WorldWideScience

Sample records for industrial production processes

  1. Analysis of the Industrial Biodiesel Production Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Nicola, G.; Moglie, M.; Santori, G.

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of transesterification is the chemical transformation through which you get biodiesel from vegetable oils. The purpose of this work is to plan carefully all the stages of various biodiesel production processes on the basis of recent results obtained in the experimental research. These results allow defining the proper thermodynamic models to be used, the right interpretation of the phenomena and identifying the parameters which affect the process. The modelling was done with ASPENPLUS (R) defining three possible processes used in industrial purpose. A subsequent sensitivity analysis was done for each process allowing the identification of the optimal configurations. By comparing these solutions it is possible to choose the most efficient one to reduce the costs of the final product. [it

  2. Independent Innovation System of China's Agricultural Products Processing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Ailian

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the importance of innovation system for agricultural products processing industry. Based on the principles of openness, dynamics, systematization, outstanding industrial characteristics and close cooperation, a diversified agro-processing innovation system is constructed. It is an innovation subject system of agricultural products processing industry which takes agricultural products processing industry as the core, independent innovation as the center, and university, s...

  3. Process integration analysis of an industrial hydrogen production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tock, Laurence; Marechal, Francois; Metzger, Christian [EPFL (CH). Industrial Energy Systems Lab. (LENI); Arpentinier, Philippe [AIR LIQUIDE (France). Research center Claude-Delorme

    2010-07-01

    The energy efficiency of an industrial hydrogen production process using steam methane reforming (SMR) combined with the water gas shift reaction (WGS) is analyzed using process integration techniques based on heat cascade calculation and pinch analysis with the aim of identifying potential measures to enhance the process performance. The challenge is to satisfy the high temperature heat demand of the SMR reaction by minimizing the consumption of natural gas to feed the combustion and to exploit at maximum the heat excess at low temperature by producing valuable steam or electricity or by performing cogeneration. By applying a systematic methodology based on energy-flow models, process integration techniques and a multi-objective optimization procedure, the process performances defined by the specific natural gas consumption and the specific steam or electricity production is optimized and analyzed for different operating conditions (i.e. air preheating, pre-reforming/reforming, WGS temperature) and process modification options like pre-reformer integration. Identified measures are to increase the production of exportable steam by consuming the entire waste heat and optimizing the steam production pressure level, and to reduce the natural gas consumption by adjusting process parameters. By these measures the performance can be varied between 0.53-0.59 kmol natural gas/kmol H{sub 2} for the specific total natural gas consumption and 1.8-3.7 kmol steam/kmol H2 for the specific steam production. (orig.)

  4. Operational impact of product variety in the process industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseley, Alexandria Lee; Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research article is to examine the impact of product variety on production performance in the process industry. As the number of product variants sold by a process company typically impacts the run length, production data from a mineral wool insulation manufacturer is analyzed...... variants and their production sequence must also be considered. Based on the findings, a method for quantifying the production cost of product variety in the process industry is developed, add ing to the literature a rich case howcasing factors which influence production performance and the impact...... is measured with metrics....

  5. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  6. New Product Development (NPD) Process - An Example of Industrial Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierska, Marianna; Grębosz-Krawczyk, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    This aim of this article is to present the process of new product introduction on example of industrial sector in context of new product development (NPD) concept. In the article, the concept of new product development is discussed and the different stages of the process of new electric motor development are analysed taking into account its objectives, implemented procedures, functions and responsibilities division. In the article, information from secondary sources and the results of empirical research - conducted in an international manufacturing company - are used. The research results show the significance of project leader and regular cooperation with final client in the NPD process.

  7. Radioactive sealed sources production process for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Paulo de S.; Ngunga, Daniel M.G.; Camara, Julio R.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S.

    2017-01-01

    providing products and services to the private and governmental Brazilian users of industrial radiography and nucleonic control systems. Radioactive sealed sources are commonly used in nondestructive tests as radiography to make inspections and verify the internal structure and integrity of materials and in nucleonic gauges to control level, density, viscosity, etc. in on-line industrial processes. One of the most important activities carried out by this laboratory is related to the inspection of source projectors devices used in industrial radiography and its constituent parts as well as remote handle control assembly drive cable and guide tube systems. The laboratory also provide for the users iridium-192, cobalt-60 and selenium-75 sealed sources and performs quality control tests replacing spent or contaminated radiative sources. All discard of radioactive source is treated as radioactive waste. Additionally, administrative and commercial processes and protocols for exportation and transport of radioactive material are developed by specialized departments. In this work are presented the mean processes and procedures used by the Sealed Source Production Laboratory such as the arrival of the radioactive material to the laboratory and the source projectors, mechanical inspections, source loading, source leaking tests, etc. (author)

  8. Radioactive sealed sources production process for industrial radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo de S.; Ngunga, Daniel M.G.; Camara, Julio R.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S., E-mail: psantos@ipen.br, E-mail: hobeddaniel@gmail.com, E-mail: jrcamara@ipen.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energética s e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    providing products and services to the private and governmental Brazilian users of industrial radiography and nucleonic control systems. Radioactive sealed sources are commonly used in nondestructive tests as radiography to make inspections and verify the internal structure and integrity of materials and in nucleonic gauges to control level, density, viscosity, etc. in on-line industrial processes. One of the most important activities carried out by this laboratory is related to the inspection of source projectors devices used in industrial radiography and its constituent parts as well as remote handle control assembly drive cable and guide tube systems. The laboratory also provide for the users iridium-192, cobalt-60 and selenium-75 sealed sources and performs quality control tests replacing spent or contaminated radiative sources. All discard of radioactive source is treated as radioactive waste. Additionally, administrative and commercial processes and protocols for exportation and transport of radioactive material are developed by specialized departments. In this work are presented the mean processes and procedures used by the Sealed Source Production Laboratory such as the arrival of the radioactive material to the laboratory and the source projectors, mechanical inspections, source loading, source leaking tests, etc. (author)

  9. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  10. Process model economics of xanthan production from confectionery industry wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajić, Bojana Ž; Vučurović, Damjan G; Dodić, Siniša N; Grahovac, Jovana A; Dodić, Jelena M

    2017-12-01

    In this research a process and cost model for a xanthan production facility was developed using process simulation software (SuperPro Designer ® ). This work represents a novelty in the field for two reasons. One is that xanthan gum has been produced from several wastes but never from wastewaters from confectionery industries. The other more important is that the aforementioned software, which in intended exclusively for bioprocesses, is used for generating a base case, i.e. starting point for transferring the technology to industrial scales. Previously acquired experimental knowledge about using confectionery wastewaters from five different factories as substitutes for commercially used cultivation medium have been incorporated into the process model in order to obtain an economic viability of implementing such substrates. A lower initial sugar content in the medium based on wastewater (28.41 g/L) compared to the synthetic medium (30.00 g/L) gave a lower xanthan content at the end of cultivation (23.98 and 26.27 g/L, respectively). Although this resulted in somewhat poorer economic parameters, they were still in the range of being an investment of interest. Also the possibility of utilizing a cheap resource (waste) and reducing pollution that would result from its disposal has a positive effect on the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Description of the production process - industrial phase; Descricao do processo produtivo - fase industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter presents the description of the present state-of-art, in this paper called first generation of the productive process of sugar-cane bio ethanol in Brazil, related to the industrial phase involving their improvements and also the aspects related to the second generation technologies, particularly the hydrolysis and gasification of the biomass technologies. The chapter also approaches the aspects referred to the use of sugar cane bagasse and the straw cape, and also the production of electric power surplus.

  12. Process improvement of knives production in a small scale industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Muktasim, Irfan

    2017-06-01

    Small scale industry that produces several kinds of knive should increase its capacity due to the demand from the market. Qualitatively, this case study consisted of formulating the problems, collecting and analyzing the necessary data, and determining the possible recommendations for the improvement. While the current capacity is only 9 (nine), it is expected that 20 units of knife will produced per month. The processes sequence are: profiling (a), truing (b), beveling (c), heat treatment (d), polishing (e), assembly (f), sharpening (g) and finishing (h). The first process (a) is held by out-house vendor company while other steps from (b) to (g) are executed by in-house vendor. However, there is a high dependency upon the high skilled operator who executes the in -house processes that are mostly held manually with several unbalance successive tasks, where the processing time of one or two tasks require longer duration than others since the operation is merely relied on the operator's skill. The idea is the improvement or change of the profiling and beveling process. Due to the poor surface quality and suboptimal hardness resulted from the laser cut machine for profiling, it is considered to subst itute this kind of process with wire cut that is capable to obtain good surface quality with certain range levels of roughness. Through simple cutting experiments on the samples, it is expected that the generated surface quality is adequate to omit the truing process (b). In addition, the cutting experiments on one, two, and four test samples resulted the shortest time that was obtained through four pieces in one cut. The technical parameters were set according to the recommendation of machine standard as referred to samples condition such as thickness and path length that affect ed the rate of wear. Meanwhile, in order to guarantee the uniformity of knife angles that are formed through beveling process (c), a grinding fixture was created. This kind of tool diminishes the

  13. Production yield analysis in the poultry processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper outlines a case study where the PYA-method (production yield analysis) was implemented at a poultry-slaughtering line, processing 9000 broiler chicks per hour. It was shown that the average live weight of a flock of broilers could be used to predict the maximum production yield of the

  14. ADDED VALUE AS EFFICIENCY CRITERION FOR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Korotkevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Literary analysis has shown that the majority of researchers are using classical efficiency criteria for construction of an optimization model for production process: profit maximization; cost minimization; maximization of commercial product output; minimization of back-log for product demand; minimization of total time consumption due to production change. The paper proposes to use an index of added value as an efficiency criterion because it combines economic and social interests of all main interested subjects of the business activity: national government, property owners, employees, investors. The following types of added value have been considered in the paper: joint-stock, market, monetary, economic, notional (gross, net, real. The paper makes suggestion to use an index of real value added as an efficiency criterion. Such approach permits to bring notional added value in comparable variant because added value can be increased not only due to efficiency improvement of enterprise activity but also due to environmental factors – excess in rate of export price increases over rate of import growth. An analysis of methods for calculation of real value added has been made on a country-by-country basis (extrapolation, simple and double deflation. A method of double deflation has been selected on the basis of the executed analysis and it is counted according to the Laspeyires, Paasche, Fischer indices. A conclusion has been made that the used expressions do not take into account fully economic peculiarities of the Republic of Belarus: they are considered as inappropriate in the case when product cost is differentiated according to marketing outlets; they do not take account of difference in rate of several currencies and such approach is reflected in export price of a released product and import price for raw material, supplies and component parts. Taking this into consideration expressions for calculation of real value added have been specified

  15. Challenge of Industrial Production and Processing of Rattans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To foster sustainable development of the sector and ensure it becomes a virile substitute or complementary raw material to wood in the wood sector of the national economy, government should mainstream the sector into the industrial sector of the economy. This could be achieved through establishment of industrial rattan ...

  16. The Key Principles of Process Manager Motivation in Production and Administration Processes in an Industrial Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chromjakova Felicita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic premise of sustainable development is that companies should completely re-evaluate their enterprise work logic and process organization. Most of the necessary changes concern employee stimulation and motivation. If we are truly interested in improving business results and the effectiveness of business processes – there would be no progress otherwise – we have to strive to break down the barriers between company management (leadership and employees in order to establish effective relationships between firms and customers. This paper presents research results of process manager activities in modern industrial enterprises, connected with a methodology proposal for the systematically-oriented process manager motivation of employees in accordance with the increased competitiveness of production and administration processes. It also presents an effective methodology of how to increase the positive effects of welldefined employee motivations from the process manager´s perspective. The core benefit of this methodology lies in the design of a systematic approach to the motivation process from the process manager side, allowing for radical performance improvement via production and administrative processes and the increased competitiveness of enterprise processes.

  17. Monitoring and evaluation of production processes an analysis of the automotive industry

    CERN Document Server

    Panda, Anton; Pandová, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    This book presents topics on monitoring and evaluation of production processes in the automotive industry. Regulation of production processes is also described in details. The text deals with the implementation and evaluation of these processes during the mass production of components useful in the automotive industry. It evaluates the effects and results achieved after implementation in practice. The book takes into account the different methodologies of the world's automakers and applicable standards, such as standard EN ISO 9001 and the requirements of VDA and ISO/TS 16949. The content is used to those working with the development, production and quality control of new products in the demanding automotive industry. The information provided may also be useful to engineers and technical staff in organizations working with series production and production of spare parts for the automotive and other demanding industries. The content presented was written based on discussions with various companies and organiza...

  18. Which variety is free? Discerning the impact of product variety in the process industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trattner, Alexandria Lee; Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    In the pursuit of mass customization, it is a great challenge for companies to maintain mass production efficiencies while producing a wide range of prod-ucts. This poses an even a greater challenge to process industry manufactur-ing systems which are built for high volume, low variety operations...... and which are sensitive to changes in process parameters. Many studies have been performed to quantify the impact of product variety on the efficiency of automotive assembly processes, but little work has been done to address pro-cess manufacturing systems. This study aims to determine the effects of in......-dividual product features on machine productivity at a process industry manufacturer. A lasso regression model is developed and tested using actual product and process level data from a stone wool manufacturer in central Eu-rope. Results show that product features are less correlated to machine effi-ciency than...

  19. Availability Evaluation of the serial processes in a Paper Production Industry-A Numerical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sharma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compute availability of the process of a paper production industry consisting of four subsystems. Mathematical formulation of the problem is carried out using probability considerations and the governing differential equations are solved using Runge-Kutta method of order four. Availability of the serial process in the paper production industry have been computed for various choice of failure and repair rates of subsystems of this plant.

  20. Which variety is free? Discerning the impact of product variety in the process industry

    OpenAIRE

    Trattner, Alexandria Lee; Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2017-01-01

    In the pursuit of mass customization, it is a great challenge for companies to maintain mass production efficiencies while producing a wide range of prod-ucts. This poses an even a greater challenge to process industry manufactur-ing systems which are built for high volume, low variety operations and which are sensitive to changes in process parameters. Many studies have been performed to quantify the impact of product variety on the efficiency of automotive assembly processes, but little wor...

  1. How integrating industrial design in the product development process impacts on company performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemser, G; Leenders, MAAM

    There is a growing belief that investing in industrial design is beneficial to company performance. This article sheds more light on how and when integrating industrial design in the product development process can enhance a company's competitive position. The basic premise is that the impact of

  2. Multivariate Statistical Process Optimization in the Industrial Production of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimkiewicz, Anna

    sequences of unit operations separated in time and, even more so when working with (semi-) continuous processes when generating the time series data. For this application, the potential of auto- and cross-correlation analysis and the effect of the prerequisite signal de-trending are explored in the context...... importance and characteristics, to facilitate the-Vdiagnostic procedure. Both methods lead to decomposition of the data structures intointuitively interpretable solutions by keeping the natural structure of the analyzeddata.Additionally, the ultrafiltration system has been also investigated in terms...

  3. Impact of industrial production and packaging processes on the concentration of per- and polyfluorinated compounds in milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Mona; Schlummer, Martin; Gruber, Ludwig; Fiedler, Dominik; Wolz, Gerd

    2013-09-25

    Perfluorinated alkylated compounds (PFAA) have been identified in milk and dairy products at sub ppb levels, however, knowledge on the impact of industrial milk processing on PFAA levels is rare. This study examined industrial milk processing first by analytical screening of products of a cooperating dairy, which varied in kind and number of processing steps. Second, amounts of PFAA in raw milk, cream, skim milk, butter milk, and butter were mass balanced in industrial production. For migration testing, unpacked butter was sampled from the production and exposed to original packaging at 5 °C for 45 days. Screening identified dairy products with high fat contents to bear higher loads of PFAA. The mass balance of butter production revealed a significant impact of phase separation processes on concentrations in fat rich and aqueous phases. Storage of butter in packaging coated with a fluorinated polymer increased butter levels of both PFAA and FTOH.

  4. Processing Factors of Several Pesticides and Degradation Products in Carrots by Household and Industrial Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnechere, Aurore; Hanot, Vincent; Jolie, Ruben; Hendrickx, Marc; Bragard, Claude; Bedoret, Thomas; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the effect of household and industrial processing on the pesticide residues, carrots (Daucus carota) were sprayed during cultivation with three fungicides (boscalid, difenoconazole and tebuconazole), two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and dimethoate) and one herbicide (linuron). The most concentrated formulations were applied pursuant to Good Agricultural Practices, to ensure sufficiently high levels of residues, The subsequent processing conditions were established to correspond as c...

  5. Comparative analysis of automation of production process with industrial robots in Asia/Australia and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Karabegović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "INDUSTRY 4.0" or "fourth industrial revolution" was first introduced at the fair in 2011 in Hannover. It comes from the high-tech strategy of the German Federal Government that promotes automation-computerization to complete smart automation, meaning the introduction of a method of self-automation, self-configuration, self-diagnosing and fixing the problem, knowledge and intelligent decision-making. Any automation, including smart, cannot be imagined without industrial robots. Along with the fourth industrial revolution, ‘’robotic revolution’’ is taking place in Japan. Robotic revolution refers to the development and research of robotic technology with the aim of using robots in all production processes, and the use of robots in real life, to be of service to a man in daily life. Knowing these facts, an analysis was conducted of the representation of industrial robots in the production processes on the two continents of Europe and Asia /Australia, as well as research that industry is ready for the introduction of intelligent automation with the goal of establishing future smart factories. The paper gives a representation of the automation of production processes in Europe and Asia/Australia, with predictions for the future.

  6. Shifting post production patterns: exploring changes in New Zealand's seafood processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Christina; Simmons, Glenn; Rees, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the changing nature of New Zealand's seafood companies' production practices. The past 15 years has seen the offshore outsourcing of post-harvest fish gain unprecedented momentum. The growth in offshore processing is a further stage in an increasingly globalised fisheries value chain. Fish is head and gutted, frozen and then transported to processing sites in China where it is thawed, value-added processed and refrozen for export to the original sourcing country or third country markets. Reasons advanced by the industry for this shift in production practices include quota reductions, increasing production costs and the sale of trawlers.

  7. Manufacturing processes in the textile industry. Expert Systems for fabrics production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan BULLON

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is characterized by the economic activity whose objective is the production of fibres, yarns, fabrics, clothing and textile goods for home and decoration,as well as technical and industrial purposes. Within manufacturing, the Textile is one of the oldest and most complex sectors which includes a large number of sub-sectors covering the entire production cycle, from raw materials and intermediate products, to the production of final products. Textile industry activities present different subdivisions, each with its own traits. The length of the textile process and the variety of its technical processes lead to the coexistence of different sub-sectors in regards to their business structure and integration. The textile industry is developing expert systems applications to increase production, improve quality and reduce costs. The analysis of textile designs or structures includes the use of mathematical models to simulate the behavior of the textile structures (yarns, fabrics and knitting. The Finite Element Method (FEM has largely facilitated the prediction of the behavior of that textile structure under mechanical loads. For classification problems Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs haveproved to be a very effective tool as a quick and accurate solution. The Case-Based Reasoning (CBR method proposed in this study complements the results of the finite element simulation, mathematical modeling and neural networks methods.

  8. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stefanou, Spiro E

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change.

  9. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change. PMID:26057878

  10. Optimizing the product-based availability of a buffered industrial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Michael; Martz, Harry F.; Berg, Eric C.; Koehler, Arthur J.

    2006-01-01

    Many industrial processes for discrete consumable products consist of a series (or set) of sequential process operations (or subsystems) which are de-coupled by means of in-process storage buffers. Each subsystem of such a process contains one or more parallel coupled or uncoupled operating lanes. We describe the use of a discrete-event simulation model for determining the availability of such a process. We likewise define and use a genetic algorithm to determine process designs and operating rules that have high availability. A 65-variable example, consisting of four operating subsystems with at most four lanes per subsystem, is used to illustrate the method. The results for this and similar real-world applications indicate that, by applying this methodology, it is possible to design buffered industrial processes having high availability

  11. Influence of fungal morphology on the performance of industrial fermentation processes for enzyme production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla Hernandez, Daniela Alejandra

    at predicting mycelial fragmentation across scales, compared to the EDCF. Furthermore, the morphological development of an industrial strain of T. reesei was monitored in pilot scale fermentations. This study showed that the morphology monitored with laser diffraction also granted the possibility to study......Production of industrial enzymes is usually carried out as submerged aerobic fermentations. Filamentous microorganisms are widely used as hosts in these processes due to multiple advantages. Nevertheless, they also present major drawbacks, due to the unavoidable oxygen transfer limitations...... in this work, along with its correlation to viscosity and other process variables. Considerable research work has been conducted through the years to study fungal morphology and its relation to productivity. However, the work reported in the literature lacks relevant industrial data. In this work, a platform...

  12. Towards eco-agro industrial clusters in aquatic production: the case of shrimp processing industry in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Thi Ahn,; Tran Thi My Dieu,; Mol, A.P.J.; Kroeze, C.; Bush, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of industrial ecology has been applied in this research to study possibilities to develop an eco-industrial cluster model for fishery production industry in Vietnam. By learning from experiments of other developed countries, we apply the principles of Industrial Ecology and of Ecological

  13. Economics of recombinant antibody production processes at various scales: Industry-standard compared to continuous precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Nikolaus; Tscheliessnig, Anne; Sommer, Ralf; Helk, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-06-01

    Standard industry processes for recombinant antibody production employ protein A affinity chromatography in combination with other chromatography steps and ultra-/diafiltration. This study compares a generic antibody production process with a recently developed purification process based on a series of selective precipitation steps. The new process makes two of the usual three chromatographic steps obsolete and can be performed in a continuous fashion. Cost of Goods (CoGs) analyses were done for: (i) a generic chromatography-based antibody standard purification; (ii) the continuous precipitation-based purification process coupled to a continuous perfusion production system; and (iii) a hybrid process, coupling the continuous purification process to an upstream batch process. The results of this economic analysis show that the precipitation-based process offers cost reductions at all stages of the life cycle of a therapeutic antibody, (i.e. clinical phase I, II and III, as well as full commercial production). The savings in clinical phase production are largely attributed to the fact that expensive chromatographic resins are omitted. These economic analyses will help to determine the strategies that are best suited for small-scale production in parallel fashion, which is of importance for antibody production in non-privileged countries and for personalized medicine. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Assessing environmental impacts using a comparative LCA of industrial and artisanal production processes: "Minas Cheese" case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Muller Nigri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology to evaluate and compare the environmental impacts caused by both the artisanal and the industrial manufacturing processes of "Minas cheese". This is a traditional cheese produced in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil, and it is considered a "cultural patrimony" in the country. The high participation of artisanal producers in the market justifies this research, and this analysis can help the identification of opportunities to improve the environmental performance of several stages of the production system. The environmental impacts caused were also assessed and compared. The functional unit adopted was 1 kilogram (Kg of cheese. The system boundaries considered were the production process, conservation of product (before sale, and transport to consumer market. The milk production process was considered similar in both cases, and therefore it was not included in the assessment. The data were collected through interviews with the producers, observation, and a literature review; they were ordered and processed using the SimaPro 7 LCA software. According to the impact categories analyzed, the artisanal production exerted lower environmental impacts. This can be justified mainly because the industrial process includes the pasteurization stage, which uses dry wood as an energy source and refrigeration.

  15. Bio-energy in the wood processing industry. Manual for energy production from residual matter for the wood processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Halen, C.J.G.; Arninkhof, M.J.C.; Rommens, P.J.M.; Karsch, P.

    2000-04-01

    This manual is published within the framework of a project, financed by Novem (EWAB programme) and the European Commission (Altener programme). Similar manuals were drafted in Germany, England and Sweden. The basis of the project was the manual 'Quality manual for small-scale wood incineration and wood gasification', published by Novem in 1998. That quality manual was drafted on the basis of an evaluation of a number of wood combustion and wood gasification projects. The original manual has been improved as a result of comments made by experts in the field of bio-energy. Updated information was added with respect to legislation, financing options and new technology. Also the manual is focused more on the wood processing industry

  16. Antimony recovery from end-of-life products and industrial process residues: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, David; Arnout, Sander; Jones, Peter Tom; Binnemans, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Antimony has become an increasingly critical element in recent years, due to a surge in industrial demand and the Chinese domination of primary production. Antimony is produced from stibnite ore (Sb2O3) which is processed into antimony metal and antimony oxide (Sb2O3). The industrial importance of antimony is mainly derived from its use as flame retardant in plastics, coatings, and electronics, but also as decolourizing agent in glass, alloys in lead-acid batteries, and catalysts for the p...

  17. USING OF SECONDARY PRODUCTS OF RAPESEED PROCESSING IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Raksha-Slusareva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When oil and biodiesel are extracted from rapeseed, secondary derived products are formed, which are not used effectively at the moment. The article deals with the problems of possible their use in food industry. During food product preparation for special dietary consumption we used electrophysical (processing by hydroelectropulse and physical (drying, grinding, steam treatment processing of raw materials. Through the developed technology for rapeseed cake processing, we received raw materials suitable for use in food industry. On the basis of these raw materials, the «Nutrition product for special dietary consumption “Ripakovyi”» was developed. It is a part of rape seed meal obtained from the seeds with low content of glucosinolates and erucic acid processed by hydroelectropulse dried in the cabinet oven or in the convective dryer, crushed and disinfected based on a developed soft technology for biologically active substances conservation. The production of this product solves the problem of rational utilization of rapeseed meal and diversification of foods for special dietary consumption.

  18. Critical ICT-Inhibiting Factors on IBS Production Management Processes in the Malaysia Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Peniel Ang Soon; Kasim, Narimah; Hamid, Zuhairi Abd; Chen, Goh Kai

    2017-10-01

    Industrialized Building System (IBS) is one of the approaches that had been introduced as an alternative to conventional building method where it becomes the new strategy of enhancing the sustainable construction in current industries while spearheading a huge advancement of benefits with green constructions into the existing industries. The IBS approach is actively promoted through several strategies and incentives as an alternative to conventional building methods. Extensive uptakes of modern Information Communication Technology (ICT) applications are able to support the different IBS processes for effective production. However, it is argued that ICT uptake at the organisational level is still in its infancy. This raises the importance to identify critical inhibitors which are inhibing the effective uptake of ICT in the IBS production management process. Critical inhibitors to ICT uptake were identified through questionnaire survey with the IBS industry stakeholders. The mean index and critical t-values are generated with the use of the quantitative tool, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The top ten priority ranked inhibitors reflect the Cost, People and Process elements to ICT uptake. High costs in acquiring the technologies and resistance to change were some main concerns from the findings.

  19. Biorefinery cascade processing for creating added value on tomato industrial by-products from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehili, Mouna; Schmidt, Lisa Marie; Reynolds, Wienke; Zammel, Ayachi; Zetzl, Carsten; Smirnova, Irina; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami

    2016-01-01

    In today's consumer perception of industrial processes and food production, aspects like food quality, human health, environmental safety, and energy security have become the keywords. Therefore, much effort has been extended toward adding value to biowastes of agri-food industries through biorefinery processing approaches. This study focused, for the first time, on the valorization of tomato by-products of a Tunisian industry for the recovery of value-added compounds using biorefinery cascade processing. The process integrated supercritical CO 2 extraction of carotenoids within the oil fractions from tomato seeds (TS) and tomato peels (TP), followed by a batch isolation of protein from the residues. The remaining lignocellulosic matter from both fractions was then submitted to a liquid hot water (LHW) hydrolysis. Supercritical CO 2 experiments extracted 5.79% oleoresin, 410.53 mg lycopene/kg, and 31.38 mg β-carotene/kg from TP and 26.29% oil, 27.84 mg lycopene/kg, and 5.25 mg β-carotene/kg from TS, on dry weights. Protein extraction yields, nearing 30% of the initial protein contents equal to 13.28% in TP and 39.26% in TS, revealed that TP and TS are a rich source of essential amino acids. LHW treatment run at 120-200 °C, 50 bar for 30 min showed that a temperature of 160 °C was the most convenient for cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis from TP and TS, while keeping the degradation products low. Results indicated that tomato by-products are not only a green source of lycopene-rich oleoresin and tomato seed oil (TSO) and of protein with good nutritional quality but also a source of lignocellulosic matter with potential for bioethanol production. This study would provide an important reference for the concept and the feasibility of the cascade fractionation of valuable compounds from tomato industrial by-products.Graphical abstractSchema of biorefinery cascade processing of tomato industrial by-products toward isolation of valuable fractions.

  20. Implications of Industrial Processing Strategy on Cellulosic Ethanol Production at High Solids Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David

    The production of cellulosic ethanol is a biochemical process of not edible biomasses which contain the cellulose. The process involves the use of enzymes to hydrolyze the cellulose in fermentable sugars to finally produce ethanol via fermentative microorganisms (i.e. yeasts). These biomasses...... are the leftover of agricultural productions (straws), not edible crops (giant reed) or wood, thus the ethanol so produced is also called second generation (or 2G ethanol), which differs from the first generation produced from starch (sugar beets mostly). In the industrial production of cellulosic ethanol high...... solids strategy resulted critical for its cost effectiveness: high concentration of initial biomass it will lead to high concentration of the final product (ethanol), thus more convenient to isolate. This thesis investigate the implementation of a high solids loading concept into cellulosic ethanol...

  1. Combinatorial life cycle assessment to inform process design of industrial production of algal biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentner, Laura B; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2011-08-15

    The use of algae as a feedstock for biodiesel production is a rapidly growing industry, in the United States and globally. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented that compares various methods, either proposed or under development, for algal biodiesel to inform the most promising pathways for sustainable full-scale production. For this analysis, the system is divided into five distinct process steps: (1) microalgae cultivation, (2) harvesting and/or dewatering, (3) lipid extraction, (4) conversion (transesterification) into biodiesel, and (5) byproduct management. A number of technology options are considered for each process step and various technology combinations are assessed for their life cycle environmental impacts. The optimal option for each process step is selected yielding a best case scenario, comprised of a flat panel enclosed photobioreactor and direct transesterification of algal cells with supercritical methanol. For a functional unit of 10 GJ biodiesel, the best case production system yields a cumulative energy demand savings of more than 65 GJ, reduces water consumption by 585 m(3) and decreases greenhouse gas emissions by 86% compared to a base case scenario typical of early industrial practices, highlighting the importance of technological innovation in algae processing and providing guidance on promising production pathways.

  2. National carbon emissions from the industry process: Production of glass, soda ash, ammonia, calcium carbide and alumina

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    China has become the world’s largest carbon emitter. Its total carbon emission output from fossil fuel combustion and cement production was approximately 10 Gt CO_2 in 2013. However, less is known about carbon emissions from the production of industrial materials, such as mineral products (e.g., lime, soda ash, asphalt roofing), chemical products (e.g., ammonia, nitric acid) and metal products (e.g., iron, steel and aluminum). Carbon emissions from the production processes of these industrial...

  3. Solid recovered fuel production from biodegradable waste in grain processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliopova, Irina; Staniskis, Jurgis Kazimieras; Petraskiene, Violeta

    2013-04-01

    Management of biodegradable waste is one of the most important environmental problems in the grain-processing industry since this waste cannot be dumped anymore due to legal requirements. Biodegradable waste is generated in each stage of grain processing, including the waste-water and air emissions treatment processes. Their management causes some environmental and financial problems. The majority of Lithuanian grain-processing enterprises own and operate composting sites, but in Lithuania the demand for compost is not given. This study focused on the analysis of the possibility of using biodegradable waste for the production of solid recovered fuel, as a local renewable fuel with the purpose of increasing environmental performance and decreasing the direct costs of grain processing. Experimental research with regard to a pilot grain-processing plant has proven that alternative fuel production will lead to minimizing of the volume of biodegradable waste by 75% and the volume of natural gas for heat energy production by 62%. Environmental indicators of grain processing, laboratory analysis of the chemical and physical characteristics of biodegradable waste, mass and energy balances of the solid recovered fuel production, environmental and economical benefits of the project are presented and discussed herein.

  4. Radioscopy applied to the improvement of industrial processes of quality control in the Brazilian footwear production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marcela Tatiana Fernandes; Mello Filho, Mauro Otto de Cavalcanti; Raupp, Fernanda Maria Pereira

    2013-01-01

    According to the Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, China has the last five years in the Brazilian footwear market for imports, representing 70% of total imports. Brazil has been recording declines in footwear exports; in 2011 there was an average reduction of 21.5% compared to 2010. Thus, Brazil has moved to the eighth position in the export market. Moreover, Asians have been improving the quality and technological level of their footwear for niche markets. It is well known that the introduction of new technologies into industrial organizations enables adding value to their products, making the organizations more competitive in the global market. In this work, we present a study on the use of radioscopy technique to improve quality control of the Brazilian footwear industry. Being already used by some international footwear manufactures, aiming at the identification of strange bodies, control jumps, among other aspects, this technique brings innovation to the referred industry, since it is a non-destructive test approach that makes use of X-rays. We also propose a tool for the application of radioscopy technique to improve quality control processes of footwear production, employing concepts of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). (author)

  5. Development of Industrial-Scale Fission 99Mo Production Process Using Low Enriched Uranium Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kon Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum-99 (99Mo is the most important isotope because its daughter isotope, technetium-99m (99mTc, has been the most widely used medical radioisotope for more than 50 years, accounting for > 80% of total nuclear diagnostics worldwide. In this review, radiochemical routes for the production of 99Mo, and the aspects for selecting a suitable process strategy are discussed from the historical viewpoint of 99Mo technology developments. Most of the industrial-scale 99Mo processes have been based on the fission of 235U. Recently, important issues have been raised for the conversion of fission 99Mo targets from highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium (LEU. The development of new LEU targets with higher density was requested to compensate for the loss of 99Mo yield, caused by a significant reduction of 235U enrichment, from the conversion. As the dramatic increment of intermediate level liquid waste is also expected from the conversion, an effective strategy to reduce the waste generation from the fission 99Mo production is required. The mitigation of radioxenon emission from medical radioisotope production facilities is discussed in relation with the monitoring of nuclear explosions and comprehensive nuclear test ban. Lastly, the 99Mo production process paired with the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's own LEU target is proposed as one of the most suitable processes for the LEU target.

  6. Development of industrial-scale fission {sup 99}Mo production process using low enriched uranium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Kon; Lee, Jun Sig [Radioisotope Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Beyer, Gerd J. [Grunicke Strasse 15, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Molybdenum-99 ({sup 99}Mo) is the most important isotope because its daughter isotope, technetium-99m ({sup 99}mTc), has been the most widely used medical radioisotope for more than 50 years, accounting for > 80% of total nuclear diagnostics worldwide. In this review, radiochemical routes for the production of {sup 99}Mo, and the aspects for selecting a suitable process strategy are discussed from the historical viewpoint of {sup 99}Mo technology developments. Most of the industrial-scale {sup 99}Mo processes have been based on the fission of {sup 235}U. Recently, important issues have been raised for the conversion of fission {sup 99}Mo targets from highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium (LEU). The development of new LEU targets with higher density was requested to compensate for the loss of {sup 99}Mo yield, caused by a significant reduction of {sup 235}U enrichment, from the conversion. As the dramatic increment of intermediate level liquid waste is also expected from the conversion, an effective strategy to reduce the waste generation from the fission {sup 99}Mo production is required. The mitigation of radioxenon emission from medical radioisotope production facilities is discussed in relation with the monitoring of nuclear explosions and comprehensive nuclear test ban. Lastly, the {sup 99}Mo production process paired with the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's own LEU target is proposed as one of the most suitable processes for the LEU target.

  7. Product-service system method to measure sustainability level of traditional smoked fish processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Ratna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Medium Enterprise’s (SME of traditional fish processing at Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia still focus their business on gain more profits. Sustainability aspect has not received enough attention yet. This study aims to review the sustainability level of SME smoked fish Semarang using product service system (PSS method. PSS consists of three dimensions (1 Environment, (2 Socio-cultural and (3 Economic. Each dimension consists of 6 criteria's. PSS not only assess the level of sustainability but also formulated the recommendation to increase the industries sustainability level. Sustainability assessment and recommendations formulation is guided by a check-list form. Then, the portfolio diagram used to select these recommendations according to its feasibility to be implemented and its importance for the industries. The result of sustainability assessment for traditional fish processing is 0.44, categorized as medium level. The recommendations for the environmental dimension are (1 use of liquid smoke on fish processing and (2 use of wastewater treatment with anaerobic ponds Recommendation for the socio-cultural dimension is use personal protective tool to reduce worker risk on safety and health. Recommendation for the economic dimension is used social media for product marketing and increasing the economic value of fish lung wastes. Recommendations are then illustrated in a diagram in the form of radar sustainability.

  8. Production process stability - core assumption of INDUSTRY 4.0 concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromjakova, F.; Bobak, R.; Hrusecka, D.

    2017-06-01

    Today’s industrial enterprises are confronted by implementation of INDUSTRY 4.0 concept with basic problem - stabilised manufacturing and supporting processes. Through this phenomenon of stabilisation, they will achieve positive digital management of both processes and continuously throughput. There is required structural stability of horizontal (business) and vertical (digitized) manufacturing processes, supported through digitalised technologies of INDUSTRY 4.0 concept. Results presented in this paper based on the research results and survey realised in more industrial companies. Following will described basic model for structural process stabilisation in manufacturing environment.

  9. Potential of biohydrogen production from effluents of citrus processing industry using anaerobic bacteria from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Lilian D M; Pachiega, Renan; Crespi, Marisa S; Nespeca, Maurílio Gustavo; de Oliveira, José Eduardo; Maintinguer, Sandra I

    2017-01-01

    Citrus crops are among the most abundant crops in the world, which processing is mainly based on juice extraction, generating large amounts of effluents with properties that turn them into potential pollution sources if they are improperly discarded. This study evaluated the potential for bioconversion of effluents from citrus-processing industry (wastewater and vinasse) into hydrogen through the dark fermentation process, by applying anaerobic sewage sludge as inoculum. The inoculum was previously heat treated to eliminate H 2 -consumers microorganisms and improve its activity. Anaerobic batch reactors were operated in triplicate with increasing proportions (50, 80 and 100%) of each effluent as substrate at 37°C, pH 5.5. Citrus effluents had different effects on inoculum growth and H 2 yields, demonstrated by profiles of acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid and ethanol, the main by-products generated. It was verified that there was an increase in the production of biogas with the additions of either wastewater (7.3, 33.4 and 85.3mmolL -1 ) or vinasse (8.8, 12.7 and 13.4mmolL -1 ) in substrate. These effluents demonstrated remarkable energetic reuse perspectives: 24.0MJm -3 and 4.0MJm -3 , respectively. Besides promoting the integrated management and mitigation of anaerobic sludge and effluents from citrus industry, the biohydrogen production may be an alternative for the local energy supply, reducing the operational costs in their own facilities, while enabling a better utilization of the biological potential contained in sewage sludges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eliminating waste in the production process using tools and methods of industrial engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kučerová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Companies of today must have their processes set in a way to fully use their capacities. It especially means efficient work, slimming of processes, reducing costs on quality but not at the expense of customer satisfaction. Within improving its processes they must carry out such improvements which allow them to eliminate unnecessary waste in the production process. Waste occurs in every enterprise, therefore workers should constantly search for it and eliminate it to increase productivity and reduce costs. In uncovering waste it is important to note the fact that we are searching for issues and not their cause and the guilty party to punish. The ability to identify waste and eliminate its causes may be the source of great improvements. When identifying waste we distinguish between seven types of waste and we use different methods and tools of industrial engineering to eliminate them. Based on many years of experience from organizations analyses conducted through student theses and based on the reconnaissance we carried out within resolving a research task we can state, that they include e.g. 5S, SMED etc.

  11. Solar production of industrial process steam for the Lone Star Brewery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deffenbaugh, D.M.; Watkins, P.V.; Hugg, S.B.; Kulesz, J.J.; Decker, H.E.; Powell, R.C.

    1979-06-29

    This report outlines the detailed design and system analysis of a solar industrial process steam system for the Lone Star Brewery. The industrial plant has an average natural gas usage of 12.7 MMcf per month. The majority of this energy goes to producing process steam of 125 psi and 353/sup 0/F at about 50,000 lb/h, with this load dropping to about 6000 lb/h on the weekends. The maximum steam production of the solar energy system is about 1700 lb/h. The climatic conditions at the industrial site give 50% of the possible amount of sunshine during the winter months and more than 70% during the summer months. The long-term yearly average daily total radiation on a horizontal surface is 1574 Btu/day-ft/sup 2/, the long-term yearly average daytime ambient temperature is 72/sup 0/F, and the percentage of clear day insolation received on the average day of the year is 62%. The solar steam system will consist of 9450 ft/sup 2/ of Solar Kinetics T-700 collectors arranged in fifteen 90-ft long rows through which 67.5 gpm of Therminol T-55 is pumped. This hot Therminol then transfers the heat collected to a Patterson-Kelley Series 380 unfired steam boiler. The solar-produced steam is then metered to the industrial process via a standard check valve. The thermal performance of this system is projected to produce about 3 million lbs of steam during an average weather year, which is approximately 3 billion Btu's. As with any prototype system, this steam system cannot be justified for purely economic reasons. It is estimated, however, that if the cost of the collectors can be reduced to a mass production level of $3 per lb then this type of system would be cost effective in about six years with the current government incentives and a fuel escalation rate of 10%. This period can be shortened by a combination of an increased investment tax credit and an accelerated depreciation.

  12. CONCEPT OF IN-OIL PROJECT BASED ON BIOCONVERSION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Czekała

    2017-09-01

    The main assumption of the project is based on the introduction of by-products from the food processing industry to feeding with larvae of H. illucens. Biomass of insect larvae will then be processed into products that will be used for feed and energy purposes.

  13. Process development of continuous glycerolysis in an immobilized enzyme-packed reactor for industrial monoacylglycerol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, Marianne; Kiil, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2007-01-01

    of the enzyme and measured expansion when wetted with a reaction mixture, a filling degree of 52 vol % dry enzymes particles per column volume seemed appropriate. Twenty minutes was required to reach equilibrium conditions with a MAG content of 50-55 wt %. Only insignificant indications of mass transfer...... limitations were observed. Hence, the commercial lipase seemed adequate to use in its available particle size distribution ranging from 300 to 900 mu m. A column length-to-diameter ratio of less than 25 did not interfere with the transfer of the fluid mixture through the column. Under the tested conditions......Continuous and easily operated glycerolysis was studied in different lipase-packed columns to evaluate the most potential process set-ups for industrial monoacylglycerol (MAG) production. Practical design-related issues such as enzyme-filling degree, required reaction time, mass transfer...

