WorldWideScience

Sample records for industrial lead poisoning

  1. The ceramics industry and lead poisoning. Long-term testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, E; Rossi, A; Toffolo, D; Brighenti, F; Rosa, A; Caroldi, S

    1980-12-01

    The investigation evaluates the efficiency attributed to some measures (improvements in environment, individual health habits) in reducing the risk of lead poisoning in the ceramics industry. The evaluation of the average levels of lead in the blood of 154 exposed workers was carried out in four plants at a time interval of six to eight months. The study considers the variations in relation to possible measures brought about during the interval. A reduction of environmental risk was in effect shown by a clear improvement in the blood lead levels, which still, however, exceeded the internationally recommended limits in many of the subjects. It was concluded that further improvements can only be made by reducing the lead content of the glazes used.

  2. Lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijers, J A

    1952-01-01

    Three cases of acute lead poisoning of cattle herds via ingestion are reported, and reference is made to several other incidents of lead in both humans and animals. The quantity of lead which was found in the livers of the dead cows varied from 6.5 to 19 mg/kg, while 1160 mg/kg of lead in the liver was found for a young cow which was poisoned experimentally with 5 gms of lead acetate per day; hence, there appears to be great variability in the amounts deposited that can lead to intoxication and death. No evidence was found for a lead seam around the teeth, prophyrinuria, or basophil granules in the erythrocytes during acute or chronic lead poisoning of cattle or horses examined. Reference is made to attempts of finding the boundary line between increased lead absorption and lead intoxication in humans, and an examination of 60 laborers in an offset-printing office containing a great deal of inhalable lead (0.16 to 1.9 mg/cu m air) is reviewed. Physical deviation, basophylic granulation of erythrocytes, increased lead content of the urine, and porphyrinuria only indicate an increased absorption of lead; the use of the term intoxication is justified if, in addition, there are complaints of lack of appetite, constipation, fatigue, abdominal pain, and emaciation.

  3. Lead poisoning of industrial origin in the horse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghergariu, S.; Kadar, L.; Boehm, B.; Grindeanu, I.; Teucean, M.

    1978-01-01

    In an industrial area polluted by fumes from a lead processing plant, the following symptoms were observed in horses: anemia, leanness, wind sucking at inspiration due to laryngeal paralysis, running at the nostrils due to pharyngeal paralysis (2 horses), intense dyspnea, latent asphyxia and incoordinate locomotion. A high rate of contamination of the hay, by lead (hay 837 +/- 714 ppm/dry; pasture grass 919 +/- 455 ppm/dry) was demonstrated. In the tissues of a slaughtered filly impregnation was found to be mild for lead, excessively high for cadmium.

  4. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking water in homes containing pipes that were connected with lead solder . Although new building codes require ... lead in their bodies when they put lead objects in their mouths, especially if they swallow those ...

  5. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  6. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Lead Poisoning KidsHealth / For Parents / Lead Poisoning What's in ... Print en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  7. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M R; Lewis, G

    1963-08-03

    Within a short period, 14 cases of lead poisoning in the dogs have been encountered. A detailed record appears justified as no published reference can be found to this condition occurring in Britain and because reports from other countries stress the similarity of the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning to those of the common infections of the dog. Five of the 14 clinical cases of lead poisoning are described. The available literature is reviewed and the diagnosis and significance of the condition discussed. 19 references, 2 tables.

  8. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  9. Lead poisoning in mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, J G

    1962-03-01

    This paper describes a case of lead poisoning in minks. The mink were housed in pens which had been painted with a bridge paint containing lead. They had chewed on the pen and ingested the paint. The animals that did not die were moved to new pens, and vitamin D and calcium gluconate were added to their diets. In three days, a marked improvement was seen in the food and water consumption, and convolutions became less frequent.

  10. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  11. Lead poisoning: The invisible disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed.

  12. Experimental lead poisoning in chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silven, L.

    1967-01-01

    Poisoning of water fowl due to the intake of lead shot is not rare in the USA. In order to study this kind of poisoning more closely domestic fowl were given varying amounts of lead shot and lead powder. This treatment did not provoke any symptoms of poisoning. Chemical analyses of different organs, muscles, skeleton and eggs yielded low lead values. It is concluded that the low toxicity of lead administered as lead shot to the domestic fowl is due to a low absorption rate from the gastro-intestinal tract.

  13. Lead poisoning in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, J E

    1964-01-01

    Over a three-year period a farmer lost seven calves in their second month of age. One year ago a tentative diagnosis of rabies was given and a brain was submitted to the Health of Animals Division for examination. No Negri bodies were found. The owner stated that the calves first appeared listless and later exhibited severe nervous signs. Deaths occurred in from one to 24 hours after onset of signs. Appetite and bowel movements were normal. There was no increase in temperature. The calf would lie quietly for an interval, then rise, run down the alley, press against a wall, and go into a convulsion. It acted as if it were in severe pain and during one of the intermittent convulsions, it jumped over a three-foot partition. This calf was sent to the Regional Veterinary Laboratory at Brighton for necropsy. The calf had been dead for 72 hours when submitted to the laboratory. The only gross findings were of mild pleurisy and hemorrhage on the kidney. A tentative diagnosis of lead poisoning was offered and specimens sent to the Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ontario Veterinary College.

  14. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.

  15. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  16. Lead poisoning in domestic ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rac, R; Crisp, C S

    1954-05-01

    The death of wild ducks, due to the ingestion of lead shop, occurs frequently and is well documented. This paper discusses the death of domestic ducks due to the ingestion of lead. It describes the symptoms, and pathology of the lead poisoning of a clutch of 11 ducklings which were being raised on a farm in Australia. 3 references, 1 table.

  17. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  18. Lead poisoning from souvenir earthenware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Björklund, Andreas; Karlson-Stiber, Christine; Harper, Pauline; Seldén, Anders I

    2006-02-01

    A case of massive lead poisoning from juice contained in a Greek earthenware jug as well as six satellite cases of high lead exposure of similar origin is reported. The intoxicated patient was successfully treated with dimercaptosuccinic acid. Ceramic producers should adhere to the longstanding European legislation.

  19. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E; Kubin, R

    1949-01-01

    Diagnosis was made from clinical observation and laboratory examination of nine cases. A successful treatment is described based on the similarity of the metabolism of lead and calcium, the lead being deposited in the bones where it is harmless, if it remains there. Details are given of the treatment.

  20. Anatomy of lead poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Results: The primary form of lead toxicity is by oxidative stress mechanisms, apoptosis and necrosis involving ... néfastes sur la reproduction à l'avenir. Résultats:La forme ... prostate cancers, abnormal sexual ..... ensure this work is a success.

  1. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  2. Lead poisoning in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, H M

    1963-08-17

    During the period 1957 to 1959 a considerable number of dogs were seen which were suffering from colic. Colic is not normally a condition commonly encountered in the dog, and the number of cases seen was large in proportion to the number of dogs in the population concerned. A number of other dogs exhibited nervous signs which varied from symptoms of mild anxiety to exaggerated fits. There was a certain amount of overlapping between the 2 groups in that some cases which originally only showed signs of colic later progressed to the stage where they showed nervous symptoms. The following report deals with 28 cases of lead poisoning in dogs and cats which occurred at Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia. 8 references, 4 tables.

  3. Lead poisoning in a Mississippi sandhill crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hereford, Scott G.

    1994-01-01

    Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is well documented in waterfowl (Sanderson and Bellrose 1986) and has been reported in other wetland (Locke et al. 1991, Windingstad et al. 1984) and upland (Hunter and Rosen 1965, Locke and Bagley 1967) avian species. Ingested fishing weights have been implicated in lead poisoning of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) (Blus et al. 1989), Common Loons (Gavia immer) (Locke et al. 1982, Franson and Cliplef 1992, Pokras and Chafe1 1992), Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) (Birkhead 1982), and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) (Windingstad et al. 1984). The significance of lead poisoning as a mortality factor in avian species other than waterfowl is probably underestimated (Locke and Friend 1992), and any cause of mortality becomes particularly important in species with small population sizes. We report here the first known case of lead poisoning in a Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla), a critically endangered subspecies.

  4. A review of lead poisoning in swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

  5. Lead poisoning after gunshot wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Madureira

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Despite the absence of symptoms in the majority of patients carrying lead bullet fragments in their bodies, there needs to be an awareness of the possible signs and symptoms of lead intoxication when bullets are lodged in large joints like knees, hips and shoulders. Such patients merit closer follow-up, and even surgical procedure for removing the fragments. OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient who developed clinical lead intoxication several years after a gunshot wound. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A single white 23-year-old male, regular job as a bricklayer, with a history of chronic alcohol abuse, showed up at the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain with colic, weakness, vomiting and diarrhea with black feces. All the symptoms had a duration of two to three weeks, and had been recurrent for the last two years, with calming during interval periods of two to three weeks. Abdominal radiograms showed a bullet lodged in the left hip, with a neat bursogram of the whole synovial capsule. A course of chelating treatment using calcium versenate (EDTACaNa2 intravenously was started. After the chelation therapy the patient had recurrence of his symptoms and a radical solution for the chronic mobilization of lead was considered. A hip arthroplasty procedure was performed, leading to complete substitution of the left hip.

  6. Lead poisoning in cattle and sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcroft, R

    1951-09-15

    The danger of paint and other lead compounds to the bovine is well recognized and has been recorded and discussed fairly extensively from time to time. The literature indicates that the calf is extremely susceptible to lead poisoning, but relatively little has been reported regarding the levels of lead in tissues of animals which have died as a result of lead poisoning, and still less in animals suspected of suffering from sub-lethal doses of lead compounds. In order to provide sufficient data to enable interpretation of figures obtained from tissues in cases of suspected lead poisoning sent in from the field, and to provide information on the metabolic fate of lead in ruminants, investigations were made at Weybridge on the absorption, excretion, retention and general metabolic effects of lead in both cattle and sheep and the results have been published in a series of five papers. In this brief review it is intended to discuss points from these and subsequent investigations which are likely to be of interest to the veterinarian.

  7. Microcirculation in experimental lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fimiani, R; Silvestroni, A; Iavicoli, N

    1973-01-01

    A study was made of the microvascular system of the auricle of the ear in 15 rabbits to which a 10 percent solution of lead acetate (0.5cm/sup 3//kg) was administered daily for 15 days through the gastric tract. Every 5 days up to the 35th day, determinations of blood and urine lead, free erythrocyte protoporphyrins and urinary coproporphyrins were carried out. Observations of the microvascular system were carried out in basic conditions after 6, 11, 16, 26 and 36 days. On the 6th day there was no pathological finding; on the 11th day small changes of the vascular content were observed, progressively assuming a sludge-like aspect. These findings confirm the hypothesis that the earliest changes caused by lead appear in the vascular content, before parietal changes occur.

  8. Lead Poisoning at an Indoor Firing Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Wook; Park, Won Ju

    2017-10-01

    In March 2014, a 39-year-old Korean male presented with a 6-month history of various nonspecific symptoms including dizziness, fatigue, asthenia, irritability, elevated blood pressure, palpitation, eyestrain, and tinnitus. His occupational history revealed that he had been working as an indoor firing range manager for 13 months; therefore, he was subjected to a blood lead level (BLL) test. The test results showed a BLL of 64 μg/dL; hence, he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and immediately withdrawn from work. As evident from the workplace environmental monitoring, the level of lead exposure in the air exceeded its limit (0.015-0.387 mg/m³). He received chelation treatment with calcium-disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (1 g/day) for 5 days without any adverse effects. In the follow-up results after 2 months, the BLL had decreased to 9.7 μg/dL and the symptoms resolved. This report represents the first occupational case of lead poisoning in firing ranges in Korea, and this necessitates institutional management to prevent the recurrence of poisoning through this route. Workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. In clinical practice, it is essential to question the patient about his occupational history. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  9. Clinical lead-poisoning in the dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, D C; Staples, E L.J.

    1956-03-01

    Several cases of lead-poisoning in the dog are described. The clinical signs which are most common are: 1) abdominal pain, sometimes associated with vomiting and diarrhoea or constipation; and 2) nervous signs, such as hysteria, convulsive seizures, blindness, leg weakness, and altered disposition. There are no constant morbid anatomical findings, and frequently nothing abnormal can be found at autopsy. The diagnosis can be confirmed in the live animal by analysis of the whole blood, urine, and faeces, and, in the dead animal, of liver and stomach contents. Examination of the blood for changes to the erythrocytes such as excess numbers of normoblasts and basophilic stippling may help to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Th authors consider that lead-poisoning in dogs is more common than has hitherto been indicated and that the nervous signs have caused it to be confused with canine hysteria and the common viral diseases, which often terminate with convulsive seizures. 7 references.

