic digestion of the distillery vinasses in UASB reactors as a primary treatment option, with the use of the treated vinasses for the ferti-irrigation of the cane fields to close the cycle make the ethanol production true ecofrienly. (author)
A mathematical method for boiling water reactor control rod programming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokumasu, S.; Hiranuma, H.; Ozawa, M.; Yokomi, M.
1985-01-01
A new mathematical programming method has been developed and utilized in OPROD, an existing computer code for automatic generation of control rod programs as an alternative inner-loop routine for the method of approximate programming. The new routine is constructed of a dual feasible direction algorithm, and consists essentially of two stages of iterative optimization procedures Optimization Procedures I and II. Both follow almost the same algorithm; Optimization Procedure I searches for feasible solutions and Optimization Procedure II optimizes the objective function. Optimization theory and computer simulations have demonstrated that the new routine could find optimum solutions, even if deteriorated initial control rod patterns were given
A stochastic physical-mathematical method for reactor kinetics analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velickovic, Lj.
1966-01-01
The developed theoretical model is concerned with BF 3 counter placed in the core of a low power reactor (a few MW) where statistical neutron effects are most evident. Our experiments were somewhat different. The detector used was and ionization chamber with double sampling, in ADC and in the time analyzer. The objective of this model was not to obtain precise numerical calculations, but to explain the method and the essentials of the correlation. Introducing all the six groups of delayed neutrons and possibly photoneutrons the model could be improved to obtained more realistic results
Mathematical modeling of high-rate Anammox UASB reactor based on granular packing patterns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, Chong-Jian; He, Rui; Zheng, Ping; Chai, Li-Yuan; Min, Xiao-Bo
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► A novel model was conducted to estimate volumetric nitrogen conversion rates. ► The packing patterns of the granules in Anammox reactor are investigated. ► The simple cubic packing pattern was simulated in high-rate Anammox UASB reactor. ► Operational strategies concerning sludge concentration were proposed by the modeling. -- Abstract: A novel mathematical model was developed to estimate the volumetric nitrogen conversion rates of a high-rate Anammox UASB reactor based on the packing patterns of granular sludge. A series of relationships among granular packing density, sludge concentration, hydraulic retention time and volumetric conversion rate were constructed to correlate Anammox reactor performance with granular packing patterns. It was suggested that the Anammox granules packed as the equivalent simple cubic pattern in high-rate UASB reactor with packing density of 50–55%, which not only accommodated a high concentration of sludge inside the reactor, but also provided large pore volume, thus prolonging the actual substrate conversion time. Results also indicated that it was necessary to improve Anammox reactor performance by enhancing substrate loading when sludge concentration was higher than 37.8 gVSS/L. The established model was carefully calibrated and verified, and it well simulated the performance of granule-based high-rate Anammox UASB reactor
Mathematical modeling of high-rate Anammox UASB reactor based on granular packing patterns
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, Chong-Jian, E-mail: chjtangzju@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Control and Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, Changsha 410083 (China); He, Rui; Zheng, Ping [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Chai, Li-Yuan; Min, Xiao-Bo [Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Control and Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, Changsha 410083 (China)
2013-04-15
Highlights: ► A novel model was conducted to estimate volumetric nitrogen conversion rates. ► The packing patterns of the granules in Anammox reactor are investigated. ► The simple cubic packing pattern was simulated in high-rate Anammox UASB reactor. ► Operational strategies concerning sludge concentration were proposed by the modeling. -- Abstract: A novel mathematical model was developed to estimate the volumetric nitrogen conversion rates of a high-rate Anammox UASB reactor based on the packing patterns of granular sludge. A series of relationships among granular packing density, sludge concentration, hydraulic retention time and volumetric conversion rate were constructed to correlate Anammox reactor performance with granular packing patterns. It was suggested that the Anammox granules packed as the equivalent simple cubic pattern in high-rate UASB reactor with packing density of 50–55%, which not only accommodated a high concentration of sludge inside the reactor, but also provided large pore volume, thus prolonging the actual substrate conversion time. Results also indicated that it was necessary to improve Anammox reactor performance by enhancing substrate loading when sludge concentration was higher than 37.8 gVSS/L. The established model was carefully calibrated and verified, and it well simulated the performance of granule-based high-rate Anammox UASB reactor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bermejo, M.D.; Cocero, M.J.
2006-01-01
The supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a technology that takes advantage of the special properties of water in the surroundings of critical point of water to completely oxidize wastes in residence times lower than 1 min. The problems caused by the harsh operational conditions of the SCWO process are being solved by new reactor designs, such as the transpiring wall reactor (TWR). In this work, the operational parameters of a TWR have been studied for the treatment of an industrial wastewater. As a result, the process has been optimized for a feed flow of 16 kg/h with feed inlet temperatures higher than 300 deg. C and transpiring flow relation (R) between 0.2 and 0.6 working with an 8% (w/w) isopropanol (IPA) as a fuel. The experimental data and a mathematical model have been applied for the destruction of an industrial waste containing acetic acid and crotonaldehyde as main compounds. As the model predicted, removal efficiencies higher than 99.9% were obtained, resulting in effluents with 2 ppm total organic carbon (TOC) at feed flow of 16 kg/h, 320 deg. C of feed temperature and R = 0.32. An effluent TOC of 35 ppm under conditions feed flow of 18 kg/h, feed inlet temperatures of 290 deg. C, reaction temperatures of 570 deg. C and R = 0.6
ASTRID: Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasile, A.
2012-01-01
Conclusions: • R&D results [CEA-AREVA-EDF] obtained from 2007 to 2009 have contributed to ASTRID mid 2010 choice of options; • ASTRID has the objective to demonstrate at the industrial scale progress in the identified domains of SFR weakness (safety, operability, economy). and to perform transmutation demonstrations; • A lot of improvements are related to safety; • The first very important milestone is 2012 (June 2006 French Act on wastes management): – ASTRID pre-conceptual design studies: 2010-2012; – First investment cost evaluation; – First safety Authorities advice on the orientations for ASTRID safety; • With the ASTRID program funded by the French government, France has the opportunity to develop a GEN IV Sodium Fast Reactor
Enzyme-Embedded, Microstructural Reactors for Industrial Biocatalysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baker, Sarah E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knipe, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Oakdale, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stolaroff, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2016-10-04
In this project we explored enzyme-catalyzed methane conversion to methanol. Industrial biological approaches to methane conversion using whole organisms are predicted to be more energy efficient than chemical approaches, but are limited by mass transfer of the gas phase reactants, methane and oxygen, to the organisms. We demonstrated that 3D printing the enzyme particulate Methane Mono Oxygenase (pMMO) embedded in a polymer can improve the kinetics of methane to methanol conversion. This improvement was likely due to the ability to increase the surface area of the catalytic material using 3D printing. We also demonstrated the first continuous use of pMMO in a flow-through reactor. In order to understand the fundamental kinetic properties of pMMO, we conducted an in-depth study of pMMO kinetics using analytical tools developed in our lab. Finally, we developed a new copolymer system that allowed tuning of the gas permeability of the biocatalytic material.
Mathematical modeling of swirled flows in industrial applications
Dekterev, A. A.; Gavrilov, A. A.; Sentyabov, A. V.
2018-03-01
Swirled flows are widely used in technological devices. Swirling flows are characterized by a wide range of flow regimes. 3D mathematical modeling of flows is widely used in research and design. For correct mathematical modeling of such a flow, it is necessary to use turbulence models, which take into account important features of the flow. Based on the experience of computational modeling of a wide class of problems with swirling flows, recommendations on the use of turbulence models for calculating the applied problems are proposed.
Economic aspects of electricity and industrial heat generating reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaussens, J.; Moulle, N.; Dutheil, F.
1964-01-01
The economic advantage of electricity-generating nuclear stations decreases when their size decreases. However, when a counter-pressure turbine is joined on to a reactor and the residual heat can be properly used, it can be shown that fairly low capacity nuclear equipment may compete with conventional equipment under certain realistic enough conditions. The aim of this paper is to define these special conditions under which nuclear energy can be profitable. They are connected with the location and the general economic environment of the station, the pattern of the electricity and heat demands it must meet, the level of fuel and specific capital costs, nuclear and conventional. These conditions entail certain technical and economic specifications for the reactors used in this way otherwise they are unlikely to be competitive. In addition, these results are referred to the potential steam and electricity market, which leads us to examine certain uses for the heat generated by double purpose power stations; for example, to supply combined industrial plants, various types of town heating and for removal of salt from sea water. (authors) [fr
A bibliographic review of mathematical models of packed-bed biological reactors (PBR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deisy Corredor
2005-09-01
Full Text Available Several authors have sublected packed-bed biological reactors to mathematical and theoretical analysis. They have taken reaction kinetics and single-dimensional, homogeneous, pseudo-homogeneous and heterogeneous models into account. Numerical methods have provided the set of equations so developed. The effect of physically important process variables in terms of design and operation have been investigated (i.e. residence time, operating- flow, substrate conversion, bio-film area and film thickness.
Service to the Electric Utility Industry by the Ford Nuclear Reactor, University of Michigan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burn, R.R.; Simpson, P.A.; Cook, G.M.
1993-01-01
Since 1977, the staff of the University of Michigan's Ford Nuclear Reactor has been providing irradiation, testing, analytical, and training services to electric utilities and to suppliers of the nuclear electric utility industry. This paper discusses the reactor's irradiation facilities; reactor programs and utilization; materials testing programs; neutron activation analysis activities; and training programs conducted
Mathematical modeling of an industrial firm in transient economy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. G. Pospelov
2001-01-01
Full Text Available A behavior model of an industrial firm with a possibility of merchandising and purchasing of production on two channels, traditional and commercial, is given. The former is stable, but less profitable due to non-payments. The latter is profitable, but risky. The model describes different modes of firm operation depending on economic parameters. In such a model, firms have incentives to integrate in financial and industrial groups.
The changing structure of the international commercial nuclear power reactor industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forsberg, C.W.; Hill, L.J.; Reich, W.J.; Rowan, W.J.
1992-12-01
The objective of this report is to provide an understanding of the international commercial nuclear power industry today and how the industry is evolving. This industry includes reactor vendors, product lines, and utility customers. The evolving structure of the international nuclear power reactor industry implies different organizations making decisions within the nuclear power industry, different outside constraints on those decisions, and different priorities than with the previous structure. At the same time, cultural factors, technical constraints, and historical business relationships allow for an understanding of the organization of the industry, what is likely, and what is unlikely. With such a frame of reference, current trends and future directions can be more readily understood
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karcher Patrick
2005-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a result of biofilm formation, cell densities in the reactor increase and cell concentrations as high as 74 gL-1 can be achieved. The reactor configurations can be as simple as a batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR, packed bed reactor (PBR, fluidized bed reactor (FBR, airlift reactor (ALR, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, or any other suitable configuration. In UASB granular biofilm particles are used. This article demonstrates that reactor productivities in these reactors have been superior to any other reactor types. This article describes production of ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid in addition to wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactors. As the title suggests, biofilm reactors have high potential to be employed in biotechnology/bioconversion industry for viable economic reasons. In this article, various reactor types have been compared for the above bioconversion processes.
Qureshi, Nasib; Annous, Bassam A; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Karcher, Patrick; Maddox, Ian S
2005-01-01
This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent) or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules) without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a result of biofilm formation, cell densities in the reactor increase and cell concentrations as high as 74 gL-1 can be achieved. The reactor configurations can be as simple as a batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), packed bed reactor (PBR), fluidized bed reactor (FBR), airlift reactor (ALR), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, or any other suitable configuration. In UASB granular biofilm particles are used. This article demonstrates that reactor productivities in these reactors have been superior to any other reactor types. This article describes production of ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid in addition to wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactors. As the title suggests, biofilm reactors have high potential to be employed in biotechnology/bioconversion industry for viable economic reasons. In this article, various reactor types have been compared for the above bioconversion processes. PMID:16122390
Qureshi, Nasib; Annous, Bassam A; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Karcher, Patrick; Maddox, Ian S
2005-08-25
This article describes the use of biofilm reactors for the production of various chemicals by fermentation and wastewater treatment. Biofilm formation is a natural process where microbial cells attach to the support (adsorbent) or form flocs/aggregates (also called granules) without use of chemicals and form thick layers of cells known as "biofilms." As a result of biofilm formation, cell densities in the reactor increase and cell concentrations as high as 74 gL(-1) can be achieved. The reactor configurations can be as simple as a batch reactor, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), packed bed reactor (PBR), fluidized bed reactor (FBR), airlift reactor (ALR), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, or any other suitable configuration. In UASB granular biofilm particles are used. This article demonstrates that reactor productivities in these reactors have been superior to any other reactor types. This article describes production of ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid in addition to wastewater treatment in the biofilm reactors. As the title suggests, biofilm reactors have high potential to be employed in biotechnology/bioconversion industry for viable economic reasons. In this article, various reactor types have been compared for the above bioconversion processes.
1st International Conference on Industrial and Applied Mathematics of the Indian Subcontinent
Kočvara, Michal
2002-01-01
An important objective of the study of mathematics is to analyze and visualize phenomena of nature and real world problems for its proper understanding. Gradually, it is also becoming the language of modem financial instruments. To project some of these developments, the conference was planned under the joint auspices of the Indian Society of Industrial and Applied mathematics (ISlAM) and Guru Nanak Dev University (G. N. D. U. ), Amritsar, India. Dr. Pammy Manchanda, chairperson of Mathematics Department, G. N. D. U. , was appointed the organizing secretary and an organizing committee was constituted. The Conference was scheduled in World Mathematics Year 2000 but, due one reason or the other, it could be held during 22. -25. January 2001. How ever, keeping in view the suggestion of the International Mathematics union, we organized two symposia, Role of Mathematics in industrial development and vice-versa and How image of Mathematics can be improved in public. These two symposia aroused great interest among...
Food industrial wastewater reuse by membrane bio-reactor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patthanant Natpinit
2007-11-01
Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to study the possibility and performance of treating food industrial wastewater by Membrane BioReactor (MBR. In addition, the effluent of MBR was treated by Reverse Osmosis system (RO to reuse in boiler or cooling tower. The membranes of hollow fiber type were filled in the aerobic tank with aerobe bacteria. The total area of membrane 6 units was 630 m2 so the flux of the operation was 0.25 m/d or 150 m3/d. The spiral wound RO was operated at 100 m3/d of influent and received 72 m3/d of permeate. The sludge volume (MLSS of MBR was maintained at 8,000-10,000 mg/l. The average COD and SS of MBR influent were 600 mg/l and 300 mg/l respectively. After treating by MBR, COD and SS of effluent were maintained at less than 100 mg/l and less than 10 mg/l respectively. In the same way, COD and SS of RO permeate were less than 10 mg/l and less than 5 mg/l respectively.
A mathematical model for environmental risk assessment in manufacturing industry
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何莉萍; 徐盛明; 陈大川; 党创寅
2002-01-01
Environmental conscious manufacturing has become an important issue in industry because of market pressure and environmental regulations. An environmental risk assessment model was developed based on the network analytic method and fuzzy set theory. The "interval analysis method" was applied to deal with the on-site monitoring data as basic information for assessment. In addition, the fuzzy set theory was employed to allow uncertain, interactive and dynamic information to be effectively incorporated into the environmental risk assessment. This model is a simple, practical and effective tool for evaluating the environmental risk of manufacturing industry and for analyzing the relative impacts of emission wastes, which are hazardous to both human and ecosystem health. Furthermore, the model is considered useful for design engineers and decision-maker to design and select processes when the costs, environmental impacts and performances of a product are taken into consideration.
A Long-Term Mathematical Model for Mining Industries
Achdou , Yves; Giraud , Pierre-Noel; Lasry , Jean-Michel; Lions , Pierre-Louis
2016-01-01
International audience; A parcimonious long term model is proposed for a mining industry. Knowing the dynamics of the global reserve, the strategy of each production unit consists of an optimal control problem with two controls, first the flux invested into prospection and the building of new extraction facilities, second the production rate. In turn, the dynamics of the global reserve depends on the individual strategies of the producers, so the models leads to an equilibrium, which is descr...
Safety of nuclear reactors - Part A - unsteady state temperature history mathematical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Shayeb, M.; Yusoff, M.Z.; Boosroh, M.H.; Ideris, F.; Hasmady Abu Hassan, S.; Bondok, A.
2004-01-01
A nuclear reactor structure under abnormal operations of near meltdown will be exposed to a tremendous amount of heat flux in addition to the stress field applied under normal operation. Temperature encountered in such case is assumed to be beyond 1000 Celsius degrees. A 2-dimensional mathematical model based on finite difference methods, has been developed for the fire resistance calculation of a concrete-filled square steel column with respect to its temperature history. Effects due to nuclear radiation and mechanical vibrations will be explored in a later future model. The temperature rise in each element can be derived from its heat balance by applying the parabolic unsteady state, partial differential equation and numerical solution into the steel region. Calculation of the temperature of the elementary regions needs to satisfy the symmetry conditions and the relevant material properties. The developed mathematical model is capable to predict the temperature history in the column and on the surface with respect to time. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aragones, J. M.; Ahnert, C.; Cabellos, O.
1999-01-01
The international conference on mathematics and computation, reactor physics and environmental analysis in nuclear applications in the biennial topical meeting of the mathematics and computation division of the American Nuclear Society. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aragones, J. M.; Ahnert, C.; Cabellos, O.
1999-07-01
The international conference on mathematics and computation, reactor physics and environmental analysis in nuclear applications in the biennial topical meeting of the mathematics and computation division of the American Nuclear Society. (Author)
Iris Runge a life at the crossroads of mathematics, science, and industry
Tobies, Renate
2012-01-01
This book concerns the origins of mathematical problem solving at the internationally active Osram and Telefunken Corporations during the golden years of broadcasting and electron tube research. The woman scientist Iris Runge, who received an interdisciplinary education at the University of Göttingen, was long employed as the sole mathematical authority at these companies in Berlin. It will be shown how mathematical connections were made between statistics and quality control, and between physical-chemical models and the actual problems of mass production. The organization of industrial laboratories, the relationship between theoretical and experimental work, and the role of mathematicians in these settings will also be explained. By investigating the social, economic, and political conditions that unfolded from the time of the German Empire until the end of the Second World War, the book hopes to build a bridge between specialized fields – mathematics and engineering – and the general culture of a parti...
Optimum investment strategy in the power industry mathematical models
Bartnik, Ryszard; Hnydiuk-Stefan, Anna
2016-01-01
This book presents an innovative methodology for identifying optimum investment strategies in the power industry. To do so, it examines results including, among others, the impact of oxy-fuel technology on CO2 emissions prices, and the specific cost of electricity production. The technical and economic analysis presented here extend the available knowledge in the field of investment optimization in energy engineering, while also enabling investors to make decisions involving its application. Individual chapters explore the potential impacts of different factors like environmental charges on costs connected with investments in the power sector, as well as discussing the available technologies for heat and power generation. The book offers a valuable resource for researchers, market analysts, decision makers, power engineers and students alike.
Chemical reactor development : from laboratory synthesis to industrial production
Thoenes, D.
1998-01-01
Chemical Reactor Development is written primarily for chemists and chemical engineers who are concerned with the development of a chemical synthesis from the laboratory bench scale, where the first successful experiments are performed, to the design desk, where the first commercial reactor is
Celebrating 40 years anaerobic sludge bed reactors for industrial wastewater treatment
Van Lier, J.B.; Van der Zee, F.P.; Frijters, C.T.M.J.; Ersahin, M.E.
2015-01-01
In the last 40 years, anaerobic sludge bed reactor technology evolved from localized lab-scale trials to worldwide successful implementations at a variety of industries. High-rate sludge bed reactors are characterized by a very small foot print and high applicable volumetric loading rates. Best
Modelling an industrial anaerobic granular reactor using a multi-scale approach.
Feldman, H; Flores-Alsina, X; Ramin, P; Kjellberg, K; Jeppsson, U; Batstone, D J; Gernaey, K V
2017-12-01
The objective of this paper is to show the results of an industrial project dealing with modelling of anaerobic digesters. A multi-scale mathematical approach is developed to describe reactor hydrodynamics, granule growth/distribution and microbial competition/inhibition for substrate/space within the biofilm. The main biochemical and physico-chemical processes in the model are based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1) extended with the fate of phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and ethanol (Et-OH). Wastewater dynamic conditions are reproduced and data frequency increased using the Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2) influent generator. All models are tested using two plant data sets corresponding to different operational periods (#D1, #D2). Simulation results reveal that the proposed approach can satisfactorily describe the transformation of organics, nutrients and minerals, the production of methane, carbon dioxide and sulfide and the potential formation of precipitates within the bulk (average deviation between computer simulations and measurements for both #D1, #D2 is around 10%). Model predictions suggest a stratified structure within the granule which is the result of: 1) applied loading rates, 2) mass transfer limitations and 3) specific (bacterial) affinity for substrate. Hence, inerts (X I ) and methanogens (X ac ) are situated in the inner zone, and this fraction lowers as the radius increases favouring the presence of acidogens (X su ,X aa , X fa ) and acetogens (X c4 ,X pro ). Additional simulations show the effects on the overall process performance when operational (pH) and loading (S:COD) conditions are modified. Lastly, the effect of intra-granular precipitation on the overall organic/inorganic distribution is assessed at: 1) different times; and, 2) reactor heights. Finally, the possibilities and opportunities offered by the proposed approach for conducting engineering optimization projects are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose Manuel Diaz Moreno
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We describe a mathematical model for the industrial heating and cooling processes of a steel workpiece representing the steering rack of an automobile. The goal of steel heat treating is to provide a hardened surface on critical parts of the workpiece while keeping the rest soft and ductile in order to reduce fatigue. The high hardness is due to the phase transformation of steel accompanying the rapid cooling. This work takes into account both heating-cooling stage and viscoplastic model. Once the general mathematical formulation is derived, we can perform some numerical simulations.
Potential industrial market for process heat from nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, R.W.
1976-07-01
A specific segment of industrial process heat use has been examined in detail to identify individual plant locations throughout the United states where nuclear generated steam may be a viable alternative. Five major industries have been studied: paper, chemicals, petroleum, rubber, and primary metals. For these industries, representing 75 percent of the total industrial steam consumption, the individual plant locations within the U.S. using steam in large quantities have been located and characterized as to fuel requirements
Utility industry evaluation of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burstein, S.; Bitel, J.S.; Tramm, T.R.; High, M.D.; Neils, G.H.; Tomonto, J.R.; Weinberg, C.J.
1990-02-01
A team of utility industry representatives evaluated the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor plant design, a current design created by an industrial team led by General Atomics under Department of Energy sponsorship and with support provided by utilities through Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates. The utility industry team concluded that the plant design should be considered a viable application of an advanced nuclear concept and deserves continuing development. Specific comments and recommendations are provided as a contribution toward improving a very promising plant design. 2 refs
Mathematical modeling of quartz particle melting process in plasma-chemical reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volokitin, Oleg, E-mail: volokitin-oleg@mail.ru; Volokitin, Gennady, E-mail: vgg-tomsk@mail.ru; Skripnikova, Nelli, E-mail: nks2003@mai.ru; Shekhovtsov, Valentin, E-mail: shehovcov2010@yandex.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Vlasov, Viktor, E-mail: rector@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Ave., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2016-01-15
Among silica-based materials vitreous silica has a special place. The paper presents the melting process of a quartz particle under conditions of low-temperature plasma. A mathematical model is designed for stages of melting in the experimental plasma-chemical reactor. As calculation data show, quartz particles having the radius of 0.21≤ r{sub p} ≤0.64 mm completely melt at W = 0.65 l/s particle feed rate depending on the Nusselt number, while 0.14≤ r{sub p} ≤0.44 mm particles melt at W = 1.4 l/s. Calculation data showed that 2 mm and 0.4 mm quartz particles completely melted during and 0.1 s respectively. Thus, phase transformations occurred in silicon dioxide play the important part in its heating up to the melting temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajan Babu, V.; Thanigaiyarasu, G.; Chellapandi, P.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Mathematical modelling of dynamic behaviour of safety rod during scram action in fast reactor. • Effects of hydraulics, structural interaction and geometry on drop time of safety rod are understood. • Using simplified model, drop time can be assessed replacing detailed CFD analysis. • Sensitivities of the related parameters on drop time are understood. • Experimental validation qualifies the modelling and computer software developed. - Abstract: Performance of safety rod and its drive mechanism which are parts of shutdown systems in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) plays a major role in ensuring safe operation of the plant during all the design basis events. The safety rods are to be inserted into the core within a stipulated time during off-normal conditions of the reactor. Mathematical modelling of dynamic behaviour of a safety rod and its drive mechanism in a typical 500 MWe SFR during scram action is considered in the present study. A full-scale prototype system has undergone qualification tests in air, water and in sodium simulating the operating conditions in the reactor. In this paper, the salient features of the safety rod and its mechanism, details related to mathematical modelling and sensitivity of the parameters having influence on drop time are presented. The outcomes of the numerical analysis are compared with the experimental results. In this process, the mathematical model and the computer software developed are validated
Głuszcz, Paweł; Petera, Jerzy; Ledakowicz, Stanisław
2010-01-01
The mathematical model of the integrated process of mercury contaminated wastewater bioremediation in a fixed-bed industrial bioreactor is presented. An activated carbon packing in the bioreactor plays the role of an adsorbent for ionic mercury and at the same time of a carrier material for immobilization of mercury-reducing bacteria. The model includes three basic stages of the bioremediation process: mass transfer in the liquid phase, adsorption of mercury onto activated carbon and ionic me...
Mathematical Model and Artificial Intelligent Techniques Applied to a Milk Industry through DSM
Babu, P. Ravi; Divya, V. P. Sree
2011-08-01
The resources for electrical energy are depleting and hence the gap between the supply and the demand is continuously increasing. Under such circumstances, the option left is optimal utilization of available energy resources. The main objective of this chapter is to discuss about the Peak load management and overcome the problems associated with it in processing industries such as Milk industry with the help of DSM techniques. The chapter presents a generalized mathematical model for minimizing the total operating cost of the industry subject to the constraints. The work presented in this chapter also deals with the results of application of Neural Network, Fuzzy Logic and Demand Side Management (DSM) techniques applied to a medium scale milk industrial consumer in India to achieve the improvement in load factor, reduction in Maximum Demand (MD) and also the consumer gets saving in the energy bill.
Power thresholds for fast oscillatory instabilities in nuclear reactors: a simple mathematical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suarez-Antola, Roberto; Uruguay)
2007-01-01
The cores of nuclear reactors, including its structural parts and cooling fluids, are complex mechanical systems able to vibrate in a set of normal modes and frequencies, if suitable perturbed. The cyclic variations in the strain state of the core materials may modify the reactivity, and thus thermal power, producing variations in strain due to thermal-elastic effects. If the variation of the temperature field is fast enough and if the Doppler Effect and other stabilizing prompt effects in the fuel are weak enough, a fast oscillatory instability could be produced, coupled with mechanical vibrations of small enough amplitude that they will not be excluded by the procedures of conventional mechanical design. After a careful discussion of the time scales of neutron kinetics, thermal-elastic and vibration phenomena, a simple lumped parameter mathematical model is constructed in order to study, in a first approximation, the stability of the reactor. An integro-differential equation for power kinetics is derived. Under certain conditions, fast oscillatory instabilities are found when power is greater than a threshold value, and the delay in the global power feedback loop is big enough. Approximate analytical formulae are given for the power threshold, critical delay and power oscillation frequency. It is shown that if prompt stabilizing fuel effects are strong enough, dangerous fast power oscillations due to mechanical thermal-nuclear coupling phenomena can not appear at any power level. (author)
Industrial and natural nuclear reactors; Industrielle und natuerliche Kernreaktoren
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Binnewies, Michael [Hannover Univ. (Germany); Willner, Helge; Woenckhaus, Juergen
2015-08-15
As described in the preceding article, all elements with atomic masses above that of iron and also the radioactive elements thorium and uranium have been formed by a supernova star explosion. Their long-lived isotopes of thorium and uranium are now distributed in the earth crust. The chemistry of uranium and thorium is of less importance, but these elements can be used to produce enormous amounts of energy in nuclear power stations. It will be described how it works. Surprisingly, small natural nuclear reactors were producing heat during hundreds of thousand years. Subsequently, we are dealing with this phenomenon, the principle of nuclear fission, the different types of nuclear reactors, security aspects and new developments.
Joe A. Lemire; Marc A. Demeter; Iain George; Howard Ceri; Raymond J. Turner
2015-01-01
Moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) are an effective biotechnology for treating industrial wastewater. Biomass retention on moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers (biofilm support materials), allows for the ease-of-operation and high treatment capacity of MBBR systems. Optimization of MBBR systems has largely focused on aspects of carrier design, while little attention has been paid to enhancing strategies for harnessing microbial biomass. Previously, our research group demonstrated that ...
Methods of Mathematical and Computational Physics for Industry, Science, and Technology
Melnik, Roderick V. N.; Voss, Frands
2006-11-01
Many industrial problems provide scientists with important and challenging problems that need to be solved today rather than tomorrow. The key role of mathematical physics, modelling, and computational methodologies in addressing such problems continues to increase. Science has never been exogenous to applied research. Gigantic ships and steam engines, repeating catapult of Dionysius and the Antikythera `computer' invented around 80BC are just a few examples demonstrating a profound link between theoretical and applied science in the ancient world. Nowadays, many industrial problems are typically approached by groups of researchers who are working as a team bringing their expertise to the success of the entire enterprise. Since the late 1960s several groups of European mathematicians and scientists have started organizing regular meetings, seeking new challenges from industry and contributing to the solution of important industrial problems. In particular, this often took the format of week-long workshops originally initiated by the Oxford Study Groups with Industry in 1968. Such workshops are now held in many European countries (typically under the auspices of the European Study Groups with Industry - ESGI), as well as in Australia, Canada, the United States, and other countries around the world. Problems given by industrial partners are sometimes very difficult to complete within a week. However, during a week of brainstorming activities these problems inevitably stimulate developing fruitful new ideas, new approaches, and new collaborations. At the same time, there are cases where as soon as the problem is formulated mathematically, it is relatively easy to solve. Hence, putting the industrial problem into a mathematical framework, based on physical laws, often provides a key element to the success. In addition to this important first step, the value in such cases is the real, practical applicability of the results obtained for an industrial partner who presents
The present status of the fast breeder reactor industrialization in western Europe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dievoet, J.P. van
1987-01-01
The development of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor in Europe started in the mid-fifties, after the successful operation of EBR-1 at ARCO, Idaho, in 1951. A more and more integrated development among the countries of the European Community culminated in 1986 with the beginning to power of the 1200 MWe SUPERPHENIX plant at Creys-Malville, France. The road is now open towards the full industrialization of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor at the moment, in 2005, when the first European thermal neutron power reactor station will have to be decommissioned and replaced. The European programme aims at providing the utilities at that time with a clear choice between thermal neutron reactors and fast breeder reactors, both economical but very different in their use of the limited natural resource that uranium is. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harrison, T. J. [ORNL
2014-02-01
The cost of nuclear power is a straightforward yet complicated topic. It is straightforward in that the cost of nuclear power is a function of the cost to build the nuclear power plant, the cost to operate and maintain it, and the cost to provide fuel for it. It is complicated in that some of those costs are not necessarily known, introducing uncertainty into the analysis. For large light water reactor (LWR)-based nuclear power plants, the uncertainty is mainly contained within the cost of construction. The typical costs of operations and maintenance (O&M), as well as fuel, are well known based on the current fleet of LWRs. However, the last currently operating reactor to come online was Watts Bar 1 in May 1996; thus, the expected construction costs for gigawatt (GW)-class reactors in the United States are based on information nearly two decades old. Extrapolating construction, O&M, and fuel costs from GW-class LWRs to LWR-based small modular reactors (SMRs) introduces even more complication. The per-installed-kilowatt construction costs for SMRs are likely to be higher than those for the GW-class reactors based on the property of the economy of scale. Generally speaking, the economy of scale is the tendency for overall costs to increase slower than the overall production capacity. For power plants, this means that doubling the power production capacity would be expected to cost less than twice as much. Applying this property in the opposite direction, halving the power production capacity would be expected to cost more than half as much. This can potentially make the SMRs less competitive in the electricity market against the GW-class reactors, as well as against other power sources such as natural gas and subsidized renewables. One factor that can potentially aid the SMRs in achieving economic competitiveness is an economy of numbers, as opposed to the economy of scale, associated with learning curves. The basic concept of the learning curve is that the more a
Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati, E-mail: suparnirahayu@yahoo.co.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Semarang, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia); Purwanto,, E-mail: p.purwanto@che.undip.ac.id; Budiyono, E-mail: budiyono@live.undip.ac.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia)
2015-12-29
The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH{sub 4}/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH{sub 4}: 81.23% and CO{sub 2}: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.
Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater
Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono
2015-12-01
The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.
Situation and role of industrial fields in nuclear fusion reactor development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Gen-ichi
1983-01-01
Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) established the nuclear fusion technical committee in October, 1980, and has investigated the attitude of industrial fields in progressing nuclear fusion research and development and the measures to cooperate with national development plans. Corresponding to the new long term plan and the establishment of the basic policy for nuclear fusion research and development by Atomic Energy Commission of Japan in June, 1982, JAIF has settled the policy on the situation and role of industrial fields. In this report, first the necessity of firmly grasping the position of nuclear fusion research in atomic energy development is described, next, the present status of the research and development in Japan is reported, and it is mentioned that the role of manufacturers in reinforcing engineering has become more important in industrial fields. In the stage of the construction of a nuclear fusion reactor, the experiences in the engineering safety in fission reactors, environmental safety and system engineering will be utilized. Japanese industrial fields feature that they have made larger cooperation with national projects even in the research and development stage as compared to foreign countries. When the plan of next phase system will be promoted in the future, the cooperating methods in the past should be evaluated, investigated and improved, and the experiences in fast breeder reactors and advanced heavy water reactors should be referred to. Finally, the problems and the countermeasures in nuclear fusion development are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obradovic, D.M.
1970-01-01
In recent years investigations in the field of kinetics and dynamics of nuclear reactors have been directed towards overcoming an insufficiently accurate point reactor model. For that purpose different mathematical approaches have been used. This thesis is devoted to modal analysis because, from the practical point of view, it is a very promising and, from the mathematical and physical point of view, a very interesting method. Some fundamental mathematical problems connected with the application of modal analysis to the investigations of the reactor space-time behaviour are still unsolved and accordingly our purpose is to solve some of these problems. The spectral properties of the diffusion and P 1 operators are studied in some detail applying the Krein-Rutman theory of the K-positive operators, the Krasnosel'skii theory of u 0 operators, and the Keldis theory of the operator families. The formal solution to the initial value problem (as an abstract Cauchy problem), associated with the diffusion and P 1 operators is also studied. Modal analysis is identified as a set of methods in the mathematical literature known as the Galerkin methods (or projection methods). Following this idea (using the results of the mathematical investigations of the Galerkin methods) and using our results of the investigations of the properties of the diffusion and P 1 operators, the applicability of modal analysis to the approximate solution of the diffusion and P 1 equations and of the eigenvalue problems associated with the diffusion and P 1 operators is established. As an example of the application of modal analysis the Bubnov and Galerkin method is applied to a multiregion thermal nuclear reactor for the determination of: (i) frequency response, (ii) eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the stationary diffusion operator, (iii) eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the non-stationary diffusion operators. On the basis of the expressions obtained the corresponding computer programmes for radial
Mathematical modeling of simultaneous carbon-nitrogen-sulfur removal from industrial wastewater.
Xu, Xi-Jun; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Ai-Jie; Ni, Bing-Jie; Guo, Wan-Qian; Yuan, Ye; Huang, Cong; Zhou, Xu; Wu, Dong-Hai; Lee, Duu-Jong; Ren, Nan-Qi
2017-01-05
A mathematical model of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur removal (C-N-S) from industrial wastewater was constructed considering the interactions of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), facultative bacteria (FB), and methane producing archaea (MPA). For the kinetic network, the bioconversion of C-N by heterotrophic denitrifiers (NO 3 - →NO 2 - →N 2 ), and that of C-S by SRB (SO 4 2- →S 2- ) and SOB (S 2- →S 0 ) was proposed and calibrated based on batch experimental data. The model closely predicted the profiles of nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, sulfide, lactate, acetate, methane and oxygen under both anaerobic and micro-aerobic conditions. The best-fit kinetic parameters had small 95% confidence regions with mean values approximately at the center. The model was further validated using independent data sets generated under different operating conditions. This work was the first successful mathematical modeling of simultaneous C-N-S removal from industrial wastewater and more importantly, the proposed model was proven feasible to simulate other relevant processes, such as sulfate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing process (SR-SO) and denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process. The model developed is expected to enhance our ability to predict the treatment of carbon-nitrogen-sulfur contaminated industrial wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Eringen, A Cemal
2013-01-01
Continuum Physics: Volume 1 - Mathematics is a collection of papers that discusses certain selected mathematical methods used in the study of continuum physics. Papers in this collection deal with developments in mathematics in continuum physics and its applications such as, group theory functional analysis, theory of invariants, and stochastic processes. Part I explains tensor analysis, including the geometry of subspaces and the geometry of Finsler. Part II discusses group theory, which also covers lattices, morphisms, and crystallographic groups. Part III reviews the theory of invariants th
Bisphenol A Synthesis - Modeling of Industrial Reactor and Catalyst Deactivation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Prokop, Zdeněk; Hanková, Libuše; Jeřábek, Karel
2004-01-01
Roč. 60, - (2004), s. 77-83 Sp/Iss/ SI ISSN 1381-5148. [Asia-Pacific Congress on Catalysis /3./. Dalian, 12.10.2003-15.10.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/02/1104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : bisphenol A * catalyst deactivation * ion exchanger catalyst Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2004
Khamidullin, R. I.
2018-05-01
The paper is devoted to milestones of the optimal mathematical model for a business process related to cost estimate documentation compiled during construction and reconstruction of oil and gas facilities. It describes the study and analysis of fundamental issues in petroleum industry, which are caused by economic instability and deterioration of a business strategy. Business process management is presented as business process modeling aimed at the improvement of the studied business process, namely main criteria of optimization and recommendations for the improvement of the above-mentioned business model.
N2O Catalytic Decomposition – from Laboratory Experiment to Industry Reactor
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Obalová, L.; Jirátová, Květa; Karásková, K.; Chromčáková, Ž.
2012-01-01
Roč. 191, č. 1 (2012), s. 116-120 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020336 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : N2O * catalytic decomposition * fixed bed reactor Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.980, year: 2012
Apparatus for examination of irradiated fuel elements of industrial reactors at Marcoule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pesenti, P.; Wallet, Ph.