  14. Bacon Production: Evaluating Potential Processing and Management Practices to Improve Product Quality of Industrial Sliced Bacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scramlin, Stacy Maurine

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine areas of improvement to bacon production. The first trial was conducted to determine differences in belly and bacon quality traits in pigs fed ractopamine (RAC) for various durations during finishing. A 2x3x2 factorial arrangement was used with barrows and gilts, fed RAC levels of 0.0, 5.0, or 7.4…

  15. Advanced glycation End-products (AGEs): an emerging concern for processed food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Kaur, Amarjeet; Thind, S S; Singh, Baljit; Raina, Shiveta

    2015-12-01

    The global food industry is expected to increase more than US $ 7 trillion by 2014. This rise in processed food sector shows that more and more people are diverging towards modern processed foods. As modern diets are largely heat processed, they are more prone to contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are a group of complex and heterogeneous compounds which are known as brown and fluorescent cross-linking substances such as pentosidine, non-fluorescent cross-linking products such as methylglyoxal-lysine dimers (MOLD), or non-fluorescent, non-cross linking adducts such as carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (a pyrrole aldehyde). The chemistry of the AGEs formation, absorption and bioavailability and their patho-biochemistry particularly in relation to different complications like diabetes and ageing discussed. The concept of AGEs receptor - RAGE is mentioned. AGEs contribute to a variety of microvascular and macrovascular complications through the formation of cross-links between molecules in the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix and by engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Different methods of detection and quantification along with types of agents used for the treatment of AGEs are reviewed. Generally, ELISA or LC-MS methods are used for analysis of foods and body fluids, however lack of universally established method highlighted. The inhibitory effect of bioactive components on AGEs by trapping variety of chemical moieties discussed. The emerging evidence about the adverse effects of AGEs makes it necessary to investigate the different therapies to inhibit AGEs.

  16. Production from Activated Sludge Process of Sago Industry Wastewater Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Subha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the coefficient determination value (R2 of VSS and COD reduction were 0.9689 and 0.8838, respectively. VSS reduction (81% was achieved at acidic pH 6.9, 12 minutes ozonation, and retention time of 10 days. COD reduction (87% was achieved at acidic pH 6.7, 8 minutes of ozonation time, and retention time of 6 days. Low ozonation time and high retention time influence maximum sludge reduction, whereas low ozonation time with low retention time was effective for COD reduction.

  17. Conditions for industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated.......The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated....

  18. Robust modelling of heat-induced reactions in an industrial food production process exemplified by acrylamide generation in breakfast cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Lennox, Martin; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Data from an industrial case study of breakfast cereal production indicated that the generated amounts of acrylamide are greatly dependent upon the combined effects of temperature and heating time in a roasting step process. Two approaches to obtain process models for acrylamide generation were...

  19. Analytic network process (ANP approach for product mix planning in railway industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Pazoki Toroudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Given the competitive environment in the global market in recent years, organizations need to plan for increased profitability and optimize their performance. Planning for an appropriate product mix plays essential role for the success of most production units. This paper applies analytical network process (ANP approach for product mix planning for a part supplier in Iran. The proposed method uses four criteria including cost of production, sales figures, supply of raw materials and quality of products. In addition, the study proposes different set of products as alternatives for production planning. The preliminary results have indicated that that the proposed study of this paper could increase productivity, significantly.

  20. Agro-industrial fruit co-products in Colombia, their sources and potential uses in processed food industries: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Alarcón García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit agribusinesses generate large amounts of byproductswith diverse characteristics that are inherent to the fruitsfrom which they come, which are a source of great use potentialbecause their compositions include molecules that are currentlyof high interest (antioxidants and dietary fiber. It is clear that,without correct handling and disposal, theses fruits present aproblem due to the environmental pollution that large quantitiesof residues can generate. Although there are varied uses for agroindustrialco-products, this review focused on the potential usesthat co-products could have in different processed food matrices.In this sense, this paper led to the revelation that one of theprincipal objectives of the reviewed research was to conditionco-products for use in processed foods in an attempt to takeadvantage of the bio-active compounds they contain, principallythe natural antioxidant activity, which especially enjoys acceptanceby consumers of processed foods.

  1. Does productivity affect profitability in dairy processing industry? Evidence from Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Muminović

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides insights into productivity in dairy processing companies in Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The aim is to find out whether EBITDA per employee, as a measure of overall productivity as well as labour and capital productivity and their management positively affect company’s profitability. Literature review shows that this issue was relatively neglected, although increase in productivity is regarded as the most important factor in maintaining a competitive advantage in most developed countries. Results obtained show that comprehensive measure of productivity EBITDA per employee has statistically significant positive impact on company’s profitability, the same as productivity management components labour cost competitiveness and capital productivity.

  2. Conditions for industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.

    1996-01-01

    The possibilities of making xerogel glazings in an industrial way is discussed and a schematic outline of a production line is presented.......The possibilities of making xerogel glazings in an industrial way is discussed and a schematic outline of a production line is presented....

  3. Process and petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In comparison with many industries, the oil and gas industry is somewhat unique in that it has been operating in a global environment for many decades. The North Sea exploration and production industry is now entering a challenging era for business growth which is a mature region with smaller and smaller fields, more difficult to find and which require innovative development schemes. This presentation relates to information technology offering the exploration and production industry a unique set of business tools to improve performance and enable growth while reducing risk

  4. Does productivity affect profitability in dairy processing industry? Evidence from Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Saša Muminović; Željana Aljinović Barać

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides insights into productivity in dairy processing companies in Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The aim is to find out whether EBITDA per employee, as a measure of overall productivity as well as labour and capital productivity and their management positively affect company’s profitability. Literature review shows that this issue was relatively neglected, although increase in productivity is regarded as the most important factor in maintaining a competitive advantage in most dev...

  5. Study of Biogas Production from Cassava Industrial Waste by Anaerobic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production processes from tapioca wastewater have several problems that cause the biogas production is not optimal, such as pH drop at beginning of the process because the rate of acid formation is too fast and the rate of starch wastewater degradation is too slow. Therefore, to obtain optimal biogas production it is required two-stage reactor. The purposes of this research were to (i study the influence of one stage fermentation and two stage fermentation on biogas production, (ii study the effect of buffer Na2CO3 on biogas production, and (iii study the effect of methanogenic bacteria concentration on biogas production from cassava starch effluent. The first method of our research was hydrolysis process by “Saccharomyces cereviceae” as substrate activator. The second is the arrangement of pH and the last is process of methane production. The results showed that the highest biogas production is achieved at concentration of methanogenic bacteria 20% (v/v that is equal to 2458 ml. At concentration of 8% (v/v and 15% (v/v, biogas production was 2105 ml and 2117 ml. The addition of Na2CO3 can extend to 16 days with accumulation of 372 ml. While without the addition of buffer, biogas production period was only 9 days with accumulation of 620 ml. In semi continuous process, the analysis carried out every 3 days. Highest biogas production achieved in the variable addition of yeast with the accumulation 9329 ml. Without yeast, accumulation of biogas was 6831 ml. Yeast is use as substrate activator so it can accelerate the hydrolysis process and increased biogas production. The addition of Na2CO3 is increase the alkalinity so the pH drop did not occur early in the process.

  6. Conversion of bioprocess ethanol to industrial chemical products - Applications of process models for energy-economic assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment approach for accurate evaluation of bioprocesses for large-scale production of industrial chemicals is presented. Detailed energy-economic assessments of a potential esterification process were performed, where ethanol vapor in the presence of water from a bioreactor is catalytically converted to ethyl acetate. Results show that such processes are likely to become more competitive as the cost of substrates decreases relative to petrolium costs. A commercial ASPEN process simulation provided a reasonably consistent comparison with energy economics calculated using JPL developed software. Detailed evaluations of the sensitivity of production cost to material costs and annual production rates are discussed.

  7. Industrial wastewater treatment with a bioelectrochemical process: assessment of depuration efficiency and energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molognoni, Daniele; Chiarolla, Stefania; Cecconet, Daniele; Callegari, Arianna; Capodaglio, Andrea G

    2018-01-01

    Development of renewable energy sources, efficient industrial processes, energy/chemicals recovery from wastes are research issues that are quite contemporary. Bioelectrochemical processes represent an eco-innovative technology for energy and resources recovery from both domestic and industrial wastewaters. The current study was conducted to: (i) assess bioelectrochemical treatability of industrial (dairy) wastewater by microbial fuel cells (MFCs); (ii) determine the effects of the applied organic loading rate (OLR) on MFC performance; (iii) identify factors responsible for reactor energy recovery losses (i.e. overpotentials). For this purpose, an MFC was built and continuously operated for 72 days, during which the anodic chamber was fed with dairy wastewater and the cathodic chamber with an aerated mineral solution. The study demonstrated that industrial effluents from agrifood facilities can be treated by bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) with >85% (average) organic matter removal, recovering power at an observed maximum density of 27 W m -3 . Outcomes were better than in previous (shorter) analogous experiences, and demonstrate that this type of process could be successfully used for dairy wastewater with several advantages.

  8. Operations management in automotive industries from industrial strategies to production resources management, through the industrialization process and supply chain to pursue value creation

    CERN Document Server

    Gobetto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This book has proved its worth over the years as a text for courses in Production Management at the Faculty of Automotive Engineering in Turin, Italy, but deserves a wider audience as it presents a compendium of basics on Industrial Management, since it covers all major topics required. It treats all subjects from product development and “make or buy”-decision strategies to the manufacturing systems setting and management through analysis of the main resources needed in production and finally exploring the supply chain management and the procurement techniques. The very last chapter recapitulates the previous ones by analysing key management indicators to pursue the value creation that is the real purpose of every industrial enterprise. As an appendix, a specific chapter is dedicated to the basics of production management where all main relevant definitions, techniques and criteria are treated, including some numerical examples, in order to provide an adequate foundation for understanding the other chapte...

  9. Industrial processes inventory. Sector 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The work objective is to conduct a greenhouse gas emission inventory of the industrial processes in Lebanon for the year 1994. The Lebanese industry has emitted 1924.063 Gg (1.924.063 tons) of Carbon dioxide CO 2 ; 0.0003 Gg (0.3 tons) of carbon monoxide CO; 0.01112 Gg of nitrogen oxide NO; 273.888 tons of non-methane volatile organic compounds and 3.382 Gg (3.382 tons) of sulphur dioxide SO 2 . The cement industry is the major source of CO 2 emissions among the industrial processes in Lebanon. The cement industry is responsible for 76.1% of the total emissions followed by the iron and steel industry which produces 21.68% of the total CO 2 emissions from industrial processes. The NMVOC emissions are mainly produced by the use of asphalt for road paving (98.5% of total emissions by industry) followed by the food and beverage industry (1.2%). The emissions of sulphur dioxide SO 2 come from three industrial sources: the first come from the production of sulphuric acid (69.9% of total industrial emissions), the second from the cement industry (26.4% of total industrial emissions) and the third from the iron and steel mills (3.7% of total industrial emissions). Figures are presented to show the percentage distribution of various industrial sources contributions to CO 2 , NMVOC and SO 2 emissions in Lebanon. Carbon monoxide CO emissions in the industrial sector are very small. The major source is iron and steel mills and the minor source is asphalt-roofing production

  10. Switching industrial production processes from complex to defined media: method development and case study using the example of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Andreas E; Spadiut, Oliver; Herwig, Christoph

    2012-06-22

    Filamentous fungi are versatile cell factories and widely used for the production of antibiotics, organic acids, enzymes and other industrially relevant compounds at large scale. As a fact, industrial production processes employing filamentous fungi are commonly based on complex raw materials. However, considerable lot-to-lot variability of complex media ingredients not only demands for exhaustive incoming components inspection and quality control, but unavoidably affects process stability and performance. Thus, switching bioprocesses from complex to defined media is highly desirable. This study presents a strategy for strain characterization of filamentous fungi on partly complex media using redundant mass balancing techniques. Applying the suggested method, interdependencies between specific biomass and side-product formation rates, production of fructooligosaccharides, specific complex media component uptake rates and fungal strains were revealed. A 2-fold increase of the overall penicillin space time yield and a 3-fold increase in the maximum specific penicillin formation rate were reached in defined media compared to complex media. The newly developed methodology enabled fast characterization of two different industrial Penicillium chrysogenum candidate strains on complex media based on specific complex media component uptake kinetics and identification of the most promising strain for switching the process from complex to defined conditions. Characterization at different complex/defined media ratios using only a limited number of analytical methods allowed maximizing the overall industrial objectives of increasing both, method throughput and the generation of scientific process understanding.

  11. Evaluating exposures to complex mixtures of chemicals during a new production process in the plastics industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, T.; Burstyn, I.; Wendel de Joode, B. van; Posthumus, M.A.; Kromhout, H.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor emission of chemicals at a factory where plastics products were fabricated by a new robotic (impregnated tape winding) production process. Stationary and personal air measurements were taken to determine which chemicals were released and at what concentrations.

  12. Evaluating Exposures to Complex Mixtures of Chemicals During a New Production Process in the Plastics Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, T.; Burstyn, I.; Wendel de Joode, van B.; Posthumus, M.A.; Kromhout, H.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor emission of chemicals at a factory where plastics products were fabricated by a new robotic (impregnated tape winding) production process. Stationary and personal air measurements were taken to determine which chemicals were released and at what concentrations.

  13. Industrial Process Design for the Production of Aniline by Direct Amination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Rick T.; Kamphuis, Peter; Mathijssen, Lydwien; Zhang, Ruo; van der Ham, Louis G.J.; van den Berg, Henk; Zeeuw, Arend Jan

    2017-01-01

    The objective is to design a plant from raw material to product for the production of aniline by direct amination of benzene. The process design is started on a conceptual level and ended on a basic engineering level as well as a techno-economical evaluation. The amination of benzene by

  14. Characterization, treatment and utilization of rice husk ash in production processes of the industrial branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stracke, Marcelo Paulo; Schmidt, Julia Isabel; Steffen, Ana Cristina; Sokolovicz, Boris; Kieckow, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    The rice husk ash (CCA) is a black powder rich in silica (contents above 90%) with many industrial applications. The ash was obtained from a rice processing industry in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In this work the purpose is to characterize the rice husk ash and eliminate the residual carbon by methods such as acid leaching. The white ash is obtained by a chemical process followed by heating between 600 and 800 °C. The results were analyzed in DR-X, TGA and DSC. The DR-X analysis showed that the samples present high levels of silica in the crystalline form of quartz, cristobalite and tridymite. The white ash was obtained with high purity and presented a good result in the manufacture of paints. (author)

  15. Development of an eco-efficient product/process for the vulcanising industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becerra, M. B.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of an eco-efficient product/process, which has improved mechanical properties from the introduction of natural fibres in the EPDM (Ethylene-Propylene-Diene-Terpolymer rubber formulation. The optimisation analysis is made by a fractional factorial design 211-7. Different formulations were evaluated using a multi-response desirability function, with the aim of finding efficient levels for the manufacturing time-cycle, improving the mechanical properties of the product, and reducing the raw material costs. The development of an eco-efficient product/process generates a sustainable alternative to conventional manufacturing.

  16. Life cycle assessment of cheese production process in a small-sized dairy industry in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hudson Carlos Maia; Maranduba, Henrique Leonardo; de Almeida Neto, José Adolfo; Rodrigues, Luciano Brito

    2017-02-01

    Current research identifies, analyzes, and suggests improvements for minimizing environmental impacts in the manufacture of cheese using the life cycle assessment. Data collection and development of the inventory were performed in a small-sized dairy industry in Brazil. A cradle-to-gate approach was conducted based on the primary data from cheese production and secondary data from databases. The ReCiPe method was used for the impact assessment, considering the categories climate change, ozone depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, water depletion, and fossil depletion. A sensitivity analysis was performed including evaluations of different fuels for generating thermal energy, strategies for cleaning of dairy plant and utensils, variations in the way of cheese production based on the fat content, and production percentage changes. The results showed that the skimmed milk and thermal energy productions, electricity usage, and water consumptions were the main elementary flows. The pallet residues showed the best to be used as fuel for thermal energy. Detergent combinations did not influence the impact categories. There was a direct relationship between fat content range (20 to 30%) and the contribution in six impact categories. Changes from 20% in cheese allocation factor influenced the impact assessment results. LCA allowed identifying the main elementary flow of cheese production, providing valuable information with the potential to verify opportunities for on-site improvements.

  17. State and parameter estimation based on a nonlinear filter applied to an industrial process control of ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meleiro L.A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Most advanced computer-aided control applications rely on good dynamics process models. The performance of the control system depends on the accuracy of the model used. Typically, such models are developed by conducting off-line identification experiments on the process. These experiments for identification often result in input-output data with small output signal-to-noise ratio, and using these data results in inaccurate model parameter estimates [1]. In this work, a multivariable adaptive self-tuning controller (STC was developed for a biotechnological process application. Due to the difficulties involving the measurements or the excessive amount of variables normally found in industrial process, it is proposed to develop "soft-sensors" which are based fundamentally on artificial neural networks (ANN. A second approach proposed was set in hybrid models, results of the association of deterministic models (which incorporates the available prior knowledge about the process being modeled with artificial neural networks. In this case, kinetic parameters - which are very hard to be accurately determined in real time industrial plants operation - were obtained using ANN predictions. These methods are especially suitable for the identification of time-varying and nonlinear models. This advanced control strategy was applied to a fermentation process to produce ethyl alcohol (ethanol in industrial scale. The reaction rate considered for substratum consumption, cells and ethanol productions are validated with industrial data for typical operating conditions. The results obtained show that the proposed procedure in this work has a great potential for application.

  18. A modified indirect mathematical model for evaluation of ethanol production efficiency in industrial-scale continuous fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco Grellet, M A; Castagnaro, A; Dantur, K I; De Boeck, G; Ahmed, P M; Cárdenas, G J; Welin, B; Ruiz, R M

    2016-10-01

    To calculate fermentation efficiency in a continuous ethanol production process, we aimed to develop a robust mathematical method based on the analysis of metabolic by-product formation. This method is in contrast to the traditional way of calculating ethanol fermentation efficiency, where the ratio between the ethanol produced and the sugar consumed is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical conversion yield. Comparison between the two methods, at industrial scale and in sensitivity studies, showed that the indirect method was more robust and gave slightly higher fermentation efficiency values, although fermentation efficiency of the industrial process was found to be low (~75%). The traditional calculation method is simpler than the indirect method as it only requires a few chemical determinations in samples collected. However, a minor error in any measured parameter will have an important impact on the calculated efficiency. In contrast, the indirect method of calculation requires a greater number of determinations but is much more robust since an error in any parameter will only have a minor effect on the fermentation efficiency value. The application of the indirect calculation methodology in order to evaluate the real situation of the process and to reach an optimum fermentation yield for an industrial-scale ethanol production is recommended. Once a high fermentation yield has been reached the traditional method should be used to maintain the control of the process. Upon detection of lower yields in an optimized process the indirect method should be employed as it permits a more accurate diagnosis of causes of yield losses in order to correct the problem rapidly. The low fermentation efficiency obtained in this study shows an urgent need for industrial process optimization where the indirect calculation methodology will be an important tool to determine process losses. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Free-form architectural envelopes: Digital processes opportunities of industrial production at a reasonable price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castaneda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-form architecture is one of the major challenges for architects, engineers, and the building industry. This is due to the inherent difficulty of manufacturing double curvature facades at reasonable prices and quality. This paper discusses the possibilities of manufacturing free-form facade panels for architectural envelopes supported by recent advances in CAD/CAM systems and digital processes. These methods allow for no-mould processes, thus reducing the final price. Examples of actual constructions will be presented to prove the viability of computer numerically controlled (CNC fabrication technologies. Scientific literature will be reviewed. Promising fabrication methods (additive, subtractive, forming to accomplish this proposal will be discussed. This research will provide valuable information regarding the feasibility of manufacturing free-form panels for architectural envelopes at lower prices.  

  20. Radiation in industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The uses of ionizing radiation can be divided into two broad categories. First, it can be used as a tool of investigation, measurement and testing, and secondly, it can be a direct agent in inducing chemical processes. For example, radiation can help in the detecting and locating of malignant tumours, and it can be employed also for the destruction of those tumours. Again, it can reveal intricate processes of plant growth and, at the same time, can initiate certain processes which result in the growth of new varieties of plants. Similarly in industry, radiation is both a tool of detection, testing and measurement and an active agent for the initiation of useful chemical reactions. The initiation of chemical reactions usually requires larger and more powerful sources of radiation. Such radiation can be provided by substances like cobalt 60 and caesium 137 or by machines which accelerate nuclear particles to very high energies. Of the particle-accelerating machines, the most useful in this field are those which accelerate electrons to energies considerably higher than those possessed by the electrons (beta particles) emitted by radioactive substances. These high-energy radiations produce interesting reactions both in organic life and in materials for industry. Several of the papers presented at the Warsaw conference were devoted to the application of ionizing radiation to polymerization and other useful reactions in the manufacture and treatment of plastics. The polymerization of the ethylene series of hydro-carbons was discussed from various angles and the technical characteristics and requirements were described. It was pointed out by some experts that the cross-linking effect of radiation resulted in a superior product, opening the way to new applications of polyethylene. Irradiated polyethylene film has been sold for several years, and electrical wire has been made with irradiated polyethylene as the insulating jacket. Other reactions discussed included the cross

  1. Upscaling from benchtop processing to industrial scale production: More factors to be considered for pulsed electric field food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing has been intensively studied with benchtop scale experiments. However, there is still limited information regarding critical factors to be considered for PEF efficacy in microbial reduction with PEF processing at a pilot or commercial scale production of juice....

  2. Cost reduction in the production process using the ABC and Lean tools: Case Study in the refrigeration components industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi da Silva Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on production management with respect to operating costs that relate directly to the value of the product. For this study, three methods were used, ABC - Activity Based Costing, which provides accurate information about the knowledge of the real costs, VSM - Value Stream Mapping and Lean Manufacturing. The method adopted for this research was the case study. The study was conducted at a refrigeration components company in the Industrial Center of Manaus. The analyses and observations initially went through the process of mapping the value stream, measuring the current state of activities (cycle time, setup, etc.. After analysis it was possible to map the cost for each activity and finally calculate the cost of the product before and after the improvements resulting from the lean methodology. The results obtained in this study showed a 20% reduction in product costs resulting from operational improvements. The activity-based cost led to a discovery of the real costs of waste. The steps for this study include process mapping through the value stream, measuring the current state of activities (cycle time, setup, etc., establishing the cost driver for each activity, and finally calculating the cost of the product before and after the application of lean improvements. The paper was conducted through literature and descriptive review, and used a case study method. It describes the model that has been tested in a production line for a refrigeration components company from the Manaus Industrial Center, achieving a 20% reduction in product cost.

  3. Economic production and processing of agricultural fibre plants for high quality applications in automotive, building and furniture industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecenka, R.; Furll, C.; Gusovius, H.J. [Leibniz Inst. for Agricultural Engineering, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The demand for high-quality fibres and shives from hemp and flax as an alternative raw material for the automotive and building industry is increasing. Fibres are used primarily for composite reinforcement instead of synthetic fibres. Shives are used for animal bedding, but processing trials in wood industry for the production of low weight particle boards from shives are also very promising. Fibre producers require experience in cultivation and harvesting as well as modern processing technologies in order to supply flax fibres or shives at competitive prices under the changing conditions of international raw material markets. A complete processing line has been developed, installed and tested at the Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering (ATB) to study all the processing stages of fibre production. The new ATB line can produce high quality fibres and shives from retted and unretted hemp, flax and oilseed flax straw without technical changes of the machine line. The ATB pilot plant has been operated by a cooperation of farmers since 2008. Experience from industrial operation has been used to develop a modern fibre processing line with a throughput of up to 5 t per h hemp straw in only one short line.

  4. Product-service system method to measure sustainability level of traditional smoked fish processing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Purwaningsih Ratna; Cahyantari Anggaina Elfandora; Ariyani Zulfaida; Susanty Aries; Arvianto Ary; Santoso Haryo

    2018-01-01

    Small Medium Enterprise’s (SME) of traditional fish processing at Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia still focus their business on gain more profits. Sustainability aspect has not received enough attention yet. This study aims to review the sustainability level of SME smoked fish Semarang using product service system (PSS) method. PSS consists of three dimensions (1) Environment, (2) Socio-cultural and (3) Economic. Each dimension consists of 6 criteria's. PSS not only assess the level of sust...

  5. Statistical analysis of the irradiation process of various products in the industrial irradiator JS-6500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naquid G, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the methodology for the control of the irradiation service applied to disposable products of medical use, foods, medications, cosmetics and several to different dose in the Gamma Irradiation Plant, with radiation of Cobalt 60, by means of the Graphs of Quality Control by Variables. These they are used to check if the irradiation process has been carried out appropriately, or well, if the variations surpass the established limits in the one that influences some another factor. (Author)

  6. Solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  7. THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF THE SALES OPERATIONS OF THE PRODUCTS OF A SANITARY WARE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Antonio Maccari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization consists of extending an organization's operations abroad. It involves decisions based on objective criteria and on an evaluation of strategies for entering the foreign market. The problem addressed in this study concerns a Brazilian firm’s difficulties developing its operations abroad. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify the internationalization process of an industry in the sanitary ware segment in the development of its operations in another country. The research method employed was the single case study and data was collected by means of a semi-structured research script applied to company executives. The results showed that the internationalization process is characterized by the dynamic learning model (Uppsala Model, according to which an organization develops its activities abroad gradually, as it acquires experience and expertise in the market. The company is attempting to overcome cultural barriers and psychic distance in a slow internationalization process, aligned with the differentiation strategy and focus that it uses in the Brazilian market. This strategy comprises a sequence of planned and deliberate steps, with low investment exposure and risk. It was found that the firm adopts a strategy of exporting through distributors, this being a critical success factor, but that the distributor approval and development process lacks robust and formalized structuring. There are opportunities for improvement in the process of competitive intelligence in order to systematize the search and interpretation of information about the markets in which the company wants to operate.  Key-words: Internationalization of companies. Uppsala Model. Strategy. Competitive intelligence. 

  8. A Mathematical Programming Approach to the Optimal Sustainable Product Mix for the Process Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha M. Galal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concerns about the environment and the depletion of natural resources are the main drivers for the growing interest in sustainability. Manufacturing operations are frequently considered to have an adverse effect on the environment. Hence, the sustainable operation of manufacturing facilities is a vital practice to ensure sustainability. The aim of this paper is to find the optimum product mix of a manufacturing facility to maximize its sustainability. A mixed integer non-linear programming model is developed to specify the product mix in order to maximize a proposed sustainability index (SI of a manufacturing facility. The sustainability index comprises the economic, environmental and social pillars of sustainability in a weighted form using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The model results allow the identification of the prospective improvements of manufacturing sustainability.

  9. EDITORIAL: Industrial Process Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton Johansen, Geir; Wang, Mi

    2008-09-01

    There has been tremendous development within measurement science and technology over the past couple of decades. New sensor technologies and compact versatile signal recovery electronics are continuously expanding the limits of what can be measured and the accuracy with which this can be done. Miniaturization of sensors and the use of nanotechnology push these limits further. Also, thanks to powerful and cost-effective computer systems, sophisticated measurement and reconstruction algorithms previously only accessible in advanced laboratories are now available for in situ online measurement systems. The process industries increasingly require more process-related information, motivated by key issues such as improved process control, process utilization and process yields, ultimately driven by cost-effectiveness, quality assurance, environmental and safety demands. Industrial process tomography methods have taken advantage of the general progress in measurement science, and aim at providing more information, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on multiphase systems and their dynamics. The typical approach for such systems has been to carry out one local or bulk measurement and assume that this is representative of the whole system. In some cases, this is sufficient. However, there are many complex systems where the component distribution varies continuously and often unpredictably in space and time. The foundation of industrial tomography is to conduct several measurements around the periphery of a multiphase process, and use these measurements to unravel the cross-sectional distribution of the process components in time and space. This information is used in the design and optimization of industrial processes and process equipment, and also to improve the accuracy of multiphase system measurements in general. In this issue we are proud to present a selection of the 145 papers presented at the 5th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography in Bergen

  10. Process intensification : Industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton A.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter presents process intensification technologies used in industrial applications, for increasing the eco-efficiency of the chemical equipment with the benefit of lower capital costs, substantial energy saving, reduced footprint, and safety by design. The key topics cover compact heat

  11. MANAGEMENT OF THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTS: STUDY OF THE LEVELS OF MATURITY IN FOOD INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Greef, Melisa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of new products is an essential activity for the survival and competitiveness of companies. This process involves different stages, from the identification of consumers needs to the launch, follow-up and recall of the product in the market. At food producing industries, Product Development Process Management has an important role, due to the competitive environment in which they operate. However, in these companies’ different levels of the process systematization are perceived. In this sense, Maturity Level provides guidelines to observe which best practices are institutionalized and become effective in the organization. Selected literature recognizes five maturity levels: Basic, Intermediate, Measurable, Controlled and Continuous Improvement. This paper presents a diagnosis of the maturity level of Product Development Process Management on food companies Santa Fe (Argentina. Eleven companies belonging to three sectors of economic activity, selected according to their importance for the region (dairy products, inputs and meat are selected. A descriptive study is carried out through the application of a semi-structured questionnaire. Among the main conclusions, it is observed that companies interviewed have Basic and Intermediate Maturity Levels. Particularly, there are remarkable differences in relation to the company size (to a larger size, larger degree of PDP process systematization and higher maturity level.

  12. Industrial yogurt manufacture: monitoring of fermentation process and improvement of final product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, C; Panagiotidis, P; Koureli, R; Tzia, C

    2007-06-01

    Lactic acid fermentation during the production of skim milk and whole fat set-style yogurt was continuously monitored by measuring pH. The modified Gompertz model was successfully applied to describe the pH decline and viscosity development during the fermentation process. The viscosity and incubation time data were also fitted to linear models against ln(pH). The investigation of the yogurt quality improvement practices included 2 different heat treatments (80 degrees C for 30 min and 95 degrees C for 10 min), 3 milk protein fortifying agents (skim milk powder, whey powder, and milk protein concentrate) added at 2.0%, and 4 hydrocolloids (kappa-carrageenan, xanthan, guar gum, and pectin) added at 0.01% to whole fat and skim yogurts. Heat treatment significantly affected viscosity and acetaldehyde development without influencing incubation time and acidity. The addition of whey powder shortened the incubation time but had a detrimental effect on consistency, firmness, and overall acceptance of yogurts. On the other hand, addition of skim milk powder improved the textural quality and decreased the vulnerability of yogurts to syneresis. Anionic stabilizers (kappa-carrageenan and pectin) had a poor effect on the texture and palatability of yogurts. However, neutral gums (xanthan and guar gum) improved texture and prevented the wheying-off defect. Skim milk yogurts exhibited longer incubation times and higher viscosities, whereas they were rated higher during sensory evaluation than whole fat yogurts.

  13. Analysis of static and dynamic productivity growth in the Spanish meat processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates static Malmquist and dynamic Luenberger productivity growth measures and decomposes these to identify the contributions of technical change, technical efficiency change and scale efficiency change. The Malmquist and Luenberger productivity growth measures are estimated using

  14. FOOD FIBRES OF THE DOMESTIC PRODUCTION FOR THE MEAT-PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The range of meat products with food fibers can be rather wide. The choice of the corresponding type of fibers or creation of a mixed product according to specific objectives allows to develop the products enriched with fibers, or products with the high content of fibers which possess pleasant taste. The right choice of fibers also gives technological and economic advantages. Concrete functional properties of polysaccharides, obviously, are connected with their spatial structure. Experience of food technologies with all evidence testifies to it. Ability to thicken water solutions are among such properties, to form jellies, to create emulsions, foams, to act as their stabilizers, to connect heavy metals, etc. Beet and wheat celluloses promote preservation of juiciness and decrease in losses at heat treatment, stabilize a good trade dress of finished products from chopped meat. Their introduction in minced products – chopped semi-finished products, pastes, canned food is most expedient. The amount of food fibers brought in compounding of products, is caused by touch properties of products and can differ for different types of food fibers. For the purpose of improvement of quality and expansion of the range of meat products studied properties of food fibers of a domestic production of ECOLIGHT native (JSC EFKO-NT. For an assessment of possibility of use of preparations in technology of meat products investigated the microbiological status and the maintenance of ions of heavy metals in objects according to requirements the SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01. An inspection of harmlessness of cellulose of food fibers "ECOLIGHT native" was carried out on the Paramecium caudatum biotest culture. For definition of conditions of application of a preparation of food fibers of beet cellulose "ECOLIGHT native" investigated functional and technological and commodity properties of granules of food fibers "ECOLIGHT native", developed with their application of a

  15. Industrial Information Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates, how cross-functional business processes may be aligned with product specification systems in an intra-organizational environment by integrating planning systems and expert systems, thereby providing an end-to-end integrated and an automated solution to the “build-to-order......This paper demonstrates, how cross-functional business processes may be aligned with product specification systems in an intra-organizational environment by integrating planning systems and expert systems, thereby providing an end-to-end integrated and an automated solution to the “build...

  16. A diagnostic of knowledge management processes at the restaurant industry SMEs to identify improvements at their productive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Perez-Soltero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is the result of an investigation performed in northwest Mexico with the objective to analyze and diagnose knowledge management (KM processes in small and midsize restaurants. The main purpose of this study was to identify the present state of KM processes in these organizations as a way to identify improvement opportunities as well as to define facilitators and barriers that could difficult the implementation of KM initiatives.Design/methodology/approach: The study was performed in 12 restaurants and two types of questionnaires were applied. The questionnaires were applied to managers and personnel. The questionnaires analyzed knowledge Identification/location, Acquisition/learning, Development, Distribution/transference, Utilization/Application, Preservation/maintenance, and Assessment/valuation.Findings: We found that the respondents agreed that five of the GC processes have an acceptable level of development, while less developed processes were the Preservation/maintenance and Assessment/valuation of knowledge. On the other hand, the main facilitators to implementing KM initiatives are the availability of entrepreneurs to participate, staff responsive to the needs of the company, and staff is willing to share their knowledge. The main barriers are resistance to change, low level of knowledge in the use of technology by some members of the organization; difficulty accepting a strategic plan including knowledge management and unwillingness to document good practices.Originality/value: It is a novel study in Latin America, since no similar work in this productive sector has been found. Additionally, the study has a methodological approach that simultaneously addresses the analysis of the processes of knowledge management, and the identification of facilitators and barriers to implementing knowledge management initiatives.

  17. Industrial Frying Process

    OpenAIRE

    Rosseli, J. B.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the industrial frying process and in particular the role of the frying oil and the influence this has on the food. Attention is drawn to various factors that can adversely affect the quality of the frying oil. In this paper the term «frying oil» is used. Other publications may refere to frying fat or frying shortening. As these are all used well above their melting points, and are fully liquid, the term oil is preferred by the present author, there being no qualit...

  18. Product-Process-Machine” System Modeling: Approach and Industrial Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, Alexander; Sandkuhl, Kurt; Shilov, Nikolay; Kashevnik, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Part 6: Enterprise Modelling Cases; International audience; Global trends in the worldwide economy lead to new challenges for manufacturing enterprises and to new requirements regarding modeling industrial organizations, like integration of real-time information from operations and information about neighboring enterprises in the value network. Consequently, there is a need to design new, knowledge-based workflows and supporting software systems to increase efficiency of designing and maintai...

  19. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 1: SRF produced from commercial and industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). In this work various streams of material produced in SRF production process are analyzed for their proximate and ultimate analysis. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. Here mass balance describes the overall mass flow of input waste material in the various output streams, whereas material balance describes the mass flow of components of input waste stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. A commercial scale experimental campaign was conducted on an MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&IW. All the process streams (input and output) produced in this MT plant were sampled and treated according to the CEN standard methods for SRF: EN 15442 and EN 15443. The results from the mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&IW material to MT waste sorting plant, 62% was recovered in the form of SRF, 4% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal and 21% was sorted out as reject material, 11.6% as fine fraction, and 0.4% as heavy fraction. The energy flow balance in various process streams of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&IW to MT plant, 75% energy was recovered in the form of SRF, 20% belonged to the reject material stream and rest 5% belonged with the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. In the material balances, mass fractions of plastic (soft), plastic (hard), paper and cardboard and wood recovered in the SRF stream were 88%, 70%, 72% and 60% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC), rubber material and non

  20. Comparing internal and alliance-based new product development processes: case studies in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Gripsrud, Geir

    2011-01-01

    Companies may simultaneously pursue different new product development (NPD) strategies. This article reports a comparative two case design study of in-house NPD projects as well as alliance based NPD projects in a food company. Two contradicting proposition’s of the efficiency of NPD in an alliance compared to NPD performed internally are stated, and the findings indicate that the alliance based NPD solution creates a better context for NPD than the in-house solution. Less forwarding of unsol...

  1. Comparing internal and alliance-based new product development processes: case studies in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Gripsrud, Geir

    2011-01-01

    This is the authors’ final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article Companies may simultaneously pursue different new product development (NPD) strategies. This article reports a comparative two case design study of in-house NPD projects as well as alliance based NPD projects in a food company. Two contradicting proposition’s of the efficiency of NPD in an alliance compared to NPD performed internally are stated, and the findings indicate that the alliance based NPD solution create...

  2. Effect of household and industrial processing on levels of pesticide residues and degradation products in melons

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnechère, Aurore; Hanot, Vincent; Bragard, Claude; Bedoret, Thomas; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two varieties of melons (Cucumis melo) were treated by two fungicides (carbendazim and maneb) and four insecticides (acetamiprid, cyromazin, imazalil and thiamethoxam) to quantify the effect of household processing on the pesticide residues. To ensure sufficiently high levels of residues in flesh and peels, the most concentrated formulations were applied pursuant to Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). The peeling step decreased the concentration of pesticide residues for ...

  3. Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the forest products industry's research and development priorities. The original technology roadmap published by the industry in 1999 and was most recently updated in April 2010.

  4. Applications of Biocatalysis to Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, John T.

    1999-12-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed chemistry (biocatalysis) is widely used across many industry sectors in large-scale processes. The possibility of environmentally friendly chemical reactions carried out under mild conditions with high degrees of selectivity has proved attractive in developing manufacturing processes. A number of such reactions are discussed in the industrial context with examples of a variety of reaction types. All processes presented have been implemented in the production of commercial products and provide a feel for the versatility of this technology.

  5. Sustainable Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattebö, Helge; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Lorentzen, Børge

    The book discusses the concepts of waste minimization, cleaner technology and industrial ecology, including the experiences with employee participation in preventive environmental activities in companies....

  6. Vision Systems Illuminate Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA designs a spacecraft to undertake a new mission, innovation does not stop after the design phase. In many cases, these spacecraft are firsts of their kind, requiring not only remarkable imagination and expertise in their conception but new technologies and methods for their manufacture. In the realm of manufacturing, NASA has from necessity worked on the cutting-edge, seeking new techniques and materials for creating unprecedented structures, as well as capabilities for reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of existing manufacturing technologies. From friction stir welding enhancements (Spinoff 2009) to thermoset composites (Spinoff 2011), NASA s innovations in manufacturing have often transferred to the public in ways that enable the expansion of the Nation s industrial productivity. NASA has long pursued ways of improving upon and ensuring quality results from manufacturing processes ranging from arc welding to thermal coating applications. But many of these processes generate blinding light (hence the need for special eyewear during welding) that obscures the process while it is happening, making it difficult to monitor and evaluate. In the 1980s, NASA partnered with a company to develop technology to address this issue. Today, that collaboration has spawned multiple commercial products that not only support effective manufacturing for private industry but also may support NASA in the use of an exciting, rapidly growing field of manufacturing ideal for long-duration space missions.

  7. The production of precipitated calcium carbonate from industrial gypsum wastes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available industrial applications and uses. However, gypsum is an industrial solid waste product generated in various industrial processes. Large stockpiles of gypsum waste exist with little or no usage and commercial applications. The potential for the production...

  8. Sustainable Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case is to create awareness about a somewhat unfamiliar industry that accounts for over €3 billion in Scandinavia and £5,6 billion in the UK, the Metals recycling industry. The case features a Scandinavian Company and includes several perspectives from managerial disciplines s...

  9. Sustainable Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case is to create awareness about a somewhat unfamiliar industry that accounts for over €3 billion in Scandinavia and £5,6 billion in the UK, the Metals recycling industry. The case features a Scandinavian Company and includes several perspectives from managerial disciplines...

  10. Enhancing probiotic stability in industrial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gueimonde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manufacture of probiotic products involves industrial processes that reduce the viability of the strains. This lost of viability constitutes an economic burden for manufacturers, compromising the efficacy of the product and preventing the inclusion of probiotics in many product categories. Different strategies have been used to improve probiotic stability during industrial processes. These include technological approaches, such as the modification of production parameters or the reformulation of products, as well as microbiological approaches focused on the strain intrinsic resistance. Among the later, both selection of natural strains with the desired properties and stress-adaptation of strains have been widely used. Conclusion: During recent years, the knowledge acquired on the molecular basis of stress-tolerance of probiotics has increased our understanding on their responses to industrial stresses. This knowledge on stress-response may nowadays be used for the selection of the best strains and industrial conditions in terms of probiotic stability in the final product.

  11. Sensible production processes with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eerola, P.; Annala, T.; Wickstroem, T. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    Small and medium-sized industrial enterprises use electricity increasingly for both heating and production, as electricity offers easy adjustability and has little need for maintenance. In production processes, the advantages of electricity also include uniform quality, automation and cleanness

  12. Industrial irradiators for the processing of agro-alimentary products: the criteriom for the choice of an irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.