  10. Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J

    2012-12-15

    Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires

  11. Letter from Thomas J Graves on Concerns about National Public Awareness Campaign on Childhood Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Request for correction of information by EPA withdrawal from sponsorship and participation in the print and video depictions used in the childhood lead poisoning PSAs are misleading and misrepresent the paint industry

  12. Pathologic anatomy of lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B C

    1972-01-01

    Thirty-two dogs diagnosed as having lead poisoning were studied postmortem. Enlarged, pale staining nuclei of renal proximal tubular cells and hepatocytes were present in all affected dogs and they frequently contained acid-fast inclusions. Bone changes, consisting of persistent, thick cartilaginous trabeculae rimmed with bone, caused radiopaque bands in the metaphyses of eight immature dogs. Brain lesions were characterized by vascular damage. Distended arterioles and capillaries were lined with swollen or necrotic endothelium and were often surrounded by hemorrhage and edema. These changes were associated with laminar necrosis in the cerebral cortex. Proliferation of new capillaries and gliosis occurred in dogs with chronic encephalopathies. Other changes included hyperplasia of bone marrow, metarubricytes in blood vessels, necrosis of occasional striated muscle fibers, decreased numbers of sperm and ovarian follicles, and peripheral neuropathy.

  13. Anatomy of lead poisoning | Duru | Research Journal of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Lead poisoning and lead toxicity is usually often interchangeably used by different Scientists. The Anatomy of lead poisoning encompasses its effects on different organ-systems of different species of organisms. It also includes environmental, functional and biochemical components associated with most heavy ...

  14. Imported occupational lead poisoning: report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracca, M; Scafa, F; Boeri, R; Flachi, Daniela; Candura, S M

    2013-01-01

    In most industrialized countries, occupational lead poisoning has become increasingly rare, however this metal remains a serious health hazard in the rest of the world. We observedfour male patients (aged 35 / 54 years) who had suffered recurrent abdominal pain due to recent lead exposure (for 7 to 13 months) in two Chinese battery recycling plants. On their return to Italy, three of them presented normocytic, normochromic anaemia. The diagnosis was confirmed by high lead levels in the blood and urine, decreased erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), raised erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZP), and elevated urinary excretion of b-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) and porphyrins. Chelation with EDTA resulted in increased urinary lead excretion, improvement of the clinical picture, decreased ZP, and progressive normalization of the other lead biomarkers (Pb-B, ALA-D, ALA-U, urinary porphyrins). Temporary work in developing countries may result in imported lead poisoning. Differential diagnosis of this unusual condition requires careful medical history collection and specific toxicological analysis. Preventive measures for workers going abroad are needed.

  15. Lead poisoning in Australian fruit bats (Pteropus poliocephalus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1970-09-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed in 3 Australian fruit bats. Diagnoses were indicated by the finding of large acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal and hepatic cells, and toxic amounts of lead in tissues. The source of lead was believed to be peeling leaded paint from the walls of the bats' cage.

  16. Guidelines for the Detection and Management of Lead Poisoning for Physicians and Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    These Illinois guidelines provide information on the medical management and treatment of children with lead poisoning, based on Federal guidelines (revised in 1991) for determining lead poisoning at lower levels. The guidelines outline the effects of lead poisoning, sources of lead, estimated incidence of lead poisoning in Illinois, screening…

  17. Lead poisoning in shooting-range workers in Gauteng Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Lead exposure constitutes a major public health concern globally. Relative to developed nations, lead exposure is understudied and poorly addressed in Africa, and there is a dearth of information available to inform lead poisoning prevention strategies, even in highrisk groups such as workers in shooting ...

  18. Poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaroslav, S

    1962-01-01

    Massive poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions in Czechoslovakia are reviewed. Arsenic emissions from an ore processing plant in Tesin were responsible for massive bee deaths after World War I. Massive death of bees was observed in 1938 in the Krompach region around a copper ore smelting plant which emitted arsenic. Other accidents were reported in 1954 and 1957 in areas around industrial plants and power plants using arsenopyrite-containing low-grade coal or lignite. Arsenic was emitted bound in fly-ash in the form of arsenic trioxide or, in the case of coals containing alkaline chlorides, in the form of arsenic trichloride. The arsenic contamination extended to areas within a radius of 3 to 7 km. Settled fly-ash contained 0.0004 to 0.75 percent arsenic, which was soluble in a citrate-hydrochloric acid solution of pH 3.9, which corresponds to the gastric acid of bees. The arsenic uptake by the bees from pollen was calculated to amount to 1 microgram daily, against a toxic dose of 0.37 microgram. The toxic effect of arsenic on bees can be abated by adding colloidal iron hydroxide to the sugar solution which they are fed.

  19. Poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, J

    1962-01-01

    Massive poisoning of bees by industrial arsenic emissions in Czechoslovakia are reviewed. Arsenic emissions from an ore processing plant in Tesin were responsible for massive bee deaths after World War I. Massive death of bees was observed in 1938 in the Krompach region around a copper ore smelting plant which emitted arsenic. Other accidents were reported in 1954 and 1957 in areas around industrial plants and power plants using arsenopyrite-containing low-grade coal or lignite. Arsenic was emitted bound in fly-ash in the form of arsenic trioxide or, in the case of coals containing alkaline chlorides, in the form of arsenic trichloride. The arsenic contamination extended to areas within a radius of 3-7 km. Settled fly-ash contained 0.0004-0.75% arsenic, which was soluble in a citrate-hydrochloric acid solution of pH 3.9, which corresponds to the gastric acid of bees. The arsenic uptake by the bees from pollen was calculated to amount to 1 microgram daily, against a toxic dose of 0.37 microgram. The toxic effect of arsenic on bees can be abated by adding colloidal iron hydroxide to the sugar solution which they are fed. 5 references.

  20. Acute and chronic lead poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosif, C

    1966-02-01

    Three cases of acute plumbism in cows are detailed: one of a six-year-old cow who accidentally ate about 100 gm. of lead (in 1956); the second of a 12-year-old cow who accidentally ate a packet containing about 100 gm. of lead used in painting; and the third of a three-week-old heifer who licked a freshly painted bucket. Route of exposure to lead can be gastrointestinal following deposition of lead fumes (lead oxide, sulfide, and sulfate) on pasturage and in exposed drinking water, or respiratory following the inhalation of such fumes. The presence of CO/sub 2/ in the respiratory tract is thought to provide a favorable situation for the dissolution of lead and the formation of soluble lead complexes. One author has calculated that 12% of respired lead is absorbed into the organism, while only 1-2% of ingested lead is absorbed.

  1. Incidence of lead poisoning in calves in Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, J R

    1964-08-01

    The concentrations of lead in kidneys of slaughtered calves from three slaughterhouses in Northern Ireland were analyzed for lead content to determine the frequency of lead-poisoning-attributable deaths. It was found that about 4% of the calves had concentrations of lead exceeding 25 ppm in the kidney, a level generally accepted to indicate lethality. This finding is substantially higher than previous estimates. 6 references, 1 table.

  2. Poisoning of animals by industrial fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, P

    1937-01-01

    Autopsy findings of game that died presumably due to poisoning by arsenic are presented. Corrosive gastroenteritis with edema and ecchymosis of the mucosa, and partly ulceration of the stomach, and fatty degeneration of the kidneys and liver were found in hares and stags. Arsenic was detected in the gastric content, liver, and other organs. These cases were diagnosed as acute to subacute poisoning by arsenic. Catarrhal gastrointestinal mucosa, pseudomembranes, in the esophagus, inflammatory edema of the nasal septum and laryngeai mucosa, and sometimes liver cirrhosis and edema of the spleen were found in red deer, roes, and hares. In these cases, poisoning by arsenic could not be identified as the primary cause of death. The symptoms of the poisoning were similar to cause of death. The symptoms of the poisoning were similar to those observed in game around a smelter prior to the installation of an efficient arsenic trap.

  3. Pediatric lead poisoning from folk prescription for treating epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Jian; Markowitz, Morri; Yan, Chong-Huai

    2016-10-01

    A case of lead poisoning resulting from the ingestion of a folk remedy for treating epilepsy is reported. The initial blood lead concentration of this 6-y-old boy was 63.6μg/dl upon admission. He presented with abdominal pain, constipation, and irritability. The patient's liver function tests were significantly increased. Through chelation therapy, the blood lead concentration dropped markedly and clinical symptoms greatly improved. His blood and urine samples were collected for the kinetic analysis of lead elimination. Folk prescriptions for epilepsy should be considered as potential sources of lead intoxication. Lead poisoning should be taken into consideration for unknown causes of abdominal pain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Adult lead poisoning from a herbal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Abdulsalam S.; Latif, Ali H.

    2002-01-01

    A 56-year-old Indian lady presented with one week history of abdominal pain, jaundice and chronic polyarthralgia. She had evidence of hemolytic anemia and hepatitis. Her blood lead level was high and a peripheral blood film showed dense basophilic stippling. It is believed that the lead toxicity was due to the use of Indian herbal medicine. (author)

  5. Renovate Right: Prevent Lead Poisoning in Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Maria Doa, Director of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Program Chemicals Division, discusses EPA's new rule for renovations, repairs, and painting activities. The new rule includes information on lead-safe work practices when conducting renovations, repairs, and painting in pre-1978 homes and schools to prevent the spread of lead dust.

  6. Renovate Right: Prevent Lead Poisoning in Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Maria Doa, Director of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Program Chemicals Division, discusses EPA's new rule for renovations, repairs, and painting activities. The new rule includes information on lead-safe work practices when conducting renovations, repairs, and painting in pre-1978 homes and schools to prevent the spread of lead dust.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  7. The cost of environmental lead (Pb) poisoning in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To estimate the costs of Pb poisoning attributable to petrochemicals in Nigeria, we conducted a meta-analysis of measured blood lead levels (BLL) and we used published Relative Risk values for disease categories to estimate the proportion of overall disease burden attributable to Pb. We modeled the health costs of Pb ...

  8. Lead poisoning in whooper and tundra swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Tetsuya; Tomura, Yoshihiro; Jin, Kazuo; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Mutsuki; Kikkawa, Aya; Miyagi, Kunitaro; Uchida, Eiji; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Mukai, Takeshi; Shirasawa, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Mamoru

    2005-01-01

    Six weak whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) and two weak tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) were found at Swamp Miyajima (Hokkaido, Japan) in May 1998. Anorexia, depression, green watery feces, pale conjunctiva, and anemia were observed. Radiographs showed from six to 38 suspected lead pellets in the gizzard. Blood lead concentrations were 2.5-6.7 microg/g (mean+/-SD=4.6+/-1.14 microg/g) on day 1. After blood collection, the birds were treated with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaEDTA) given intravenously and force fed. Despite treatment, seven birds died the next day. Green, bile-stained livers and pale or green kidneys were observed on necropsy. Microscopically, bile pigment was widespread in the liver and acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in renal tubular epithelium. Lead concentrations in livers and kidneys were 14.0-30.4 microg/g and 30.2-122 microg/g wet weight, respectively. Only one bird survived and this whooper swan continued to be treated with CaEDTA and activated charcoal. No lead shot was observed in the proventriculus and gizzard by radiography on day 64 and the blood lead concentration decreased from 2.9 microg/g to 0.09 microg/g during that same period. After 4 mo of rehabilitation, the whooper swan was returned to the wild. Lead intoxication continues to be a problem at Swamp Miyajima.

  9. Lead pollution: poisonous effects on plants. [Phalanis canariensis; Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiussello, N

    1973-01-01

    Lead alkyl additives in motor gasoline emitted into the atmosphere are responsible for the high levels of lead in soil and plants near roads. The A has tested the poisonousness of lead salts against the germination and growth of wheat, oats and Phalaris canariensis. Concentrations of 10-/sup 2/ M lead nitrate inhibit, in part, wheat germination and totally oats and P. - canariensis germination. In sand cultures with a lead content of 200 p.p.m. there is a diminution of fresh weight, of dry weight and of the chlorophyll content. Water plants (Lemna minor) are remarkably damaged by lead nitrate (200 p.p.m. conc.). 5 references.