1960-01-01
The authors describe a viewing and measurement cell for the slugs of Marcoule industrial reactors. This cell allows visual inspection, and photography of slugs. Length measurements are also made possible by horizontal motion of the slug both in translation and rotation. (author) [fr
CFD Simulation of an Anaerobic Membrane BioReactor (AnMBR to Treat Industrial Wastewater
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura C. Zuluaga
2015-06-01
Full Text Available A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation has been developed for an Anaerobic Membrane BioReactor (AnMBR to treat industrial wastewater. As the process consists of a side-stream MBR, two separate simulations were created: (i reactor and (ii membrane. Different cases were conducted for each one, so the surrounding temperature and the total suspended solids (TSS concentration were checked. For the reactor, the most important aspects to consider were the dead zones and the mixing, whereas for the ceramic membrane, it was the shear stress over the membrane surface. Results show that the reactor's mixing process was adequate and that the membrane presented higher shear stress in the 'triangular' channel.
Intrafirm planning and mathematical modeling of owner's equity in industrial enterprises
Ponomareva, S. V.; Zheleznova, I. V.
2018-05-01
The article aims to review the different approaches to intrafirm planning of owner's equity in industrial enterprises. Since charter capital, additional capital and reserve capital do not change in the process of enterprise activity, the main interest lies on the field of share repurchases from shareholders and retained earnings within the owner's equity of the enterprise. In order to study the effect of share repurchases on the activities of the enterprise, let us use such mathematical methods as event study and econometric modeling. This article describes the step-by-step algorithm of carrying out event study and justifies the choice of Logit model in econometric analysis. The article represents basic results of conducted regression analysis on the effect of share repurchases on the key financial indicators in industrial enterprises.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fournier, G.
1997-05-01
It is today of paramount importance to realistically forecast the cost and time required to design and manufacture a given product, from the very first phase of the project. Furthermore, with the increasingly rapid development of technology, it is often impossible to draw a direct parallel with existing, well known products Mathematical models of cost, and MAP models in particular, have been developed to meet this need. Although one may still refer to former products, they do not automatically have to be 'analogous' to the product under consideration, because these methods use 'universal relationship' between cost, weight, technology, performance and reliability, and also the nature and experience of the firm manufacturing the product. The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate the pertinence, and more importantly the potential, of mathematical models of cost for the oil and gas industry, from exploration and production to refining, petrochemicals, and internal combustion engines. After a theoretical examination of estimation methods and a classification of existing ones, emphasis is placed on the logical aspect of these models. In addition, the complementarity between these tools and certain fields such as project management is pointed out, for example with respect to value control. The last chapter of the thesis is devoted to case studies. It aims chiefly at comparing theory with practice in order to identify the limits of mathematical models of cost so that they can be used judiciously. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukai, Hiroshi
2002-01-01
At present, the Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, Ltd. (MHI) enters to development on APWR+ for a large-scale reactor, AP1000 and pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) for middle- and small-scale one, and innovative one, under cooperation of power industries, manufacturers and institutes in and out of Japan. On APWR+, MHI occupies the most advanced position of conventional large-scale route, intends to carry out further upgrading of large capacity on a base of already developed 1500 MWe class APWR, and aims at further upgrading of economical efficiency. On the other reactor, as it becomes possible to perform value addition specific to the small-scale reactor with smaller output, it is planned to overcome its scale demerit by introducing more innovative techniques. And, on AP1000, it is intended to remove dynamic safety system by introducing a static one, to upgrade simplification of apparatus and reliability of safety system and to reduce its human factors. In addition, here was described on the next generation nuclear reactors under development. (G.K.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aitziber Ojanguren
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Industrial processes that apply high temperatures in the presence of oxygen may compromise the stability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA bioactive isomers. Statistical techniques are used in this study to model and predict, on a laboratory scale, the oxidative behaviour of oil with high CLA content, controlling the limiting factors of food processing. This modelling aims to estimate the impact of an industrial frying process (140 °C, 7 L/h air on the oxidation of CLA oil for use as frying oil instead of sunflower oil. A factorial design was constructed within a temperature (80–200 °C and air flow (7–20 L/h range. Oil stability index (Rancimat method was used as a measure of oxidation. Three-level full factorial design was used to obtain a quadratic model for CLA oil, enabling the oxidative behaviour to be predicted under predetermined process conditions (temperature and air flow. It is deduced that temperatures applied in food processes affect the oxidation of CLA to a greater extent than air flow. As a result, it is estimated that the oxidative stability of CLA oil is less resistant to industrial frying than sunflower oil. In conclusion, thanks to the mathematical model, a good choice of the appropriate industrial food process can be selected to avoid the oxidation of the bioactive isomers of CLA, ensuring its functionality in novel applications.
Stein, Sherman K
2010-01-01
Anyone can appreciate the beauty, depth, and vitality of mathematics with the help of this highly readable text, specially developed from a college course designed to appeal to students in a variety of fields. Readers with little mathematical background are exposed to a broad range of subjects chosen from number theory, topology, set theory, geometry, algebra, and analysis. Starting with a survey of questions on weight, the text discusses the primes, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, rationals and irrationals, tiling, tiling and electricity, probability, infinite sets, and many other topi
Strengthening the R and D on fast reactor technology, and promoting its industrialization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wan Gang
2008-01-01
Based on the strategic thoughts of energy development in China expounded by Jiang Zemin in the article entitled 'Reflections on Energy Issues in China', the author points out in this paper that R and Ds on fast reactor technology shall be carried out timely in China by taking full advantage of international scientific resources, and overall planning in this regard shall be made as well. The point of view of strengthening fast reactor technology R and D and promoting its industrialization is also put forward in the paper. (authors)
Tying the knot with next-generation reactors: Can the industry afford a second marriage?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1993-01-01
This article examines the future of nuclear power beyond the year 2000. The nuclear industry just celebrated 50 years of nuclear technology, but no new plants have been ordered in the US since 1978 and some European countries are giving up on the nuclear option. This article discusses the four US advanced light-water reactor design and safety features, specific design features and parameters for the advanced designs, advanced designs from Europe, features utilities look for in a reactor, evolutionary versus passive designs, gaining public acceptance for new designs, and what alternatives are there to installing next-generation nuclear systems?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demazure, M.
1988-01-01
The 1988 progress report of the Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Center is composed of different research teams: analysis, Riemann geometry, group theory, formal calculus and algorithm geometry, dynamical systems, topology and singularity. For each team, the members, the research topics, the national and international cooperations, are given. The papers concerning the investigations carried out in 1988, are listed [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo Andreola
2011-02-01
Full Text Available An industrial system for the production of white liquor of a pulp and paper industry, Klabin Paraná Papéis, formed by ten reactors was modeled, simulated, and analyzed. The developed model considered possible water losses by the evaporation and reaction, in addition to variations in the volumetric flow of lime mud across the reactors due to the composition variations. The model predictions agreed well with the process measurements at the plant and the results showed that the slaking reaction was nearly complete at the third causticizing reactor, while causticizing ends by the seventh reactor. Water loss due to slaking reaction and evaporation occurred more pronouncedly in the slaker reactor than in the final causticizing reactors; nevertheless, the lime mud flow remained nearly constant across the reactors.
Lozi, René; Siddiqi, Abul
2017-01-01
The book discusses essential topics in industrial and applied mathematics such as image processing with a special focus on medical imaging, biometrics and tomography. Applications of mathematical concepts to areas like national security, homeland security and law enforcement, enterprise and e-government services, personal information and business transactions, and brain-like computers are also highlighted. These contributions – all prepared by respected academicians, scientists and researchers from across the globe – are based on papers presented at the international conference organized on the occasion of the Silver Jubilee of the Indian Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics (ISIAM) held from 29 to 31 January 2016 at Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. The book will help young scientists and engineers grasp systematic developments in those areas of mathematics that are essential to properly understand challenging contemporary problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, T.M.; Stevenson, J.D.
1995-10-01
Throughout its history, the USNRC has remained committed to the use of industry consensus standards for the design, construction, and licensing of commercial nuclear power facilities. The existing industry standards are based on the current class of light water reactors and as such may not adequately address design and construction features of the next generation of Advanced Light Water Reactors and other types of Advanced Reactors. As part of their on-going commitment to industry standards, the USNRC commissioned this study to evaluate US industry structural standards for application to Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactors. The initial review effort included (1) the review and study of the relevant reactor design basis documentation for eight Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactor Designs, (2) the review of the USNRCs design requirements for advanced reactors, (3) the review of the latest revisions of the relevant industry consensus structural standards, and (4) the identification of the need for changes to these standards. The results of these studies were used to develop recommended changes to industry consensus structural standards which will be used in the construction of Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactors. Over seventy sets of proposed standard changes were recommended and the need for the development of four new structural standards was identified. In addition to the recommended standard changes, several other sets of information and data were extracted for use by USNRC in other on-going programs. This information included (1) detailed observations on the response of structures and distribution system supports to the recent Northridge, California (1994) and Kobe, Japan (1995) earthquakes, (2) comparison of versions of certain standards cited in the standard review plan to the most current versions, and (3) comparison of the seismic and wind design basis for all the subject reactor designs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. K. Bityukov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the mathematical modeling of the kinetics of ethyl benzene dehydrogenation in a two-stage adiabatic reactor with a catalytic bed functioning on continuous technology. The analysis of chemical reactions taking place parallel to the main reaction of styrene formation has been carried out on the basis of which a number of assumptions were made proceeding from which a kinetic scheme describing the mechanism of the chemical reactions during the dehydrogenation process was developed. A mathematical model of the dehydrogenation process, describing the dynamics of chemical reactions taking place in each of the two stages of the reactor block at a constant temperature is developed. The estimation of the rate constants of direct and reverse reactions of each component, formation and exhaustion of the reacted mixture was made. The dynamics of the starting material concentration variations (ethyl benzene batch was obtained as well as styrene formation dynamics and all byproducts of dehydrogenation (benzene, toluene, ethylene, carbon, hydrogen, ect.. The calculated the variations of the component composition of the reaction mixture during its passage through the first and second stages of the reactor showed that the proposed mathematical description adequately reproduces the kinetics of the process under investigation. This demonstrates the advantage of the developed model, as well as loyalty to the values found for the rate constants of reactions, which enable the use of models for calculating the kinetics of ethyl benzene dehydrogenation under nonisothermal mode in order to determine the optimal temperature trajectory of the reactor operation. In the future, it will reduce energy and resource consumption, increase the volume of produced styrene and improve the economic indexes of the process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clauzon, J.; Vaubert, B.
1984-12-01
This paper presents data and information on the end of the life of nuclear reactors. One deals more particularly with installations of industrialized countries. This report gives the motivations which have involved the definitive shut down of nuclear power plants and of research reactors in the concerned countries. A schedule of definitive reactor shutdowns is presented. Then, one deals with nuclear power plants of which the construction has been stopped. The reasons of these situations are also given. The temporary difficulties met during the construction or the starting of nuclear power plants these last years are mentioned. Most times, there are economical or political considerations, or safety reasons. Finally, the nuclear power plants stopped for more than two years are mentioned [fr
Bélair, Jacques; Kunze, Herb; Makarov, Roman; Melnik, Roderick; Spiteri, Raymond J
2016-01-01
Focusing on five main groups of interdisciplinary problems, this book covers a wide range of topics in mathematical modeling, computational science and applied mathematics. It presents a wealth of new results in the development of modeling theories and methods, advancing diverse areas of applications and promoting interdisciplinary interactions between mathematicians, scientists, engineers and representatives from other disciplines. The book offers a valuable source of methods, ideas, and tools developed for a variety of disciplines, including the natural and social sciences, medicine, engineering, and technology. Original results are presented on both the fundamental and applied level, accompanied by an ample number of real-world problems and examples emphasizing the interdisciplinary nature and universality of mathematical modeling, and providing an excellent outline of today’s challenges. Mathematical modeling, with applied and computational methods and tools, plays a fundamental role in modern science a...
Talaghat, M. R.; Jokar, S. M.; Modarres, E.
2017-10-01
The reduction of fossil fuel resources and environmental issues made researchers find alternative fuels include biodiesels. One of the most widely used methods for production of biodiesel on a commercial scale is transesterification method. In this work, the biodiesel production by a transesterification method was modeled. Sodium hydroxide was considered as a catalyst to produce biodiesel from canola oil and methanol in a continuous tubular ceramic membranes reactor. As the Biodiesel production reaction from triglycerides is an equilibrium reaction, the reaction rate constants depend on temperature and related linearly to catalyst concentration. By using the mass balance for a membrane tubular reactor and considering the variation of raw materials and products concentration with time, the set of governing equations were solved by numerical methods. The results clearly show the superiority of membrane reactor than conventional tubular reactors. Afterward, the influences of molar ratio of alcohol to oil, weight percentage of the catalyst, and residence time on the performance of biodiesel production reactor were investigated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. V. R. Naidu
2011-09-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a critical evaluation of the Preventive Maintenance system in steel industry. This study helps in implementing Six Sigma solutions to reduce the down time of two critical machines i.e., Electric Arc Furnace (EAF and Billet Casting Machine (BCM. It is clear from the analysis of EAF and BCM respectively that, variations in output are quite possible because the machines output not only depend on maintenance time but also on several other variables. Further, the objective is to design a preventive maintenance programme on the same equipment situated in the plant using Six Sigma. The breakdown of these equipments could very well affect the production rate. For this, the mathematical models have been developed and these models are used to obtain the optimum preventive maintenance frequency for minimizing the down time and maximizing the profits.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-12-01
An airborne radiological survey of a 6 km 2 area centered over the Industrial Reactor Laboratory was made 25-27 July 1979. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with that expected from normal background emitters, except at two locations described in this report. Count rates observed at 46 m altitude were converted to exposure rates at 1 m above the ground and are presented in the form of an isopleth map
EUROPAIRS: The European project on coupling of High Temperature Reactors with industrial processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angulo, C.; Bogusch, E.; Bredimas, A.; Delannay, N.; Viala, C.; Ruer, J.; Muguerra, Ph.; Sibaud, E.; Chauvet, V.; Hittner, D.; Fütterer, M.A.; Groot, S. de; Lensa, W. von; Verfondern, K.; Moron, R.; Baudrand, O.; Griffay, G.; Baaten, A.; Segurado-Gimenez, J.
2012-01-01
Developers of High Temperature Reactors (HTR) worldwide acknowledge that the main asset for market breakthrough is its unique ability to address growing needs for industrial cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) owing to its high operating temperature and flexibility, adapted power level, modularity and robust safety features. A strong alliance between nuclear and process heat user industries is a necessity for developing such a nuclear system for the conventional process heat market, just as the electro-nuclear development required a close partnership with utilities. Initiating such an alliance is one of the objectives of the EUROPAIRS project ( (www.europairs.eu)) presently on-going in the frame of the Euratom 7th Framework Programme (FP7). Although small and of short duration (21 months), EUROPAIRS is of strategic importance: it generates the boundary conditions for rapid demonstration of collocating HTR with industrial processes as proposed by the European High Temperature Reactor Technology Network (HTR-TN). This paper presents the main goals, the organization and the working approach of EUROPAIRS. It also presents the status of the viability assessment studies for coupling HTR with industrial end-user systems as one of the main pillars of the project. The main goal of the viability assessment is to identify developments required to remove the last technological and licensing barriers for a viable coupling scheme. The study is expected to result in guidelines for directing the choice of an industrial scale prototype.
EUROPAIRS: The European project on coupling of High Temperature Reactors with industrial processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angulo, C., E-mail: carmen.angulo@gdfsuez.com [Tractebel Engineering S.A. (GDF SUEZ), Avenue Ariane 7, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Bogusch, E. [AREVA NP GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Strasse 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Bredimas, A. [LGI Consulting, 37 rue de la Grange aux Belles, 75010 Paris (France); Delannay, N. [Tractebel Engineering S.A. (GDF SUEZ), Avenue Ariane 7, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Viala, C. [AREVA NP SAS, 10 rue Juliette Recamier, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France); Ruer, J.; Muguerra, Ph.; Sibaud, E. [SAIPEM S.A., 1/7 Avenue San Fernando, 78884 Saint Quentin en Yvelines Cedex (France); Chauvet, V. [LGI Consulting, 37 rue de la Grange aux Belles, 75010 Paris (France); Hittner, D. [AREVA NP Inc., 3315 Old Forest Road, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Fuetterer, M.A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Groot, S. de [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Lensa, W. von; Verfondern, K. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Strasse,52425 Juelich (Germany); Moron, R. [Solvay SA, rue du Prince Albert 33, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Baudrand, O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Griffay, G. [Arcelor Mittal Maizieres Research SA, rue Luigi Cherubini 1A5, 39200 Saint Denis (France); Baaten, A. [USG/Baaten Energy Consulting, Burgermeester-Ceulen-Straat 78, 6212CT Maastricht (Netherlands); Segurado-Gimenez, J. [Tractebel Engineering S.A. (GDF SUEZ), Avenue Ariane 7, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)
2012-10-15
Developers of High Temperature Reactors (HTR) worldwide acknowledge that the main asset for market breakthrough is its unique ability to address growing needs for industrial cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) owing to its high operating temperature and flexibility, adapted power level, modularity and robust safety features. A strong alliance between nuclear and process heat user industries is a necessity for developing such a nuclear system for the conventional process heat market, just as the electro-nuclear development required a close partnership with utilities. Initiating such an alliance is one of the objectives of the EUROPAIRS project ( (www.europairs.eu)) presently on-going in the frame of the Euratom 7th Framework Programme (FP7). Although small and of short duration (21 months), EUROPAIRS is of strategic importance: it generates the boundary conditions for rapid demonstration of collocating HTR with industrial processes as proposed by the European High Temperature Reactor Technology Network (HTR-TN). This paper presents the main goals, the organization and the working approach of EUROPAIRS. It also presents the status of the viability assessment studies for coupling HTR with industrial end-user systems as one of the main pillars of the project. The main goal of the viability assessment is to identify developments required to remove the last technological and licensing barriers for a viable coupling scheme. The study is expected to result in guidelines for directing the choice of an industrial scale prototype.
Use of reactor plants of enhanced safety for sea water desalination, industrial and district heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panov, Yu.; Polunichev, V.; Zverev, K.
1997-01-01
Russian designers have developed and can deliver nuclear complexes to provide sea water desalination, industrial and district heating. This paper provides an overview of these designs utilizing the ABV, KLT-40 and ATETS-80 reactor plants of enhanced safety. The most advanced nuclear powered water desalination project is the APVS-80. This design consists of a special ship equipped with the distillation desalination plant powered at a level of 160 MW(th) utilizing the type KLT-40 reactor plant. More than 20 years of experience with water desalination and reactor plants has been achieved in Aktau and Russian nuclear ships without radioactive contamination of desalinated water. Design is also proceeding on a two structure complex consisting of a floating nuclear power station and a reverse osmosis desalination plant. This new technology for sea water desalination provides the opportunity to considerably reduce the specific consumption of power for the desalination of sea water. The ABV reactor is utilized in the ''Volnolom'' type floating nuclear power stations. This design also features a desalinator ship which provides sea water desalination by the reverse osmosis process. The ATETS-80 is a nuclear two-reactor cogeneration complex which incorporates the integral vessel-type PWR which can be used in the production of electricity, steam, hot and desalinated water. (author). 9 figs
PWR reactor pressure vessel internals license renewal industry report; revision 1. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwirian, R.; Robison, G.
1994-07-01
The U.S. nuclear power industry, through coordination by the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC), and sponsorship by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has evaluated age-related degradation effects for a number of major plant systems, structures and components, in the license renewal technical Industry Reports (IRs). License renewal applicants may choose to reference these IRs in support of their plant-specific license renewal applications, as an equivalent to the integrated plant assessment provisions of the license renewal rule (10 CFR Part 54). Pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor pressure vessel (RPV) internals designed by all three U.S. PWR nuclear steam supply system vendors have been evaluated relative to the effects of age-related degradation mechanisms; the capability of current design limits; inservice examination, testing, repair, refurbishment, and other programs to manage these effects; and the assurance that these internals can continue to perform their intended safety functions in the license renewal term. This industry report (IR), one of a series of ten, provides a generic technical basis for evaluation of PWR reactor pressure vessel internals for license renewal
Tomar, Swati; Gupta, Sunil Kumar
2015-11-01
The present study emphasised on the development of new mathematical models based on mass balance and stoichiometry of nitrogen removal in anammox hybrid reactor (AHR). The performance of AHR at varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and nitrogen loading rates (NLRs) revealed that nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) increases with increase in HRT and was found optimal (89 %) at HRT of 2 days. Mass balance of nitrogen revealed that major fraction (74.1 %) of input nitrogen is converted into N2 gas followed by 11.2 % utilised in biomass synthesis. Attached growth media (AGM) in AHR contributed to an additional 15.4 % ammonium removal and reduced the sludge washout rate by 29 %. This also enhanced the sludge retention capacity of AHR and thus minimised the formation of nitrate in the treated effluent, which is one of the bottlenecks of anammox process. Process kinetics was also studied using various mathematical models. The mass balance model derived from total nitrogen was found most precise and predicted N2 gas with least error (1.68 ± 4.44 %). Model validation for substrate removal kinetics dictated comparatively higher correlation for Grau second-order model (0.952) than modified Stover-Kincannon model (0.920). The study concluded that owing to features of high biomass retention, less nitrate formation and consistently higher nitrogen removal efficiency, this reactor configuration is techno-economically most efficient and viable. The study opens the door for researchers and scientists for pilot-scale testing of AHR leading to its wide industrial application.
Lefèvre, Grégory; Živković, Ljiljana S.; Jaubertie, Anne
2012-01-01
In the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors (PWR), the dynamic sealing system in reactor coolant pumps is ensured by mechanical seals whose ceramic parts are in contact with the cooling solution. During the stretch-out phase in reactor operation, characterized by low boric acid concentration, the leak-off flow has been observed to abnormally evolve in industrial plants. The deposition of hematite particles, originating from corrosion, on alumina seals of coolant pumps is suspec...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Boldrin, Alessio; Dorini, G.
of this study was to apply a dynamic mathematical model to simulate the co-digestion of different urban organic wastes (UOW). The modelling was based on experimental activities, during which two reactors (R1, R2) were operated at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 30, 20, 15, 10 days, in thermophilic conditions......The application of anaerobic digestion (AD) as process technology is increasing worldwide: the production of biogas, a versatile form of renewable energy, from biomass and organic waste materials allows mitigating greenhouse gas emission from the energy and transportation sectors while treating...... waste. However, the successful operation of AD processes is challenged by economic and technological issues. To overcome these barriers, mathematical modelling of the bioconversion process can provide support to develop strategies for controlling and optimizing the AD process. The objective...
Industrial experience with the construction of pressurized-water reactors in France
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leny, J.-C.
1983-01-01
Since 1969, the switch to light-water reactors as the basis of the French nuclear programme has led to the development of an industrial infrastructure for the manufacture of pressurized-water reactor equipment. Since the massive power plant construction programme was approved in 1974, an integrated PWR industry has been built up around and in conjunction with Framatome. The experience gathered relates to the series production of thirty-four 900 MW(e) units and eighteen 1300 MW(e) units, and it is unique. From the industrial point of view, the high rate of construction of identical equipment items has made it possible to streamline production and establish a fully integrated and complete team of constructors and sub-contractors supervised by a likewise highly integrated and comprehensive organization responsible for regulating quality. At the research and development level, the effort to improve knowledge of the product has gradually led to mastery of a French technology and to further developments proceeding therefrom. Standardized, repeated production has given rise to consistent quality, better component reliability and safer plant operation as well as reduced construction time and lower manufacturing costs. However, difficulties have inevitably had to be overcome with respect to the setting up of teams maintaining schedules and mastering the techniques used, and this has required time and money. The remarkable quality, reliability and safety of the products has led to export orders and to good co-operation with local industry in the importing countries. (author)
Radiolysis of the VVER-1000 reactor coolant: An experimental study and mathematical modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arkhipov, O.P.; Bugaenko, V.L.; Kabakchi, S.A.
1995-01-01
Variations in the composition of the coolant for the primary circuit of a VVER-1000 reactor of the Kalinin nuclear power plant upon transition from power-level operation to shutdown was studied experimentally. The data obtained were used for verification of the MORAVA-H2 program developed earlier for simulation of the coolant state in pressurized-water power reactors
Control system of an anaerobia reactor used in the treatment of the Industrial residual waters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duque, Mauricio; Giraldo, Eugenio; Bello Frank
1995-01-01
The technology of the anaerobia digestion, has had a wide acceptance in the Colombian means for the treatment of industrial residual waters, especially for the economic advantages that it present and the good purification results. The technology of the anaerobia digestion for the treatment of residual waters, is based in the conversion of the organic matter present in the polluted waters, in methane and carbon dioxide. These two gases are removed of the reactor by means of special structures of gathering. Microorganisms that are sensitive to the changes of the pH mediate the conversion of the organic matter to CH4 and CO2. Therefore, the control on the pH is necessary for a correct behavior of the reactor. At the moment many industries are implementing plans of contamination control, that involve treatment of residual waters for means anaerobia. The present investigation is part of a wide work program in the technology of the anaerobia digestion. It is looked for to develop a monitored system and automatic control of reactors discharge anaerobia appraises, in a combined effort among the departments of Civil and Electric Engineering of the Andes University
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1995-01-01
The International Conference on Mathematics and Computations, Reactor Physics, and Environmental Analyses marks the sixteenth biennial topical meeting of the Mathematics and Computation (M ampersand C) Division of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). This conference combines many traditional features of M ampersand C conferences with several new aspects. The meeting is, for the first time, being held in Portland, Oregon and sponsored by the ANS Eastern Washington Section. Three of the cosponsors - the ANS Reactor Physics Division, the European Nuclear Society, and the Atomic Energy Society of Japan - have participated in a series of such meetings, with very successful results. The fourth cosponsor, the ANS Environmental Science Division, is participating for the first time as a cosponsor of a M ampersand C topical meeting, as a result of the M ampersand C Division's decision to formally include the area of environmental analyses as a major focus of the conference, another 'first.' Separate abstracts have been submitted to the energy database for contributions to this conference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burstein, S.; Gibbons, J.P.; High, M.D.; O'Boyle, D.R.; Pickens, T.A.; Pilmer, D.F.; Tomonto, J.R.; Weinberg, C.J.
1990-02-01
A team of utility industry representatives evaluated the liquid metal reactor metal fuel process and facility conceptual design being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) under Department of Energy sponsorship. The utility team concluded that a highly competent ANL team was making impressive progress in developing high performance advanced metal fuel and an economic processing and fabrication technology. The utility team concluded that the potential benefits of advanced metal fuel justified the development program, but that, at this early stage, there are considerable uncertainties in predicting the net overall economic benefit of metal fuel. Specific comments and recommendations are provided as a contribution towards enhancing the development program. 6 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
M.E. Lumia; C.A. Gentile
2002-01-01
A significant industrial hygiene concern during the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was the oxidation of the lead bricks' surface, which were utilized for radiation shielding. This presented both airborne exposure and surface contamination issues for the workers in the field removing this material. This paper will detail the various protection and control methods tested and implemented to protect the workers, including those technologies deployed to decontaminate the work surfaces. In addition, those techniques employed to recycle the lead for additional use at the site will be discussed
Lumia, M E
2002-01-01
A significant industrial hygiene concern during the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was the oxidation of the lead bricks' surface, which were utilized for radiation shielding. This presented both airborne exposure and surface contamination issues for the workers in the field removing this material. This paper will detail the various protection and control methods tested and implemented to protect the workers, including those technologies deployed to decontaminate the work surfaces. In addition, those techniques employed to recycle the lead for additional use at the site will be discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maksakov, A.I.; Kovrigin, Yu.K.; Zhila, V.P.
1986-01-01
Qualitatively new technology of reactor compartment construction presupposing organizing of an industrial-mounting in-line complex is described. Maximum level of construction industrialization and noticeable reduction of construction duration are noted to be ensured by means of this technology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joe A. Lemire
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs are an effective biotechnology for treating industrial wastewater. Biomass retention on moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR carriers (biofilm support materials, allows for the ease-of-operation and high treatment capacity of MBBR systems. Optimization of MBBR systems has largely focused on aspects of carrier design, while little attention has been paid to enhancing strategies for harnessing microbial biomass. Previously, our research group demonstrated that mixed-species biofilms can be harvested from an industrial wastewater inoculum [oil sands process water (OSPW] using the Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD. Moreover, the resultant biofilm communities had the capacity to degrade organic toxins (naphthenic acids—NAs that are found in OSPW. Therefore, we hypothesized that harnessing microbial communities from industrial wastewater, as biofilms, on MBBR carriers may be an effective method to bioremediate industrial wastewater.Here, we detail our methodology adapting the workflow employed for using the CBD, to generate inoculant carriers to seed an MBBR.In this study, OSPW-derived biofilm communities were successfully grown, and their efficacy evaluated, on commercially available MBBR carriers affixed within a modified CBD system. The resultant biofilms demonstrated the capacity to transfer biomass to recipient carriers within a scaled MBBR. Moreover, MBBR systems inoculated in this manner were fully active 2 days post-inoculation, and readily degraded a select population of NAs. Together, these findings suggest that harnessing microbial communities on carriers affixed within a modified CBD system may represent a facile and rapid method for obtaining functional inoculants for use in wastewater MBBR treatment systems.
[Comparison of ciliate diversity in biodisc reactors which purify industrial wastewater].
Luna-Pabello, V M; Durán De Bazúa, C; Aladro-Lubel, M A
1995-01-01
The comparative study of the ciliate populations present in rotating biological reactors (biodiscs reactors) of 20 l working volume, treating three different wastewaters is the aim of this project. Wastewaters chosen were those of a maize mill, of a sugarcane/ethyl alcohol plant, and of a recycled paper mill. Its dissolved organic contents, measured as soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), were 2040 mg COD/l and 585 mg BOD5/l for maize mill effluents (nejayote), 2000 mg COD/l and 640 mg BOD5/l for sugarcane/ethanol effluents (vinasses), and 960 mg COD/l and 120 mg BOD5/l for whitewaters of the paper industry. Results obtained indicate that ciliate proliferate in all chambers of reactors treating these wastewaters. The ciliates were more abundant in vinasses, followed by nejayote, and then whitewaters. Among protozoa, ciliates were present as follows: 19 species in total. Three of them were common for the three systems. Free swimming ciliates were in higher proportion than pedunculated ones. Its diversity was higher for the whitewaters system, next for nejayote, and the lesser, for vinasses, corroborating the fact that less polluted waters have higher organisms' diversity.
Small modular reactors (SMRs) - the way forward for the nuclear industry in Canada?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sam-Aggrey, H.
2014-01-01
Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) are being touted as safer, more cost effective and more flexible than traditional nuclear power plants (NPPs). Consequently, it has been argued that SMR technology is pivotal to the revitalization of the nuclear industry at the national and global levels. Drawing mainly on previously published literature, this paper explores the suitability of SMRs for various niche market applications in Canada. The paper examines the potential role of SMRs in providing an opportunity for remote mines and communities in northern Canada to reduce their vulnerability and dependence on costly, high-carbon diesel fuel. Other niche market applications of SMRs explored include: SMRs deployment in Saskatchewan for grid augmentation and as replacement options for Saskatchewan's ageing coal plants; the use of SMRs for bitumen extraction in the Oil Sands, and the potential use of SMRs in Canadian-owned foreign based mines. The socio-economic benefits of SMR deployments are also discussed. Building an SMR industry in Canada could complement the country's extensive expertise in uranium mining, reactor technology, plant operation, nuclear research, and environmental and safety standards, thereby enhancing Canada's ability to offer services throughout the entire nuclear life cycle. The paper also outlines some of the technical, economic and social barriers that could impede the successful introduction of SMRs in Canada. (author)
Application of computer mathematical modeling in nuclear well-logging industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Shaohui
1994-01-01
Nuclear well logging techniques have made rapid progress since the first well log calibration facility (the API pits) was dedicated in 1959. Then came the first computer mathematical model in the late 70's. Mathematical modeling can now minimize design and experiment time, as well as provide new information and idea on tool design, environmental effects and result interpretation. The author gives a brief review on the achievements of mathematical modeling on nuclear logging problems
Empirical characterisation and mathematical modelling of settlement in composting batch reactors
Illa Alibés, Josep; Prenafeta Boldú, Francesc Xavier; Bonmatí Blasi, August; Flotats Ripoll, Xavier
2012-01-01
The settlement of organic matter during composting was measured at different levels during the active biodegradation phase in forced-aerated static reactors loaded with different mixtures of organic wastes. The temperature evolution and the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide were also recorded in the exhaust gases. T
Martins, Ramiro; Boaventura, Rui; Paulista, Larissa
2017-12-01
The accelerated growth of the population brings with it an increase in the generation of agro-industrial effluents. The inadequate discharge of these effluents significantly affects the quality of water resources. In this way, it becomes important to invest in treatment processes for agro-industrial effluents, particularly low-cost ones. In this context, the present study includes the design and construction of an UASB reactor and optimization of the anaerobic digestion treatment of the raw effluent from sweet chestnut production in the agro-industrial company Sortegel. The efficiency of the system was evaluated through the determination / monitoring of oxygen chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), biogas production rate and quality (% methane). The reactor was fed for 25 weeks and operated under mesophilic conditions (temperature 30-40 °C). Different values were tested for the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and volumetric flow rate (VF): 0.66 days (VF=1509 L.m-3.d-1); 1.33 days (VF=755 L.m-3.d-1); 2.41 d days (VF=415 L.m-3.d-1). The average COD removal efficiency reached values of 69%, 82% and 75%, respectively, and simultaneously the associated BOD5 removal efficiency was 84%, 91% and 70%. As regards TSS, removal values were 78%, 94% and 63%. In addition, high methane production rates were obtained, between 2500 and 4800 L CH4.kg-1 COD removed d-1. For all the hydraulic retention times tested, high concentrations of methane in the biogas were recorded: 66-75%, 70% and 75% for HRT of 0.66, 1.33 and 2.41 days, respectively.
de Oliveira, Samuel Conceição; de Castro, Heizir Ferreira; Visconti, Alexandre Eliseu Stourdze; Giudici, Reinaldo
2015-03-01
Experiments of continuous alcoholic fermentation of sugarcane juice with flocculating yeast recycle were conducted in a system of two 0.22-L tower bioreactors in series, operated at a range of dilution rates (D 1 = D 2 = 0.27-0.95 h(-1)), constant recycle ratio (α = F R /F = 4.0) and a sugar concentration in the feed stream (S 0) around 150 g/L. The data obtained in these experimental conditions were used to adjust the parameters of a mathematical model previously developed for the single-stage process. This model considers each of the tower bioreactors as a perfectly mixed continuous reactor and the kinetics of cell growth and product formation takes into account the limitation by substrate and the inhibition by ethanol and biomass, as well as the substrate consumption for cellular maintenance. The model predictions agreed satisfactorily with the measurements taken in both stages of the cascade. The major differences with respect to the kinetic parameters previously estimated for a single-stage system were observed for the maximum specific growth rate, for the inhibition constants of cell growth and for the specific rate of substrate consumption for cell maintenance. Mathematical models were validated and used to simulate alternative operating conditions as well as to analyze the performance of the two-stage process against that of the single-stage process.
Revilla, Marta; Galán, Berta; Viguri, Javier R
2016-07-01
An integrated mathematical model is proposed for modelling a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) under aerobic conditions. The composite model combines the following: (i) a one-dimensional biofilm model, (ii) a bulk liquid model, and (iii) biological processes in the bulk liquid and biofilm considering the interactions among autotrophic, heterotrophic and predator microorganisms. Depending on the values for the soluble biodegradable COD loading rate (SCLR), the model takes into account a) the hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable compounds in the bulk liquid, and b) the growth of predator microorganisms in the bulk liquid and in the biofilm. The integration of the model and the SCLR allows a general description of the behaviour of COD removal by the MBBR under various conditions. The model is applied for two in-series MBBR wastewater plant from an integrated cellulose and viscose production and accurately describes the experimental concentrations of COD, total suspended solids (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorous obtained during 14 months working at different SCLRs and nutrient dosages. The representation of the microorganism group distribution in the biofilm and in the bulk liquid allow for verification of the presence of predator microorganisms in the second reactor under some operational conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A control system for industrial plant (e.g. a pressurized water reactor)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spiller, C.R.L.
1990-01-01
A control system for an industrial plant eg. a pressurised water nuclear reactor, comprises a plurality of instrument sets and a plurality of logic sets. The instrument sets have a number of sensors which detect parameters (temperature, pressure vibration) of the industrial plant, and have two serial link controllers which supply the output signals from each sensor in the instrument set sequentially to the logic sets via conductors. The logic sets have a number of auto select logic circuits, each of which selects data from the sensors from one of the instrument sets, and a synchroniser ensures that the output signals from the sensors detecting the same parameter are supplied to a voting logic circuit at the same time. The voting logic circuit performs a voting function on the output signals to produce a series of high reliability signals which are converted to parallel high reliability signals by a series to a parallel converter. The high reliability signals are supplied to a fault logic shutdown circuit which controls the operation of shutdown mechanisms for the industrial plant. (author)
Caluwé, Michel; Daens, Dominique; Blust, Ronny; Geuens, Luc; Dries, Jan
2017-02-01
In the present study, the influence of a changing feeding pattern from continuous to pulse feeding on the characteristics of activated sludge was investigated with a wastewater from the petrochemical industry from the harbour of Antwerp. Continuous seed sludge, adapted to the industrial wastewater, was used to start up three laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors. After an adaptation period from the shift to pulse feeding, the effect of an increasing organic loading rate (OLR) and volume exchange ratio (VER) were investigated one after another. Remarkable changes of the specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR), microscopic structure, sludge volume index (SVI), SVI 30 /SVI 5 ratio, and settling rate were observed during adaptation. sOUR increased two to five times and treatment time decreased 43.9% in 15 days. Stabilization of the SVI occurred after a period of 20 days and improved significantly from 300 mL·g -1 to 80 mL·g -1 . Triplication of the OLR and VER had no negative influence on sludge settling and effluent quality. Adaptation time of the microorganisms to a new feeding pattern, OLR and VER was relatively short and sludge characteristics related to aerobic granular sludge were obtained. This study indicates significant potential of the batch activated sludge system for the treatment of this industrial petrochemical wastewater.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hampe, Jona; Madlener, Reinhard
2016-01-01
This paper studies the economic potential of using high-temperature nuclear reactors (HTRs) for cogeneration of industrial process heat and electricity. A reference case HTR is found to deliver cost-competitive process heat with temperatures of ≥200°C, rendering the chemical and pulp and paper industries potential candidates. The reference case investment yields a positive net present value of €304 million. Real options analysis is employed to account for the uncertain environment and the resulting managerial flexibilities of the project. A real option model for optimal investment timing is adapted to HTRs for industrial cogeneration. The value of the option to invest in an HTR is determined at €667 million and the electricity price threshold for an optimal investment at 79 €/MWh. Though the option to invest in an HTR represents a significant value for a utility, the investment should be delayed until the electricity price has reached the threshold value. We also propose a model to calculate the option value of switching between two different operating modes (cogeneration vs. electricity only). For the reference case, this option value turns out to be €85 million. (author)
Reactor physics and reactor computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ronen, Y.; Elias, E.