    1984-01-01

    The various available technologies for the processing of foods by ionizing radiation are described and discussed, both from the technical and economical point of view. The analysis allows to select the criterions and to give a methodology of the choice of an industrial facility [fr

  13. Industrial processes influenced by gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrach, Simon

    1988-01-01

    In considering new directions for low gravity research with particular regard to broadening the number and types of industrial involvements, it is noted that transport phenomena play a vital role in diverse processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and biotech industries. Relatively little attention has been given to the role of gravity in such processes. Accordingly, numerous industrial processes and phenomena are identified which involve gravity and/or surface tension forces. Phase separations and mixing are examples that will be significantly different in low gravity conditions. A basis is presented for expanding the scope of the low gravity research program and the potential benefits of such research is indicated.

  14. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models....... These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern product and process modelling theory and practice followed by a series of case studies drawn from a variety...... to biotechnology applications, food, polymer and human health application areas. The book highlights to important nature of modern product and process modelling in the decision making processes across the life cycle. As such it provides an important resource for students, researchers and industrial practitioners....

  15. Agricultural and industrial process heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, J.

    1978-01-01

    The application of solar energy to agricultural and industrial process heat requirements is discussed. This energy end use sector has been the largest and it appears that solar energy can, when fully developed and commercialized, displace from three to eight or more quads of oil and natural gas in U.S. industry. This potential for fossil fuel displacement in the agricultural and industrial process heat area sector represents a possible savings of 1.4 to 3.8 million barrels of oil daily.

  16. Modularization of Industrial Service Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    In this paper we examine how complex service processes can be dealt with through the lenses of modularization strategies. Through an illustrative case study of a manufacturer of industrial equipment for process industries we propose the use of the service modularity function to conceptualize...... and assess the service modularity of service offerings. The measured degree of modularity would allow us to sharpen our understanding of modularity in the context of industrial services, such as the role of standardization and component reuse on architecture flexibility. It would also provide a foundation...

  17. Hygienic Design in the Food Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hjelm, M.

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of major concern in food production and processing industry. In 1998 a Danish co-operation programme under the title Centre for Hygienic Design was funded to combine the skills of universities, research institutes and industry to focus on the following...... with cleaning chemicals and cleaning procedures • Optimising design of production equipment • Development of environmentally friendly cleaning procedures for removal of biofilm The partners include food production/processing companies and producers of equipment for the food industry, cleaning chemicals...... approach is to focus on surface material hygienic lifetime. Test of this is made in an industrial test loop run by biotechnology researchers in co-operation with materials producers and a food producer to compare biofilm formation, cleanability and deterioration of different rubber and plastic materials...

  18. Radiation sterilization: an industrial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    A new dimension has been added to the use of radiation in the medical field with the introduction of radiation as a sterilizing agent. Its use in diagnosis through radioactive tracers or X-rays and in therapy administered with the most sophisticated of electrical machines or radioisotope units, is familiar in the hospital world, being well established therein. In contrast, the application of radiation sterilization is in industry where the installation of large radiation sources is already commonplace in many countries. The beginnings in the early 1950's centered on the Van de Graaff machine and linear accelerators and the pioneering efforts of Ethicon Inc. here in the United States must be recognized. However, although sterilization with electron beams is still current practice in a number of plants, the use of gamma rays from cobalt-60 is preferred. The first steps in this direction were taken by the U.K.A.E.A. which, in common with similar organizations elsewhere, was attempting to exploit the tremendous potential for cobalt-60 production arising through the rapid construction of nuclear reactors. The first full-scale commercial gamma plant was commissioned in the U.K. in 1960. It reached a loading of 500,000 curies before its demolition after twelve years of operation. The process gained rapid acceptance within industry and approval by health authorities because it provided a ''cold'' sterilization method combining the property of lethal effect with penetration. Its immediate impact occurred in the introduction of disposable products making it possible, for example, to use heat-labile plastics and new packaging materials and package designs. Certainly, the technique has proved complementary to sterilization methods based on heat and to the use of chemical agents, in particular ethylene oxide gas

  19. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in pork-meat and other processed products from the Colombian swine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gamboa Marín

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in pork carcasses, meat cuts, and meat products (“chorizo”, sausage and ham. Materials and methods. Stratified sampling was implemented in meat-processed products. We analyzed 566 (37% carcasses, 472 (31% meat cuts, and 481, (32% meat-processed products, distributed as follows: 169 (11% sausage, 163 (11% ham, and 149 (10% “chorizo”, for a total of 1519 (100% samples in a period of 18 months. The samples were processed using the ISO-17604, ISO-11290-1 and the USDA/FSIS (MLG-8.03 methods. Genus and species were confirmed by multiplex-PCR. Results. We obtained isolates of L. monocytogenes from 21 carcasses (10%, 160 (76% from meat deboning, 10 (5% from ham, 6 (3% from “chorizo”, and 13 (6% from sausage. The prevalence found was 3.7% and 33.9% in carcasses and meat deboning respectively. The prevalence in the meat-processed products was 4.03% in “chorizo”, 6.13% in ham and 7.69% in sausage. The overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the study was 13.82%. Conclusions. We found L. monocytogenes in different products analyzed, with particular interest in ham and sausage since both are consumed without previous heat treatment.

  20. Multiblock PLS analysis of an industrial pharmaceutical process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, J. A.; Menezes, J. C.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Smilde, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of an industrial pharmaceutical process (production of an active pharmaceutical ingredient by fermentation, API) was modeled by multiblock partial least squares (MBPLS). The most important process stages are inoculum production and API production fermentation. Thirty batches (runs)

  1. GELCASTING: From laboratory development toward industrial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omatete, O.O.; Janney, M.A.; Nunn, S.D.

    1995-07-01

    Gelcasting, a ceramic forming process, was developed to overcome some of the limitations of other complex-shape forming techniques such as injection molding and slip casting. In gelcasting, a concentrated slurry of ceramic powder in a solution of organic monomers is poured into a mold and then polymerized in-situ to form a green body in the shape of the mold cavity. Thus, it is a combination of polymer chemistry with slip processing and represents minimal departure from standard ceramic processing. The simplicity of the process has attracted industrial partners and by collaboration between them and the developers, the process is being advanced from the laboratory toward industrial production.

  2. Heat integration in processes with diverse production lines: A comprehensive framework and an application in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, J.H.; Griffiths, A.; McNeill, R.; Poonaji, I.; Martin, R.; Yang, A.; Morse, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new practical heat integration framework was developed for complex and diverse production lines. • Heat recovery was maximised by direct and indirect heat integration at zonal and factory levels. • A novel approach to stream data extraction was proposed to account for both stream capacity and availability. • A case study was carried out on a multi-product confectionery factory. - Abstract: Heat integration is a key measure to improving energy efficiency and maximising heat recovery. Since the advent of Pinch analysis in the 1980s, direct and indirect integration approaches have developed in separate domains with very few examples where both approaches are utilised together to maximise heat recovery. This paper presents a novel decision-making framework for heat integration in complex and diverse production lines, with the aim to provide the user with a step-by-step guide to evaluate all heat recovery opportunities through a combination of direct and indirect heat integration. This framework involves analysis at both the zonal level and the factory level. The proposed framework was applied to a case study based on a confectionery factory in the UK that manufactured multiple products across a diverse range of food technologies. It demonstrates that the framework can effectively identify the significant streams to be considered in the heat integration analysis, and address practical factors such as diverse production times, geographical proximity, and potential of compromise to product quality when the direct and indirect heat integration opportunities are proposed and assessed both within and between production zones. This practical framework has the potential to benefit the wider food industry and beyond

  3. Industrial radiation processing: Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangadharan, S.; Lavale, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation processing is a method for producing chemical, physical and microbiological changes in substances by exposing them to ionising radiation. The success of development and application of industrial radiation processing in the Indian context so far, has been significant, mainly in sterilisation by gamma radiation. Efforts are being made to develop other applications on commercial scale in areas such as, radiation processing of food, cross linking of cables, curing of paints and coatings and degradation of polymers. 2 figs

  4. Increasing biogas production from sewage sludge anaerobic co-digestion process by adding crude glycerol from biodiesel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartker, Steven; Ammerman, Michelle; Aurandt, Jennifer; Stogsdil, Michael; Hayden, Olivia; Antle, Chad

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to convert waste streams to energy in a green process, glycerol from biodiesel manufacturing has been used to increase the gas production and methane content of biogas within a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process using primary sewage sludge. Glycerol was systematically added to the primary digester from 0% to 60% of the organic loading rate (OLR). The optimum glycerol loading range was from 25% to 60% OLR. This resulted in an 82-280% improvement in specific gas production. Following the feeding schedule described, the digesters remained balanced and healthy until inhibition was achieved at 70% glycerol OLR. This suggests that high glycerol loadings are possible if slow additions are upheld in order to allow the bacterial community to adjust properly. Waste water treatment plant operators with anaerobic digesters can use the data to increase loadings and boost biogas production to enhance energy conversion. This process provides a safe, environmentally friendly method to convert a typical waste stream to an energy stream of biogas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Production System Analysis of Brem Processing Unit (Case Study: The Industrial Centers of Brem in Kaliabu and Bancong Village, Madiun District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardaneswari Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the condition, the priorities, and the strategy development policy of the brem Madiun production system as an effort to increase the brem Madiun production system. The samples which are used were the brem industries at industrial centers of brem in Kaliabu and Bancong Village at Madiun District. The main instrument to collect the data was a questionnaire for 21 respondents of business leaders. Data analysis method which is used was Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The results showed that the sequence of factors causing the decline of brem’s production capacity were the final product (0,477, capital (0,244, raw materials (0,123, human resources (0,088, the tools and machinery (0,041, and the method (0,026. Benchmarks for goals to be achieved by the production system were the effectiveness of brem Madiun (0,548, productivity (0,227, efficiency (0,138, and quality (0,087. Strategies that can be done on developing the brem industry in Madiun are provision of venture capital to support the administrations, improvement of licensing services, improvement of joint venture accessibility on infrastructure production, supporting on marketing, improvement of human resources quality (coaching and training, development of product, improvement of business management, and development on network of business partnership respectively. After the several strategies development policy was formulated based on existing condition, then the performance of the brem Madiun production system can be improved. Keywords : Brem, Production System Analysis, Strategy Formulation

  6. Recycling cellulases for cellulosic ethanol production at industrial relevant conditions: potential and temperature dependency at high solid processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindedam, Jane; Haven, Mai Østergaard; Chylenski, Piotr; Jørgensen, Henning; Felby, Claus

    2013-11-01

    Different versions of two commercial cellulases were tested for their recyclability of enzymatic activity at high dry matter processes (12% or 25% DM). Recyclability was assessed by measuring remaining enzyme activity in fermentation broth and the ability of enzymes to hydrolyse fresh, pretreated wheat straw. Industrial conditions were used to study the impact of hydrolysis temperature (40 or 50°C) and residence time on recyclability. Enzyme recycling at 12% DM indicated that hydrolysis at 50°C, though ideal for ethanol yield, should be kept short or carried out at lower temperature to preserve enzymatic activity. Best results for enzyme recycling at 25% DM was 59% and 41% of original enzyme load for a Celluclast:Novozyme188 mixture and a modern cellulase preparation, respectively. However, issues with stability of enzymes and their strong adsorption to residual solids still pose a challenge for applicable methods in enzyme recycling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of household and industrial processing on the levels of pesticide residues and degradation products in melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnechère, A; Hanot, V; Bragard, C; Bedoret, T; van Loco, J

    2012-01-01

    Two varieties of melons (Cucumis melo) were treated with two fungicides (carbendazim and maneb) and four insecticides (acetamiprid, cyromazin, imazalil and thiamethoxam) to quantify the effect of household processing on the pesticide residues. To ensure sufficiently high levels of residues in flesh and peel, the most concentrated formulations were applied observing good agricultural practice. The peeling step decreased the concentration of pesticide residues for maneb, imazalil and acetamiprid by more than 90%. Cyromazin, carbendazim and thiamethoxam were reduced by approximately 50%. The reduction of the pesticides could not be fully explained by the systemic character of the pesticides. However, the agricultural practices (time of application), solubility and mode of action (systemic versus contact pesticide) of the pesticides could be used to explain the difference in processing factors for the studied pesticides. Degradation products (melamine and ethylenethiourea) were also investigated in this study, but were not detected.

  8. 27 CFR 19.67 - Spirits produced in industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... industrial processes. 19.67 Section 19.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.67 Spirits produced in industrial processes. (a) Applicability. (1) Persons who produce spirits in industrial processes (including spirits...

  9. Laser surface texturing of cast iron steel: dramatic edge burr reduction and high speed process optimisation for industrial production using DPSS picosecond lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneel, David; Kearsley, Andrew; Karnakis, Dimitris

    2015-07-01

    In this work we present picosecond DPSS laser surface texturing optimisation of automotive grade cast iron steel. This application attracts great interest, particularly in the automotive industry, to reduce friction between moving piston parts in car engines, in order to decrease fuel consumption. This is accomplished by partially covering with swallow microgrooves the inner surface of a piston liner and is currently a production process adopting much longer pulse (microsecond) DPSS lasers. Lubricated interface conditions of moving parts require from the laser process to produce a very strictly controlled surface topography around the laser formed grooves, whose edge burr height must be lower than 100 nm. To achieve such a strict tolerance, laser machining of cast iron steel was investigated using an infrared DPSS picosecond laser (10ps duration) with an output power of 16W and a repetition rate of 200 kHz. The ultrashort laser is believed to provide a much better thermal management of the etching process. All studies presented here were performed on flat samples in ambient air but the process is transferrable to cylindrical geometry engine liners. We will show that reducing significantly the edge burr below an acceptable limit for lubricated engine production is possible using such lasers and remarkably the process window lies at very high irradiated fluences much higher that the single pulse ablation threshold. This detailed experimental work highlights the close relationship between the optimised laser irradiation conditions as well as the process strategy with the final size of the undesirable edge burrs. The optimised process conditions are compatible with an industrial production process and show the potential for removing extra post)processing steps (honing, etc) of cylinder liners on the manufacturing line saving time and cost.

  10. Scaling up for the industrial production of rifamycin B; optimization of the process conditions in bench-scale fermentor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewaida F. El-Sedawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of fermentation process conditions using a gene amplified variant of Amycolatopsis mediterranei (NCH was carried out. The use of aeration level 1.5 vvm increased the yield by 16.6% (from 13.81 to 16.1 g/l upon controlling the temperature at 28 °C. Adjustment of the aeration level at 1.5 vvm for 3 days then controlling the dissolved oxygen (DO at 30% saturation further increased the yield to 17.8 g/l. The optimum pH was 6.5 for 3 days then 7 thereafter when a production yield of 16.1 g/l was recorded using an aeration rate of 1.5 vvm. Controlling the pH at constant value (6.5 or 7 all through the fermentation process decreased the yield by 5–21%. Controlling the temperature at 30 °C for 3 days then 28 °C thereafter slightly increased the yield by 5% upon using an aeration rate of 1 vvm while it decreased upon using an aeration rate of 1.5 vvm. Integration of the most optimum conditions increased the production yield by 22% from 13.81 to 17.8 g/l.

  11. New Product Introduction in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus

    Due to the limited time of the monopoly provided by patent protection that is used for recouping the R&D investment, pharmaceutical companies focus on keeping time-to-market for new products as short as possible. This process is however getting more uncertain, as the outcome of clinical trials...... is unknown and negotiations with authorities have become harder, making market introduction more difficult. This dissertation treats the new product introduction process in the pharmaceutical industry from an operations perspective. The overarching aim of this dissertation is to improve the planning...... uncertainty and several important industry characteristics. The model is used to gain several insights on the use of risk packaging and on keeping time-to-market short. As capacity in secondary pharmaceutical production is critical for product availability, a capacity planning model for a new drug delivery...

  12. Life cycle assessment of coupling household biogas production to agricultural industry: A case study of biogas-linked persimmon cultivation and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Chen, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Biogas plant construction has been boosted in rural China not only due to the immediate merit from biogas production but also the succeeding benefit from by-product utilization in agro-industry, both of which are significant strategies to address energy shortage and global warming issues. However, little work has been done to evaluate the coupling of biogas projects to traditional agrosystems from a life-cycle perspective, which is most important in process and system optimization in different senses. By taking persimmon cultivation and processing with supports from a household biogas plant as a case study, this study conducts a life cycle assessment of coupling biogas production to agro-industry in terms of energy, environmental and economic performance. The results suggest that each production stage following the biogas/digestate utilization chain (biogas operation-persimmon cultivation-product processing) is beneficial across all three aspects. However, a tradeoff only exists in utilizing digestate as top-dressing and employing biogas utilization as engine fuel, while biogas application in fresh-keeping and digestate reuse as base fertilizer fails to increase either energy production or greenhouse gas mitigation. The coupled system can be hopefully optimized through increasing fermentation efficiency and joint operation of biogas digesters. -- Highlights: •Biogas/digestate utilization is overall beneficial in all production stages. •Each bioresource application may not be profitable in all respects. •Tradeoffs in using biogas and digestate vary among different utilization ways. •Multi-user operation and fermentation efficiency elevation optimize system

  13. An industrial radiation source for food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, R.

    1986-01-01

    The scientific linacs realized by CGR MeV in France have been installed in several research centers, the medical accelerators of CGR MeV have been installed in radiotherapy centers all over the world, and the industrial linacs have been used for radiography in heavy industries. Based on the experience for 30 years, CGR MeV has realized a new industrial radiation source for food processing. CARIC is going to install a new machine of CGR MeV, CASSITRON, as the demand for radiation increased. This machine has been devised specially for industrial irradiation purpose. Its main features are security, simplicity and reliability, and it is easy to incorporate it into a production line. The use of CASSITRON for food industry, the ionizing effect on mechanically separated poultry meat, the capital and processing cost and others are explained. Only 10 % of medical disposable supplies is treated by ionizing energy in France. The irradiation for food decontamination, and that for industrial treatment are demanded. Therefore, CARIC is going to increase the capacity by installing a CASSITRON for sterilization. The capital and processing cost are shown. The start of operation is expected in March, 1986. At present, a CASSITRON is being installed in the SPI food processing factory, and starts operation in a few weeks. (Kako, I.)

  14. A breakthrough low energy desalination process : production of sustainable water from brackish water for the oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, M.; Sparrow, B.; Zoshi, J. [Saltwork Technologies Inc., BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described an innovative desalination system pilot study that is currently being conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC). The thermo-ionic proof-tested system has the potential to achieve an electrical energy consumption rate of less than 1 kW per m{sup 3} through the harnessing of low grade heat. The energy transfer is accomplished by manipulating concentration gradients established and maintained through the evaporation of salt water into the atmosphere. The ion exchange mechanism reduced pre-treatment requirements and provided a self-cleaning mechanism to maintain steady production levels. The electrical energy created during the process was used to run low-pressure circulation pumps and process controls. The driving force for evaporation was the vapor pressure difference between the solution and moisture in the air. Discharges from the system can be tuned to various salt water concentrations. Results of the pilot study to date indicate that it is suitable for use in oil sands steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes. 8 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  15. Technologies to support industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palazzi, G.; Savelli, D.

    1989-05-01

    Control and measuring techniques applied to industry have the common aim of increasing safety, reliability and plant availability. The industrial monitoring system needs a lot of sensors, whose signals, elaborated and interpreted, allow one to define the best working condition; moreover control instruments perform a diagnosis related to damages and breakages. The Experimental Engineering Division of ENEA's Thermal Reactor Department has developed sensors and measuring apparatus and has acquired advanced control techniques. All these systems, containing an original software, have been applied to industrial process problems and/or to experimental facilities both to increase reliability and to understand better process physics. Division activities are grouped in four sectors: non-destructive examinations (ultrasonic, eddy current, thermography, holographic interpherometry, penetrant liquids and magnetoscopy); innovative sensors (heated thermocouples, optical fiber sensors); advanced measuring systems (laser technology for fluidodynamic measures, nuclear radiation techniques, infrared measuring, mass spectrometer, hot-film anemometer, chromatographic apparatus); advanced technologies for diagnosis and signal analysis (digital image processing, statistical analysis). (author)

  16. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  17. Radiation processing: a versatile technology for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of x-ray in 1895 and radioactivity in 1896, it was recognized that ionizing radiation can modify the chemical, physical and/or biological properties of materials. However, it was only in the late 50's, when large radiation sources become available, has this unique property of radiation found industrial applications in radiation processing. Today, radiation processing has been used by industry in such diverse applications, such as radiation sterilization/decontamination of medical products, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and their raw materials; radiation cross-linking of wire and cable insulation; production of heat shrinkable materials and polymer foam; and radiation curing of coatings, adhesives and inks on a wide variety of substrates. In addition to being a clean environment-friendly technology, radiation processing can also be used for the conservation of the environment by such processes as radiation treatment of flue gases to remove SO 2 and NO x and disinfection of sewage sludge. Because of the many advantages offered by radiation processing, industry is showing strong interest in the technology as evidenced by the growing number of industrial radiation facilities in many countries. (author)

  18. Lyophilization: The process and industrial use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržić Dejan S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a general overview of lyophilization and discusses the underlying principles of the process through the basics of: formulation, freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. In this article lyophilization is defined as a stabilizing process in which the substance is first frozen and then the quantity of the solvent is reduced first by sublimation (primary drying and then by desorption (secondary drying to values that will no longer support biological growth or chemical reactions. Special mention was made of the industrial use of the process and emphasis was placed on the lyophilization of pharmaceutical products and food industry products. Lyophilization equipment, as well as the formulation of materials that can be lyophilized, are described in sufficient detail to give information on the restrictions and advantages of lyophlization. Processing economics and comparison with conventional drying methods are presented. A historical overview of the process and future developments presented from the industrial viewpoint give an insight on the previous application of lyophilization and the prospects of its broad industrial use.

  19. Membrane technology in chemical process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, B.

    2002-01-01

    The technology developments in current century will mainly focus on the energy, safe and effective utilization of available natural resources and environment. Production and effective use of water resource at industrial level will directly affect the environment. Similarly the various means of energy production and its consumption will also bear a direct impact on environment. In any chemical industry a large portion of energy consumption goes to separation process which in turn affect the cost of production as well as total cost of the plant. Therefore, minimization of energy consumption, finding out new nondestructive separation technology and reutilization of all recovered process streams are the new thrust area for chemical industries. In view of this, a comparatively new separation technology, 'Membrane Science and Technology' is available to the chemical industry. The potential of this technology is immense because of its simple operation, less chemical additives requirement, less energy consumption and easy adoptability to the existing process. This technology is often considered as energy efficient, environmentally benign and clean technology

  20. Effects of steam pretreatment and co-production with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, heat and electricity production from industrial hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus™ to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-based processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-production of biogas, district heat and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of heat demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Results Producing biogas, heat and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (based on lower heating values), providing that the maximum capacity of district heat is delivered. The combined production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district heat is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-production with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103–128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The production and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the production and prices of electricity and district heat. Conclusions To reduce the production cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined production with

  1. Accelerators in industrial electron beam processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    High power electron beam accelerators are being used for a variety of industrial processes. Such machines can process a wide range of products at very high thruput rates and at very low unit processing costs. These industrial accelerators are now capable of producing up to 200 kW of electron beam power at 4.0 MV and 100 kW at 5.0 MV. At this writing, even larger units are contemplated. The reliability of these high power devices also makes it feasible to consider bremsstrahlung (x-ray) processing as well. In addition to the advance of accelerator technology, microprocessor control systems now provide the capability to coordinate all the operations of the irradiation facility, including the accelerator, the material handling system, the personnel safety system and various auxiliary services. Facility designs can be adapted to many different industrial processes, including use of the dual purpose electron/x-ray accelerator, to ensure satisfactory product treatment with good dose uniformity, high energy efficiency and operational safety and simplicity. In addition, equipment manufacturers like RDI are looking beyond their conventional DC accelerator technology; looking at high power 10-12 MeV linear accelerators with power levels up to 25 kW or more. These high power linear accelerators could be the ideal processing tool for many sterilization and food irradiation applications. (author)

  2. Industrial process heat market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve

  3. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  4. The Role of Production Organization, Infrastructure, and R&D in the Catching-up Process of Japanese to German Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Klaus; Wastl, Dieter

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of productivity comparison between Japan and Germany with focus on the R&D and infrastructure. By using time-series datasets from auto vehicle industry and electronic engineering industry, the study shows the reversal of productivity advantage from Germany to Japan around 1980. We argue that Japanese productivity gains are from better infrastructure and cost-reducing innovations such as lean production methods. An econometric model determines the causes ...

  5. Industrial Specialization: Determinants, Processes and Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the causes, processes and consequences of industrial specialization. Specifically, three sets of questions are addressed. First, how do trade and financial openness affect industrial specialization across countries? Second, how does trade openness affect industrial composition

  6. Evaluation of a lime-mediated sewage sludge stabilisation process. Product characterisation and technological validation for its use in the cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, N Husillos; Granados, R J; Blanco-Varela, M T; Cortina, J L; Martínez-Ramírez, S; Marsal, M; Guillem, M; Puig, J; Fos, C; Larrotcha, E; Flores, J

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes an industrial process for stabilising sewage sludge (SS) with lime and evaluates the viability of the stabilised product, denominated Neutral, as a raw material for the cement industry. Lime not only stabilised the sludge, raised the temperature of the mix to 80-100°C, furthering water evaporation, portlandite formation and the partial oxidation of the organic matter present in the sludge. Process mass and energy balances were determined. Neutral, a white powder consisting of portlandite (49.8%), calcite (16.6%), inorganic oxides (13.4%) and organic matter and moisture (20.2%), proved to be technologically apt for inclusion as a component in cement raw mixes. In this study, it was used instead of limestone in raw mixes clinkerised at 1400, 1450 and 1500°C. These raw meals exhibited greater reactivity at high temperatures than the limestone product and their calcination at 1500°C yielded clinker containing over 75% calcium silicates, the key phases in Portland clinker. Finally, the two types of raw meal (Neutral and limestone) were observed to exhibit similar mineralogy and crystal size and distribution. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Radiation processing in the plastics industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of ionizing radiation with organic substrates to produce useful physical and chemical changes is the basis of the radiation processing industry for plastics. Electron beam (EB) accelerators dominate the industry; however, there are a few small applications that use gamma radiation. The five general product categories that account for over 95% of the worldwide EB capacity used for plastics production are the following: wire and cable insulation; heat-shrinkable film, tubes and pipes; radiation-curable coatings; rubber products; and polyolefin foam. A total of 6.1% of the yearly production of these products in the United States is EB treated. The United States accounts for 59% of the total worldwide EB capacity of 20.5 MW (1984), followed by Europe (16%) and Japan (15%). There are 469 to 479 individual EB units worldwide used for the production of plastics and rubber. The average annual rate of growth (AARG) for the EB processing of plastics in Japan, from 1977 to 1987, was 13.3%. The AARG for Japan has decreased from 20% for 1977 to 198, to 6.4% for 1984 to 1987. Radiation cross-linking, of power cable insulation (cable rating ≥75 kV), thick polyolefin and rubber sheet (≥15 mm), and thick-walled tubing is one fo the potential applications for a 5- to 10-MeV EB system. Other products such as coatings, films and wire insulation may be economically EB-treated using a 5 to 10 MeV accelerator, if several layers of the product could be irradiated simultaneously. Two general product categories that require more study to determine the potential of high-energy EB processing are moulded plastics and composite materials. 32 refs

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - ALBANY INTERNATIONAL CORP. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES PRIMATEX PLUS I FILTER SAMPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  9. Industrial applications of membrane processes in chemistry and energy generation; Applications industrielles des procedes membranaires en chimie et production d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    process for the processing of industrial effluents; 6 - membrane reactors: membrane catalytic reactors: extraction, isobutane dehydrogenation and xylenes isomerization; selective oxidation of n-butane, water treatment by gas-liquid processes; selectiveness improvement of the butadiene selective hydrogenation with the use of a membrane reactor; comparison of the efficiency of three catalytic reactors for the destruction of VOCs; 7 - gases and vapors separation: a new generation of particulate filters with catalyst impregnation for DeNox function; use of membranes for uranium enrichment: example of the EURODIF plant; inorganic membranes for integration in power generation cycles and hydrogen production; treatment of natural gas with Air Liquide-MEDAL hollow fiber membranes; 8 - liquids separation: nano-filtration in organic environment: state-of-the-art; recycling of organic compounds by inverse osmosis and seawater sulfate removing by nano-filtration; use of organic and mineral membranes in chemistry; membrane separation in chemicals manufacture; advantages and drawbacks of different membrane systems for the treatment of industrial water; concentration and recovery of organic pigments using ceramic membranes; 9 - membranes, processes and simulation: industrial experience with hybrid distillation - pervaporation or vapor permeation applications; electro-dialysis integration in amines and glycol solutions purification processes; integration of MFI membranes in the light gasoline isomerization process. (J.S.)

  10. Solar collectors versus lamps - a comparison of the energy demand of industrial photochemical processes as exemplified by the production of {epsilon}-caprolactam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funken, K.-H.; Mueller, F.-J.; Ortner, J.; Riffelmann, K.-J.; Sattler, C. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany). Solare Energietechnik

    1999-08-01

    The energy demand of photochemical synthesis of {epsilon}-caprolactam was compared for two plant concepts. The conventional lamp-driven concept followed the process as realized on an industrial scale by Toray Ltd, Japan and a solar concept was designed at identical yearly output. The aim of the comparison was to determine the savings of fossil fuels that could be achieved if photochemistry could make use of solar radiation instead of artificial light. The use of solar radiation for the photochemical production of {epsilon}-caprolactam has a 4-fold lower demand for electric current and an 8-fold lower demand for cooling energy as compared to an equivalent conventionally operated route. Furthermore, due to avoided conversion of fossil fuel to electric current, a solar process would allow specific emissions of 1.5-2.5 tons of CO{sub 2} per ton {epsilon}-caprolactam to be avoided, depending on the primary energy carrier used. (author)

  11. Industrial best practices of conceptual process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The chemical process industry aims particularly at energy, capital expenditure and variable feedstock cost savings due to fierce global competition, the Kyoto Protocol and requirements for sustainable development. Increasingly conceptual process design methods are used in the industry to achieve

  12. [Acute poisoning with industrial products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, R

    2000-02-15

    Poisonings with industrial products represent approximately 7% of the cases reported to the poison centres. Ingestion of petroleum distillates induces irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system depression and aspiration pneumonitis which may be severe; treatment is mainly supportive. Ethylene and diethylene glycol poisonings produce central nervous system depression, anion gap metabolic acidosis, osmolar gap and acute tubular necrosis; in severe cases, hypocalcaemia, cerebral oedema and heart failure may be observed; treatment often associates supportive measures, haemodialysis and administration of competitive inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase (ethanol or 4-methylpyrazole). Glycol ethers induce central nervous system depression and metabolic acidosis; in addition, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether produces haemolysis; monomethyl and monoethyl ethers are responsible for bone marrow and lymphoid organ toxicity, they adversely affect spermatogenesis and are teratogens.

  13. PCB in the environment: bio-based processes for soil decontamination and management of waste from the industrial production of Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Giovanna; Becarelli, Simone; Lorenzi, Roberto; Gentini, Alessandro; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2017-10-25

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are hazardous soil contaminants for which a bio-based technology for their recovery is essential. The objective of this study was to validate the exploitation of spent mushroom substrate (SMS), a low or null cost organic waste derived from the industrial production of P. ostreatus, as bulking agent in a dynamic biopile pilot plant. The SMS shows potential oxidative capacity towards recalcitrant compounds. The aim was consistent with the design of a process of oxidation of highly chlorinated PCBs, which is independent from their reductive dehalogenation. Feasibility was verified at a mesocosm scale and validated at pilot scale in a dynamic biopile pilot plant treating ten tons of a historically contaminated soil (9.28±0.08mg PCB/kg soil dry weight). Mixing of the SMS with the soil was required for the depletion of the contaminants. At the pilot scale, after eight months of incubation, 94.1% depletion was recorded. A positive correlation between Actinobacteria and Firmicutes active metabolism, soil laccase activity and PCB removal was observed. The SMS was found to be exploitable as a versatile low cost organic substrate capable of activating processes for the oxidation of highly chlorinated PCBs. Moreover, its exploitation as bulking agent in biopiles is a valuable management strategy for the re-utilisation of an organic waste deriving from the industrial cultivation of edible mushrooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. RESEARCH ON PROCESSING OPERATIONS PARTS INDUSTRY LEATHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cucu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The leather manufacturing a product requires going through several stages in the manufacturing process by which materials are made. Stages of their characteristics involving any number of individual orassociated technological changes and differentiates depending on the particular model used equipment, raw material characteristics. Processing component parts of a leather product, includes any number of different technological transformations. Their purpose is to prepare parts for assembly, finishing or getting them an aesthetic. The leather industry meet the following processing: smoothing parts, thin parts, paint the edge sof parts.With the advent of advanced technology and new materials they have brought some operations such as peeling parts, marquetry, printing, plotting, weaving, embossing.

  15. Related regulation of quality control of industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This book introduce related regulation of quality control of industrial products, which includes regulations of industrial products quality control, enforcement ordinance of industrial products quality control, enforcement regulation of quality control of industrial products, designated items with industrial production quality indication, industrial production quality test, and industrial production quality test organization and management tips of factory quality by grade.

  16. Energy analysis of 108 industrial processes. Phase 1, industrial applications study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, B. B.; Brown, H. L.

    1979-06-01

    Extensive data are compiled for energy balances in 108 industrial processes. Specific information on unit operation, material, temperature, unrecoverable losses, along with the process flow diagram is given for each of the industries. The following industries are included: meak packing; milk; canned fruits and vegetables; baked goods; sugar refining; soybean; textiles; wood products; building materials; alkalies and chlorine; inorganic gases; pigments, chemicals; plastic materials and resins; synthetic rubbers; organic fibers; pharmaceutical preparations; organic chemicals; petroleum products; fertilizers; rubber products; glass; blast furnaces and steel mills; metals; farm machinery; motor vehicles; and photographic materials. The SIC's for each industry are identified.

  17. Applications of Radiation Processing in Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation processing has long been known as commercially viable technology that can be beneficially used to enhance the characteristics of many materials. Several gamma irradiators and electron beam accelerators are operating worldwide which are utilized for various established industrial applications. These could be used for the following processes: a) radiation crosslinking e.g. crosslinking of wires and cables, heat shrinkable film and tube productions, manufacture of plastic bags and tubings for medical products, pre-curing of automobile tire components, curing of polymeric coatings, etc. b) radiation degradation e.g. Scrap Teflon (Polytetraflouroethylene) to form powders, disinfestations and pasteurization of agricultural products, sterilization of medical products, etc.; and c) radiation grafting e.g. grafted non-woven fabrics for metal adsorbent. Emerging applications for radiation processing include grafted membranes for fuel cell, electrodes, cell sheet for tissue engineering, nanoparticle production, polymer composite synthesis, and fibrous catalyst for biodiesel production. Current researches at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute consist of crosslinking of natural and synthetic polymers for medical application e.g. wound dressing, hemostats, and bioimplants for vesicouretal reflux (VUR); grafting of natural and synthetic fabrics for metal adsorbents; and radiation degradation of carrageenan as plant growth promoter. (author)

  18. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  19. The planning flexibility bottleneck in food processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wezel, W.M.C.; van Donk, D.P.; Gaalman, G.J.C.

    Production planners in food processing industries must continuously balance efficient production with flexible performance. On the basis of case studies, we state that flexibility is not only restrained by hard-wired production process characteristics, but also by organizational procedures in the

  20. Industrial Production Forecasting with Kalman Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, M. Filomena

    2009-09-01

    Under certains conditions commonly used forecast methods reveal themselves inappropriate for the desired result. Thus it is therefore required to resort to other methods deemed more adequate to the desired results. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the suitability of the Kalman filtering as short term forecast method. The work data set was made of qualitative surveys of conjunture and the index of industrial production. Along the work it is studied the application of this method to a set of qualitative and quantitative information. The ultimate objective is the attainment of short term forecast models for the industrial production index of the transforming industry. After the previous treatment of the data, a number of models are estimated and validated. At the end of this process two models are selected: the two better adjusted in accordance with criteria previously established. The next step in process, following the choice of the models, is the repetition of the sellected models estimation using all sample, after which the actual forecast is done. The results obtained with the described methods have shown sufficiently coincident with the estimates supplied by Portuguese National Institute of Statistics for the same period. The application of Kalman filtering to a set of qualitative and quantitative information in the attainment of models of short term forecasts appears quit promising thus.

  1. The Cassava Processing Industry in Brazil: Traditional Techniques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper considers the evolution of cassava-based industrial production, processing and marketing in Brazil, in light of the great technological diversification to be found in Brazil. It discusses the private role of the small- and medium-scale food and related processing enterprises in the food industry, as they employ ...

  2. Determinants of Industrial Production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA OZTURK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of emphasizing the importance of industrial production for the sustainable growth and development of Turkey has been a topic of discussion in political and academia circles. The growth in industrial production (output depends on the investment in manufacturing sectors and the demand for the products. Along with internal demand, Turkey tries to support its manufacturing base with export (incentives. Manufacturing items occupy the greatest share of products in export sales. The development of manufacturing capabilities of the country is clearly based on the demand from inside and out. The effect of Turkey’s export on its industrial production throughout 2000’s has been analyzed. For this purpose we developed a VAR model where industrial production index was the dependent variable and export, investment, and interest rate were independent variables. All independent variables were found to be significantly explaining industrial production.

  3. Steam explosion and new production processes for pulping industry: technical and economical feasibility; Steam explosion e nuovi processi di produzione cartaria: fattibilita` tecnico-economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viggiano, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Bramanti, O. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1998-05-01

    Pulping and paper industry traditionally uses wood as the main raw material for its production processes. Thus, the global increasing of paper and pulp yield has causes so a depletion work of natural wood resources that the environment balances are weakened. About conversion technologies, the most important developments are carried out by the Companies from Sweden, Finland, Norway and Canada, where industrial management has chosen production processes anti pollution (soda-sulphate) in the place of those more dangerous (bi-sulphate). The international research and development activities are focused, at the same time, on new conversion processes and renewable resources in the last time shows to meet three different needs: 1. anti pollution laws; 2. public opinion for the environment policy; 3. market competitors. The present work offers a technical and economical assessment of industrial application of steam-explosion process and non-wood biomass (C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}). Then, the authors propose the introduction of the steam-explosion technology in pulping industry in order to obtain technical and economical advantages. [Italiano] Il comparto industriale cartario impiega per tradizione secolare il legno come principale materia prima all`interno dei cicli tecnologici di produzione. Cio` ha determinato un incremento produttivo di paste e di carta a cui si e` accompagnata una crescente opera di deforestazione ed una serie di conseguenti squilibri ecologici. A fronte di tali interventi di distruzione `programmata`, dal punto di vista delle tecnologie di trasformazione, va rilevato che i processi produttivi hanno subito una reale evoluzione nei Paesi maggiormente sensibili ai problemi ambientali come Svezia, Finlandia, Norvegia e Canada, ove gli imprenditori del setttore hanno abbandonato i processi a maggior impatto ambientale, come quelli al bisolfito, per adottarne alcuni meno inquinanti, come quello alla soda-solfato. Negli ultimi anni gli sforzi della ricerca

  4. Process control in multistage flash desalination industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Vishnu; Nagaraj, R.; Dangore, A.Y.; Thalor, K.L.; Prabakar, S.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Process control is an essential part of the desalination industry that requires for operation at the optimum operating conditions, increase in the lifetime of the plant and reduction of the unit product cost. Improved process control is a cost effective approach to energy conservation and increased process profitability. The MSF plant involves many complicated operations related to steam, chemicals and seawater. MSF plant include variable capacity, slow dynamics, dead time characteristics due to certain load changes, significant effects of small deviations from design conditions on plant operation, effects of power plant output conditions on the desalination plant, instability due to disturbances in steam supply and water temperature variations. Keeping in view the above criticalities, the selection of effective control system becomes inevitable. This paper aims at identifying various types of control loops available in MSF plant, selection of control elements, type of control strategy needed for it and integrating the whole system for supervisory control. (author)

  5. Process, Product, and Playmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Maisha T.; Purcell, Susie Spear; May, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This article examines relationships among process, product, and playmaking in a southeastern playwriting and performance program for teen girls, Playmaking for Girls (PFG). The authors have chosen to focus on tensions between process and product. Such tensions are present in the challenges teachers experience when privileging student-centered…

  6. Products, practices and processes: exploring the innovation potential for low-carbon housing refurbishment among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killip, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Scenario-based studies agree that the technical potential for CO 2 emissions reduction from the housing stock is large. This paper explores how a market might be developed for the refurbishment activities assumed in these scenarios, taking the existing market for repair, maintenance and improvement (RMI) as its starting point. Interviews with 16 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the construction industry reveal the interdependence of products, practices and processes in housing renovation activities. Conservative practice as well as innovation can be understood as the outcome of multi-lateral influences on firms from other firms, clients, the material buildings and products in their working lives, and from regulations and regulators. Contractors' openness to innovation is contingent on an informal approach to risk assessment, taking account of cost, time efficiency, client demands, and installer confidence in the reliability of the resulting work. The implications of the research are discussed in relation to the need for new practices and processes on refurbishment projects, raising questions for future research on key questions of quality assurance, performance over time, the application of standards, and vocational training. -- Highlights: •Repair, maintenance and improvement works are triggers for low-carbon refurbishment. •Millions of property owners and small firms make for fragmented decision-making. •Actor-Network Theory is used to frame decision-making processes for refurbishment. •Small builders can be innovative if clients allow time and money for experimentation. •Energy policy for existing homes needs to engage with the construction sector

  7. Nuclear process steam for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, W.A.

    1981-11-01

    A joint industrial survey funded by the Bruce County Council, the Ontario Energy Corporation and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited was carried out with the cooperation of Ontario Hydro and the Ontario Ministry of Industry and Tourism. Its objective was to identify and assess the future needs and interest of energy-intensive industries in an Industrial Energy Park adjacent to the Bruce Nuclear Power Development. The Energy Park would capitalize on the infrastructure of the existing CANDU reactors and Ontario Hydro's proven and unique capability to produce steam, as well as electricity, at a cost currently about half that from a comparable coal-fired station. Four industries with an integrated steam demand of some 1 x 10 6 lb/h were found to be prepared to consider seriously the use of nuclear steam. Their combined plants would involve a capital investment of over $200 million and provide jobs for 350-400 people. The high costs of transportation and the lack of docking facilities were considered to be the major drawbacks of the Bruce location. An indication of steam prices would be required for an over-all economic assessment

  8. Product Platform Development in Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Skold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the strategic issues involved in the deployment of product platform development in an industrial network. The move entails identifying the types and characteristics of generically different product platform strategies and clarifying strategic motives and differences. Number...