  10. The lead-poisoned genius: saturnism in famous artists across five centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Santiago, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Lead poisoning (saturnism) has been present throughout the history of mankind. In addition to possible ingestion from contaminated food, one of the most important ways in which poisoning caused morbid processes was by occupational exposure. This exposition was pandemic in the Roman Empire, and it has been claimed that it contributed to its fall, but it also caused numerous epidemics in Western countries until the nineteenth century. In the case of artists, and since the Renaissance period, this toxicity has been called painter's colic or painter's madness. The latter term is partly due to the mental disorders displayed by some of the great masters, including Michelangelo and Caravaggio, although it was long recognized that even house and industrial painters were prone to the disorder. This chapter examines the historical evidence of recognition of such toxicity and discusses the controversies raised by the possibility of professional lead poisoning in great artists. In addition to those mentioned above, many other artists across several centuries will be discussed, some being Rubens, Goya, Fortuny, Van Gogh, Renoir, Dufy, Klee, Frida Kahlo, and Portinari. This chapter also briefly mentions the possibility of lead poisoning in two famous composers: Beethoven and Handel. Whether suffering from lead poisoning or not, about which we cannot always be sure, we should still highlight and admire such geniuses fighting their disorders to bequeath us their immortals works. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. LEAD POISONING IN ANCIENT ROME 1. INTRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1983b:661-3) and Woolley (1984:353-61) postulate that it played a major role in ... In the Iron Age (1 200-50 BC) potential lead contamination still posed ..... letons from Peru (500-1 000 AD) and Europe (18th century BC to 20th century AD).

  12. Lead poisoning and other mortality factors in trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Stroud, R.K.; Reiswig, B.; McEneaney, T.

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning and other causes of mortality of trumpeter swans were investigated. Necropsies or Pb concentrations in livers were available for 72 trumpeter swans found dead in seven western states from 1976 to 1987; data from other published and unpublished sources also are summarized. Ingestion of lead artifacts accounted for about 20% of the known mortality of trumpeter swans in the tri-state area of Idaho, Montana and Wyoming, where the population has been declining for several decades.

  13. Oral opium: an unusual cause of lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybodi, Farid Aghaee; Eslick, Guy D; Sasani, Sanaz; Abdolhoseyni, Mohammad; Sazegar, Sasan; Ebrahimi, Farzaneh

    2012-06-01

    The number of cases of lead poisoning (LP), a widely known disease with various aetiologies, being reported globally has decreased over the years due to both limited domestic applications of lead and enforcement of stringent safety measures. However, a new presentation of lead poisoning, lead-contaminated opium (LCO), is gradually emerging in our region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical effects of lead toxicity associated with opium use. Between November 2006 and December 2007, all patients diagnosed with LP at a central laboratory in Tehran, Iran, were assessed for potential causes of poisoning. Patients with a history of LCO abuse were evaluated and recruited for the study. Overall, there were 240 patients with LP, and poisoning from LCO was diagnosed in 25 patients. The duration of addiction was between three months and 40 years, and the duration of symptoms was 28.1 ± 17.7 days. Mean blood lead levels of the patients were 145 ± 61 (range 61-323) μg/dL. The average creatinine and haemoglobin levels were 77.4 ± 8.1 μmol/L and 105 ± 25 g/L, respectively. The association between the duration of addiction and levels of lead in blood was not statistically significant (r = -0.142, p = 0.54). The most common symptoms were gastrointestinal complaints, followed by musculoskeletal complaints with muscle weakness (92%). Anorexia was also a leading complaint. The results of our study suggest that the possibility of LP should be considered with high suspicion among opium users presenting with acute abdominal symptoms.

  14. Lead poisoning in opium abuser in Iran: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Soltaninejad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance abuse and its consequences are major health hazards in the world. Opium addiction is a common form of substance abuse in Iran. Adulteration of illegal substances in the process of production and distribution of the drug in black market with many types of materials have been reported. One of the main goals of the adulteration of illegal substances is cutting of the substance for deal and increase of the weight for more benefit. However, adding of adulterating agents to illegal drugs could be considered as a cause of nonspecific and rare toxicity during substance abuse. Although the presence of lead in street-level heroin, marijuana, and amphetamines has been reported from some countries previously, recently, several reports suggested lead poisoning in Iranian opium addicts. Adulteration of opium with lead is a new source of lead poisoning in Iran in which the opium abuse is frequent and it could be a new health problem in the future. In this regard, evaluation of blood lead level would be important for early diagnosis of lead poisoning in opium addicts.

  15. Lead Poisoning in Opium Abuser in Iran: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Shadnia, Shahin

    2018-01-01

    Substance abuse and its consequences are major health hazards in the world. Opium addiction is a common form of substance abuse in Iran. Adulteration of illegal substances in the process of production and distribution of the drug in black market with many types of materials have been reported. One of the main goals of the adulteration of illegal substances is cutting of the substance for deal and increase of the weight for more benefit. However, adding of adulterating agents to illegal drugs could be considered as a cause of nonspecific and rare toxicity during substance abuse. Although the presence of lead in street-level heroin, marijuana, and amphetamines has been reported from some countries previously, recently, several reports suggested lead poisoning in Iranian opium addicts. Adulteration of opium with lead is a new source of lead poisoning in Iran in which the opium abuse is frequent and it could be a new health problem in the future. In this regard, evaluation of blood lead level would be important for early diagnosis of lead poisoning in opium addicts. PMID:29416839

  16. Animals afflicted with lead poisoning from motor exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheel-Thomsen, A

    1956-01-01

    Three cases of dogs treated for ulcerous conditions of the oral cavity and a trembling of the limbs, which were eventually discovered to be lead poisoning derived from constant exposure to gasoline and automotive exhaust, are reported. The first case, typical of all three, was first treated in April 1951. The lesions healed after a stay in the hospital but recurred after he returned home. The dog was also asymptomatic when at the owner's summer home for any length of time. It was discovered that at his winter home the dog spent much of his time around a large automobile garage. After treatment with Antoxol (dimercaprol) and benzyl benzoate, he recovered and had no more symptoms of lead poisoning until his death from cancer several years later. Each of the three involved an animal whose daily activities exposed him to the continual presence of gasolines and exhaust fumes containing tetraethyl lead.

  17. One century of studies on lead poisoning in papers published in La Medicina del Lavoro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, L; Cortesi, I; Materzanini, P; Barenghi, M

    2000-09-01

    One century of papers published in the Italian journal of occupational medicine, La Medicina del Lavoro, shows clearly that the study of lead is an exemplary topic for occupational physicians, enabling them to observe the evolution of research in the field of occupational health. The numerous pathological features of lead poisoning, doctors' successive therapeutic responses, and their gradual development of preventive techniques, form a paradigm that has subsequently been applied to all other fields of industrial toxicology. The evolution of the study of lead poisoning during this century is a complete example in the field of occupational toxicology for medical students: it will stimulate them in applying both clinical and preventive knowledge in the field of industrial toxicology. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Lead poisoning: historical aspects of a paradigmatic "occupational and environmental disease".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Lafranconi, Alessandra; D'Orso, Marco Italo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2012-03-01

    Lead poisoning is one of the earliest identified and most known occupational disease. Its acute effects have been recognized from antiquity when this condition principally afflicted manual workers and slaves, actually scarcely considered by the medicine of that time. The Industrial Revolution caused an epidemic of metal intoxication, urging scientists and physician of that period to study and identify specific symptoms and organ alterations related to chronic lead poisoning. During the 20th century, the acknowledgment of occupational and environmental toxicity of lead fostered public awareness and legislation to protect health. More recently, the identification of sub-clinical effects have greatly modified the concept of lead poisoning and the approaches of medicine towards this condition. Nowadays, lead poisoning is rarely seen in developed countries, but it still represents a major environmental problem in certain areas. Consequently, it may appear as a paradigm of "occupational and environmental disease," and the history of this condition seems to parallel the historical development of modern "Occupational and Environmental Health" as a more complete medical discipline.

  19. Lead Poisoning: Historical Aspects of a Paradigmatic “Occupational and Environmental Disease”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Augusto Riva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is one of the earliest identified and most known occupational disease. Its acute effects have been recognized from antiquity when this condition principally afflicted manual workers and slaves, actually scarcely considered by the medicine of that time. The Industrial Revolution caused an epidemic of metal intoxication, urging scientists and physician of that period to study and identify specific symptoms and organ alterations related to chronic lead poisoning. During the 20th century, the acknowledgment of occupational and environmental toxicity of lead fostered public awareness and legislation to protect health. More recently, the identification of sub-clinical effects have greatly modified the concept of lead poisoning and the approaches of medicine towards this condition. Nowadays, lead poisoning is rarely seen in developed countries, but it still represents a major environmental problem in certain areas. Consequently, it may appear as a paradigm of “occupational and environmental disease,” and the history of this condition seems to parallel the historical development of modern “Occupational and Environmental Health” as a more complete medical discipline.

  20. [Lead poisoning and marginalization in newborns of Morelos, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Bautista-Arredondo, Luis F; Richardson, Vesta; Estrada-Sánchez, Daniel; Ávila-Jiménez, Laura; Ríos, Camilo; Cantoral-Preciado, Alejandra; Romero-Martínez, Martín; Flores-Pimentel, Delia; Melo-Zurita, María Del Carmen; Romero-Ramírez, Anita; León-Mazón, Marco Antonio; Montes, Sergio; Fuller, Richard; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of lead (Pb) poisoning at birth in Morelos, analyze its distribution by social marginalization level, and estimate the association with the use of lead glazed ceramics (LGC). Blood lead level (BLL) in umbilical cord was measured in a representative sample of 300 randomly selected births at the Morelos Health Services and state IMSS. The prevalence of Pb poisoning at birth (BLL> 5μg/dL) was 14.7% (95%CI: 11.1, 19.3) and 22.2% (95%CI: 14.4, 32.5) in the most socially marginalized municipalities. 57.1% (95%CI: 51.3, 62.7) of the mothers used LGC during pregnancy, and the frequency of use was significantly associated with BLL. This is the first study to document the proportion of newborns with Pb poisoning who are at risk of experiencing the related adverse effects. It is recommended to monitor BLL at birth and take action to reduce this exposure, especially in socially marginalized populations.

  1. Clinical, Toxicological, Biochemical, and Hematologic Parameters in Lead Exposed Workers of a Car Battery Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kianoush, Sina; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Dadpour, Bita; Moradi, Valiollah; Sadeghi, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lead is a toxic element which causes acute, subacute or chronic poisoning through environmental and occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and laboratory abnormalities of chronic lead poisoning among workers of a car battery industry. Methods: Questionnaires and forms were designed and used to record demographic data, past medical histories and clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. Blood samples were taken to determine biochemical (using Auto...

  2. Buyers beware: lead poisoning due to Ayurvedic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J Matthew R; Estrada, Carlos A; Mathews, Ronnie E

    2012-10-01

    A 29-year-old man, who recently emigrated from India, presented with a 2-week history of abdominal pain, as well as nausea, constipation, and fatigue. He underwent removal of a parathyroid adenoma 6 weeks prior to admission and received a locally made Indian traditional medicine (Ayurveda) for pain control; however, this information was not initially available. He was instructed to take approximately 15 g/day. Initial evaluation revealed a normocytic anemia, but other workup including imaging and endoscopy was unrevealing. Given his recent use of Ayurvedic medicines, we tested for lead poisoning and found a blood lead level of 72 mcg/dl. We sent his medicine for analysis and found it had a high lead concentration of 36,000 mcg/g, which is over 25,000 times the maximum daily dose. He improved with cessation of the medicine and treatment with succimer. Lead poisoning can present with a variety of nonspecific signs and symptoms, including abdominal pain and anemia. Ayurvedic medicines, as well as traditional medicines from other cultures, may be a source of lead or other heavy metals. It is essential for physicians to be aware of adverse effects of Ayurvedic medicines as they are easily available and increasing in popularity.