1994-01-01
Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference
Neutron activation analysis in an industrial laboratory using an off-site nuclear reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osborn, T.W.; Broering, W.B.
1977-01-01
A multifunctional research laboratory, such as Procter and Gamble's Miami Valley Laboratories, requires elemental analyses on many materials. A general survey technique is important even if the information it provides is incomplete or is less precise than single element analyses. Procter and Gamble has developed neutron activation analysis (NAA) capabilities using a nuclear reactor several hundred miles away. The concentration of 40 to 50 elements can be determined in a variety of matrices. We have found NAA to be a powerful supplement to some of the more classical analytical techniques even without having an on-site neutron source. We have also found an automated data acquisition system to be essential for the successful application of NAA in an industrial laboratory
Potential role of the Romanian research and industry on the small and medium reactors market
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rapeanu, S.N.; Bujor, A.; Comsa, O.
1998-01-01
The need of diversifying the energy sources, independence from foreign supplies and modernization of economy have constituted the major factors in implementation of nuclear energy in Romania. The choice of the heavy water reactor CANDU-600 was made on grounds of advanced safety features, proven efficient economic operation as well as on the technologic feasibility for manufacturing of components, equipment, instrumentation, heavy water and natural uranium fuel in Romania. Unlike turn-key acquisition approaches, the Romanian option provided an active national participation in construction the Cernavoda NPP. As consequence, important support was being given to development of the industries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, manufacturing of equipment and nuclear materials, construction-montage, engineering, consulting, services, etc. This was done based on technology transfer, implementation of advanced design and execution standards, quality assurance procedures and modern nuclear safety requirements at international level. The efforts materialized in an important national participation in the construction of the Cernavoda NPP and all related programs are successful. Now, Romanian firms are also involved in supplying components, equipment and services to NPP's in other eastern and central Europeans countries. The paper presents the achievements of the Romanian economy in this field and the effort of the Romanian companies on the small and medium power reactors market. Lists with main R and D institutes, nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as potential equipment suppliers are attached. (author)
Potential role of the Romanian research and industry on the small and medium reactors market
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rapeanu, S N; Bujor, A [National Agency for Atomic Energy, Bucharest (Romania); Comsa, O [Center of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects, Bucharest (Romania)
1998-02-01
The need of diversifying the energy sources, independence from foreign supplies and modernization of economy have constituted the major factors in implementation of nuclear energy in Romania. The choice of the heavy water reactor CANDU-600 was made on grounds of advanced safety features, proven efficient economic operation as well as on the technologic feasibility for manufacturing of components, equipment, instrumentation, heavy water and natural uranium fuel in Romania. Unlike turn-key acquisition approaches, the Romanian option provided an active national participation in construction the Cernavoda NPP. As consequence, important support was being given to development of the industries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, manufacturing of equipment and nuclear materials, construction-montage, engineering, consulting, services, etc. This was done based on technology transfer, implementation of advanced design and execution standards, quality assurance procedures and modern nuclear safety requirements at international level. The efforts materialized in an important national participation in the construction of the Cernavoda NPP and all related programs are successful. Now, Romanian firms are also involved in supplying components, equipment and services to NPP`s in other eastern and central Europeans countries. The paper presents the achievements of the Romanian economy in this field and the effort of the Romanian companies on the small and medium power reactors market. Lists with main R and D institutes, nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as potential equipment suppliers are attached. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs.
Vendramel, Simone; Dezotti, Marcia; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L
2011-01-01
Nitrification of wastewaters from chemical industries can pose some challenges due to the presence of inhibitory compounds. Some wastewaters, besides their organic complexity present variable levels of salt concentration. In order to investigate the effect of salt (NaCl) content on the nitrification of a conventional biologically treated industrial wastewater, a bench scale moving-bed biofilm reactor was operated on a sequencing batch mode. The wastewater presenting a chloride content of 0.05 g l(-1) was supplemented with NaCl up to 12 g Cl(-) l(-1). The reactor operation cycle was: filling (5 min), aeration (12 or 24h), settling (5 min) and drawing (5 min). Each experimental run was conducted for 3 to 6 months to address problems related to the inherent wastewater variability and process stabilization. A PLC system assured automatic operation and control of the pertinent process variables. Data obtained from selected batch experiments were adjusted by a kinetic model, which considered ammonia, nitrite and nitrate variations. The average performance results indicated that nitrification efficiency was not influenced by chloride content in the range of 0.05 to 6 g Cl(-) l(-1) and remained around 90%. When the chloride content was 12 g Cl(-) l(-1), a significant drop in the nitrification efficiency was observed, even operating with a reaction period of 24 h. Also, a negative effect of the wastewater organic matter content on nitrification efficiency was observed, which was probably caused by growth of heterotrophs in detriment of autotrophs and nitrification inhibition by residual chemicals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boer, H.; Delle, E.; Mies, K.; Warmeling, A.
1996-01-01
The booklet presents background information and addresses the following aspects: ionizing radiation and radiation effects; safety of German nuclear power plants; statistical evidence of radiation injuries; short-lived and long-lived ionizing radiation; radioactive waste; CO 2 emissions as an argument in favour of nuclear power generation. The material presented is intended for use by a school project team interested in the subjects, or as a basis for collaborative, interdisciplinary teaching in working groups, and it offers information and problems for mathematics teaching. (HP) [de
Dynamic analysis of the PEC fast reactor vessel: On-site tests and mathematical models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zola, M.; Martelli, A.; Masoni, P.; Scandola, G.
1988-01-01
This paper presents the main features and results of the on-site dynamic tests and the related numerical analyses carried out for the PEC reactor vessel. The purpose is to provide an example of on-site testing of large components, stressing the problems encountered during the experiments, as well as in the processing phase of the test results and for the comparisons between calculations and measurements. Tests, performed by ISMES on behalf of ENEA, allowed the dynamic response of the empty vessel to be measured, thus providing data for the verification of the numerical models of the vessel supporting structure adopted in the PEC reactor-block seismic analysis. An axisymmetric model of the vessel, implemented in the NOVAX code, had been developed in the framework of the detailed numerical studies performed by NOVATOME (again on behalf of ENEA), to check the beam schematization with fluid added mass model adopted by ANSALDO in SAP-IV and ANSYS for the reactor-block design calculations. Furthermore, a numerical model, describing vessel supporting structure in detail, was also developed by ANSALDO and implemented in the SAP-IV code. The test conditions were analysed by use of these and the design models. Comparisons between calculations and measurements showed particularly good agreement with regard to first natural frequency of the vessel and rocking stiffness of the vessel supporting structure, i.e. those parameters on which vessel seismic amplification mainly depends: this demonstrated the adequacy of the design analysis to correctly calculate the seismic motion at the PEC core diagrid. (author). 5 refs, 23 figs, 4 tabs
Dynamic analysis of the PEC fast reactor vessel: on-site tests and mathematical models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zola, Maurizio; Martelli, Alessandro; Maresca, Giuseppe; Masoni, Paolo; Scandola, Giani; Descleves, Pierre
1988-01-01
This paper presents the main features and results of the on-site dynamic tests and the related numerical analysis carried out for the PEC reactor vessel. The purpose is to provide an example of on-site testing of large components, stressing the problems encountered during the experiments, as well as in the processing phase of the test results and for the comparisons between calculations and measurements. Tests, performed by ISMES on behalf of ENEA, allowed the dynamic response of the empty vessel to be measured, thus providing data for the verification of the numerical models of the vessel supporting structure adopted in the PEC reactor-block seismic analysis. An axisymmetric model of the vessel, implemented in the vessel, implemented in the NOVAK code, had been developed in the framework of the detailed numerical studies performed by NOVATOME (again on behalf of ENEA), to check the beam schematization with fluid added mass model adopted by ANSALDO in SAP-IV and ANSYS for the reactor-block design calculations. Furthermore, a numerical model, describing vessel supporting structure in detail, was also developed by ANSALDO and implemented in the SAP-IV code. The test conditions were analysed by use of these and the design models. Comparisons between calculations and measurements showed particularly good agreement with regard to first natural frequency of the vessel and rocking stiffness of the vessel supporting structure, i.e. those parameters on which vessel seismic amplification mainly depends: this demonstrated the adequacy of the design analysis to correctly calculate the seismic motion at the PEC core diagrid. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nigmatulin, B.I.; Tikhonenko, L.K. [Engineering Centre (EREC) for Nuclear Plants Safety, Electrogorsk (Russian Federation); Blinkov, V.N. [Aviation Institute, Kharkov (Ukraine)] [and others
1995-09-01
In this paper the thermalhydraulic scheme and peculiarities of the boiling water graphite-moderated channel-type reactor RBMK are presented and discussed shortly. The essential for RBMK transient regimes, accidental situations and accompanying thermalhydraulic phenomena and processes are formulated. These data are presented in the form of cross reference matrix (version 1) for system computer codes verification. The paper includes qualitative analysis of the computer codes and integral facilities which have been used or can be used for RBMK transients and accidents investigations. The stability margins for RBMK-1000 and RBMK-1500 are shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toyama, Masahiro; Kasai, Shigeo.
1978-01-01
Purpose: To provide a lmfbr type reactor wherein effusion of coolants through a loop contact portion is reduced even when fuel assemblies float up, and misloading of reactor core constituting elements is prevented thereby improving the reactor safety. Constitution: The reactor core constituents are secured in the reactor by utilizing the differential pressure between the high-pressure cooling chamber and low-pressure cooling chamber. A resistance port is formed at the upper part of a connecting pipe, and which is connect the low-pressure cooling chamber and the lower surface of the reactor core constituent. This resistance part is formed such that the internal sectional area of the connecting pipe is made larger stepwise toward the upper part, and the cylinder is formed larger so that it profiles the inner surface of the connecting pipe. (Aizawa, K.)
Nunes, Mário A P; Rosa, M Emilia; Fernandes, Pedro C B; Ribeiro, Maria H L
2014-07-01
The immobilization of naringinase in PVA lens-shaped particles, a cheap and biocompatible hydrogel was shown to provide an effective biocatalyst for naringin hydrolysis, an appealing reaction in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The present work addresses the operational stability and scale-up of the bioconversion system, in various types of reactors, namely shaken microtiter plates (volume ⩽ 2 mL), batch stirred tank reactors (volume reactor (PBR, 6.8 mL). Consecutive batch runs were performed with the shaken/stirred vessels, with reproducible and encouraging results, related to operational stability. The PBR was used to establish the feasibility for continuous operation, running continuously for 54 days at 45°C. The biocatalyst activity remained constant for 40 days of continuous operation. The averaged specific productivity was 9.07 mmol h(-1) g enzyme(-1) and the half-life of 48 days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carrey, R; Rodríguez-Escales, P; Soler, A; Otero, N
2018-02-01
Nitrate removal through enhanced biological denitrification (EBD), consisting of the inoculation of an external electron donor, is a feasible solution for the recovery of groundwater quality. In this context, liquid waste from wine industries (wine industry by-products, WIB) may be feasible for use as a reactant to enhance heterotrophic denitrification. To address the feasibility of WIB as electron donor to promote denitrification, as well as to evaluate the role of biomass as a secondary organic C source, a flow-through experiment was carried out. Chemical and isotopic characterization was performed and coupled with mathematical modeling. Complete nitrate attenuation with no nitrite accumulation was successfully achieved after 10 days. Four different C/N molar ratios (7.0, 2.0, 1.0 and 0) were tested. Progressive decrease of the C/N ratio reduced the remaining C in the outflow and favored biomass migration, producing significant changes in dispersivity in the reactor, which favored efficient nitrate degradation. The applied mathematical model described the general trends for nitrate, ethanol, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations. This model shows how the biomass present in the system is degraded to dissolved organic C (DOC en ) and becomes the main source of DOC for a C/N ratio between 1.0 and 0. The isotopic model developed for organic and inorganic carbon also describes the general trends of δ 13 C of ethanol, DOC and DIC in the outflow water. The study of the evolution of the isotopic fractionation of organic C using a Rayleigh distillation model shows the shift in the organic carbon source from the WIB to the biomass and is in agreement with the isotopic fractionation values used to calibrate the model. Isotopic fractionations (ε) of C-ethanol and C-DOC en were -1‰ and -5‰ (model) and -3.3‰ and -4.8‰ (Rayleigh), respectively. In addition, an inverse isotopic fractionation of +10‰ was observed for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez R, Miriam G.; Mendoza, Victor; Puebla, Hector; Martinez D, Sergio A.
2009-01-01
In Mexico, most of the electroplating and textile industries are small facilities and release relatively large amounts of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in surface waters. In this work, the results obtained during the operation of a batch reactor with a capacity of 170 L, and three electrochemical flow reactors-in-series system with a total capacity of 510 L (both using iron rotating ring electrodes to remove Cr(VI) from wastewaters) are presented. The reactors were scaled up from a laboratory reactor to a semi-industrial level, based on the similarity (dynamical, geometrical and electrochemical). An empirical Cr(VI) removal model was validated in batch and continuous reactors at different operating conditions. Cr(VI) concentration of the industrial wastewaters was reduced from about 500 mg/L to values lower than 0.5 mg/L. A very important parameter that affects the process is the pH, which affects the solubility of the Fe(III). Finally, the electrochemical treated wastewater can be reused
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez R, Miriam G. [Depto. Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Azcapotzalco, CP 07740, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mendoza, Victor [Depto. Electronica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Azcapotzalco, CP 07740, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Puebla, Hector [Depto. Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Azcapotzalco, CP 07740, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Martinez D, Sergio A. [Depto. Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Azcapotzalco, CP 07740, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: samd@correo.azc.uam.mx
2009-04-30
In Mexico, most of the electroplating and textile industries are small facilities and release relatively large amounts of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in surface waters. In this work, the results obtained during the operation of a batch reactor with a capacity of 170 L, and three electrochemical flow reactors-in-series system with a total capacity of 510 L (both using iron rotating ring electrodes to remove Cr(VI) from wastewaters) are presented. The reactors were scaled up from a laboratory reactor to a semi-industrial level, based on the similarity (dynamical, geometrical and electrochemical). An empirical Cr(VI) removal model was validated in batch and continuous reactors at different operating conditions. Cr(VI) concentration of the industrial wastewaters was reduced from about 500 mg/L to values lower than 0.5 mg/L. A very important parameter that affects the process is the pH, which affects the solubility of the Fe(III). Finally, the electrochemical treated wastewater can be reused.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikeda, Masaomi; Kashimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Nishioka, Kazuya.
1979-01-01
Purpose: To facilitate the construction of a reactor containment building, whereby the inspections of the outer wall of a reactor container after the completion of the construction of the reactor building can be easily carried out. Constitution: In a reactor accommodated in a container encircled by a building wall, a space is provided between the container and the building wall encircling the container, and a metal wall is provided in the space so that it is fitted in the building wall in an attachable or detatchable manner. (Aizawa, K.)
Jiang, Hao; Nie, Hong; Ding, Jiangtao; Stinner, Walter; Sun, Kaixuan; Zhou, Hongjun
2018-01-02
In this study, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) with seven chambers was applied to treat medium-strength synthetic industrial wastewater (MSIW). The performance of startup and shock test on treating MSIW was investigated. During the acclimation process, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of MSIW gradually increased from 0 to 2,000 mg L -1 , and the COD removal finally reached 90%. At shock test, the feeding COD concentration increased by one-fifth and the reactor adapted very well with a COD removal of 82%. In a stable state, Comamonas, Smithella, Syntrophomonas and Pseudomonas were the main populations of bacteria, while the predominant methanogen was Methanobacterium. The results of chemical and microbiological analysis indicated the significant advantages of ABR, including buffering shocks, separating stages with matching microorganisms and promoting syntrophism. Meanwhile, the strategies for acclimation and operation were of great importance. Further work can test reactor performance in the treatment of actual industrial wastewater.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Vadapalli, VRK
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This study investigated the implications of using two grades of limestone from a paper and pulp industry for neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD) in a pilot sequencing batch reactor (SBR). In this regard, two grades of calcium carbonate were...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soroa del Campo, S.; Lopetegui Garnika, J.; Almandoz Peraita, A.; Garcia de las Heras, J. L.
2005-07-01
The application of the European legislation has promoted different strategies aimed at minimizing the biological sludge production during wastewater treatment. Anaerobic biological treatment is the clearest choice from a technical and economical point of view regarding industrial wastewater. In this context, a semi-industrial anaerobic hybrid reactor has been developed as an alternative technology to other anaerobic systems well-established in the market for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater. The The results have demonstrated that it is an effective, robust and easy to operate system. The sludge production has been reduced below 0.12 kg VS/kg COD removed, for COD removal efficiencies above 95%. (Author) 12 refs.
Tsibulskiy, V. F.; Andrianova, E. A.; Davidenko, V. D.; Rodionova, E. V.; Tsibulskiy, S. V.
2017-12-01
A concept of a large-scale nuclear power engineering system equipped with fusion and fission reactors is presented. The reactors have a joint fuel cycle, which imposes the lowest risk of the radiation impact on the environment. The formation of such a system is considered within the framework of the evolution of the current nuclear power industry with the dominance of thermal reactors, gradual transition to the thorium fuel cycle, and integration into the system of the hybrid fusion-fission reactors for breeding nuclear fuel for fission reactors. Such evolution of the nuclear power engineering system will allow preservation of the existing structure with the dominance of thermal reactors, enable the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) with low burnup, and prevent the dangerous accumulation of minor actinides. The proposed structure of the nuclear power engineering system minimizes the risk of radioactive contamination of the environment and the SNF reprocessing facilities, decreasing it by more than one order of magnitude in comparison with the proposed scheme of closing the uranium-plutonium fuel cycle based on the reprocessing of SNF with high burnup from fast reactors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lassmann, K.
1991-01-01
Fuel element modelling is a wide field of activity that spans decades of research and code development for different reactor systems and very different situations such as normal operation, off-normal situations and severe accidents. Modern computer technology helps to take the full advantage of detailed model development performed over the past for daily design analyses, safety analyses, conception of new experiments and investigation of an improved nuclear fuel utilization and fuel element performance. The basic development of the concepts of fuel element modelling can be considered as finished. The future trends are the development of refined models based on a deeper understanding of the physical and mechanical basis. Areas of interest are transient phenomena especially the fission product behaviour, burnup-enhanced phenomena, PCI and fuel reliability, severe core damage and chemical aspects. The seminar presentations reflect this variety
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
New Pei Yee
2008-04-01
Full Text Available A one-dimensional mathematical model was developed to simulate the performance of catalytic fixed bedreactor for carbon dioxide reforming of methane over Rh/Al2O3 catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The reactionsinvolved in the system are carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CORM and reverse water gas shiftreaction (RWGS. The profiles of CH4 and CO2 conversions, CO and H2 yields, molar flow rate and molefraction of all species as well as reactor temperature along the axial bed of catalyst were simulated. In addition,the effects of different reactor temperature on the reactor performance were also studied. The modelscan also be applied to analyze the performances of lab-scale micro reactor as well as pilot-plant scale reactorwith certain modifications and model verification with experimental data. © 2008 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Received: 20 August 2008; Accepted: 25 September 2008][How to Cite: N.A.S. Amin, I. Istadi, N.P. Yee. (2008. Mathematical Modelling of Catalytic Fixed-Bed Reactor for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane over Rh/Al2O3 Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 3 (1-3: 21-29. doi:10.9767/bcrec.3.1-3.19.21-29
Effect of water losses by evaporation and chemical reaction in an industrial slaker reactor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo Andreola
2007-03-01
Full Text Available A dynamic model of the slaker reactor was developed and validated for Klabin Paraná Papéis causticizing system, responsable for white liquor generation used by the plant. The model considered water losses by evaporation and chemical reaction. The model showed a good agreement with the industrial plant measures of active alkali, total titratable alkali and temperature, without the need of adjustment of any parameter. The simulated results showed that the water consumption by the slaking reaction and evaporation exerted significant influence on the volumetric flow rate of limed liquor, which imposed a decrease of 4.6% in the amount of water in reactor outlet.Foi desenvolvido e testado um modelo dinâmico do reator de apagamento do sistema de caustificação da Klabin Paraná Papéis, responsável pela geração do licor branco utilizado na planta. O modelo contempla perdas de água por evaporação e por reação química e apresentou boa concordância com dados industriais de álcali ativo, álcali total titulável e temperatura, sem a necessidade de ajuste de nenhum parâmetro. Os resultados obtidos a partir de simulações revelam que o consumo de água pela reação de apagamento, bem como pela evaporação, exercem uma influência significativa sobre a vazão volumétrica na saída do reator, impondo uma diminuição de 4,6% sobre o teor de água na corrente de saída do reator em relação à alimentação.
Mathematic modeling of reactor fuel radiation creep at example of uranium and its alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, V.A.
2001-01-01
The model of a radiation creep is explained within the framework of the mechanism of gliding and climbing dislocations based on the conception of a dislocation as not ideal sink for point radiation defects (PRD). The offered model is efficient for installed concentration PRD, considerably exceeding thermally steady state concentration. The gliding of dislocation are describing as due to moving dislocation kinks in Peierl's relief. The climbing of dislocation are describing as due to moving dislocation jogs. The mathematical model for the computer program simulating the offered model of radiation creep is developed. The complex of the computer programs simulating the radiation creep is developed. The computer simulation researches are conducted and the outcomes of a research of a kinetics of a flexible sliding and climbing dislocation interacting to obstacles of a various type (spherical centre of extension, dislocation prismatic loop and their spatially random distributions) for various installed concentration PRD, external loadings and temperatures are represented. The curves of installed rate of a radiation creep from temperature for uranium and its alloys with small additions of molybdenum (from 0,9 to 1,3 %) are obtained
Gangagni Rao, A; Venkata Naidu, G; Krishna Prasad, K; Chandrasekhar Rao, N; Venkata Mohan, S; Jetty, Annapurna; Sarma, P N
2005-01-01
Studies were carried out on the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry using an anaerobic fixed film reactor (AFFR) designed and fabricated in the laboratory. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total dissolved solids (TDS) of the wastewater were found to be very high with low biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to COD ratio and high total suspended solid (TSS) concentration. Acclimatization of seed consortia and startup of the reactor was carried out by directly using the wastewater, which resulted in reducing the period of startup to 30 days. The reactor was studied at different organic loading rates (OLR) and it was found that the optimum OLR was 10 kg COD/m(3)/day. The wastewater under investigation, which had a considerable quantity of SS, was treated anaerobically without any pretreatment. COD and BOD of the reactor outlet wastewater were monitored and at steady state and optimum OLR 60-70% of COD and 80-90% of BOD were removed. The reactor was subjected to organic shock loads at two different OLR and the reaction could withstand the shocks and performance could be restored to normalcy at that OLR. The results obtained indicated that AFFR could be used efficiently for the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry having high COD, TDS and TSS.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazović, Saša; Puač, Nevena; Spasić, Kosta; Malović, Gordana; Petrović, Zoran Lj; Cvelbar, Uroš; Mozetič, Miran; Radetić, Maja
2013-01-01
We have developed a large-volume low-pressure cylindrical plasma reactor with a size that matches industrial reactors for treatment of textiles. It was shown that it efficiently produces plasmas with only a small increase in power as compared with a similar reactor with 50 times smaller volume. Plasma generated at 13.56 MHz was stable from transition to streamers and capable of long-term continuous operation. An industrial-scale asymmetric cylindrical reactor of simple design and construction enabled good control over a wide range of active plasma species and ion concentrations. Detailed characterization of the discharge was performed using derivative, Langmuir and catalytic probes which enabled determination of the optimal sets of plasma parameters necessary for successful industry implementation and process control. Since neutral atomic oxygen plays a major role in many of the material processing applications, its spatial profile was measured using nickel catalytic probe over a wide range of plasma parameters. The spatial profiles show diffusion profiles with particle production close to the powered electrode and significant wall losses due to surface recombination. Oxygen atom densities range from 10 19 m −3 near the powered electrode to 10 17 m −3 near the wall. The concentrations of ions at the same time are changing from 10 16 to the 10 15 m −3 at the grounded chamber wall. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yasar, A.; Ahmad, N.; Chaudhry, M.N.; Sarwar, M.; Masood, T.; Yaqub, A.
2005-01-01
The performance of anaerobic biological process is heavily process conditions dependent. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the influence of process conditions like temperature, sludge age and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the efficiency of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and upflow anaerobic sludge filter (UASF) to treat combined industrial wastewater. Reactors were operated at easing ambient temperatures (38, 30, 20 and 14 deg. C) and correspondingly increasing sludge ages (60, 90, 120 and 150 days). At temperature 38 deg. C and sludge age of 60 days, UASF showed better performance than VASE reactor. This mainly due to the enhanced filtration through well-graded sand filter and fairly good biological activity in UASF. At this stage, lack of sludge granulation in VASE reactor resulted in poor biological activity; hence, relatively poor performance. At temperatures 30 and 20 deg. C with sludge ages of 90 and 120 days, respectively, UASB gave better results than UASF. The reason was rapid biological degradation due to proper sludge granulation and favorable temperature. At temperature 14 deg. C, a substantial decrease in the efficiency of UASB reactor as compared to the UASF was evident. Drop in efficiency was because of inhabitation of methanogenic bacteria and liquidation of sludge granules. These factors mounted to a decrease in biological activity, stoppage as production and an increase in total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent. The influence of hydraulic retention time (ranging between 3-12 hours at an increment of 3 hours) on the removal efficiency of both UASB and UASF was not significant. At favorable temperature (20 to 30 deg. C) and sludge age (90 to 120 days) UASB reactor appeared to be more efficient than UASF.(author)
Trojanowicz, Karol; Wójcik, Wtodzimierz
2014-01-01
The description of a biofilm mathematical model application for dimensioning an aerated fixed bed biofilm reactor (ASFBBR) for petrochemical wastewater polishing is presented. A simple one-dimensional model of biofilm, developed by P Harremöes, was chosen for this purpose. The model was calibrated and verified under conditions of oil-refinery effluent. The results of ASFBBR dimensioning on the basis of the biofilm model were compared with the bioreactor dimensions determined by application of...
Laohaprapanona, Sawanya; Marquesa, Marcia; Hogland, William
2014-01-01
This study describes the reduction of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) and the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), formaldehyde (FA) and nitrogen from highly polluted wastewater generated during cleaning procedures in wood floor manufacturing using a laboratory-scale biological anaerobic baffled reactor followed by chemical precipitation using MgCI2 .6H20 + Na2HPO4. By increasing the hydraulic retention time from 2.5 to 3.7 and 5 days, the reduction rates of FA, DOC and CODs of nearly 100%, 90% and 83%, respectively, were achieved. When the Mg:N:P molar ratio in the chemical treatment was changed from 1:1:1 to 1.3:1:1.3 at pH 8, the NH4+ removal rate increased from 80% to 98%. Biologically and chemically treated wastewater had no toxic effects on Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina whereas chemically treated wastewater inhibited germination of Lactuca sativa owing to a high salt content. Regardless of the high conductivity of the treated wastewater, combined biological and chemical treatment was found to be effective for the removal of the organic load and nitrogen, and to be simple to operate and to maintain. A combined process such as that investigated could be useful for on-site treatment of low volumes of highly polluted wastewater generated by the wood floor and wood furniture industries, for which there is no suitable on-site treatment option available today.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newton, G.J.; Yeh, H.C.; Stanley, J.A.
1977-01-01
Mixed oxide (PuO 2 and UO 2 ) nuclear reactor fuel pellets are fabricated within safety enclosures at Babcock and Wilcox's Park Township site near Apollo, PA. Forty-two sample runs of plutonium-containing aerosols were taken from within glove boxes during routine industrial operations. A small, seven-stage cascade impactor and the Lovelace Aerosol Particle Separator (LAPS) were used to determine aerodynamic size distribution and gross alpha aerosol concentration. Powder comminution and blending produced aerosols with lognormal size distributions characterized by activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMAD) of 1.89 +- 0.33 μm, sigma/sub g/ = 1.62 +- 0.09 and a gross alpha aerosol concentration range of 0.1 to 150 nCi/l. Slug pressing and grinding produced aerosols of AMAD = 3.08 +- 0.1 μm, sigma/sub g/ = 1.53 +- 0.01 and AMAD = 2.26 +- 0.16 μm, sigma/sub g/ = 1.68 +- 0.20, respectively. Gross alpha aerosol concentrations ranged from 3.4 to 450 nCi/l. Centerless grinding produced similar-sized aerosols but the gross alpha concentration ranged from 220 to 1690 nCi/l. In vitro solubility studies on selected LAPS samples in a lung fluid simulant indicate that plutonium mixed-oxide aerosols are more soluble than laboratory-produced plutonium aerosols
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azar Asadi
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the simultaneous removal of carbon and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus from Faraman’s industrial wastewater (FIW in a time-based sequencing batch reactor (SBR was investigated. The experiments were conducted based on a central composite design (CCD and analyzed using the response surface methodology (RSM. Reaction and aeration times were selected for the purposes of analyzing, modeling, and optimizing the process. Nine dependent parameters were monitored as process responses. The region of exploration for the process was taken as the area enclosed by the boundaries of reaction time (12-36 h and aeration time (40-60 min/h. Reaction time was found to be the most effective variable and showed a decreasing impact on the total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD, slowly-biodegradable chemical oxygen demand (sbCOD, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP removal efficiencies. The optimum operating conditions were determined in the range of 12 to 16 h for the reaction time and 40 to 60 min/h for the aeration time.
Mathematical model for production of an industry focusing on worker status
Visalakshi, V.; kiran kumari, Sheshma
2018-04-01
Productivity improvement is posing a great challenge for industry everyday because of the difficulties in keeping track and priorising the variables that have significant impact on the productivity. The variation in production depends on the linguistic variables such as worker commitment, worker motivation and worker skills. Since the variables are linguistic we try to propose a model which gives an appropriate production of an industry. Fuzzy models aids the relationship between the factors and status. The model will support the industry to focus on the mentality of worker to increase the production.
Early hydrogen water chemistry in the boiling water reactor: industry-first demonstration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, Susan E.; Odell, Andrew D.; Giannelli, Joseph F.
2012-09-01
Hydrogen injection into the BWR feedwater during power operation has resulted in significant IGSCC reductions. Further, noble metal application (NMCA) during shutdown or On-line NobleChem TM (OLNC) during power operation has greatly reduced the required hydrogen injection rate by catalyzing the hydrogen-oxygen reaction on the metal surfaces, reducing the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) at operating temperature to well below the mitigation ECP of -230 mV (SHE) at reactor water hydrogen to oxidant (O 2 + H 2 O 2 ) molar ratios of ≥2. Since IGSCC rates increase markedly at reduced temperature, and the potential for crack initiation exists, additional crack mitigation was desired. To close this gap in mitigation, the EPRI BWR Startup ECP Reduction research and development program commenced in 2008 to undertake laboratory and feasibility studies for adding a reductant to the reactor water system during start-ups. Under this program, ECP reductions of noble metal treated stainless steel sufficient to mitigate IGSCC at startup temperatures were achieved in the laboratory in the absence of radiation at hydrogen, hydrazine and carbohydrazide to oxygen molar ratios of ≥ 2, ≥1.5 and ≥0.7, respectively. Based on the familiarity of operating BWRs with using hydrogen, a demonstration of hydrogen injection during the startup of an actual BWR using noble metals was planned. This process, named EHWC (Early Hydrogen Water Chemistry), differs from the HDS (Hydrogen During Startup) approach that has been successful in Japan in that HDS injects sufficient hydrogen for bulk oxidant reduction whereas EHWC injects a smaller amount of hydrogen, sufficient to achieve a hydrogen:oxidant molar ratio of at least two at noble metal treated surfaces. The industry-first EHWC demonstration was performed at Exelon's Peach Bottom 3 nuclear power plant in October 2011. Prior to EHWC, Peach Bottom 3 had one NMCA (October 1999) and five annual OLNC applications (starting in 2007
Research and proposal on selective catalytic reduction reactor optimization for industrial boiler.
Yang, Yiming; Li, Jian; He, Hong
2017-08-24
The advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software STAR-CCM+ was used to simulate a denitrification (De-NOx) project for a boiler in this paper, and the simulation result was verified based on a physical model. Two selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors were developed: reactor 1 was optimized and reactor 2 was developed based on reactor 1. Various indicators, including gas flow field, ammonia concentration distribution, temperature distribution, gas incident angle, and system pressure drop were analyzed. The analysis indicated that reactor 2 was of outstanding performance and could simplify developing greatly. Ammonia injection grid (AIG), the core component of the reactor, was studied; three AIGs were developed and their performances were compared and analyzed. The result indicated that AIG 3 was of the best performance. The technical indicators were proposed for SCR reactor based on the study. Flow filed distribution, gas incident angle, and temperature distribution are subjected to SCR reactor shape to a great extent, and reactor 2 proposed in this paper was of outstanding performance; ammonia concentration distribution is subjected to ammonia injection grid (AIG) shape, and AIG 3 could meet the technical indicator of ammonia concentration without mounting ammonia mixer. The developments above on the reactor and the AIG are both of great application value and social efficiency.
Reactor theory and power reactors. 1. Calculational methods for reactors. 2. Reactor kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henry, A.F.
1980-01-01
Various methods for calculation of neutron flux in power reactors are discussed. Some mathematical models used to describe transients in nuclear reactors and techniques for the reactor kinetics' relevant equations solution are also presented
Local liquid velocity measurement of Trickle Bed Reactor using Digital Industrial X-ray Radiography
Mohd Salleh, Khairul Anuar
Trickle Bed Reactors (TBRs) are fixed beds of particles in which both liquid and gas flow concurrently downward. They are widely used to produce not only fuels but also lubrication products. The measurement and the knowledge of local liquid velocities (VLL) in TBRs is less which is essential for advancing the understanding of its hydrodynamics and for validation computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Therefore, this work focused on developing a new, non-invasive, statistically reliable technique that can be used to measure local liquid velocity (VLL) in two-dimensions (2-D). This is performed by combining Digital Industrial X-ray Radiography (DIR) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) techniques. This work also make possible the development of three-dimensional (3-D) VLL measurements that can be taken in TBRs. Measurements taken through both the combined and the novel technique, once validated, were found to be comparable to another technique (a two-point fiber optical probe) currently being developed at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The results from this study indicate that, for a gas-liquid-solid type bed, the measured VLL can have a maximum range that is between 35 and 51 times that of its superficial liquid velocity (VSL). Without the existence of gas, the measured VLL can have a maximum range that is between 4 and 4.7 times that of its VSL. At a higher V SL, the particle tracer was greatly distributed and became carried away by a high liquid flow rate. Neither the variance nor the range of measured VLL varied for any of the replications, confirming the reproducibility of the experimental measurements used, regardless of the VSL . The liquid's movement inside the pore was consistent with findings from previous studies that used various techniques.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Xu; Ding, Jie; Guo, Wan-Qian; Ren, Nan-Qi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 202 Haihe Road, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China)
2010-10-15
The objective of conducting experiments in a laboratory is to gain data that helps in designing and operating large-scale biological processes. However, the scale-up and design of industrial-scale biohydrogen production reactors is still uncertain. In this paper, an established and proven Eulerian-Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was employed to perform hydrodynamics assessments of an industrial-scale continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) for biohydrogen production. The merits of the laboratory-scale CSTR and industrial-scale CSTR were compared and analyzed on the basis of CFD simulation. The outcomes demonstrated that there are many parameters that need to be optimized in the industrial-scale reactor, such as the velocity field and stagnation zone. According to the results of hydrodynamics evaluation, the structure of industrial-scale CSTR was optimized and the results are positive in terms of advancing the industrialization of biohydrogen production. (author)
Analysis And Mathematical Modeling Of Consumer Behavior In Mobile Telecommunications Industry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saranga Gunasekara
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract The mobile telecommunications industry is capital intensive by nature. With the rapid advancement of technology and changing consumer behaviors mobile network operators has had to adapt their product and service portfolio in quick succession. The main implication of the need for high capital investments is the risk associated with the investment. Therefore it is essential that mobile telcos follow up technological investments with the correct service provisioning to the customers. This requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of the consumers. Through this paper the author attempts to identify evaluate and quantify the effects of a number of traits of consumers that determine the consumer preference to a particular mobile network brand. The author also provides recommendations on strategy formulation. The evaluation has been carried out in the context of the Sri Lankan Mobile Telecommunications Industry.
Canseco Grellet, M A; Castagnaro, A; Dantur, K I; De Boeck, G; Ahmed, P M; Cárdenas, G J; Welin, B; Ruiz, R M
2016-10-01
To calculate fermentation efficiency in a continuous ethanol production process, we aimed to develop a robust mathematical method based on the analysis of metabolic by-product formation. This method is in contrast to the traditional way of calculating ethanol fermentation efficiency, where the ratio between the ethanol produced and the sugar consumed is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical conversion yield. Comparison between the two methods, at industrial scale and in sensitivity studies, showed that the indirect method was more robust and gave slightly higher fermentation efficiency values, although fermentation efficiency of the industrial process was found to be low (~75%). The traditional calculation method is simpler than the indirect method as it only requires a few chemical determinations in samples collected. However, a minor error in any measured parameter will have an important impact on the calculated efficiency. In contrast, the indirect method of calculation requires a greater number of determinations but is much more robust since an error in any parameter will only have a minor effect on the fermentation efficiency value. The application of the indirect calculation methodology in order to evaluate the real situation of the process and to reach an optimum fermentation yield for an industrial-scale ethanol production is recommended. Once a high fermentation yield has been reached the traditional method should be used to maintain the control of the process. Upon detection of lower yields in an optimized process the indirect method should be employed as it permits a more accurate diagnosis of causes of yield losses in order to correct the problem rapidly. The low fermentation efficiency obtained in this study shows an urgent need for industrial process optimization where the indirect calculation methodology will be an important tool to determine process losses. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shah, Vivek; Vaz Salles, Marcos António
2018-01-01
The requirements for OLTP database systems are becoming ever more demanding. Domains such as finance and computer games increasingly mandate that developers be able to encode complex application logic and control transaction latencies in in-memory databases. At the same time, infrastructure...... engineers in these domains need to experiment with and deploy OLTP database architectures that ensure application scalability and maximize resource utilization in modern machines. In this paper, we propose a relational actor programming model for in-memory databases as a novel, holistic approach towards......-level function calls. In contrast to classic transactional models, however, reactors allow developers to take advantage of intra-transaction parallelism and state encapsulation in their applications to reduce latency and improve locality. Moreover, reactors enable a new degree of flexibility in database...