  9. Research and development on chemical reactors made of industrial structural materials and hydriodic acid concentration technique for thermochemical hydrogen production IS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shinji; Iwatsuki, Jin; Takegami, Hiroaki; Kasahara, Seiji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kamiji, Yu; Onuki, Kaoru

    2015-10-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting a study on IS process for thermochemical hydrogen production in order to develop massive hydrogen production technology for hydrogen society. Integrity of the chemical reactors and concentration technology of hydrogen iodide in HIx solution were studied. In the former study, the chemical reactors were trial-fabricated using industrial materials. A test of 30 times of thermal cycle test under circulating condition of the Bunsen reaction solution showed integrity of the Bunsen reactor made of fluororesin lined steel. Also, 100 hours of reaction tests showed integrity of the sulfuric acid decomposer made of silicon carbide and of the hydrogen iodide decomposer made of Hastelloy C-276. In the latter study, concerning electro-electrodialysis using cation-exchange membrane, sulfuric acid in the anolyte had little influence on the concentration performance. These results suggest the purification system of HIx solution can be simplified. Based on the Nernst-Planck equation and the Smoluchowski equation, proton transport number, water permeance, and IR drop of the cation exchange membrane were formulated. The derived equations enable quantitative estimation for the performance indexes of Nafion ® membrane and, also, of ETFE-St membranes made by radiation-induced graft polymerization method. (author)

  10. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi My Dieu

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become one of the top agricultural countries in the world by the year 2010. However, it is not difficult to recognize that the rapid growth of food processing industry in Vietnam goes together with environm...

  11. Hierarchical Nanoceramics for Industrial Process Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, James, A.; Brosnan, Kristen, H.; Striker, Todd; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Aceto, Steven, C.; Gao, Yan; Willson, Patrick, D.; Manoharan, Mohan; Armstrong, Eric, N., Wachsman, Eric, D.; Kao, Chi-Chang

    2011-07-15

    This project developed a robust, tunable, hierarchical nanoceramics materials platform for industrial process sensors in harsh-environments. Control of material structure at multiple length scales from nano to macro increased the sensing response of the materials to combustion gases. These materials operated at relatively high temperatures, enabling detection close to the source of combustion. It is anticipated that these materials can form the basis for a new class of sensors enabling widespread use of efficient combustion processes with closed loop feedback control in the energy-intensive industries. The first phase of the project focused on materials selection and process development, leading to hierarchical nanoceramics that were evaluated for sensing performance. The second phase focused on optimizing the materials processes and microstructures, followed by validation of performance of a prototype sensor in a laboratory combustion environment. The objectives of this project were achieved by: (1) synthesizing and optimizing hierarchical nanostructures; (2) synthesizing and optimizing sensing nanomaterials; (3) integrating sensing functionality into hierarchical nanostructures; (4) demonstrating material performance in a sensing element; and (5) validating material performance in a simulated service environment. The project developed hierarchical nanoceramic electrodes for mixed potential zirconia gas sensors with increased surface area and demonstrated tailored electrocatalytic activity operable at high temperatures enabling detection of products of combustion such as NOx close to the source of combustion. Methods were developed for synthesis of hierarchical nanostructures with high, stable surface area, integrated catalytic functionality within the structures for gas sensing, and demonstrated materials performance in harsh lab and combustion gas environments.

  12. Isotopes for the improvement of industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze-Kraft, P.

    1978-01-01

    Full text: For many years the International Atomic Energy Agency has been giving technical assistance to developing countries on the application of radioisotopes in medicine, agriculture and hydrology. With increasing industrialization, these countries feel a growing need for the use of isotopic methods as a means of improving the control of production processes and the quality of industrial products. In response to the demand for training in this field, the IAEA recently held its first Regional Training Course in the Practical Use of Radioisotope Techniques in Industry for Process and Quality Control. The course was given from 27 March to 28 April 1978 at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) in Caracas, Venezuela, in co-operation with the Consejo Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Industria Nuclear (CONAN) and the Junta del Acuerdo de Cartagena. It was financed jointly by the IAEA and CONAN, and in addition received a special contribution by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany. Participants were 18 engineers and physicists from Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, and the lecturers came from Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Poland and the host country. Course directors were Dr. J.J. Henriquez (IVIC) and Dr. L. Wiesner (IAEA expert). The idea of the course was to demonstrate that radioisotope techniques can considerably reduce production costs by optimizing industrial processes and making more efficient use of raw materials. It is estimated that the paper industry in the USA, for example, is saving about 100 million dollars per year through the application of radioisotopes. During the training course, the participants gained practical experience in applying isotopic techniques in several fields: in a paper mill at Moron they measured the weight per surface area, and in the cement factory of Ocumare del Tuy the residence time of clinker, at the new international airport of Maiquetia they determined the

  13. An Analysis of the Economic Impact of Cap-and-Trade Policy on the California Food Processing Industry: A Look at Processed Tomatoes and Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Paggi, Mechel S.; Yamazaki, Fumiko; Konduru, Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    California Cap-and-Trade policy, sets a statewide limit on sources responsible for an estimated 85 percent of the state’s greenhouse gas emissions. To maintain the cap as per the policy, individual industrial facilities in California must obtain enough allowances to cover their emissions either by purchasing allowances at auction or reducing their emissions by operating more efficiently. This research report analyses the economic impact of the Cap-and-Trade policy on the California food pro...

  14. Industrial parameters of doce de leite production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Paiva de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate industrial parameters of doce de leite production. During 37 industrial productions were determined yield, soluble solids and moisture of the product, steam consumption and extent of evaporation. Mathematical correlations were stablished among variables. The equation ST = 1.02 SL + 1.15, where ST = dry matter of the product, SL = soluble solids of the product, describes the relation between ST and SL and leads to an important tool to standardize industrial production and product composition. The highest correlation establish among variables was between extent of production (minutes and steam consumption (kg/h-1. The mass balance indicates an average of losses of 11.8%. Improvements in milk, sugar and product transfers are indicated as the main solution to reduce the losses in those doce de leite productions.

  15. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  16. Biorefinery opportunities for the forest products industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie

    2013-01-01

    Wood residues offer biorefinery opportunities for new products in our industries including fuel and chemicals. But industry must have two capabilities to succeed with biorefineries. Most forest products companies already have the first capability: knowing where the resource is, how to get it, and how much it will cost. They will need to integrate the acquisition of...

  17. INDUSTRIAL SAFETY IN THE PRODUCTION OF RUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Danilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian industry of synthetic rubber, is one of the most competitive and occupies a prominent place in the global petrochemical industry. However, the company production of synthetic rubber are among the most hazardous industrial facilities. The main operational risks are to fire and explosion hazards of raw materials used. Accidents in such establishments can damage not only the equipment, materials or buildings, but also cause serious environmental and economic consequences for the region. For the prevention of accidents, mitigation and elimination of losses, it is necessary to apply a set of measures aimed at the management and control of industrial safety. The legal basis of industrial safety in the Russian Federation is the Federal Law № 116-FZ dated 21.07.97 "On industrial safety of hazardous production facilities." Industrial Safety at work an important part of its normal functioning. The most important condition of industrial safety of hazardous production facilities is the examination of industrial safety. Federal rules and regulations in the field of industrial safety "rules of examination of industrial safety", approved by Order of RTN on November 14, 2013 N 538 established: the procedure of examination of industrial safety requirements for the design of expert opinions and requirements for experts.

  18. A method for energy and exergy analyses of product transformation processes in industry; Methodologie d'analyses energetique et exergetique des procedes de transformation de produits dans l'industrie (a method for energy and exergy analyses of product transformation processes in industry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou Khalil, B

    2008-12-15

    After a literature survey enabling the determination of the advantages and drawbacks of existing methods of assessment of the potential energy gains of an industrial site, this research report presents a newly developed method, named Energy and Exergy Analysis of Transformation Processes (or AEEP for Analyse energetique et exergetique des procedes de transformation), while dealing with actual industrial operations, in order to demonstrate the systematic character of this method. The different steps of the method are presented and detailed, one of them, the process analysis, being critical for the application of the developed method. This particular step is then applied to several industrial unitary operations in order to be a base for future energy audits in the concerned industry sectors, as well as to demonstrate its generic and systematic character. The method is the then applied in a global manner to a cheese manufacturing plant, all the different steps of the AEEP being applied. The author demonstrates that AEEP is a systematic method and can be applied to all energy audit levels, moreover to the lowest levels which have a relatively low cost.

  19. Energy efficiency measurement in industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacone, E.; Mancò, S.

    2012-01-01

    Although the meaning of energy efficiency is clear, different definitions exist and important issues relating to its implementation still need to be addressed. It is now recognised that complicating factors – such as complex industrial sites and energy flows, multiple products and fuels, and the influence of production rate on energy efficiency – render it necessary to adopt a structured framework to define and measure energy efficiency more precisely. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to build such a framework. The whole energy system of a site is represented using a single matrix equation, which expresses the relationship between imported energies and energy drivers. The elements of the matrix are the specific energy consumptions of each single process. Mathematical process modelling, through statistical analysis of energy consumption data, is used to quantify the specific energy consumption as a function of the output. The results of this structured approach are relevant for energy benchmarking, budgeting and targeting purposes. Furthermore, this approach is suitable for implementation in an energy management system standard (e.g. EN 16001, ISO 50001) or LCA standard (e.g. ISO 14044). Glass and cast iron melting processes are presented in order to illustrate the application of the method. -- Highlights: ► A structured framework for energy efficiency in industrial processes is proposed. ► Two energy efficiency indicators are revised to take into account a variable output. ► The whole energy system of a factory can be represented by a single matrix equation. ► Mathematical modelling is used to characterise the energy consumption of a process. ► The results are relevant for energy benchmarking, budgeting and energy targeting.

  20. Specification process reengineering: concepts and experiences from Danish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Riis, Jesper; Hvam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents terminologies and concepts related to the IT automation of specification processes in companies manufacturing custom made products. Based on 11 cases from the Danish industry the most significant development trends are discussed.......This paper presents terminologies and concepts related to the IT automation of specification processes in companies manufacturing custom made products. Based on 11 cases from the Danish industry the most significant development trends are discussed....

  1. Improving the quotation process with product configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Christensen, Simon Pape

    2006-01-01

    How can product configuration support the process of engineering highly complex industrial products? This article describes how an IT-based product configuration system was developed to support the process of mak-ing budget quotations. The article is based on a research project carried out...

  2. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  3. Explaining Spatial Convergence of China's Industrial Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the conditions that may auger a reversal of China's increasingly unequal levels of regional industrial productivity during China's first two decades of economic reform. Using international and Chinese firm and industry data over the period 1995–2004, we estimate a produc......This article investigates the conditions that may auger a reversal of China's increasingly unequal levels of regional industrial productivity during China's first two decades of economic reform. Using international and Chinese firm and industry data over the period 1995–2004, we estimate...... a productivity growth–technology gap reaction function. We find that as China's coastal industry has closed the technology gap with the international frontier, labour productivity growth in the coastal region has begun to slow in relation to the interior. This may serve as an early indicator of China's initial...

  4. Conceptual design of industrial process displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, C R; Lind, M

    1999-11-01

    Today, process displays used in industry are often designed on the basis of piping and instrumentation diagrams without any method of ensuring that the needs of the operators are fulfilled. Therefore, a method for a systematic approach to the design of process displays is needed. This paper discusses aspects of process display design taking into account both the designer's and the operator's points of view. Three aspects are emphasized: the operator tasks, the display content and the display form. The distinction between these three aspects is the basis for proposing an outline for a display design method that matches the industrial practice of modular plant design and satisfies the needs of reusability of display design solutions. The main considerations in display design in the industry are to specify the operator's activities in detail, to extract the information the operators need from the plant design specification and documentation, and finally to present this information. The form of the display is selected from existing standardized display elements such as trend curves, mimic diagrams, ecological interfaces, etc. Further knowledge is required to invent new display elements. That is, knowledge about basic visual means of presenting information and how humans perceive and interpret these means and combinations. This knowledge is required in the systematic selection of graphical items for a given display content. The industrial part of the method is first illustrated in the paper by a simple example from a plant with batch processes. Later the method is applied to develop a supervisory display for a condenser system in a nuclear power plant. The differences between the continuous plant domain of power production and the batch processes from the example are analysed and broad categories of display types are proposed. The problems involved in specification and invention of a supervisory display are analysed and conclusions from these problems are made. It is

  5. Offshoring trends in the manufacturing process within the automotive industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simplay, S.; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates offshoring trends in the automotive industry. The research approach consisted of combining empirical findings from case companies with latest research from the field. Empirical data was collected through case studies from 15 automotive organisations based in Europe...... consisting of original equipment manufacturers and engineering service providers. The findings indicated some offshoring trends in the automotive industry. Offshoring in this industry is moving from a manufacturing focus to incorporate large parts of the process, including high-level product development...... with a focus on offshoring in the automotive industry and provides practitioners with information on a cutting-edge trend to the industry...

  6. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi My Dieu,

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become

  7. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi My Dieu,

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become

  8. Cell production process

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Bacalla, Julio; FII-UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    The Cellular production consists on containing the components and machines in cells, combining the production for process with the online productión, to obtain the advantages  that offer both processes, in this case the company can offer variety of products and low costs. La producción celular, consiste en agrupar los componentes y máquinas en células, combinando la producción por proceso con la producción en línea, para obtener las ventajas que ofrecen ambos métodos, como son la variedad ...

  9. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2007-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  10. Development of sustainable paper coatings using nanoscale industrial surface processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Breedveld, Leo; Lahti, Johanna

    to inform the public about the processes and benefits of the prototype products, and partly to give feedback to the project partners on the environmental and safety aspects of the different material, processing, use and waste stages. By that being a link between the industrial project partners developing...... products, and the process and material developers providing new coatings with specific properties. The combination of RA and LCA/LCC within the early stages of product development provide a more holistic approach, It is commonly believed to be also economical beneficial as changes are easier to implement...... developers, production industries, consumers and authorities. Part of the consideration is the public perception of the new product and the processes to manufacture it, which is an important aspect for products being developed using nanoscale surface processing. Such considerations are integrated...

  11. Presentation of a method for consequence modeling and quantitative risk assessment of fire and explosion in process industry (Case study: Hydrogen Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M J Jafari

    2013-05-01

     .Conclusion: Since the proposed method is applicable in all phases of process or system design, and estimates the risk of fire and explosion by a quantitative, comprehensive and mathematical-based equations approach. It can be used as an alternative method instead of qualitative and semi quantitative methods.

  12. Successful new product development in the food packaging industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the context of the food industry, process and product innovations are usually the result of cross-discipline ideas, involving, for instance, biology, chemistry, technology, engineering, nutrition and law. Furthermore, the food industry suffers from the fact that the benefits of innovations are often not evident at the manufacturing ...

  13. Interfacing industrial process control systems to LEP/LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabany, M.

    1992-01-01

    Modern industrial process control systems have developed to meet the needs of industry to increase the production while decreasing the costs. Although particle accelerators designers have pioneered in control systems during the seventies, it has now become possible to them to profit of industrial solutions in substitution of, or in complement with the more traditional home made ones. Adapting and integrating such industrial systems to the accelerator control area will certainly benefit to the field in terms of finance, human resources and technical facilities offered off-the-shelf by the widely experienced industrial controls community; however this cannot be done without slightly affecting the overall accelerator control architecture. The paper briefly describes the industrial controls arena and takes example on an industrial process control system recently installed at CERN to discuss in detail the related choices and issues. (author)

  14. Methodology for evaluation of industrial CHP production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, Nenad V.; Studovic, Milovan

    2000-01-01

    At the end of the century industry switched from exclusive power consumer into power consumer-producer which is one of the players on the deregulated power market. Consequently, goals of industrial plant optimization have to be changed, making new challenges that industrial management has to be faced with. In the paper is reviewed own methodology for evaluation of industrial power production on deregulated power market. The methodology recognizes economic efficiency of industrial CHP facilities as a main criterion for evaluation. Energy and ecological efficiency are used as additional criteria, in which implicit could be found social goals. Also, methodology recognizes key and limit factors for CHP production in industry. It could be successful applied, by use of available commercial software for energy simulation in CHP plants and economic evaluation. (Authors)

  15. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 2: Industrial process characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Information and data for 26 industrial processes are presented. The following information is given for each process: (1) a description of the process including the annual energy consumption and product production and plant capacity; (2) the energy requirements of the process for each unit of production and the detailed data concerning electrical energy requirements and also hot water, steam, and direct fired thermal requirements; (3) anticipated trends affecting energy requirements with new process or production technologies; and (4) representative plant data including capacity and projected requirements through the year 2000.

  16. Industrial use of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, J.

    1989-01-01

    Perhaps the most disappointing and surprising development in the fifty year history of nuclear fission is the small role fission products play in modern technology. As a large and potentially inexpensive source of ionizing radiation, fission products were expected to offer major practical benefits. The attractive opportunities stimulated imaginative efforts to realize their fulfillment, but their direct impact has been minor. Fission products have not fared well, not only in somewhat indirect competition with nonradioactive alternatives, but also in direct competition with other radiation sources, especially electron accelerators and 60 Co. There is one major triumph for fission product technology: the application of 99 Mo and its daughter 99m Tc as an almost universal tracer system in nuclear medicine

  17. Our Finished Product--Industry's Raw Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. Myron

    1978-01-01

    Comparing students in agribusiness sales, supply, and service courses to raw products in need of development, the author discusses the backgrounds of these students and their developing maturity through supervised occupational experience. (BM)

  18. About the new industrial production management concept as the company strategy in the fourth industrial revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk Julia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new industrial production management requires a review of the third industrial revolution results and accounting for mass adoption of information and communication technologies to create the organizational basis of the fourth industrial revolution. The future changes will affect all components of the organization and management components of industrial enterprises, forming the potential of new competitive advantages in a global economy. The research included the identification of key factors of formation, development and destruction (absorption related branches of knowledge the industrial production management as the theory and practical activities, given the critical approach to its nature and processes. Revealed common signs of the industrial production management need as a field of knowledge in the framework of previous and current industrial revolutions. It is shown that the industrial production management effectively solves the problem of subsistence economy, and substantiates that the modern digital economy also has the characteristics of subsistence economy. It is important the necessity of formulation of a new organizational thinking, the implementation of which is possible in the modern interpretation of the project office. The article represents the theoretical basis for developing practical recommendations for the formation of the new concept of industrial production management to take advantage of the impact of engineering component on the economic results and the creation of project offices for the development of traditional and created markets in the organization of a new production mode (based on the digital economy.

  19. Towards the industrial solar production of lime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.; Bonaldi, E. [QualiCal SA, Bergamo (Italy); Cella, G.M. [QualiCal SA, Bergamo (Italy); Lipinski, W.; Palumbo, R.; Steinfeld, A. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland) and PSI; Wieckert, C.; Wuillemin, D.

    2002-03-01

    A new industrial concept that aims at the development of the chemical engineering technology for the solar production of lime is being examined. To establish the technical feasibility, a 10 kW solar reactor has been designed, constructed, and experimentally tested at a high-flux solar furnace. The quality of the produced solar lime meets industrial standards. (author)

  20. Proposal of industrialization process of dredged sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Hadj Sadok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study will focus on life cycle assessment (LCA of dredged sediments in its environment from sediment extraction to waste treatment. This tool is part of an environmental management approach, to compare the environmental loads of the different stages of the life cycle of the same product and to deduce which stage of the scenario is the most polluting in environmental terms. Optimize the modeling of industrialization process of dredged sediments using the SimaPro 8.2.3 software to propose a model that is the most respectful of the environment. We will focus on the environmental impacts; we will try to propose the most environmentally friendly scenario to exploit these dredged sediments in the field of building construction.

  1. AN OVERVIEW: THE ROLE OF PROCESS VALIDATION IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Gaganpreet kaur; A.C. Rana; Rajni Bala; Nimrata Seth

    2012-01-01

    The present review article focus on introduction and general overview on process validation in pharmaceutical industry. The word validation simply means “Assessment of validation or action of proving effectiveness”. The process is developed in such a way that the required parameters are achieved and it ensures that the output of the process will consistently meet the required parameters during routine production, the process is validated. The process validation process parameters are derived ...

  2. DYNAMICS OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN BRICS COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Augustine Kutu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the long run and short run dynamics between industrialproductionand factors affecting production in the Emerging Market EconomiesofBrazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa(BRICS. Using the Chudik andPesaran (2013P-ARDL model and monthly data from1994:01– 2013:12, thestudyfindsevidence of a cointegrating relationship between industrial productionand selected variables. It is further observed that capital, labour, per capita incomeand exportshave a positive long run impact on industrial production in theBRICS.Acurrency appreciation(an increase in the exchange rate, however, hasa negative impact on industrial production.In the short run, it is foundthatimports, exports, exchange rates, labour, capital and per capita incomesignificantly affect industrial production

  3. Integration of heat pumps into industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, R.N. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA)); Priebe, S.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Energy and others have funded studies to assess the potential for energy savings using industrial heat pumps. The studies included classifications of heat pumps, economic evaluations, and placement of heat pumps in industrial processes. Pinch technology was used in the placement studies to determine the placement, size, and type of heat pumps for a given applications. There appears to be considerable scope for heat pumping in several industries, but, where maximum process energy savings are desired, it is important to consider heat pumping in the context of overall process integration. 19 refs., 15 figs.

  4. Industrial Products for Beam Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Schmickler, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    In various branches of high technology industry there has been considerable progress in the past years which could be used for beam instrumentation. The subject will be introduced by two short demonstrations: a demonstration of modern audio electronics with 24bit-96kHz ADC, digital signal electronics and application programs under windows on a PC, which allow to change the parameters of the signal treatment. Potential applications are data monitoring at constant sampling frequency, orbit feedbacks (including high power audio amplifiers), noise reduction on beam current transformers... digital treatment of video signals webcams, frame grabbers, CCD-data via USB, all one needs for image acquisitions, in particular interesting for profile measurements. These introductory demonstrations will not last longer than 30 minutes. The remaining time will be used to pass through the audience collecting information into a two dimensional table, which shall contain as row index the accelerator and as column index the t...

  5. [Food processing industry--the salt shock to the consumers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Andabaka, Damir

    2010-05-01

    Industrial food production and processing is necessarily connected with the use of salt. Salt or sodium chloride is used as a preservative, spice, agent for color maintenance, texture, and to regulate fermentation by stopping the growth of bacteria, yeast and mold. Besides kitchen salt, other types of salt that also contain sodium are used in various technological processes in food preparing industry. Most of the "hidden" salt, 70%-75%, can be brought to the body by using industrial food, which, unfortunately, has been increasingly used due to the modern way of life. Bread and bakery products, meat products, various sauces, dried fish, various types of cheese, fast food, conserved vegetables, ready-made soups and food additives are the most common industrial foods rich in sodium. Many actions have been taken all over the world to restrict salt consumption. The World Health Organization recommends the upper limit of salt input of 5 g per day. These actions appeal to food industry to reduce the proportion of salt in their products. Besides lower salt addition during manufacture, food industry can use salt substitutes, in particular potassium chloride (KCl), in combination with additives that can mask the absence of salt, and flavor intensifiers that also enhance the product salinity. However, food industry is still quite resistant to reducing salt in their products for fear from losing profits.

  6. Towards industrial products from microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Gonzalez, Jesus; Olivieri, Guiseppe; Vree, de J.H.; Bosma, R.; Willems, Philippe; Reith, J.H.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Barbosa, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Our society needs new sustainable biobased feedstocks to meet population growth and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Microalgae are considered one of the most promising feedstocks for sustainable production of food, feed, chemicals, materials and fuels. Our mission is to develop a commercial and

  7. Industrial processes of olefin metathesis. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwel, S.

    1987-05-01

    Olefin metathesis opens new synthetic routes to typical petrochemicals (ethylene, propylene, n-butenes), special olefins (neohexene, higher molecular linear olefins, , -dienes) and unsaturated polymers (polynorbornene, -cyclooctene, -dicyclopentadiene) in an industrial scale. The 8 metathesis processes used in industry and further possible applications of olefin metathesis are reviewed.

  8. Hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this first Gedepeon workshop on hydrogen production processes are: to stimulate the information exchange about research programs and research advances in the domain of hydrogen production processes, to indicate the domains of interest of these processes and the potentialities linked with the coupling of a nuclear reactor, to establish the actions of common interest for the CEA, the CNRS, and eventually EDF, that can be funded in the framework of the Gedepeon research group. This document gathers the slides of the 17 presentations given at this workshop and dealing with: the H 2 question and the international research programs (Lucchese P.); the CEA's research program (Lucchese P., Anzieu P.); processes based on the iodine/sulfur cycle: efficiency of a facility - flow-sheets, efficiencies, hard points (Borgard J.M.), R and D about the I/S cycle: Bunsen reaction (Colette S.), R and D about the I/S cycle: the HI/I 2 /H 2 O system (Doizi D.), demonstration loop/chemical engineering (Duhamet J.), materials and corrosion (Terlain A.); other processes under study: the Westinghouse cycle (Eysseric C.), other processes under study at the CEA (UT3, plasma,...) (Lemort F.), database about thermochemical cycles (Abanades S.), Zn/ZnO cycle (Broust F.), H 2 production by cracking, high temperature reforming with carbon trapping (Flamant G.), membrane technology (De Lamare J.); high-temperature electrolysis: SOFC used as electrolyzers (Grastien R.); generic aspects linked with hydrogen production: technical-economical evaluation of processes (Werkoff F.), thermodynamic tools (Neveu P.), the reactor-process coupling (Aujollet P.). (J.S.)

  9. Environmental challenges for the Egg Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Hald, Mie

    industries having a large consumption of natural resources (water and energy) and produces significantly amounts of residue (waste water, carbon dioxide and biodegradable waste). As such it is only natural that the food industry is governed by environmental regulation. In this book the Egg-processing......Environmental regulation within the European Union and its Member States has evolved from command-and-control regulation to more complex ways of regulation. Different industries may be more or less ‘vulnerable’ towards an increased level of environmental regulation. The food industry is among those...... industry has been selected as a case study in order to be capable of illustrating the impact of such regulation on industry...

  10. Expert systems in the process industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of industrial applications of real-time knowledge based expert systems (KBES's) in the process industries. After a brief overview of the features of a KBES useful in process applications, the general roles of KBES's are covered. A particular focus is diagnostic applications, one of the major applications areas. Many applications are seen as an expansion of supervisory control. The lessons learned from numerous online applications are summarized.

  11. Surveillance of industrial processes with correlated parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew M.; Gross, Kenny C.; Kubic, William L.; Wigeland, Roald A.

    1996-01-01

    A system and method for surveillance of an industrial process. The system and method includes a plurality of sensors monitoring industrial process parameters, devices to convert the sensed data to computer compatible information and a computer which executes computer software directed to analyzing the sensor data to discern statistically reliable alarm conditions. The computer software is executed to remove serial correlation information and then calculate Mahalanobis distribution data to carry out a probability ratio test to determine alarm conditions.

  12. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity

  13. Studying the co-evolution of production and test code in open source and industrial developer test processes through repository mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaidman, A.; Van Rompaey, B.; Van Deursen, A.; Demeyer, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many software production processes advocate rigorous development testing alongside functional code writing, which implies that both test code and production code should co-evolve. To gain insight in the nature of this co-evolution, this paper proposes three views (realized by a tool called TeMo)

  14. Traceability: a demand of agro industrial chain for special products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Verissimo Foggiatto Silveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of agricultural products with different nutritional features has altered the relationship, the upstream and the downstream of enterprises that produce and commercialize them. Coordination in the Agro Industrial System is demanded, including traceability as a way to guarantee the conformity of products, attending external clients and agricultural industries that require quality certification. This quality tool enables the identification of some details in the productive chain, such as seeds, farming, harvesting, storage, transportation and industrialization of products. Thus, this essay describes the concept of traceability and provides information of special products from a cooperative from Paraná, which has controlled process in the productive chain, demanded by contractual partnerships done with enterprises that provide fertilizers and food processors. It was identified that this cooperative commercializes three products that need traceability: two special kinds of corn and the regular kind of soybean.

  15. Eco-efficiency in industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Raesfeld Meijer, Ariane M.; de Bakker, F.G.A.; Groen, Arend J.

    2001-01-01

    English AbstractThis report of the MATRIC project investigated 'Eco-efficiency in industrial production'. After a general introduction into the domain of eco-efficiency, the first part of this report further focusses on the organisation of Product-Oriented Environmental Management (POEM), which is

  16. Safety in the wood products industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd H. Michael; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    2004-01-01

    The wood products industry has historically been considered to be one of the most dangerous for manufacturing employees. Workers are exposed to hazards ranging from falling trees to debarkers to saws to nail guns, while often working under pressures for high productivity. Compounding the danger from these hazards are the mentally and physically challenging working...

  17. Productivity Growth : Industries, Spillovers and Economic Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.; Wolff, E.N.

    2012-01-01

    Productivity growth is the main vehicle to increase the standard of living. This book explains the relationships between technological change, efficiency, productivity growth and performance. The emphasis is on the interplay between industries in modern economies. The book provides a broad yet

  18. The Forest Products Industry in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    Materials and methods. This study derived from a survey designed to assess quantity, production trend and status of forest industries in Nigeria. Data used for the study was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was on installed capacity, capacity utilisation, equipment and production.

  19. Product modelling in the seafood industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Stella; Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    The paper addresses the aspects of Concurrent Engineering (CE) as a means to obtain integrated product development in the seafood industry. It is assumed that the future New Product Development (NPD) in seafood industry companies will shift from being retailer driven and reactive to be more company...... driven and proactive to comply with the increasing competition, in such a way that the fish processor issues new products covering both the current and especially latent future consumer demands. This implies a need for new systematic approaches in the NPD as procedures and tools, which integrate...

  20. Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Survase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious industrial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Sclerotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream processing and applications of scleroglucan.

  1. Study on the Competitiveness of the Romanian Meat Processing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius Stanciu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat processing represents a strategic sector that can significantly contribute to local food industry competitiveness and national food security. The generous natural resources available to Romania and the tradition in animal husbandry can provide adequate raw materials for the processing industry in order to cover domestic consumption needs and obtain substantial revenues by export. Currently, Romanian meat market is dependent on the imports of meat, as carcasses or processed products. There have been mainly live animals or semi-finished products which are exported, fact which led to an imbalance of trade and to low revenues for the domestic meat industry. This article proposes an analysis of the local meat processing industry in terms of production, consumption and trade transactions, assessed in the international context of the meat market. The study indicates that in the last few years, Romania has recorded significant progress in the meat processing and production domain; nevertheless, the financial performance of the local companies is inferior to that of the EU companies. Except the poultry meat and mutton sectors, in which the export value exceeds imports, the other sectors show a deficit, the domestic demand not being covered. The low concentration degree of the companies from the meat processing industry show a continued market fragmentation and a growth potential for the existing companies.

  2. Adoption of innovative production technologies in the road construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, M.J.M.; van der Sijde, Peter; Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2007-01-01

    New procurement methods encourage the adoption of innovative production technologies. This triggers the need for entrepreneurship in the construction industry. The purpose of this study is to provide insights into the adoption processes of a particular set of new production technologies in the Dutch

  3. Product Platform Development in Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Skold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the strategic issues involved in the deployment of product platform development in an industrial network. The move entails identifying the types and characteristics of generically different product platform strategies and clarifying strategic motives and differences. Number...... of platforms and product brands serve as the key dimensions when distinguishing the different strategies. Each strategy has its own challenges and raises various issues to deal with....

  4. Solar energy for industrial process heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

  5. Heat recovery from solids in industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Heat recovery from solids in industrial heat-treatment processes is considered. There are two main ways to improve the energy efficiency and economy of the heating process. The waste energy can again be used in the process to preheat the cool input. Another possibility is to use the waste energy in a process requiring a lower-temperature level. Heat-recovery arrangements both for continuous and discontinuous processes are presented. The energy demand of a heating or a heat-treatment process (in metal, clay, glass, and food industries) can greatly be decreased by the heat recovery. New methods for the heat-treatment processes requiring much less energy are presented. Several heat-recovery arrangements are described, and analytical solutions for the efficiency of the heat recovery are presented.

  6. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  7. Industrial requirements for interactive product configurators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queva, Matthieu Stéphane Benoit; Probst, Christian W.; Vikkelsøe, Per

    2009-01-01

    The demand for highly customized products at low cost is driving the industry towards Mass Customization. Interactive product configurators play an essential role in this new trend, and must be able to support more and more complex features. The purpose of this paper is, firstly, to identify requ...... requirements for modern interactive configurators. Existing modeling and solving technologies for configuration are then reviewed and their limitations discussed. Finally, a proposition for a future product configuration system is described.......The demand for highly customized products at low cost is driving the industry towards Mass Customization. Interactive product configurators play an essential role in this new trend, and must be able to support more and more complex features. The purpose of this paper is, firstly, to identify...

  8. Drivers for Cleaner Production in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2003-01-01

    This working paper tries to piece together information on regulatory initiatives promoting cleaner production (CP) in Malaysian industry, as well as points of discussion on environmental performance in the sector. It draws upon initial data collection by the team of the research project ‘A Study...... on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner Production’, which is coordinated by Institute of Environmental and Resource Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; the objective of this study...

  9. Green perspective in food industry production line design: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, C. Y.; Sin, T. C.; Liyana, M. R. N.; Awang, A.; Fathullah, M.

    2017-09-01

    The design of green manufacturing process in food industries is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Several process such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, bleaching, sterilization, extraction and filtering have been applied efficiency in the food industry. Due to the rapid development of food and peripheral technology, the use of new physical processing or auxiliary processing methods can maintain food inherent nutrients, texture, color, and freshness and also reduce environmental pollution and energy consumption in food processing. Hence, this review paper will study and summarize the effects of green manufacturing process in food industries in term of waste reduction, materials and sustainability manufacturing. In any case, All the food processing equipment must comply with strict standards and regulation, this action will ensure the securing the food quality and safety of food products to consumers.

  10. Product Innovation Development in the Companies of Creative Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolandas Strazdas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Many authors distinguish product innovation as a key factor for long-term competitiveness. Dominant narrow perception of a product is leading towards incorrect product development process and the consequent result is a bad product. Narrow perception of a product is one of the main paralysing factors affecting the creator in the process of product development, which leads towards a low level of product innovation. As a result, a company is losing its uniqueness, originality, and is not of  interest neither for consumers nor the product developers themselves. This article deals with the product perception problems in the companies of creative industries. The main limiting factors for the perception of a product are analysed in the article as well as possibilities to expand the perception of a product. Five main product development methods: conservative, delegative, holistic, limited open, fully open are described in the article. The choice of the product development methods is especially important for the creative industries companies whose product development process is very intensive. 

  11. Analyzing scheduling in the food-processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Production scheduling has been widely studied in several research areas, resulting in a large number of methods, prescriptions, and approaches. However, the impact on scheduling practice seems relatively low. This is also the case in the food-processing industry, where industry......-specific characteristics induce specific and complex scheduling problems. Based on ideas about decomposition of the scheduling task and the production process, we develop an analysis methodology for scheduling problems in food processing. This combines an analysis of structural (technological) elements of the production...... process with an analysis of the tasks of the scheduler. This helps to understand, describe, and structure scheduling problems in food processing, and forms a basis for improving scheduling and applying methods developed in literature. It also helps in evaluating the organisational structures...

  12. Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    2001-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper

  13. Conceptual Design of Industrial Process Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.R.; Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    Today, process displays used in industry are often designed on the basis of piping and instrumentation diagrams without any method of ensuring that the needs of the operators are fulfilled. Therefore, a method for a systematic approach to the design of process displays is needed. This paper...... discusses aspects of process display design taking into account both the designer's and the operator's points of view. Three aspects are emphasized: the operator tasks, the display content and the display form. The distinction between these three aspects is the basis for proposing an outline for a display...... design method that matches the industrial practice of modular plant design and satisfies the needs of reusability of display design solutions. The main considerations in display design in the industry are to specify the operator's activities in detail, to extract the information the operators need from...

  14. A Product Line Enhanced Unified Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Kunz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Unified Process facilitates reuse for a single system, but falls short handling multiple similar products. In this paper we present an enhanced Unified Process, called UPEPL, integrating the product line technology in order to alleviate this problem. In UPEPL, the product line related...... activities are added and could be conducted side by side with other classical UP activities. In this way both the advantages of Unified Process and software product lines could co-exist in UPEPL. We show how to use UPEPL with an industrial mobile device product line in our case study....

  15. Forest Products Industry of the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc

    2002-05-01

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc (LATA) conducted an evaluation of the potential impact and value of a portion of the current portfolio of r&d projects supported by the Office of Industrial Technology and the Forest Products Industry of the Future. The mission of the evaluation was to (a) assess the potential impact of the projects to meet the critical goals of the industry as identified in the vision and roadmapping documents. (b) Evaluate the relationship between the current portfolio of projects and the Agenda 202 Implementation Plan. In addition, evaluate the relationship between the portfolio and the newly revised draft technology strategy being created by the industry. (c) Identify areas where current efforts are making significant progress towards meeting industry goals and identify areas where additional work my be required to meet these goals. (d) Make recommendations to the DOE and the Forest Products Industry on possible improvements in the portfolio and in the current methodology that DOE uses to assess potential impacts on its R&D activities.

  16. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP) for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mark; Ruedin, Pascal; Civardi, Chiara; Richter, Michael; Hach, André; Christen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water). The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin). The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA), the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%.

  17. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Schubert

    Full Text Available Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water. The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin. The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA, the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%.

  18. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel [Department of Economics, University of South Africa, P.O Box 392, UNISA 0003 (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    This paper tries to assess the relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in South Africa by undertaking a cointegration analysis using annual data from 1980 to 2005. We also investigate the causal relationships between the various disaggregate forms of energy consumption and industrial production. Our results imply that industrial production and employment are long-run forcing variables for electricity consumption. Applying the [Toda, H.Y., Yamamoto, T., 1995. Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes. Journal of Econometrics 66, 225-250] technique to Granger-causality, we find bi-directional causality between oil consumption and industrial production. For the other forms of energy consumption, there is evidence in support of the energy neutrality hypothesis. There is also evidence of causality between employment and electricity consumption as well as coal consumption causing employment. (author)

  19. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to assess the relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in South Africa by undertaking a cointegration analysis using annual data from 1980 to 2005. We also investigate the causal relationships between the various disaggregate forms of energy consumption and industrial production. Our results imply that industrial production and employment are long-run forcing variables for electricity consumption. Applying the [Toda, H.Y., Yamamoto, T., 1995. Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes. Journal of Econometrics 66, 225-250] technique to Granger-causality, we find bi-directional causality between oil consumption and industrial production. For the other forms of energy consumption, there is evidence in support of the energy neutrality hypothesis. There is also evidence of causality between employment and electricity consumption as well as coal consumption causing employment.

  20. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials in the metals and metal products industries (ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead) are discussed. Data preparation and methodology development and analysis of the technological and economic factors in order to prepare draft targets for the use of recovered materials are covered. Chapter 2 provides an introductory discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33, including industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends for the 5 industries: ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead. Chapter 4 presents the evaluation of recycling targets for those industries. (MCW)

  1. Industrial application of radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, S.

    1979-01-01

    A review is presented of the status of industrial application and advanced research projects of radiation processing in Japan. More than 20 industrial radiation facilities are now in operation. About 35 electron beam accelerators with the total capacity of ca. 1,200 kW are used for industrial applications, such as crosslinking of wire and cable insulation, heat shrinkable tubing and sheet, curing of surface coating and polyethylene foam. Three Co-60 facilities with 1,100 kCi in total are installed for the sterilization of medical supplies, plastics irradiation and the inhibition of sprouting in potatoes. The radiation research projects promising for industrial application are radiation treatment of exhaust gas, modification of emulsion-film, permselective membrane, immobilization of enzyme, fluoroelastomer, organic glass by cast polymerization, paint synthesis by electron beams and precoating of steel sheet. (author)

  2. Processes of manufacture of plastics products

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Nin, José

    2014-01-01

    This article shows the process of molding plastic extrusion and injection information that will provide a comprehensive and simple idea in this type of industrial activity.Extrusion is a process used to manufacture products such as PVC pipes , rods and the insulated wire coating plastics and other products of constant section. This process involves heating the plastic and cause its output by pressure through a hole in a certain way and then cooling it in a machine called an extruder.Th...

  3. Logistic paradigm for industrial solid waste treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Grabara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that industrial waste are a growing problem, both economic and environmental as their number is increasing every year, it is important to take measures to correctly dealing wi th industrial waste. This article presents the descriptive model of logistics processes concerning the management of industrial waste. In this model the flow of waste begins in the place of production and ends at their disposal. The article presents the concept of logistics model in graphical form together with an analysis of individual processes and their linkages, and opportunities to improve flow of industrial waste streams. Furthermore, the model allows for justification of the relevance of use logistics and its processes for waste management

  4. Production, composition, and application of coffee and its industrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Mussatto, Solange I.; Machado, Ercília M. S.; Martins, Silvia; Teixeira, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and is the second largest traded commodity after petroleum. Due to the great demand of this product, large amounts of residues are generated in the coffee industry, which are toxic and represent serious environmental problems. Coffee silverskin and spent coffee grounds are the main coffee industry residues, obtained during the beans roasting, and the process to prepare “instant coffee”, respectively. Recently, some attempts have been m...