  3. Chronic lead poisoning in a herd of mute swans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, V.R.; Hunt, A.E.; French, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of lead fishing shot was shown to be the cause of death of a number of mute swans Cygnus olor Gmelin. The area in which they were feeding was shown to be heavily contaminated with fishing shot. The results of clinical, histopathological, haematological and analytical examinations are reported. The kidneys of the dead birds contained from 350 to 6650 ..mu..g/g DM of lead and blood lead levels in the remainder of the herd were greatly elevated, rising to 3290 ..mu..g/100 ml. Consistently elevated liver levels of iron and zinc and a marked loss of body weight were all directly proportional to the increase in kidney lead concentration. 17 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  4. Monetary benefits of preventing childhood lead poisoning with lead-safe window replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Nevin, Rick; Jacobs, David / E.; Berg, Michael; Cohen, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Previous estimates of childhood lead poisoning prevention benefits have quantified the present value of some health benefits, but not the costs of lead paint hazard control or the benefits associated with housing and energy markets. Because older housing with lead paint constitutes the main exposure source today in the U.S., we quantify health benefits, costs, market value benefits, energy savings, and net economic benefits of lead-safe window replacement (which includes paint stabilization ...

  5. Lead poisoning and marginalization in newborns of Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha María Téllez-Rojo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of lead (Pb poi- soning at birth in Morelos, analyze its distribution by social marginalization level, and estimate the association with the use of lead glazed ceramics (LGC. Materials and methods. Blood lead level (BLL in umbilical cord was measured in a representative sample of 300 randomly selected births at the Morelos Health Services and state IMSS. Results. The prevalence of Pb poisoning at birth (BLL> 5µg/dL was 14.7%(95%CI: 11.1, 19.3 and 22.2% (95%CI: 14.4, 32.5 in the most socially marginalized municipalities. 57.1% (95%CI: 51.3, 62.7of the mothers used LGC during pregnancy, and the frequency of use was significantly associated with BLL. Conclusion. This is the first study to document the proportion of new- borns with Pb poisoning who are at risk of experiencing the related adverse effects. It is recommended to monitor BLL at birth and take action to reduce this exposure, especially in socially marginalized populations.

  6. A cluster of lead poisoning among consumers of Ayurvedic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeher, Laura; Mikulski, Marek A; Czeczok, Thomas; Leinenkugel, Kathy; Fuortes, Laurence J

    2015-01-01

    Use of alternative medications and herbal remedies is widespread in the United States and across the globe. These traditional medications can be contaminated with toxic metals. Despite several case reports of poisoning from such contamination, the epidemiological data are still limited. To report on a cluster of lead and mercury toxicity cases in 2011 among a community of adherents of traditional medical practice of Ayurveda. Adherents of Ayurveda were offered heavy metals screening following the identification of the index case. Forty-six of 115 participants (40%) had elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) of 10 μg/dl or above, with 9.6% of BLLs at or above 50 μg/dl. This is the largest cluster of lead and mercury toxicity following use of Ayurvedic supplements described in the literature in the US. Contamination of herbal products is a public health issue of global significance. There are few regulations addressing contamination of "natural" products or supplements.

  7. Identifying housing that poisons: a critical step in eliminating childhood lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Nimia L; Wong, Lee-Yang; MacRoy, Patrick M; Curtis, Gerald; Meyer, Pamela A; Evens, Anne; Brown, Mary Jean

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to develop a method to identify and prioritize "high-risk" buildings in Chicago that could be targeted for childhood lead poisoning prevention activities. We defined "high-risk" buildings as those where multiple children younger than 6 years with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) had lived and where lead hazards were previously identified on environmental inspection. By linking 1997-2003 Chicago elevated blood lead surveillance, environmental inspection, and building footprint data, we found that 49,362 children younger than 6 years with elevated BLLs lived at 30,742 buildings. Of those, 67 were "high-risk" buildings and these were associated with 994 children with elevated BLLs. On average, 15 children with elevated BLLs had lived in each building (range: 10-53, median: 13). Almost two thirds (n = 43) of the high-risk buildings had two or more referrals for inspection to the same apartment or housing unit; of those, 40 percent (n = 17) failed to maintain lead-safe status after compliance. Linking blood lead surveillance, environmental inspection, and building footprint databases allowed us to identify individual high-risk buildings. This approach prioritizes lead hazard control efforts and may help health, housing, and environmental agencies in targeting limited resources to increase lead-safe housing for children.

  8. Two cases of acute lead poisoning due to occupational exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masanori; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Kubota, Ryuichi; Endo, Yoko

    2008-04-01

    We experienced two cases of acute lead poisoning due to occupational exposure to lead. The patients were engaged in stripping off antirust compounds including Pb from a bridge and re-painting it at the same work place. Both patients exhibited colic, arthralgia, and anemia. Blood lead levels were 73.1 microg/dl and 96.3 microg/dl. Intravenous CaEDTA chelation therapy was therefore performed. After chelation, blood lead levels decreased and symptoms gradually disappeared. Although the patients were working with protective equipment, the workplace was in the mountains and there was no water for washing. The patients were thus unable to washing their hands and faces. We assume that they swallowed lead dust left on their hands and faces when they removed their clothing, and believe that this poisoning occurred due to lack of knowledge sufficient for protection.

  9. The political ecology of lead poisoning in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchette, Carol L

    2008-06-01

    In the United States, childhood blood lead levels have dropped substantially since 1991, when the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) implemented new screening guidelines. Many states, including North Carolina, have established successful screening and intervention programs. Still, pockets of higher lead poisoning rates continue to be a problem in some geographic areas. One of these areas consists of several counties in eastern North Carolina. This cluster of higher rates cannot be explained by poverty and housing characteristics alone. Instead, the explanation requires an understanding of place that encompasses a range of historical, social, political, and economic processes. This paper utilizes a political ecology approach to provide a deeper understanding of how these processes can contribute to ill health.

  10. Childhood lead poisoning investigations: evaluating a portable instrument for testing soil lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Ginger; Lance, Larrie L

    2002-04-01

    The Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch of the California Department of Health Services evaluated a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument for use as a soil lead-testing tool during environmental investigations of lead-poisoned children's homes. A Niton XRF was used to test soil at 119 sampling locations in the yards of 11 San Francisco Bay Area houses. Niton XRF readings were highly correlated with laboratory results and met the study criteria for an acceptable screening method. The data suggest that the most health-protective and time-efficient approach to testing for soil lead above regulatory levels is to take either surface readings or readings of a test cup of soil prepared by grinding with a mortar and pestle. The advantage of the test cup method is that the test cup with soil may be submitted to a laboratory for confirmatory analysis.

  11. VIGILANCE POISON: Illegal poisoning and lead intoxication are the main factors affecting avian scavenger survival in the Pyrenees (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berny, Philippe; Vilagines, Lydia; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Mastain, Olivier; Chollet, Jean-Yves; Joncour, Guy; Razin, Martine

    2015-08-01

    A specific surveillance program has been set up to monitor avian scavenger populations in the French Pyrenean Mountains, hosting a high proportion of the French populations. The two main purposes of the study were to identify all causes of death and to investigate poisoning cases. All 170 birds found dead during the 7-year program were submitted to full necropsy, X-Ray, parasitological investigations and consistent analytical toxicology screenings (Cholinesterase inhibitors, anticoagulant rodenticides, organochlorine insecticides, Pb, Cd). Over the study period, 8 Bearded Vultures, 120 Griffon Vultures, 8 Egyptian Vultures and 34 Red kites were eventually collected. Mortality events were often multifactorial, but poisoning was by far the most common cause of death (24.1%), followed by trauma/fall (12%), bacterial diseases and starvation (8%) and electrocution (6%). Illicit use of banned pesticides was identified as a common cause of poisoning (53% of all poisoning cases) and lead poisoning was also identified as a significant toxicant issue (17% of all poisoning cases). Lead isotopic signature could be associated primarily with ammunition. Last, a positive association between trauma and lead contamination was detected, indicating that lead could be a significant contributor to different causes of death. These results urge for severe restrictions on the use of lead ammunition to prevent scavengers from detrimental exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High Prevalences of Lead Poisoning in Wintering Waterfowl in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo; Belliure; Dolz; Aguilar Serrano JM; Guitart

    1998-08-01

    Some Mediterranean wetlands are found between the areas with the highest prevalence of lead pellet exposure for waterfowl in the world. To assess the situation in Spain, availability of pellets in sediments and rates of ingestion by waterfowl were determined in four important wetlands: Albufera de València, El Fondo, Tablas de Daimiel, and Doñana (Guadalquivir Marshes). Lead pellet density in sediment was maximum in the Albufera, with 2.8 million pellets/ha. In Tablas de Daimiel, where hunting was banned in 1965, about 1.0 million pellets/ha were found. Percentages of shot waterfowl with ingested pellets were maximum in the wetlands on the Mediterranean coast (El Fondo and Albufera de València): 87.5% of common pochard (Aythya ferina) and approximately 33% of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and shoveler (Anas clypeata) contained ingested pellets. It was found that mallards with > 5 µg/g dry weight of lead in the liver had 8.5% lower body condition and 7.7% less body weight than birds with lower lead concentrations. Moreover, lead poisoning was diagnosed as the cause of death in 16 out of 75 birds, mainly greylag geese (Anser anser), found dead in some of these zones.

  13. Modeling the effect of succimer (DMSA; dimercaptosuccinic acid) chelation therapy in patients poisoned by lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Olie, J. Daniël N; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister; de Vries, Irma; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    CONTEXT: Kinetic models could assist clinicians potentially in managing cases of lead poisoning. Several models exist that can simulate lead kinetics but none of them can predict the effect of chelation in lead poisoning. Our aim was to devise a model to predict the effect of succimer

  14. [Environmental lead poisoning from lead-glazed earthenware used for storing drinks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouraud, S; Coppéré, B; Rousseau, C; Testud, F; Pulce, C; Tholly, F; Blanc, M; Culoma, F; Facchin, A; Ninet, J; Chambon, P; Medina, B; Descotes, J

    2009-12-01

    Current unusual environmental sources of lead exposure mainly include traditional medicines, either ayurvedic remedies or others, traditional cosmetics (kohl, surma), and the use of traditional earthenware, for storage or cooking. We report two cases of lead poisoning in adults initially identified by paroxysmal abdominal pain or anemia. In both cases, the environmental investigation evidenced one main source of lead exposure, namely a lead-glazed earthenware jug in which a drink was stored, "kefir" in the first case, and "kombucha" tea in the second one. It is recommended to search for lead intoxication in patients with unexplained anemia. Environmental sources of lead can be multiple. Their relative importance has to be ranked during the environmental investigation and among these, lead-glazed earthenware must be considered as a source of high lead exposure when drinks are stored inside and thus can soak.

  15. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home. Regularly test and replace the batteries. Poisoning treatment Treatment depends on the person and the type ... Injury Prevention, Prevention and Wellness, Staying HealthyTags: chemical ... poison treatments, snakebite, syrup of ipecac July 12, 2017 Featured ...

  16. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  17. Lead levels in tissues and stomach contents of poisoned cattle: a fifteen-year survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, R C; Funnell, H S

    1969-10-01

    During the period 1954 to 1969, samples of ingesta, liver, or kidney from 175 cattle which died of lead poisoning were analyzed for lead content. The average lead levels, and the extremes, were: ingesta, 3427 ppm (zero to 146,200 ppm); liver, 43 ppm (zero to 1300 ppm); and kidney, 137 ppm (two to 2355 ppm). There were no relationships between ingesta levels of lead and levels in the tissues tested. Taken with published results of natural and experimental lead poisoning in other cattle, the data indicate that the mere presence of lead in kidney (or liver) and ingesta should lead to a presumptive diagnosis of lead poisoning in cattle which die with signs, lesions, and histories characteristic of lead poisoning. Diagnosis may be confirmed by proof of access to, or ingestion of, a source of lead.

  18. The Hospital Management of Fatal Self-Poisoning in Industrialized Countries: An Opportunity for Suicide Prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Navneet; Turnbull, Pauline; Hawton, Keith; Simkin, Sue; Mackway-Jones, Kevin; Gunnell, David

    2006-01-01

    Suicide by self-poisoning is a prevalent cause of death worldwide. A substantial proportion of individuals who poison themselves come into contact with medical services before they die. Our focus in the current study was the medical management of drug self-poisoning in industrialized countries and its possible contribution to suicide prevention.…

  19. Guidelines for evaluation and treatment of lead poisoning of wild raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Jesse A.; Redig, Patrick; Miller, Tricia A.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a threat to birds, particularly scavenging birds of prey. With the availability of portable lead-testing kits, an increasing number of field researchers are testing wild-caught birds, in situ, for lead poisoning. We describe guidelines for evaluation of lead toxicity in wild raptors by outlining field testing of blood-lead concentrations, presenting criteria for removing a lead-poisoned bird from the wild for treatment, and suggesting strategies for effective treatment of lead intoxicated raptors. Field testing of birds is most commonly accomplished via portable electrochemical analysis of blood; visual observation of condition alone may provide insufficient evidence upon which to make a decision about lead poisoning. Our intended audience is not only the avian research community, but also rehabilitation facilities that may receive apparently uninjured birds. Best practices suggest that birds whose blood-lead levels are 60 μg/dL are potentially lethally poisoned and best served if removed from the wild for appropriate treatment at a licensed rehabilitation facility and later released. We present guidelines for decision-making when treating lead poisoning of wild raptors. Future work based on experimental studies will clarify the role of lead poisoning for specific species and be important to refine these guidelines to improve effectiveness.