Virtual nuclear reactor for education of nuclear reactor physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuji, Masashi; Narabayashi, Takashi; Shimazu, Youichiro
2008-01-01
As one of projects that were programmed in the cultivation program for human resources in nuclear engineering sponsored by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the development of a virtual reactor for education of nuclear reactor physics started in 2007. The purpose of the virtual nuclear reactor is to make nuclear reactor physics easily understood with aid of visualization. In the first year of this project, the neutron slowing down process was visualized. The data needed for visualization are provided by Monte Carlo calculations; The flights of the respective neutrons generated by nuclear fissions are traced through a reactor core until they disappear by neutron absorption or slow down to a thermal energy. With this visualization and an attached supplement textbook, it is expected that the learners can learn more clearly the physical implication of neutron slowing process that is mathematically described by the Boltzmann neutron transport equation. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Díaz
2010-10-01
Full Text Available We studied the peptide-degrading anaerobic communities of methanogenic reactors from two mesophilic full-scale modified upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactors treating brewery wastewater in Colombia. Most probable number (MPN counts varied between 7.1 x 10(8 and 6.6 x 10(9 bacteria/g volatile suspended solids VSS (Methanogenic Reactor 1 and 7.2 x 10(6 and 6.4 x 10(7 bacteria/g (VSS (Methanogenic Reactor 2. Metabolites detected in the highest positive MPN dilutions in both reactors were mostly acetate, propionate, isovalerate and, in some cases, negligible concentrations of butyrate. Using the highest positive dilutions of MPN counts, 50 dominant strains were isolated from both reactors, and 12 strains were selected for sequencing their 16S rRNA gene based on their phenotypic characteristics. The small-subunit rRNA gene sequences indicated that these strains were affiliated to the families Propionibacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae and Syntrophomonadaceae in the low G + C gram-positive group and Desulfovibrio spp. in the class d-Proteobacteria. The main metabolites detected in the highest positive dilutions of MPN and the presence of Syntrophomonadaceae indicate the effect of the syntrophic associations on the bioconversion of these substrates in methanogenic reactors. Additionally, the potential utilization of external electron acceptors for the complete degradation of amino acids by Clostridium strains confirms the relevance of these acceptors in the transformation of peptides and amino acids in these systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lefèvre Grégory
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors (PWR, the dynamic sealing system in reactor coolant pumps is ensured by mechanical seals whose ceramic parts are in contact with the cooling solution. During the stretch-out phase in reactor operation, characterized by low boric acid concentration, the leak-off flow has been observed to abnormally evolve in industrial plants. The deposition of hematite particles, originating from corrosion, on alumina seals of coolant pumps is suspected to be the cause. As better understanding of the adhesion mechanism is the key factor in the prevention of fouling and particle removal, an experimental study was carried out using a laboratory set-up. With model materials, hematite and sintered alumina, the adhesion rate and surface potentials of the interacting solids were measured under different chemical conditions (solution pH and composition in analogy with the PWR ones. The obtained results were in good agreement with the DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey- Overbeek theory and used as such to interpret this industrial phenomenon.
A Mathematical Model for the Industrial Hazardous Waste Location-Routing Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omid Boyer
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Technology progress is a cause of industrial hazardous wastes increasing in the whole world . Management of hazardous waste is a significant issue due to the imposed risk on environment and human life. This risk can be a result of location of undesirable facilities and also routing hazardous waste. In this paper a biobjective mixed integer programing model for location-routing industrial hazardous waste with two objectives is developed. First objective is total cost minimization including transportation cost, operation cost, initial investment cost, and cost saving from selling recycled waste. Second objective is minimization of transportation risk. Risk of population exposure within bandwidth along route is used to measure transportation risk. This model can help decision makers to locate treatment, recycling, and disposal centers simultaneously and also to route waste between these facilities considering risk and cost criteria. The results of the solved problem prove conflict between two objectives. Hence, it is possible to decrease the cost value by marginally increasing the transportation risk value and vice versa. A weighted sum method is utilized to combine two objectives function into one objective function. To solve the problem GAMS software with CPLEX solver is used. The problem is applied in Markazi province in Iran.
Van Lier, J.B.; Ozgun, H.; Ersahin, M.E.; Dereli, R.K.
2013-01-01
With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors, combination of membrane and anaerobic processes become more and more attractive and feasible. In anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), biomass and particulate organic matter are physically retained inside the reactor,
Micro reactor and flow chemistry for industrial applications in drug discovery and development
Tambarussi Baraldi, P.; Hessel, V.
2012-01-01
In this review, case studies focused on syntheses of active pharmaceutical ingredients, intermediates and lead compounds are reported employing micro reactors and continuous flow technology in areas such as medicinal chemistry, chemical development and manufacturing. The advantages of flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleksandrov, S.I.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Postnikov, V.V.; Sviridenkov, A.N.; Yurkin, G.V.; Yakunin, I.S.
2007-01-01
Paper dwells upon problems dealing with accuracy improvement of the energy release distribution and the safety margin of the RBMK-1000 operation. The accuracy is improved through the automatic optimization of some constants used in the SKALA-micro system special mathematic ensuring program and the regular self-validation of the algorithm to determine the energy release distribution calculation error. The validation based on the regular scanning of the reactor core by a calibrating detector and through the sequence disabling of the internal detectors is shown to give the close results [ru
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raphael, D M; Rubindamayugi, M S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Dept. of Botany, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)
1998-12-31
The digestion of wastewater from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactor was evaluated by a step wise increase in organic loading rate. This study was conducted to compare the treatability of effluents from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactors inoculated with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ions. At OLR of 11.34 g COD/l/day and HRT of 16 hours, UASB reactor R2 attained a COD removal efficiency of 90% with a maximum methane production rate of 3 l/l/day. From the results, the digestion of the wastewater from sugar industries in the UASB reactor inoculated with granular sludge developed under high calcium ion concentration seem feasible with regard to COD removal efficiency and methane production rate. (au) 24 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raphael, D.M.; Rubindamayugi, M.S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Dept. of Botany, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)
1997-12-31
The digestion of wastewater from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactor was evaluated by a step wise increase in organic loading rate. This study was conducted to compare the treatability of effluents from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactors inoculated with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ions. At OLR of 11.34 g COD/l/day and HRT of 16 hours, UASB reactor R2 attained a COD removal efficiency of 90% with a maximum methane production rate of 3 l/l/day. From the results, the digestion of the wastewater from sugar industries in the UASB reactor inoculated with granular sludge developed under high calcium ion concentration seem feasible with regard to COD removal efficiency and methane production rate. (au) 24 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujibayashi, Toru.
1976-01-01
Object: To provide a boiling water reactor which can enhance a quake resisting strength and flatten power distribution. Structure: At least more than four fuel bundles, in which a plurality of fuel rods are arranged in lattice fashion which upper and lower portions are supported by tie-plates, are bundled and then covered by a square channel box. The control rod is movably arranged within a space formed by adjoining channel boxes. A spacer of trapezoidal section is disposed in the central portion on the side of the channel box over substantially full length in height direction, and a neutron instrumented tube is disposed in the central portion inside the channel box. Thus, where a horizontal load is exerted due to earthquake or the like, the spacers come into contact with each other to support the channel box and prevent it from abnormal vibrations. (Furukawa, Y.)
Nair, Ranjith G; Bharadwaj, P J; Samdarshi, S K
2016-12-01
This work reports the details of the design components and materials used in a linear compound parabolic trough reactor constructed with an aim to use the photocatalyst for solar photocatalytic applications. A compound parabolic trough reactor has been designed and engineered to exploit both UV and visible part of the solar irradiation. The developed compound parabolic trough reactor could receive almost 88% of UV radiation along with a major part of visible radiation. The performance of the reactor has been evaluated in terms of degradation of a probe pollutant using the parameters such as rate constant, residence time and photonic efficiency. An attempt has been made to assess the performance in different ranges of solar spectrum. Finally the developed reactor has been employed for the photocatalytic treatment of a paper mill effluent using Degussa P25 as the photocatalyst. The paper mill effluent collected from Nagaon paper mill, Assam, India has been treated under both batch mode and continuous mode using Degussa P25 photocatalyst under artificial and natural solar radiation, respectively. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of the paper mill effluent has been determined using the reduction in total organic carbon (TOC) values of the effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
New ceramics for nuclear industry. Case of fission and fusion reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yvars, M.
1979-10-01
The ceramics used in the nuclear field are described as is their behaviour under radiation. 1) Power reactors - nuclear fission. Ceramics enter into the fabrication of nuclear fuels: oxides, carbides, uranium or plutonium nitrides or oxy-nitrides. Silicon carbide SiC is used for preparing the fuels of helium cooled high temperature reactors. Its use is foreseen in the design of gas high temperature gas thermal exchangers, as is silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ). In the materials for safety or control rods, the intense neutron flows induce nuclear reactions which increase the temperature of the neutron absorbing material. Boron carbide B 4 C, rare earth oxides Ln 2 O 3 , or B 4 C-Cu or B 4 C-Al cermets are employed. Burnable poison materials are formed of Al 2 O 3 -B 4 C or Al 2 O 3 -Ln 2 O 3 cermets. The moderators of thermal neutron reactors are in high purety polycrystalline graphite. For the thermal insulation of reactor vessels and jackets, honeycomb ceramics are used as well as ceramic fibres on an increasing scale (kaolin, alumina and other fibres). 2) fusion reactors (Tokomak). These require refractory materials with a low atomic number. Carbon fibres, boron carbide, some borons (Al B 12 ), silicon nitrides and oxy-nitrides and high density alumina are the substances considered [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cuniberti, R; Graziani, G; Massino, L; Rinaldini, C; Zanantoni, C
1972-10-15
The available results of reactor physics experiments on HTGRs and their accuracies are briefiy reviewed. The physical quantities of interest are grouped into three categories: basic nuclear data, lattice parameters and integral design data. The last two are considered and their possible improvements in accuracy by means of experimental measurements are assessed. The cost penalty on fuel cycle and capital cost due to each physical quantity is then considered, and consequently the benefits of reactor physics experiments are evaluated for a number of hypotheses concerning the foreseeable HTGR development and the delay in taking practical advantage of experimental results. It is concluded that, at the present state of knowledge of basic nuclear data and with the available calculation methods, the economic incentive to new reactor physics experiments is small, and a previous careful analysis is recommended to those intending to perform such experiments.
Final qualification of an industrial wide range neutron instrumentation in the Osiris MTR reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barbot, L.; Normand, S. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteur et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Pasdeloup, P. [AREVA TA, Controle Commande and Mesures, F-13762 Les Milles (France); Lescop, B. [CEA, INSTN, UEIN, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France)
2009-07-01
This work deals with the final qualification of the IRINA in-core neutron flux measurement system in the MTR Osiris reactor. A specific irradiation device has been set up to validate the last changes in the complete system (electronic, transmitting cable and monitor). Experimental results show the IRINA measurement system meet entirely the in-core reactor conditions requirements: a thermal neutron flux from 10{sup 7} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} up to 10{sup 14} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} and a temperature of 300 C degrees during a minimum operating time of 1000 hours. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hess, C.T.; Smith, C.W.; Price, A.H.
1977-01-01
The uptake, accumulation and loss of radionuclides by the American oyster (C. virginica) aquacultured in the effluent of a nuclear power reactor has been measured monthly for 3 yr at four field stations in the Montsweag Estuary of the Sheepscot River and at a control station in the nearby Damariscotta River Estuary, southern central coastal Maine, U.S.A. A mathematical model for the time variation of the specific activity of the oysters has been developed to include the physical half-lives of the various radionuclides, the biological half-lives of the various radionuclides (biological depuration), the water temperature (oyster hibernation) and shell growth. The resulting first order linear differential equation incorporating these phenomena is driven by the liquid radionuclide effluent release of the Maine Yankee Nuclear Reactor. Comparison of the monthly measurements of the specific activity for 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 134 Cs and 137 Cs in oysters with model calculations show close agreement over all ranges of variation observed. A special feature of this mathematical model is its ability to describe the non-chemostatic field situation. (author)
Dynamic Model of an Ammonia Synthesis Reactor Based on Open Information
Jinasena, Asanthi; Lie, Bernt; Glemmestad, Bjørn
2016-01-01
Ammonia is a widely used chemical, hence the ammonia manufacturing process has become a standard case study in the scientific community. In the field of mathematical modeling of the dynamics of ammonia synthesis reactors, there is a lack of complete and well documented models. Therefore, the main aim of this work is to develop a complete and well documented mathematical model for observing the dynamic behavior of an industrial ammonia synthesis reactor system. The model is complete enough to ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sachs, Marius; Schmidt, Jochen; Peukert, Wolfgang; Wirth, Karl-Ernst [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute of Particle Technology, Cauerstr. 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)
2016-03-09
The recent development of rapid prototyping technologies towards additive manufacturing reveals some major drawbacks of processes such as laser beam melting (LBM). This contribution focuses on the lack of suitable polymer material with a fine particle size and good flowability. Polymer particles obtained by a wet grinding process 1 are treated in a heated downer reactor. This treatment changes the particles’ morphology from a chiselled state towards a spherical form by surface tension forces in a molten state 2 and leads to an improved flowability. To reach the required amount of rounded polymer powder, a downer reactor in semi-industrial scale has been established and will be characterized in this article. For the purpose of particle rounding it is necessary to avoid contact of molten particles with each other and with the hot reactor walls. Furthermore, the heat distribution has been investigated as one of the key parameters of the process. Finally, a proof of concept by rounding wet grinded PBT material was successfully conducted. The product was examined to obtain data about a change in particle size and flowability.
Characterization of aerosols from industrial fabrication of mixed-oxide nuclear reactor fuels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.
1997-01-01
Recycling plutonium into mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel for nuclear reactors is being given serious consideration as a safe and environmentally sound method of managing plutonium from weapons programs. Planning for the proper design and safe operation of the MOX fuel fabrication facilities can take advantage of studies done in the 1970s, when recycling of plutonium from nuclear fuel was under serious consideration. At that time, it was recognized that the recycle of plutonium and uranium in irradiated fuel could provide a significant energy source and that the use of 239 Pu in light water reactor fuel would reduce the requirements for enriched 235 U as a reactor fuel. It was also recognized that the fabrication of uranium and plutonium reactor fuels would not be risk-free. Despite engineered safety precautions such as the handling of uranium and plutonium in glove-box enclosures, accidental releases of radioactive aerosols from normal containment might occur. Workers might then be exposed to the released materials by inhalation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arango P, C.
1993-01-01
In this article the results of the investigation on the processes of adsorption, hydrolysis and consumption of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in both aerobic and anaerobic reactors to laboratory scale, their relationship with the conditions of illumination, half of support and concentration of oxygen, and their possible application in aerobic post-treatment of anaerobic leachates are presented. The investigation consists of an experimental assembly and a theoretical development of search of descriptor equations of the global process, and rates of occurrence of the particular processes. The experimental assembly was carried out with four reactors to laboratory scale subjected to different conditions of light, half of support and concentration of oxygen; it had two phases: one of evaluation of the effect of the different conditions in the efficiency of the reactors, and another of evaluation of the kinetic constants in the reactor of better acting and their application in aerobic treatment of anaerobic leachates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, Se-Hong; Kang, SeungHoon; Choi, Choengryul; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Cheon, Jin Sik
2016-01-01
On receiving the scram signal, the control rod assemblies are released to fall into the reactor core by its weight. Thus drop time and falling velocity of the control rod assembly must be estimated for the safety evaluation. There are three typical ways to estimate the drop behavior of the control rod assembly in scram action: Experimental, numerical and theoretical methods. But experimental and numerical(CFD) method require a lot of cost and time. Thus, these methods are difficult to apply to the initial design process. In this study, mathematical model and theoretical analysis code have been developed in order to estimate drop behavior of the control rod assembly to provide the underlying data for the design optimization. Mathematical model and theoretical analysis code have been developed in order to estimate drop behavior of the control rod assembly to provide the underlying data for the design optimization. A simplified control rod assembly model is considered to minimize the uncertainty in the development process. And the hydraulic circuit analysis technique is adopted to evaluate the internal/external flow distribution of the control rod assembly. Finally, the theoretical analysis code(named as HEXCON) has been developed based on the mathematical model. To verify the reliability of the developed code, CFD analysis has been conducted. And a calculation using the developed analysis code was carried out under the same condition, and both results were compared
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agrachev, A.A.
2002-01-01
This volume is based on the lecture notes of the minicourses given in the frame of the school on Mathematical Control Theory held at the Abdus Salam ICTP from 3 to 28 September 2001. Mathematical Control Theory is a rapidly growing field which provides strict theoretical and computational tools for dealing with problems arising in electrical and aerospace engineering, automatics, robotics, applied chemistry, and biology etc. Control methods are also involved in questions pertaining to the development of countries in the South, such as wastewater treatment, agronomy, epidemiology, population dynamics, control of industrial and natural bio-reactors. Since most of these natural processes are highly nonlinear, the tools of nonlinear control are essential for the modelling and control of such processes. At present regular courses in Mathematical Control Theory are rarely included in the curricula of universities, and very few researchers receive enough background in the field. Therefore it is important to organize specific activities in the form of schools to provide the necessary background for those embarking on research in this field. The school at the Abdus Salam ICTP consisted of several minicourses intended to provide an introduction to various topics of Mathematical Control Theory, including Linear Control Theory (finite and infinite-dimensional), Nonlinear Control, and Optimal Control. The last week of the school was concentrated on applications of Mathematical Control Theory, in particular, those which are important for the development of non-industrialized countries. The school was intended primarily for mathematicians and mathematically oriented engineers at the beginning of their career. The typical participant was expected to be a graduate student or young post-doctoral researcher interested in Mathematical Control Theory. It was assumed that participants have sufficient background in Ordinary Differential Equations and Advanced Calculus. The volume
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agrachev, A A [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); SISSA, Trieste [Italy; ed.
2002-07-15
This volume is based on the lecture notes of the minicourses given in the frame of the school on Mathematical Control Theory held at the Abdus Salam ICTP from 3 to 28 September 2001. Mathematical Control Theory is a rapidly growing field which provides strict theoretical and computational tools for dealing with problems arising in electrical and aerospace engineering, automatics, tics, applied chemistry, and biology etc. Control methods are also involved in questions pertaining to the development of countries in the South, such as wastewater treatment, agronomy, epidemiology, population dynamics, control of industrial and natural bio-reactors. Since most of these natural processes are highly nonlinear, the tools of nonlinear control are essential for the modelling and control of such processes. At present regular courses in Mathematical Control Theory are rarely included in the curricula of universities, and very few researchers receive enough background in the field. Therefore it is important to organize specific activities in the form of schools to provide the necessary background for those embarking on research in this field. The school at the Abdus Salam ICTP consisted of several minicourses intended to provide an introduction to various topics of Mathematical Control Theory, including Linear Control Theory (finite and infinite-dimensional), Nonlinear Control, and Optimal Control. The last week of the school was concentrated on applications of Mathematical Control Theory, in particular, those which are important for the development of non-industrialized countries. The school was intended primarily for mathematicians and mathematically oriented engineers at the beginning of their career. The typical participant was expected to be a graduate student or young post-doctoral researcher interested in Mathematical Control Theory. It was assumed that participants have sufficient background in Ordinary Differential Equations and Advanced Calculus. The volume contains
Feasibility of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR In Treating Starch Industry Wastewater
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Assadi
2007-03-01
Full Text Available The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR includes a mixed anaerobic culture separated into compartments and a novel process with a series of vertical baffles at each compartment. It dose not require granulation for its operation, resulting in shorter start-up time. In this study, the feasibility of the ABR process was investigated for the treatment of wheat flour starch wastewater. Simple gravity settling was used to remove suspended solids from the starch wastewater and used as feed. Start-up of a reactor (13.5L with five compartments using a diluted feed of approximately 4500 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD was accomplished in about 9 weeks using seed sludge from the anaerobic digester of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The reactor with a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 72 h at 35°C and an initial organic loading rate (OLR of 1.2 kgCOD/m3.d showed a removal efficiency of 61% COD. The best reactor performance was observed with an organic loading rate of 2.5 kgCOD/m3.d (or hydraulic retention time of 2.45 d when a COD conversion of 67% was achieved. The main advantage of using an ABR comes from its compartmentalized structure. The first compartment of an ABR may act as a buffer zone to all toxic and inhibitory materials in the feed and, thus, allows the later compartments to be loaded with a relatively harmless, more uniform, and mostly acidified influent. In this respect, the later compartments would be more likely to support active populations of the relatively sensitive methanogenic bacteria.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erdman, D.C.
1981-01-01
Use of ultrasonic extensometers has found wide application for bolt preload determination in airborne and aerospace applications where elongation measurement accuracy is often required to .0001 in. Experience has now been gained in heavy industry with fasteners up to 12 feet long, often on studs and bolts with relatively rough head surfaces. Here, accuracy may be reduced to .001 inch, a figure far better than available from torque wrenches. This paper describes some of these heavy industry applications
Journal of applied mathematics
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
2001-01-01
"[The] Journal of Applied Mathematics is a refereed journal devoted to the publication of original research papers and review articles in all areas of applied, computational, and industrial mathematics...
Bosikov, I. I.; Klyuev, R. V.; Revazov, V. Ch; Pilieva, D. E.
2018-03-01
The article describes research and analysis of hazardous processes occurring in the natural-industrial system and effectiveness assessment of its functioning using mathematical models. Studies of the functioning regularities of the natural and industrial system are becoming increasingly relevant in connection with the formulation of the task of modernizing production and the economy of Russia as a whole. In connection with a significant amount of poorly structured data, it is complicated by regulations for the effective functioning of production processes, social and natural complexes, under which a sustainable development of the natural-industrial system of the mining and processing complex would be ensured. Therefore, the scientific and applied problems, the solution of which allows one to formalize the hidden structural functioning patterns of the natural-industrial system and to make managerial decisions of organizational and technological nature to improve the efficiency of the system, are very relevant.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
. In spite of optimal reaction conditions a complex heterogeneous reactant mixture with a glycerol in oil emulsion occurs. Hence, the movement of material from phase to phase as well as through the catalyst pores becomes important since it can influence the performance of the immobilized enzyme reactor...... and sunflower oil dissolved in a binary tert-butanol:tert-pentanol medium. Practical design-related issues such as required reaction time, enzyme capacity, expansion of the enzyme during wetting, and the effect of different column length-to-diameter ratios, fluid velocities and particle sizes of the enzymes...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damstrup, Marianne; Kiil, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn
2007-01-01
Continuous and easily operated glycerolysis was studied in different lipase-packed columns to evaluate the most potential process set-ups for industrial monoacylglycerol (MAG) production. Practical design-related issues such as enzyme-filling degree, required reaction time, mass transfer investig......Continuous and easily operated glycerolysis was studied in different lipase-packed columns to evaluate the most potential process set-ups for industrial monoacylglycerol (MAG) production. Practical design-related issues such as enzyme-filling degree, required reaction time, mass transfer...
Uncertainties for industrial suppliers in view to conversions and designs of research reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roegler, H.J.; Stroemich, A.
1991-01-01
The different national RERTR-programs have had substantial results and offer clear potential for LEU-fuel. Nevertheless there are still attempts, papers and political actions based on future developments of LEU-fuel. They may create the same uncertainty as 10 years ago again, depending on what plant the industry has to supply. Only one conclusion can be drawn: There has to be an agreement on the results of the RERTR-programs binding for all parties and the industry has a right to demand such agreement after 10 years of heavily subsidised fuel development. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cucchiara, A.L.
1976-01-01
During calendar year 1975, an estimated total of 3,000,000 pounds of waste materials and approximately 150 curies of radionuclides were discharged to the environs in liquid effluent streams emanating from United Nuclear Industries, Inc., operated facilities. During the same period, approximately 1,700,000 pounds of reported waste materials, including 34,000 curies of reported radionuclides, were discharged to the atmosphere from United Nuclear Industries, Inc., operated facilities. Superscript numbers reference explanatory notes contained at the end of the report
Dhamole, Pradip B; Nair, Rashmi R; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Lele, S S
2015-01-01
This work investigates the performance of acclimatized biomass for denitrification of high strength nitrate waste (10,000 mg/L NO3) from a nuclear industry in a continuous laboratory scale (32 L) and pilot scale reactor (330 L) operated over a period of 4 and 5 months, respectively. Effect of substrate fluctuations (mainly C/NO3-N) on denitrification was studied in a laboratory scale reactor. Incomplete denitrification (95-96 %) was observed at low C/NO3-N (≤2), whereas at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25) led to ammonia formation. Ammonia production increased from 1 to 9 % with an increase in C/NO3-N from 2.25 to 6. Complete denitrification and no ammonia formation were observed at an optimum C/NO3-N of 2.0. Microbiological studies showed decrease in denitrifiers and increase in nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25). Pilot scale studies were carried out with optimum C/NO3-N, and sustainability of the process was checked on the pilot scale for 5 months.
Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Budiyono; Purwanto
2018-02-01
A research on developing a system that integrates clean production and waste water treatment for biogas production in tofu small industry has been conducted. In this research, tofu waste water was turned into biogas using an AnSBR reactor. Mud from the sewage system serves as the inoculums. This research involved: (1) workshop; (2) supervising; (3) technical meeting; (4) network meeting, and (5) technical application. Implementation of clean production integrated with waste water treatment reduced the amount of waste water to be treated in a treatment plant. This means less cost for construction and operation of waste water treatment plants, as inherent limitations associated with such plants like lack of fund, limited area, and technological issues are inevitable. Implementation of clean production prior to waste water treatment reduces pollution figures down to certain levels that limitations in waste water treatment plants can be covered. Results show that biogas in 16 days HRT in an AnSBR reactor contains CH4(78.26 %) and CO2 (20.16 %). Meanwhile, treatments using a conventional bio-digester result in biogas with 72.16 % CH4 and 18.12 % CO2. Hence, biogas efficiency for the AnSBR system is 2.14 times greater than that of a conventional bio-digester.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Le Doan, T.V.; Stavárek, Petr; de Bellefon, C.
2012-01-01
Roč. 2, č. 3 (2012), s. 77-82 ISSN 2062-249X Grant - others:IMPULSE(XE) FP6-NMP2-CT-2005-011816 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : hydrogenation * pharmaceuticals * methodology Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.091, year: 2012
Sajjadi, Baharak; Raman, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Ibrahim, Shaliza
2015-05-01
This paper aims at investigating the influence of ultrasound power amplitude on liquid behaviour in a low-frequency (24 kHz) sono-reactor. Three types of analysis were employed: (i) mechanical analysis of micro-bubbles formation and their activities/characteristics using mathematical modelling. (ii) Numerical analysis of acoustic streaming, fluid flow pattern, volume fraction of micro-bubbles and turbulence using 3D CFD simulation. (iii) Practical analysis of fluid flow pattern and acoustic streaming under ultrasound irradiation using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). In mathematical modelling, a lone micro bubble generated under power ultrasound irradiation was mechanistically analysed. Its characteristics were illustrated as a function of bubble radius, internal temperature and pressure (hot spot conditions) and oscillation (pulsation) velocity. The results showed that ultrasound power significantly affected the conditions of hotspots and bubbles oscillation velocity. From the CFD results, it was observed that the total volume of the micro-bubbles increased by about 4.95% with each 100 W-increase in power amplitude. Furthermore, velocity of acoustic streaming increased from 29 to 119 cm/s as power increased, which was in good agreement with the PIV analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Basic tendencies of restructured UO2 nuclear fuels fabrication industry for water-moderated reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makhova, V.A.; Bokshitskij, V.I.; Blinova, I.V.
2002-01-01
Processes of reformation and consolidation of firms and frontier nuclear fuels fabrication industry associated with processes of globalization and deregulation of electric power market are analyzed. Current state of nuclear fuel market and basic factors influenced on the market are presented. The role of nuclear fuel in increasing competition of NPP and fundamental directions of innovation action on the creation of perspective kinds of fuel were considered [ru
Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, Lee
2009-01-01
This report is a preliminary comparison of conventional and potential HTGR-integrated processes in several common industrial areas: (1) Producing electricity via a traditional power cycle; (2) Producing hydrogen; (3) Producing ammonia and ammonia-derived products, such as fertilizer; (4) Producing gasoline and diesel from natural gas or coal; (5) Producing substitute natural gas from coal; and (6) Steam-assisted gravity drainage (extracting oil from tar sands).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kammerer, Annie [Annie Kammerer Consulting, Rye, NH (United States); Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)
2015-07-01
Risk-Informed Margin Management Industry Application on External Events. More specifically, combined events, seismically induced external flooding analyses for a generic nuclear power plant with a generic site soil, and generic power plant system and structure. The focus of this report is to define the problem above, set up the analysis, describe the methods to be used, tools to be applied to each problem, and data analysis and validation associated with the above.
Illiberi, A.; Kniknie, B.; Steijvers, H.L.A.H.; Habets, D.; Simons, P.J.P.M.; Beckers, E.H.A.; Deelen, J. van
2012-01-01
Aluminum doped ZnOx (ZnOx:Al) films have been deposited on glass in an in-line industrial-type reactor by a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process at atmospheric pressure. ZnOx:Al films can be grown at very high deposition rates of ~ 14 nm/s for a substrate speed from 150 mm/min to 500
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.
2001-01-01
This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)
2016-01-01
This book provides a thorough introduction to the challenge of applying mathematics in real-world scenarios. Modelling tasks rarely involve well-defined categories, and they often require multidisciplinary input from mathematics, physics, computer sciences, or engineering. In keeping with this spirit of modelling, the book includes a wealth of cross-references between the chapters and frequently points to the real-world context. The book combines classical approaches to modelling with novel areas such as soft computing methods, inverse problems, and model uncertainty. Attention is also paid to the interaction between models, data and the use of mathematical software. The reader will find a broad selection of theoretical tools for practicing industrial mathematics, including the analysis of continuum models, probabilistic and discrete phenomena, and asymptotic and sensitivity analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shah, V.N.; Ware, A.G.; Porter, A.M.
1997-03-01
This report presents a review of nuclear industry efforts to manage thermal fatigue, flow-accelerated corrosion, and water hammer damage to pressurized water reactor (PWR) feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. The review includes an evaluation of design modifications, operating procedure changes, augmented inspection and monitoring programs, and mitigation, repair and replacement activities. Four actions were taken: (a) review of field experience to identify trends of operating events, (b) review of technical literature, (c) visits to PWR plants and a PWR vendor, and (d) solicitation of information from 8 other countries. Assessment of field experience is that licensees have apparently taken sufficient action to minimize feedwater nozzle cracking caused by thermal fatigue and wall thinning of J-tubes and feedwater piping. Specific industry actions to minimize the wall-thinning in feedrings and thermal sleeves were not found, but visual inspection and necessary repairs are being performed. Assessment of field experience indicates that licensees have taken sufficient action to minimize steam generator water hammer in both top-feed and preheat steam generators. Industry efforts to minimize multiple check valve failures that have allowed backflow of steam from a steam generator and have played a major role in several steam generator water hammer events were not evaluated. A major finding of this review is that analysis, inspection, monitoring, mitigation, and replacement techniques have been developed for managing thermal fatigue and flow-accelerated corrosion damage to feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. Adequate training and appropriate applications of these techniques would ensure effective management of this damage.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shah, V.N.; Ware, A.G.; Porter, A.M.
1997-03-01
This report presents a review of nuclear industry efforts to manage thermal fatigue, flow-accelerated corrosion, and water hammer damage to pressurized water reactor (PWR) feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. The review includes an evaluation of design modifications, operating procedure changes, augmented inspection and monitoring programs, and mitigation, repair and replacement activities. Four actions were taken: (a) review of field experience to identify trends of operating events, (b) review of technical literature, (c) visits to PWR plants and a PWR vendor, and (d) solicitation of information from 8 other countries. Assessment of field experience is that licensees have apparently taken sufficient action to minimize feedwater nozzle cracking caused by thermal fatigue and wall thinning of J-tubes and feedwater piping. Specific industry actions to minimize the wall-thinning in feedrings and thermal sleeves were not found, but visual inspection and necessary repairs are being performed. Assessment of field experience indicates that licensees have taken sufficient action to minimize steam generator water hammer in both top-feed and preheat steam generators. Industry efforts to minimize multiple check valve failures that have allowed backflow of steam from a steam generator and have played a major role in several steam generator water hammer events were not evaluated. A major finding of this review is that analysis, inspection, monitoring, mitigation, and replacement techniques have been developed for managing thermal fatigue and flow-accelerated corrosion damage to feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. Adequate training and appropriate applications of these techniques would ensure effective management of this damage
Huang, Guolong; Yao, Jiachao; Pan, Weilong; Wang, Jiade
2016-09-01
Effluents after biochemical treatment contain pollutants that are mostly non-degradable. Based upon previous pilot-scale test results, an industrial-scale electro-oxidation device was built to decompose these refractory materials in the effluent from a park wastewater treatment plant. The electro-oxidation device comprised a ditch-shaped plunger flow electrolysis cell, with mesh-plate Ti/PbO2 electrodes as the anode and the same size mesh-plate Ti as the cathode. Wastewater flowed vertically through electrodes; the effective volume of the cell was 2.8 m(3), and the surface-to-volume ratio was 17.14 m(2) m(-3). The optimal current density was 100 A m(-2), and a suitable flow velocity was 14.0 m h(-1). The removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand and color in the effluent were over 60.0 and 84.0 %, respectively. In addition, the electro-oxidation system offered a good disinfection capability. The specific energy consumption for this industrial-scale device was 43.5 kWh kg COD(-1), with a current efficiency of 32.8 %, which was superior to the pilot-scale one. To meet the requirements for emission or reuse, the operation cost was $0.44 per ton of effluent at an average price for electricity of $0.11 kWh(-1).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Velickovic, Lj [Institut za nuklearne nauke ' Boris Kidric' , Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)
1966-07-01
The developed theoretical model is concerned with BF{sub 3} counter placed in the core of a low power reactor (a few MW) where statistical neutron effects are most evident. Our experiments were somewhat different. The detector used was and ionization chamber with double sampling, in ADC and in the time analyzer. The objective of this model was not to obtain precise numerical calculations, but to explain the method and the essentials of the correlation. Introducing all the six groups of delayed neutrons and possibly photoneutrons the model could be improved to obtained more realistic results.
Conchouso Gonzalez, David
2017-04-01
At the cutting edge of the chemical and biological research, innovation takes place in a field referred to as Lab on Chip (LoC), a multi-disciplinary area that combines biology, chemistry, electronics, microfabrication, and fluid mechanics. Within this field, droplets have been used as microreactors to produce advanced materials like quantum dots, micro and nanoparticles, active pharmaceutical ingredients, etc. The size of these microreactors offers distinct advantages, which were not possible using batch technologies. For example, they allow for lower reagent waste, minimal energy consumption, increased safety, as well as better process control of reaction conditions like temperature regulation, residence times, and response times among others. One of the biggest drawbacks associated with this technology is its limited production volume that prevents it from reaching industrial applications. The standard production rates for a single droplet microfluidic device is in the range of 1-10mLh-1, whereas industrial applications usually demand production rates several orders of magnitude higher. Although substantial work has been recently undertaken in the development scaled-out solutions, which run in parallel several droplet generators. Complex fluid mechanics and limitations on the manufacturing capacity have constrained these works to explore only in-plane parallelization. This thesis investigates a three-dimensional parallelization by proposing a microfluidic system that is comprised of a stack of droplet generation layers working on the liquid-liquid ow regime. Its realization implied a study of the characteristics of conventional droplet generators and the development of a fabrication process for 3D networks of microchannels. Finally, the combination of these studies resulted in a functional 3D parallelization system with the highest production rate (i.e. 1 Lh-1) at the time of its publication. Additionally, this architecture can reach industrially relevant
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Lucy
. African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Lucy
scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubiak, H.; vanHeek, K.-H.; Juntgen, H.
1986-01-01
Coal gasification is a well-known technique and has already been developed and used since a long time. In the last few years, forced by the energy situation, new efforts have been made to improve known processes and to start new developments. Conventional gasification processes use coal not only as feedstock to be gasified but also for supply of energy for reaction heat, steam production, and other purposes. With a nuclear high temperature reactor (HTR) as a source for process heat, it is possible to transform the whole of the feed coal into gas. This concept offers advantages over existing gasification processes: saving of coal, as more gas can be produced from coal; less emission of pollutants, as the HTR is used for the production of steam and electricity instead of a coal-fired boiler; and lower production costs for the gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oramus Piotr
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Electric arc is a complex phenomenon occurring during the current interruption process in the power system. Therefore performing digital simulations is often necessary to analyse transient conditions in power system during switching operations. This paper deals with the electric arc modelling and its implementation in simulation software for transient analyses during switching conditions in power system. Cassie, Cassie-Mayr as well as Schwarz-Avdonin equations describing the behaviour of the electric arc during the current interruption process have been implemented in EMTP-ATP simulation software and presented in this paper. The models developed have been used for transient simulations to analyse impact of the particular model and its parameters on Transient Recovery Voltage in different switching scenarios: during shunt reactor switching-off as well as during capacitor bank current switching-off. The selected simulation cases represent typical practical scenarios for inductive and capacitive currents breaking, respectively.
Applications of controlled thermonuclear reactor (CTR) fusion power in the steel industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jordan, R.K.; Steinberg, M.
1975-03-01
A review of the process and economics of basic steel production is presented for the purpose of indicating where CTR fusion energy may be applicable. The present conventional air blown blast furnace produces a relatively low Btu value top gas with limited usefulness. The industry consumes relatively large amounts of natural gas for reheating ingots, plates, etc. A concept is presented wherein oxygen is used in the blast furnace which would double the capacity of the furnace and produce a rich carbon monoxide gas stream useful as synthesis gas for methanol and ammonia production. A CTR supplying high energy radiation in a blanket would disproportionate carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and oxygen which could be used at high temperatures in the blast furnace in place of an oxygen supply stream. Coke would be used in this scheme. In a second scheme the oxygen is separated from the disproportioned CO 2 stream and CO is used in a direct reduction furnace which is followed by an electric furnace to refine the reduced product. Other schemes include iron ore reduction with electrolytic hydrogen and the use of thermal energy for reforming coal with steam or CO 2 for production of reducing gas. The electrosmelting of scrap metal using CTR power could become an important operation in the future. A complex of steel, fertilizer, fuel and chemical production is presented. Steel capacity and power requirement data are presented and projected to the year 2020. (U.S.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohd Salleh, Khairul Anuar, E-mail: kmfgf@mst.edu; Lee, Hyoung Koo [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Fulton Hall, 310 W. 14th St., Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Rahman, Mohd Fitri Abdul [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 143 Schrenk Hall, 400 W. 11th St., Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Al Dahhan, Muthanna H. [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Fulton Hall, 310 W. 14th St., Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 143 Schrenk Hall, 400 W. 11th St., Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States)
2014-06-15
Local liquid velocity measurements in Trickle Bed Reactors (TBRs) are one of the essential components in its hydrodynamic studies. These measurements are used to effectively determine a reactor's operating condition. This study was conducted to validate a newly developed technique that combines Digital Industrial Radiography (DIR) with Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) to measure the Local Liquid Velocity (V{sub LL}) inside TBRs. Three millimeter-sized Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) beads were used as packing material. Three validation procedures were designed to test the newly developed technique. All procedures and statistical approaches provided strong evidence that the technique can be used to measure the V{sub LL} within TBRs.