  5. Analyzing on effective factors in new product development process in Small-Medium Enterprises (selected food and drink industries of Fars province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Saeida Ardakani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of success in provision of new products is significant to firms’ managers and owners. This subject has also special complexity since literature shows that determining of factors influencing New Product Development (NPD has had different results in different studies. One of reasons of this difference is related to the characteristics of industries e.g. technology, structure, size, etc. in which the subject has been investigated. In this study, only the organizational size has been concentrated on for better understanding of the small and medium size enterprises. This study is a quantitative research in which, the related literature has been extensively reviewed and structured interviews has been performed with managers of target enterprises and respectively, a questionnaire has been developed and used for data collection. Findings imply that the five factors have influence on successful development of new product of the studied enterprises. In addition, according to the detected gap between existing and the ideal situations of these enterprises, associated problem making factors have been determined and solutions have been suggested for their elimination.

  6. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, Mohd Shafie; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  7. Solutions for the food processing industry; Shokuhin seizogyo solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, T.; Iwami, N. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-10

    To improve quality control and maintain stable operation, the food processing industry requires problem solutions in total, including not only processing and operation control divisions but also quality control, design and production technology, and maintenance divisions. This paper describes solutions for HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point) support, quality control, and maintenance, in order to improve the quality level, ensure traceability and realize stable processing operations. (author)

  8. Industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Blundel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Industrialization, the historical development that saw cheesemaking transformed from a largely craft-based or artisanal activity, often located on a dairy farm, to a production process that, for the most part, takes place in large ‘cheese factories’ or creameries [See ARTISANAL]. The principal features of modern industrialized cheesemaking, which set it apart from traditional approaches include: high production volumes; sourcing of milk from multiple dairy herds; pasteurization and re-balanci...

  9. Thermal storage for industrial process and reject heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Industrial production uses about 40% of the total energy consumed in the United States. The major share of this is derived from fossil fuel. Potential savings of scarce fuel is possible through the use of thermal energy storage (TES) of reject or process heat for subsequent use. Results of study contracts awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center have identified three especially significant industries where high temperature TES appears attractive - paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement. Potential annual fuel savings with large scale implementation of near-term TES systems for these three industries is nearly 9 million bbl of oil.

  10. Digital Image Processing in Private Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Connie

    1986-01-01

    Examines various types of private industry optical disk installations in terms of business requirements for digital image systems in five areas: records management; transaction processing; engineering/manufacturing; information distribution; and office automation. Approaches for implementing image systems are addressed as well as key success…

  11. Microprocessor systems for industrial process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, F. H.

    1980-01-01

    Six computers operate synchronously and are interconnected by three independent data buses. Processors control one subsystem. Some can control buses to transfer data at 1 megabit per second. Every 2.5 msec each processor examines list of things to do during next interval. This spacecraft control system could be adapted for controlling complex industrial processes.

  12. Local learning processes in Malaysian industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    1999-01-01

    Local learning processes are a vital part of any dynamic assimilation of transferred technology. The paper raises the question about the interaction between the training paradigms, which transnational corporations introduce in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and the specific basis for learning of ...... of Malaysian labour. Experiences from Malaysian industry indicate that local learning processes are shaped, among other things, by the concept of knowledge in a particular training programme, labour market structures, and learning cultures....

  13. Industrial Hemp in North America: Production, Politics and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome H. Cherney

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Western World banned the cultivation of Cannabis sativa in the early 20th century because biotypes high in ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the principal intoxicant cannabinoid are the source of marijuana. Nevertheless, since 1990, dozens of countries have authorized the licensed growth and processing of “industrial hemp” (cultivars with quite low levels of THC. Canada has concentrated on hemp oilseed production, and very recently, Europe changed its emphasis from fiber to oilseed. The USA, historically a major hemp producer, appears on the verge of reintroducing industrial hemp production. This presentation provides updates on various agricultural, scientific, social, and political considerations that impact the commercial hemp industry in the United States and Canada. The most promising scenario for the hemp industry in North America is a continuing focus on oilseed production, as well as cannabidiol (CBD, the principal non-intoxicant cannabinoid considered by many to have substantial medical potential, and currently in great demand as a pharmaceutical. Future success of the industrial hemp industry in North America is heavily dependent on the breeding of more productive oilseed cultivars, the continued development of consumer goods, reasonable but not overly restrictive regulations, and discouragement of overproduction associated with unrealistic enthusiasm. Changing attitudes have generated an unprecedented demand for the cannabis plant and its products, resulting in urgent needs for new legislative, regulatory, and business frameworks, as well as scientific, technological, and agricultural research.

  14. PRODUCTION NETWORKS, AND DIGITAL LOGISTICS AS A TOOL FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: THE WOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY IN THE CITY OF BURI, SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Helena Sguizzardi Abascal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil municipalities and regions face nowadays plenty of challenges to achieve a sustainable development founded in logistic and productive relationship networks. These networks and respective operations require knowledge and domain of productive possibilities and business opportunities that can develop themselves in regional and endogenous territorial scales. These challenges derive of the fact that municipalities are part of many government and administrative regions in brazilian states to actuate in solidary and synergic way, potentializing relationships with respective congeners. Networks formation requests a rigorous knowledge of the socioeconomic conditions, the municipalities and the regions characters, and it requests TIC (Communication and Information Technologies instrumental use, being able to give ways to expand and to know the social actors that are related and their potential partners through digital networks. This type of networks enables a synchronic management of territorial and economic complexities, in real time (just in time. This article analyzes by critical way the causes of socioeconomic depression of Sao Paulo State southwest region, with the objective of identifying the responsible factors of its stagnation. It also analyzes specific characteristics of Buri Municipality that is situated in southwest Sao Paulo State region. Showing business networks formation based on the transformation wood industry. This natural product is available in the region, here we investigate the local development possibilities, productive and logistic networks (Material Networks and we suggest digital networks use. These actions not just only create regional advantages, but indeed releases Sao Paulo metropolis: either its spaces and its circulation highways, unduly congested due vehicle concentration that is responsible by transport, state and federal logistic.

  15. Customer-driven manufacturing in the food processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, D.P. van

    2000-01-01

    Food processing industry copes with high logistical demands from its customers. This paper studies a company changing to more customer (order) driven manufacturing. In order to help decide which products should be made to order and which made to stock, a frame is developed and applied to find and

  16. Geotourism products industry element: A community approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basi Arjana, I. W.; Ernawati, N. M.; Astawa, I. K.

    2018-01-01

    The ability of a tourism area to provide products that could satisfy the needs and desires of tourists is the key to success in developing tourism. Geotourists are a niche market that has specific needs. This study aims to identify the needs of geotourists, which is undertaken by evaluating the perceptions of geotourists with respect to 6 elements which are the industrial aspects of community-based tourism products, using a qualitative approach. In-depth interview technique is used as data collection method. These products are as follows: there are five major categories of geotourism commercial elements, which include: travel services, accommodation, transportation, food and beverage, souvenir and packaging. The research results show that there are various products which are the output of the industry elements desired by tourists in Batur representing the needs of different market segments and accommodating the sustainability of nature. These needs are arised and inspired by local culture. The necessity to offer an assortment of products packages is indicated to provide plentiful options for tourists, to lengthen tourist’s stay, and also to introduce various product components available in Batur. The research output could be used and contribute in providing a reference in developing geotourism products.

  17. Fuzzy Control in the Process Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Verbruggen, Henk; Østergaard, Jens-Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    be designed starting from PID controllers, and in more complex cases these can be used in connection with model-based predictive control. For high level control and supervisory control several simple controllers can be combined in a priority hierarchy such as the one developed in the cement industry......Control problems in the process industry are dominated by non-linear and time-varying behaviour, many inner loops, and much interaction between the control loops. Fuzzy controllers have in some cases nevertheless mimicked the control actions of a human operator. Simple fuzzy controllers can...

  18. Industrial water demand management and cleaner production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processes and systems using water today are being subjected to increasingly stringent environmental regulations on effluents and there is growing demand for fresh water. In Morocco, consumption of water by industries is estimated in 1994 at 1 billion m3, the drinking water constitutes 4%. Water used in the food and drink ...

  19. Solar production of industrial process steam ranging in temperature from 300/sup 0/F to 550/sup 0/F (Phase I). Volume 1. Final report, September 30, 1978-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-30

    This section summarizes the Foster Wheeler Development Corporation/Dow Chemical Company Phase I solar industrial process steam system and includes a system schematic, a brief system description, general specifications of the major system components, expected system performance, and a cost estimate summary for Phases II and III. The objectives of Phase I are: (1) design a cost-effective solar steam generating system, using state-of-the-art components and technology, to supply steam for Dow Chemical Company's Dalton, Georgia, plant; (2) predict the performance of the solar process steam plant; (3) conduct a safety evaluation and an environmental impact assessment of the solar steam system; (4) conduct an economic analysis to determine the potential economic benefits of a solar-augmented process steam production system compared with an existing fossil-fuel-fired steam generator; and (5) promote the project extensively to make it visible to industry and the general public.

  20. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  1. Industrial Processes' Identification Using Virtual Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olah F Iosif

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the experimental identification problem of industrial processes is presented, in order to establish their mathematical models which permit the adoption of an automation solutions and the specification of a suitable control law respectively. With this aim in view, the authors were resorted to using Virtual Instrumentation with the aid of the Lab VIEW development medium. In order to solve the problem of acquisition and processing data from physical real processes, Virtual Instruments was designed and realized which provide in the end a mathematical model which is based on choosing the automation equipment of the aim followed. The realized Virtual Instruments gave the opportunity to be used either in student instruction field with the virtual processes identification techniques or to put the identification of some real processes to good use of diverse beneficiaries. The results of some experimental attempts which was realized on different thermal processes illustrates the utility of the demarches performed in this paper.

  2. Preparative electrophoresis of industrial fission product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret, Joel

    1971-07-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the development of the continuous electrophoresis technique while studying its application in the preparative electrophoresis of industrial fission product solutions. The apparatus described is original. It was built for the purposes of the investigation and proved very reliable in operation. The experimental conditions necessary to maintain and supervise the apparatus in a state of equilibrium are examined in detail; their stability is an important factor, indispensable to the correct performance of an experiment. By subjecting an industrial solution of fission products to preparative electrophoresis it is possible, according to the experimental conditions, to prepare carrier-free radioelements of radiochemical purity (from 5 to 7 radioelements): 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 141+144 Ce, 91 Y, 95 Nb, 95 Zr, 103+106 Ru. (author) [fr

  3. An application of fuzzy TOPSIS to improve the process of supply chain management in the food industries: A case study of protein products manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Roghanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food industries as one of the most important industries in country, needs appropriate planning at both macro and micro levels. One of the important parts, which need to be discussed is the supply chain management in this industry. In this study, the importance of supply chain in food industries is studied. The proposed study determines different suppliers and using various criteria, the study applies Fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS to rank different alternatives. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed model of this paper is capable of determining appropriate suppliers in food industry.

  4. Early Phase Process Evaluation: Industrial Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfan Adi Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Process route evaluation is a part of research and development (R&D works in an industrial chemical project life cycle. In this early phase, good process evaluation, including process synthesis and designs, provide guidance’s on the R&D project. The paper aimed to collect practical methods used in this early phase process route evaluation from author’s 10 years of industrial experiences.  The collected methods range from forward-backward process synthesis, functional process design, use of cost estimation, and applications of Monte Carlo simulation. Led by a good project management (e.g. via a stage-gate approach use of these methods have shown beneficial results. Some important results are strong arguments on whether or not the project will continue, as well as relevant technical and economic issues identified during this early phase process synthesis and design. Later on, these issues become guidance’s to the follow-up project, if it is continued.

  5. Cleaner production technology for the NDT industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relunia, Estrella D.; Mateo, Alejandro J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses te wastes generated from the conduct of nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and operations like NDT film processing and the systems to reduce water pollution and the film system quality control. Discussions on clean technology production concepts and philosophy is also discussed. A case study on cleaner production technology where a process and equipment modifications and a product substitution were implemented is presented. The equipment modification and product substitution eliminated the use of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in its cleaning operation. (Author)

  6. Biological hydrogen production from industrial wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Zaiat, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). School of Engineering. Dept. Hydraulics and Sanitation], Email: peixoto@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This research evaluates the potential for producing hydrogen in anaerobic reactors using industrial wastewaters (glycerol from bio diesel production, wastewater from the parboilization of rice, and vinasse from ethanol production). In a complementary experiment the soluble products formed during hydrogen production were evaluated for methane generation. The assays were performed in batch reactors with 2 liters volume, and sucrose was used as a control substrate. The acidogenic inoculum was taken from a packed-bed reactor used to produce hydrogen from a sucrose-based synthetic substrate. The methanogenic inoculum was taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Hydrogen was produced from rice parboilization wastewater (24.27 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) vinasse (22.75 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) and sucrose (25.60 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD), while glycerol only showed potential for methane generation. (author)

  7. Alternative Fuels in Cement Clinker Production Process

    OpenAIRE

    , E Zaka; , R Pinguli; , J Gabili; , E Arapi

    2016-01-01

    Cement industry in Albania is experiencing a rapid development, but this industry is distinguished for high consumption of resources. Cement manufacturing companies do constantly researches on reducing the production cost by optimizing the equipments, replacing raw materials and fuel. However, alternative fuels should be alternative according to the process requirements, easily obtainable in quantity, and with a lower cost. Since the combustible fuels are becoming increasingly important, this...

  8. Chemistry in production of heavy water and industrial solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.G.

    2015-01-01

    Industries are the temples of modern science built on the robust foundation of science and technology. The genesis of giant chemical industries is from small laboratories where the scientific thoughts are fused and transformed into innovative technologies Heavy water production is an energy intensive giant chemical industry where various hazardous and flammable chemicals are handled, extreme operating conditions are maintained and various complex chemical reactions are involved. Chemistry is the back bone to all chemical industrial activities and plays a lead role in heavy water production also. Heavy Water Board has now mastered the technology of design, construction, operation and maintenance of Heavy Water plants as well as fine tuning of the process make it more cost effective and environment friendly. Heavy Water Board has ventured into diversified activities intimately connected with our three stages of Nuclear Power Programme. Process development for the production of nuclear grade solvents for the front end and back end of our nuclear fuel cycle is one area where we have made significant contributions. Heavy Water Board has validated, modified and fine-tuned the synthesis routes for TBP, D2EHPA, TOPO, TAPO TIAP, DNPPA, D2EHPA-II, DHOA etc and these solvents were accepted by end users. Exclusive campaigns were carried out in laboratory scale, bench scale and pilot plant scale before scaling up to industrial scale. The process chemistry is understood very well and chemical parameters were monitored in every step of the synthesis. It is a continual improvement cycle where fine tuning is carried out for best quality and yield of product at lowest cost. In this presentation, an attempt is made to highlight the role of chemistry in the production of Heavy Water and industrial solvents

  9. Industrial process heat from CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilborn, J.S.; Seddon, W.A.; Barnstaple, A.G.

    1980-08-01

    It has been demonstrated on a large scale that CANDU reactors can produce industrial process steam as well as electricity, reliably and economically. The advantages of cogeneration have led to the concept of an Industrial Energy Park adjacent to the Bruce Nuclear Power Development in the province of Ontario. For steam demands between 300,000 and 500,00 lb/h (38-63 kg/s) and an annual load factor of 80%, the estimated cost of nuclear steam at the Bruce site boundary is $3.21/MBtu ($3.04GJ), which is at least 30% cheaper than oil-fired steam at the same site. The most promising near term application of nuclear heat is likely to be found within the energy-intensive chemical industry. Nuclear energy can substitute for imported oil and coal in the eastern provinces if the price remains competitive, but low cost coal and gas in the western provinces may induce energy-intensive industries to locate near those sources of energy. In the long term it may be feasible to use nuclear heat for the mining and extraction of oil from the Alberta tar sands. (auth)

  10. Statistical analysis of the irradiation process of various products in the industrial irradiator JS-6500; Analisis estadistico del proceso de irradiacion de productos varios en el irradiador industrial JS-6500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naquid G, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this work the methodology for the control of the irradiation service applied to disposable products of medical use, foods, medications, cosmetics and several to different dose in the Gamma Irradiation Plant, with radiation of Cobalt 60, by means of the Graphs of Quality Control by Variables. These they are used to check if the irradiation process has been carried out appropriately, or well, if the variations surpass the established limits in the one that influences some another factor. (Author)

  11. Applications of sonochemistry in Russian food processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasulya, Olga; Shestakov, Sergey; Bogush, Vladimir; Potoroko, Irina; Cherepanov, Pavel; Krasulya, Boris

    2014-11-01

    In food industry, conventional methodologies such as grinding, mixing, and heat treatment are used for food processing and preservation. These processes have been well studied for many centuries and used in the conversion of raw food materials to consumable food products. This report is dedicated to the application of a cost-efficient method of energy transfer caused by acoustic cavitation effects in food processing, overall, having significant impacts on the development of relatively new area of food processing such as food sonochemistry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Offshoring trends in the manufacturing process within the automotive industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simplay, S.; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2014-01-01

    engineering activities. This development has created several challenges. These challenges arose as organisations are not considering how offshoring activities could be integrated with an increasingly global supply chain for the manufacturing of the final product. The paper contributes to manufacturing theory......This paper investigates offshoring trends in the automotive industry. The research approach consisted of combining empirical findings from case companies with latest research from the field. Empirical data was collected through case studies from 15 automotive organisations based in Europe...... consisting of original equipment manufacturers and engineering service providers. The findings indicated some offshoring trends in the automotive industry. Offshoring in this industry is moving from a manufacturing focus to incorporate large parts of the process, including high-level product development...

  13. Innovation in the forest products industry: an analysis of companies in Alaska and Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abra Hovgaard; Eric Hansen; Joseph. Roos

    2005-01-01

    Because there is a lack of innovation research in the forest products industry and innovative activities in the industry are not well documented, this study attempted to fill that void. The objectives of this study were to understand the process and definition of innovation in the forest products industry, identify the constraints on innovative activities, identify...

  14. ATV manual: Industrial effluents of the chemical industry, food processing industry, consumer goods industries and public services. 4. ed.; ATV-Handbuch: Industrieabwasser - Dienstleistungs- und Veredelungsindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The book describes liquid effluents of the following industries: Animal and plant production; flesh meal production; sausage casings processing; leather, glue and gelatine production; fish meal production; paper and cellulose production; textile industry; motor car repair shops; railway industry; carwash facilities; military services; tank cleaning; laundries and cleaners'; waste management systems; hospitals. Each chapter contains information on the industry concerned, its capacity and products, including all process stages, technologies, and flowcharts. Effluent-relevant process stages are analyzed, and their environmental relevance is assessed. In each case, the available options for waste treatment are pointed out. Practical example, technical data and cost figures supplement the text. [German] Das vorliegende ATV-Handbuch behandelt die wichtigsten Industriebranchen der Dienstleistungs- und Veredelungsindustrie: Betriebe der Tier- und Pflanzenproduktion - Fleischmehlindustrie - Naturdarmbearbeitungsbetriebe - Lederherstellung, Hautleim- und Gelatineindustrie - Fischmehlfabriken - Papier- und Zellstoffindustrie - Textilindustrie - Kfz-Werkstaetten - Eisenbahn - Kfz-Waesche - Militaer, Entkonservierung - Transportbehaelterinnenreinigung - Gewerbliche Waescherei und Textilreinigung - Sickerwasser aus Abfallanlagen - Krankenhausabwasser. Jedes Kapitel beginnt mit einer Uebersicht ueber die Bedeutung der Branche, ihre Kapazitaet sowie deren Fertigerzeugnisse. Die Produktionsschritte und -techniken werden erlaeutert, wobei in Fliessschemata auch alle beteiligten Stoffstroeme dargestellt sind. Abwasserrelevante Teilstroeme werden analysiert und der immer mehr an Bedeutung zunehmende produktionsintegrierte Umweltschutz entsprechend gewichtet. Die verfahrenstechnischen Moeglichkeiten der Abwasserbehandlung - Vorbehandlung, Indirekt- und Direkteinleitung - werden aufgezeigt. Anwendungsbeispiele aus der Praxis, die neben der Verfahrenstechnik auch Anlagen zu

  15. Decision Support Methods for Supply Processes in the Floral Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutyba Agata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to show the application of the ABC and AHP (multi-criteria method for hierarchical analysis of decision processes as an important part of decision making in supply processes which are realized in the floral industry. The ABC analysis was performed in order to classify the product mix from the perspective of the demand values. This in consequence enabled us to identify the most important products which were then used as a variant in the AHP method.

  16. Production of highly unsaturated fatty acids using agro-processing by-products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African agro-processing industry generates millions of tons of cereal derived by-products annually. The by-products from biofuel production are expected to increase these volumes dramatically. Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA...

  17. Value of solar thermal industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Fassbender, L.L.; Chockie, A.D.

    1986-03-01

    This study estimated the value of solar thermal-generated industrial process heat (IPH) as a function of process heat temperature. The value of solar thermal energy is equal to the cost of producing energy from conventional fuels and equipment if the energy produced from either source provides an equal level of service. This requirement put the focus of this study on defining and characterizing conventional process heat equipment and fuels. Costs (values) were estimated for 17 different design points representing different combinations of conventional technologies, temperatures, and fuels. Costs were first estimated for median or representative conditions at each design point. The cost impact of capacity factor, efficiency, fuel escalation rate, and regional fuel price differences were then evaluated by varying each of these factors within credible ranges.

  18. Survey on alternative energy for industrial processes in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masduki, B.; Sukarsono, R.; Wardaya; Suryawan, I.

    1997-01-01

    In consequence of the national industrial development, it is necessary to supply a lot of energy. This paper presented a discussion about the option of supplying nuclear processed heat as alternative energy sources for industry especially in Java island. The electrical energy requirement can be estimated rising. The stock and the requirement of energy in Indonesia is unbalance. If the oil production rate is constant, such as that of today, it can be estimated that the oil stock would be over in 20 years. The country is trying to difertify its source of energy and reduce its dependence on oil. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) produces electric and also heat at various temperature in the form of steam and gas. Heat processes from a high temperature reactor, could be used in industry for supplying heat for coal hidroforming, gasification of coal, metal annealing, petrochemical hydrogenation, distillation, purification of petrochemicals, evaporation, water heat, etc. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  19. The Efficient Clade: Lactic Acid Bacteria for Industrial Chemical Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Michael; Russmayer, Hannes; Grabherr, Reingard; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Marx, Hans

    2017-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are well known to be beneficial for food production and, as probiotics, they are relevant for many aspects of health. However, their potential as cell factories for the chemical industry is only emerging. Many physiological traits of these microorganisms, evolved for optimal growth in their niche, are also valuable in an industrial context. Here, we illuminate these features and describe why the distinctive adaptation of lactic acid bacteria is particularly useful when developing a microbial process for chemical production from renewable resources. High carbon uptake rates with low biomass formation combined with strictly regulated simple metabolic pathways, leading to a limited number of metabolites, are among the key factors defining their success in both nature and industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fungal Morphology in Industrial Enzyme Production - Modelling and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla, D.; Hagemann, T.; Hansen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are widely used in the biotechnology industry for the production of industrial enzymes. Thus, considerable work has been done with the purpose of characterizing these processes. The ultimate goal of these efforts is to be able to control and predict fermentation performance......, and on the way the data is interpreted-i.e. which models were applied. The main filamentous fungi used in industrial fermentation are introduced, ranging from Trichoderma reesei to Aspergillus species. Due to the fact that secondary metabolites, like antibiotics, are not to be considered bulk products, organisms...... that spans across strains and scales, as most studies indeed conclude that their respective results might be strain specific and not necessarily valid across scales....

  1. Report of the 2nd RCM on development of radiation-processed products of natural polymers for application in agriculture, healthcare, industry and environment. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Radiation processing offers a clean and additive-free method for preparation of value-added novel materials based on renewable, non-toxic and biodegradable natural polymers and natural polymer waste. The results of research work showed that depending on the irradiation conditions, natural polysaccharides (alginate, chitin/chitosan, carrageeneans, carboxylmethylcellulose, etc.) could be either degraded or crosslinked by radiation. This paved the way for development of many successful applications; some of them commercialized, for use in agriculture, health care and environmental protection. The inputs for the formulation of this CRP and the key issues that need to be addressed were provided by the Consultant’s Meeting on “Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers for Development of Finished Products for Health Care, Agriculture and Environment” held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 26 – 30 March 2007. The main objective was defined as wide-spread promotion and general application of radiation processed natural materials, by coupling radiation technology and end-users to derive additional benefits from these value-added natural materials. The first RCM of the CRP was convened in Vienna on 21-25 April 2008. The participants presented and discussed the status of the field, the needs for further research, and various application possibilities. The work plan formulated during the meeting focused on harmonization of procedures for characterization of irradiated polymers, and protocols for investigation of the functional properties of degraded natural polymer products and their field testing. A network for collaboration was also proposed. The Meeting Report was published and is available for all Member States. The second RCM of this CRP was held in Reims, France, on 12–16 October 2009. The meeting was attended by 14 participants who reported their individual research results obtained since the first RCM, as well as their further plans. This meeting report contains

  2. Products by Glycation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ortega

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of sweet and acid whey products were incremented by polymerization of their proteins by glycation of whey protein concentrates (WPC and their hydrolyzates (WPCH with ribose and glucose in individual experiments under similar concentration. Heating at 50°C during 20 h maximum and pH 7 and pH 9 were used in all tests. The higher activity was found in WPC glycosylates products with ribose at pH 7 and heating during 10–15 h. In comparable form, antioxidant activity in WPCH was incremented by prior hydrolysis to glycation with 25–45% of hydrolysis degree. Further functional properties of whey proteins (solubility, emulsion, and foam were also improved by the polymerization with ribose. The color of polymerized products due to Maillard reactions was associated with antioxidant activity of each compound; however comparative color in glycosylates products with glucose and ribose did not show this effect.

  3. Creative Industries: Development Processes Under Contemporary Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Kontrimienė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the processes of developing creative industries under conditions of a growth in the worldwide economy and globalization, discloses the role of the sector of creative industries and shows its place in the system of the modern global economy. The paper presents a comparative analysis of theories and theoretical approaches intended for the sector of creative industries and its development as well as defines regularities and specificities characteristic of the development of creative industries. Particular attention is shifted on the growth and development of creative industries considering the current challenges of globalization and on the most important specificities of the developing sector in the context of the challenges of economic globalization. The paper examines the trends reflecting the place of the sector of creative industries in the economy of the modern world, including the tendencies indicating changes in the export of the products created in this sector. The article considers the issues of developing creative industries and reveals priorities of future research.

  4. Gravity-Dependent Transport in Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1996-01-01

    Gravity dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to indicate new directions for micro-gravity research that enhance the commercial success of the space program. The present article describes the commercialization possibilities of such topics associated with physicochemical transport phenomena. The topics are: coating flow, rotating electrochemical system, and convection in low Plandtl number fluids. The present study is directed to understand these phenomena, and to develop a knowledge base for their applications with emphasis to a micro-gravity environment.

  5. Engineering organisms for industrial fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A

    2010-01-01

    Volatile fuel costs, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security concerns are driving efforts to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Petroleum comes from sunlight, CO(2) and water converted via a biological intermediate into fuel over a several million year timescale. It stands to reason that using biology to short-circuit this time cycle offers an attractive alternative--but only with relevant products at or below market prices. The state of the art of biological engineering over the past five years has progressed to allow for market needs to drive innovation rather than trying to adapt existing approaches to the market. This report describes two innovations using synthetic biology to dis-intermediate fuel production. LS9 is developing a means to convert biological intermediates such as cellulosic hydrolysates into drop-in hydrocarbon product replacements such as diesel. Joule Unlimited is pioneering approaches to eliminate feedstock dependency by efficiently capturing sunlight, CO(2) and water to produce fuels and chemicals. The innovations behind these companies are built with the market in mind, focused on low cost biosynthesis of existing products of the petroleum industry. Through successful deployment of technologies such as those behind LS9 and Joule Unlimited, alternative sources of petroleum products will mitigate many of the issues faced with our petroleum-based economy. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  6. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  7. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  8. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Thrane, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    %, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also...... produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use...

  9. Gamma radiodecontamination of natural products uses in Cuban pharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Lopez, M.; Guerra, M.; Lastra, H.; Prieto, E.; Padron, E.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to carry out the gamma radiodecontamination of industrial productions from there medicinal plant species (C. officinalis, P. incarta and M. recuttia) and two pharmaceuticals forms (S. platensis and bee pollen tabs) which presented high levels of microbiological count. Adequate irradiation doses calculated for each product were used in decontamination. The results obtained showed the effectiveness of the process in the elimination of microbial contamination from theses natural products. No changes in nutritional constituents or physico-chemical properties were observed

  10. Industrial production of insulators using isostatic compaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drugoveiko, O.P.; Ermolaeva, L.V.; Koren' , M.G.; Kreimer, B.D.; Panichev, G.I.; Ponomarev, A.P.; Rutkovskii, V.N.

    1985-07-01

    The process of shaping ceramic products from powders using isostatic compaction method is finding increasing industrial application. The production of electrical-engineering porcelain using isostatic compaction method is, according to the authors, a promising direction since this method permits one to obtain large and complex shaped products having uniform density distribution. The authors introduce an automatic isostatic compaction line at the ''Proletarii'' Factory for the production of the IOS-110-20000UKhL, T1 type insulators having the described dimensions. According to the technological process developed at the ''Elektrokeramika'' Production Complex, insulators were manufactured on the isostatic compaction line from the G-33 mass. Presspowder having a moisture content of 0.3-0.6% and a particle size of 90-160 micrometers was obtained in a spray dryer using disk spraying. The authors studied saturability by moisture of the powder obtained.

  11. Opportunities, perspectives and limits in lactic acid production from waste and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Dragana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the goals of sustainable development and environmental protection today great attention is directed towards new technologies for waste and industrial by-products utilization. Waste products represent potentially good raw material for production other valuable products, such as bioethanol, biogas, biodiesel, organic acids, enzymes, microbial biomass, etc. Since the first industrial production to the present, lactic acid has found wide application in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In recent years, the demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably owing to its potential use as a monomer for the production of poly-lactic acid (PLA polymers which are biodegradable and biocompatible with wide applications. Waste and industrial by-products such are whey, molasses, stillage, waste starch and lignocellulosic materials are a good source of fermentable sugars and many other substances of great importance for the growth of microorganisms, such as proteins, minerals and vitamins. Utilization of waste products for production of lactic acid could help to reduce the total cost of lactic acid production and except the economic viability of the process offers a solution of their disposal. Fermentation process depends on chemical and physical nature of feedstocks and the lactic acid producer. This review describes the characteristics, abilities and limits of microorganisms involved in lactic acid production, as well as the characteristics and types of waste products for lactic acid production. The fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production are summarized and compared. In order to improve processes and productivity, fed-batch fermentation, fermentation with immobilized cell systems and mixed cultures and opportunities of open (non-sterilized fermentation have been investigated.

  12. Cadmium isotope fractionation of materials derived from various industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinková, Eva, E-mail: eva.cadkova@geology.cz [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Chrastný, Vladislav, E-mail: chrastny@fzp.czu.cz [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Francová, Michaela, E-mail: michaela.francova@fzp.czu.cz [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Šípková, Adéla, E-mail: adela.sipkova@geology.cz [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Čuřík, Jan, E-mail: jan.curik@geology.cz [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Myška, Oldřich, E-mail: oldrich.myska@geology.cz [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Mižič, Lukáš, E-mail: lukas.mizic@geology.cz [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • All studied industrial processes were accompanied by Cd isotope fractionation. • ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd values of the waste materials were discernible from primary sources. • Technology in use plays an important role in Cd isotope fractionation. - Abstract: Our study represents ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd {sub NIST3108} values of materials resulting from anthropogenic activities such as coal burning, smelting, refining, metal coating, and the glass industry. Additionally, primary sources (ore samples, pigment, coal) processed in the industrial premises were studied. Two sphalerites, galena, coal and pigment samples exhibited ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd{sub NIST3108} values of 1.0 ± 0.2, 0.2 ± 0.2, 1.3 ± 0.1, −2.3 ± 0.2 and −0.1 ± 0.3, respectively. In general, all studied industrial processes were accompanied by Cd isotope fractionation. Most of the industrial materials studied were clearly distinguishable from the samples used as a primary source based on ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd {sub NIST3108} values. The heaviest ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd{sub NIST3108} value of 58.6 ± 0.9 was found for slag resulting from coal combustion, and the lightest ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd{sub NIST3108} value of −23 ± 2.5 was observed for waste material after Pb refinement. It is evident that ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd {sub NIST3108} values depend on technological processes, and in case of incomplete Cd transfer from source to final waste material, every industrial activity creates differences in Cd isotope composition. Our results show that Cd isotope analysis is a promising tool to track the origins of industrial waste products.

  13. Industrial irradiation processing of polymers. Status and prospects. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    At the close of the 20th century and now in the beginning of the 21st, several changes have taken place in the businesses marketing radiation source technologies used in industrial radiation processing. Such changes involved more than just transitions in ownership and product line extensions for proven equipment, but also the market successes of new accelerator technologies, the evolution of high intensity X ray processing and the ability of providers and users of isotope sources to cope with heightened security issues involving radioactive materials. Concurrent with this evolution in source technologies, there has been a modest increase in the acceptance of radiation processing for polymeric materials. At the same time, there has been a broadening of polymer options available to formulators and producers of irradiated products. Unfortunately, however, there have been no major market breakthroughs; no adoption of radiation processing on a large scale in some new industrial application. For example, the much proven and long hoped for use of radiation processing by the food industry remains at a very small scale. This is despite the fact that this technology has cleared most regulatory hurdles that call for efficacy and the maintenance of food quality. This brief paper describes some of these changes and outlines some current issues that remain to be addressed

  14. Practical use of ergonomics in industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Six lectures deal with new developments in the application of ergonomic knowledge, in particular to nuclear technology. All contributions have in common the aspects of analysis and structure of man-machine-systems in which human operators have to process information and have to make decisions. Quoting a lot of examples from a variety of industrial sectors, the article discusses complexes of problems and ways of solving them concerning questions requiring the answer 'yes' or 'no', concerning the dialogue man-computer, the organization of central control mechanisms, the avoidance of human errors, influence of man on system safety, and the rational incorporation of ergonomics in system planning. This publication is meant to be a contribution to extend the knowledge on the organization of work from an ergonomic and engineer/psychological point of view. It is to show how the knowledge of the nature of man can be applied as a systems component in order to make industrial processes safer and more economical, and to entrust man with purposeful and satisfying tasks. (orig./LN) [de

  15. Public relations and the radiation processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, T. Donna

    The world's uneasiness and mistrust regarding anything nuclear has heightened in recent years due to events such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. Opinion polls and attitude surveys document the public's growing concern about issues such as the depletion of the ozone layer, the resulting greenhouse effect and exposure of our planet to cosmic radiation. Ultimately, such research reveals an underlying fear regarding the unseen impacts of modern technology on the environment and on human health. These concerns have obvious implications for the radiation processing industry, whose technology is nuclear based and not easily understood by the public. We have already seen organized nuclear opponents mobilize public anxiety, fear and misunderstanding in order to oppose the installation of radiation processing facilities and applications such as food irradiation. These opponents will no doubt try to strengthen resistance to our technology in the future. Opponents will attempt to convince the public that the risks to public and personal health and safety outweigh the benefits of our technology. We in the industry must head off any tendency for the public to see us as the "enemy". Our challenge is to counter public uneasiness and misunderstanding by effectively communicating the human benefits of our technology. Clearly it is a challenge we cannot afford to ignore.

  16. Public relations and the radiation processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, T.D. (Nordion International Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    The world's uneasiness and mistrust regarding anything nuclear has heightened in recent years due to events such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. Opinion polls and attitude surveys document the public's growing concern about issues such as the depletion of the ozone layer, the resulting greenhouse effect and exposure of our planet to cosmic radiation. Ultimately, such research reveals an underlying fear regarding the unseen impacts of modern technology on the environment and on human health. These concerns have obvious implications for the radiation processing industry, whose technology is nuclear based and not easily understood by the public. We have already seen organized nuclear opponents mobilize public anxiety, fear and misunderstanding in order to oppose the installation of radiation processing facilities and applications such as food irradiation. These opponents will no doubt try to strengthen resistance to our technology in the future. Opponents will attempt to convince the public that the risks to public and personal health and safety outweigh the benefits of our technology. We in the industry must head off any tendency for the public to see us as the ''enemy''. Our challenge is to counter public uneasiness and misunderstanding by effectively communicating the human benefits of our technology. (author).

  17. Defects quantization in industrial radiographs by image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, F.Y.; Brillault, B.; Philipp, S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper refers to the industrial application of image processing using Non Destructive Testing by radiography. The various problems involved by the conception of a numerical tool are described. This tool intends to help radiograph experts to quantify defects and to follow up their evolution, using numerical techniques. The sequences of processings that achieve defect segmentation and quantization are detailed. They are based on the thorough knowledge of radiographs formation techniques. The process uses various methods of image analysis, including textural analysis and morphological mathematics. The interface between the final product and users will occur in an explicit language, using the terms of radiographic expertise without showing any processing details. The problem is thoroughly described: image formation, digitization, processings fitted to flaw morphology and finally product structure in progress. 12 refs [fr

  18. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Moejes, Sanne N.; Rossier-Miranda, Francisco J.; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Boom, Remko M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy consumed in all the industrial bread chains studied. The par-baked brown bun production chain had the best thermodynamic performance because of the highest rational exergetic efficiency (71.2%), the lowest specific exergy losses (5.4 MJ/kg brown bun), and the almost lowest cumulative exergy losses (4768 MJ/1000 kg of dough processed). However, recycling of bread waste is also exergetically efficient when the total fermented surplus is utilizable. Clearly, preventing material losses (i.e. utilizing raw materials maximally) improves the exergetic efficiency of industrial bread chains. In addition, most of the physical (non-material related) exergy losses occurred at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. Consequently, any additional improvement in industrial bread production should focus on the design of thermodynamically efficient baking and cooling processes, and on the use of technologies throughout the chain that consume the lowest possible physical exergy. - Highlights: • Preventing material losses is the best way to enhance the exergetic efficiency. • Most of the physical exergy losses occur at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. • Par-baking “saves” chemical exergy but consumes an equal amount of physical exergy

  19. Wyoming's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Morgan; Timothy P. Spoelma; Charles E. Keegan; Alfred L. Chase; Mike T. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Wyoming's 2000 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Wyoming's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  20. Montana's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy P. Spoelma; Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Alfred L. Chase; Charles E. Keegan; Larry T. DeBlander

    2008-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Montana's 2004 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  1. Ethanol production in Brazil: a bridge between science and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mario Lucio; Paulillo, Silene Cristina de Lima; Godoy, Alexandre; Cherubin, Rudimar Antonio; Lorenzi, Marcel Salmeron; Giometti, Fernando Henrique Carvalho; Bernardino, Claudemir Domingues; Amorim Neto, Henrique Berbert de; Amorim, Henrique Vianna de

    2016-12-01

    In the last 40 years, several scientific and technological advances in microbiology of the fermentation have greatly contributed to evolution of the ethanol industry in Brazil. These contributions have increased our view and comprehension about fermentations in the first and, more recently, second-generation ethanol. Nowadays, new technologies are available to produce ethanol from sugarcane, corn and other feedstocks, reducing the off-season period. Better control of fermentation conditions can reduce the stress conditions for yeast cells and contamination by bacteria and wild yeasts. There are great research opportunities in production processes of the first-generation ethanol regarding high-value added products, cost reduction and selection of new industrial yeast strains that are more robust and customized for each distillery. New technologies have also focused on the reduction of vinasse volumes by increasing the ethanol concentrations in wine during fermentation. Moreover, conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for second-generation ethanol production is a promising alternative to meet future demands of biofuel production in the country. However, building a bridge between science and industry requires investments in research, development and transfer of new technologies to the industry as well as specialized personnel to deal with new technological challenges. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethanol production in Brazil: a bridge between science and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lucio Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the last 40 years, several scientific and technological advances in microbiology of the fermentation have greatly contributed to evolution of the ethanol industry in Brazil. These contributions have increased our view and comprehension about fermentations in the first and, more recently, second-generation ethanol. Nowadays, new technologies are available to produce ethanol from sugarcane, corn and other feedstocks, reducing the off-season period. Better control of fermentation conditions can reduce the stress conditions for yeast cells and contamination by bacteria and wild yeasts. There are great research opportunities in production processes of the first-generation ethanol regarding high-value added products, cost reduction and selection of new industrial yeast strains that are more robust and customized for each distillery. New technologies have also focused on the reduction of vinasse volumes by increasing the ethanol concentrations in wine during fermentation. Moreover, conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for second-generation ethanol production is a promising alternative to meet future demands of biofuel production in the country. However, building a bridge between science and industry requires investments in research, development and transfer of new technologies to the industry as well as specialized personnel to deal with new technological challenges.

  3. Natural radionuclide concentrations in processed materials from Thai mineral industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyotha, S; Kranrod, C; Chankow, N; Kritsananuwat, R; Sriploy, P; Pangza, K

    2012-11-01

    The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) distributed in products, by-products and waste produced from Thai mineral industries were investigated. Samples were analysed for radioactivity concentrations of two principal NORM isotopes: (226)Ra and (228)Ra. The enrichment of NORM was found to occur during the treatment process of some minerals. The highest activity of (226)Ra (7 × 10(7) Bq kg(-1)) was in the scale from tantalum processing. The radium concentration in the discarded by-product material from metal ore dressing was also enriched by 3-10 times. Phosphogypsum, a waste produced from the production of phosphate fertilisers, contained 700 times the level of (226)Ra concentration found in phosphate ore. Hence, these residues were also sources of exposure to workers and the public, which needed to be controlled.

  4. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Jan

    1999-06-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis

  5. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Jan

    1999-07-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis.