  20. Lead-contaminated health food. Association with lead poisoning and leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, W.H.

    1977-06-13

    A doctor prescribed a dietary supplement prepared from powdered animal bone for a young woman with dysmenorrhea. Severe lead poisoning developed while she was taking the powder, which was shown to be contaminated with lead. The diagnosis eluded more than 20 physicians and was finally made by the patient herself. The Food and Drug Administration, informed of the contamination, declined to take action, stating that a food supplement is neither a food nor a drug and, besides, there are no maximal limits for heavy-metal contamination of foods and drugs.

  1. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  2. [A "historical" case of lead poisoning via drinking water: diagnostic and therapeutic issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, F; Girtanner-Brunel, L; Péaud, P Y; Serpollet, G; Duchen, C

    2001-12-01

    It is likely that lead poisoning via drinking water is often overlooked because of its supposed rarity and nonspecific early symptoms, which result in delayed management. One case of severe lead poisoning via drinking water is reported. The diagnosis was long missed and a particularly long chelating treatment was required. The clinical features included lead colic, a Burton's lead line, anemia, polyneuritis and arterial hypertension. Eighteen courses of calcium EDTA were required to obtain 'biological recovery'. The poisoning was linked to a very long water supply lead pipe and potomania secondary to alcohol withdrawal. This case report illustrates how difficult the early recognition of lead poisoning can be, and underlines the need to inquire about a toxic aetiology, particularly via the environment, of otherwise unexplained pathological conditions.

  3. World's leading physics lab shut for poisoning water

    CERN Multimedia

    Popham, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Gran Sasso National Laboratory, the most advanced laboratory in the world for underground research into astroparticle physics, has been shut after polluting the environment. The laboratory, deep beneath the Apenninnes is said to have poisoned an aqueduct with waste from its equipment and committed numerous other infringements and ommissions (1 page)

  4. Lead poisoning among opium users in Iran: an emerging health hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Mahdi; Oghabian, Zohreh; Conlon, Elvira; Nakhaee, Samaneh; Amirabadizadeh, Ali Reza; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Moghadam, Sodief Darvish; Ahmadi, Bighan; Soroush, Somayeh; Aaseth, Jan; Mehrpour, Omid

    2017-01-01

    Background Lead (Pb) poisoning among people using opium has been an increasing problem in Iran. The present study highlights the clinical effects of lead toxicity associated with opium use in Iran, Kerman province. Methods Between January 2016 and June 2016, patients with signs and symptoms of Pb poisoning were questioned to assess whether they had a history of opium dependency. In total, 249 patients were enrolled onto this cross-sectional study, all were opium dependent. Para-clinical data ...

  5. Modeling the effect of succimer (DMSA; dimercaptosuccinic acid) chelation therapy in patients poisoned by lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Olie, J Daniël N; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister; de Vries, Irma; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    2017-02-01

    Kinetic models could assist clinicians potentially in managing cases of lead poisoning. Several models exist that can simulate lead kinetics but none of them can predict the effect of chelation in lead poisoning. Our aim was to devise a model to predict the effect of succimer (dimercaptosuccinic acid; DMSA) chelation therapy on blood lead concentrations. We integrated a two-compartment kinetic succimer model into an existing PBPK lead model and produced a Chelation Lead Therapy (CLT) model. The accuracy of the model's predictions was assessed by simulating clinical observations in patients poisoned by lead and treated with succimer. The CLT model calculates blood lead concentrations as the sum of the background exposure and the acute or chronic lead poisoning. The latter was due either to ingestion of traditional remedies or occupational exposure to lead-polluted ambient air. The exposure duration was known. The blood lead concentrations predicted by the CLT model were compared to the measured blood lead concentrations. Pre-chelation blood lead concentrations ranged between 99 and 150 μg/dL. The model was able to simulate accurately the blood lead concentrations during and after succimer treatment. The pattern of urine lead excretion was successfully predicted in some patients, while poorly predicted in others. Our model is able to predict blood lead concentrations after succimer therapy, at least, in situations where the duration of lead exposure is known.

  6. Peeling Lead Paint Turns into Poisonous Dust. Guess Where It Ends Up? A Media Campaign to Prevent Childhood Lead Poisoning in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P.; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to…

  7. Deaths related to lead poisoning in the United States, 1979-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.B.; Staes, Catherine J.; Matte, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe trends in US lead poisoning-relate deaths between 1979 and 1998. The predictive value of relevant ICD-9 codes was also evaluated. Multiple cause-of-death files were searched for record containing relevant ICD-9 codes, and underlying causes and demographic characteristics were assessed. For 1979-1988, death certificates were reviewed; lead source information was abstracted and accuracy of coding was determined. An estimated 200 lead poisoning-related deaths occurred from 1979 to 1998. Most were among males (74%), Blacks (67%), adults of age ≥45 years (76%), and Southerners (70%). The death rate was significantly lower in more recent years. An alcohol-related code was a contributing cause for 28% of adults. Only three of nine ICD-9 codes for lead poisoning were highl predictive of lead poisoning-related deaths. In conclusion, lead poisoning-related death rates have dropped dramatically since earlier decades and are continuing to decline. However, the findings imply that moonshine ingestion remains a source of high-dose lead exposure in adults

  8. Uncommon sources and some unsual manifestations of lead poisoning in a tropical developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, David D K

    2011-12-01

    Lead-containing cooking utensils, sometimes used in South Indian homes, and indigenous medications, widely used in India and increasingly in developed countries, may be responsible for lead intoxication in adults. We report chronic lead poisoning in five adult patients. Not all patients had abdominal colic, while dramatic weight loss, depression and encephalopathy were seen. Once recognized, lead poisoning is treatable and sometimes preventable. Response to chelation therapy with agents such as calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaEDTA) is impressive, although several courses of therapy may be necessary.

  9. The Risk Factors of Child Lead Poisoning in China: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the risk factors of child lead poisoning in China. Methods: A document retrieval was performed using MeSH (Medical subject heading terms and key words. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS was used to assess the quality of the studies, and the pooled odd ratios with a 95% confidence interval were used to identify the risk factors. We employed Review Manager 5.2 and Stata 10.0 to analyze the data. Heterogeneity was assessed by both the Chi-square and I2 tests, and publication bias was evaluated using a funnel plot and Egger’s test. Results: Thirty-four articles reporting 13,587 lead-poisoned children met the inclusion criteria. Unhealthy lifestyle and behaviors, environmental pollution around the home and potential for parents’ occupational exposure to lead were risk factors of child lead poisoning in the pooled analyses. Our assessments yielded no severe publication biases. Conclusions: Seventeen risk factors are associated with child lead poisoning, which can be used to identify high-risk children. Health education and promotion campaigns should be designed in order to minimize or prevent child lead poisoning in China.

  10. Monetary benefits of preventing childhood lead poisoning with lead-safe window replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Rick; Jacobs, David E; Berg, Michael; Cohen, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    Previous estimates of childhood lead poisoning prevention benefits have quantified the present value of some health benefits, but not the costs of lead paint hazard control or the benefits associated with housing and energy markets. Because older housing with lead paint constitutes the main exposure source today in the US, we quantify health benefits, costs, market value benefits, energy savings, and net economic benefits of lead-safe window replacement (which includes paint stabilization and other measures). The benefit per resident child from improved lifetime earnings alone is $21,195 in pre-1940 housing and $8685 in 1940-59 housing (in 2005 dollars). Annual energy savings are $130-486 per housing unit, with or without young resident children, with an associated increase in housing market value of $5900-14,300 per housing unit, depending on home size and number of windows replaced. Net benefits are $4490-5,629 for each housing unit built before 1940, and $491-1629 for each unit built from 1940-1959, depending on home size and number of windows replaced. Lead-safe window replacement in all pre-1960 US housing would yield net benefits of at least $67 billion, which does not include many other benefits. These other benefits, which are shown in this paper, include avoided Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, other medical costs of childhood lead exposure, avoided special education, and reduced crime and juvenile delinquency in later life. In addition, such a window replacement effort would reduce peak demand for electricity, carbon emissions from power plants, and associated long-term costs of climate change.

  11. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning among children in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albalak, Rachel; Noonan, Gary; Buchanan, Sharunda; Flanders, W. Dana; Gotway-Crawford, Carol; Blumenthal, Wendy; Curtis, Gerald; McGeehin, Michael A. [Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop E-19, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Kim, Dennis; Tan, Regina [Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop D-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Jones, Robert L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop F-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Sulaiman, Rini [Swisscontact, Jl. Wijaya XII No. 44, Jakarta (Indonesia) 12160

    2003-01-01

    The phase-out of leaded gasoline began in Jakarta, Indonesia on July 1, 2001. We evaluated mean blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated BLLs of Jakarta school children and assessed risk factors for lead exposure in these children before the beginning of the phase-out activities. The study involved a population-based, cross-sectional blood lead survey that included capillary blood lead sampling and a brief questionnaire on risk factors for lead poisoning. A cluster survey design was used. Forty clusters, defined as primary schools in Jakarta, and 15 2nd- and 3rd-grade children in each cluster were randomly selected for participation in the study. The average age of children in this study was 8.6 years (range 6-12) and the geometric mean BLL of the children was 8.6 {mu}g/dl (median: 8.6 {mu}g/dl; range: 2.6-24.1 {mu}g/dl) (n=397). Thirty-five percent of children had BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl and 2.4% had BLLs {>=}20 {mu}g/dl. Approximately one-fourth of children had BLLs 10-14.9 {mu}g/dl. In multivariate models, level of education of the child's primary caregiver, water collection method, home varnishing and occupational recycling of metals, other than lead, by a family member were predictors of log BLLs after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs of children who lived near a highway or major intersection were significantly higher than those of children who lived near a street with little or no traffic when level of education was not included in the model. Water collection method was a significant predictor of BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs in children in this study were moderately high and consistent with BLLs of children in other countries where leaded gasoline is used. With the phase-out of leaded gasoline, BLLs of children in Jakarta are expected to rapidly decline as they have in other countries that have phased lead out of gasoline.

  12. Lead poisoning in ancient Rome | Retief | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead was known to the ancients from at least the 4th millennium BC, but its use increased markedly during Roman times, to the extent that it became a health hazard. Mines and foundry furnaces caused air pollution; lead was extensively used in plumbing; domestic utensils were made of lead and pewter, and lead salts ...

  13. Outbreak of fatal childhood lead poisoning related to artisanal gold mining in northwestern Nigeria, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooyema, Carrie A; Neri, Antonio; Lo, Yi-Chun; Durant, James; Dargan, Paul I; Swarthout, Todd; Biya, Oladayo; Gidado, Saheed O; Haladu, Suleiman; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nguku, Patrick M; Akpan, Henry; Idris, Sa'ad; Bashir, Abdullahi M; Brown, Mary Jean

    2012-04-01

    In May 2010, a team of national and international organizations was assembled to investigate children's deaths due to lead poisoning in villages in northwestern Nigeria. Our goal was to determine the cause of the childhood lead poisoning outbreak, investigate risk factors for child mortality, and identify children data. Multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to determine risk factors for childhood mortality. We surveyed 119 family compounds. Of 463 children 45 µg/dL), and incidence of convulsions among children before death (82%) suggest that most of the recent childhood deaths in the two surveyed villages were caused by acute lead poisoning from gold ore-processing activities. Control measures included environmental remediation, chelation therapy, public health education, and control of mining activities.