Mohd Salleh, Khairul Anuar; Rahman, Mohd Fitri Abdul; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Al Dahhan, Muthanna H.
2014-06-01
Local liquid velocity measurements in Trickle Bed Reactors (TBRs) are one of the essential components in its hydrodynamic studies. These measurements are used to effectively determine a reactor's operating condition. This study was conducted to validate a newly developed technique that combines Digital Industrial Radiography (DIR) with Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) to measure the Local Liquid Velocity (VLL) inside TBRs. Three millimeter-sized Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) beads were used as packing material. Three validation procedures were designed to test the newly developed technique. All procedures and statistical approaches provided strong evidence that the technique can be used to measure the VLL within TBRs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohd Salleh, Khairul Anuar; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Rahman, Mohd Fitri Abdul; Al Dahhan, Muthanna H.
2014-01-01
Local liquid velocity measurements in Trickle Bed Reactors (TBRs) are one of the essential components in its hydrodynamic studies. These measurements are used to effectively determine a reactor's operating condition. This study was conducted to validate a newly developed technique that combines Digital Industrial Radiography (DIR) with Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) to measure the Local Liquid Velocity (V LL ) inside TBRs. Three millimeter-sized Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) beads were used as packing material. Three validation procedures were designed to test the newly developed technique. All procedures and statistical approaches provided strong evidence that the technique can be used to measure the V LL within TBRs
Mohd Salleh, Khairul Anuar; Rahman, Mohd Fitri Abdul; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Al Dahhan, Muthanna H
2014-06-01
Local liquid velocity measurements in Trickle Bed Reactors (TBRs) are one of the essential components in its hydrodynamic studies. These measurements are used to effectively determine a reactor's operating condition. This study was conducted to validate a newly developed technique that combines Digital Industrial Radiography (DIR) with Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) to measure the Local Liquid Velocity (V(LL)) inside TBRs. Three millimeter-sized Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) beads were used as packing material. Three validation procedures were designed to test the newly developed technique. All procedures and statistical approaches provided strong evidence that the technique can be used to measure the V(LL) within TBRs.
Mathematical methods in neutronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Planchard, J.
1995-01-01
This book presents the mathematical theory of nuclear reactors. It applies to engineers in neutronics and applied mathematicians. After a recall of the elementary notions of neutronics and of diffusion-type partial derivative equations, the theory of reactors criticality calculation is described. (J.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Gao, Yue; Xu, Yunyun; Gao, Fan; Yu, Huan; Lu, Yue; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Jinze
2011-01-01
Highlights: ► Dried sewage sludge and scrap iron used as raw materials for sintering ceramics. ► The new media ceramics used as fillers in electrobath of micro-electrolysis. ► Modified micro-electrolysis used in cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment. ► This modified micro-electrolysis could avoid failure of the electrobath reactor. - Abstract: As new media, ceramic-corrosion-cell fillers (Cathode Ceramic-corrosion-cell Fillers – CCF, and Anode Ceramic-corrosion-cell Fillers – ACF) employed in electrobath were investigated for cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment. 60.0 wt% of dried sewage sludge and 40.0 wt% of clay, 40.0 wt% of scrap iron and 60.0 wt% of clay were utilized as raw materials for the preparation of raw CCF and ACF, respectively. The raw CCF and ACF were respectively sintered at 400 °C for 20 min in anoxic conditions. The physical properties (bulk density, grain density and water absorption), structural and morphological characters and toxic metal leaching contents were tested. The influences of pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the media height on removal of COD Cr and cyclohexanone were studied. The results showed that the bulk density and grain density of CCF and ACF were 869.0 kg m −3 and 936.3 kg m −3 , 1245.0 kg m −3 and 1420.0 kg m −3 , respectively. The contents of toxic metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ba, Ni and As) were all below the detection limit. When pH of 3–4, HRT of 6 h and the media height of 60 cm were applied, about 90% of COD cr and cyclohexanone were removed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Suqing; Qi, Yuanfeng; Gao, Yue; Xu, Yunyun; Gao, Fan; Yu, Huan; Lu, Yue [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China); Yue, Qinyan, E-mail: qyyue58@yahoo.com.cn [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China); Li, Jinze [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China)
2011-11-30
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dried sewage sludge and scrap iron used as raw materials for sintering ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new media ceramics used as fillers in electrobath of micro-electrolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified micro-electrolysis used in cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This modified micro-electrolysis could avoid failure of the electrobath reactor. - Abstract: As new media, ceramic-corrosion-cell fillers (Cathode Ceramic-corrosion-cell Fillers - CCF, and Anode Ceramic-corrosion-cell Fillers - ACF) employed in electrobath were investigated for cyclohexanone industry wastewater treatment. 60.0 wt% of dried sewage sludge and 40.0 wt% of clay, 40.0 wt% of scrap iron and 60.0 wt% of clay were utilized as raw materials for the preparation of raw CCF and ACF, respectively. The raw CCF and ACF were respectively sintered at 400 Degree-Sign C for 20 min in anoxic conditions. The physical properties (bulk density, grain density and water absorption), structural and morphological characters and toxic metal leaching contents were tested. The influences of pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the media height on removal of COD{sub Cr} and cyclohexanone were studied. The results showed that the bulk density and grain density of CCF and ACF were 869.0 kg m{sup -3} and 936.3 kg m{sup -3}, 1245.0 kg m{sup -3} and 1420.0 kg m{sup -3}, respectively. The contents of toxic metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ba, Ni and As) were all below the detection limit. When pH of 3-4, HRT of 6 h and the media height of 60 cm were applied, about 90% of COD{sub cr} and cyclohexanone were removed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewis, Mike
2011-01-01
This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of compliance activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewis, Mike
2012-01-01
This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia
2007-12-01
This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of
Tararykov, A. V.; Garyaev, A. B.
2017-11-01
The possibility of increasing the energy efficiency of production processes by converting the initial fuel - natural gas to synthesized fuel using the heat of the exhaust gases of plants involved in production is considered. Possible applications of this technology are given. A mathematical model of the processes of heat and mass transfer occurring in a thermochemical reactor is developed taking into account the nonequilibrium nature of the course of chemical reactions of fuel conversion. The possibility of using microchannel reaction elements and facilities for methane conversion in order to intensify the process and reduce the overall dimensions of plants is considered. The features of the course of heat and mass transfer processes under flow conditions in microchannel reaction elements are described. Additions have been made to the mathematical model, which makes it possible to use it for microchannel installations. With the help of a mathematical model, distribution of the parameters of mixtures along the length of the reaction element of the reactor-temperature, the concentration of the reacting components, the velocity, and the values of the heat fluxes are obtained. The calculations take into account the change in the thermophysical properties of the mix-ture, the type of the catalytic element, the rate of the reactions, the heat exchange processes by radiation, and the lon-gitudinal heat transfer along the flow of the reacting mixture. The reliability of the results of the application of the mathematical model is confirmed by their comparison with the experimental data obtained by Grasso G., Schaefer G., Schuurman Y., Mirodatos C., Kuznetsov V.V., Vitovsky O.V. on similar installations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fournier, G; Ecole Nationale Superieure du Petrole et des Moteurs (ENSPM), 92 -Rueil-Malmaison (France); Univ. de Bourgogne, 21- Dijon (France)
1997-05-01
It is today of paramount importance to realistically forecast the cost and time required to design and manufacture a given product, from the very first phase of the project. Furthermore, with the increasingly rapid development of technology, it is often impossible to draw a direct parallel with existing, well known products Mathematical models of cost, and MAP models in particular, have been developed to meet this need. Although one may still refer to former products, they do not automatically have to be `analogous` to the product under consideration, because these methods use `universal relationship` between cost, weight, technology, performance and reliability, and also the nature and experience of the firm manufacturing the product. The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate the pertinence, and more importantly the potential, of mathematical models of cost for the oil and gas industry, from exploration and production to refining, petrochemicals, and internal combustion engines. After a theoretical examination of estimation methods and a classification of existing ones, emphasis is placed on the logical aspect of these models. In addition, the complementarity between these tools and certain fields such as project management is pointed out, for example with respect to value control. The last chapter of the thesis is devoted to case studies. It aims chiefly at comparing theory with practice in order to identify the limits of mathematical models of cost so that they can be used judiciously. (author). 159 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, R.P.; Barker, I.J.
1987-01-01
APCOM symposia provide a medium of exchange of technical expertise and experience for practitioners in the general field of applications of computers, operations research, mathematical and geostatistical techniques in the mineral industries. Contributors represent mine and plant personnel, academic and government or semi-government representatives, and the topics covered range from mining and metallurgical techniques and planning to financial analysis, project valuation, information systems, computer graphics, geostatistics, etc. For the 20th APCOM, the Proceedings have been divided into the three broad categories of mining, metallurgy and geostatistics, and are grouped accordingly into the three published volumes. APCOM '87, the twentieth in this series of international meetings, places major emphasis on the practical application of computers in the workplace to implement the theoretical techniques. Modelling, simulation and process control still seem to attract the major research efforts. Modelling of milling and flotation have a long history but are still active areas for research. Pyrometallurgy, gold recovery, separation processes with distributed partition functions like screening and gravity separation, and electrowinning, are also attracting attention. Computeraided design (CAD) is becoming a lot more usable and available throughout the industry. Process control is at the door of a new era, with the combination of sensor technology, reliable on-plant computers and viable theoretical techniques now becoming available as never before. CAD and process control have also given new impetus to the need to develop and test computer-based models of a wider range of unit operations. APCOM remains the most important forum for the discussion of new developments in the application of computer methods and mathematical techniques in the metallurgical industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merchie, Francois
2015-10-01
This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)
Giustinianovich, Elisa A; Campos, José-Luis; Roeckel, Marlene D; Estrada, Alejandro J; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Val Del Río, Ángeles
2018-03-01
The performance of the partial nitritation/anammox processes was evaluated for the treatment of fish canning effluents. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was fed with industrial wastewater, with variable salt and total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentrations in the range of 1.75-18.00 g-NaCl L -1 and 112 - 267 mg-TAN L -1 . The SBR operation was divided into two experiments: (A) progressive increase of salt concentrations from 1.75 to 18.33 g-NaCl L -1 ; (B) direct application of high salt concentration (18 g-NaCl L -1 ). The progressive increase of NaCl concentration provoked the inhibition of the anammox biomass by up to 94% when 18 g-NaCl L -1 were added. The stable operation of the processes was achieved after 154 days when the nitrogen removal rate was 0.021 ± 0.007 g N/L·d (corresponding to 30% of removal efficiency). To avoid the development of NOB activity at low salt concentrations and to stabilize the performance of the processes dissolved oxygen was supplied by intermittent aeration. A greater removal rate of 0.029 ± 0.017 g-N L -1 d -1 was obtained with direct exposure of the inoculum to 18 g-NaCl L -1 in less than 40 days. Also, higher specific activities than those from the inoculum were achieved for salt concentrations of 15 and 20 g-NaCl L -1 after 39 days of operation. This first study of the performance of the partial nitritation/anammox processes, to treat saline wastewaters, indicates that the acclimation period can be avoided to shorten the start-up period for industrial application purposes. Nevertheless, further experiments are needed in order to improve the efficiency of the processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nuclear reactor physics course for reactor operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baeten, P.
2006-01-01
The education and training of nuclear reactor operators is important to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. Therefore, a course on basic 'Nuclear reactor physics' in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The aim of the basic course on 'Nuclear Reactor Physics for reactor operators' is to provide the reactor operators with a basic understanding of the main concepts relevant to nuclear reactors. Seen the education level of the participants, mathematical derivations are simplified and reduced to a minimum, but not completely eliminated
Parametric Sensibility in Lixiviation Reactors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dra. Margarita Rivera-Soto
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This work presents the results obtained in an analysis of the parametric sensibility, on the base of a mathematical model, which describes the behavior a lixiviation reactors battery inside the limits of the habitual work of the industrial plant, in a concrete process and of high complexity. The analysis was carried out with the purpose of determining the effect that the changes in different operation variables have on the behavior of the system and it gave as result that the most important variables are: the mineral-acid relationship, the concentration of magnesium and of nickel.
Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) more...
Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Sobhan Babu, K.; Sharma, D.N.
2008-01-01
Full text: Decommissioning of nuclear facilities constitute a challenge mainly due to the huge and complex nature of radioactive waste generated during this process. In the context of management and disposal of waste and reuse/recycle of usable materials during decommissioning of reactors, clearance levels for relevant radio nuclides are of vital importance. Radionuclide specific clearance levels are developed by IAEA and such levels allow the facility for free release of materials to the environment without further regulatory consideration. An effort has been made in this paper to establish clearance levels for radionuclides associated with various system and structural components of a research reactor and rather than radionuclide specific clearance levels, these values are derived for gross activity concentration, which is more practical for radioactive waste categorization, disposal and reuse or recycle of usable materials. The first step towards the derivation of clearance levels is the calculation of annual doses relating to unit activity concentration for each nuclide using various enveloping scenarios. After the estimation of doses, the limiting enveloping scenario (the one that gives the highest dose) is identified. The clearance levels are then derived by dividing the reference dose level (10 μSv/y) by the annual dose calculated per unit activity concentration for the limiting enveloping scenario The clearance level for gross beta-gamma activity concentration is then evaluated as the product of the limiting clearance level and the number of radionuclides characterized for the structural components. Simulation studies were also carried out for the design of a monitoring system for estimation of activity concentration of the decommissioned materials, especially rubbles/ concrete, using mathematical models. Conventional solid waste assay techniques would not suffice to the requirement of decommissioning waste categorization since very low level activity
Esparza-Soto, M; Arzate-Archundia, O; Solís-Morelos, C; Fall, C
2013-01-01
The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of a 244-L pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor during the treatment of chocolate-processing industry wastewater under low-temperature conditions (18 ± 0.6 °C) for approximately 250 d. The applied organic loading rate (OLR) was varied between 4 and 7 kg/m(3)/d by varying the influent soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODsol), while keeping the hydraulic retention time constant (6.4 ± 0.3 h). The CODsol removal efficiency was low (59-78%). The measured biogas production increased from 240 ± 54 to 431 ± 61 L/d during the experiments. A significant linear correlation between the measured biogas production and removed OLR indicated that 81.69 L of biogas were produced per kg/m(3) of CODsol removed. Low average reactor volatile suspended solids (VSS) (2,700-4,800 mg/L) and high effluent VSS (177-313 mg/L) were derived in a short sludge retention time (SRT) (4.9 d). The calculated SRT was shorter than those reported in the literature, but did not affect the reactor's performance. Average sludge yield was 0.20 kg-VSS/kg-CODsol. The low-temperature anaerobic treatment was a good option for the pre-treatment of chocolate-processing industry wastewater.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuerten, H; Zehner, P [BASF A.G., Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany, F.R.)
1979-08-01
Slurry reactors are designed on the basis of empirical data and model investigations. It is as yet not possible to calculate the flow behavior of such reactors. The swarm of gas bubbles and cluster formations of solid particles and their interaction in industrial reactors are not known. These effects control to a large extent the gas hold-up, the gas-liquid interface and, similarly as in bubble columns, the back-mixing of liquids and solids. These hydrodynamic problems are illustrated in slurry reactors which constructionally may be bubble columns, stirred tanks or jet loop reactors. The expected effects are predicted by means of tests with model systems modified to represent the conditions in industrial hydrogenation reactors. In his book 'Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous Catalysis' (1970) Satterfield complained of the lack of knowledge about the design of slurry reactors and hence of the impossible task of the engineer who has to design a plant according to accepted rules. There have been no fundamental changes since then. This paper presents the problems facing the engineer in designing slurry reactors, and shows new development trends.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talpariu, C; Talpariu, J.; Matei, C.
2001-01-01
Domestic production of component system and equipment for the control and safety of nuclear facilities was one of the priority objective of the Nuclear Research Institute Pitesti. The problems addressed were particularly related to design and production of analog and digital equipment for measurements, triggering and display of the values of process parameters as well as to regulating complex functions of this equipment. Associated to this effort were the research works concerning: - reliability and in-service life-time of the electronic components and equipment in the safety and control systems for nuclear processes; - radiation endurance of industrial electronic components; utilization of whirling currents in calandria tube testing; - expert systems and applications in nuclear reactor control and safety; design and testing methods of process real time software packages for safety in control critical systems for nuclear domain. There are presented characteristics of the following equipment: 1. amplifier for ionization chambers with triggering comparator circuits for the CANDU 600 reactor shut down system; 2. amplifier for ionization chambers without triggering comparator circuits for power regulating system; 3. safety and regulating computerized system for C9 and C5 cans; 4. acquisition system for dosimetric data in nuclear facilities; 5. program able digital comparator for the reactor shut down system; 6. stationary gamma areal monitors for CANDU 600 reactors and other nuclear facilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bingulac, B; Lazarevic, B; Matausek, M; Radanovic, Lj [Institut za nuklearne nauke Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)
1964-07-01
A two-channel model for reactor dynamic analysis was developed. It enables representation of time dependent behaviour of a reactor as a whole and to obtain time and space dependent changes of temperature in any of the reactor channel. Model is suitable for follow-up of phenomena in limited time intervals up to few tens of minutes, since long term variations caused by fuel burnup and fission products are not taken into account in the model. Parameters are defined to cover the reactor power range from minimum to maximum. Model describes two main processes in the reactor: power generation dependent on the neutron flux and cooling.
Noacco, V.; Wagener, T.; Pianosi, F.; Philp, T.
2017-12-01
Insurance companies provide insurance against a wide range of threats, such as natural catastrophes, nuclear incidents and terrorism. To quantify risk and support investment decisions, mathematical models are used, for example to set the premiums charged to clients that protect from financial loss, should deleterious events occur. While these models are essential tools for adequately assessing the risk attached to an insurer's portfolio, their development is costly and their value for decision-making may be limited by an incomplete understanding of uncertainty and sensitivity. Aside from the business need to understand risk and uncertainty, the insurance sector also faces regulation which requires them to test their models in such a way that uncertainties are appropriately captured and that plans are in place to assess the risks and their mitigation. The building and testing of models constitutes a high cost for insurance companies, and it is a time intensive activity. This study uses an established global sensitivity analysis toolbox (SAFE) to more efficiently capture the uncertainties and sensitivities embedded in models used by a leading re/insurance firm, with structured approaches to validate these models and test the impact of assumptions on the model predictions. It is hoped that this in turn will lead to better-informed and more robust business decisions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemmer, I.C.; Schaum, H.; Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.G.M.
1987-01-01
APCOM symposia provide a medium of exchange of technical expertise and experience for practitioners in the general field of applications of computers, operations research, mathematical and geostatistical techniques in the mineral industries. Contributors represent mine and plant personnel, academic and government or semi-government representatives, and the topics covered range from mining and metallurgical techniques and planning to financial analysis, project evaluation, information systems, computer graphics, geostatistics, etc. For the 20th APCOM, the Proceedings have been divided into the three broad categories of mining, metallurgy and geostatistics, and are grouped accordingly into the three published volumes. The theme of this Symposium - 'special emphasis on the practical application of computers to implement the many powerful theoretical techniques in the workplace' - was chosen to underline the practical needs of industry. Contributions from both local and foreing participants demonstrate how established geostatistics and related disciplines have become. Apart from the more classic applications of estimation and simulation, the papers deal with optimisation of drill sites and spacing, identification of geological patterns, determination of potential prospecting targets and the processing of geochemical and geophysical data. New and more unorthodox applications such as the use of expert systems, the enhancement of remotely sensed data and production forecasting are also dealt with. The papers represent the state of the art in the workplace. Reflecting back on the 10th Symposium, it is clear that the field of geostatistics has flourished in the last 15 years and will go from strength to strength in the future
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nedelec, J.C.
1988-01-01
The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr
Mathematical aspects of reactor blowdown
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esposito, V.J.
1975-01-01
To simulate a hypothetical loss of coolant accident, a large number of equations describing various thermal-hydraulic phenomena must be solved. A review is presented of some of the existing computational methods used for this simulation. A summary of techniques (multi-dimensional) being considered for more detailed investigation is included. (28 references) (U.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Platovskikh, Yu.A.; Sergeev, I.V.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Legin, V.K.; Shishlov, A.E.
2003-01-01
Equations describing radioisotope transfers in the suspension river water-bottom sediments based on radionuclide migration from industrial wastes and washing off reservoir are formulated. Coefficients of the equations were determined by means of measured data processing. On this base floodplaine sediments were estimated, dependence of radionuclide waste from time for all period of functioning of the plant was determined and their concentrations in water and bottom sediments were calculated. Balances between wastes, washing off the reservoir and radionuclide migration in bottom sediments, bottom land and the Kara Sea were formulated for the past. Procedure for the estimation of the migration of radionuclide exchange forms from bottom sediments following sharp decrease of waste in 1992 was developed. On the base of this effect and redistribution of radionuclides between bottom sediments and floodplaine sediments the rate of self-purification of the river in the future was evaluated [ru
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pesenti, P; Wallet, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1960-07-01
The authors describe a viewing and measurement cell for the slugs of Marcoule industrial reactors. This cell allows visual inspection, and photography of slugs. Length measurements are also made possible by horizontal motion of the slug both in translation and rotation. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent une cellule d'observation et de mesure des elements combustibles des piles industrielles de Marcoule. La cellule permet l'examen a vue, la photographie, la radioscopie et la radiographie des elements combustibles. Elle permet en outre la mesure de longueurs sur ces elements, ces derniers pouvant etre deplaces horizontalement en translation, et en rotation. (auteur)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Mu; Ma Bo; Dong Yujie
2010-01-01
On the basis of the technical feature of pebble model high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-PM) plant, its developmental advantage and future are deeply investigated from inherent safety and economics. It is explored about the business opportunity and future financing mode of HTR-PM plant. Industrial distribution and potential user are studied. It is resulted that the technical potential can be developed fully using Gas turbine power generation technology. It has wide market and great significance to build more group modules at home and developing countries. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blomeke, J.O.
1988-06-01
The industrial facilities that have been built or are under construction in France, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and West Germany to handle light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and canisters of vitrified high-level waste before ultimate disposal are described and illustrated with drawings and photographs. Published information on the operating performances of these facilities is also given. This information was assembled for consideration in planning and design of similar equipment and facilities needed for the Federal Waste Management System in the United States. 79 refs., 71 figs., 10 tabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wojciech KOCUREK
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to high-tech companies founded by Poles at the end of the 19th century in the rural canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. The text is divided into two parts. In the first part, the author attempts to present the economic, social and political reality of Fribourg in a period of intense industrialization in the world and the formation of the liberal free market system. In this rapidly changing reality, the new Catholic-conservative authorities of the canton tried to lead to establishing of a comprehensive, but also different system of a “Christian republic”, whose aim was to achieve social justice consistent with the teachings of the Gospel. In order to complete the project, the cantonal government did not shy away from using the possibilities and measures offered by the contemporary world. Decision-makers, led by Georges Python, needed support from the society, who was aware of the changes. Due to this fact, it became necessary to establish a university capable of shaping new attitudes and views. However, the costs significantly exceeded the financial capabilities of the agricultural and relatively poor canton of Fribourg. In these less favourable circumstances, a conscious policy of industrialization was the way out of the deadlock. Newly created industrial institutions were to contribute to an increase of cash inflows to the canton and thus allow for the financing of the university, which would also become an intellectual foundation for the emerging industry. The activity of Polish scientists, which is the subject of the second part of the article, matched this philosophy perfectly. The Poles invited to cooperate with Python, i.e. Józef Wierusz-Kowalski, Ignacy Mościcki and Jan Modzelewski, created the foundations of the Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences at the University of Fribourg. As members of the faculty, in addition to teaching, they conducted research into, among other things, nitric acid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guy C.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Cet article fait le point sur l'état de la recherche dans le domaine des réacteurs chimiques avec séparation par membrane intégrée et de leur applications dans le domaine du raffinage et de la pétrochimie. Trois applications potentiellement intéressantes sont identifiées et, pour chacune, les avantages de l'utilisation d'un réacteur à membrane sont discutés. Ce sont : la déshydrogénation du propane en propylène, la déshydrogénation d'un naphtène cyclohexanique et le vaporéformage du gaz naturel. Pour ces réactions, les membranes à base de palladium apparaissent les plus performantes compte tenu de leur tenue en température, de leur sélectivité et de leur perméabilité à l'hydrogène. Quelques éléments relatifs à leur développement sont présentés en conclusion. Recently, the use of membrane in reaction engineering has been more and more advocated. The selective separation of the products from the reaction mixture allows to achieve higher conversion or better selectivity or to operate under less severe conditions or with smaller units. This paper presents an update on the recent advances in the field of chemical membrane reactors and on their applications in refining and petrochemistry. Previous work. Most of the possible applications of membrane reactors in petroleum and petrochemical industry concern gaseous catalytic reactions. For this reason, gas permeation membranes are the primary component of membrane reactors. Gas permeation membranes present different types of physical structure : dense, microporous or asymmetric which is a combination of the two. Separating properties of dense membranes are function of the solubility and diffusivity of each gaseous component in the membrane material. For microporous membranes, they follow four mechanisms : Knudsen diffusion, surface diffusion, capillary condensation or molecular sieving. Although organic polymers are the common constituent of gas permeation membrane, their
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hieronymus, W.
2007-01-01
In 1955, the Government of the German Democratic Republic initiated radioisotope production. With that decision, the following plants received their go ahead: - Research reactor with its user facilities; - Cyclotron with its specific facilities; - Institute for radiochemistry; - Library, lecture hall, workshops and administration buildings supporting the necessary scientific and administrative environment. The Zentralinstitut fuer Kerntechnik (ZfK), also known as the Central Institute for Nuclear Technology, was founded at Rossendorf near Dresden, Germany, to house all those plants. The Rossendorf Research Reactor (RFR) was constructed in 1956-1957. That endeavour was enabled by the technological support of the former USSR under a bilateral agreement which included the delivery of a 2 MW research reactor of the WWR-S design
Grace Pavithra, K.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Carolin Christopher, Femina; Saravanan, A.
2017-11-01
In this research, the wastewater samples were collected from leather tanning industry at different time intervals. The parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, turbidity, chromium and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the samples were analyzed. A three-phase three-dimensional fluidized type electrode reactor (FTER) was newly designed for the effective removal of toxic pollutants from wastewater. The influencing parameters were optimized for the maximum removal of toxic pollutants from wastewater. The optimum condition for the present system was calculated as: contact time of 30 min, applied voltage of 3 V and the particle electrodes of 15 g. The particle electrode was characterized by using FT-IR analysis. Langmuir-Hinshelwood and pseudo-second order kinetic models were fits well with the experimental data. The results showed that the FTER can be successfully employed for the treatment of industrial wastewater.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubo, Shinji; Iwatsuki, Jin; Takegami, Hiroaki; Kasahara, Seiji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kamiji, Yu; Onuki, Kaoru
2015-10-01
Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting a study on IS process for thermochemical hydrogen production in order to develop massive hydrogen production technology for hydrogen society. Integrity of the chemical reactors and concentration technology of hydrogen iodide in HIx solution were studied. In the former study, the chemical reactors were trial-fabricated using industrial materials. A test of 30 times of thermal cycle test under circulating condition of the Bunsen reaction solution showed integrity of the Bunsen reactor made of fluororesin lined steel. Also, 100 hours of reaction tests showed integrity of the sulfuric acid decomposer made of silicon carbide and of the hydrogen iodide decomposer made of Hastelloy C-276. In the latter study, concerning electro-electrodialysis using cation-exchange membrane, sulfuric acid in the anolyte had little influence on the concentration performance. These results suggest the purification system of HIx solution can be simplified. Based on the Nernst-Planck equation and the Smoluchowski equation, proton transport number, water permeance, and IR drop of the cation exchange membrane were formulated. The derived equations enable quantitative estimation for the performance indexes of Nafion ® membrane and, also, of ETFE-St membranes made by radiation-induced graft polymerization method. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bosi, S.G.; Khachan, J.; Oborn, B.M.
2011-01-01
Full text: Tc-99m (decay product of Mo-99) accounts for ∼ 90% of world's production of radiopharmaceuticals. Recent unexpected shutdowns of two fission reactors and routine maintenance closures .e created a global shortage of Tc-99m, hence the large global effort to find alternative sources. This project aims to design and produce a novel prototype Mo-99/Tc-99m source. An operational desktop neutron source is available at the University of Sydney, employing a deuterium fusion-plasma to create 2.45 MeV neutrons. These neutrons will be used to activate Mo-98 thin an activation vessel. In one embodiment, the activation vessel contains an aqueous slurry or gel containing Mo-98 which converts to 0-99 upon activation. The decay product Tc-99m could then be milked, similar to existing Tc-99m generators. Monte Carlo will be :ed to assess yield versus size and geometry for various vessel designs. The neutron source filled with deuterium operating at 250 W, produces 3 x 106 neutrons continuously. The neutron flux can be increased ∼ 100-fold if the fill gas is 50% tritium and by another ∼ 100-1000-fold by increasing the power. This is being designed for local use, perhaps on the scale f one or a few hospitals, so the yield would not need to be industrial ;ale as with fission reactor sources. This device is low cost <$300 K) compared with cyclotrons and fission reactors.
Parametric Sensitivity Study on Continuous Reactors with Stirring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. Carlos Hernández-Pedrera
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this work present the results obtained in a study of sensibility, by using a mathematical model developed for the simulation of the conduct of an endless reactor with agitation, by using as data source of information of reasonable operation of the industrial plant. The study permits value the effect that the changes in the variables of operation can occasion in the results of the process and the possibility that exists or not interactions between the variables analyzed.
Rodríguez, Francisca A; Mateo, María N; Aceves, Juan M; Rivero, Eligio P; González, Ignacio
2013-01-01
This work presents a study on degradation of indigo carmine dye in a filter-press type FM01-LC reactor using Sb2O5-doped Ti/IrO2-SnO2 dimensionally stable anode (DSA) electrodes. Micro- and macroelectrolysis studies were carried out using solutions of 0.8 mM indigo carmine in 0.05 M NaCl, which resemble blue denim laundry industrial wastewater. Microelectrolysis results show the behaviour of DSA electrodes in comparison with the behaviour of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. In general, dye degradation reactions are carried out indirectly through active chlorine generated on DSA, whereas in the case of BDD electrodes more oxidizing species are formed, mainly OH radicals, on the electrode surface. The well-characterized geometry, flow pattern and mass transport of the FM01-LC reactor used in macroelectrolysis experiments allowed the evaluation of the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the chlorine-mediated degradation rate. Four values of Reynolds number (Re) (93, 371, 464 and 557) at four current densities (50, 100, 150 and 200 A/m2) were tested. The results show that the degradation rate is independent of Re at low current density (50 A/m2) but becomes dependent on the Re at high current density (200 A/m2). This behaviour shows the central role of mass transport and the reactor parameters and design. The low energy consumption (2.02 and 9.04 kWh/m3 for complete discolouration and chemical oxygen demand elimination at 50 A/m2, respectively) and the low cost of DSA electrodes compared to BDD make DSA electrodes promising for practical application in treating industrial textile effluents. In the present study, chlorinated organic compounds were not detected.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanjeev Kumar, S.; Kumar, M. Santosh [Department of Biochemistry, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Siddavattam, D. [Department of Animal Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Karegoudar, T.B., E-mail: goudartbk@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India)
2012-01-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal of DMF was compared by free and immobilized cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 cells entrapped in PVA-alginate have shown more tolerance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PVA-alginate beads removed DMF even in the presence of other organic solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal of DMF from industrial effluents by PVA-alginate blended batch operations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of industrially feasible remediation strategy for DMF removal. - Abstract: Effective removal of dimethylformamide (DMF), the organic solvent found in industrial effluents of textile and pharma industries, was demonstrated by using free and immobilized cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1, a soil isolate capable of utilizing DMF as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen. The free cells have efficiently removed DMF from culture media and effluents, only when DMF concentration was less than 1% (v/v). Entrapment of cells either in alginate or in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) failed to increase tolerance limits. However, the cells of Ochrobactrum sp. DGVK1 entrapped in PVA-alginate mixed matrix tolerated higher concentration of DMF (2.5%, v/v) and effectively removed DMF from industrial effluents. As determined through batch fermentation, these immobilized cells have retained viability and degradability for more than 20 cycles. A continuous packed bed reactor, generated by using PVA-alginate beads, efficiently removed DMF from industrial effluents, even in the presence of certain organic solvents frequently found in effluents along with DMF.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maldonado, M.I.; Malato, S.; Perez-Estrada, L.A.; Gernjak, W.; Oller, I.; Domenech, Xavier; Peral, Jose
2006-01-01
Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry (α-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html[1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maldonado, M.I. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Malato, S. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Perez-Estrada, L.A. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Gernjak, W. [PSA -Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Oller, I. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Peral, Jose [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.peral@uab.es
2006-11-16
Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry ({alpha}-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html[1
Development of Reactor Console Simulator for PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohd Idris Taib; Izhar Abu Hussin; Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nufarhana Ayuni Joha; Mohd Sabri Minhat
2012-01-01
The Reactor Console Simulator will be an interactive tool for operator training and teaching of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. Behaviour and characteristic for reactor console and reactor itself can be evaluated and understand. This Simulator will be used as complement for actual present reactor console. Implementation of man-machine interface is using computer screens, keyboard and mouse. Multiple screens are used to match the physical of present reactor console. LabVIEW software are using for user interface and mathematical calculation. Polynomial equation based on control rods calibration data as well as operation parameters record was used to calculate the estimated reactor console parameters. (author)
Analysis of dynamic stability and safety of reactor system by reactor simulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raisic, N.
1963-11-01
In order to enable qualitative analysis of dynamic properties of reactors RA and RB, mathematical models of these reactors were formulated and adapted for solution on analog computer. This report contains basic assessments for creating the model and complete equations for each reactor. Model was used to analyse three possible accidents at the RA reactor and possible hypothetical accidents at the RB reactor
Visscher, F.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Schouten, J.C.
2013-01-01
This review-perspective paper describes the current state-of-the-art in the field of rotating reactors. The paper has a focus on rotating reactor technology with applications at lab scale, pilot scale and industrial scale. Rotating reactors are classified and discussed according to their geometry:
Nuclear reactors. Introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boiron, P.
1997-01-01
This paper is an introduction to the 'nuclear reactors' volume of the Engineers Techniques collection. It gives a general presentation of the different articles of the volume which deal with: the physical basis (neutron physics and ionizing radiations-matter interactions, neutron moderation and diffusion), the basic concepts and functioning of nuclear reactors (possible fuel-moderator-coolant-structure combinations, research and materials testing reactors, reactors theory and neutron characteristics, neutron calculations for reactor cores, thermo-hydraulics, fluid-structure interactions and thermomechanical behaviour of fuels in PWRs and fast breeder reactors, thermal and mechanical effects on reactors structure), the industrial reactors (light water, pressurized water, boiling water, graphite moderated, fast breeder, high temperature and heavy water reactors), and the technology of PWRs (conceiving and building rules, nuclear parks and safety, reactor components and site selection). (J.S.)
The research reactors their contribution to the reactors physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barral, J.C.; Zaetta, A.; Johner, J.; Mathoniere, G.
2000-01-01
The 19 october 2000, the french society of nuclear energy organized a day on the research reactors. This associated report of the technical session, reactors physics, is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the annual meeting and groups general papers on the pressurized water reactors, the fast neutrons reactors and the fusion reactors industry. The second part presents more technical papers about the research programs, critical models, irradiation reactors (OSIRIS and Jules Horowitz) and computing tools. (A.L.B.)
Luther, Kenneth H.
2012-01-01
Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKee, S.; Elliott, C.M.
1986-01-01
The applications of mathematics to industrial problems involves the formulation of problems which are amenable to mathematical investigation, mathematical modelling, the solution of the mathematical problem and the inter-pretation of the results. There are 12 chapters describing industrial problems where mathematics and numerical analysis can be applied. These range from the numerical assessment of the flatness of engineering surfaces and plates, the design of chain links, control problems in tidal power generation and low thrust satellite trajectory optimization to mathematical models in welding. One chapter, on the ageing of stainless steels, is indexed separately. (UK)
African Journals Online (AJOL)
MATHEMATICS CONNECTION aims at providing a forum topromote the development of Mathematics Education in Ghana. Articles that seekto enhance the teaching and/or learning of mathematics at all levels of theeducational system are welcome.
Analysis of dynamic stability and safety of the reactor system by reactor simulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raisic, N.
1963-11-01
This document defines the approximations done for establishing a mathematical model of a reactor. Since the model should be used for safety analysis, it was important to choose a mathematical model less stable than the reactor itself. The analysis was performed on the analog computer RAS. Results obtained and conclusions concerned with three possible reactor accidents are presented [sr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laufs, Paul
2013-01-01
The present book describes the development of reactor safety in German light-water nuclear power plants from the beginnings with its multifarious links to model solutions seen in other countries, national and international research projects and accidents in conventional and nuclear power plants. It contains detailed, richly illustrated articles on specific safety techniques such as rupture safety of the pressurised envelope, safeguarding of emergency cooling in the event of accidents involving coolant loss, control technology and protection of the surroundings through containment. The results of national and international risk studies are discussed. It is shown how efforts on the part of industry, government and science to enhance safety resources and improve safety culture have been driven by a civic environment in which the use of nuclear energy has become a central issue of political debate. The book is written in readily comprehensible language and offers a wealth of material for further study.
Mathematical Modeling in the High School Curriculum
Hernández, Maria L.; Levy, Rachel; Felton-Koestler, Mathew D.; Zbiek, Rose Mary
2016-01-01
In 2015, mathematics leaders and instructors from the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) and the Consortium for Mathematics and Its Applications (COMAP), with input from NCTM, came together to write the "Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Mathematical Modeling Education" (GAIMME) report as a resource for…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devine, T.M.