  6. Production planning and scheduling in refinery industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Jan.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis we consider production planning and scheduling in refinery industry, in particular we study the planning and scheduling at the Nynaes AB refinery and at the Scanraff AB refinery. The purpose is to contribute to the development and the use of optimization models to support efficient decision making. We identify various decision problems concerning the aggregated production planning, the shipment planning, the scheduling of operation modes, and the utilization of pipes and tanks; and we discuss the potential to successfully apply optimization models on these problems. We formulate a mixed integer linear programming model for the scheduling of operation modes at Nynaes. The model concerns decisions about which mode of operation to use at a particular point in time in order to minimize costs of changing modes and costs of keeping inventories, given demands for products. We derive several types of valid inequalities for this mathematical problem and show how these inequalities can improve the lower bound obtained from the linear programming relaxation of the problem. We also show how the valid inequalities can be used to improve the performance of a branch and bound solution approach. Further, a tabu search heuristic is developed for the scheduling problem. The solution methods are tested on data provided by the Nynaes refinery, and the performance of the methods are discussed. We present several extensions of the proposed model, and illustrate how the model can be used to support both operational and strategic decision making at the refinery. 66 refs, 6 figs, 32 tabs. Also published as: Dissertation from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, No 25, Licenciate Thesis

  7. Industrial burner and process efficiency program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, S. R.; Prakash, S. N.; Hersh, D. B.

    1982-10-01

    There is an acute need for a burner that does not use excess air to provide the required thermal turndown and internal recirculation of furnace gases in direct fired batch type furnaces. Such a burner would improve fuel efficiency and product temperature uniformity. A high velocity burner has been developed which is capable of multi-fuel, preheated air, staged combustion. This burner is operated by a microprocessor to fire in a discrete pulse mode using Frequency Modulation (FM) for furnace temperature control by regulating the pulse duration. A flame safety system has been designed to monitor the pulse firing burners using Factory Mutual approved components. The FM combustion system has been applied to an industrial batch hardening furnace (1800 F maximum temperature, 2500 lbs load capacity).

  8. The uranium enrichment industry and the SILEX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsworthy, M.

    1999-01-01

    Silex Systems Limited has been developing a new laser isotope separation process since 1992. The principle application of the SILEX Technology is Uranium Enrichment, the key step in the production of fuel for nuclear power plants. The Uranium Enrichment industry, today worth ∼ US$3.5 Billion p.a., is dominated by four major players, the largest being USEC with almost 40% of the market. In 1996, an agreement was signed between Silex and USEC to develop SILEX Technology for potential application to Uranium Enrichment. The SILEX process is a low cost, energy efficient scheme which may provide significant commercial advantage over current technology and competing laser processes. Silex is also investigating possible application to the enrichment of Silicon, Carbon and other materials. Significant markets may develop for such materials, particularly in the semiconductor industry

  9. Algae biotechnology: products and processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bux, F; Chisti, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    This book examines the utilization of algae for the development of useful products and processes with the emphasis towards green technologies and processes, and the requirements to make these viable...

  10. Development of Product Availability Monitoring System In Production Unit In Automotive Component Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono, Rachmad; Raharno, Sri; Yuwana Martawirya, Yatna; Arthaya, Bagus

    2018-03-01

    This paper described a methodology to monitor the availability of products in a production unit in the automotive component industry. Automotive components made are automotive components made through sheet metal working. Raw material coming into production unit in the form of pieces of plates that have a certain size. Raw materials that come stored in the warehouse. Data of raw each material in the warehouse are recorded and stored in a data base system. The material will then undergo several production processes in the production unit. When the material is taken from the warehouse, material data are also recorded and stored in a data base. The data recorded are the amount of material, material type, and date when the material is out of the warehouse. The material coming out of the warehouse is labeled with information related to the production processes that the material must pass. Material out of the warehouse is a product will be made. The products have been completed, are stored in the warehouse products. When the product is entered into the product warehouse, product data is also recorded by scanning the barcode contained on the label. By recording the condition of the product at each stage of production, we can know the availability of the product in a production unit in the form of a raw material, the product being processed and the finished product.

  11. Use of solid waste from sand beneficiation process in the ceramic tile industry and its influence on the physical properties of the ceramic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biff, Sergio; Silva, Manoel Ribeiro da

    2016-01-01

    The current paper had as main aim characterize and assess the use viability of a solid waste from sand beneficiation process in the production of ceramic tiles. To determine the main components the solid waste was characterized by X-ray fluorescence and the main crystalline phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. To evaluate the addition effects of the solid waste over the solid waste was introduced into a ceramic composition in proportions of 5% and 10%. The ceramics materials obtained were subjected to the linear retraction, water absorption and flexural strength analysis according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818 (1997). Additionally, the solid waste and the ceramic materials obtained in this study were classified according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004 (2004) to assess the potential environmental impact. The main solid waste constituents identified were silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide, respectively 50.2% e 19.2%, distributed in the crystal forms of quartz and kaolinite. The ceramic materials obtained after firing at 1100 deg C, without and with 10% of solid waste presented respectively flexural strength of 13.86 MPa and 14,52Mpa. The results of water absorption without and with addition of 10% of solid waste were respectively 16.96% and 16.63%, both appropriate performances for use in ceramic tiles according to the Brazilian standard NBR 13818 (1997). On the other hand, the ceramic materials obtained with the addition of 10% of solid waste were classified as inert materials according to Brazilian standard NBR 10004 (2004), showing the capability of incorporating solid waste in ceramic materials. (author)

  12. The Efficiency of Halal Processed Food Industry in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ali Mohd Noor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency is indispensable for an industry to ensure cost reduction and profit maximization. It also helps the industry to be competitive and remain in the market. In 2010, Malaysia aims to be the world halal hub. The hub should capture at least five percent of the world halal market with at least 10,000 exporting firms. However the hub failed due to the small number of firms efficiency that finally contribute to less number of firms export. Thus, this study aimed to measure the efficiency of halal processed food industry in Malaysia using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. Input variables used were local raw inputs, labour, and monetary assets of halal food industry in Malaysia. Meanwhile the output used was the total sales revenue of the halal industry in Malaysia. The study shows that very few indusries are efficient in each category led by meat, dairy, cordials and juices, marine products, food crops, and grains industry. Therefore, the government needs to emphasize on industry’s efficiency to be competitive and be the world halal hub in the future.

  13. Biocatalysis for the production of industrial products and functional foods from rice and other agricultural produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2008-11-26

    Many industrial products and functional foods can be obtained from cheap and renewable raw agricultural materials. For example, starch can be converted to bioethanol as biofuel to reduce the current demand for petroleum or fossil fuel energy. On the other hand, starch can also be converted to useful functional ingredients, such as high fructose and high maltose syrups, wine, glucose, and trehalose. The conversion process involves fermentation by microorganisms and use of biocatalysts such as hydrolases of the amylase superfamily. Amylases catalyze the process of liquefaction and saccharification of starch. It is possible to perform complete hydrolysis of starch by using the fusion product of both linear and debranching thermostable enzymes. This will result in saving energy otherwise needed for cooling before the next enzyme can act on the substrate, if a sequential process is utilized. Recombinant enzyme technology, protein engineering, and enzyme immobilization are powerful tools available to enhance the activity of enzymes, lower the cost of enzyme through large scale production in a heterologous host, increase their thermostability, improve pH stability, enhance their productivity, and hence making it competitive with the chemical processes involved in starch hydrolysis and conversions. This review emphasizes the potential of using biocatalysis for the production of useful industrial products and functional foods from cheap agricultural produce and transgenic plants. Rice was selected as a typical example to illustrate many applications of biocatalysis in converting low-value agricultural produce to high-value commercial food and industrial products. The greatest advantages of using enzymes for food processing and for industrial production of biobased products are their environmental friendliness and consumer acceptance as being a natural process.

  14. Alternatives to Organic Solvents in Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    cleaning agents in offset printing companies instead of volatile, toxic organic solvents. The present study is based on a project with the aim of defining other industrial processes, where organic solvents used for cleaning or degreasing can be replaced by non-volatile, low-toxic products, which are based...... on esters from fatty acids of vegetable origin (vegetable esters - VE).The study indicates that industrial cleaning/degreasing with organic solvents may be substituted with VEs on metal surfaces and on some coated surfaces, in manufacture of paints and inks, use of paints, use of inks (printing), metal...... industry, and vehicle repair and maintenance. There are, however, other elements that influence the possibility to substitute. The requirements to the resulting surface, depending on the following treatment of the surface. The character of the soilings to be removed. The possible presence of other...

  15. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  16. Comparison of biohydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manish, S.; Banerjee, Rangan

    2008-01-01

    For hydrogen to be a viable energy carrier, it is important to develop hydrogen generation routes that are renewable like biohydrogen. Hydrogen can be produced biologically by biophotolysis (direct and indirect), photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation or by combination of these processes (such as integration of dark- and photo-fermentation (two-stage process), or biocatalyzed electrolysis, etc.). However, production of hydrogen by these methods at commercial level is not reported in the literature and challenges regarding the process scale up remain. In this scenario net energy analysis (NEA) can provide a tool for establishing the viability of different methods before scaling up. The analysis can also be used to set targets for various process and design parameters for bio-hydrogen production. In this paper, four biohydrogen production processes (dark-fermentation, photo-fermentation, two-stage process and biocatalyzed electrolysis) utilizing sugarcane juice as the carbon source, are compared with base case method steam methane reforming (SMR) on the basis of net energy ratio, energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was found that when by-products are not considered, the efficiencies of biological hydrogen processes are lower than that of SMR. However, these processes reduce GHG emissions and non-renewable energy use by 57-73% and 65-79%, respectively, as compared to the SMR process. Efficiencies of biohydrogen processes increase significantly when by-products are considered hence by-products removal and utilization is an important issue in biological hydrogen production. (author)

  17. "From the Formal to the Innovative": The Use of Case Studies and Sustainable Projects in Developing a Design Process Model for Educating Product/Industrial Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, G. L.; Felton, A. J.; Garner, K. B.

    2006-01-01

    The BSc in computer aided product design (CAPD) course at the University of Wolverhampton was conceived as a collaborative venture in 1989 between the School of Engineering and the School of Art and Design. The award was at the forefront of forging interdisciplinary collaboration at undergraduate level in the field of product design. It has…

  18. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  19. Preparing skilled labor in industry through production-based curriculum approach in vocational high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoto

    2017-09-01

    Vocational high school (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan / SMK) aims to prepare mid-level skilled labors to work in the industry and are able to create self-employment opportunities. For those reasons, the curriculum in SMK should be based on meeting the needs of the industries and is able to prepare learners to master the competence in accordance with the skills program of their choice. Production based curriculum is the curriculum which the learning process is designed together with the production process or using production process as a learning medium. This approach with the primary intention to introduce students with the real working environment and not merely simulations. In the production-based curriculum implementation model, students are directly involved in the industry through the implementation of industrial working practices, do work on production units in school, and do practical work in school by doing the job as done in the industry by using industry standards machines.

  20. Industry Operating Experience Process at Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, B.; Bozin, B.; Cizmek, R.

    2012-01-01

    according to Corrective Action Program, which establishes guidance on the effective and efficient use of operating experience information to improve plant/personnel safety, plant reliability and commercial performance. The primary objectives of the Operating Experience Program are to promote the identification and transfer of lessons learned from internal and industry events to the plant personnel, and assure that such lessons are shared between Krsko NPP and the nuclear industry. The Operating Experience Program expects to prevent similar events from occurring at Krsko NPP by increasing plant personnel awareness of previous on-site and industry events and issues. Operating Experience Program should also identify and analyze weaknesses of the minor events and near misses in order to prevent occurrence of significant events. The purpose of this article is to present part of the Krsko NPP Operating Experience Program regarding to industry events. It will describe the methodology for receiving, processing, screening, reviewing, evaluating, status reporting, defining and implementing preventive/corrective actions in response to operating experience information of the events occurring off-site.(author).

  1. Developments in product handling for selfshielded electron processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.; Fishel, M.; Quintal, B.S.; Miyamoto, T.

    1988-01-01

    The safe, successful industrial use of electron processing has depended upon selfshielded product handling designs which provide both efficient inerting control and system maintenance as well as fail-safe radiation shielding. The industry is now entering the period of development in which product handling designs specific to the application are required for expanded industrial use, some of which demand precise parametric control such as product temperature, pressure, tension, etc. Selfshielded product handling designs are reviewed for filamentary, sheet and web product geometries, with some details of the processing parameters achievable in their application. (author)

  2. Oregon’s forest products industry and timber harvest, 2008: industry trends and impacts of the Great Recession through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Gale; Charles E. Keegan; Erik C. Berg; Jean Daniels; Glenn A. Christensen; Colin B. Sorenson; Todd A. Morgan; Paul. Polzin

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Oregon’s 2008 timber harvest through the primary timber processing industry and provides a description of the structure, operation, and condition of Oregon’s forest products industry as a whole. It is the second in a series of reports that update the status of the industry every 5 years. Based on a census conducted in 2009 and 2010, we...

  3. Integrated Monitoring System of Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborski Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated monitoring system for discrete manufacturing processes is presented in the paper. The multilayer hardware and software reference model was developed. Original research are an answer for industry needs of the integration of information flow in production process. Reference model corresponds with proposed data model based on multilayer data tree allowing to describe orders, products, processes and save monitoring data. Elaborated models were implemented in the integrated monitoring system demonstrator developed in the project. It was built on the base of multiagent technology to assure high flexibility and openness on applying intelligent algorithms for data processing. Currently on the base of achieved experience an application integrated monitoring system for real production system is developed. In the article the main problems of monitoring integration are presented, including specificity of discrete production, data processing and future application of Cyber-Physical-Systems. Development of manufacturing systems is based more and more on taking an advantage of applying intelligent solutions into machine and production process control and monitoring. Connection of technical systems, machine tools and manufacturing processes monitoring with advanced information processing seems to be one of the most important areas of near future development. It will play important role in efficient operation and competitiveness of the whole production system. It is also important area of applying in the future Cyber-Physical-Systems that can radically improve functionally of monitoring systems and reduce the cost of its implementation.

  4. Determination of lead 210 in scales from industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Lígia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Barbosa, João B.S., E-mail: ligsfaria@gmail.com, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br, E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br, E-mail: jbsb@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Industrial processes such as oil and gas extraction and groundwater exploitation are examples of installations that can accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) during the extraction and production. Lead-210 deposits in the production can be formed by the same mechanisms that occur in the environment through the support of Radon-222, (where {sup 210}Pb is produced at {sup 222}Rn decay) or without support, as {sup 210}Pb. The objective of this work is to evaluate the mineralogical characteristics and determine the activity of lead-210 in the scales using the X-Ray Diffraction and Gamma Spectrometry techniques. Were analyzed fifteen samples, four scales from oil industry, ten scales from groundwater conductors and one for groundwater supply pipe. The highest activity found in the oil scale and groundwater conductors scale was 0.30 ± 0.06 Bq g{sup -1} and 3.80 ± 0.20 Bq g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  5. Determination of lead 210 in scales from industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Lígia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Barbosa, João B.S.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial processes such as oil and gas extraction and groundwater exploitation are examples of installations that can accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) during the extraction and production. Lead-210 deposits in the production can be formed by the same mechanisms that occur in the environment through the support of Radon-222, (where 210 Pb is produced at 222 Rn decay) or without support, as 210 Pb. The objective of this work is to evaluate the mineralogical characteristics and determine the activity of lead-210 in the scales using the X-Ray Diffraction and Gamma Spectrometry techniques. Were analyzed fifteen samples, four scales from oil industry, ten scales from groundwater conductors and one for groundwater supply pipe. The highest activity found in the oil scale and groundwater conductors scale was 0.30 ± 0.06 Bq g -1 and 3.80 ± 0.20 Bq g -1 , respectively. (author)

  6. Exploiting budding yeast natural variation for industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Francisco A

    2016-11-01

    For the last two decades, the natural variation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been massively exploited with the aim of understanding ecological and evolutionary processes. As a result, many new genetic variants have been uncovered, providing a large catalogue of alleles underlying complex traits. These alleles represent a rich genetic resource with the potential to provide new strains that can cope with the growing demands of industrial fermentation processes. When surveyed in detail, several of these variants have proven useful in wine and beer industries by improving nitrogen utilisation, fermentation kinetics, ethanol production, sulphite resistance and aroma production. Here, I illustrate how allele-specific expression and polymorphisms within the coding region of GDB1 underlie fermentation kinetic differences in synthetic wine must. Nevertheless, the genetic basis of how GDB1 variants and other natural alleles interact in foreign genetic backgrounds remains unclear. Further studies in large sets of strains, recombinant hybrids and multiple parental pairs will broaden our knowledge of the molecular and genetic basis of trait adaptation for utilisation in applied and industrial processes.

  7. Cadmium isotope fractionation of materials derived from various industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinková, Eva; Chrastný, Vladislav; Francová, Michaela; Šípková, Adéla; Čuřík, Jan; Myška, Oldřich; Mižič, Lukáš

    2016-01-25

    Our study represents ϵ(114/110) Cd NIST3108 values of materials resulting from anthropogenic activities such as coal burning, smelting, refining, metal coating, and the glass industry. Additionally, primary sources (ore samples, pigment, coal) processed in the industrial premises were studied. Two sphalerites, galena, coal and pigment samples exhibited ϵ(114/110) CdNIST3108 values of 1.0±0.2, 0.2±0.2, 1.3±0.1, -2.3±0.2 and -0.1±0.3, respectively. In general, all studied industrial processes were accompanied by Cd isotope fractionation. Most of the industrial materials studied were clearly distinguishable from the samples used as a primary source based on ϵ(114/110) Cd NIST3108 values. The heaviest ϵ(114/110) CdNIST3108 value of 58.6±0.9 was found for slag resulting from coal combustion, and the lightest ϵ(114/110) CdNIST3108 value of -23±2.5 was observed for waste material after Pb refinement. It is evident that ϵ(114/110) Cd NIST3108 values depend on technological processes, and in case of incomplete Cd transfer from source to final waste material, every industrial activity creates differences in Cd isotope composition. Our results show that Cd isotope analysis is a promising tool to track the origins of industrial waste products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the textile-mill-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The Congress, in the National Energy Conservation and Policy Act of 1978 (NECPA), directed the Department of Energy to establish materials recovery targets for the metals and metal products, paper and allied products, rubber, and textile-mill-products industries. The targets were developed to provide incentives for using energy-saving recorded materials and to provied a yardstick for measuring progress and improvement in this endeavor. The NECPA indicates that the targets should represent the maximum technically and economically feasible increase in the use of energy-saving recovered materials that each industry can achieve progressively by January 1, 1987. Materials affected by recovered-materials targets include and are limited to aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, iron, steel, paper and associated products, textile-mill, products, and rubber. Using information gathered from the textile-mill-products industry and from other textile-relaed sources, DOE has developed recovered materials targets for that industry. This report presents those targets and their basis and justification. Following an overview of the textile industry, the chapters are: Textile-Mill-Products Industry Operations; Economic Analysis of the Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Governmental and Regulatory Influence on the US Textile Industry; Current Mill Use of Recovered Materials in the Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Limitations on the Use of Recovered Materials in the US Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Materials-Recovery Targets; and Government and Industry Actions That Could Increase the Use of Recovered Materials.

  9. AUTOMATION RESEARCHES IN FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Aydın

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood is a natural polymeric material which has a heterogenic nature. The natural growth process and environmental influence can lead to features in wood that are undesirable for certain applications and are known as defects. Defects in wood affect the visual appearance and structural properties of wood. The type of defect is based on whether growth, environmental conditions, handling or processing causes it. The definition and acceptability of defect types can vary between industries. Wood materials such as log, lumber and parquet are usually subject to a classification before selling and these materials are sold based on their quality grades. The ability to detect internal defects both in the log and lumber can save mills time and processing costs. In this study, information on the automation research conducted for detection the defects in wood materials were given. As a result, it is indicated that there are numerous scanning methods able to detect wood features, but no one method is adequate for all defect types

  10. Dissimilarity between Markovian processes applied to industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Jesús E.; González-López, V. A.; de Andrade, F. H. Kubo

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we introduce a result which solves the problem of how to measure the similarity or discrepancy between two Markovian stochastic processes. The result is based on a consistent measure derived from a generalization of the Bayesian Information Criterion. We apply this concept to a practical problem with the aim of analyzing the similarity or discrepancy between two processes related to fuel alcohol production, which should be considered indistinguishable, according to their technical specifications.

  11. An Open-Source Building System with Digitally Fabricated Components : A design- and production process that makes optimal use of the predicted next industrial revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutjesdijk, P.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    With digital fabrication, our hardware is starting to bear greater resemblance to software. This paper explores the potential of processes used in the development of open-source software for the field of Architecture. The developed design process is connected to a building system that provides new

  12. Condensing boiler applications in the process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qun; Finney, Karen; Li, Hanning; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Jue; Sharifi, Vida; Swithenbank, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Major challenging issues such as climate change, energy prices and fuel security have focussed the attention of process industries on their energy efficiency and opportunities for improvement. The main objective of this research study was to investigate technologies needed to exploit the large amount of low grade heat available from a flue gas condensing system through industrial condensing boilers. The technology and application of industrial condensing boilers in various heating systems were extensively reviewed. As the condensers require site-specific engineering design, a case study was carried out to investigate the feasibility (technically and economically) of applying condensing boilers in a large scale district heating system (40 MW). The study showed that by recovering the latent heat of water vapour in the flue gas through condensing boilers, the whole heating system could achieve significantly higher efficiency levels than conventional boilers. In addition to waste heat recovery, condensing boilers can also be optimised for emission abatement, especially for particle removal. Two technical barriers for the condensing boiler application are corrosion and return water temperatures. Highly corrosion-resistant material is required for condensing boiler manufacture. The thermal design of a 'case study' single pass shell-and-tube condensing heat exchanger/condenser showed that a considerable amount of thermal resistance was on the shell-side. Based on the case study calculations, approximately 4900 m 2 of total heat transfer area was required, if stainless steel was used as a construction material. If the heat transfer area was made of carbon steel, then polypropylene could be used as the corrosion-resistant coating material outside the tubes. The addition of polypropylene coating increased the tube wall thermal resistance, hence the required heat transfer area was approximately 5800 m 2 . Net Present Value (NPV) calculations showed that the choice of a carbon

  13. Remote control of the industry processes. POWERLINK protocol application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wóbel, A.; Paruzel, D.; Paszkiewicz, B.

    2017-08-01

    The present technological development enables the use of solutions characterized by a lower failure rate, and work with greater precision. This allows you to obtain the most efficient production, high speed production and reliability of individual components. The main scope of this article was POWERLINK protocol application for communication with the controller B & R through communication Ethernet for recording process parameters. This enables control of run production cycle using an internal network connected to the PC industry. Knowledge of the most important parameters of the production in real time allows detecting of a failure immediately after occurrence. For this purpose, the position of diagnostic use driver X20CP1301 B&R to record measurement data such as pressure, temperature valve between the parties and the torque required to change the valve setting was made. The use of POWERLINK protocol allows for the transmission of information on the status of every 200 μs.

  14. Hydrogen production using plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.; Whidden, T.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma processing is a promising method of extracting hydrogen from natural gas while avoiding the greenhouse gas (GHG) production typical of other methods such as steam methane reforming. This presentation describes a plasma discharge process based that, in a single reactor pass, can yield hydrogen concentrations of up to 50 % by volume in the product gas mixture. The process is free of GHG's, does not require catalysts and is easily scalable. Chemical and morphological analyses of the gaseous and solid products of the process by gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry, microscopic Raman analyses and electron microscopy respectively are reviewed. The direct production of hydrogen-enriched natural gas (HENG) as a fuel for low pollution internal combustion engines and its purification to high-purity hydrogen (99.99%) from the product gas by pressure swing adsorption (PSA) purifier beds are reviewed. The presentation reviews potential commercial applications for the technology

  15. Expanding Canadian natural gas production will strengthen growth of LP-gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, over 86% of Canadian propane and 70% of Canadian butane production originated in gas plants. Propane and butane production not recovered at gas plants is recovered in other processing facilities, primarily refineries and heavy oil upgraders. As a result, supplies of both products are largely tied to natural gas production, and the outlook for natural gas therefore provides the basis for any discussion on the outlook for gas processing and NGL industry infrastructure. The paper discusses gas processing, economies of scale, NGL supply, expected declines, industry structure and infrastructure, the two major centers of the Canadian NGL industry, new shippers, and required pipeline expansion

  16. Implementation of Haccp in the Mexican Poultry Processing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Siman, Ema; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro Arturo; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; García-Muñiz, José G.; Cadena-Meneses, José A.

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a safety and quality management tool used as major issue in international and domestic trade in food industry. However, detailed information on costs and benefits of HACCP implementation is needed to provide appropriate advice to food processing plants. This paper reports on the perceptions of costs and benefits by the Mexican poultry processing plants and sale destinations. The results suggest that the major costs of implementing and operating HACCP within poultry processing plants are record keeping and external technical advice. The main benefit indicated by the majority of processing plants is a reduction in microbial counts. Over 39% of poultry production is sent to nation-wide chains of supermarkets, and less than 13% is sent to international markets. It was concluded that the adoption of HACCP by the Mexican poultry processing sector is based on the concern to increase and keep the domestic market, rather than to compete in the international market.

  17. Product portfolio management in industry: status quo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ensslin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased competition for manufactured products has compelled companies to seek more creative and innovative alternative to get the market, one strategy is the diversification of products. The management of product portfolio thus assumes a new status in business terms as well as academic research. This article aims to build the knowledge arising from the disclosure of scientific articles increased recognition to the topic Portfolio Products Management and boundaries in the perception of a researcher. For this purpose we used the process ProKnow-C, which identified in the literature a set of 14 articles with scientific recognition and content aligned with the vision of the theme of the researcher. For this sample we identified the four journals with greater participation, the most prominent article, the four authors of the six most relevant and most used keywords. It was evident that few authors recognize the context of the physical environment as singular, and no recognizes limits of knowledge of the decision maker. Related to measurement, the majority relies on ordinal scales, and few use the integration process of the evaluated criteria. Almost of all articles relies on diagnostic descriptions, and only one use numerical diagnosis. None of them had a structured process for improvement actions.

  18. Comparing the co-evolution of production and test code in open source and industrial developer test processes through repository mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rompaey, B.; Zaidman, A.E.; Van Deursen, A.; Demeyer, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper represents an extension to our previous work: Mining software repositories to study coevolution of production & test code. Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Testing, Verification, and Validation (ICST), IEEE Computer Society, 2008; doi:10.1109/ICST.2008.47

  19. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  20. The Managerial Process in the Media Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei NICULESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing an organisation from the media industry has a series of particularities that are the object of this analysis. The main functions of management are studied with the help of relevant examples and case studies taken from the specialized literature. For such a complex, dynamic and versatile industry such as media, with the electronic sector evolving perhaps more rapidly than in any other industry, the challenges facing managers are multiple.

  1. Operation of an industrial radiation processing facility in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres C., Gilberto

    A 10 years old JS-6500 industrial Cobalt 60 irradiator was installed in 1980 at the ININ Nuclear Center in Mexico with 960 kGy. The facility was commissioning in August with some minor changes with respect to the original AECL design, in order to give services to different industries and also to do research in several fields. During that year promotional activities were done to increase interest from industry in the use of radiation processing. In 1981, an interruption due to pool's leakage and its reparation, put the facility out of operation. During the next three years the demand increases but never reach more than 50% if the capacity. In that time, the potential users did not show confidence in the process, even knowing that health authorities approved with no restrictions radiation sterilization. Actually, there are 34 different companies irradiating 48 different products. Even those within the same grouping, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses, so the facility has been operated combining products and valumes. The experiences are presented in this paper. Also, maintenance of the irradiator is discussed and some modifications to the original programme have been done due to the necessity to use local spare parts instead of imported ones.

  2. Utilization of agro-based industrial by-products for biogas production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoc, U.N.; Schnitzer, H. [Graz Univ. of Technology, (Austria). Inst. for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems; Berghold, H. [Joanneum Research Inst. for Sustainable Techniques and Systems (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    Due to the rapid rates of urbanization occurring in many countries in the world, the importance of an efficient and effective solid waste management system and the utilization/reuse of waste are more critical than ever before, especially for agricultural residues and agro-based industrial by-products. Over the past decade, the amount of solid waste generated in Vietnam has been increasing steadily. Numbers are predicted to continue to increase as well. There is significant potential to use the large amount of wastes for biogas conversion processes and for further production of commercial energy. This paper presented starts with estimation and analysis of the amounts of organic waste, agricultural residues, and agro-based industrial by-products generated from food industrial processes using general data sources for Vietnam. A laboratory study examined the use of agro-based industrial by-products and agricultural residues from cassava, sweet potato, pineapple residues, organic wastes, manures as input materials for biogas production in the anaerobic process. This paper provided an overview of Vietnam as a country, as well as a general overview of the amount of organic waste generated in the country. It also discussed the fermentation tests that were conducted to find out the potential of biogas production from some residues. It was concluded that a significant portion of waste could be reused as an environmentally sound source of energy. The utilization of agricultural residues and industrial byproducts as input materials for biogas production will not only reduce the quantity of organic waste thrown into landfills, but also reduce the negative impact on the environment. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs.

  3. Statistical processing of the chemicalanalysis of some meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzelov, Aco; Naseva, Dijana; Bojkov, Goran

    2009-01-01

    The inceptions of industrial meat processing on the territory of the Republic of Macedonja date from the second half of the last century. Today, there are several meat industries, wich have introduced many standards for food safety. However. only one of them having set rounded products (slaughter of cattle and pigs and production of meat products) has implemented HACCP system and IS0-2001-9OOO. This company has its own laboratory where the raw materials and the finished product are examin...

  4. Material flow of production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzelová Marcela

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with material flow of the production process. We present the block diagram of material flow and capacities of engine in various plants each other. In this paper is used IPO (Input – Process – Output diagram. IPO diagram described process with aspect to input and output. Production program regards string of precision, branch and paralel processes with aspect IPO diagram.Process is not important with aspect to events. We are looking on the process as a „black box“. For process is used different materials and raw materials. The foudation for material analysis is detailed model of production process with defined flow material, energy, waste etc.Material flow is organised move of mass (material, money, informations, people etc.. Material analysis is made against destination of material flow (i.e. from ending to beginning. Material analysis is performed on the detection demand of individual materials, stocks, forms, etc.For elementary materials and raw materials in which is based production program and which to create better part of production costs is mainly necessary to dedicate the remark. The fluency of material flow concentrates on the respect of the capacitive parameters for individual node from aspect to standardized qualitative parameters and allowed limits.

  5. MODERN PROCESSES AND EQUIPMENT FOR BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Sidorov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern progress trends of processes of brewing and fermenters for their realization are considered. It is rotined that the today most widespread method of production are speed-up processes on the method of Nathan in one technological stage in one vehicle –cylinder-conical tank — CCT. The next stage of development must be passing to the continuous methods, however these, known enough methods, so far did not find realization. The second directions of development of brewing is distribution of minibrewerys, including restaurant complexes. The basic stimulus of development of this direction is possibility of receipt of the so-called «living» beer — the high-quality unfiltered product, however today large competition make mass productions which mastered the technique of production of «living» beer at industrial level.

  6. DETECTING VERTICAL INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE IN CULTURAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affortunato Francesca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process has always since markedly characterized by the increasing incidence of Intra-Industry Trade. This has been theoretically justified on the grounds of the new approaches emerging in international trade literature, based on imperfect competition and differentiated products. In recent years another distinctive economic feature of European Union is the importance gained by the so called “cultural and creative sectors”, which are often studied and monitored by reports for their great growth potential. We provide here a systematic decomposition of world trade in “cultural/creative goods” for the year 2009 (using harmonised bilateral flows for some 213 products defined as “cultural products” by UNESCO, 2009 into three trade types: inter-industry, intra-industry (IIT in horizontally versus vertically differentiated products. We show that the world trade in cultural goods is significantly characterised by two-way trade of vertically differentiated products. Moreover we specifically focus on the Italian peculiarities in the “cultural trade”: therefore we first work out which ones of the world countries are the “top exporters” of these categories of products and then we compute an indicator of the Italian goods’ quality relative to each of these competitors. Not surprisingly, we find that the most important bilateral IIT intensities in cultural products are observed in Europe. However the presence of developing countries is not unimportant. This can be explained partly to as a consequence of the increasing level of trade integration among some Asian countries and as a consequence of an increasing despecialization of firstly industrialized countries in the production and trading of these products. Finally, with reference to the relative quality of Italian cultural products compared with that of the other top-exporters in these sectors, we find that Italian

  7. Concepts of radiation processes selection for industrial realization. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    For selection of radiation processes in industry the processes usually are analyzing by technological and social effects, power-insensitivity, common efficiency. Technological effect is generally conditioned with uniqueness of radiation technologies which allow to obtain new material or certain one but with new properties. Social effect first of all concerns with influence of radiation technologies on consumer's psychology. Implementation of equipment for radiation technological process for both the new material production and natural materials radiation treatment is related with decision of three tasks: 1) Choice of radiation source; 2). Creation of special equipment for radiation and untraditional stages of the process; 3) Selection of radiation and other conditions ensuring of achievement of optimal technological and economical indexes

  8. ADVANCED FOREIGN METHODS OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM IN THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    N. G. Ageeva; S. V. Gromov

    2014-01-01

    The state and development prospects of administration methods of production program of product development in the aircraft industry is considered. The modern W model of the design process of life cycle is offered. The modern design technology of construction in the aircraft industry is described.

  9. ADVANCED FOREIGN METHODS OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM IN THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ageeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The state and development prospects of administration methods of production program of product development in the aircraft industry is considered. The modern W model of the design process of life cycle is offered. The modern design technology of construction in the aircraft industry is described.

  10. Radiation processing for environmental-friendly industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Sabharwal, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Isotope Division of BARC is equipped with a 2-MeV electron beam (EB) accelerator and a 70,000 Ci Cobalt-60 source: these are mainly utilized to develop technologies of interest to our industries and needs. These include development of polyethylene 'O' rings having dimensional stability above the melting point, radiation degradation of PTFE and enhancement of colour in diamonds. The viscose rayon industry is an important industry in India. This industry faces stiff regulations from environmental pollution control agencies primarily due to the emission of toxic sulphur containing gases, and is in search of ways to reduce the pollution levels associated with the process. The irradiation of cellulose with ionizing radiation results in cellulose activation and reduction in the degree of polymerization (DP). There is a keen interest in utilizing radiation technology in viscose rayon production. We have utilized the 2-MeV electron beam accelerator for reducing the degree of polymerization (DP) of paper pulp. Laboratory scale tests have been carried out to standardize the conditions for processing of pulp having desired degree of polymerization. Our studies show that the use of irradiated pulp can significantly reduce the consumption of CS 2 and be beneficial in reducing pollution associated with the process. An electron-beam irradiation based process has been developed to convert the PTFE waste into a low molecular weight (1x10 4 -1x10 5 ) PTFE powder that can be easily processed into a fine micropowder having industrial demand. Even carbon or metal filled PTFE has been recycled using this process. The conventional method of crosslinking linear polymers by thermo-clinical method leads to the formation of homogeneously crosslinked materials which are extremely slow for industrial applications. Electron beam irradiation has been used to create inhomogeneous crosslinking of a temperature-sensitive polymer- poly(vinyl methyl ether)(PVME) so as to produce a fast response

  11. Safety applications of computer based systems for the process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologna, Sandro; Picciolo, Giovanni; Taylor, Robert

    1997-11-01

    Computer based systems, generally referred to as Programmable Electronic Systems (PESs) are being increasingly used in the process industry, also to perform safety functions. The process industry as they intend in this document includes, but is not limited to, chemicals, oil and gas production, oil refining and power generation. Starting in the early 1970's the wide application possibilities and the related development problems of such systems were recognized. Since then, many guidelines and standards have been developed to direct and regulate the application of computers to perform safety functions (EWICS-TC7, IEC, ISA). Lessons learnt in the last twenty years can be summarised as follows: safety is a cultural issue; safety is a management issue; safety is an engineering issue. In particular, safety systems can only be properly addressed in the overall system context. No single method can be considered sufficient to achieve the safety features required in many safety applications. Good safety engineering approach has to address not only hardware and software problems in isolation but also their interfaces and man-machine interface problems. Finally, the economic and industrial aspects of the safety applications and development of PESs in process plants are evidenced throughout all the Report. Scope of the Report is to contribute to the development of an adequate awareness of these problems and to illustrate technical solutions applied or being developed

  12. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  13. Modeling intermediate product selection under production and storage capacity limitations in food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur Alper; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the food industry products are usually characterized by their recipes, which are specified by various quality attributes. For end products, this is given by customer requirements, but for intermediate products, the recipes can be chosen in such a way that raw material procurement costs...... with production and inventory planning, thereby considering the production and storage capacity limitations. The resulting model can be used to solve an important practical problem typical for many food processing industries....

  14. Development of continuous pharmaceutical production processes supported by process systems engineering methods and tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Woodley, John

    2012-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is undergoing a radical transition towards continuous production processes. Systematic use of process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools form the key to achieve this transition in a structured and efficient way.......The pharmaceutical industry is undergoing a radical transition towards continuous production processes. Systematic use of process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools form the key to achieve this transition in a structured and efficient way....

  15. Industrial production, capacity utilization, and electric power tape. Data file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The industrial production index is a measure of the physical output of the nation's factories, mines, and electric and gas utilities expressed as a percentage of production in a base period, currently 1987. Capacity indexes, based on the Federal Reserve's industrial production indexes, are estimated for total industry, which covers manufacturing, mining, and utilities industries. Both the capacity and output indexes are expressed as a percentage of 1987 output. Utilization rates are then derived by dividing the capacity index into the associated production indexes.

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: Public Opinion, Brigade Contract, Cost Accounting, Industrial Trade, Agricultural Machine, Paperwork, Story Writer, Management Style, Monograph, Deficit Economics, Production, Theory, Turnover...

  17. 78 FR 66745 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... provide product-specific guidance on the design of BE studies to support abbreviated new drug applications... industry entitled ``Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products,'' which explained the process...,'' which explained the process that would be used to make product-specific BE recommendations available to...

  18. 77 FR 56851 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... provide product-specific guidance on the design of BE studies to support abbreviated new drug applications... industry entitled ``Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products,'' which explained the process...,'' which explained the process that would be used to make product-specific BE recommendations available to...

  19. 77 FR 16842 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... provide product-specific guidance on the design of BE studies to support abbreviated new drug applications... industry entitled ``Bioequivalence Recommendations for Specific Products,'' which explained the process...,'' which explained the process that would be used to make product-specific BE recommendations available to...

  20. Product quality driven food process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Consumers evaluate food products on their quality, and thus the product quality is a main target in industrial food production. In the last decade there has been a remarkable increase of interest of the food industry to put food product quality central in innovation. However, quality itself is

  1. The legitimacy of the "National Reorganization Process" locally. Actors and discursive strategies around the First International Exhibition of Production, Industry and Commerce. Junín, 1977

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Máspoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to explore the strategies of legitimation that were deployed in a space bounded local during the first stage of the so-called "National Reorganization Process" in Argentina. From a vision focused on the actors, in the analysis of speech, and in the local history will be analyzed the speeches that officials and personalities of national importance, provincial and local made during the First International Exhibition that took place in the city of Buenos Aires (Junín in October 1977. They try to envision the ideals and representations constructed around the figure of the agricultural producers of the mayors and municipalities, as well as links with the symbolic dimension of authoritarian project which sought to sustain that dictatorship

  2. Designing scheduling concept and computer support in the food processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Donk, DP; van Wezel, W; Gaalman, G; Bititci, US; Carrie, AS

    1998-01-01

    Food processing industries cope with a specific production process and a dynamic market. Scheduling the production process is thus important in being competitive. This paper proposes a hierarchical concept for structuring the scheduling and describes the (computer) support needed for this concept.

  3. PRODUCT PROMOTION STRATEGY IN SPORTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla V. Nosova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sports industry is presented like the partof entertainment industry. The authorsemphasize the main income items ofSnowsports unions in Russia and abroad.This paper presents the analysis of development of commercial successful productby foreign federations. The article gives new ways of raising the attractiveness and profitability of the Russian sport.

  4. Summary of some feasibility studies for site-specific solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Curing or Drying; Automobile Manufacture; and Food Processing and Preparation. For each application, site and process data, system design, and performance and cost estimates are summarized.

  5. Recent Developments in the Crystallization Process: Toward the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo Gao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization is one of the oldest separation and purification unit operations, and has recently contributed to significant improvements in producing higher-value products with specific properties and in building efficient manufacturing processes. In this paper, we review recent developments in crystal engineering and crystallization process design and control in the pharmaceutical industry. We systematically summarize recent methods for understanding and developing new types of crystals such as co-crystals, polymorphs, and solvates, and include several milestones such as the launch of the first co-crystal drug, Entresto (Novartis, and the continuous manufacture of Orkambi (Vertex. Conventional batch and continuous processes, which are becoming increasingly mature, are being coupled with various control strategies and the recently developed crystallizers are thus adapting to the needs of the pharmaceutical industry. The development of crystallization process design and control has led to the appearance of several new and innovative crystallizer geometries for continuous operation and improved performance. This paper also reviews major recent progress in the area of process analytical technology.

  6. Energetics of Eco-Industry of Food Concentrates Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of eco-industry in food production is formulated. The problems of processes of dehydration, heat balance and prospects of technologies directed energy action are considered. We offer the ways of solving an energy problems in product drying. The hypostases are formulated and the possibilities of laminar and turbulent diffusion to heat transfer mechanisms are analyzed. Increasing of drying speed with barodiffusional flows involvement is demonstrated. The extraction kinetic model is given in differential form. The prospects of usage directed action principles in target compounds extraction processes are analyzed. The analysis of drying technologies energy efficiency on base new similarity (similarity of energy action is carried out. We demonstrated that impulse electromagnetic field can trigger in basically new effect, which one named mechanodiffusion.

  7. Cast iron components for the wind power industry. Development of resource saving products and processes in global competition. Final report; Gjutgods till vindkraftsindustrin. Utveckling av resurssnaala produkter och processer i global konkurrens. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Conny; Gustafsson, Ingela; Petku, Damir [Swedish Foundry Association, Joenkoeping (SE)] [and others

    2006-01-15

    The demand for large cast components in ductile iron for wind power plants has increased strongly. As wind power plants become larger, today up to 4-5 MW, the components grow with them. Weights around 20 tons become common, and are demanded in growing numbers. For most Swedish foundries production of such size components is impossible, but for a few, accustomed to large castings a new growing market has opened. Higher prices for scrap and electricity is however a menace to profit. This project concentrates on factors that may optimize the flow in production, reduce rejections, reduce the consumption of new sand, and to reduce energy consumption in all processes. The project has resulted in ten separate reports, that are included in this publication.