  14. Linking geology and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behrooz, Behbod; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  15. Linking geological and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Durant, James T; Morman, Suzette A; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E; Dooyema, Carrie A; Hageman, Philip L; Lowers, Heather A; Fernette, Gregory L; Meeker, Gregory P; Benzel, William M; Driscoll, Rhonda L; Berry, Cyrus J; Crock, James G; Goldstein, Harland L; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-06-01

    In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  16. Linking Geological and Health Sciences to Assess Childhood Lead Poisoning from Artisanal Gold Mining in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally. PMID:23524139

  17. Childhood lead poisoning in a Somali refugee resettlement community in New Hampshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Rosemary M; Tshabangu-Soko, Thandi; Finefrock, Krysten

    2013-08-01

    Despite the gradual decrease in childhood lead poisoning in the United States, the risk for lead poisoning among African refugee children who resettle in the United States remains elevated. Communication methods implemented by resettlement agencies in the public health system for preventing childhood lead poisoning in this at-risk population warrant further investigation. We utilized structured interviews with key stakeholders (resettlement agencies, social service agencies developed by African refugees and resettled Somali refugees) involved in the refugee resettlement process to (1) describe the agency's role in the refugee resettlement process; (2) examine communication methods utilized and barriers experienced by the public health system in reference to childhood lead poisoning; (3) describe the refugee population's perception of childhood lead poisoning; (4) examine general challenges experienced by the public health system and the refugee population during the resettlement process; and (5) describe stakeholders' recommendations to improve health communication efforts. Based on our findings, we propose that communities are important determinants in health-related problems for refugee populations. Each community has its own environment and public health system that interacts with each other to influence health risks and risk perceptions of its populations. We advocate that understanding a community's ecology and implementing a culture-centered approach is essential for the public health system to help educate and prevent communication inequalities and health disparities among an at-risk African refugee population. This action can reduce a population's resistance to communication and help build a community's capacity to address a persistent public health problem, such as childhood lead poisoning.

  18. Long term mortality study of chromate pigment workers who suffered lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J.M.

    1984-05-01

    Long term mortality was studied in a group of 57 chromate pigment workers who suffered clinical lead poisoning, mostly between 1930 and 1945. One death was attributed to lead poisoning and there were significant excesses of deaths from nephritis (observed/expected 3/0.24) and cerebrovascular disease (9/2.20), as well as non-significant excesses for respiratory diseases (7/3.59) and accidents and violence (3/1.13). The deaths from nephritis followed long spells of service exceeding 10 years. Poisoning appeared to have more adverse long term effects on older workers: 15 men aged 40 or over at the time of acute poisoning experienced generally high mortality, and 30 years later or by the end of 1981 only two survived instead of the seven expected. The risk of cerebrovascular disease appeared to be unrelated to duration of exposure and affected even men employed for under one year. Excluding the 57 lead poisoned men, other contemporary workers at the factories showed no excess mortality from cerebrovascular disease.

  19. Lead Poisoning Can Be Easily Misdiagnosed as Acute Porphyria and Nonspecific Abdominal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ta Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning (LP is less commonly encountered in emergency departments (ED. However, lead exposure still occurs, and new sources of poisoning have emerged. LP often goes unrecognized due to a low index of suspicion and nonspecific symptoms. We present a case of a 48-year-old man who had recurring abdominal pain with anemia that was misdiagnosed. His condition was initially diagnosed as nonspecific abdominal pain and acute porphyria. Acute porphyria-like symptoms with a positive urine porphyrin test result led to the misdiagnosis; testing for heme precursors in urine is the key to the differential diagnosis between LP and acute porphyria. The final definitive diagnosis of lead toxicity was confirmed based on high blood lead levels after detailed medical history taking. The lead poisoning was caused by traditional Chinese herbal pills. The abdominal pain disappeared after a course of chelating treatment. The triad for the diagnosis of lead poisoning should be a history of medicine intake, anemia with basophilic stippling, and recurrent abdominal pain.

  20. A neurological and biochemical study of early lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, J A.S.

    1980-05-01

    Motor nerve conduction velocities in 194 workers exposed to lead in a battery factory were compared with those of 94 age-matched controls. Changes in nerve conduction velocities of the 94 lead workers were found to have occurred. All mean maximum motor nerve conducting velocities measured were significantly lower in the lead-exposed group than in the control group. There was no statistically significant correlation to indicate that progressive slowing of nerve conduction was associated with increasing exposure to lead or with the commonly measured biochemical changes associated with disturbed haemopoiesis in lead exposure. Results suggest that the onset of nerve conduction changes occurs within two years.

  1. Validation of a 20-year forecast of US childhood lead poisoning: Updated prospects for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, David E.; Nevin, Rick

    2006-01-01

    We forecast childhood lead poisoning and residential lead paint hazard prevalence for 1990-2010, based on a previously unvalidated model that combines national blood lead data with three different housing data sets. The housing data sets, which describe trends in housing demolition, rehabilitation, window replacement, and lead paint, are the American Housing Survey, the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, and the National Lead Paint Survey. Blood lead data are principally from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. New data now make it possible to validate the midpoint of the forecast time period. For the year 2000, the model predicted 23.3 million pre-1960 housing units with lead paint hazards, compared to an empirical HUD estimate of 20.6 million units. Further, the model predicted 498,000 children with elevated blood lead levels (EBL) in 2000, compared to a CDC empirical estimate of 434,000. The model predictions were well within 95% confidence intervals of empirical estimates for both residential lead paint hazard and blood lead outcome measures. The model shows that window replacement explains a large part of the dramatic reduction in lead poisoning that occurred from 1990 to 2000. Here, the construction of the model is described and updated through 2010 using new data. Further declines in childhood lead poisoning are achievable, but the goal of eliminating children's blood lead levels ≥10 μg/dL by 2010 is unlikely to be achieved without additional action. A window replacement policy will yield multiple benefits of lead poisoning prevention, increased home energy efficiency, decreased power plant emissions, improved housing affordability, and other previously unrecognized benefits. Finally, combining housing and health data could be applied to forecasting other housing-related diseases and injuries

  2. [100 years of lead poisoning studies from a reading of articles published in La Medicina del Lavoro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, L; Cortesi, I; Materzanini, P; Barenghi, M

    1999-01-01

    In preparing this paper we considered the articles published in La Medicina del Lavoro from 1901, its first year of publication. This scientific journal was founded in Milan, when an animated debate arose in Italy on the necessity of treating and, above all, preventing occupational diseases. In the same city, the "Clinica del Lavoro" (i.e. Institute of Occupational Medicine) was inaugurated in 1910. Its founder, Professor Luigi Devoto, had to overcome numerous obstacles caused by the hostility of the Rector of the University of Pavia--the future Nobel prize winner Camillo Golgi--and the clinicians of the main hospital of Milan, founded by Francesco Sforza in the XV century. From reading a century of articles which appeared in La Medicina del Lavoro, it is clear that for occupational physicians lead is an exemplary topic by which to evaluate the evolution of research in the field of occupational diseases. The numerous pathological features of lead poisoning, the successive therapeutic responses of physicians, and the gradual development of preventive techniques constitute a paradigm that has subsequently been applied to all other fields of industrial toxicology. Reading the papers of 100 years gives a clear picture of the evolution of clinical syndromes over the decades. The pathological picture of lead poisoning gradually became less serious and progressively changed into aspecific, subclinical manifestations. The categories of workers in which lead poisoning had a high incidence changed over the years: painters, printers and munition makers had the highest incidence in the first three decades of this century; afterwards, those engaged in lead smelting, alloy production, painters, and in the last few decades those employed in battery, ceramic and PVC production. Prevention consisted mainly of early diagnosis of lead poisoning and instruction in proper hygiene measures. Later, in 1929, insurance of occupational diseases was made compulsory in Italy, and among the

  3. Childhood lead poisoning from commercially manufactured French ceramic dinnerware--New York City, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-09

    Lead poisoning adversely affects children worldwide. During 1999-2000, an estimated 434,000 children aged 1-5 years in the United States had elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) >/=10 microg/dL. Glazes found on ceramics, earthenware, bone china, and porcelain often contain lead and are a potential source of lead exposure. Children are especially vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of lead. Exposures to lead in early childhood can have adverse effects on the developing nervous system, resulting in decreased intelligence and changes in behavior. In addition, certain behaviors (e.g., thumb sucking) place children at greater risk for exposure to lead. In 2003, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (LPPP), and the Mount Sinai Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (PEHSU) investigated a case of lead poisoning in a boy aged 20 months. This report summarizes that case investigation, which identified ceramic dinnerware imported from France as the source of lead exposure. This case underscores the susceptibility of children to a toxic exposure associated with 1) the high proportion of time spent in the home and 2) dietary habits that promote exposure to lead leached from ceramic ware.

  4. [Lead poisoning: towards a paleo-epidemiologic re-interpretation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdieu, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Lead is a major public health issue. Its use has been increasing since Neolithic times, climaxing in the Ancient Rome and the nineteenth century. Defining the frequency of plumbism before modern times proves to be a difficult matter because of its various and delayed symptoms, and of diagenetic processes affecting bones. After reviewing various methods of lead measurement in bone and tooth, we will expose ways to ascertain lead measurement interpretation in order to estimate the epidemiology of plumbism in ancient times.

  5. Clinical, Toxicological, Biochemical, and Hematologic Parameters in Lead Exposed Workers of a Car Battery Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Kianoush

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead is a toxic element which causes acute, subacute or chronic poisoning through environmental and occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and laboratory abnormalities of chronic lead poisoning among workers of a car battery industry. Methods: Questionnaires and forms were designed and used to record demographic data, past medical histories and clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. Blood samples were taken to determine biochemical (using Auto Analyzer; Model BT3000 and hematologic (using Cell Counter Sysmex; Model KX21N parameters. An atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin-Elmer, Model 3030, USA was used to determine lead concentration in blood and urine by heated graphite atomization technique. Results: A total of 112 men mean age 28.78±5.17 years, who worked in a car battery industry were recruited in the present study. The most common signs/symptoms of lead poisoning included increased excitability 41.9%, arthralgia 41.0%, fatigue 40.1%, dental grey discoloration 44.6%, lead line 24.1%, increased deep tendon reflexes (DTR 22.3%, and decreased DTR (18.7%. Blood lead concentration (BLC was 398.95 µg/L±177.40, which was significantly correlated with duration of work (P=0.044 but not with the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. However, BLC was significantly correlated with urine lead concentration (83.67 µg/L±49.78; r2=0.711; P<0.001, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (r=-0.280; P=0.011, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (r=-0.304; P=0.006 and fasting blood sugar or FBS (r=-0.258; P=0.010. Conclusion: Neuropsychiatric and skeletal findings were common manifestations of chronic occupational lead poisoning. BLC was significantly correlated with duration of work, urine lead concentration, two hemoglobin indices and FBS.

  6. Clinical, Toxicological, Biochemical, and Hematologic Parameters in Lead Exposed Workers of a Car Battery Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianoush, Sina; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Dadpour, Bita; Moradi, Valiollah; Sadeghi, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lead is a toxic element which causes acute, subacute or chronic poisoning through environmental and occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and laboratory abnormalities of chronic lead poisoning among workers of a car battery industry. Methods: Questionnaires and forms were designed and used to record demographic data, past medical histories and clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. Blood samples were taken to determine biochemical (using Auto Analyzer; Model BT3000) and hematologic (using Cell Counter Sysmex; Model KX21N) parameters. An atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin-Elmer, Model 3030, USA) was used to determine lead concentration in blood and urine by heated graphite atomization technique. Results: A total of 112 men mean age 28.78±5.17 years, who worked in a car battery industry were recruited in the present study. The most common signs/symptoms of lead poisoning included increased excitability 41.9%, arthralgia 41.0%, fatigue 40.1%, dental grey discoloration 44.6%, lead line 24.1%, increased deep tendon reflexes (DTR) 22.3%, and decreased DTR (18.7%). Blood lead concentration (BLC) was 398.95 µg/L±177.40, which was significantly correlated with duration of work (P=0.044) but not with the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. However, BLC was significantly correlated with urine lead concentration (83.67 µg/L±49.78; r2=0.711; Psugar or FBS (r=-0.258; P=0.010). Conclusion: Neuropsychiatric and skeletal findings were common manifestations of chronic occupational lead poisoning. BLC was significantly correlated with duration of work, urine lead concentration, two hemoglobin indices and FBS. PMID:23645955

  7. Clinical, toxicological, biochemical, and hematologic parameters in lead exposed workers of a car battery industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianoush, Sina; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Dadpour, Bita; Moradi, Valiollah; Sadeghi, Mahmoud

    2013-03-01

    Lead is a toxic element which causes acute, subacute or chronic poisoning through environmental and occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and laboratory abnormalities of chronic lead poisoning among workers of a car battery industry. Questionnaires and forms were designed and used to record demographic data, past medical histories and clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. Blood samples were taken to determine biochemical (using Auto Analyzer; Model BT3000) and hematologic (using Cell Counter Sysmex; Model KX21N) parameters. An atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin-Elmer, Model 3030, USA) was used to determine lead concentration in blood and urine by heated graphite atomization technique. A total of 112 men mean age 28.78±5.17 years, who worked in a car battery industry were recruited in the present study. The most common signs/symptoms of lead poisoning included increased excitability 41.9%, arthralgia 41.0%, fatigue 40.1%, dental grey discoloration 44.6%, lead line 24.1%, increased deep tendon reflexes (DTR) 22.3%, and decreased DTR (18.7%). Blood lead concentration (BLC) was 398.95 µg/L±177.40, which was significantly correlated with duration of work (P=0.044) but not with the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. However, BLC was significantly correlated with urine lead concentration (83.67 µg/L±49.78; r(2)=0.711; Psugar or FBS (r=-0.258; P=0.010). Neuropsychiatric and skeletal findings were common manifestations of chronic occupational lead poisoning. BLC was significantly correlated with duration of work, urine lead concentration, two hemoglobin indices and FBS.