1994-01-01
Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is proposed as a technique for monitoring in situ the passive films and corrosion products that form on the surfaces of alloys of interest in nuclear power plants. The technique is a highly sensitive procedure for detecting even very small quantities of species present on surfaces, in particular the surface of metallic alloys. The data could, for example, identify the constituents in passive films that are less than a monolayer in average thickness. Processes such as 60 Co pick-up could be monitored in real time. In fact, if it is known that incorporation of 60 Co occurs when a particular oxide film forms on the surface of the alloy, then measurement of the SER spectra could indicate when such films are beginning to form and thereby provide an early indication that conditions inside the reactor are now suitable for 60 Co pick-up in the passive films
Mathematical Footprints Discovering Mathematics Everywhere
Pappas, Theoni
1999-01-01
MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS takes a creative look at the role mathematics has played since prehistoric times, and will play in the future, and uncovers mathematics where you least expect to find it from its many uses in medicine, the sciences, and its appearance in art to its patterns in nature and its central role in the development of computers. Pappas presents mathematical ideas in a readable non-threatening manner. MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS is another gem by the creator of THE MATHEMATICS CALENDAR and author of THE JOY OF MATHEMATICS. "Pappas's books have been gold mines of mathematical ent
Kumar, B Shiva; Venkateswarlu, Ch
2014-08-01
The complex nature of biological reactions in biofilm reactors often poses difficulties in analyzing such reactors experimentally. Mathematical models could be very useful for their design and analysis. However, application of biofilm reactor models to practical problems proves somewhat ineffective due to the lack of knowledge of accurate kinetic models and uncertainty in model parameters. In this work, we propose an inverse modeling approach based on tabu search (TS) to estimate the parameters of kinetic and film thickness models. TS is used to estimate these parameters as a consequence of the validation of the mathematical models of the process with the aid of measured data obtained from an experimental fixed-bed anaerobic biofilm reactor involving the treatment of pharmaceutical industry wastewater. The results evaluated for different modeling configurations of varying degrees of complexity illustrate the effectiveness of TS for accurate estimation of kinetic and film thickness model parameters of the biofilm process. The results show that the two-dimensional mathematical model with Edward kinetics (with its optimum parameters as mu(max)rho(s)/Y = 24.57, Ks = 1.352 and Ki = 102.36) and three-parameter film thickness expression (with its estimated parameters as a = 0.289 x 10(-5), b = 1.55 x 10(-4) and c = 15.2 x 10(-6)) better describes the biofilm reactor treating the industry wastewater.
Mathematical Optimiation in Economics
De Finetti, Bruno
2011-01-01
Preface by B. de Finetti.- G.Th. Guilbaud: Les equilibres dans les modeles economiques.-H.W. Kuhn: Locational problems and mathematical programming.- M. Morishima: The multi-sectoral theory of economic growth.- B. Martos, J. Kornai: Experiments in Hungary with industry-wide and economy wide programming.- A. Prekopa: Probability distribution problems concerning stochastic programming problems.- R. Frisch: General principles and mathematical techniques of macroeconomic programming.
Ratio Analysis: Where Investments Meet Mathematics.
Barton, Susan D.; Woodbury, Denise
2002-01-01
Discusses ratio analysis by which investments may be evaluated. Requires the use of fundamental mathematics, problem solving, and a comparison of the mathematical results within the framework of industry. (Author/NB)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio
2014-01-01
Two plastic wastes obtained as co-products from an industrial process were fed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having an internal diameter of 0.38 m and a maximum thermal output of about 400 kW. The experimental runs were carried out by reaching a condition of thermal and chemical steady state under values of equivalence ratio ranging from 0.2 to 0.3. Olivine, a neo-silicate of Fe and Mg, already tested as a good catalyst for tar removal during gasification of polyolefin plastic wastes, was used as bed material. The results provide the complete composition of the syngas, including the tar, particulate and acid/basic gas contents as well as the chemical and physical characterization of the bed material and entrained fines. The gasification process appears technically feasible, yielding a producer gas of valuable quality for energy applications in an appropriate plant configuration. On the other hand, under the experimental conditions tested, olivine particles show a strongly reduced catalytic activity in all the runs. The differences in the gasification behaviour of the two industrial plastics are explained on the basis of the structure and composition of the wastes, taking also into account the results of a combined material and substance flow analysis. - Highlights: • Pilot-scale investigation of fluidized bed gasification of two industrial plastic wastes. • Tests under conditions of thermal/chemical steady state at various equivalence ratios. • Complete composition of the producer gas, including tar, particulate and acid/basic gases. • Differences in the gasification behaviour of plastic wastes. • Material, substance, and feedstock energy flow analysis for different gasification tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodds, H.L. Jr.
1977-01-01
An overview of the recent accomplishments of the Computational Benchmark Problems Committee of the American Nuclear Society Mathematics and Computation Division is presented. Solutions of computational benchmark problems in the following eight areas are presented and discussed: (a) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor neutronics, (b) pressurized water reactor (PWR) thermal hydraulics, (c) PWR neutronics, (d) neutron transport in a cylindrical ''black'' rod, (e) neutron transport in a boiling water reactor (BWR) rod bundle, (f) BWR transient neutronics with thermal feedback, (g) neutron depletion in a heavy water reactor, and (h) heavy water reactor transient neutronics. It is concluded that these problems and solutions are of considerable value to the nuclear industry because they have been and will continue to be useful in the development, evaluation, and verification of computer codes and numerical-solution methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnov, A.B.; Mokrov, Y.G.; Glagolenko, Y.V.; Drozhko, E.G.; Khodakovsky, I.L.; Leonov, A.V.
1995-01-01
The modern radioecological situation around the oldest radiochemical plant, Mayak, in South Ural (Russia) is indicated by the storage of 300 million to tons of low level radioactive waste in the Techa's reservoir chain (TRC). Future approaches for TRC restoration may be evaluated using corresponding mathematical models. The mathematical modeling complex, KASKAD, was developed at Mayak and is intended for reservoir radioecological state forecasting and alternative remediation approaches evaluation. The paper describes this model
Anuar Mohd Salleh, Khairul; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H.
2014-01-01
This work describes the development of a new technique to measure local liquid velocity (VLL) for multiphase flows in trickle bed reactors (TBRs) (gas-liquid-solid system). In the studied TBR, the liquid phase is represented by water, gas by air and 3 mm expanded polystyrene beads as the solid packing. Three different superficial liquid velocities (VSL) and a constant superficial gas velocity (VSG) were used in the packed bed with an internal diameter of 4.25 cm. While the liquid is moving into the packed bed, tracking particles of 106-125 μm diameter (16.45% difference) are injected. The movement of the tracking particles is monitored and digitally recorded by a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector. In this experiment, x-rays were used as the radiation source. Four replications were made with fresh packing. Comparable observations can be found from other published techniques (i.e. magnetic resonance imaging). Results from this study indicate that, at VSL = 0.13 cm s-1, the measured VLL can reach up to 51 times that of its VSL, while for VSL = 0.27 cm s-1, the measured VLL reached up to 35 times higher than the VSL and for VSL = 0.39 cm s-1, the VLL reached up to 39.8 times higher than its VSL. Through statistical analysis, the implementation of such a method is found to be reproducible throughout the experiments. The mean per cent difference in the measured VLL was 10% and 5% for lower implemented VSL of 0.13 and 0.27 cm s-1, respectively. At higher VSL (0.39 cm s-1), the particle tracer was greatly distributed and carried away by the high liquid flow rate. The variance or the range of the measured VLL does not vary for all replications in every VSL, which confirms the reproducibility of the experimental measurements, regardless of the VSL.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graham, L. W.; Hick, H.
1973-06-15
This report introduces a general survey of our present knowledge and understanding of coated particle fuel performance. It defines first the reference power reactor conditions and the reference coated particle design on which the survey is centred. It describes then the typical strategy which has been followed in coated particle fuel development by the Dragon Project R & D Branch. Finally it shows the priorities which have governed the time scale and scope of fuel development and of the present review.
Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian
2017-01-01
Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...
Stacey, Weston M
2010-01-01
Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salleh, Khairul Anuar Mohd; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H
2014-01-01
This work describes the development of a new technique to measure local liquid velocity (V LL ) for multiphase flows in trickle bed reactors (TBRs) (gas–liquid–solid system). In the studied TBR, the liquid phase is represented by water, gas by air and 3 mm expanded polystyrene beads as the solid packing. Three different superficial liquid velocities (V SL ) and a constant superficial gas velocity (V SG ) were used in the packed bed with an internal diameter of 4.25 cm. While the liquid is moving into the packed bed, tracking particles of 106–125 μm diameter (16.45% difference) are injected. The movement of the tracking particles is monitored and digitally recorded by a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor detector. In this experiment, x-rays were used as the radiation source. Four replications were made with fresh packing. Comparable observations can be found from other published techniques (i.e. magnetic resonance imaging). Results from this study indicate that, at V SL = 0.13 cm s −1 , the measured V LL can reach up to 51 times that of its V SL , while for V SL = 0.27 cm s −1 , the measured V LL reached up to 35 times higher than the V SL and for V SL = 0.39 cm s −1 , the V LL reached up to 39.8 times higher than its V SL . Through statistical analysis, the implementation of such a method is found to be reproducible throughout the experiments. The mean per cent difference in the measured V LL was 10% and 5% for lower implemented V SL of 0.13 and 0.27 cm s −1 , respectively. At higher V SL (0.39 cm s −1 ), the particle tracer was greatly distributed and carried away by the high liquid flow rate. The variance or the range of the measured V LL does not vary for all replications in every V SL , which confirms the reproducibility of the experimental measurements, regardless of the V SL . (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaafar Abdullah
2005-01-01
The use of radiotracers for troubleshooting and to investigate process phenomena in industrial plant equipment has specific advantages over conventional tracers. The main advantages of radiotracers owes to its physico-chemical compatibility, high detection sensitivity, ability of number of radiotracers for different phases, stability in harsh industrial environment and limited memory effects. This chapter covers the methodology which includes the selection of radiotracer, radioisotope generators, estimation of amount of radiotracer, injection systems, detection system and safety procedure. Leak detection, this topic discussed the detection by flowrate measurement, detection of RTD measurement, detection by direct tracer, detection in underground pipes using the static method and dynamic method. The topic namely Radiotracers for flowrate measurement discussed the following subjects: flowrate measurement, transit time methods, dilution methods, standards for flow measurement, multi-phase flow measurement. RTD measurement, this topic covers the basic flow concepts, the mathematical modelling, RTD software, bypassing or channelling, recirculation, trickle bed reactors studies, process diagnosis and analysis. Lastly, the topic cover other application of radiotracers in industry discussed the following subtopics: mixing and blending studies, measurement of volume, ventilation studies, oil field investigation, corrosion and wear studies, validation of CFD models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong Wang
2014-09-01
Full Text Available A laboratory-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic system operated at the hydraulic retention times (HRT of 20, 40, and 60 h with mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS concentrations of 3 g/L and 6 g/L was considered for treating chemical industrial wastewater rich in complex organic compounds and total dissolved solids. Extending the HRT and increasing the MLSS concentration resulted in higher removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand at 72%. Organic compounds in wastewater could be classified into easily-removed and refractory compounds during treatment. The easily-removed compounds consisted primarily of ethers, alcohols, and aldehydes, whereas the refractory compounds included mainly oxygen-containing heterocyclic and benzene-containing compounds. Results from energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that several metal ions accumulated in activated sludge, particularly Fe(III. Fe accumulated mainly on the surface of sludge floc pellets and resulted in the compactness of activated sludge, which caused the values of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids /MLSS and sludge volume index to decrease.
Exploring mathematics anxiety and attitude: Mathematics students' experiences
Sahri, Nurul Ashikin; Kamaruzaman, Wan Nur Farahdalila Wan; Jamil, Jastini Mohd.; Shaharanee, Izwan Nizal Mohd.
2017-11-01
A quantitative and correlational, survey methods were used to investigate the relationships among mathematical anxiety and attitude toward student's mathematics performance. Participants were 100 students volunteer to enroll in undergraduate Industrial Statistics, Decision Sciences and Business Mathematics at one of northern university in Malaysia. Survey data consisted of demographic items and Likert scale items. The collected data was analyzed by using the idea of correlation and regression analysis. The results indicated that there was a significant positive relationship between students' attitude and mathematics anxiety. Results also indicated that a substantial positive effect of students' attitude and mathematics anxiety in students' achievement. Further study can be conducted on how mathematical anxiety and attitude toward mathematics affects can be used to predict the students' performance in the class.
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mengelle, Ch.
1999-04-01
After having given the definition of the term 'ceramics', the author describes the different manufacturing processes of these compounds. These materials are particularly used in the fields of 1)petroleum industry (in primary and secondary reforming units, in carbon black reactors and ethylene furnaces). 2)nuclear industry (for instance UO 2 and PuO 2 as fuels; SiC for encapsulation; boron carbides for control systems..)
Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan
2002-01-01
A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...
Kilpatrick, Jeremy
2014-01-01
This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…
Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences publishes research work in all areas of ... of new theories, techniques and application to science, industry and society. The journal aims to promote the exchange of information and ideas between all ...
Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong; Ding, Yi; Yao, Jie; Jin, Chao
2018-04-01
This paper investigated the performance of the combined system of catalytic ozonation and the gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor for the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater (CCIW). The results indicated that with ozonation alone for 60min, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) could reach 34%. The introduction of activated carbon, pumice, γ-Al 2 O 3 carriers improved the removal performance of COD, and the removal efficiency was increased by 8.6%, 4.2%, 2%, respectively. Supported with Mn, the catalytic performance of activated carbon and γ-Al 2 O 3 were improved significantly with COD removal efficiencies of 46.5% and 41.3%, respectively; however, the promotion effect of pumice supported with Mn was insignificant. Activated carbon supported with Mn had the best catalytic performance. The catalytic ozonation combined system of MnO X /activated carbon could keep ozone concentration at a lower level in the liquid phase, and promote the transfer of ozone from the gas phase to the liquid phase to improve ozonation efficiency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mura, E.; Debono, O.; Villot, A.; Paviet, F.
2013-01-01
In this work, an experimental study of the NOx-fuel formation, carried out on a semi-industrial scale reactor during combustion of volatiles of the pyrolysis, is performed. Two different biomasses with different nitrogen contents such as a mixture of organic sludge and wood were tested. Results show that the temperature of pyrolysis does not obviously affect the production of NOx-fuel because of the most active precursors (NH 3 and HCN) are already released at low temperatures (400 °C). In the case of sludge mixture, the combustion conditions play the discriminating role in the production of NOx-fuel: the higher the excess air ratio the larger the production of nitrogen oxides from N-fuel. -- Highlights: • An experimental study of the pyrolysis of biomass from waste has been carried out. • The study consists in the analysis of NOx-fuel production during combustion. • The temperature of pyrolysis does not affect the production of NOx. • Only a small part of the N-fuel released in the volatile fraction is oxidized. • In the case of sewage sludge the excess air ratio affects the NOx production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boer, H. [comp.; Delle, E. [comp.; Mies, K. [comp.; Warmeling, A. [comp.
1996-10-01
The booklet presents background information and addresses the following aspects: ionizing radiation and radiation effects; safety of German nuclear power plants; statistical evidence of radiation injuries; short-lived and long-lived ionizing radiation; radioactive waste; CO{sub 2} emissions as an argument in favour of nuclear power generation. The material presented is intended for use by a school project team interested in the subjects, or as a basis for collaborative, interdisciplinary teaching in working groups, and it offers information and problems for mathematics teaching. (HP) [Deutsch] Neben vielen Informationen behandelt die Broschuere: Strahlen und Strahlenwirkungen; Sicherheit deutscher Kernkraftwerke; statistischer Nachweis von Strahlenschaeden; Kurz- und Langfestigkeit der Strahlenbelastung; radioaktiver Abfall; CO{sub 2}-Problematik als Argument fuer die Kernenergie. Die Broschuere ist gedacht z.B. fuer eine Projektgruppe, einen Projekttag, fuer eine Lerngruppe in faecheruebergreifender Kooperation. Die Materialien sind ausgearbeitet fuer die Themembearbeitung im Mathematikunterricht mit Uebungsaufgaben. (HP)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blomhøj, Morten
2004-01-01
Developing competences for setting up, analysing and criticising mathematical models are normally seen as relevant only from and above upper secondary level. The general belief among teachers is that modelling activities presuppose conceptual understanding of the mathematics involved. Mathematical...... roots for the construction of important mathematical concepts. In addition competences for setting up, analysing and criticising modelling processes and the possible use of models is a formative aim in this own right for mathematics teaching in general education. The paper presents a theoretical...... modelling, however, can be seen as a practice of teaching that place the relation between real life and mathematics into the centre of teaching and learning mathematics, and this is relevant at all levels. Modelling activities may motivate the learning process and help the learner to establish cognitive...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Aasted
2011-01-01
The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics......; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...
Mathematical Modeling and Pure Mathematics
Usiskin, Zalman
2015-01-01
Common situations, like planning air travel, can become grist for mathematical modeling and can promote the mathematical ideas of variables, formulas, algebraic expressions, functions, and statistics. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the mathematical modeling that is present in everyday situations can be naturally embedded in…
Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Rahman, Rakmi Abdul; Kadhum, Abdul Amir Hasan
2012-01-01
A pilot scale granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor with a capacity of 2.2 m3 was operated for over three months to evaluate its performance treating real recycled paper industry wastewater under different operational conditions. In this study, dissolved air floatation (DAF) and clarifier effluents were used as influent sources of the pilot plant. During the course of the study, the reactor was able to biodegrade the contaminants in the incoming recycled paper mill wastewater in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), adsorbable organic halides (AOX; specifically 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP)) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) removal efficiencies at varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 1-3 days, aeration rates (ARs) of 2.1-3.4 m3/min and influent feed concentration of 40-950 mg COD/l. Percentages of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals increased with increasing HRT, resulting in more than 90% COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals at HRT values above two days. Degradation of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N were seriously affected by variation of ARs, which resulted in significant decrease of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals by decreasing ARs from 3.4 m3/min to 2.1 m3/min, varying in the ranges of 24-80%, 6-96% and 5-42%, respectively. In comparison to the clarifier effluent, the treatment performance of DAF effluent, containing high COD concentration, resulted in a higher COD removal of 82%. The use of diluted DAF effluent did not improve significantly the COD removal. Higher NH3-N removal efficiency of almost 100% was observed during operation after maintenance shutdown compared to normal operation, even at the same HRT of one day due to the higher dissolved oxygen concentrations (1-7 mg/l), while no significant difference in COD removal efficiency was observed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elisabeth Behling de Calmón
2012-01-01
Full Text Available El presente artículo incluye el estudio de la influencia de la carga orgánica (CO sobre la eficiencia de reactores biológicos rotativos de contacto (RBC, aerobios de tres etapas, al tratar un efluente industrial sintético, con la finalidad de establecer la adecuación del efluente final con respecto a los límites de descarga establecidos en la normativa de Venezuela. Durante la experimentación, se evaluaron pH, alcalinidad total, oxígeno disuelto, demanda biológica de oxígeno (DBO, demanda química de oxígeno (DQO, sólidos suspendidos totales (SST, nitrógeno total Kjeldahl (NTK, NH 4 + , NO 2 - y NO 3 - , de acuerdo con los métodos estándares. La variación de la CO aplicada se obtuvo mediante modificación del tiempo de retención hidráulico (TRH, (24, 12 y 6 h, y se mantuvo constante la DQO de entrada (influente sintético de sacarosa+ urea. La mayor eficiencia de remoción de DQO se obtuvo para un CO global de 11,68 gDQO/m 2 .d (96,25%; TRH=12 h. Para los TRH 24 y 12 h, la eficiencia de remoción global de N-total fue de 66,92 y 62,95%, respectivamente. La mayor remoción de C y de N se obtuvo en la primera etapa de los reactores y se logró cumplir con el límite venezolano permisible de descarga para DQO (<350 mg/L. La posible ocurrencia del proceso de nitrificación repercutió sobre el aumento de las concentraciones de nitrógeno inorgánico en el efluente final.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaussens, J; Moulle, N; Dutheil, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Aldebert, J [Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (INSTN), CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)
1964-07-01
The economic advantage of electricity-generating nuclear stations decreases when their size decreases. However, when a counter-pressure turbine is joined on to a reactor and the residual heat can be properly used, it can be shown that fairly low capacity nuclear equipment may compete with conventional equipment under certain realistic enough conditions. The aim of this paper is to define these special conditions under which nuclear energy can be profitable. They are connected with the location and the general economic environment of the station, the pattern of the electricity and heat demands it must meet, the level of fuel and specific capital costs, nuclear and conventional. These conditions entail certain technical and economic specifications for the reactors used in this way otherwise they are unlikely to be competitive. In addition, these results are referred to the potential steam and electricity market, which leads us to examine certain uses for the heat generated by double purpose power stations; for example, to supply combined industrial plants, various types of town heating and for removal of salt from sea water. (authors) [French] L'interet economique de centrales nucleaires productrices d'electricite decroit lorsque la puissance decroit. Cependant, lorsqu'on associe une turbine a contrepression a un reacteur et qu'il est possible d'utiliser dans de bonnes conditions la chaleur residuelle, on peut montrer que dans certaines conditions assez realistes, des equipements nucleaires d'une puissance unitaire peu elevee peuvent etre competitifs avec des equipements conventionnels. Cette communication a donc pour but de mettre en evidence quelles sont ces conditions particulieres de rentabilite de l'energie nucleaire. Elles sont liees a la localisation de la centrale et a son contexte economique general, a la structure de la demande d'energie electrique et thermique a laquelle elle doit satisfaire, au niveau des couts des combustibles et des investissements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaussens, J.; Moulle, N.; Dutheil, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Aldebert, J. [Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (INSTN), CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)
1964-07-01
The economic advantage of electricity-generating nuclear stations decreases when their size decreases. However, when a counter-pressure turbine is joined on to a reactor and the residual heat can be properly used, it can be shown that fairly low capacity nuclear equipment may compete with conventional equipment under certain realistic enough conditions. The aim of this paper is to define these special conditions under which nuclear energy can be profitable. They are connected with the location and the general economic environment of the station, the pattern of the electricity and heat demands it must meet, the level of fuel and specific capital costs, nuclear and conventional. These conditions entail certain technical and economic specifications for the reactors used in this way otherwise they are unlikely to be competitive. In addition, these results are referred to the potential steam and electricity market, which leads us to examine certain uses for the heat generated by double purpose power stations; for example, to supply combined industrial plants, various types of town heating and for removal of salt from sea water. (authors) [French] L'interet economique de centrales nucleaires productrices d'electricite decroit lorsque la puissance decroit. Cependant, lorsqu'on associe une turbine a contrepression a un reacteur et qu'il est possible d'utiliser dans de bonnes conditions la chaleur residuelle, on peut montrer que dans certaines conditions assez realistes, des equipements nucleaires d'une puissance unitaire peu elevee peuvent etre competitifs avec des equipements conventionnels. Cette communication a donc pour but de mettre en evidence quelles sont ces conditions particulieres de rentabilite de l'energie nucleaire. Elles sont liees a la localisation de la centrale et a son contexte economique general, a la structure de la demande d'energie electrique et thermique a laquelle elle doit satisfaire, au niveau des couts des
Stöltzner, Michael
Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khazaneh, Reza.
1996-01-01
Discussion about PWR type reactors is forwarded to production and technology developments in various countries. Technology transfer to different countries is reviewed in chapter two. The third chapter is about specifications and main components of the reactors. The fourth chapter outlooks to safety in nuclear technology which has a crucial importance in nuclear technology. The first PWR type reactor built in Russia has had some deficiencies; after that, i.e. in the eighties its quality improved and its criteria was met with international criteria. The sixth chapter describe reactor operation and some problems due to its operation. The use of advanced reactors which has had better quality in respect to its safety in the eighties is presented in seventh chapter. The final chapter is devoted to the new generation of reactor design for twenty first century
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1989-03-01
Research and development has been performed on bio-reactors to substitute the oxidizing reaction process, and on reduction reacting bio-reactors to fix the coenzyme regeneration system. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1988. In the research of a bio-reactor using bacteria that produce muconic acid from benzoic acid, stable productivity of 60 g/L/day or more was obtained. In the research of a multi-phase based bio-reactor composed of air, oil, water and biomass, discussions were given on the phase inverting film permeation type reactor. In the research of a bio-reactor to produce acetic acid from carbon dioxide and hydrogen, productivity of 149 g/L/day as maximum was achieved by enhancing the production speed by means of pressurization. In the research of a bio-reactor to produce hydroquinone from phenol, up-keeping the duration for 100 hours or longer has become possible at the hydroquinone production speed of 3 g/L/h. In the research of a reduction-based bio-reactor incorporating the regeneration system of coenzyme NAD(P)H, discussions were given on optimizing the continuous enzymatic reaction in the production of sorbitol. (NEDO)
España-Gamboa, Elda; Vicent, Teresa; Font, Xavier; Dominguez-Maldonado, Jorge; Canto-Canché, Blondy; Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana
2017-01-01
During hydrous ethanol production from the sugar refinery industry in Mexico, vinasse is generated. Phenolic compounds and melanoidins contribute to its color and make degradation of the vinasse a difficult task. Although anaerobic digestion (AD) is feasible for vinasse treatment, the presence of recalcitrant compounds can be toxic or inhibitory for anaerobic microorganism. Therefore, this study presents new data on the coupled of the FBR (Fluidized Bed Bioreactor) to the UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactor under non-sterile conditions by T. versicolor . Nevertheless, for an industrial application, it is necessary to evaluate the performance in this kind of proposal system. Therefore, this study used a FBR for the removal of phenolic compounds (67%) and COD (38%) at non-sterile conditions. Continuous operation of the FBR was successfully for 26 days according to the literature. When the FBR was coupled to the UASB reactor, we obtained a better quality of effluent, furthermore methane content and yield were 74% and 0.18 m 3 CH 4 / kg COD removal respectively. This study demonstrated the possibility of using for an industrial application the coupled of the FBR to the UASB reactor under non-sterile conditions. Continuous operation of the FBR was carried out successfully for 26 days, which is the highest value found in the literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berkan, R.C.
1990-06-01
After several successful applications to aerospace industry, the modern control theory methods have recently attracted many control engineers from other engineering disciplines. For advanced nuclear reactors, the modern control theory may provide major advantages in safety, availability, and economic aspects. This report is intended to illustrate the feasibility of applying the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) compensator in nuclear reactor applications. The LQG design is compared with the existing classical control schemes. Both approaches are tested using the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2) as the system. The experiments are performed using a mathematical model of the EBR-2 plant. Despite the fact that the controller and plant models do not include all known physical constraints, the results are encouraging. This preliminary study provides an informative, introductory picture for future considerations of using modern control theory methods in nuclear industry. 10 refs., 25 figs
Metabolic modeling of synthesis gas fermentation in bubble column reactors.
Chen, Jin; Gomez, Jose A; Höffner, Kai; Barton, Paul I; Henson, Michael A
2015-01-01
A promising route to renewable liquid fuels and chemicals is the fermentation of synthesis gas (syngas) streams to synthesize desired products such as ethanol and 2,3-butanediol. While commercial development of syngas fermentation technology is underway, an unmet need is the development of integrated metabolic and transport models for industrially relevant syngas bubble column reactors. We developed and evaluated a spatiotemporal metabolic model for bubble column reactors with the syngas fermenting bacterium Clostridium ljungdahlii as the microbial catalyst. Our modeling approach involved combining a genome-scale reconstruction of C. ljungdahlii metabolism with multiphase transport equations that govern convective and dispersive processes within the spatially varying column. The reactor model was spatially discretized to yield a large set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in time with embedded linear programs (LPs) and solved using the MATLAB based code DFBAlab. Simulations were performed to analyze the effects of important process and cellular parameters on key measures of reactor performance including ethanol titer, ethanol-to-acetate ratio, and CO and H2 conversions. Our computational study demonstrated that mathematical modeling provides a complementary tool to experimentation for understanding, predicting, and optimizing syngas fermentation reactors. These model predictions could guide future cellular and process engineering efforts aimed at alleviating bottlenecks to biochemical production in syngas bubble column reactors.
Aigner, Martin; Spain, Philip G
2010-01-01
Mathematics is all around us. Often we do not realize it, though. Mathematics Everywhere is a collection of presentations on the role of mathematics in everyday life, through science, technology, and culture. The common theme is the unique position of mathematics as the art of pure thought and at the same time as a universally applicable science. The authors are renowned mathematicians; their presentations cover a wide range of topics. From compact discs to the stock exchange, from computer tomography to traffic routing, from electronic money to climate change, they make the "math inside" unde
Jothi, A Lenin
2009-01-01
Financial services, particularly banking and insurance services is the prominent sector for the development of a nation. After the liberalisation of financial sector in India, the scope of getting career opportunities has been widened. It is heartening to note that various universities in India have introduced professional courses on banking and insurance. A new field of applied mathematics has come into prominence under the name of Financial Mathematics. Financial mathematics has attained much importance in the recent years because of the role played by mathematical concepts in decision - m
Pappas, Theoni
1997-01-01
In this highly readable volume of vignettes of mathematical scandals and gossip, Theoni Pappas assembles 29 fascinating stories of intrigue and the bizarre ? in short, the human background of the history of mathematics. Might a haberdasher have changed Einstein's life? Why was the first woman mathematician murdered? How come there's no Nobel Prize in mathematics?Mathematics is principally about numbers, equations, and solutions, all of them precise and timeless. But, behind this arcane matter lies the sometimes sordid world of real people, whose rivalries and deceptions
Stroud, K A
2013-01-01
A groundbreaking and comprehensive reference that's been a bestseller since it first debuted in 1970, the new seventh edition of Engineering Mathematics has been thoroughly revised and expanded. Providing a broad mathematical survey, this innovative volume covers a full range of topics from the very basic to the advanced. Whether you're an engineer looking for a useful on-the-job reference or want to improve your mathematical skills, or you are a student who needs an in-depth self-study guide, Engineering Mathematics is sure to come in handy time and time again.
Generation III+ Reactor Portfolio
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2010-03-01
While the power generation needs of utilities are unique and diverse, they are all faced with the double challenge of meeting growing electricity needs while curbing CO 2 emissions. To answer these diverse needs and help tackle this challenge, AREVA has developed several reactor models which are briefly described in this document: The EPR TM Reactor: designed on the basis of the Konvoi (Germany) and N4 (France) reactors, the EPRTM reactor is an evolutionary model designed to achieve best-in-class safety and operational performance levels. The ATMEA1 TM reactor: jointly designed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and AREVA through ATMEA, their common company. This reactor design benefits from the competencies and expertise of the two mother companies, which have commissioned close to 130 reactor units. The KERENA TM reactor: Designed on the basis of the most recent German BWR reactors (Gundremmingen) the KERENA TM reactor relies on proven technology while also including innovative, yet thoroughly tested, features. The optimal combination of active and passive safety systems for a boiling water reactor achieves a very low probability of severe accident
Stacey, Weston M.
2001-02-01
An authoritative textbook and up-to-date professional's guide to basic and advanced principles and practices Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering, and as the first comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics to appear in a quarter century, this book fills a large gap in the professional literature. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a textbook for students new to the subject, for others who need a basic understanding of how nuclear reactors work, as well as for those who are, or wish to become, specialists in nuclear reactor physics and reactor physics computations. It is also a valuable resource for engineers responsible for the operation of nuclear reactors. Dr. Weston Stacey begins with clear presentations of the basic physical principles, nuclear data, and computational methodology needed to understand both the static and dynamic behaviors of nuclear reactors. This is followed by in-depth discussions of advanced concepts, including extensive treatment of neutron transport computational methods. As an aid to comprehension and quick mastery of computational skills, he provides numerous examples illustrating step-by-step procedures for performing the calculations described and chapter-end problems. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a useful textbook and working reference. It is an excellent self-teaching guide for research scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in industrial, research, and military applications of nuclear reactors, as well as government regulators who wish to increase their understanding of nuclear reactors.
Applied geometry and discrete mathematics
Sturm; Gritzmann, Peter; Sturmfels, Bernd
1991-01-01
This volume, published jointly with the Association for Computing Machinery, comprises a collection of research articles celebrating the occasion of Victor Klee's sixty-fifth birthday in September 1990. During his long career, Klee has made contributions to a wide variety of areas, such as discrete and computational geometry, convexity, combinatorics, graph theory, functional analysis, mathematical programming and optimization, and theoretical computer science. In addition, Klee made important contributions to mathematics education, mathematical methods in economics and the decision sciences, applications of discrete mathematics in the biological and social sciences, and the transfer of knowledge from applied mathematics to industry. In honor of Klee's achievements, this volume presents more than forty papers on topics related to Klee's research. While the majority of the papers are research articles, a number of survey articles are also included. Mirroring the breadth of Klee's mathematical contributions, th...
Modern problems in insurance mathematics
Martin-Löf, Anders
2014-01-01
This book is a compilation of 21 papers presented at the International Cramér Symposium on Insurance Mathematics (ICSIM) held at Stockholm University in June, 2013. The book comprises selected contributions from several large research communities in modern insurance mathematics and its applications. The main topics represented in the book are modern risk theory and its applications, stochastic modelling of insurance business, new mathematical problems in life and non-life insurance, and related topics in applied and financial mathematics. The book is an original and useful source of inspiration and essential reference for a broad spectrum of theoretical and applied researchers, research students and experts from the insurance business. In this way, Modern Problems in Insurance Mathematics will contribute to the development of research and academy–industry co-operation in the area of insurance mathematics and its applications.
Final Stage Development of Reactor Console Simulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohamad Idris Taib; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha
2013-01-01
The Reactor Console Simulator PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor was developed since end of 2011 and now in the final stage of development. It is will be an interactive tool for operator training and teaching of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. Behavior and characteristic for reactor console and reactor itself can be evaluated and understand. This Simulator will be used as complement for actual present reactor console. Implementation of human system interface (HSI) is using computer screens, keyboard and mouse. Multiple screens are used to match the physical of present reactor console. LabVIEW software are using for user interface and mathematical calculation. Polynomial equation based on control rods calibration data as well as operation parameters record was used to calculate and estimated reactor console parameters. The capabilities in user interface, reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics can be expanded and explored to simulation as well as modeling for New Reactor Console, Research Reactor and Nuclear Power Plant. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiappetta, A; Giudici, R; Nascimento, C A.O. do [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica
1987-12-31
A mathematical model is presented for steady-state simulation of multiple-effects evaporators systems used for concentration of sugar solution. The model basis are the fundamental energy and mass balances equations, as well as empirical correlations for the problem being handled. The evaporation system simulation is performed with an executive program which allows different process configurations. For one typical case, some process parameters (volumetric rate and concentration of feed;exhaust steam temperature) influences on syrup concentration and solution temperature were studied. (author) 8 figs., 2 refs.
Kleene, Stephen Cole
1967-01-01
Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.
Huckstep, Peter
2002-01-01
Contends teachers must resist the temptation to suggest that, while children can create stories and melodies, they cannot create mathematics. Quotes mathematician G. H. Hardy: "A mathematician, like a painter or poet, is a 'maker' of patterns." Considers mathematics should be able to stand up for itself. (BT)
Batchelder, William H
2010-09-01
Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kodaira, Kunihiko
1996-01-01
This is the translation from the Japanese textbook for the grade 11 course, "General Mathematics". It is part of the easier of the three elective courses in mathematics offered at this level and is taken by about 40% of students. The book covers basic notions of probability and statistics, vectors, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions, and an introduction to differentiation and integration.
Problems of space-time behaviour of nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obradovic, D.
1966-01-01
This paper covers a review of literature and mathematical methods applied for space-time behaviour of nuclear reactors. The review of literature is limited to unresolved problems and trends of actual research in the field of reactor physics [sr
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Aasted
2011-01-01
; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics...... to new problems. Relations and functions: Define a product set; define and apply equivalence relations; construct and apply functions. Apply these concepts to new problems. Natural numbers and induction: Define the natural numbers; apply the principle of induction to verify a selection of properties...
Murray, James D
1993-01-01
The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...
Parshall, Karen Hunger
2002-01-01
Although today's mathematical research community takes its international character very much for granted, this "global nature" is relatively recent, having evolved over a period of roughly 150 years-from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century. During this time, the practice of mathematics changed from being centered on a collection of disparate national communities to being characterized by an international group of scholars for whom the goal of mathematical research and cooperation transcended national boundaries. Yet, the development of an international community was far from smooth and involved obstacles such as war, political upheaval, and national rivalries. Until now, this evolution has been largely overlooked by historians and mathematicians alike. This book addresses the issue by bringing together essays by twenty experts in the history of mathematics who have investigated the genesis of today's international mathematical community. This includes not only develo...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sead Rešić
2015-09-01
Full Text Available It is very difficult to motivate students when it comes to a school subject like Mathematics. Teachers spend a lot of time trying to find something that will arouse interest in students. It is particularly difficult to find materials that are motivating enough for students that they eagerly wait for the next lesson. One of the solutions may be found in Vedic Mathematics. Traditional methods of teaching Mathematics create fear of this otherwise interesting subject in the majority of students. Fear increases failure. Often the traditional, conventional mathematical methods consist of very long lessons which are difficult to understand. Vedic Mathematics is an ancient system that is very flexible and encourages the development of intuition and innovation. It is a mental calculating tool that does not require a calculator because the calculator is embedded in each of us. Starting from the above problems of fear and failure in Mathematics, the goal of this paper is to do research with the control and the experimental group and to compare the test results. Two tests should be done for each of the groups. The control group would do the tests in the conventional way. The experimental group would do the first test in a conventional manner and then be subjected to different treatment, that is to say, be taught on the basis of Vedic Mathematics. After that, the second group would do the second test according to the principles of Vedic Mathematics. Expectations are that after short lectures on Vedic mathematics results of the experimental group would improve and that students will show greater interest in Mathematics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryazantsev, E.P.; Egorenkov, P.M.; Nasonov, V.A.; Smimov, A.M.; Taliev, A.V.; Gromov, B.F.; Kousin, V.V.; Lantsov, M.N.; Radchenko, V.P.; Sharapov, V.N.
1998-01-01
The Material Testing Loop Reactor (MLR) development was commenced in 1991 with the aim of updating and widening Russia's experimental base to validate the selected directions of further progress of the nuclear power industry in Russia and to enhance its reliability and safety. The MLR reactor is the pool-type one. As coolant it applies light water and as side reflector beryllium. The direction of water circulation in the core is upward. The core comprises 30 FA arranged as hexagonal lattice with the 90-95 mm pitch. The central materials channel and six loop channels are sited in the core. The reflector includes up to 11 loop channels. The reactor power is 100 MW. The average power density of the core is 0.4 MW/I (maximal value 1.0 MW/l). The maximum neutron flux density is 7.10 14 n/cm 2 s in the core (E>0.1 MeV), and 5.10 14 n/cm 2 s in the reflector (E<0.625 eV). In 1995 due to the lack of funding the MLR designing was suspended. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lerouge, B.
The design characteristics of the heat-producing swimming pool reactor are discussed together with economic and technical considerations related to its utilization in the areas of district heating, process heat production, and desalination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohsen Cheshmberah
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Distribution refers to the steps taken to move and store a product from the suppliers to a customers in the supply chain and is a key driver of the overall profitability of a firm and overall supply chain. In this paper, a problem regarding managing of the move and store of goods are articulated and a mathematical model is presented to solve the model. The objective function is the total costs of distribution network, including transportation, storage rental, general warehousing, goods damages due to the transportation and storage, procurement, packing, and finally loading and unloading costs. The cost components described are defined based on the assumptions for a real distribution network of a chain stores firm. The aim of developing such a model is to find the optimum pattern to move and store goods based on the minimum cost of the distribution network.