  8. Quantitative studies and sensory analyses on the influence of cultivar, spatial tissue distribution, and industrial processing on the bitter off-taste of carrots (Daucus carota l.) and carrot products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czepa, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2004-07-14

    Although various reports pointed to 6-methoxymellein (1) as a key player imparting the bitter taste in carrots, activity-guided fractionation experiments recently gave evidence that not this isocoumarin but bisacetylenic oxylipins contribute mainly to the off-taste. Among these, (Z)-heptadeca-1,9-dien-4,6-diyn-3-ol (2), (Z)-3-acetoxy-heptadeca-1,9-dien-4,6-diyn-8-ol (3), and (Z)-heptadeca-1,9-dien-4,6-diyn-3,8-diol (falcarindiol, 4) have been successfully identified. In the present study, an analytical procedure was developed enabling an accurate quantitation of 1-4 in carrots and carrot products. To achieve this, (E)-heptadeca-1,9-dien-4,6-diyn-3,8-diol was synthesized as a suitable internal standard for the quantitative analysis of the bisacetylenes. On the basis of taste activity values, calculated as the ratio of the concentration and the human sensory threshold of a compound, a close relationship between the concentration of 4 and the intensity of the bitter off-taste in carrots, carrot puree, and carrot juice was demonstrated, thus showing that compound 4 might offer a new analytical measure for an objective evaluation of the quality of carrot products. Quantitative analysis on the intermediate products in industrial carrot processing revealed that removing the peel as well as green parts successfully decreased the concentrations in the final carrot puree by more than 50%.

  9. Discovery of practical production processes for arylsulfur pentafluorides and their higher homologues, bis- and tris(sulfur pentafluorides: Beginning of a new era of “super-trifluoromethyl” arene chemistry and its industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruo Umemoto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Various arylsulfur pentafluorides, ArSF5, have long been desired in both academic and industrial areas, and ArSF5 compounds have attracted considerable interest in many areas such as medicines, agrochemicals, and other new materials, since the highly stable SF5 group is considered a “super-trifluoromethyl group” due to its significantly higher electronegativity and lipophilicity. This article describes the first practical method for the production of various arylsulfur pentafluorides and their higher homologues, bis- and tris(sulfur pentafluorides, from the corresponding diaryl disulfides or aryl thiols. The method consists of two steps: (Step 1 treatment of a diaryl disulfide or an aryl thiol with chlorine in the presence of an alkali metal fluoride, and (step 2 treatment of the resulting arylsulfur chlorotetrafluoride with a fluoride source, such as ZnF2, HF, and Sb(III/V fluorides. The intermediate arylsulfur chlorotetrafluorides were isolated by distillation or recrystallization and characterized. The aspects of these new reactions are revealed and reaction mechanisms are discussed. As the method offers considerable improvement over previous methods in cost, yield, practicality, applicability, and large-scale production, the new processes described here can be employed as the first practical methods for the economical production of various arylsulfur pentafluorides and their higher homologues, which could then open up a new era of “super-trifluoromethyl” arene chemistry and its applications in many areas.

  10. Production and delivery of sealed radioactive sources for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuturici, Ioan Liviu; Gentea, Cristian

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results obtained at the hot cell facility (LEPI) of the RAAN-SCN Pitesti in the activity of production and delivery of sealed radioactive sources ( 192 Ir). The sealed sources are produced by encapsulation using tungsten gas welding of iridium pellets in stainless steel capsules. The iridium pellets are produced at the materials department of the SCN and are irradiated in the TRIGA-SSR. At the end of the irradiation time the pellets are transferred to the hot cell facility for processing. The sealed sources are delivered to different customers from the Romanian industry, to be used for nondestructive testing of the welded joints, moulds and reinforced concrete. Particularly, the paper contains details about: - low sheet for sealed source production and delivery; - types of sealed sources produced and delivered; - results of the production activity between 1993-2000. (authors)

  11. Electron beam processing in food industry - technology and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallien, Cl.L.; Ferradini, C.; Paquin, J.; Sadat, T.

    1985-01-01

    After nearly 40 years of research and thousands of positive experimentations, the fact that ionising radiations could be used for food preservation has been taken into account by the joint Expert Committee of the UN agencies, FAO, WHO and IAEA, who recommended this type of treatment in 1981 allowing doses up to 10 kGy. The market for irradiated food is actually small, but it could develop rapidly. National authorities who establish the regulations are becoming very active: so, in 1984, the US FDA has issued a proposed rule to regulate the commercial applications of food irradiation. It is timely to propose a MODEL that should really convince administration, food industry executives and consumers organizations that food irradiation is more than academic speculation: an industrial processing and an economical imperative. To this aim, we have defined an integrated model assembling (a) a sample product; (b) the optimal treatment conditions for this product, including a reliable dosimetry control system; and (c) a most efficient and competitive treatment unit that can suit a wide range of industrial needs. (author)

  12. Fundamental Theories and Key Technologies for Smart and Optimal Manufacturing in the Process Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the significant requirements for transforming and promoting the process industry, we present the major limitations of current petrochemical enterprises, including limitations in decision-making, production operation, efficiency and security, information integration, and so forth. To promote a vision of the process industry with efficient, green, and smart production, modern information technology should be utilized throughout the entire optimization process for production, management, and marketing. To focus on smart equipment in manufacturing processes, as well as on the adaptive intelligent optimization of the manufacturing process, operating mode, and supply chain management, we put forward several key scientific problems in engineering in a demand-driven and application-oriented manner, namely: ① intelligent sensing and integration of all process information, including production and management information; ② collaborative decision-making in the supply chain, industry chain, and value chain, driven by knowledge; ③ cooperative control and optimization of plant-wide production processes via human-cyber-physical interaction; and ④ life-cycle assessments for safety and environmental footprint monitoring, in addition to tracing analysis and risk control. In order to solve these limitations and core scientific problems, we further present fundamental theories and key technologies for smart and optimal manufacturing in the process industry. Although this paper discusses the process industry in China, the conclusions in this paper can be extended to the process industry around the world.

  13. Economic evaluation of the industrial solar production of lime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Anton; Gremaud, Nicolas; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    The use of concentrated solar energy in place of fossil fuels for driving the endothermic calcination reaction CaCO 3 → CaO + CO 2 at above 1300 K has the potential of reducing CO 2 emissions by 20% in a state-of-the-art lime plant and up to 40% in a conventional cement plant. An economic assessment for an industrial solar calcination plant with 25 MW th solar input indicates that the cost of solar produced lime ranges between 128 and 157 $/t, about twice the current selling price of conventional lime. The solar production of high purity lime for special sectors in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry might be competitive with conventional fossil fuel based calcination processes at current fuel prices

  14. Treatment of Municipal and Industrial Waste by Radiation Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years the effort in science and technology is shifting from conventional technologies preventing the pollution of air, water and soil, towards processing by gamma or by electron beam (EB) irradiation in order to prevent pollution, rather than curing the problems caused by production processes, which are not optimized with regard to pollution control. Radiation processing may help to improve the environmental situation in two aspects : It provides alternatives to conventional technologies for the cleaning of air, flue gases and water,...etc, and it also helps to realize clean processes for preventing pollution in the first place. This paper will outline the basic principles of radiation processing for waste streams of environmental relevance, will summarize the state-of -the-art in environmental applications of radiation processing to show both the advantages and the limitations of the radiation processing of waste streams, and to highlight the environmental and economic benefits of clean processes made possible by radiation processing applied to municipal and industrial waste. Reference is made to gamma and EB radiation sources, and description of new technologies is presented

  15. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  16. Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Owen Evans

    2011-10-13

    Under this program, Aspen Aerogels has developed an industrial insulation called Pyrogel HT, which is 4-5 times more thermally efficient than current non-aerogel technology. Derived from nanoporous silica aerogels, Pyrogel HT was specifically developed to address a high temperature capability gap not currently met with Aspen Aerogels{trademark} flagship product, Pyrogel XT. Pyrogel XT, which was originally developed on a separate DOE contract (DE-FG36-06GO16056), was primarily optimized for use in industrial steam processing systems, where application temperatures typically do not exceed 400 C. At the time, further improvements in thermal performance above 400 C could not be reasonably achieved for Pyrogel XT without significantly affecting other key material properties using the current technology. Cumulative sales of Pyrogel HT into domestic power plants should reach $125MM through 2030, eventually reaching about 10% of the total insulation market share in that space. Global energy savings would be expected to scale similarly. Over the same period, these sales would reduce domestic energy consumption by more than 65 TBtu. Upon branching out into all industrial processes in the 400 C-650 C regime, Pyrogel HT would reach annual sales levels of $150MM, with two-thirds of that being exported.

  17. Catalytic arylation methods from the academic lab to industrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    This "hands-on" approach to the topic of arylation consolidates the body of key research over the last ten years (and up to around 2014) on various catalytic methods which involve an arylation process. Clearly structured, the chapters in this one-stop resource are arranged according to the reaction type, and focus on novel, efficient and sustainable processes, rather than the well-known and established cross-coupling methods. The entire contents are written by two authors with academic and industrial expertise to ensure consistent coverage of the latest developments in the field, as well as industrial applications, such as C-H activation, iron and gold-catalyzed coupling reactions, cycloadditions or novel methodologies using arylboron reagents. A cross-section of relevant tried-and-tested experimental protocols is included at the end of each chapter for putting into immediate practice, along with patent literature. Due to its emphasis on efficient, "green" methods and industrial applications of the products c...

  18. Improvement of quality management in the processes of tobacco production

    OpenAIRE

    Miceski, Trajko

    2004-01-01

    Quality management, now more than ever, occupies an important place in tobacco production. It presents, above all, a continuous process aimed to satisfy the requirements of both the persons employed in tobacco industry and the layers.

  19. Project and Production Management in the Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Ho Ko

    2012-01-01

    In this issue, the Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management (EPPM-Journal) presents five original research papers related to project and production management in the construction industry from authors in Africa, Asia, and Europe.

  20. Fixed bed gasification for production of industrial fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of technical and economic evaluations of six commercially available, fixed-bed coal gasification processes for the production of industrial fuel gas. The study was performed for DOE and is intended to assist industrial companies in exploring the feasibility of producing gaseous fuels for both retrofit and new industrial plant situations. The report includes a technical analysis of the physical configuration, performance capabilities, and commercial experiments to-date for both air-blown and oxygen-blown fixed bed gasifiers. The product gas from these gasifiers is analyzed economically for three different degrees of cleanliness: (1) hot raw gas, (2) dust-, tar-, and oil-free gas, and (3) dust-, tar-, oil-free and desulfurized gas. The evaluations indicate that low-Btu gases produced from fixed bed gasifiers constitute one of the most logical short-term solutions for helping ease the shortage of natural gas for industrial fuel applications because the technology is well-proven and has been utilized on a commercial scale for several decades both in this country and overseas; time from initiation of design to commercial operation is about two years; the technology is not complicated to construct, operate, or maintain; and a reliable supply of product gas can be generated on-site. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed bed gasification technology are listed. The cost of the low Btu gas is estimated at $2 to $4 per MM Btu depending on gas purity, cost of coal ($20 to $50 per ton) and a number of specified assumptions with respect to financing, reliability, etc. (LTN)

  1. Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hayden, H. Wayne [Metals Manufacture Process and Controls Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelini, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Robert E. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States); Headrick, William L. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Refractories are a class of materials of critical importance to manufacturing industries with high-temperature unit processes. This study describes industrial refractory applications and identifies refractory performance barriers to energy efficiency for processing. The report provides recommendations for R&D pathways leading to improved refractories for energy-efficient manufacturing and processing.

  2. Bio production of Vanillin from Agro-Industrial Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd EI-Aziz, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes an environmentally friendly vanillin production processes from agro industrial wastes. Ferulic 'acid is a well-known product of cereal. brans and sugarcane bagasse lignin degradation, ferulic acid and cellulose degradation sugars were used as feedstock for the vanillin bio production by Debaryomyces hansenii. The bioconversion of ferulic into vanillin by Debaryomyces hansenii was affected by the type and amount of ferulic acid. Addition of purified ferulic acid (2 g/l) and using of adapted yeast cells. increase the yield of vanillin and decrease the secondary products. Yeast extract (3 g/l) and glucose (20 g/l) proved to be the best component as co-substrates for bio production of vanillin. Variable aeration conditions were tested by simultaneously vanilIin the ratio of medium to vessel volume and the agitation speed. under excess aeration, oxidation of a, significant portion of vanillin to vanillic acid occur, thus reducing the vanillin yield. Increasing the inoculum size up to 1 g/I and using low doses of gamma irradiation (0.25 kGy) increase the vanillin production. Under optimum conditions vanillin production from ferulic acid by Debaryomyces attained very high level of 1531 mg/1 with a molar yield of 76.5%

  3. Industry of petroleum and its by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Antoine

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of petroleum industry and its by-products is presented. Petroleum, since its origin and all steps of its industry including its detection, production and transportation is described. A historical description of the production and formation of fuels under the ground strates through million of years, as well as its chemical composition are presented. A full description of refining petrol and all by-products derived is given. Pictures and tables enhance the explanation

  4. Integrated durability process in product development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompetzki, M.; Saadetian, H.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation describes the integrated durability process in product development. Each of the major components of the integrated process are described along with a number of examples of how integrated durability assessment has been used in the ground vehicle industry. The durability process starts with the acquisition of loading information, either physically through loads measurement or virtually through multibody dynamics. The loading information is then processed and characterized for further analysis. Durability assessment was historically test based and completed through field or laboratory evaluation. Today, it is common that both the test and CAE environments are used together in durability assessment. Test based durability assessment is used for final design sign-off but is also critically important for correlating CAE models, in order to investigate design alternatives. There is also a major initiative today to integrate the individual components into a process, by linking applications and providing a framework to communicate information as well as manage all the data involved in the entire process. Although a single process is presented, the details of the process can vary significantly for different products and applications. Recent applications that highlight different parts of the durability process are given. As well as an example of how integration of software tools between different disciplines (MBD, FE and fatigue) not only simplifies the process, but also significantly improves it. (author)

  5. Freezing and thawing of processed meat in an industrial freezing tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Glaucio Antonio Marini; Eduarda Molardi Bainy; Marcelo Kaminski Lenzi; Marcos Lúcio Corazza

    2014-01-01

    Freezing is a commonly used preservation method in the meat industry. The understanding of the product behavior during the freezing process can assist in a better process management and quality control. This work reports the study of freezing and thawing of three types of processed meat in order to determine process parameters in an industrial forced‑air freezing tunnel at ‑30oC. Chicken sausages (frankfurter type), mortadela (bologna type) and mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) were st...

  6. Administrative and operational strategies of the coffee processing industry department of Caldas (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Octavio Diaz Arango

    2016-07-01

    domestic and international markets. Furthermore, it was concluded that quality management depends on operating performance and productivity when it comes to increasing the competitiveness of the coffee processing industries in the Department of Caldas (Colombia.

  7. Benefits of nitrogen for food, fibre and industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoumann Jensen, L.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Hoek, K.W. van der; Damgaard Poulsen, H.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Pallière, C.; Lammel, J.; Brentrup, F.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Willems, J.; Grinsven, H. van

    2011-01-01

    Nature of the issue • Reactive nitrogen (N r ) has well-documented positive eff ects in agricultural and industrial production systems, human nutrition and food security. Limited N r supply was a key constraint to European food and industrial production, which has been overcome by Nr from the

  8. The Four Corners timber harvest and forest products industry, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Erik C. Berg; Jean M. Daniels; Mike Thompson

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in the "Four Corners" States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) during calendar year 2007, describes the composition and operations of the region's primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as...

  9. The Four Corners timber harvest and forest products industry, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Charles E. Keegan; Alfred L. Chase; Mike T. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in the "Four Corners" States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) during calendar year 2002, describes the composition and operations of the region's primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as...

  10. The global position of the U S forest products industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear; Michaela O. Foster

    2015-01-01

    The United States’ share of global industrial roundwood production has declined since the 1990s. We reviewed data from 1961-2013 to evaluate the extent of this decline for industrial roundwood and derived secondary forest products compared to other major producing countries. We find that the U.S. global share of industrial roundwood peaked at 28 percent in 1999 but...

  11. ECONOMIC ESSENCE OF MODERN INVESTMENT PROCESSES IN THE GRAIN PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Kanashkina

    2015-11-01

    s industrial development feed processing industry in the transformation of the economy. Results. Based on the analysis of modern approaches to conditions of increased in-vestment and innovation, continuous improvement of its effectiveness concluded that the creation of fair competition. Civilized competitive environment ensures that each share of investment in innovation combined with a positive effect – increases the number of jobs and the amount of product reduces the cost per unit of output. Significant investment resources for the industry can be attracted by privatization, provided that it will be transparent and competitive. To attract investment in such an important sector for Ukraine, it is necessary to understand and improve the motivation of investors, taking into account the European integration process: the main promising markets for products and services; favorable geographic location of investment targets; increase their competitiveness through the organization of production on the territory of a party that receives the in-vestment; low labor costs in its qualifications.

  12. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapas, Richard B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colwell, Jeffery A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.

  13. Rubber Plastics Processing Industry Training Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industrial Training International, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The training adviser's role is changing from trainer to problem analyst. Some of the problems being dealt with include: (1) the school to industry transition, (2) new training methods for the 16 to 18 year old entry worker, (3) foreign language training, (4) safety programs, and (5) tire-fitter training. (MW)

  14. Present status on development of industrial radiation process plants in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rela, Paulo Roberto; Sampa, Maria Helena O.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays there is a big effort from industry and agribusiness community to aggregate value to the products manufactured in the country in order to become competitive in the international market. The irradiation processing have being extensively applied as effective and reliable technique for the sterilization for medical care products and the reduction of bioburden in food ingredients. For other materials and process production this technique already is competitive and environmentally friendly. Works are being concentrated by the research institutes driving the efforts on becoming available and spreading the results of their investigations and developing irradiation facilities approaching the industry and agribusiness to include the irradiation process in production chain. (author)

  15. Management of Industrial Processes with Programmable Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Tufoi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In a modern economy, automation (the control is primarily to raise the competitiveness of a product, either directly through price or quality, or indirectly through the improvement of working conditions of staff productive. The control of industrial processes involves the management of dynamic systems that have continuous states. These systems are described by differential equations and, in general, analog inputs and outputs. Management of these systems is achieved, in general, with classical automation, by automation or with analog computers which contains modules with input / output analog performance. If states, inputs and outputs of a system can be modeled using binary variables, then these systems can be driven with Programmable Logic Controller.

  16. Potential industrial market for process heat from nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, R.W.

    1976-07-01

    A specific segment of industrial process heat use has been examined in detail to identify individual plant locations throughout the United states where nuclear generated steam may be a viable alternative. Five major industries have been studied: paper, chemicals, petroleum, rubber, and primary metals. For these industries, representing 75 percent of the total industrial steam consumption, the individual plant locations within the U.S. using steam in large quantities have been located and characterized as to fuel requirements

  17. Development of Entrepreneurship in Complementary and Processing Industries in Khouzestan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Reza Ommani

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify and analyze factors affecting development of entrepreneurship in complementary and processing industries of citrus products at Khouzestan province, Iran. The Statistical population of this study consisted of all managers in processing and complementary industries of citrus products in Khouzestan province (N=89). By census method all managers were selected for participation in the study. Return rate was 84% (N=75). The main...

  18. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leather industry is characterized as an industry that uses many chemicals and large quantity of water. From the processes, wastes are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. In developing countries including Ethiopia, many leather industries discharge wastes into the ...

  19. THE TOTAL SOLUTION FOR DEVELOPING NEW PRODUCTS OF FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRIŞCU Mariana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new solutions for shoemakers, for developing new products and new markets of footwear industry using the basic function of the system CRISPIN Dynamics CAD SUITE. These are the key issues - this is why CRISPIN Dynamics CAD SUITE has developed a range of quality software products to give the shoemaker a major advantage in shoe-making. This application offer functions for creating realistic looking designs of footwear products and for flattening the styles for development in 2D. There are also facilities to re-centre front and back guide lines, change foot (no need to re-digitize and set the correct heel height and roll. It is also possible to create guidelines to match with the last and extend the last for a boot design. The last type can also be changed to a type that allows the entire last surface to be used for a design. The system brings cutting-edge CAD/CAM technology to footwear designers providing benefits through all stages of their product development process. Major benefits include the ability to visualize a design for appraisal and the transfer of the design into CRISPIN 2D pattern development products. This allows increased productivity, shorter lead times, accurate interpretation of 3D designs in 2D and a reduction in the number of samples needed before approval of the design.

  20. Developing engineering design core competences through analysis of industrial products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2011-01-01

    Most product development work carried out in industrial practice is characterised by being incremental, i.e. the industrial company has had a product in production and on the market for some time, and now time has come to design a new and upgraded variant. This type of redesign project requires...... a course module, in which students develop knowledge, understanding and skills, which will prepare them for being able to participate in and contribute to redesign projects in industrial practice. In the course module Product Analysis and Redesign that has run for 8 years we have developed and refined...

  1. Arsenic Removal from Water Using Industrial By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislava M. Lekić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, removal of arsenic ions using two industrial by-products as adsorbents is represented. Removal of As(III and As(V from water was carried out with industrial by-products: residual from the groundwater treatment process, iron-manganese oxide coated sand (IMOCS, and blast furnace slag from steel production (BFS, both inexpensive and locally available. In addition, the BFS was modified in order to minimise its deteriorating impact on the initial water quality. Kinetic and equilibrium studies were carried out using batch and fixed-bed column adsorption techniques under the conditions that are likely to occur in real water treatment systems. To evaluate the application for real groundwater treatment, the capacities of the selected materials were further compared to those exhibited by commercial sorbents, which were examined under the same experimental conditions. IMOCS was found to be a good and inexpensive sorbent for arsenic, while BFS and modified slag showed the highest affinity towards arsenic. All examined waste materials exhibited better sorption performances for As(V. The maximum sorption capacity in the batch reactor was obtained for blast furnace slag, 4040 μgAs(V/g.

  2. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Julia R.; Boehm, Michael W.; Drummond, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Given a large flow rate of CRT glass ∼10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. ► The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. ► Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. ► Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. ► Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

  3. Estimation of CO2 emission for each process in the Japanese steel industry: a process analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Tonooka, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The CO 2 emission for each process in the Japanese steel industry is estimated by a process analysis using statistical data in order to evaluate the possibility of reducing CO 2 emissions. The emission factor of CO 2 for each product and also for crude steel produced from an integrated steel plant route and an electric arc furnaces route is estimated and compared. The CO 2 emissions can be estimated from production amounts of products for each process and for crude steel. The CO 2 emission of blast furnaces is the largest and that of rolling and piping follows. The emission factor of CO 2 of crude steel produced from an integrated steel plant route is approximately 3.8 times as high as that produced via an electric arc furnace route. (Author)

  4. [Fermentation production of microbial catalase and its application in textile industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongxu; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2010-11-01

    Microbial catalase is an important industrial enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. This enzyme has great potential of application in food, textile and pharmaceutical industries. The production of microbial catalase has been significantly improved thanks to advances in bioprocess engineering and genetic engineering. In this paper, we review the progresses in fermentation production of microbial catalase and its application in textile industry. Among these progresses, we will highlight strain isolation, substrate and environment optimization, enzyme induction, construction of engineering strains and application process optimization. Meanwhile, we also address future research trends for microbial catalase production and its application in textile industry. Molecular modification (site-directed mutagenesis and directed revolution) will endue catalase with high pH and temperature stabilities. Improvement of catalase production, based on the understanding of induction mechanism and the process control of recombinant stain fermentation, will further accelerate the application of catalase in textile industry.

  5. Production optimisation in the petrochemical industry by hierarchical multivariate modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Magnus; Furusjoe, Erik; Jansson, Aasa

    2004-06-01

    This project demonstrates the advantages of applying hierarchical multivariate modelling in the petrochemical industry in order to increase knowledge of the total process. The models indicate possible ways to optimise the process regarding the use of energy and raw material, which is directly linked to the environmental impact of the process. The refinery of Nynaes Refining AB (Goeteborg, Sweden) has acted as a demonstration site in this project. The models developed for the demonstration site resulted in: Detection of an unknown process disturbance and suggestions of possible causes; Indications on how to increase the yield in combination with energy savings; The possibility to predict product quality from on-line process measurements, making the results available at a higher frequency than customary laboratory analysis; Quantification of the gradually lowered efficiency of heat transfer in the furnace and increased fuel consumption as an effect of soot build-up on the furnace coils; Increased knowledge of the relation between production rate and the efficiency of the heat exchangers. This report is one of two reports from the project. It contains a technical discussion of the result with some degree of detail. A shorter and more easily accessible report is also available, see IVL report B1586-A.

  6. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2001. Production statistics (1992-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This is the thirty-fifth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1992-2001 for about 200 countries and areas

  7. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2000. Production statistics (1991-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This is the thirty-third in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1991-2000 for about 200 countries and areas

  8. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2002. Production statistics (1993-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This is the thirty-sixth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title 'The Growth of World industry' and the next eight editions under the title 'Yearbook of Industrial Statistics'. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1993-2002 for about 200 countries and areas

  9. The procurement process in the hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pavia, Nadia; Ivanovic, Sasa

    2007-01-01

    Procurement has a vital role in the hotel industry, with hotel performance depending largely upon how well it operates. This role consists of ensuring the continuous supply of a hotel and its departments with the materials and equipment required to operate a hotel, enable its warehousing and transportation divisions to function properly and ensure the sales of the prepared services. The organisational structure of a hotel and its procurement department needs to be designed in such a way that ...

  10. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...... methodology can assist the product developer in development of more environmentally friendly products. Finally, common experience gained will be discussed....

  12. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...... methodology can assist the product developer in development of more environmentally friendly products. Finally, common experience gained will be discussed....

  13. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for three industrial cases how a newly develope...... LCA methodology can assist the product developer in development of more environmentally friendly products. Finally, common experience gained will be discussed. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. [Evaluation of microbial contamination of linens in industrial laundry processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Adriana; Coroneo, Valentina; Dessì, Sandro; Brandas, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Laundering linens and protecting them from microbiological recontamination are critical issues for the hotel and food industries and especially for hospitals. This study was performed to evaluate a sample of industrial laundries in Sardinia (Italy), to assess their compliance with national hygienic and sanitary regulations, along the complete laundering process. Study results indicate that industrial laundering processes are effective and that better awareness of staff who handle laundered textiles is required to reduce the risk of recontamination.

  15. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Creating plant molecular factories for industrial and nutritional isoprenoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Marilise; Enfissi, Eugenia Ma; Almeida, Juliana; Fraser, Paul D

    2018-02-01

    Chemical refining is a highly efficient process that has driven industrialisation and globalisation. However, dwindling fuel reserves and climatic fluctuation are now imposing key societal and economic challenges to health and welfare provision, agriculture, manufacturing outputs and energy. Plants are potentially exploitable 'green' chemical factories, with vast chemical diversity that can be used for the discovery and production of food, feed, medicines and biomaterials. Despite notable advances, plant based production under real-life scenarios remains, in most cases, economically uncompetitive when compared to inherently non-sustainable petrochemical based processes. In the present review the strategies available and those emerging will be described. Furthermore, how can the new evolving molecular tools such as genome editing be utilised to create a new paradigm of plant-based production? To illustrate the present status quo, we have chosen the isoprenoids as the class of natural products. These compounds display vast chemical diversity and have been used across multiple industrial sectors as medicines, supplements in food and feedstuffs, colourants and fragrances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Industrial Symbiosis as a Social Process : Developing theory and methods for the longitudinal investigation of social dynamics in the emergence and development of industrial symbiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Spekkink (Wouter)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIndustrial symbiosis is a process in which firms in regional industrial systems engage in the exchange of by-products and sharing of utilities and services in order to improve their environmental and economic performance. Industrial symbiosis has a prominent social dimension. To

  18. Thermal storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of thermal storage subsystems for the intermediate and high temperature (100 C to 600 C) solar industrial process heat generation is presented. Primary emphasis is focused on buffering and diurnal storage as well as total energy transport. In addition, advanced thermal storage concepts which appear promising for future solar industrial process heat applications are discussed.

  19. Cross-industry innovation processes strategic implications for telecommunication companies

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Based on multiple case study analysis, focusing on scalable service innovation, the present study provides a practical process model that shall serve telecommunication companies as a guideline while conducting strategic cross-industry innovation projects. The findings also pay attention to characteristics in cross-industry collaboration, organizational preconditions and strategic deliberations and postulate propositions for present theoretical innovation process models.

  20. Applying advanced digital signal processing techniques in industrial radioisotopes applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, H.K.A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotopes can be used to obtain signals or images in order to recognize the information inside the industrial systems. The main problems of using these techniques are the difficulty of identification of the obtained signals or images and the requirement of skilled experts for the interpretation process of the output data of these applications. Now, the interpretation of the output data from these applications is performed mainly manually, depending heavily on the skills and the experience of trained operators. This process is time consuming and the results typically suffer from inconsistency and errors. The objective of the thesis is to apply the advanced digital signal processing techniques for improving the treatment and the interpretation of the output data from the different Industrial Radioisotopes Applications (IRA). This thesis focuses on two IRA; the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) measurement and the defect inspection of welded pipes using a gamma source (gamma radiography). In RTD measurement application, this thesis presents methods for signal pre-processing and modeling of the RTD signals. Simulation results have been presented for two case studies. The first case study is a laboratory experiment for measuring the RTD in a water flow rig. The second case study is an experiment for measuring the RTD in a phosphate production unit. The thesis proposes an approach for RTD signal identification in the presence of noise. In this approach, after signal processing, the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) and polynomial coefficients are extracted from the processed signal or from one of its transforms. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), and Discrete Sine Transform (DST) have been tested and compared for efficient feature extraction. Neural networks have been used for matching of the extracted features. Furthermore, the Power Density Spectrum (PDS) of the RTD signal has been also used instead of the discrete

  1. SCHEDULING OF PACKAGING LINES IN THE PROCESS INDUSTRY - AN EMPIRICAL-INVESTIGATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDAM, P; GAALMAN, G; SIERKSMA, G

    In the process industry, homogeneous products have to be packed. For an unpacked product (milk, paint), a variety of packaging materials (glass, tin) and packaging sizes (1/2 litre, 1 kilo) are available. Generally, the packaging lines are used for various products (milk, buttermilk) in one type of

  2. Make to stock or make to order: the decoupling point in the food processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Donk, D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Food processing industries experience growing logistical demands, growing variety in products and intense competition. As a reaction companies try to produce more on order. Often managers find it difficult to decide which products to make to order and which products to stock. This paper develops a

  3. AN OVERVIEW OF PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESS VALIDATION AND PROCESS CONTROL VARIABLES OF TABLETS MANUFACTURING PROCESSES IN INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh B. Wazade*, Sheelpriya R. Walde and Abhay M. Ittadwar

    2012-01-01

    Validation is an integral part of quality assurance; the product quality is derived from careful attention to a number of factors including selection of quality parts and materials, adequate product and manufacturing process design, control of the process variables, in-process and end-product testing. Recently validation has become one of the pharmaceutical industry’s most recognized and discussed subjects. It is a critical success factor in product approval and ongoing commercialization, fac...

  4. Industry characteristics management of innovative processes at the enterprises of light industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yusupov, Ulugbek

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the issues of innovative development and management of innovative processes in the knitting industry of Uzbekistan. Analyzed the main directions of innovative processes and provides recommendations for their management.

  5. Polish food industry 2008-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Mroczek, Robert; Drożdż, Jadwiga; Tereszczuk, Mirosława; Urban, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the functioning of the food industry and its various sectors in 2008-2013. Meat and poultry industry. Dairy industry. Fishing industry. Milling industry. Sugar industry. Oil-mill industry. Processing of fruit, vegetables and potatoes. Bakery industry. Confectionery industry. Feed industry. Production of other food products. Production of alcoholic beverages.Tobacco industry. Food industry.

  6. Traditional soyfoods: processing and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbitz, P

    1995-03-01

    Although soyfoods have been consumed for more than 1000 years, only for the past 15 years have they made an inroad into Western cultures and diets. Soyfoods are typically divided into two categories: nonfermented and fermented. Traditional nonfermented soyfoods include fresh green soybeans, whole dry soybeans, soy nuts, soy sprouts, whole-fat soy flour, soymilk and soymilk products, tofu, okara and yuba. Traditional fermented soyfoods include tempeh, miso, soy sauces, natto and fermented tofu and soymilk products. This paper presents a brief overview of processing techniques used in the manufacture of traditional soyfoods.

  7. Business Process Reengineering within the bicycle industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolomé Rodriguez, David

    2010-01-01

    Bicycle leader brands have shift production overseas to reduce the cost of labor and to implement new technologies at lower cost. Bike manufacturer both in Asia and Europe employ a traditional way of production  based on economics of scale that aims cost per unit reduction. Where MRP systems and forecasting are part of their day basis operations. This traditional way of operation offers room for innovation that must be seen as a business opportunity. Thus, alternative management approaches ca...

  8. Evolutionary optimization of production materials workflow processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We present an evolutionary optimisation technique for stochastic production processes, which is able to find improved production materials workflow processes with respect to arbitrary combinations of numerical quantities associated with the production process. Working from a core fragment...

  9. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  10. Simulation of salt production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraveva, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper an approach to the use of simulation software iThink to simulate the salt production system has been proposed. The dynamic processes of the original system are substituted by processes simulated in the abstract model, but in compliance with the basic rules of the original system, which allows one to accelerate and reduce the cost of the research. As a result, a stable workable simulation model was obtained that can display the rate of the salt exhaustion and many other parameters which are important for business planning.

  11. A future perspective on the role of industrial biotechnology for chemicals production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John; Breuer, Michael; Mink, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The development of recombinant DNA technology, the need for renewable raw materials and a green, sustainable profile for future chemical processes have been major drivers in the implementation of industrial biotechnology. The use of industrial biotechnology for the production of chemicals is well...

  12. New Product Development in the Fashion Industry: An Empirical Investigation of Italian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Bandinelli, Romeo; Rinaldi, Rinaldo; Rossi, Monica; Terzi, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how companies in the fashion industry organize, plan and perform their New Product Development process (NPD). The results have been achieved through an empirical study carried out by the authors with the support of the GeCo Observatory, an Italian research initiative launched in 2012. This paper shows the details of eight selected case studies from the Italian fashion industry.

  13. Process integration and pinch analysis in sugarcane industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Adelk de Carvalho; Pinheiro, Ricardo Brant [UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: rbp@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2010-07-01

    Process integration techniques were applied, particularly through the Pinch Analysis method, to sugarcane industry. Research was performed upon harvest data from an agroindustrial complex which processes sugarcane plant in excess of 3.5 million metric tons per year, producing motor fuel grade ethanol, standard quality sugar, and delivering excess electric power to the grid. Pinch Analysis was used in assessing internal heat recovery as well as external utility demand targets, while keeping the lowest but economically achievable targets for entropy increase. Efficiency on the use of energy was evaluated for the plant as it was found (the base case) as well as for five selected process and/or plant design modifications, always with guidance of the method. The first alternative design (case 2) was proposed to evaluate equipment mean idle time in the base case, to support subsequent comparisons. Cases 3 and 4 were used to estimate the upper limits of combined heat and power generation while raw material supply of the base case is kept; both the cases did not prove worth implementing. Cases 5 and 6 were devised to deal with the bottleneck of the plant, namely boiler capacity, in order to allow for some production increment. Inexpensive, minor modifications considered in case 5 were found unable to produce reasonable outcome gain. Nevertheless, proper changes in cane juice evaporation section (case 6) could allow sugar and ethanol combined production to rise up to 9.1% relative to the base case, without dropping cogenerated power. (author)

  14. The granulation process in the ceramics industry; Het granuleerproces in de fijnkeramische industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, M.; Van der Zwan, J. [Afdeling Glas- en Keramische Technologie, TNO Technisch-Physische Dienst TPD, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2002-12-01

    This article is the second in a series of 3 articles, derived from a study regarding the state of the art alternatives for the spray drying preparation of granulates for the ceramic industry. The study was performed at TNO TPD department of glass and ceramic technology in Eindhoven, on behalf of NOVEM., the Dutch energy agency. The aim of this study is to give an overview of alternatives for the preparation of granulates for the production of dry pressed wall and floor tiles regarding energy consumption, as relevant for the Dutch tile industry, and the choice criteria for the selection of an alternative technology. The production technology of the Dutch tile manufacturers is taken as basis for reference. The first article addressed the inventory of the alternatives for the ceramic tile body preparation technologies, the second article addresses the granulation processes and its different technological aspects and implementations. The third article will address the choice criteria and the subsequent possibilities for the Dutch tile production, based on process-and production technology factors as well as economical factors as energy costs, investments costs, maintenance costs and personal costs. In this article the dry and the wet preparation routes for the preparation of granulates, including combination technologies, are discussed and compared using relevant literature and implementation examples, as investigated during company visits. [Dutch] Dit artikel is het tweede in een serie van drie, gebaseerd op een studie betreffende de state of the art alternatieven voor de productie van sproeigranulaat voor de keramische industrie. De doelstelling is om de mogelijke energiebesparende alternatieven voor de bereiding van droogpersgranulaten voor de productie van keramische wand- en vloertegels aan te geven, relevant voor de Nederlandse fijnkeramische tegelindustrie, en de keuzecriteria voor de selectie van een alternatieve technologie. Daarbij wordt de productie

  15. Modeling of processing technologies in food industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, V. G.; Sagitov, R. F.; Popov, V. P.; Bachirov, V. D.; Akhmadieva, Z. R.; TSirkaeva, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    Currently, the society is facing an urgent need to solve the problems of nutrition (products with increased nutrition value) and to develop energy-saving technologies for food products. A mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer of polymer materials in the extruder is rather successful these days. Mathematical description of movement and heat exchange during extrusion of gluten-protein-starch-containing material similar to pasta dough in its structure, were taken as a framework for the mathematical model presented in this paper.

  16. Industrial production and temporary development after the Emilian Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Scamporrino

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The earthquake that on the 20th of May hit Emilia has not been one of the most disastrous in modern Italian history, but it has highlighted the problem of preservation of industrial activities during a reconstruction process. In addition, precisely this system, characterized by great vitality and productivity but also by large seismic vulnerability, was the most affected. Through an analysis of the damages suffered by the industrial facilities, not so much as single buildings but precisely as a system, we want to highlight the challenges imposed by the earthquake: on the one hand, the urgent need to provide for delocalizations and temporary structures to avoid a stop in production in the short­term, and on the other, the re­design and anti­seismic re­planning of productive areas. A proposal was put forward to create temporary zones adjacent to the damaged areas, on which temporary structures should be installed. The latter would allow to limit relocations of medium­long range, which are negative for the territory, and at the same time it would allow the flexibility necessary to re­organize the supply chains. However, in Italy, the management of temporary solutions is seen as a practice too much linked to the emergency and too little to the reconstruction process. The first measures put into place by both the State and the Regions, however, do not seem to show a true understanding of the importance of management and regulations of temporary solutions in the medium­ long term.

  17. Industrial agglomeration and production costs in Norwegian salmon aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Tveterås, Ragnar

    2002-01-01

    During the last decade, empirical evidence of regional agglomeration economies has emerged for some industries. This paper argues that externalities from agglomeration are not only present in some manufacturing and service sectors, but can also occur in primary industries, such as aquaculture. Econometric analyses in this literature have primarily estimated rather restrictive production function specifications on aggregated industry data. Here, cost functions are estimated o...

  18. Monitoring Industrial Food Processes Using Spectroscopy & Chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dorthe Kjær; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade rapid spectroscopic measurements have revolutionized quality control in practically all areas of primary food and feed production. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR & NIT) has been implemented for monitoring the quality of millions of samples of cereals, milk and meat with unprec...

  19. Statistical Analysis of Industrial processed Cheese puffs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper studied and fit a Multivariate linear regression model to the relationship between the response variables; Weight and Bulk density on one hand, and the predictor variables; Temperature, Moisture content before extrusion and Moisture content after extrusion on the other hand, of Cheese puffs product, ...

  20. Logistics integration processes in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez, Cristina

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the integration process that firms follow to implement Supply Chain Management (SCM). This study has been inspired in the integration model proposed by Stevens (1989). He suggests that companies internally integrate first and then extend integration to other supply chain members, such as customers and suppliers. To analyse the integration process a survey was conducted among Spanish food manufacturers. The results show that there are companies in three different integratio...

  1. [Optimization of the pertussis vaccine production process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germán Santiago, J; Zamora, N; de la Rosa, E; Alba Carrión, C; Padrón, P; Hernández, M; Betancourt, M; Moretti, N

    1995-01-01

    The production of Pertussis Vaccine was reevaluated at the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" in order to optimise it in terms of vaccine yield, potency, specific toxicity and efficiency (cost per doses). Four different processes, using two culture media (Cohen-Wheeler and Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1) and two types of bioreactors (25 L Fermentador Caracas and a 450 L industrial fermentor) were compared. Runs were started from freeze-dried strains (134 or 509) and continued until the obtention of the maximal yield. It was found that the combination Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1/industrial fermentor, shortened the process to 40 hours while consistently yielding a vaccine of higher potency (7.91 +/- 2.56 IU/human dose) and lower specific toxicity in a mice bioassay. In addition, the physical aspect of the preparation was rather homogeneous and free of dark aggregates. Most importantly, the biomass yield more than doubled those of the Fermentador Caracas using the two different media and that in the industrial fermentor with the Cohen-Wheeler medium. Therefore, the cost per doses was substantially decreased.