  8. on the biochemical indicators of lead poisoning in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N. Sadi

    1 sept. 2017 ... ABSTRACT. This study is conducted to examine the effect of the oral administration of pectin of dates on perturbation of the biochemical parameters induced by lead. Male rats were exposed to lead acetate at 350mg/Kg for one month, after this period, rats treated during one month with the pectin of date at ...

  9. Dactylifera L) on the biochemical indicators of lead poisoning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is conducted to examine the effect of the oral administration of pectin of dates on perturbation of the biochemical parameters induced by lead. Male rats were exposed to lead acetate at 350mg/Kg for one month, after this period, rats treated during one month with the pectin of date at 3%. Rats were sacrificed, the ...

  10. Lead poisoning and the blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertz, M.H.; Bolwig, T.G.; Grandjean, P.; Westergaard, E.

    1981-01-01

    Lead exposure may produce varying degrees of neuropsychiatric manifestations from discrete phenomena, quite often seen in children and as an occupational disease, to the rare fulminant lead encephalopathy. It was determined whether or not damage of the blood-brain barrier permeability in adult rats, as has been demonstr rated in neonatal animals exposed to lead, could also play a role. Massive lead exposure did not induce any change in the transfer (facilitated diffusion) of phenylalanine and tyrosine measured by means of the indicator dilution technique. Ultrastructural examination, after application of horseradish peroxidase, did not reveal any pahtological changes in the permeability to the tracer. It is concluded that in adult rats, in contrast to neonatal anmials, the observed pathological signs clearly seen in the chronically exposed animals must be ascribed to a noxious influence of lead on the extravascular side of the blood-brain barrier. (author)

  11. Peeling lead paint turns into poisonous dust. Guess where it ends up? A media campaign to prevent childhood lead poisoning in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah

    2015-06-01

    Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to increase parents' awareness of childhood lead poisoning, ways to protect their children, and property owners' legal responsibility to fix peeling lead paint safely, and increase awareness of regulatory changes and encourage enforcement of New York City's Local Law 1 of 2004. Campaign materials were focus group tested and the campaign was refined annually. The campaign ran city-wide and in targeted high-risk neighborhoods. Neighborhoods and media venue (bus, train, kiosk, and store) changed annually, based on population risk factors and venue availability. Exposure to the campaign, campaign-related knowledge, and behavior were assessed using pre- and postcampaign street intercept surveys. Results showed that campaign reached the targeted population, and had an impact on knowledge of lead poisoning prevention measures as evidenced by increased knowledge of lead paint exposures sources in one year and increased knowledge of preventive behaviors in another year; these improvements were observed for both genders and most ethnic, primary language, educational attainment, and age groups in each year. Lessons learned indicate that well-targeted media campaigns, designed with audience participation, can reach parents through various venues, and improve key knowledge areas. Evaluation challenges faced include high levels of knowledge at baseline, competing media messages, and balancing between program needs and evaluation design. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  12. Lead poisoning from drinking Kombucha tea brewed in a ceramic pot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, T G; Estell, J; Duggin, G; Beer, I; Smith, D; Ferson, M J

    Kombucha tea is an alternative therapy that is gaining popularity as a remedy for a diverse range of ailments. We report two cases of symptomatic lead poisoning requiring chelation therapy in a married couple who had been drinking Kombucha tea for six months, brewing the tea in a ceramic pot. We postulate that acids in the tea eluted lead from the glaze pigment used in the ceramic pot, in a manner analogous to elution of lead from crystal decanters by wine and spirits.

  13. Kohl, Kajal, Al-Kahl, or Surma: By Any Name, Beware of Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 Feb; 41(2):203-4. [article in French]. De Caluwé JP. “Lead poisoning caused by prolonged use of kohl, an underestimated cause in French-speaking countries. ” Journal Français d’Ophtalmologie. 2009 Sep; ...

  14. Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Objectives: Our aim was to implement emergency environ...

  15. Contributing factors in self-poisoning leading to hospital admission in adolescents in northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liisanantti, Janne Henrik; Ala-Kokko, Tero Ilmari; Dunder, Teija Sinikka; Ebeling, Hanna Elina

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the frequencies of different agents used in self-poisonings and acute factors contributing to intoxication of patients aged 12-18 years in northern Finland. Retrospective medical record review of all hospitalized patients during the period from January 1, 1991 to December 31, 2006. Cause of the admission, contributing factors, readmissions within one year. There were 309 admissions during the period, 54% were females. The leading cause of admission was alcohol, in 222 cases (71.8%). Hospitalizations related to alcohol consumption were associated with accidental poisoning in recreational use. There were no acute contributing factors in the majority of all patients. Over one-third of all intoxications were intentional self-harm, although previously diagnosed psychiatric diseases were rare. It is crucial to recognize adolescent psychiatric disorders in time and consult child and adolescent psychiatrist in case of poisoning.

  16. 24 CFR 1000.40 - Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply to affordable housing activities under NAHASDA? 1000.40 Section 1000.40 Housing... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.40 Do lead-based paint poisoning prevention requirements apply...

  17. Case of acute lead poisoning in a dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, C M

    1970-02-14

    A six month old male Pug dog died after displaying symptoms which included excessive salivation, chomping of the jaws and arching of the neck. At post-mortem examination, abnormally high levels of lead were found in the liver and kidneys. The dog was observed to have been chewing old wood with flakes of paint in the days immediately preceding the onset of symptoms. Post mortem examination for lead levels in vital organs is recommended in cases where young dogs die with symptoms of nervous disorder. 6 references.

  18. Lead poisoning in shooting-range workers in Gauteng Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. Case 1. A 63-year-old woman living in an informal settlement on the ... using a dry duster, dry broom and ordinary domestic vacuum cleaner, and was ... removal from his duties or workplace in terms of lead regulations promulgated ...

  19. The cost of environmental lead (Pb) poisoning in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LANDA

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 1 (2), pp. 027-036 .... family either owning a car or living in a house located on a tarred road ... trations were determined by means of an automatic blood lead analyzer with a ...

  20. Lead poisoning from retained bullets: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, M.A.; Manton, W.I.; Stewart, R.M.; Thal, E.R.; Feit, H.

    1982-01-01

    Lead intoxication (plumbism) from retained bullets has rarely been reported but may be fatal if unrecognized. Bullets lodged within joint spaces or pseudocysts are more likely to develop this complication, although patients with retained missiles in other locations may also be at risk. Subtle findings such as the occurrence of unexplained anemia, abdominal colic, nephropathy, or neurologic deterioration in patients with retained missiles may suggest consideration of plumbism. An intercurrent metabolic stress such as infection, endocrinopathy, or alcoholism may be a precipitating factor. Among the various diagnostic studies available, mass spectrometric stable isotope dilution analysis may be the most reliable. It is important to employ chelation therapy prior to any operative intervention. This will reduce the mobilization of lead from bone during or following the surgical procedure

  1. Long-term lead elimination from plasma and whole blood after poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentschler, Gerda; Broberg, K; Lundh, T; Skerfving, S

    2012-04-01

    Blood lead (B-Pb), one of the most used toxicological biomarker all kind, has serious limitations. Thus, the objective is to evaluate whether plasma lead (P-Pb) is more adequate. A long-term follow-up study of five cases of lead poisoning. P-Pb was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Kinetics after end of exposure was modelled. P-Pb at severe poisoning was about 20 μg/L; haematological effects at about 5 μg/L. Biological half-time of P-Pb was about 1 month; B-Pb decay was much slower. P-Pb is a valuable biomarker of exposure to and risk, particularly at high exposure.

  2. Renal manifestations of chronic lead poisoning: clinical, biological, and histological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devulder, B; Martin, J C; Mathot, J; Dequiedt, P; Durocher, A; Vanhille, P; Tacquet, A

    1974-01-01

    Clinical observation of a metal worker who showed, after exposure to lead, biological disturbances typical of lead poisoning, associated with very discrete azotaemia. In-depth nephrological exploration by electronic microscope showed the existence of intra-cytoplasmic inclusions, intra-nuclear corpuscles and mitochondrial changes, without significant impairment of renal function. This case brings the authors to analyse the more recently discovered clinical, biological and histological aspects of the kidneys in chronic lead poisoning and to draw conclusions concerning prognosis and medico-legal aspects. As regards therapy, the use of chelating agents, on account of the sudden liberation of the toxic metal it causes, seems liable to aggravate kidney and other damage, and should therefore be administered under strict medical supervision.

  3. Childhood lead poisoning data for California by county, age, and blood lead level for the years 2007-2009; and age of housing data for 2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts and percentages of blood lead levels among children tested for lead poisoning during 2007-2009 within California . The data are...

  4. Industrial fluoride pollution: chronic fluoride poisoning in Cornwall Island cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krook, L.; Maylin, G.A.

    1979-04-01

    An aluminum plant on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River, southwest of Cornwall Island, Ontario, Canada, has emitted 0.816 metric tons of fluoride daily since 1973. Considerably higher amounts were emitted from 1959 to 1973. The plant was designated as the major source of fluoride emissions impacting on Cornwall Island. Cattle located on this island showed signs of chronic fluoride poisoning. This poisoning was manifested clinically by stunted growth and dental fluorosis to a degree of severe interference with drinking and mastication. This Cornwall Island herds study indicates that the established tolerance level of fluoride for performance of dairy and beef cattle is not valid since the tolerance level was set based on experiments with healthy calves which were exposed to dietary fluoride from 3 to 4 months of age and not on cattle which were chronically exposed to fluoride from conception to death. 56 references.

  5. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ...

  6. Lead poisoning following ingestion of pieces of lead roofing plates: pica-like behavior in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouraud, Sabine; Testud, François; Descotes, Jacques; Benevent, Monique; Soglu, Gilbert

    2008-03-01

    A 37-year-old man was admitted to hospital after complaining of abdominal pain for the past two weeks. On admission the abdominal radiograph showed multiple radio-opaque flecks dispersed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Blood testing showed hemoglobin level 8.7 g/dL and a blood lead level of 112.4 microg/dL. The family interview revealed that the patient had pica-like behavior since childhood. He was a site foreman and had been ingesting pieces of roofing plates for a few weeks. The patient was treated with laxatives and CaNa(2)EDTA therapy was initiated. The blood lead level then dropped to 69.9 microg/dL. The patient received two subsequent courses of oral succimer and the blood lead level decreased to 59 microg/dL 21 days after the first course. The follow-up abdominal X-ray 20 days after the first examination was normal. Four months later, an outpatient follow-up visit showed a blood lead level within normal limits (14.5 microg/dL) and a psychiatric follow-up was initiated. Lead poisoning following the ingestion of lead-containing foreign bodies is particularly rare in adults, while it is sometimes observed in children. Pica behavior is a well-identified risk factor of lead intoxication in children but is quite exceptional in adults, where it is usually considered to be a psychiatric condition. Other unusual sources of lead poisoning include the ingestion of lead bullets, ceramic lead glaze or glazed earthenware, lead-contaminated candies, ethnic or herbal remedies.