Bird, John
2014-01-01
A practical introduction to the core mathematics required for engineering study and practiceNow in its seventh edition, Engineering Mathematics is an established textbook that has helped thousands of students to succeed in their exams.John Bird's approach is based on worked examples and interactive problems. This makes it ideal for students from a wide range of academic backgrounds as the student can work through the material at their own pace. Mathematical theories are explained in a straightforward manner, being supported by practical engineering examples and applications in order to ensure
Geroch, Robert
1985-01-01
Mathematical Physics is an introduction to such basic mathematical structures as groups, vector spaces, topological spaces, measure spaces, and Hilbert space. Geroch uses category theory to emphasize both the interrelationships among different structures and the unity of mathematics. Perhaps the most valuable feature of the book is the illuminating intuitive discussion of the ""whys"" of proofs and of axioms and definitions. This book, based on Geroch's University of Chicago course, will be especially helpful to those working in theoretical physics, including such areas as relativity, particle
Logan, J David
2013-01-01
Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat
Handley, Bill
2012-01-01
This new, revised edition of the bestselling Speed Mathematics features new chapters on memorising numbers and general information, calculating statistics and compound interest, square roots, logarithms and easy trig calculations. Written so anyone can understand, this book teaches simple strategies that will enable readers to make lightning-quick calculations. People who excel at mathematics use better strategies than the rest of us; they are not necessarily more intelligent. With Speed Mathematics you'll discover methods to make maths easy and fun. This book is perfect for stud
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barre, Bertrand
2015-10-01
After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raisic, N [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)
1963-11-15
In order to enable qualitative analysis of dynamic properties of reactors RA and RB, mathematical models of these reactors were formulated and adapted for solution on analog computer. This report contains basic assessments for creating the model and complete equations for each reactor. Model was used to analyse three possible accidents at the RA reactor and possible hypothetical accidents at the RB reactor.
Development task of compact reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurushima, Morihiro
1982-01-01
In the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, studies proceed on the usage of compact medium and small LWRs. As such, the reactors from 100 to 200 MW may meet varieties of demands in scale and kind in view of the saving of petroleum and the economy of nuclear power. In this case, the technology of light water reactors with already established safety will be suitable for the development of compact reactors. The concept of ''nuclear power community'' using the compact reactors in local society and industrial zones was investigated. The following matters are described: need for the introduction of compact reactors, the survey on the compact reactor systems, and the present status and future problems for compact reactor usage. (J.P.N.)
Free surface flows in industry
Murphy, Ellen
2014-01-01
peer-reviewed Applied mathematicians have long sourced problems from industrial processes. The relationship between mathematics and industry is mutually beneficial. Mathematical models provide industry with invaluable insights into the fundamental physical processes at play in a system and give mathematicians the opportunity to apply known techniques to new problems. In this thesis, two independent problems originating in industrial processes are studied, with a common featu...
Virdi, Surinder; Virdi, Narinder Kaur
2014-01-01
Construction Mathematics is an introductory level mathematics text, written specifically for students of construction and related disciplines. Learn by tackling exercises based on real-life construction maths. Examples include: costing calculations, labour costs, cost of materials and setting out of building components. Suitable for beginners and easy to follow throughout. Learn the essential basic theory along with the practical necessities. The second edition of this popular textbook is fully updated to match new curricula, and expanded to include even more learning exercises. End of chapter exercises cover a range of theoretical as well as practical problems commonly found in construction practice, and three detailed assignments based on practical tasks give students the opportunity to apply all the knowledge they have gained. Construction Mathematics addresses all the mathematical requirements of Level 2 construction NVQs from City & Guilds/CITB and Edexcel courses, including the BTEC First Diploma in...
Hougardy, Stefan
2016-01-01
Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.
Sneyd, James
2009-01-01
There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...
Eck, Christof; Knabner, Peter
2017-01-01
Mathematical models are the decisive tool to explain and predict phenomena in the natural and engineering sciences. With this book readers will learn to derive mathematical models which help to understand real world phenomena. At the same time a wealth of important examples for the abstract concepts treated in the curriculum of mathematics degrees are given. An essential feature of this book is that mathematical structures are used as an ordering principle and not the fields of application. Methods from linear algebra, analysis and the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations are thoroughly introduced and applied in the modeling process. Examples of applications in the fields electrical networks, chemical reaction dynamics, population dynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity theory and crystal growth are treated comprehensively.
Pestman, Wiebe R
2009-01-01
This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.
Berman, Elizabeth
1979-01-01
Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Aasted
2010-01-01
The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Aasted
2010-01-01
The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15...
Newton, Lawrence R.
This project (1) identifies basic and functional mathematics skills (shop mathematics skills), (2) provides pretests on these functional mathematics skills, and (3) provides student learning projects (project sheets) that prepare metal trades students to read, understand, and apply mathematics and measuring skills that meet entry-level job…
Application of a Russian nuclear reactor simulator VVER-1000
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez-Peniche S, A.; Salazar S, E.
2012-10-01
The objective of the present work is to give to know the most important characteristics in the Russian nuclear reactor of pressurized light water VVER-1000, doing emphasis in the differences that has with the western equivalent the reactor PWR in the design and the safety systems. Therefore, a description of the computerized simulation of the reactor VVER-1000 developed by the company Eniko TSO that the International Atomic of Energy Agency distributes to the states members with academic purposes will take place. The simulator includes mathematical models that represent to the essential systems in the real nuclear power plant, for what is possible to reproduce common faults and transitory characteristic of the nuclear industry with a behavior sufficiently attached to the reality. In this work is analyzed the response of the system before a turbine shot. After the accident in the nuclear power plant of Three Mile Island (US) they have been carried out improvements in the design of the reactor PWR and their safety systems. To know the reach and the limitations of the program, the events that gave place to this accident will be reproduced in the simulator VVER-1000. With base to the results of the simulation we will conclude that so reliable is the response of the safety system of this reactor. (Author)
Research reactors in Argentina
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlos Ruben Calabrese
1999-01-01
Argentine Nuclear Development started in early fifties. In 1957, it was decided to built the first a research reactor. RA-1 reactor (120 kw, today licensed to work at 40 kW) started operation in January 1958. Originally RA-1 was an Argonaut (American design) reactor. In early sixties, the RA-1 core was changed. Fuel rods (20% enrichment) was introduced instead the old Argonaut core design. For that reason, a critical facility named RA-0 was built. After that, the RA-3 project started, to build a multipurpose 5 MW nuclear reactor MTR pool type, to produce radioisotopes and research. For that reason and to define the characteristics of the RA-3 core, another critical facility was built, RA-2. Initially RA-3 was a 90 % enriched fuel reactor, and started operation in 1967. When Atucha I NPP project started, a German design Power Reactor, a small homogeneous reactor was donated by the German Government to Argentina (1969). This was RA-4 reactor (20% enrichment, 1W). In 1982, RA-6 pool reactor achieved criticality. This is a 500 kW reactor with 90% enriched MTR fuel elements. In 1990, RA-3 started to operate fueled by 20% enriched fuel. In 1997, the RA-8 (multipurpose critical facility located at Pilcaniyeu) started to operate. RA-3 reactor is the most important CNEA reactor for Argentine Research Reactors development. It is the first in a succession of Argentine MTR reactors built by CNEA (and INVAP SE ) in Argentina and other countries: RA-6 (500 kW, Bariloche-Argentina), RP-10 (10MW, Peru), NUR (500 kW, Algeria), MPR (22 MW, Egypt). The experience of Argentinian industry permits to compete with foreign developed countries as supplier of research reactors. Today, CNEA has six research reactors whose activities have a range from education and promotion of nuclear activity, to radioisotope production. For more than forty years, Argentine Research Reactors are working. The experience of Argentine is important, and argentine firms are able to compete in the design and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-Peniche S, A. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Circuito Interior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Salazar S, E., E-mail: alpsordo@hotmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, 62250 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)
2012-10-15
The objective of the present work is to give to know the most important characteristics in the Russian nuclear reactor of pressurized light water VVER-1000, doing emphasis in the differences that has with the western equivalent the reactor PWR in the design and the safety systems. Therefore, a description of the computerized simulation of the reactor VVER-1000 developed by the company Eniko TSO that the International Atomic of Energy Agency distributes to the states members with academic purposes will take place. The simulator includes mathematical models that represent to the essential systems in the real nuclear power plant, for what is possible to reproduce common faults and transitory characteristic of the nuclear industry with a behavior sufficiently attached to the reality. In this work is analyzed the response of the system before a turbine shot. After the accident in the nuclear power plant of Three Mile Island (US) they have been carried out improvements in the design of the reactor PWR and their safety systems. To know the reach and the limitations of the program, the events that gave place to this accident will be reproduced in the simulator VVER-1000. With base to the results of the simulation we will conclude that so reliable is the response of the safety system of this reactor. (Author)
Evaluation of enzymatic reactors for large-scale panose production.
Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Rodrigues, Sueli
2007-07-01
Panose is a trisaccharide constituted by a maltose molecule bonded to a glucose molecule by an alpha-1,6-glycosidic bond. This trisaccharide has potential to be used in the food industry as a noncariogenic sweetener, as the oral flora does not ferment it. Panose can also be considered prebiotic for stimulating the growth of benefic microorganisms, such as lactobacillus and bifidobacteria, and for inhibiting the growth of undesired microorganisms such as E. coli and Salmonella. In this paper, the production of panose by enzymatic synthesis in a batch and a fed-batch reactor was optimized using a mathematical model developed to simulate the process. Results show that optimum production is obtained in a fed-batch process with an optimum production of 11.23 g/l h of panose, which is 51.5% higher than production with batch reactor.
FLUIDDYNAMIC ASPECTS OF GAS-PHASE ETHYLENE POLYMERIZATION REACTOR DESIGN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guardani R.
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The relative importance of design variables affecting the fluiddynamic behavior of a fluidized bed reactor for the gas-phase ethylene polymerization is discussed, based on mathematical modeling. The three-phase bubbling fluidized bed model is based on axially distributed properties for the bubble, cloud and emulsion phases, combined with correlations for population balance and entrainment. Under the operating conditions adopted in most industrial processes, the reactor performance is affected mainly by the reaction rate and solids entrainment. Simulation results indicate that an adequate design of the freeboard and particle collecting equipment is of primary importance in order to produce polymeric particles with the desired size distribution, as well as to keep entrainment and catalyst feed rates at adequate levels.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glimm, J.
2009-10-14
Progress for the past decade or so has been extraordinary. The solution of Fermat's Last Theorem [11] and of the Poincare Conjecture [1] have resolved two of the most outstanding challenges to mathematics. For both cases, deep and advanced theories and whole subfields of mathematics came into play and were developed further as part of the solutions. And still the future is wide open. Six of the original seven problems from the Clay Foundation challenge remain open, the 23 DARPA challenge problems are open. Entire new branches of mathematics have been developed, including financial mathematics and the connection between geometry and string theory, proposed to solve the problems of quantized gravity. New solutions of the Einstein equations, inspired by shock wave theory, suggest a cosmology model which fits accelerating expansion of the universe possibly eliminating assumptions of 'dark matter'. Intellectual challenges and opportunities for mathematics are greater than ever. The role of mathematics in society continues to grow; with this growth comes new opportunities and some growing pains; each will be analyzed here. We see a broadening of the intellectual and professional opportunities and responsibilities for mathematicians. These trends are also occuring across all of science. The response can be at the level of the professional societies, which can work to deepen their interactions, not only within the mathematical sciences, but also with other scientific societies. At a deeper level, the choices to be made will come from individual mathematicians. Here, of course, the individual choices will be varied, and we argue for respect and support for this diversity of responses. In such a manner, we hope to preserve the best of the present while welcoming the best of the new.
Mathematical Modelling of Surfactant Self-assembly at Interfaces
Morgan, C. E.; Breward, C. J. W.; Griffiths, I. M.; Howell, P. D.
2015-01-01
© 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. We present a mathematical model to describe the distribution of surfactant pairs in a multilayer structure beneath an adsorbed monolayer. A mesoscopic model comprising a set of ordinary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pind, C.
1987-01-01
The SECURE heating reactor was designed by ASEA-ATOM as a realistic alternative for district heating in urban areas and for supplying heat to process industries. SECURE has unique safety characteristics, that are based on fundamental laws of physics. The safety does not depend on active components or operator intervention for shutdown and cooling of the reactor. The inherent safety characteristics of the plant cannot be affected by operator errors. Due to its very low environment impact, it can be sited close to heat consumers. The SECURE heating reactor has been shown to be competitive in comparison with other alternatives for heating Helsinki and Seoul. The SECURE heating reactor forms a basis for the power-producing SECURE-P reactor known as PIUS (Process Inherent Ultimate Safety), which is based on the same inherent safety principles. The thermohydraulic function and transient response have been demonstrated in a large electrically heated loop at the ASEA-ATOM laboratories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aliahmadi, A.
2001-01-01
Selecting right strategies for technology transfer and R and D projects is vital for developing countries. A number of researchers have di sussed the problem and applied different techniques, such as Engineering Economics Analysis, Ranking Methods, Goal Programming, Integer Programming and Analytical Hierarchy Process, to this problem. They haven't discussed the problems of developing countries in their models from a strategic planning point of view. In this paper the model of Moore and Ghand-Foruch is used and developed to improve the strategic planning for technology acquisition in developing countries. The proposed model consists of two phases, in which the first phase deals with calculating the utility of different strategies, policies and programs by considering critical, quantitative and qualitative factors. The second phase optimizes the total utility of strategic planning by using Mixed Integer Linear Programming while considering the constraints on budget, manpower, time etc. At the end, the result of application of the model in an Iranian industry (Iran's Packaging Industries Company) is discussed
The mathematics of nuclear engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewins, J.D.
1982-01-01
The mathematics of nuclear engineering is considered with especial reference to the problems of; the representation of the transformation of matter at the nuclear level by radioactive decay and neutron transmutation, the problem of the distribution of neutrons and other particles as a transport theory problem including some of the approximation methods used in this problem, particularly diffusion theory with particular emphasis on steady-state problems, time-dependent reactor kinetic and control, and the longer term changes involved with the nuclear fuel cycle both within and without the reactor itself. (U.K.)
Mathematical foundations of transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ershov, Yu.I.; Shikhov, S.B.
1985-01-01
Main items of application of the operator equations analyzing method in transport theory problems are considered. The mathematical theory of a reactor critical state is presented. Theorems of existence of positive solutions of non-linear non-stationary equations taking into account the temperature and xenon feedbacks are proved. Conditions for stability and asymptotic stability of steady-state regimes for different distributed models of a nuclear reactor are obtained on the basis of the modern operator perturbation theory, certain problems on control using an absorber are considered
Reactor core simulations in Canada
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, R.; Koclas, J.; Shen, W.; Jenkins, D. A.; Altiparmakov, D.; Rouben, B.
2004-01-01
This review will address the current simulation flow-chart currently used for reactor-physics simulations in the Canadian industry. The neutron behaviour in heavy-water moderated power reactors is quite different from that in other power reactors, thus the core physics approximations are somewhat different Some codes used are particular to the context of heavy-water reactors, and the paper focuses on this aspect. The paper also shows simulations involving new design features of the Advanced Candu Reactor TM (ACR TM), and provides insight into future development, expected in the coming years. (authors)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleykamp, H.; Muehling, G.
2005-09-01
The fabrication of uranium-plutonium oxide fuel started in Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and at ALKEM company to begin for the criticality experiments in the SNEAK reactor and subsequently for stationary fuel pin irradiations in the FR2, BR2, DFR, Rapsodie, Phenix and KNK II reactors. The production methods comprised first the mechanical blending of UO2 and PuO2 followed by direct pressing and sintering of the pellets, later the advanced methods such as optimized comilling and ammonium uranyl plutonyl coprecititation. The fabrication of pellets was described in the main, further the alternative fuel pin manufacturing processes by vibrational compaction and hot-impact densification were discussed. The first capsule and pin irradiations in the FR2 and BR2 reactors contributed to the assessment of the maximum operation parameters within the fuel pin development such as linear heat rating, cladding temperature and burnup. Subsequently, small-bundle and largebundle irradiations were made in fast reactors in cooperation with Interatom company in order to verify the specifications for the commercial fast reactor SNR 300. Milestones were the maximum burnup of 175 GWd/t metal, corresponding 18.6 % of the heavy atoms, obtained in one of the KNK II fuel pin assemblies, and the displacement rates in the cladding materials of 140 dpa NRT attained in the Phenix reactor. Higher implications gained later the stationary irradiations of defected mixed-oxide pins, the mild fuel pin transient operations, the local blockage experiments and the severe hypothetic accidents in the respective Siloe, HFR, BR2 and CABRI reactors. These experiments were made solely in international partnership. Further activities were the chemical analyses of solid residues and coprecipitations of irradiated mixed-oxide fuels in the head-end of the reprocessing. All these actions were coordinated in the then fast breeder project. Furthermore, irradiated fuels and fuel pins of other reactor types were
Jost, Jürgen
2015-01-01
The main intention of this book is to describe and develop the conceptual, structural and abstract thinking of mathematics. Specific mathematical structures are used to illustrate the conceptual approach; providing a deeper insight into mutual relationships and abstract common features. These ideas are carefully motivated, explained and illustrated by examples so that many of the more technical proofs can be omitted. The book can therefore be used: · simply as an overview of the panorama of mathematical structures and the relations between them, to be supplemented by more detailed texts whenever you want to acquire a working knowledge of some structure · by itself as a first introduction to abstract mathematics · together with existing textbooks, to put their results into a more general perspective · to gain a new and hopefully deeper perspective after having studied such textbooks Mathematical Concepts has a broader scope and is less detaile...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kris Tri Basuki
2008-01-01
Emulsion liquid membrane systems are double emulsion drops. Two immiscible phases are separated by a third phase which is immiscible with the other two phases. The liquid membrane systems were classified into two types: (1) carrier mediated mass transfer, (2) mass transfer without any reaction involved. Uranium extraction, molybdenum extraction and solvent extraction were used as purposed elements for each type of the membrane systems in the derivation of their mathematical models. Mass transfer in emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) systems has been modeled by several differential and algebraic equations. The models take into account the following : mass transfer of the solute from the bulk external phase to the external phase-membrane interface; an equilibrium reaction between the solute and the carrier to form the solute-carrier complex at the interface; mass transfer by diffusion of the solute-carrier complex in the membrane phase to the membrane-internal phase interface; another equilibrium reaction of the solute-carrier complex to release the solute at the membrane-internal phase interface into the internal phase. Models with or without the consideration of film resistances were developed and compared. The models developed in this study can predict the extraction rate through emulsion liquid membranes theoretically. All parameters required in the models can be determined before an experimental extraction run. Experimental data from literature (uranium extraction) and (molybdenum extraction and solvent extraction) were used to test the models. The agreements between the theoretical predictions and the experimental data were very good. The advantages of emulsion liquid membrane systems over traditional methods were discussed. The models developed in this research can be used directly for the design of emulsion liquid membrane systems. The results of this study represent a very significant step toward the practical applications of the emulsion liquid membrane
Probabilistic risk assessment in the nuclear power industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fullwood, R.R.; Hall, R.E.
1988-01-01
This book describes the more important improvements in risk assessment methodology developed over the last decade. The book covers the following areas - a general view of risk pertaining to nuclear power, mathematics necessary to understand the text, a concise overview of the light water reactors and their features for protecting the public, probabilities and consequences calculated to form risk assessment to the plant, and 34 applications of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the power generation industry. There is a glossary of acronyms and unusual words and a list of references. (author)
Rubin, Andrew
2014-01-01
This book presents concise descriptions and analysis of the classical and modern models used in mathematical biophysics. The authors ask the question "what new information can be provided by the models that cannot be obtained directly from experimental data?" Actively developing fields such as regulatory mechanisms in cells and subcellular systems and electron transport and energy transport in membranes are addressed together with more classical topics such as metabolic processes, nerve conduction and heart activity, chemical kinetics, population dynamics, and photosynthesis. The main approach is to describe biological processes using different mathematical approaches necessary to reveal characteristic features and properties of simulated systems. With the emergence of powerful mathematics software packages such as MAPLE, Mathematica, Mathcad, and MatLab, these methodologies are now accessible to a wide audience. Provides succinct but authoritative coverage of a broad array of biophysical topics and models Wr...
Hiriart-Urruty, Jean-Baptiste
This book contains a collection of exercises (called “tapas”) at undergraduate level, mainly from the fields of real analysis, calculus, matrices, convexity, and optimization. Most of the problems presented here are non-standard and some require broad knowledge of different mathematical subjects in order to be solved. The author provides some hints and (partial) answers and also puts these carefully chosen exercises into context, presents information on their origins, and comments on possible extensions. With stars marking the levels of difficulty, these tapas show or prove something interesting, challenge the reader to solve and learn, and may have surprising results. This first volume of Mathematical Tapas will appeal to mathematicians, motivated undergraduate students from science-based areas, and those generally interested in mathematics.
Vivaldi, Franco
2014-01-01
This book teaches the art of writing mathematics, an essential -and difficult- skill for any mathematics student. The book begins with an informal introduction on basic writing principles and a review of the essential dictionary for mathematics. Writing techniques are developed gradually, from the small to the large: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, to end with short compositions. These may represent the introduction of a concept, the abstract of a presentation or the proof of a theorem. Along the way the student will learn how to establish a coherent notation, mix words and symbols effectively, write neat formulae, and structure a definition. Some elements of logic and all common methods of proofs are featured, including various versions of induction and existence proofs. The book concludes with advice on specific aspects of thesis writing (choosing of a title, composing an abstract, compiling a bibliography) illustrated by large number of real-life examples. Many exercises are included; over 150...
Cahill, Kevin
2013-01-01
Unique in its clarity, examples and range, Physical Mathematics explains as simply as possible the mathematics that graduate students and professional physicists need in their courses and research. The author illustrates the mathematics with numerous physical examples drawn from contemporary research. In addition to basic subjects such as linear algebra, Fourier analysis, complex variables, differential equations and Bessel functions, this textbook covers topics such as the singular-value decomposition, Lie algebras, the tensors and forms of general relativity, the central limit theorem and Kolmogorov test of statistics, the Monte Carlo methods of experimental and theoretical physics, the renormalization group of condensed-matter physics and the functional derivatives and Feynman path integrals of quantum field theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ever Góngora Leyva
2011-02-01
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se presentan los resultados relacionados con la modelación matemática del procesode enfriamiento de sólidos en cilindros rotatorios horizontales. Se exponen las ecuaciones que conformanel modelo y la fundamentación científica sobre la cual fueron obtenidas. La modelación se basaprincipalmente en el planteamiento de las ecuaciones del balance energético en forma dinámica, de lo cualse obtiene un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales en derivadas parciales, que se complementan conotras que establecen la relación entre los coeficientes y parámetros físicos. The present work shows the results or the authors related with mathematical modelling the process ofcooling of reduced mineral in the rotary horizontal cooler; Equations that conform the model and its scientificfundamentals are exposed. The modelling is based, mainly, in the establishment of the energetic balancesin the dynamic way, that carries to obtainment of a partial derivates differential equations system, which iscomplemented with other algebraic equations that establish the relation between the different coefficientsand parameter.
Bartocci, Claudio; Guerraggio, Angelo; Lucchetti, Roberto; Williams, Kim
2011-01-01
Steps forward in mathematics often reverberate in other scientific disciplines, and give rise to innovative conceptual developments or find surprising technological applications. This volume brings to the forefront some of the proponents of the mathematics of the twentieth century, who have put at our disposal new and powerful instruments for investigating the reality around us. The portraits present people who have impressive charisma and wide-ranging cultural interests, who are passionate about defending the importance of their own research, are sensitive to beauty, and attentive to the soci
Quotable Quotes in Mathematics
Lo, Bruce W. N.
1983-01-01
As a way to dispel negative feelings toward mathematics, a variety of quotations are given. They are categorized by: what mathematics is, mathematicians, mathematics and other disciplines, different areas of mathematics, mathematics and humor, applications of mathematics, and pure versus applied mathematics. (MNS)
PARR-2: reactor description and experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wyne, M.F.; Meghji, J.H.
1990-12-01
PARR-2 is a miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) research reactor has been designed at the rate of 27 kW. Reactor assembly comprises of peaking characteristics with a self limiting flux. In this report reactor description with its assembly and instrumentation control system has been explained. The reactor engineering and physics experiments which can be performed on this reactor are explained in this report. PARR-2 is fueled with HEU fuel pins which are about 90% enriched in U-235. Specific requirements for the safety of the reactor, its building and the personnel, normal instrumentation as required in an industrial environment is sufficient. (A.B.)
Broadbridge, Philip; Fukumoto, Yasuhide; Kamiyama, Naoyuki; Mizoguchi, Yoshihiro; Polthier, Konrad; Saeki, Osamu
2017-01-01
This book is a collection of papers presented at the “Forum Math-for-Industry 2015” for which the unifying theme was “The Role and Importance of Mathematics in Innovation”, held at the Institute of Mathematics for Industry, Kyushu University, October 26–30, 2015. The theme highlights two key roles that mathematics plays in supporting innovation in science, technology, and daily life, namely, needs-based and idea-based. For the former, mathematics assists with sorting through the possibilities and putting matters on a more rigorous foundation, and for the latter, mathematical models of the possible implementations play a key role. The book gives excellent examples of how mathematics assists with stimulating innovation and, thereby, highlights the importance and relevance of the concept Mathematics_FOR_Industry. The contents of this volume address productive and successful interaction between industry and mathematicians, as well as the cross-fertilization and collaboration that result when mathematics...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wainwright, J.
1990-01-01
The workshop on mathematical cosmology was devoted to four topics of current interest. This report contains a brief discussion of the historical background of each topic and a concise summary of the content of each talk. The topics were; the observational cosmology program, the cosmological perturbation program, isotropic singularities, and the evolution of Bianchi cosmologies. (author)
Weaver, Nik
2001-01-01
With a unique approach and presenting an array of new and intriguing topics, Mathematical Quantization offers a survey of operator algebras and related structures from the point of view that these objects are quantizations of classical mathematical structures. This approach makes possible, with minimal mathematical detail, a unified treatment of a variety of topics.Detailed here for the first time, the fundamental idea of mathematical quantization is that sets are replaced by Hilbert spaces. Building on this idea, and most importantly on the fact that scalar-valued functions on a set correspond to operators on a Hilbert space, one can determine quantum analogs of a variety of classical structures. In particular, because topologies and measure classes on a set can be treated in terms of scalar-valued functions, we can transfer these constructions to the quantum realm, giving rise to C*- and von Neumann algebras.In the first half of the book, the author quickly builds the operator algebra setting. He uses this ...
Fujita, Shinsaku
2015-01-01
Chirality and stereogenicity are closely related concepts and their differentiation and description is still a challenge in chemoinformatics. A new stereoisogram approach, developed by the author, is introduced in this book, providing a theoretical framework for mathematical aspects of modern stereochemistry. The discussion covers point-groups and permutation symmetry and exemplifies the concepts using organic molecules and inorganic complexes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
This is the nineteenth annual Report on the OECD Halden Reactor Project, describing activities at the Project during 1978, the last year of the 1976-1978 Halden Agreement. Work continued in two main fields: test fuel irradiation and fuel research, and computer-based process supervision and control. Project research on water reactor fuel focusses on various aspects of fuel behavior under normal, and off-normal transient conditions. In 1978, participating organisations continued to submit test fuel for irradiation in the Halden boiling heavy-water reactor, in instrumented test assemblies designed and manufactured by the Project. Work included analysis of the impact of fuel design and reactor operating conditions on fuel cladding behavior. Fuel performance modelling included characterization of thermal and mechanical behavior at high burn-up, of fuel failure modes, and improvement of data qualification procedures to reduce and quantify error bands on in-reactor measurements. Instrument development yielded new or improved designs for measuring rod temperature, internal pressure, axial neutron flux shape determination, and for detecting cladding defects. Work on computer-based methods of reactor supervision and control included continued development of a system for predictive core surveillance, and of special mathematical methods for core power distribution control
Nuclear reactor unit shutdown planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardais, J.P.
1994-01-01
In order to optimize the reactor maintenance shutdown efficiency and the reactor availability, an audit had been performed on the shutdown organization at EDF: management, skills, methods and experience feedback have been evaluated; several improvement paths have been identified: project management, introduction of shutdown management professionals, shutdown permanent industrialization, and experience feedback engineering
The language of mathematics telling mathematical tales
Barton, Bill
2008-01-01
Everyday mathematical ideas are expressed differently in different languages. This book probes those differences and explores their implications for mathematics education, arguing for alternatives to how we teach and learn mathematics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elias, P.
1996-01-01
This work is related to the CEA 'Escrime' project which concerns the reliability and functioning safety of nuclear reactors, and in particular the operation and supervision of nuclear installations. Its aim is the analysis and the formalizing of PWRs operation in order to define the collaboration and optimum sharing of tasks between human operators and automatized systems for an improved functioning safety. Chapter 1 describes the operation of nuclear reactors and the instrumentation and control activities. It focusses on the weaknesses of actual automatized systems and examines the interest of the multi-agents approach to build an improved automatized system. Chapter 2 presents the actual state of the art about multi-agent systems and about their application to reactor operation. Chapter 3 is devoted to the definition of the conceptual model of automatized systems developed in this work (distribution of operation activities, competition between agents, hierarchy, arbitration). Chapter 4 describes the computer model of the essential operating system elaborated according to the conceptual model defined above. Modeling is performed using Spirit and an application is described in chapter 5. (J.S.)
State space modeling of reactor core in a pressurized water reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashaari, A.; Ahmad, T.; M, Wan Munirah W. [Department of Mathematical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Shamsuddin, Mustaffa [Institute of Ibnu Sina, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Abdullah, M. Adib [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science, Jalan Simpang Tiga, 93350 Kuching, Sarawak (Malaysia)
2014-07-10
The power control system of a nuclear reactor is the key system that ensures a safe operation for a nuclear power plant. However, a mathematical model of a nuclear power plant is in the form of nonlinear process and time dependent that give very hard to be described. One of the important components of a Pressurized Water Reactor is the Reactor core. The aim of this study is to analyze the performance of power produced from a reactor core using temperature of the moderator as an input. Mathematical representation of the state space model of the reactor core control system is presented and analyzed in this paper. The data and parameters are taken from a real time VVER-type Pressurized Water Reactor and will be verified using Matlab and Simulink. Based on the simulation conducted, the results show that the temperature of the moderator plays an important role in determining the power of reactor core.
Biofilm reactors for ethanol production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vega, J L; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L
1988-07-01
Whole cell immobilization has been studied in the laboratory during the last few years as a method to improve the performance and economics of most fermentation processes. Among the various techniques available for cell immobilization, methods that provide generation of a biofilm offer reduced diffusional resistance, high productivities, and simple operation. This paper reviews some of the important aspects of biofilm reactors for ethanol production, including reactor start-up, steady state behavior, process stability, and mathematical modeling. Special emphasis is placed on covalently bonded Saccharomyces cerevisiae in packed bed reactors.
Digital control of research reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crump, J.C. III.; Richards, W.J.; Heidel, C.C.
1991-01-01
Research reactors provide an important service for the nuclear industry. Developments and innovations used for research reactors can be later applied to larger power reactors. Their relatively inexpensive cost allows research reactors to be an excellent testing ground for the reactors of tomorrow. One area of current interest is digital control of research reactor systems. Digital control systems offer the benefits of implementation and superior system response over their analog counterparts. At McClellan Air Force Base in Sacramento, California, the Stationary Neutron Radiography System (SNRS) uses a 1,000-kW TRIGA reactor for neutron radiography and other nuclear research missions. The neutron radiography beams generated by the reactor are used to detect corrosion in aircraft structures. While the use of the reactor to inspect intact F-111 wings is in itself noteworthy, there is another area in which the facility has applied new technology: the instrumentation and control system (ICS). The ICS developed by General Atomics (GA) contains several new and significant items: (a) the ability to servocontrol on three rods, (b) the ability to produce a square wave, and (c) the use of a software configurator to tune parameters affected by the actual reactor core dynamics. These items will probably be present in most, if not all, future research reactors. They were developed with increased control and overall usefulness of the reactor in mind
Studies on modelling of bubble driven flows in chemical reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grevskott, Sverre
1997-12-31
Multiphase reactors are widely used in the process industry, especially in the petrochemical industry. They very often are characterized by very good thermal control and high heat transfer coefficients against heating and cooling surfaces. This thesis first reviews recent advances in bubble column modelling, focusing on the fundamental flow equations, drag forces, transversal forces and added mass forces. The mathematical equations for the bubble column reactor are developed, using an Eulerian description for the continuous and dispersed phase in tensor notation. Conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and chemical species are given, and the k-{epsilon} and Rice-Geary models for turbulence are described. The different algebraic solvers used in the model are described, as are relaxation procedures. Simulation results are presented and compared with experimental values. Attention is focused on the modelling of void fractions and gas velocities in the column. The energy conservation equation has been included in the bubble column model in order to model temperature distributions in a heated reactor. The conservation equation of chemical species has been included to simulate absorption of CO{sub 2}. Simulated axial and radial mass fraction profiles for CO{sub 2} in the gas phase are compared with measured values. Simulations of the dynamic behaviour of the column are also presented. 189 refs., 124 figs., 1 tab.
Sierpinska, Anna
1994-01-01
The concept of understanding in mathematics with regard to mathematics education is considered in this volume, the main problem for mathematics teachers being how to facilitate their students'' understanding of the mathematics being taught.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirayama, Shoichi; Kawabe, Takaya
1995-01-01
The history of development of fusion power reactor has come to a turning point, where the main research target is now shifting from the plasma heating and confinement physics toward the burning plasma physics and reactor engineering. Although the development of fusion reactor system is the first time for human beings, engineers have experience of development of fission power reactor. The common feature between them is that both are plants used for the generation of nuclear reactions for the production of energy, nucleon, and radiation on an industrial scale. By studying the history of the development of the fission reactor, one can find the existence of experimental neutron reactors including irradiation facilities for fission reactor materials. These research neutron reactors played very important roles in the development of fission power reactors. When one considers the strategy of development of fusion power reactors from the points of fusion reactor engineering, one finds that the fusion neutron source corresponds to the neutron reactor in fission reactor development. In this paper, the authors discuss the roles of the plasma-based neutron source reactors in the development of fusion reactor engineering, by comparing it with the neutron reactors in the history of fission power development, and make proposals for the strategy of the fusion reactor development. 21 refs., 6 figs
Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong
2008-01-01
Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...
Milquez-Sanabria, Harvey; Blanco-Cocom, Luis; Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana
2016-10-03
Agro-industrial wastes are an energy source for different industries. However, its application has not reached small industries. Previous and current research activities performed on the acidogenic phase of two-phase anaerobic digestion processes deal particularly with process optimization of the acid-phase reactors operating with a wide variety of substrates, both soluble and complex in nature. Mathematical models for anaerobic digestion have been developed to understand and improve the efficient operation of the process. At present, lineal models with the advantages of requiring less data, predicting future behavior and updating when a new set of data becomes available have been developed. The aim of this research was to contribute to the reduction of organic solid waste, generate biogas and develop a simple but accurate mathematical model to predict the behavior of the UASB reactor. The system was maintained separate for 14 days during which hydrolytic and acetogenic bacteria broke down onion waste, produced and accumulated volatile fatty acids. On this day, two reactors were coupled and the system continued for 16 days more. The biogas and methane yields and volatile solid reduction were 0.6 ± 0.05 m 3 (kg VS removed ) -1 , 0.43 ± 0.06 m 3 (kg VS removed ) -1 and 83.5 ± 9.8 %, respectively. The model application showed a good prediction of all process parameters defined; maximum error between experimental and predicted value was 1.84 % for alkalinity profile. A linear predictive adaptive model for anaerobic digestion of onion waste in a two-stage process was determined under batch-fed condition. Organic load rate (OLR) was maintained constant for the entire operation, modifying effluent hydrolysis reactor feed to UASB reactor. This condition avoids intoxication of UASB reactor and also limits external buffer addition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prot, A. C.; Foulquoer, H. E.; Peyrot, J. P. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)
1965-09-15
Improved reactor performance requires the use of accurately fabricated and carefully inspected components. One inspection relates to the quality of the cladding tubes, whose mechanical reliability is essential for economic reactor operation. The choice and development of a method is a difficult matter and the authors explain the main factors involved. Once the choice has been made and the method has been developed in the laboratory, two new problems arise: Adaptation to meet industrial requirements; and The need to reconcile the quality standards attainable with the manufacturing process at any given stage and the somewhat arbitrarily defined specifications for the finished product. In practice, this involves a statistical study of batches of tubes from various sources and their classification in relation to more or less strict thresholds. The number of tubes which have to be inspected is much larger than originally expected. This has led to the design of an automatic inspection device geared both to the output rates involved and to the requirements of the type of inspection adopted; the latter are generally mechanical and impose particularly careful product fabrication. These various characteristics are now embodied in a device whose capacity can already easily meet the requirements of a fuel-element production line. The potentialities of the device are closely dependent on the characteristics of the inspection equipment used, especially the performances of the electronic part of ultrasonic inspection instruments and of the transducers. This study shows that standard equipment is not very suitable and that immediate thought should be given to special instruments for this type of inspection. (author) [French] L'accroissement des performances des reacteurs necessite l'utilisation de materiaux finement elabores et soigneusement controles. L'un des aspects de ce controle est celui de la qualite des tubes de gainage utilises, dont la tenue mecanique est un facteur
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ait Abderrahim, A.
2002-01-01
SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ait Abderrahim, A
2001-04-01
The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ait Abderrahim, A
2002-04-01
SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ait Abderrahim, A.