  2. Effects of wireless packet loss in industrial process control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongkang; Candell, Richard; Moayeri, Nader

    2017-05-01

    Timely and reliable sensing and actuation control are essential in networked control. This depends on not only the precision/quality of the sensors and actuators used but also on how well the communications links between the field instruments and the controller have been designed. Wireless networking offers simple deployment, reconfigurability, scalability, and reduced operational expenditure, and is easier to upgrade than wired solutions. However, the adoption of wireless networking has been slow in industrial process control due to the stochastic and less than 100% reliable nature of wireless communications and lack of a model to evaluate the effects of such communications imperfections on the overall control performance. In this paper, we study how control performance is affected by wireless link quality, which in turn is adversely affected by severe propagation loss in harsh industrial environments, co-channel interference, and unintended interference from other devices. We select the Tennessee Eastman Challenge Model (TE) for our study. A decentralized process control system, first proposed by N. Ricker, is adopted that employs 41 sensors and 12 actuators to manage the production process in the TE plant. We consider the scenario where wireless links are used to periodically transmit essential sensor measurement data, such as pressure, temperature and chemical composition to the controller as well as control commands to manipulate the actuators according to predetermined setpoints. We consider two models for packet loss in the wireless links, namely, an independent and identically distributed (IID) packet loss model and the two-state Gilbert-Elliot (GE) channel model. While the former is a random loss model, the latter can model bursty losses. With each channel model, the performance of the simulated decentralized controller using wireless links is compared with the one using wired links providing instant and 100% reliable communications. The sensitivity of the

  3. CLUSTERS: INNOVATION, KNOWLEDGE AND COMPETITIVENESS IN THE WOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Margareta RUSU-TANASA

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview of the evolution in the wood processing industry in the process of regional development. The concept of clusters has become more and more popular in recent years, as more and more theorists and practitioners realize its potential; nevertheless the idea of cluster research in the wood processing industry is relatively new. With the shift to knowledge based management, the difference made by creative networks and clusters that promote research, development and i...

  4. Top of the food chain: Product services in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Andrew M.; Simon, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the environmental impact of the food industry supply chain and explore the potential for new product-service systems in the food sector, which has not been subject to a great deal of eco-design research. Data from a cross-sector analysis of UK industry, concentrating on the sectors representing the food industry supply chain, is utilised. These sectors are agriculture, food processing, retailing, food services, and kitchen equipment. The analysis combines economic ...

  5. Productive efficiency of tea industry: A stochastic frontier approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an economy where recourses are scarce and opportunities for a new technology are lacking, studies will be able to show the possibility of raising productivity by improving the industry's efficiency. This study attempts to measure the status of technical efficiency of tea-producing industry for panel data in Bangladesh using ...

  6. Hydrogen in the Methanol Production Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralj, Anita Kovac; Glavic, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is a very important industrial gas in chemical processes. It is very volatile; therefore, it can escape from the process units and its mass balance is not always correct. In many industrial processes where hydrogen is reacted, kinetics are often related to hydrogen pressure. The right thermodynamic properties of hydrogen can be found for…

  7. Market potential analysis: Case of food-processing industry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the situation with the market potentials in domestic food-processing companies. The analysis has been performed on the basis of the data provided by surveying 150 experts from companies operating in the field of foodstuffs industry. The assessments and parameter ranks (company features are shown, which describe the situation with market potentials. Assessments and ranks of some other parameters are shown for sake of easy reference and comparison. All assessments are obtained as mean values of single assessments given by experts for the analyzed parameters. The experts quantitatively assessed the required parameters with an assessment in the 0 - 10 range according to the situation in their companies. Product quality and company's ambitions are the parameters with the best assessments and promotion and presence on foreign markets are the weakest ones.

  8. Strategic marketing types: Evidence from the European meat processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper; Hundahl, Lone; Laursen, Christina

    of specialisation, vertical integration, international orientation, relationship with the retail sector etc. 4. Based on related literature, two main hypotheses1 are formulated regarding the relationship between strategic marketing types on the one hand and performance and corporate attitudes on the other hand......Executive summary 1. The discovery of a small number of generic strategies or competitive positions that would work equally well across product-markets, businesses and industries, would be an extremely important finding for business practicians. In particular the question of whether or why...... marketing strategies, (2) places these clusters in a strategic typology in order to better understand their position in the marketplace, and (3) analyses these strategic marketing types in terms of performance outcomes and differences in corporate attitudes and goals. 3. The meat processing sector in Europe...

  9. [Industrial processing of wool: biomechanics and ergonomic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, E M; Alciato, P; Russo, F; Bazzini, G; Angelino, M

    2005-01-01

    Workers in a wool processing industry were analyzed for risk factors in development of musculoskeletal disorders from specific repetitive movements that they executed, in all phases of the preparation of wool products ("tintoria", "mescolanza", "finitura", "filatura", "riroccatura", "ritorcitura", "confezionamento"). The evaluation revealed nonergonomic work situations, due to both repetitive movements of the upper extremities as well as prolonged asymmetrical postures of the trunk while moving loads; both of these problems were due to suboptimal interface between the anthropomorphic characteristics of the operators and the technical movements required at the machines. The risk analysis was performed both for cumulative trauma disorders as well as for low back pain, based on formulas in the exisiting literature. Ergonomic interventions were implemented and evaluated for the most stressful situations.

  10. Experiences with industrial solar process steam generation in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Dirk; Berger, Michael; Mokhtar, Marwan; Willwerth, Lisa; Zahler, Christian; Al-Najami, Mahmoud; Hennecke, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    At the Jordanian pharmaceuticals manufacturing company RAM Pharma a solar process heat supply has been constructed by Industrial Solar GmbH in March 2015 and operated since then (Figure 1). The collector field consists of 394 m² of linear Fresnel collectors supplying saturated steam to the steam network at RAM Pharma at about 6 bar gauge. In the frame of the SolSteam project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) the installation has been modified introducing an alternative way to separate water and steam by a cyclone. This paper describes the results of experiments with the cyclone and compares the operation with a steam drum. The steam production of the solar plant as well as the fuel demand of the steam boiler are continuously monitored and results are presented in this paper.

  11. Biodiesel production using oil from fish canning industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.F.; Almeida, M.F.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Dias, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A process was established to produce biodiesel from fish canning industry wastes. • Biodiesel production was enabled by an acid esterification pre-treatment. • Optimization studies showed that the best catalyst concentration was 1 wt.% H 2 SO 4 . • There was no advantage when a two-step alkali transesterification was employed. • Waste oil from olive oil bagasse could be used to improve fuel quality. - Abstract: The present study evaluated biodiesel production using oil extracted from fish canning industry wastes, focusing on pre-treatment and reaction conditions. Experimental planning was conducted to evaluate the influence of acid catalyst concentration (1–3 wt.% H 2 SO 4 ) in the esterification pre-treatment and the amount of methanolic solution (60–90 vol.%) used at the beginning of the further two-step alkali transesterification reaction. The use of a raw-material mixture, including waste oil obtained from olive oil bagasse, was also studied. The results from experimental planning showed that catalyst concentration mostly influenced product yield and quality, the best conditions being 1 wt.% catalyst and 60 vol.% of methanolic solution, to obtain a product yield of 73.9 wt.% and a product purity of 75.5 wt.%. Results from a one-step reaction under the selected conditions showed no advantage of performing a two-step alkali process. Although under the best conditions several of the biodiesel quality parameters were in agreement with standard specifications, a great variation was found in the biodiesel acid value, and oxidation stability and methyl ester content did not comply with biodiesel quality standards. Aiming to improve fuel quality, a mixture containing 80% waste olive oil and 20% of waste fish oil was evaluated. Using such mixture, biodiesel purity increased around 15%, being close to the standard requirements (96.5 wt.%), and the oxidation stability was in agreement with the biodiesel quality standard values (⩾6 h), which

  12. Interactive tools for industrial process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, C.; Poulin, E.; Pomerleau, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the development and the implementation of an interactive proportional-integral-derivative (PID) autotuner for monovariable control-loops at the Quebec Cartier Mining pellet plant (QCM). The autotuning tool presented in this paper is different to other commercial PID autotuners as it has an open architecture. The user can access the results of all operations performed by the autotuner: the excitation of the system, the signal processing, the identification of the model and the calculation of the controller parameters. QCM has started a project that aims at the general improvement of process control. The autotuner is the first of a series of tools that will be developed to address problems such as on-line performance analysis of control-loops, fault detection, isolation and diagnostic, observers and multivariable control. Along with the development of these tools, training courses are given to the personnel concerned with automatic control, system design, process operation and maintenance. (author)

  13. Industrial Maturity of FR Fuel Cycle Processes and Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruezière, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    FR fuel cycle processes and technologies have already been proven industrially for Oxide Fuel, and to a lesser extent for metal fuel. In addition, both used oxide fuel reprocessing and fresh oxide fuel manufacturing benefit from similar industrial experience currently deployed for LWR. Alternative fuel type will have to generate very significant benefit in reactor ( safety, cost, … ) to justify corresponding development and industrialization costs

  14. Gas processing in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    This article is a brief overview of code requirements in the nuclear air cleaning arena. NRC standards, which employ the various ASME codes, are noted. It is also noted that DOE facilities do not fall under the purview of the NRC and that DOE facilities (especially fuel cycle facilities) typically have broader gas processing activities than for power reactors. The typical differences between DOE facilities` and power reactor facilities` gas processing needs are listed, as are DOE facility components not covered by the ASME AG-1 code.

  15. EVALUATION OF CORROSION COST OF CRUDE OIL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADESANYA A.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil production industry as the hub of Nigeria Economy is not immune to the global financial meltdown being experienced world over which have resulted in a continual fall of oil price. This has necessitated the need to reduce cost of production. One of the major costs of production is corrosion cost, hence, its evaluation. This research work outlined the basic principles of corrosion prevention, monitoring and inspection and attempted to describe ways in which these measures may be adopted in the context of oil production. A wide range of facilities are used in crude oil production making it difficult to evaluate precisely the extent of corrosion and its cost implication. In this study, cost of corrosion per barrel was determined and the annualized value of corrosion cost was also determined using the principles of engineering economy and results analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that among the corrosion prevention methods identified, the use of chemical treatment gave the highest cost contribution (81% of the total cost of prevention while coating added 19%. Cleaning pigging and cathodic protection gave no cost. The contribution of corrosion maintenance methods are 60% for repairs and 40% for replacement. Also among the corrosion monitoring and inspection identified, NDT gave the highest cost contribution of 41% of the total cost, followed by coating survey (34%. Cathodic protection survey and crude analysis gives the lowest cost contribution of 19% and 6% respectively. Corrosion control cost per barrel was found to be 77 cent/barrel. The significance of this cost was not much due to high price of crude oil in the international market. But the effect of corrosion in crude oil processing takes its toll on crude oil production (i.e. deferment.

  16. Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers for Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation induced degradation technology is a new and promising application of ionizing radiation to develop viscose, pulp, paper, food preservation, pharmaceutical production, and natural bioactive agents industries. Controlling the degree of degradation, uniform molecular weight distribution, saving achieved in the chemicals (used in conventional methods) on a cost basis, and environmentally friendly process are the beneficial effects of using radiation technology in these industries. However, for some development countries such technology is not economic. Therefore, a great effort should be done to reduce the cost required for such technologies. One of the principle factors for reducing the cost is achieving the degradation at low irradiation doses. The addition of some additives such as potassium per-sulfate (KPS), ammonium per-sulfate (APS), or H 2 O 2 to natural polymers (carboxy-methylcellulose (CMC), chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate) during irradiation process accelerates their degradation. The highest degradation rate of polysaccharides obtained when APS was used. The end product of irradiated CMC, chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate may be used as food additive or benefited in agricultural purposes. On the other hand, radiation crosslinking of PAAm or PNIPAAm is affected by the presence of natural polymer like CMC-Na and carrageenan due to their degradability which could be controlled according to its concentration in the bulk medium and irradiation dose. Accordingly, the gel content, thermo-sensitivity (LCST) and swelling properties of PNIPAAm based natural polymers could be controlled. The swelling of the prepared copolymer hydrogels was investigated for its possible use in personal care articles particularly diapers or as carriers for drug delivery systems. The prepared crosslinked copolymers possessed high and fast swelling properties in simulated urine media and the swelling ratios of CMC-Na /PAAm gels in urine are acceptable for diaper

  17. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  18. Optimization of industrial processes using radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Claudio G.; Silva Filho, Edmundo D. da; Toribio, Norberto M.; Gandara, Leonardo A.

    1996-01-01

    Aiming the enhancement of the staff protection against radiation in operational areas, the SAMARCO Mineracao S.A. proceeded a reevaluation and analysis of the real necessity of the densimeters/radioactive sources in the operational area, and also the development of an alternative control process for measurement the ore pulp, and introduced of the advanced equipment for sample chemical analysis

  19. Application of the geothermal energy in the industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovska-Vasilevska, Sanja

    2001-01-01

    In the worldwide practice, the geothermal energy application, as an alternative energy resource, can be of great importance. This is especially case in the countries where exceptional natural geothermal potential exists. Despite using geothermal energy for both greenhouses heating and balneology, the one can be successfully implemented in the heat requiring industrial processes. This kind of use always provides greater annual heat loading factor, since the industrial processes are not seasonal (or not the greater part of them). The quality of the geothermal resources that are available in Europe, dictates the use within the low-temperature range technological processes. However, these processes are significantly engaged in different groups of processing industries. But, beside this fact the industrial application of geothermal energy is at the beginning in the Europe. (Original)

  20. Substitution of Organic Solvents in Selected Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Pia Brunn

    1997-01-01

    Volatile organic solvents (VOC)are becoming increasingly unwanted in industrial processes. Substitution of VOC with non-volatile, low-toxic compounds is a possibility to reduce VOC-use. It has been successfully demonstrated, that organic solvents used in cleaning processes in sheet offset printing...... can be replaced with monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils (VOFA). The paper describes the selection of other industrial cleaning or degreasing processes where VOC could be replaced by VOFA. Manual degreasing and cleaning processes in metal industry, maintenance and repair of vehicles......, and industrial coating processes are likely candidates for substitution of VOC with VOFA. Requirements to the resulting surfaces may, however, hinder the replacement. This is especially important when the surface has to be coated in a subsequent step....

  1. Structuring user-centred product development processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoolhorst, F.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Within the last decades, product development industry has found itself facing a general increase in product use problems. These problems originate from a mismatch between the actual functionality that the product provides and the afforded product-user interaction versus the user’s expectations

  2. Nuclear reactor application for high temperature power industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollezhal', N.A.; Zaicho, N.D.; Alexeev, A.M.; Baturov, B.B.; Karyakin, Yu.I.; Nazarov, E.K.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protzenko, A.M.; Chernyaev, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    This report gives the results of considerations on industrial heat and technology processes (in chemistry, steelmaking, etc.) from the point of view of possible ways, technical conditions and nuclear safety requirements for the use of high temperature reactors in these processes. Possible variants of energy-technological diagrams of nuclear-steelmaking, methane steam-reforming reaction and other processes, taking into account the specific character of nuclear fuel are also given. Technical possibilities and economic conditions of the usage of different types of high temperature reactors (gas cooled reactors and reactors which have other means of transport of nuclear heat) in heat processes are examined. The report has an analysis of the problem, that arises with the application of nuclear reactors in energy-technological plants and an evaluation of solutions of this problem. There is a reason to suppose that we will benefit from the use of high temperature reactors in comparison with the production based on high quality fossil fuel [ru

  3. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played...... an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine...... chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes....

  5. A Review of the Poultry Meat Production Industry for Food Safety in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyono, N. D.; Utami, M. M. D.

    2018-01-01

    Poultry meat is an indispensable source of animal protein in human growth and development, so it is in great demand by people all over the world. Poultry meat has several advantages, namely the quality of nutrition is good enough, delicious taste, relatively affordable price, easy to get and accepted all levels of society with diverse backgrounds. The era of globalization requires competitive products, such as chicken meat in Indonesia, the current chicken meat industry is not only based on high production capacity and decreased production costs but also chicken products are safe to eat. As a consequence of trade liberalization, the poultry industry faces the threat of competition with cheaper products with better quality. The food safety of chicken meat starts from the farm, processing process until consumed. Food safety is a requirement of food products that must be handled by involving government, industry and consumers.

  6. Cleaner production options for reducing industrial waste: the case of batik industry in Malang, East Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirait, M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to conduct cleaner production options for improving the environmental performance during the production of batik industry, the case of UKM batik, Malang, East Java. Batik industry is one of small and medium textile industry which has contribution to economic growth in Malang. However, during production the batik, it generates wastewater that has potential to decrease the environmental performance. Wastewater from Celaket batik industry has BOD, COD, TSS, and pH level is far larger than the threshold of water quality standard as a result of use chemical substance during the dyes processing. In order to prevent generating wastewater, this study utilized cleaner production options, such as substitution of input material.Substitution of input material for dyes process was implemented by replacement chemical dyes (e.g.indigosol, nafthol, rapid) with natural dyes (e.g. Indigofero Tintoria). Modifying of technology/equipment was conducted by developing wastewater treatment equipment to reduce waste of batik production. The implementation of this strategy was carried out by changing input material from chemical dyes with natural dyes. The CP uptake could reduce significantly the environmental impact in term of reduction of COD, BOD, and TSS.

  7. Big Data Analytics for Industrial Process Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schiøler, Henrik; Kulahci, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Today, in modern factories, each step in manufacturing produces a bulk of valuable as well as highly precise information. This provides a great opportunity for understanding the hidden statistical dependencies in the process. Systematic analysis and utilization of advanced analytical methods can ...... lead towards more informed decisions. In this article we discuss some of the challenges related to big data analysis in manufacturing and relevant solutions to some of these challenges.......Today, in modern factories, each step in manufacturing produces a bulk of valuable as well as highly precise information. This provides a great opportunity for understanding the hidden statistical dependencies in the process. Systematic analysis and utilization of advanced analytical methods can...

  8. Waste heat utilization in industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichsel, M.; Heitmann, W.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is given of new developments in heat exchangers and heat pumps. With respect to practical applications, internal criteria for plant operation are discussed. Possibilities of government support are pointed out. Waste heat steam generators and waste heat aggregates for hot water generation or in some cases for steam superheating are used. The possibilities of utilization can be classified according to the economic improvements and according to their process applications, for example, gascooling. Examples are presented for a large variety of applications.

  9. Big Data Analytics for Industrial Process Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schioler, Henrik; Kulahci, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Today, in modern factories, each step in manufacturing produces a bulk of valuable as well as highly precise information. This provides a great opportunity for understanding the hidden statistical dependencies in the process. Systematic analysis and utilization of advanced analytical methods can ...... lead towards more informed decisions. In this article we discuss some of the challenges related to big data analysis in manufacturing and relevant solutions to some of these challenges....

  10. Inhomogeneous feed gas processing in industrial ozone generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Fabio; Merz, Reto; Gisler, Rudolf; Müller, Marco; Paolini, Bernhard; Lopez, Jose L; Freilich, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of ozone by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is extensively used in industry. Ozone generators available on the market differ in ozone production capacities, electrode arrangements and working parameters, but operate with a uniformly distributed filamentary discharge plasma pattern.In the presented work the benefits of inhomogeneous feed gas processing are explored. Causality between power induction, production efficiency and working parameters are investigated. Different electrode arrangements, evenly distributed within a given space parameter, were designed, simulated, manufactured and tested on a representative scale. A finite element model was utilized to simulate an inhomogeneous power induction pattern along the ozone generator tube. The simulation yielded the local power density, the local gas temperature gradient and the relative DBD packing density.Results show that the degree of filamentation turns out to be decisive, indicating a new potential by means of plasma tailoring. An arrangement with a pronounced power induction at the inlet of the ozone generator revealed several advantages over homogeneous plasma processing arrangements, for which an increase in robustness and a reduction in electrical power consumption are achieved. Copyright (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  11. Process Integration Design Methods for Water Conservation and Wastewater Reduction in Industry. Part 3: Experience of Industrial Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Dunn, Russell; Gottrup, Lene

    2002-01-01

    This paper is Part 3 in a three part series of papers addressing operational techniques for applying mass integration principles to design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. The presented techniques derive from merging US and Danish experience with indu......This paper is Part 3 in a three part series of papers addressing operational techniques for applying mass integration principles to design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. The presented techniques derive from merging US and Danish experience...... with industrial applications of process integration, as a result of a recently established co-operation between the US companies Solutia Inc., Cleaner Process Technologies Inc., and McSwain Engineering Inc. and the Technical University of Denmark. Parts 1 and 2 covered design techniques for any number...... experience comprises application in small-scale batch productions in textile dyeing and laundering as well as large scale continuous productions in chemical industry, and it is documented that the methods are robust and independent of the volume and continuity/discontinuity of the production. Industry...

  12. Industrial natural product chemistry for drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Armin; Brönstrup, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Covering: up to March 2013. In addition to their prominent role in basic biological and chemical research, natural products are a rich source of commercial products for the pharmaceutical and other industries. Industrial natural product chemistry is of fundamental importance for successful product development, as the vast majority (ca. 80%) of commercial drugs derived from natural products require synthetic efforts, either to enable economical access to bulk material, and/or to optimize drug properties through structural modifications. This review aims to illustrate issues on the pathway from lead to product, and how they have been successfully addressed by modern natural product chemistry. It is focused on natural products of current relevance that are, or are intended to be, used as pharmaceuticals.

  13. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The introductory chapter provides a discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. It discusses these industries in terms of resource characteristics, industry technology, pollution control requirements, market structure, the economics of recycling, and the issues involved in econometrically estimating scrap supply response behavior. It further presents the methodology established by DOE for the metals, textiles, rubber, and pulp and paper industries. The areas in which government policies might have a significant impact on the utilization of primary and secondary metals and on any recycling targets between now and 1987 are noted. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33. The profiles include such topics as industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends. Chapter 4 specifically covers the evaluation of recycling targets for the ferrous, aluminum, copper, zinc, and lead industries. (MCW)

  14. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  15. Engineering organisms for industrial fuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, David A

    2010-01-01

    Volatile fuel costs, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security concerns are driving efforts to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Petroleum comes from sunlight, CO2 and water converted via a biological intermediate into fuel over a several million year timescale. It stands to reason that using biology to short-circuit this time cycle offers an attractive alternative—but only with relevant products at or below market prices. The state of the art of biologica...

  16. Modern control of mineral wool production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Stanko P.

    2013-01-01

    is provided. Some technical solutions (diesel engine and transformer station supervisory, compressor station supervisory, electric drive regulation, dedusting system control, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system control, transport and dosage system control applied at realization of supervisory and control system for mineral wool production process, can be also applied to regulation large number of industrial processes.

  17. Waterpipe industry products and marketing strategies: analysis of an industry trade exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Nakkash, Rima T; Hawkins, Ben; Akl, Elie A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding product development and marketing strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) has been of vital importance in developing effective tobacco control policy. However, comparatively little is known of the waterpipe tobacco industry, which TTCs have recently entered. This study aimed to gain an understanding of waterpipe tobacco products and marketing strategies by visiting a waterpipe trade exhibition. Methods In April 2014 the first author attended an international waterpipe trade exhibition, recording descriptions of products and collecting all marketing items available. We described the purpose and function of all products, and performed a thematic analysis of messages in marketing material. Results We classified the waterpipe products into seven categories and noted product variation within categories. Electronic waterpipe products (which mimic electronic cigarettes) rarely appeared on waterpipe tobacco marketing material, but were displayed just as widely. Claims of reduced harm, safety and quality were paramount on marketing materials, regardless of whether they were promoting waterpipe tobacco, waterpipe tobacco-substitutes, electronic waterpipes or charcoal. Conclusions Waterpipe products are diverse in nature and are marketed as healthy and safe products. Furthermore, the development of electronic waterpipe products appear to be closely connected with the electronic cigarette industry, rather than the waterpipe tobacco manufacturers. Tobacco control policy must evolve to take account of the vast and expanding array of waterpipe products, and potentially also charcoal products developed for waterpipe smokers. We recommend tobacco-substitutes be classified as tobacco products. Continued surveillance of the waterpipe industry is warranted. PMID:26149455

  18. Efficiency And Import Penetration On The Productivity Of Textile Industry And Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur B Rakhmawan, Djoni Hartono, Agni A Awirya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although textile industry and textile products belong to the strategic sub sector of manufacturing industry in Indonesia, they are facing pro-blems on the availability of energy, old production machines, and the flooding of imported products into the domestic market. This study is aimed to analyze the efficiency and productivity as performance indicators and how the efficiency and import penetration affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The methods of data analysis used in this research are divided in two phases. The first phase, the non-metric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is applied to measure the efficiency and productivity. Secondly, the fixed effect model of econometric regression approach is used to find out the effects of efficiency and import penetration on the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The result shows that the average level of efficiency of textile industry and textile products during the period of 2004 – 2008 is about 40 percent with a growth rate of average productivity increases 2.4 percent. Whereas, the econometric estimation results indicate that the increase of efficiency will positively and significantly affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. On the other hand, the increase of import penetration will negatively affect the productivity of this industry.Keywords:Efficiency, Productivity, Import Penetration, DEA, Fixed Effect

  19. High Added-Value Products from Industrial Crop Biomass: Uses in the Agro-Food Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ugolini, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was the study of the valorization of industrial crop biomasses into high-value products with different applications in the agro-food sector, in a full biorefinery approach. Defatted seed meals (DSMs), co-products of the oil extraction procedure, from industrial crops of high economic importance such as Brassicaceae (Rapeseed, Carinata et al.) and of Asteraceae (Sunflower et al.), were used, such as or after processing. Their biological active compound and protein content ...

  20. Architects and the housing challenge: a process, not a product

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osman, A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available , creative responses can be encouraged through design products and processes. This is referred to as a process of ?negotiated reactions?; Gwendolyn Wright refers to it as the ?alchemy of design and social interaction? and this responds positively... Challenge A Process, Not a Product Dr Amira Osman is a Senior Researcher in the area of Sustainable Human Settlements (Planning Support Systems) at the Built-Environment Unit of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. We asked her...

  1. Development of graphene process control by industrial optical spectroscopy setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursenko, O.; Lukosius, M.; Lupina, G.; Bauer, J.; Villringer, C.; Mai, A.

    2017-06-01

    The successful integration of graphene into microelectronic devices depends strongly on the availability of fast and nondestructive characterization methods of graphene grown by CVD on large diameter production wafers [1-3] which are in the interest of the semiconductor industry. Here, a high-throughput optical metrology method for measuring the thickness and uniformity of large-area graphene sheets is demonstrated. The method is based on the combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry and normal incidence reflectometry in UV-Vis wavelength range (200-800 nm) with small light spots ( 30 μm2) realized in wafer optical metrology tool. In the first step graphene layers were transferred on a SiO2/Si substrate in order to determine the optical constants of graphene by the combination of multi-angle ellipsometry and reflectometry. Then these data were used for the development of a process control recipe of CVD graphene on 200 mm Ge(100)/Si(100) wafers. The graphene layer quality was additionally monitored by Raman spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy measurements were performed for micro topography evaluation. In consequence, a robust recipe for unambiguous thickness monitoring of all components of a multilayer film stack, including graphene, surface residuals or interface layer underneath graphene and surface roughness is developed. Optical monitoring of graphene thickness uniformity over a wafer has shown an excellent long term stability (s=0.004 nm) regardless of the growth of interfacial GeO2 and surface roughness. The sensitivity of the optical identification of graphene during microelectronic processing was evaluated. This optical metrology technique with combined data collection exhibit a fast and highly precise method allowing one an unambiguous detection of graphene after transferring as well as after the CVD deposition process on a Ge(100)/Si(100) wafer. This approach is well suited for industrial applications due to its repeatability and flexibility.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF PERFORMANCE MODEL FOR QUALITY AND PROCESS IMPROVEMENT IN BUSINESS PROCESS SERVICE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Oludapo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to performance improvement process, literature abounds with lean, agile and lean-agile. Over the years, the implementation of the improvement processes of lean and agile had met with resounding success in the manufacturing, production, and construction industry. For this reason, there is an interest to develop a performance process for business process service industry incorporating the key aspect of lean and agile theory extracted from the extant literature. The researcher reviewed a total of 750 scholarly articles, grouped them according to the relationship to central theme - lean or agile, and thereafter uses factor analysis under principal component method to explain the relationship of the items. The result of this study showed that firms focusing on cost will minimize the investment of resources in business operations this, in turn, will lead to difficulties in responding to changing customer's requirements in terms of volume, delivery, and new product. The implication is that on the long run cost focus strategy negatively influence flexibility.

  3. Metallurgical engineering and inspection practices in the chemical process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The process industries, in particular the petroleum refining industry, adopted materials engineering and inspection (ME and I) practices years ago and regularly updated them because they were faced with the handling and refining of flammable, toxic, and corrosive feed stocks. These industries have a number of nonproprietary techniques and procedures, some of which may be applicable in the nuclear power generation field. Some specific inspection and engineering techniques used by the process industries within the framework of the guidelines for inspections and worthy of detailed description include the following: (1) sentry drilling or safety drilling of piping subject to relatively uniform corrosion, such as feedwater heater piping, steam piping, and extraction steam piping; (2) on-stream radiography for thickness measurement and detection of unusual conditions - damaged equipment such as valve blockage; (3) critical analysis of the chemical and refining processes for the relative probability of corrosion; (4) communication of valuable experience within the industry; (5) on-stream ultrasonic thickness testing; and (6) on-stream and off-stream crack and flaw detection. The author, trained in the petroleum refining industry but versed in electric utilities, pulp and paper, chemical process, marine, mining, water handling, waste treatment, and geothermal processes, discusses individual practices of these various industries in the paper

  4. Final Rule for Industrial Process Cooling Towers: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet concerning a final rule to reduce air toxics emissions from industrial process cooling towers. Air toxics are those pollutants known or suspected of causing cancer or other serious health effects.

  5. Industrialization drive of radiation processing for economic growth in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanxiao

    1996-12-01

    The transfer of research and development achievements of radiation processing to routine industrial applications in China is reviewed. While making a brief survey of historical background, the paper indicates the different roles that various domestic organizations played in the industrialization drive of radiation processing. Among them the Government's role is the most important one. In accordance with recent growth of the number of industrial radiation facilities (e.g. cobalt-60 irradiators and electron beam accelerators) and current application of radiation processing in main fields in different parts of the country, it can be said that a new radiation processing industry is shaping up in its developing stage to satisfy the growing requirements for economic booming in China. (16 refs.)

  6. PRODUCTION DIVERSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES OF KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usen S. Alimbetov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the diversification of production, aswell as the priorities to achieve early stabilization of theeconomy using the anti-crisis measures, and that, basically, is to strengthen the financial condition and effective balance of the country, to the anti-inflationary measures. In thesecircumstances, it was important for the state to maximize thepotential of the commodity sector of the economy, and this policy has achieved macroeconomic stabilization, which created the basis for deepening economic reforms.

  7. Traceability in the pharmaceutical industry: application to radiopharmaceutical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Camila; Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Araujo, Elaine B. de; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Katia S. de S., E-mail: czanette@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The development of tools to promote the traceability of the drugs in the pharmaceutical industry during all the production chain is a necessary requisite. The traceability system is applied to enable the identification of the origin, destination and exact location of the drug. Traceability optimizes the process chain, reduces errors, is a requirement for quality process, promotes safety for the user and assists in pharmacovigilance. The health regulatory agency in Brazil (ANVISA) will implement a tracking system for medicaments with RDC no. 59 of 2009, to control distribution since the producer until the patients in order to prevent the traffic and adulteration of drugs. Thus, this study discusses the importance and impact of the new traceability system proposed by ANVISA in the production and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals from the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN). The radiopharmaceuticals have a difference track when compared with another drug classes. In this context, this RDC would increase the price of the medicines by up to 10%, since it provides deployment of a single stamp supplied by the Mint. Considering that radiopharmaceuticals are not sold to the final consumer (patients), but only for accredited medical clinics and nuclear medicine physicians, and the transport of radiopharmaceuticals is performed by specialized companies licensed by CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission), the use of the stamp to ensure authenticity and prevent falsification should not be appropriated and represents and additional cost for the radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  8. Traceability in the pharmaceutical industry: application to radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanette, Camila; Melero, Laura T.U.H.; Araujo, Elaine B. de; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Katia S. de S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of tools to promote the traceability of the drugs in the pharmaceutical industry during all the production chain is a necessary requisite. The traceability system is applied to enable the identification of the origin, destination and exact location of the drug. Traceability optimizes the process chain, reduces errors, is a requirement for quality process, promotes safety for the user and assists in pharmacovigilance. The health regulatory agency in Brazil (ANVISA) will implement a tracking system for medicaments with RDC no. 59 of 2009, to control distribution since the producer until the patients in order to prevent the traffic and adulteration of drugs. Thus, this study discusses the importance and impact of the new traceability system proposed by ANVISA in the production and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals from the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN). The radiopharmaceuticals have a difference track when compared with another drug classes. In this context, this RDC would increase the price of the medicines by up to 10%, since it provides deployment of a single stamp supplied by the Mint. Considering that radiopharmaceuticals are not sold to the final consumer (patients), but only for accredited medical clinics and nuclear medicine physicians, and the transport of radiopharmaceuticals is performed by specialized companies licensed by CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission), the use of the stamp to ensure authenticity and prevent falsification should not be appropriated and represents and additional cost for the radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  9. Proceedings of the solar industrial process heat symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The purpose of the symposium was to review the progress of various solar energy systems currently under design for supplying industrial process heat. Formal presentations consisted of a review of solar energy applications in industrial process heat as well as several on-going project reviews. An Open Forum was held to solicit the comments of the participants. The recommendations of this Open Forum are included in these proceedings. Eighteen papers were included. Separate abstracts were prepared for each paper.

  10. Efficiency and Import Penetrationon the Productivity of Textile Industry and Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Basuki Rakhmawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although textile industry and textile products belong to the strategic sub-sector of manufacturing industry in Indonesia, they are facing problems on the availability of energy, old production machines, and the flooding of imported products into the domestic market. This study is aimed to analyze the efficiency and productivity as performance indicators and how the efficiency and import penetration affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The methods of data analysis used in this research are divided in two phases. The first phase, the non-metric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is applied to measure the efficiency and productivity. Secondly, the fixed effect model of econometric regression approach is used to find out the effects of efficiency and import penetration on the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The result shows that the ave-rage level of efficiency of textile industry and textile products during the period of 2004 – 2008 is about 40 percent with a growth rate of average productivity increases 2.4 percent. Whereas, the econometric estimation results indicate that the increase of efficiency will positively and significantly affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. On the other hand, the increase of import penetration will negatively affect the productivity of this industry.

  11. Efficiency and Import Penetration on the Productivity of Textile Industry and Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Basuki Rakhmawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although textile industry and textile products belong to the strategic sub-sector of manufacturing industry in Indonesia, they are facing problems on the availability of energy, old production machines, and the flooding of imported products into the domestic market. This study is aimed to analyze the efficiency and productivity as performance indicators and how the efficiency and import penetration affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The methods of data analysis used in this research are divided in two phases. The first phase, the non-metric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is applied to measure the efficiency and productivity. Secondly, the fixed effect model of econometric regression approach is used to find out the effects of efficiency and import penetration on the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The result shows that the average level of efficiency of textile industry and textile products during the period of 2004 – 2008 is about 40 percent with a growth rate of average productivity increases 2.4 percent. Whereas, the econometric estimation results indicate that the increase of efficiency will positively and significantly affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. On the other hand, the increase of import penetration will negatively affect the productivity of this industry.

  12. New product testing and the utilization of user expertise: Evidence from the Pharmaceutical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Marie; Salomo, Søren; Schultz, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    A significant and often neglected obstacle in new product development is the testing and approval process in the late stages of development. The testing process has primarily been observed as an in-house decision process, however, in many industries products undergo extensive testing before market...... the knowledge generated and shared by medical sites and Pharmaceutical producers in late stage product development. The results show, that information regarding usage patterns and product related services are more difficult to transfer between user and developer, than issues directly related to the product...

  13. Productivity Growth in Some Energy Intensive Manufacturing Industries in India : An analytical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbapriya Ray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates productivity performance of India’s energy intensive industries in terms of total factor productivity growth for the entire period, 1979-80 to 2003-04. The productivity performance has been judged in view of translog indices under three input framework-material, labour and capital and a model has been evolved for assessing energy intensity in those industries. The result on the overall productivity shows declining total factor productivity growth during post-reform period as compared to pre-reform period. Total output growth in India’s energy intensive an industry is found to be mainly input-driven rather than productivity-driven. The liberalization process is found to have its adverse impact on total factor productivity growth.

  14. Improving industrial designers work process by involving user research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Ómarsson, Ólafur

    2011-01-01

    With changing times, new technologies and more opinionated consumers, the modern industrial designer has found himself in need of fresher and more up to date approaches in his daily work. In a fast moving industry, the designer needs to keep a thinking process of dynamic and subjective attitude....... User research is part of user centered design (UCD). UCD has a reputation for subjective and reflective practice. In this paper there are two example cases. One is conducted by a classical industrial design process, and another is costing half of energy and time in user research. These examples...... will give the grounding for believing that the industrial designer needs to adopt user research methods to a level where he can still continue to work under the very nature of industrial design that has made it a successful practice for the last century. The combing of the approaches and attitude will help...

  15. Feasibility study: comparison of coal- and nuclear-fueled alternatives for process steam and by product electrical power generation for the PPG Industries, Incorporated Plant Site, Lake Charles, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a small, (365 MWt) nuclear reactor for supplying process steam and electricity as a replacement for energy sources using increasingly scarce natural gas or oil. The PPG Industries, Incorporated Plant Site at Lake Charles, Louisiana, was chosen as representative of industrial installations that require sizeable amounts of process steam and electricity. For comparison purposes conventional coal-fired boilers were also evaluated. It was determined that both nuclear- and coal-based process energy supply systems are technically feasible. For the specific steam/electricity demands at the reference site, the coal-fired plant proved to be economically more attractive than the nuclear units. For an application requiring a base-loaded supply of saturated steam, utilizing full reactor capacity, the nuclear option appears competitive for coal costing $40/ton in 1978 dollars.

  16. Industrial high pressure applications. Processes, equipment and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, Rudolf (ed.) [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Industrial high pressure processes open the door to many reactions that are not possible under 'normal' conditions. These are to be found in such different areas as polymerization, catalytic reactions, separations, oil and gas recovery, food processing, biocatalysis and more. The most famous high pressure process is the so-called Haber-Bosch process used for fertilizers and which was awarded a Nobel prize. Following an introduction on historical development, the current state, and future trends, this timely and comprehensive publication goes on to describe different industrial processes, including methanol and other catalytic syntheses, polymerization and renewable energy processes, before covering safety and equipment issues. With its excellent choice of industrial contributions, this handbook offers high quality information not found elsewhere, making it invaluable reading for a broad and interdisciplinary audience.

  17. Development of Industrial Process Diagnosis and Measurement Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Moon, Jin Ho

    2010-04-01

    Section 1. Industrial Gamma CT Technology for Process Diagnosis: The project is aimed to develop industrial process gamma tomography system for investigation on structural and physical malfunctioning and process media distribution by means of sealed gamma source and radioactive materials. Section 2. Development of RI Hydraulic Detection Technology for Industrial Application: The objectives in this study are to develop the evaluation technology of the hydrological characteristics and the hydraulic detection technology using radioisotope, and to analyze the hydrodynamics and pollutant transport in water environment like surface and subsurface. Section 3. Development of RT-PAT System for Powder Process Diagnosis: The objective of this project is the development of a new radiation technology to improve the accuracy of the determination of moisture content in a powder sample by using radiation source through the so-called RT-PAT (Radiation Technology-Process Analytical Technology), which is a new concept of converging technology between the radiation technology and the process analytical technology

  18. Development of industrial process diagnosis and measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sunghee; Kim, Jongbum; Moon, Jinho; Suh, Kyungsuk; Kim, Jongyun

    2012-04-01

    Section1. Industrial Gamma CT Technology for Process Diagnosis The project is aimed to develop industrial process gamma tomography system for investigation on structural and physical malfunctioning and process media distribution by means of sealed gamma source and radioactive materials. Section2. Development of RI Hydraulic Detection Technology for Industrial Application The objectives in this study are to develop the evaluation technology of the hydrological characteristics and the hydraulic detection technology using radioisotope, and to analyze the hydrodynamics and pollutant transport in water environment like surface and subsurface. Section3. Development of RT-PAT System for Powder Process Diagnosis The objective of this project is the development of a new radiation technology to improve the accuracy of the determination of moisture content in a powder sample by using radiation source through the so-called RT-PAT (Radiation Technology-Process Analytical Technology), which is a new concept of converging technology between the radiation technology and the process analytical technology

  19. Emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2010 from industrial processes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyuz, Ummugulsum; Alp, Kadir

    2014-08-01

    The broad objective of this study was to develop CO2, PM, SOx, CO, NOx, VOC, NH3 and N2O emission inventory of organic and inorganic chemicals, mineral products, metallurgical, petroleum refining, wood products, food industries of Turkey for 2010 for both co]ntrolled and uncontrolled conditions. In this study, industries were investigated in 7 main categories and 53 sub-sectors and a representative number of pollutants per sub-sector were considered. Each industry was evaluated in terms of emitted emissions only from industrial processes, and fuel combustion activities were excluded (except cement industry). The study employed an approach designed in four stages; identification of key categories; activity data & emission factor search; emission factor analyzing; calculation of emissions. Emission factor analyzing required aggregate and firm analysis of sectors and sub-sectors and deeper insights into underlying specific production methods used in the industry to decide on the most representative emission factor. Industry specific abatement technologies were considered by using open-source documents and industry specific reports. Regarding results of this study, mineral industry and iron & steel industry were determined as important contributors of industrial emissions in Turkey in 2010. Respectively, organic chemicals, petroleum refining, and pulp & paper industries had serious contributions to Turkey's air pollutant emission inventory from industrial processes. The results showed that calculated CO2 emissions for year 2010 was 55,124,263 t, also other emissions were 48,853 t PM, 24,533 t SOx, 79,943 t NOx, 31,908 t VOC, 454 t NH3 and 2264 t N2O under controlled conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)