2001-01-01
The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised
Dilemma in Teaching Mathematics
Md Kamaruddin, Nafisah Kamariah; Md Amin, Zulkarnain
2012-01-01
The challenge in mathematics education is finding the best way to teach mathematics. When students learn the reasoning and proving in mathematics, they will be proficient in mathematics. Students must know mathematics before they can apply it. Symbolism and logic is the key to both the learning of mathematics and its effective application to…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manenti, Flavio; Leon-Garzon, Andres R.; Ravaghi-Ardebili, Zohreh; Pirola, Carlo
2014-01-01
This work investigates possible design advances in the series of fixed-bed reactors for methanol and dimethyl ether synthesis. Specifically, the systematic staging design proposed by Hillestad [1] is applied to the water-cooled and gas-cooled series of reactors of Lurgi's technology. The procedure leads to new design and operating conditions with respect to the current best industrial practice, with relevant benefits in terms of process yield, energy saving, and net income. The overall mathematical model for the process simulation and optimization is reported in the work together with dedicated sensitivity analysis studies. - Highlights: • Systematic staging design is applied to methanol and methanol/DME synthesis. • New configurations for the synthesis reactor network are proposed and assessed. • Comparison with the industrial best practice is provided. • Energy-process optimization is performed to improve the overall yield of the process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-01-01
Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning the thermal-hydraulics of LMFBR type reactors; mathematical methods in nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics; heat transfer in gas-cooled reactors; and thermal-hydraulics of pebble-bed reactors. Two papers have been previously abstracted and input to the data base
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elreedy, Ahmed; Tawfik, Ahmed; Enitan, Abimbola; Kumari, Sheena; Bux, Faizal
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Bio-energy production from MEG contaminated wastewater via AnPBBR, was assessed. • Maximum concurrent H_2 and CH_4 production of 6.57 and 3.57 L/d were obtained. • Maximum ethanol generation of 237.13 mg/L was observed at a HRT of 9 h. • At OLRs up to 4 gCOD/L/d, MEG biodegradability of 71–98% was achieved. • AnPBBR economically achieved shorter payback period (6.25 y), compared to ABR. - Abstract: Simultaneous production of 3-biofuels (hydrogen, ethanol and methane) as by-products of the biodegradation of petrochemical wastewater containing MEG via anaerobic packed bed baffled reactor (AnPBBR), was extensively investigated. A four-chambered reactor supported by polyurethane sheets, was operated at a constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 36 h and different organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.67, 1, 2 and 4 gCOD/L/d. The maximum specific H_2 and CH_4 production rates of 438.07 ± 43.02 and 237.80 ± 21.67 ml/L/d were respectively achieved at OLR of 4 gCOD/L/d. The residual bio-ethanol significantly increased from 57.15 ± 2.31 to 240.19 ± 34.69 mg/L at increasing the OLR from 0.67 to 4 gCOD/L/d, respectively. The maximum MEG biodegradability of 98% was attained at the lowest OLR. Compartment-wise profiles revealed that the maximum H_2 and ethanol production were achieved at HRT of 9 h (1st compartment), while the CH_4 production was peaked at HRTs of 27 and 36 h (last two compartments). Kinetic studies using Stover–Kincannon and completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in series models were successfully applied to the AnPBBR overall and compartment-to-compartment performance, respectively. The economic evaluation strongly revealed the potentials of using AnPBBR for simultaneous treatment and bio-energy production from petrochemical wastewater as compared to the classical anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR). Microbial analysis using Illumina MiSeq sequencing showed a diversity of bacterial community in AnPBBR. Proteobacteria (36
Modern electrochemistry and industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Sun Yong
1985-04-01
This book is divided into fifteen chapters on modern electrochemistry and industry. The contents of this book are electrochemistry and industry, electrochemistry for electrolyte like ionic mobility quantity of activity of electrolyte, potential balance system like cell potential, concentration cell and membrane potential, electrochemical kinetics, electrochemistry for surfactant, electrochemistry for electrolysis test such as polarography, chronopotentiometry and Cyclic voltametry, electrolysis reactor NaOH electrolysis industry, H 2 O electrolysis, molten metal electrolysis, copper electrolysis, battery and electro-organic chemistry.
Shaw, J
2013-01-01
Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp
Russell, Charles R
1962-01-01
Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor
Teaching Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education
Saxena, Ritu; Shrivastava, Keerty; Bhardwaj, Ramakant
2016-01-01
Mathematics is not only a subject but it is also a language consisting of many different symbols and relations. Taught as a compulsory subject up the 10th class, students are then able to choose whether or not to study mathematics as a main subject. The present paper discusses mathematical modeling in mathematics education. The article provides…
Doing Mathematics with Purpose: Mathematical Text Types
Dostal, Hannah M.; Robinson, Richard
2018-01-01
Mathematical literacy includes learning to read and write different types of mathematical texts as part of purposeful mathematical meaning making. Thus in this article, we describe how learning to read and write mathematical texts (proof text, algorithmic text, algebraic/symbolic text, and visual text) supports the development of students'…
Teachers' Mathematics as Mathematics-at-Work
Bednarz, Nadine; Proulx, Jérôme
2017-01-01
Through recognising mathematics teachers as professionals who use mathematics in their workplace, this article traces a parallel between the mathematics enacted by teachers in their practice and the mathematics used in workplaces found in studies of professionals (e.g. nurses, engineers, bankers). This parallel is developed through the five…
ECORA - Evaluation of Computational Methods for Reactor Safety Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheuerer, Martina
2002-01-01
There were three motivations behind the ECORA Project: - the shortcomings of 0-D system codes in the simulation of 3-D, local flow and heat transfer phenomena, - increased interest in the application of 3-D CFD software as supplement to system codes, - high safety requirements in the nuclear industry required consistent standards for the use and assessment of CFD software. The purpose of ECORA was therefore: - to establish performance criteria for the assessment of CFD software, - to establish Best Practice Guidelines for application and use of CFD software, with the following objectives: - assessment of CFD applications in reactor safety: flows in containment (PANDA experiments) and flows in primary system (UPTF experiments) - Best Practice Guidelines for reactor safety: starting point (ERCOFTAC Best Practice Guidelines), adaptation to CFD application for nuclear safety, extension to assessment of experimental data - recommendations for improvements of CFD software, - network of European 'Centres of Competence for CFD Applications in Reactor Safety'. Currently, there were twelve partners in the ECORA Project, representing nine European countries. The Project was scheduled to last until September 2004. Ms Scheuerer then described the work programme and project structure, the Best Practice Guidelines for CFD simulations, the procedures for quantifying errors, applications of Best Practice Guidelines, Best Practice Guidelines for experimental data, applications to primary system, UPTF and PANDA data. Her conclusions were the following: - the Project had led to the improvement of the quality of CFD calculations in reactor safety, through: the ECORA Best Practice Guidelines, the assessment of shortcomings and the improvement of mathematical models. - It had also led to higher acceptance of CFD in reactor safety. - The next step was the establishment of European 'Centres of Competence for CFD Applications in reactor Safety'
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laufs, Paul [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)
2013-07-01
The present book describes the development of reactor safety in German light-water nuclear power plants from the beginnings with its multifarious links to model solutions seen in other countries, national and international research projects and accidents in conventional and nuclear power plants. It contains detailed, richly illustrated articles on specific safety techniques such as rupture safety of the pressurised envelope, safeguarding of emergency cooling in the event of accidents involving coolant loss, control technology and protection of the surroundings through containment. The results of national and international risk studies are discussed. It is shown how efforts on the part of industry, government and science to enhance safety resources and improve safety culture have been driven by a civic environment in which the use of nuclear energy has become a central issue of political debate. The book is written in readily comprehensible language and offers a wealth of material for further study.
New Books for Industrial Educators
School Shop, 1975
1975-01-01
The most recent book releases in the field of industrial-technical education are listed alphabetically under: automotive/power mechanics; building trades; drafting; electricity/electronics; graphic arts, industrial arts, vocational, technical and career education; industrial mathematics; machine shop/metalworking; metrics; radio/television;…
Job Prospects for Industrial Engineers.
Basta, Nicholas
1988-01-01
Discusses 1987 statistics from the College Placement Council regarding new job offers to graduating industrial engineers. Identifies trends in hiring in the field. Describes several issues that will face industrial engineers. States that the industrial engineers most likely to win jobs are those with good basic mathematics and communications…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watthier, Elisangela [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Agricola; Andreani, Cristiane Lurdes [Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Gomes, Simone Damasceno [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (PGEAGRI/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola; Moreschi, Roberson; Rufino, Mauricio de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Agricola
2010-07-01
The effluent from the cassava industry cause damage to the environment if released without treatment. One alternative is the implementation of anaerobic reactors, which also add value through the production of biogas. The support means increases the contact surface of micro-organisms and enhance their setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reduction of organic matter (DQO) and biogas production in a reactor of PVC with 90 cm long and 15 cm in diameter, through support rings of bamboo, 10 cm in length and diameter ranged from 1.7 to 2.5 cm, with a volume of 6 L. The organic loading used were 4,357, 4,708, 5,601 and 6,126 g DQO.L-1.day-1, corresponding to hydraulic retention time (TRH) of 3,5, 2,8, 3,25 and 2,7 days, respectively. It was observed that with the increase of organic load was increased production of biogas, the largest observed for a load of 6.126 g DQO.L-1.day-1 with an average of 9.146 L.day-1. Regarding the removal of organic matter were achieved values of 98.35, 99.09, 99.33 and 98.55% respectively for each load applied, with the highest efficiency observed in charge of 5.601 g COD. L-1. day-1, but without significant differences. (author)
Power reactor noise studies and applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arzhanov, V
2002-03-01
The present thesis deals with the neutron noise arising in power reactor systems. Generally, it can be divided into two major parts: first, neutron noise diagnostics, or more specifically, novel methods and algorithms to monitor nuclear industrial reactors; and second, contributions to neutron noise theory as applied to power reactor systems. Neutron noise diagnostics is presented by two topics. The first one is a theoretical study on the possibility to use a newly proposed current-flux (C/F) detector in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) for the localisation of anomalies. The second topic concerns various methods to detect guide tube impacting in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The significance of these problems comes from the operational experience. The thesis describes a novel method to localise vibrating control rods in a PWR by using only one C/F detector. Another novel method, based on wavelet analysis, is put forward to detect impacting guide tubes in a BWR. Neutron noise theory is developed for both Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and traditional reactors. By design the accelerator-driven systems would operate in a subcritical mode with a strong external source. This calls for a revision of many concepts and methods that have been developed for traditional reactors and also it poses a number of new problems. As for the latter, the thesis investigates the space-dependent neutron noise caused by a fluctuating source. It is shown that the frequency-dependent spatial behaviour exhibits some new properties that are different from those known in traditional critical systems. On the other hand, various reactor physics approximations (point kinetic, adiabatic etc.) have not been defined yet for the subcritical systems. In this respect the thesis presents a systematic formulation of the above mentioned approximations as well as investigations of their properties. Another important problem in neutron noise theory is the treatment of moving boundaries. In this case one
Power reactor noise studies and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arzhanov, V.
2002-03-01
The present thesis deals with the neutron noise arising in power reactor systems. Generally, it can be divided into two major parts: first, neutron noise diagnostics, or more specifically, novel methods and algorithms to monitor nuclear industrial reactors; and second, contributions to neutron noise theory as applied to power reactor systems. Neutron noise diagnostics is presented by two topics. The first one is a theoretical study on the possibility to use a newly proposed current-flux (C/F) detector in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) for the localisation of anomalies. The second topic concerns various methods to detect guide tube impacting in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The significance of these problems comes from the operational experience. The thesis describes a novel method to localise vibrating control rods in a PWR by using only one C/F detector. Another novel method, based on wavelet analysis, is put forward to detect impacting guide tubes in a BWR. Neutron noise theory is developed for both Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and traditional reactors. By design the accelerator-driven systems would operate in a subcritical mode with a strong external source. This calls for a revision of many concepts and methods that have been developed for traditional reactors and also it poses a number of new problems. As for the latter, the thesis investigates the space-dependent neutron noise caused by a fluctuating source. It is shown that the frequency-dependent spatial behaviour exhibits some new properties that are different from those known in traditional critical systems. On the other hand, various reactor physics approximations (point kinetic, adiabatic etc.) have not been defined yet for the subcritical systems. In this respect the thesis presents a systematic formulation of the above mentioned approximations as well as investigations of their properties. Another important problem in neutron noise theory is the treatment of moving boundaries. In this case one
Theoretical Basics of Teaching Discrete Mathematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. A. Perminov
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the research findings concerning the process of mastering the theoretical basics of discrete mathematics by the students of vocational pedagogic profile. The methodological analysis is based on the subject and functions of the modern discrete mathematics and its role in mathematical modeling and computing. The modern discrete mathematics (i.e. mathematics of the finite type structures plays the important role in modernization of vocational training. It is especially rele- vant to training students for vocational pedagogic qualifications, as in the future they will be responsible for training the middle and the senior level specialists in engineer- ing and technical spheres. Nowadays in different industries, there arise the problems which require for their solving both continual – based on the classical mathematical methods – and discrete modeling. The teaching course of discrete mathematics for the future vocational teachers should be relevant to the target qualification and aimed at mastering the mathematical modeling, systems of computer mathematics and computer technologies. The author emphasizes the fundamental role of mastering the language of algebraic and serial structures, as well as the logical, algorithmic, combinatory schemes dominating in dis- crete mathematics. The guidelines for selecting the content of the course in discrete mathematics are specified. The theoretical findings of the research can be put into practice whilst developing curricula and working programs for bachelors and masters’ training.
Dragalin, A G
1988-01-01
This monograph is intended to present the most important methods of proof theory in intuitionistic logic, assuming the reader to have mastered an introductory course in mathematical logic. The book starts with purely syntactical methods based on Gentzen's cut-elimination theorem, followed by intuitionistic arithmetic where Kleene's realizability method plays a central role. The author then studies algebraic models and completeness theorems for them. After giving a survey on the principles of intuitionistic analysis, the last part of the book presents the cut-elimination theorem in intuitionistic simple theory of types with an extensionality rule.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barral, J C [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A [CEA/Cadarache, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Johner, J [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee (DRFC), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Mathoniere, G [CEA/Saclay, DEN, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); and others
2000-07-01
The 19 october 2000, the french society of nuclear energy organized a day on the research reactors. This associated report of the technical session, reactors physics, is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the annual meeting and groups general papers on the pressurized water reactors, the fast neutrons reactors and the fusion reactors industry. The second part presents more technical papers about the research programs, critical models, irradiation reactors (OSIRIS and Jules Horowitz) and computing tools. (A.L.B.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Middleton, J.E.
1977-01-01
Reference is made to water cooled reactors and in particular to the cooling system of steam generating heavy water reactors (SGHWR). A two-coolant circuit is described for the latter. Full constructural details are given. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawton, H.
1984-01-01
A pioneering project on the decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, by the UKAEA, is described. Reactor data; policy; waste management; remote handling equipment; development; and recording and timescales, are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1978-02-01
In addition to basic characteristics of the RA reactor, organizational scheme and financial incentives, this document covers describes the state of the reactor components after 18 years of operation, problems concerned with obtaining the licence for operation with 80% fuel, problems of spent fuel storage in the storage pool of the reactor building and the need for renewal of reactor equipment, first of all instrumentation [sr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.
1979-08-01
The study of reflected reactors can be done employing the multigroup diffusion method. The neutron conservation equations, inside the intervals, can be written by fluxes and group constants. A reflected reactor (one and two groups) for a slab geometry is studied, aplying the continuity of flux and current in the interface. At the end, the appropriated solutions for a infinite cylindrical reactor and for a spherical reactor are presented. (Author) [pt
Research reactors: design, safety requirements and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, Abobaker Mohammed Rahmtalla
2014-09-01
There are two types of reactors: research reactors or power reactors. The difference between the research reactor and energy reactor is that the research reactor has working temperature and fuel less than the power reactor. The research reactors cooling uses light or heavy water and also research reactors need reflector of graphite or beryllium to reduce the loss of neutrons from the reactor core. Research reactors are used for research training as well as testing of materials and the production of radioisotopes for medical uses and for industrial application. The difference is also that the research reactor smaller in terms of capacity than that of power plant. Research reactors produce radioactive isotopes are not used for energy production, the power plant generates electrical energy. In the world there are more than 284 reactor research in 56 countries, operates as source of neutron for scientific research. Among the incidents related to nuclear reactors leak radiation partial reactor which took place in three mile island nuclear near pennsylvania in 1979, due to result of the loss of control of the fission reaction, which led to the explosion emitting hug amounts of radiation. However, there was control of radiation inside the building, and so no occurred then, another accident that lead to radiation leakage similar in nuclear power plant Chernobyl in Russia in 1986, has led to deaths of 4000 people and exposing hundreds of thousands to radiation, and can continue to be effect of harmful radiation to affect future generations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hattori, Sadao; Sato, Morihiko.
1994-01-01
Liquid metals such as liquid metal sodium are filled in a reactor container as primary coolants. A plurality of reactor core containers are disposed in a row in the circumferential direction along with the inner circumferential wall of the reactor container. One or a plurality of intermediate coolers are disposed at the inside of an annular row of the reactor core containers. A reactor core constituted with fuel rods and control rods (module reactor core) is contained at the inside of each of the reactor core containers. Each of the intermediate coolers comprises a cylindrical intermediate cooling vessels. The intermediate cooling vessel comprises an intermediate heat exchanger for heat exchange of primary coolants and secondary coolants and recycling pumps for compulsorily recycling primary coolants at the inside thereof. Since a plurality of reactor core containers are thus assembled, a great reactor power can be attained. Further, the module reactor core contained in one reactor core vessel may be small sized, to facilitate the control for the reactor core operation. (I.N.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mogensen, Arne; Georgiev, Vladimir; Ulovec, Andreas
To encourage many more young people to appreciate the real nature and spirit of mathematics and possibly to be enrolled in mathematics study it is important to involve them in doing mathematics (not just learning about mathematics). This goal could be achieved if mathematics teachers are prepared...... to identify and work with mathematically gifted students (without loosing the rest). The book offers chapters on gifted students, mathematical competences and other issues....
International breeder reactor development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Traube, K.
1976-01-01
For more than a decade, sodium cooled breeder reactors have now been in the focus of advanced nuclear power development in the major industrialized countries. In the sixties, a total of seven small experimental nuclear power stations were commissioned. Two of these have been shut down in the meantime, the others continue to work satisfactorily, their main purpose being the development of fuel elements. The years 1972-1974 saw the commissioning of the prototype power stations in the 300 MWe power category in France, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. Presently, other experimental reactors are under construction in the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the United States, plus another Soviet 600 MWe prototype reactor and the SNR 300 DeBeNeLux prototype at Kalkar. A comparison of the technological features either implemented or planned in the prototype and experimental power plants and of their fuel elements reveals a remarkable similarity in the basic concepts pursued in different countries. The two types of breeder reactors, viz. the loop and the pool types, show a closer resemblance to each other than do pressurized and boilling water reactors. The growing awareness of administrative problems emerging in the approaching phase of the introduction of large breeder power stations in a number of European countries has recently led to a streamlining effort in the structure of industries and to tentative steps towards international cooperation on a broad basis. (orig.) [de
Generalities about nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaouen, C.; Beroux, P.
2012-01-01
From Zoe, the first nuclear reactor, till the current EPR, the French nuclear industry has always advanced by profiting from the feedback from dozens of years of experience and operations, in particular by drawing lessons from the most significant events in its history, such as the Fukushima accident. The new generations of reactors must improve safety and economic performance so that the industry maintain its legitimacy and its share in the production of electricity. This article draws the history of nuclear power in France, gives a brief description of the pressurized water reactor design, lists the technical features of the different versions of PWR that operate in France and compares them with other types of reactors. The feedback experience concerning safety, learnt from the major nuclear accidents Three Miles Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) is also detailed. Today there are 26 third generation reactors being built in the world: 4 EPR (1 in Finland, 1 in France and 2 in China); 2 VVER-1200 in Russia, 8 AP-1000 (4 in China and 4 in the Usa), 8 APR-1400 (4 in Korea and 4 in UAE), and 4 ABWR (2 in Japan and 2 in Taiwan)
Oscillatory flow chemical reactors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Slavnić Danijela S.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1982-11-01
After an introduction and general explanation of nuclear power the following reactor types are described: magnox thermal reactor; advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR); pressurised water reactor (PWR); fast reactors (sodium cooled); boiling water reactor (BWR); CANDU thermal reactor; steam generating heavy water reactor (SGHWR); high temperature reactor (HTR); Leningrad (RMBK) type water-cooled graphite moderated reactor. (U.K.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trusek-Holownia Anna
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Standards for highly toxic and carcinogenic pollutants impose strict guidelines, requiring values close to zero, regarding the degradation of such pollutants in industrial streams. In many cases, classic bioremoval processes fail. Therefore, we proposed a stream leaving the microbial membrane bioreactor (MBR that is directed to an additional membrane separation mode (NF/RO. Under certain conditions, the integrated process not only benefits the environment but may also increase the profitability of the bioreactor operation. An appropriate model was developed and tested in which the bioremoval of benzene and toluene by Pseudomonas fluorescens was used as an example. This paper presents equations for selecting the operation parameters of the integrated system to achieve the expected degree of industrial wastewater purification.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.M. Ghasem
2003-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the simulink block diagram is used to solve a model consists of a set of ordinary differential and algebraic equations to control the temperature inside a simple stirred tank heater. The flexibility of simulink block diagram gives students a better understanding of the control systems. The simulink also allows solution of mathematical models and easy visualization of the system variables. A polyethylene fluidized bed reactor is considered as an industrial example and the effect of the Proportional, Integral and Derivative control policy is presented for comparison.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christensen, J.A.; Schuller, C.R.; Harty, H.; Patrick, M.G.
1986-03-01
This report develops projections for nuclear power plant regulatory needs in general, and those relating to quality assurance in particular, for the time period 1985 to 1995. This required an assessment of future prospects for the nuclear power industry and its primary segments. Electric power demand projections and their relationship to estimated schedules for nuclear plant construction and operations were evaluated, and estimates of anticipated business volume and long-term economic viability were made for each of the major segments of the US nuclear industry (utilities, NSSS vendors, AEs, constructors, component suppliers, and service vendors). These estimates were made for two, five and ten year intervals through 1995. Other significant factors that are not specific to any one industry segment were also reviewed. These included: (1) the expanding foreign presence in US markets; (2) pending legislations; (3) trends in personnel availability; (4) new institutional arrangements for nuclear power generation; (5) nuclear plant aging, life extension, and decommissioning; (6) reactivation of mothballed projects; (7) advanced and standardized plant designs; and (8) likely technological development in computer applications and inspections methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oddone, S.; Grasselli, M.; Cuellas, A.
2010-07-01
Advances in the design of a bioreactor in the fats and oils industry have permitted the hydrolysis of triglycerides in mild conditions and improved productivity while avoiding the formation of unwanted byproducts. The present work develops a mathematical model that describes the hydrolytic activity of a tubular reactor with immobilized lipases for the production of glycerol and fatty acids from the oil trade. Runge Kuttas numerical method of high order has been applied, considering that there is no accumulation of the substratum in the surface of the membrane, where the enzyme is. At the same time, different equations based on the kinetic model of Michaelis Mentens and the Ping-Pong bi-bi mechanism were examined. Experimental data in discontinuous systems are the basis for the development of the quantitative mathematical model that was used to simulate the process computationally. The obtained results allow for optimizing both the operative variables and the economic aspects of industrial processes. (Author)
Proceedings of the 6. National Meeting of Reactor Physics and Thermohydraulic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1986-01-01
The proceedings of the 6. National Meeting of Reactor Physics and Thermohydraulic - 6. ENFIR - allow to evaluate the present status of development in reactor physics and thermohydraulic fields. The mathematical models and methods for calculating neutronic of nuclear reactors, safety reactor analysis, measuring methods of neutronic parameters, computerized simulation of accidents, transients and thermohydraulic analysis are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt
Advanced reactors: A retrospective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starr, C.
1989-01-01
The objectives for nuclear power have always emphasized competitive costs, reliability, and public safety. During its initial two decades, the nuclear reactor program was enthusiastically and generously supported by the public, government, and industry. In the subsequent decades this external support was substantially eroded by the growing public fears of catastrophic accidents, poor economic performance of many nuclear plants, regulatory constraints, and a plethora of engineering issues disclosed by plant operations. The technical and institutional histories are discussed with particular relevance to their influence on the framework for future development of the several proposed advance reactors
Netherlands Interuniversity Reactor Institut
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1978-01-01
This is the annual report of the Interuniversity Reactor Institute in the Netherlands for the Academic Year 1977-78. Activities of the general committee, the daily committee and the scientific advice board are presented. Detailed reports of the scientific studies performed are given under five subjects - radiation physics, reactor physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and radiation hygiene and dosimetry. Summarised reports of the various industrial groups are also presented. Training and education, publications and reports, courses, visits and cooperation with other institutes in the area of scientific research are mentioned. (C.F.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Walle, E
2002-04-01
The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Walle, E.
2002-01-01
The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel
Physics and kinetics of TRIGA reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boeck, H.; Villa, M.
2007-01-01
This training module is written as an introduction to reactor physics for reactor operators. It assumes the reader has a basic, fundamental knowledge of physics, materials and mathematics. The objective is to provide enough reactor theory knowledge to safely operate a typical research reactor. At this level, it does not necessarily provide enough information to evaluate the safety aspects of experiment or non-standard operation reviews. The material provides a survey of basic reactor physics and kinetics of TRIGA type reactors. Subjects such as the multiplication factor, reactivity, temperature coefficients, poisoning, delayed neutrons and criticality are discussed in such a manner that even someone not familiar with reactor physics and kinetics can easily follow. A minimum of equations are used and several tables and graphs illustrate the text. (author)
Mathematics, the Computer, and the Impact on Mathematics Education.
Tooke, D. James
2001-01-01
Discusses the connection between mathematics and the computer; mathematics curriculum; mathematics instruction, including teachers learning to use computers; and the impact of the computer on learning mathematics. (LRW)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lung, M.
2002-01-01
The demand for nuclear energy will continue to grow at least till 2050 because of mainly 6 reasons: 1) the steady increase of the world population, 2) China, India and Indonesia will reach higher social standard and their energy consumption will consequently grow, 3) fossil energy resources are dwindling, 4) coal will be little by little banned because of its major contribution to the emission of green house effect gas, 5) renewable energies need important technological jumps to be really efficient and to take the lead, and 6) fusion energy is not yet ready to take over. All these reasons draw a promising future for nuclear energy. Today 450 nuclear reactors are operating throughout the world producing 17% of the total electrical power demand. In order to benefit fully of this future, nuclear industry has to improve some characteristics of reactors: 1) a more efficient use of uranium (it means higher burnups), 2) a simplification and automation of reprocessing-recycling chain of processes, 3) efficient measures against proliferation and against any misuse for terrorist purposes, and 4) an enhancement of safety for the next generation of reactors. The characteristics of fast reactors and of high-temperature reactors will likely make these kinds of reactors the best tools for energy production in the second half of this century. (A.C.)
Undergraduate Training for Industrial Careers.
Stehney, Ann K.
1983-01-01
Forty-eight mathematicians in industry, business, and government replied to a questionnaire on the relative merits of the traditional undergraduate curriculum, advanced topics in pure mathematics, computer programing, additional computer science, and specialized or applied topics. They favored programing and applied mathematics, along with a…
Authenticity of Mathematical Modeling
Tran, Dung; Dougherty, Barbara J.
2014-01-01
Some students leave high school never quite sure of the relevancy of the mathematics they have learned. They fail to see links between school mathematics and the mathematics of everyday life that requires thoughtful decision making and often complex problem solving. Is it possible to bridge the gap between school mathematics and the mathematics in…
Nuclear research reactors in Brazil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
2011-07-01
The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)
Physical security at research reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, R.A.
1977-01-01
Of the 84 non-power research facilities licensed under 10 CFR Part 50, 73 are active (two test reactors, 68 research reactors and three critical facilities) and are required by 10 CFR Part 73.40 to provide physical protection against theft of SNM and against industrial sabotage. Each licensee has developed a security plan required by 10 CFR Part 50.34(c) to demonstrate the means of compliance with the applicable requirements of 10 CFR Part 73. In 1974, the Commission provided interim guidance for the organization and content of security plans for (a) test reactors, (b) medium power research and training reactors, and (c) low power research and training reactors. Eleven TRIGA reactors, with power levels greater than 250 kW and all other research and training reactors with power levels greater than 100 kW and less than or equal to 5,000 kW are designated as medium power research and training reactors. Thirteen TRIGA reactors with authorized power levels less than 250 kW are considered to be low power research and training reactors. Additional guidance for complying with the requirements of 73.50 and 73.60, if applicable, is provided in the Commission's Regulatory Guides. The Commission's Office of Inspection and Enforcement inspects each licensed facility to assure that an approved security plan is properly implemented with appropriate procedures and physical protection systems
Nuclear research reactors in Brazil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias
2011-01-01
The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-01-01
Research reactors (RRs) have been used in a wide range of applications including nuclear power development, basic physics research, education and training, medical isotope production, geology, industry and other fields. However, many research reactors are fuelled with High Enriched Uranium (HEU), are underutilized and aging, and have significant quantities of spent fuel. HEU inventories (fresh and spent) pose security risks Unavailability of a high-density-reprocessable fuel hinders conversion and limits back-end options and represents a survival dilemma for many RRs. Improvement of interim spent fuel storage is required at some RRs. Many RRs are under-utilized and/or inadequately funded and need to find users for their services, or permanently shut down and eventually decommission. Reluctance to decommission affect both cost and safety (loss of experienced staff ) and many shut down but not decommissioned RR with fresh and/or spent fuel at the sites invoke serious concern. The IAEA's research reactor support helps to ensure that research reactors can be operated efficiently with fuels and targets of lower proliferation and security concern and that operators have appropriate technology and options to manage RR fuel cycle issues, especially on long term interim storage of spent research reactor fuel. Availability of a high-density-reprocessable fuel would expand and improve back end options. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to convert research reactors from High Enriched Uranium fuel and targets (for medical isotope production) to qualified Low Enriched Uranium fuel and targets while maintaining reactor performance levels. The assistance includes provision of handbooks and training in the performance of core conversion studies, advice for the procurement of LEU fuel, and expert services for LEU fuel acceptance. The IAEA further provides technical and administrative support for countries considering repatriation of its
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kowarski, L.
1955-01-01
It brings together the techniques data which are involved in the discussion about the utility for a research institute to acquire an atomic reactor for research purposes. This type of decision are often taken by non-specialist people who can need a brief presentation of a research reactor and its possibilities in term of research before asking advises to experts. In a first part, it draws up a list of the different research programs which can be studied by getting a research reactor. First of all is the reactor behaviour and kinetics studies (reproducibility factor, exploration of neutron density, effect of reactor structure, effect of material irradiation...). Physical studies includes study of the behaviour of the control system, studies of neutron resonance phenomena and study of the fission process for example. Chemical studies involves the study of manipulation and control of hot material, characterisation of nuclear species produced in the reactor and chemical effects of irradiation on chemical properties and reactions. Biology and medicine research involves studies of irradiation on man and animals, genetics research, food or medical tools sterilization and neutron beams effect on tumour for example. A large number of other subjects can be studied in a reactor research as reactor construction material research, fabrication of radioactive sources for radiographic techniques or applied research as in agriculture or electronic. The second part discussed the technological considerations when choosing the reactor type. The technological factors, which are considered for its choice, are the power of the reactor, the nature of the fuel which is used, the type of moderator (water, heavy water, graphite or BeO) and the reflector, the type of coolants, the protection shield and the control systems. In the third part, it described the characteristics (place of installation, type of combustible and comments) and performance (power, neutron flux ) of already existing
Heat extraction from HTGR reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balajka, J.; Princova, H.
1986-01-01
The analysis of an HTGR reactor energy balance showed that steam reforming of natural gas or methane is the most suitable process of utilizing the high-temperature heat. Basic mathematical relations are derived allowing to perform a general energy balance of the link between steam reforming and reactor heat output. The results of the calculation show that the efficiency of the entire reactor system increases with increasing proportion of heat output for steam reforming as against heat output for the steam generator. This proportion, however, is limited with the output helium temperature from steam reforming. It is thus always necessary to use part of the reactor heat output for the steam cycle involving electric power generation or low-potential heat generation. (Z.M.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McNeil, Russell
1986-01-01
The construction of a reactor, capable of producing a controlled nuclear chain reaction, has been one of the most complex achievements of modern science. That a similar reaction might take place in nature did not play a role in the thinking of the nuclear scientists responsible for it. Yet, 14 years ago, French scientists discovered that just such a phenomenon apparently occurred in western Africa almost 2 billion years ago. In this article Russell McNeil describes this fascinating curiosity and a recent attempt to model it mathematically
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alanis M, J.; Reyes J, J.L.; Ruiz C, M.A.
2003-01-01
In the National Institute of Nuclear Research it was recently finished the project for the production of I-131 at industrial level, the one which can divide basically in: (a) Preparation of the raw materials (TeO 2 ), (b) Sintering, (c) Neutron irradiation and (d) Separation of the I-131. With the end of starting the industrial production of this process, in this work it is presented the operational tests and an irradiation proposal of the TeO 2 to obtain quantities of I-131 that cover, if not totally, partially the national market. For this, they were carried out irradiation tests of 6 samples to different flows of neutrons. The result of these tests settles down that irradiating a mass of 240 g TeO 2 to a neutron flow of 6.53 x 10 12 n/cm 2 s in 4 cycles of 30 h per week approximately 2.54 Ci/week of I-131 distilled are obtained, which represents 35% of the demand of the Plant of Radioisotopes production of the ININ. (Author)
Teaching mathematics using excel
Bonello, Mary Rose; Camilleri, Silvana
2004-01-01
'Technology is essential in teaching and learning mathematics; it influences the mathematics that is taught and enhances students' learning.' (Principles and Standards for School Mathematics-NCTM April 2000)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barjon, Robert
1975-01-01
The purpose of this book is to explain the physical working conditions of nuclear reactors for the benefit of non-specialized engineers and engineering students. One of the leading ideas of this course is to distinguish between two fundamentally different concepts: - a science which could be called neutrodynamics (as distinct from neutron physics which covers the knowledge of the neutron considered as an elementary particle and the study of its interactions with nuclei); the aim of this science is to study the interaction of the neutron gas with real material media; the introduction will however be restricted to its simplified expression, the theory and equation of diffusion; - a special application: reactor physics, which is introduced when the diffusing and absorbing material medium is also multiplying. For this reason the chapter on fission is used to introduce this section. In practice the section on reactor physics is much longer than that devoted to neutrodynamics and it is developed in what seemed to be the most relevant direction: nuclear power reactors. Every effort was made to meet the following three requirements: to define the physical bases of neutron interaction with different materials, to give a correct mathematical treatment within the limit of necessary simplifying hypotheses clearly explained; to propose, whenever possible, numerical applications in order to fix orders of magnitude [fr
Figures of thought mathematics and mathematical texts
Reed, David
2003-01-01
Examines the ways in which mathematical works can be read as texts, examines their textual strategiesand demonstrates that such readings provide a rich source of philosophical debate regarding mathematics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bacher, P.
2008-01-01
This paper describes the various nuclear reactor systems, starting with the Generation II, then the present development of the Generation III and the stakes and challenges of the future Generation IV. Some have found appropriate to oppose reactor systems or generations one to another, especially by minimizing the enhancements of generation III compared to generation II or by expecting the earth from generation IV (meaning that generation III is already obsolete). In the first part of the document (chapter 2), some keys are given to the reader to develop its proper opinion. Chapter 3 describes more precisely the various reactor systems and generations. Chapter 4 discusses the large industrial manoeuvres around the generation III, and the last chapter gives some economical references, taking into account, for the various means of power generation, the impediments linked to climate protection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rowcliffe, A.F.; Burn, G.L.; Knee', S.S.; Dowker, C.L.
1994-02-01
This is the fifteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keck, O.
1984-01-01
Nowadays the fast-breeder reactor is a negative symbol of advanced technology which is getting out of control and, due to its complexity, is incomprehensible for politicians and therefore by-passes the established order. The author lists the most important decisions over state aid to the fast-breeder-reactors up until the mid-seventies and uses documents from the appropriate advisory bodies as reference. He was also aided by interviews with those directly involved with the project. The empirical facts forces us to discard our traditional view of the relationship between state and industry with regard to advanced technology. The author explains that it is impossible to find any economic value in the fast-breeder reactor. The insight gained through this project allows him to draw conclusions which apply to all aspects of state aid to advanced technology. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naruse, Yoshihiro.
1990-01-01
The thickness of steel shell plates in a reactor container embedded in sand cussions is monitored to recognize the corrosion of the steel shell plates. That is, the reactor pressure vessel is contained in a reactor container shell and the sand cussions are disposed on the lower outside of the reactor container shell to elastically support the shell. A pit is disposed at a position opposing to the sand cussions for measuring the thickness of the reactor container shell plates. The pit is usually closed by a closing member. In the reactor container thus constituted, the closing member can be removed upon periodical inspection to measure the thickness of the shell plates. Accordingly, the corrosion of the steel shell plates can be recognized by the change of the plate thickness. (I.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moir, R.W.
1980-01-01
The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garabedian, G.
1988-01-01
A liquid reactor is described comprising: (a) a reactor vessel having a core; (b) one or more satellite tanks; (c) pump means in the satellite tank; (d) heat exchanger means in the satellite tank; (e) an upper liquid metal conduit extending between the reactor vessel and the satellite tank; (f) a lower liquid metal duct extending between the reactor vessel and satellite tanks the upper liquid metal conduit and the lower liquid metal duct being arranged to permit free circulation of liquid metal between the reactor vessel core and the satellite tank by convective flow of liquid metal; (g) a separate sealed common containment vessel around the reactor vessel, conduits and satellite tanks; (h) the satellite tank having space for a volume of liquid metal that is sufficient to dampen temperature transients resulting from abnormal operating conditions
Mathematical Modelling Approach in Mathematics Education
Arseven, Ayla
2015-01-01
The topic of models and modeling has come to be important for science and mathematics education in recent years. The topic of "Modeling" topic is especially important for examinations such as PISA which is conducted at an international level and measures a student's success in mathematics. Mathematical modeling can be defined as using…
Discrete Mathematics and the Secondary Mathematics Curriculum.
Dossey, John
Discrete mathematics, the mathematics of decision making for finite settings, is a topic of great interest in mathematics education at all levels. Attention is being focused on resolving the diversity of opinion concerning the exact nature of the subject, what content the curriculum should contain, who should study that material, and how that…
Engineering of systems for application of scientific computing in industry
Loeve, W.; Loeve, W.
1992-01-01
Mathematics software is of growing importance for computer simulation in industrial computer aided engineering. To be applicable in industry the mathematics software and supporting software must be structured in such a way that functions and performance can be maintained easily. In the present paper a method is described for development of mathematics software in such a way that this requirement can be met.
Introducing philosophy of mathematics
Friend, Michele
2014-01-01
What is mathematics about? Does the subject-matter of mathematics exist independently of the mind or are they mental constructions? How do we know mathematics? Is mathematical knowledge logical knowledge? And how is mathematics applied to the material world? In this introduction to the philosophy of mathematics, Michele Friend examines these and other ontological and epistemological problems raised by the content and practice of mathematics. Aimed at a readership with limited proficiency in mathematics but with some experience of formal logic it seeks to strike a balance between conceptual acc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batheja, P.; Huber, R.; Rau, P.
1985-01-01
Particularly for nuclear reactors of small output, the reactor pressure vessel contains at least two heat exchangers, which have coolant flowing through them in a circuit through the reactor core. The circuit of at least one heat exchanger is controlled by a slide valve, so that even for low drive forces, particularly in natural circulation, the required even loading of the heat exchanger is possible. (orig./HP) [de