  7. Lead-poisoned wildfowl in Spain: a significant threat for human consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Raimon; Serratosa, Jordi; Thomas, Vernon G

    2002-12-01

    Each year, 1.2 million Spanish hunters and shooters discharge 6,000 t of lead shot, of which 30-50 t are deposited in wetlands of this European country. Waterfowl may accidentally ingest lead pellets in these aquatic habitats and become fatally lead poisoned. It has been estimated that 50,000 birds die from this cause in Spain each year, but many more are chronically affected. Most of them are species that can be hunted legally, and the lead toxicosis enhances their susceptibility to being killed by hunting. Consequently, about 30,000 waterfowl hunters and their families, especially children, are at risk from secondary lead ingestion from these poisoned birds. The consumption of a single liver (often eaten in Spain) from any waterfowl shot in this country may result in the direct uptake of 0.01-2.3 mg of lead in 40.4% of cases. This is based on the percentage of 411 analyzed waterfowl having liver lead contents over 0.5 mg kg(-1) wet weight, the maximum lead level in poultry offal that current EU regulations permit. Therefore, health management authorities should draw urgent attention to this environmental problem that presents such an established risk to human health.

  8. Childhood lead poisoning prevention through prenatal housing inspection and remediation in St. Louis, MO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Daniel R; Eckstein, Erin T; Steiner, Matt S; Gavard, Jeffrey A; Gross, Gilad A

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the screening and remediation of home lead hazards prenatally in a high-risk population, hypothesizing that average blood-lead level and the number of poisonings would drop by 25%. One hundred fifty-two women underwent prenatal home inspections by certified lead inspectors. The hazards that were identified were remediated. The blood-lead levels of children of participating women were compared with matched control subjects. Blood-lead levels were obtained from 60 children and compared with matched control subjects. The average blood-lead level of children in the treatment group was 2.70 μg/dL vs 3.73 μg/dL in control subjects (P = .019). The percentage of children with levels >10 μg/dL in the treatment group was 0% vs 4.2% in control subjects (P = .128). Screening and remediation of houses of pregnant women is effective to reduce the average blood-lead level and number of children that exceed the federal level of concern for lead poisoning in a high-risk population. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lead poisoning among opium users in Iran: an emerging health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Mahdi; Oghabian, Zohreh; Conlon, Elvira; Nakhaee, Samaneh; Amirabadizadeh, Ali Reza; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Darvish Moghadam, Sodief; Ahmadi, Bighan; Soroush, Somayeh; Aaseth, Jan; Mehrpour, Omid

    2017-10-05

    Lead (Pb) poisoning among people using opium has been an increasing problem in Iran. The present study highlights the clinical effects of lead toxicity associated with opium use in Iran, Kerman province. Between January 2016 and June 2016, patients with signs and symptoms of Pb poisoning were questioned to assess whether they had a history of opium dependency. In total, 249 patients were enrolled onto this cross-sectional study, all were opium dependent. Para-clinical data including blood lead level (BLL), demographic information, user preferences, and symptoms were obtained. The patients used either opium (83.9%), refined opium (6.4%) or a combination of both (9.7%) via ingestion (71.9%), smoking (8.4%) or a combination of both (19.7%). The overall median BLL was 80.0 μg/dL [IQR: 51.7-119.0]. The median BLL did not differ significantly between opium and refined opium users. Further, BLL was not significantly affected by the type of substance, route of use, duration of use, or daily quantity consumed. Common symptoms included abdominal pain (86.9%), constipation (75.8%), anorexia (71.5%) and nausea (54.7%). Linear regression analysis showed log of BLL was significantly associated with abdominal pain, myalgia and anorexia. The study unravelled an increase in opium-related Pb poisoning in the Kerman province. Raised awareness of this emerging Pb source and investigation of its aetiology is recommended. Pb poisoning should be considered among the primary differential diagnosis of opium users with gastrointestinal symptoms.

  10. Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2016-09-01

    From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Our aim was to implement emergency environmental remediation to abate exposures to 17,000 lead poisoned villagers, to facilitate chelation treatment of children ≤ 5 years old, and to establish local technical capacity and lead health advocacy programs to prevent future disasters. U.S. hazardous waste removal protocols were modified to accommodate local agricultural practices. Remediation was conducted over 4 years in three phases, progressing from an emergency response by international personnel to comprehensive cleanup funded and accomplished by the Nigerian government. More than 27,000 m3 of contaminated soils and mining waste were removed from 820 residences and ore processing areas in eight villages, largely by hand labor, and disposed in constructed landfills. Excavated areas were capped with clean soils (≤ 25 mg/kg lead), decreasing soil lead concentrations by 89%, and 2,349 children received chelation treatment. Pre-chelation geometric mean blood lead levels for children ≤ 5 years old decreased from 149 μg/dL to 15 μg/dL over the 4-year remedial program. The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world's most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A. 2016. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic due to artisanal gold mining in Zamfara, Nigeria. Environ Health

  11. Lead poisoning due to gunshot bullet in contact with cerebrospinal fluid: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Madureira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Lead poisoning due to retained gunshot bullets is a well-known clinical problem that is fairly frequently described in the literature. The risk factors for this occurrence relate mainly to whether the lead bullet is in contact with the joint fluid or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The treatment for these cases entails chelation therapy while symptoms are shown and definitive surgical removal of the bullet as a potential source of lead. The aim of this paper is to describe a clinical case of lead poisoning due to a retained gunshot bullet in contact with CSF. CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old male was hit by gunshot bullets during a holdup, and one of them was retained in the spinal cord. Six years later, he developed intense low back pain and underwent laminectomy. Nine years later, he then underwent arthrodesis on L5-S1, but he developed intense abdominal pain after the surgical procedure. For five years, he was treated with calcium versenate in five-day cycles, with a good response. The chelation therapy cycles showed great efficacy during symptomatic periods, thus reducing the symptoms and signs of poisoning and promoting great amounts of lead excretion, thereby reducing the total lead burden responsible for the symptoms. Fortunately, over the last four years, the symptoms have improved and the urine levels of aminolevulinic acid (ALA have declined, to reach complete normalization. This shows that a healing process is probably taking place on the spinal wound, thereby isolating the bullet fragments from CSF contact.

  12. The Analysis on Leading industries in Central Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyani Irmawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is for identifying the types of industriesthat become leading industries in Central Java Province. The methods, used are LQ (SLQ and DLQ and Shift Share. The result of this research shows that the the leading industries in Central Java Province are beverage industry, tobacco processing industry, textile industry, apparel industry, wood industry, printing industry, furniture industry and other processing industries.In the future, the development of the industry should not only focus on the leading industries  but also onnon-leading industries, so that the non leading industries will not be left behind.

  13. Lead poisoning among Arab American and African American children in the Detroit metropolitan area, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nriagu, Jerome; Senthamarai-Kannan, Raghavendra; Jamil, Hikmet; Fakhori, Monty; Korponic, Summer

    2011-09-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that acculturation is a risk factor for childhood lead poisoning in the Detroit area of Michigan. Blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined in 429 Arab American and African American children, aged 6 months to 15 years, who were receiving well-child examination in three Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) clinics in the city. Mean BLL was 3.8 ± 2.3 μg/dL (range: 1-18 μg/dL) and 3.3% of the children tested had blood lead values above the 10 μg/dL level of concern. Neither the age of the dwelling units nor ethnicity of the child was significantly associated with the BLL. Multivariable analyses instead identified a number of acculturation-related factors that are associated with elevation in blood lead including paternal education, language spoken at home (English only, English and Arabic, or Arabic only), home ownership, smoking in the home, and exposure of child to home health remedies. The difference in blood lead between Arab American children from families where Arabic only versus Arabic and English is spoken at home was found to be statistically significant. This study provides information showing that immigrant children are at heightened risk of being poisoned by lead which can be useful in identifying groups at risk of atypical exposures.

  14. Blood coagulation in lead poisoning and the influence of specific treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levantovskaya, O M; Lyubcenko, P N; Dayhin, I S; Sorkina, N S

    1974-07-01

    Results of blood coagulation studies in 104 workers with long-term exposure in a storage-battery plant. Over-all coagulation activity is unchanged in cases of mild lead poisoning, but long-term exposure gives rise to increased fibrinogen levels, activated fibrinolysis, and reduced serum accelerator globulin and prothrombin activities. 13 workers were given D-penicillamine (oral doses of 450 mg daily). All coagulation indices had become normal after 10 days' treatment. The changes observed are thought to be due to protein synthesis disturbances in the liver and to inhibition of enzymes by lead which combines with their sulfhydryl and disulfide groups. (CIS Abstr. Vol. 2)

  15. Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Russell, Robin E.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate demographic and pathologic characteristics in 484 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 68 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) diagnosed with lead poisoning at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center. As part of our analysis, we compared characteristics of lead poisoned eagles with those that died of other causes. Odds of lead poisoning were greater for bald eagles versus golden eagles, females versus males, adults versus juveniles, and eagles from the Mississippi and Central flyways versus the Atlantic and Pacific flyways. In addition to spatial, species, and demographic associations, we detected a distinct temporal trend in the collection date of lead poisoned bald eagle carcasses. These carcasses were found at greater frequency in late autumn and winter than spring and summer. Lesions in lead poisoned birds included emaciation, evidence of bile stasis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis, and renal tubular nephrosis and necrosis. Ingested lead ammunition or fragments were found in 14.2 % of bald eagles and 11.8 % of golden eagles. The overall mean liver lead concentration (wet weight basis) for eagles diagnosed with lead poisoning was 28.9 ± 0.69 SE mg/kg in bald eagles and 19.4 ± 1.84 SE mg/kg in golden eagles. In eagles diagnosed with collision trauma, electrocution, poisoning (other than lead), emaciation, infectious disease, trapping death, other, and undetermined causes, average liver lead concentrations were low (<1 mg/kg) and did not differ among causes of mortality. Thus, based on our data, we found no evidence that lead exposure of eagles predisposed them to other causes of mortality.

  16. The effect of lead-based paint hazard remediation on blood lead levels of lead poisoned children in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Jessica; Klitzman, Susan; Sedlar, Slavenka; Matte, Thomas; Cohen, Neal L

    2003-07-01

    Despite the widespread use of lead paint hazard control for children with lead poisoning, few controlled studies that estimate the effect of such control on children's blood lead levels have been published. This retrospective follow-up study examined the effects of lead hazard remediation and its timing on the blood lead levels of lead-poisoned children. From the New York City child blood lead registry, 221 children were selected who had an initial blood lead level of 20-44 micro g/dL between 1 July 1994 and 31 December 1996; were 6 months to 6 years of age; had a report of a follow-up blood lead test between 10 and 14 months after the initial test; had a lead-based paint hazard identified in the primary dwelling unit prior to the 10- to 14-month follow-up blood lead test; had resided or spent time at only one address with an identified lead-based paint hazard; and were not chelated. The decline in geometric mean blood lead levels from baseline to 10-14 months later was compared for children whose homes were remediated and whose homes were not remediated during the follow-up period. Regardless of remediation, geometric mean blood lead levels declined significantly from 24.3 micro g/dL at the initial diagnosis to 12.3 micro g/dL at the 10- to 14-month follow-up blood lead test (Premediated the geometric mean blood lead levels declined 53% compared to 41% among the 75 children whose homes were not remediated by the follow-up blood lead test, a remediation effect of approximately 20% (Premediation effect was 11%, although it was no longer significant. Race was the only factor that appeared to confound the relationship: Black children had higher follow-up blood lead levels even after controlling for other factors, including the natural logarithm of the initial blood lead level. The effect of remediation appeared to be stronger for younger (10 to remediation (within less than 3 months) appeared to have greater declines in blood lead levels at the follow-up test than

  17. Biological fractionation of lead isotopes in Sprague-Dawley rats lead poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    Full Text Available It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems.24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance and the low-lead animal feed (diet administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS.There are significant differences (p<0.05 in lead isotope ratios between blood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of (204Pb/(206Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when (204Pb/(206Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group.The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for (204Pb/(206Pb ratio under high-dose exposure.

  18. Biological fractionation of lead isotopes in Sprague-Dawley rats lead poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Duojian; Xie, Qing; Wang, Jingyu

    2012-01-01

    It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems. 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces) were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance) and the low-lead animal feed (diet) administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). There are significant differences (pblood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of (204)Pb/(206)Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when (204)Pb/(206)Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group. The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for (204)Pb/(206)Pb ratio under high-dose exposure.

  19. Public health implications of lead poisoning in backyard chickens and cattle: four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roegner A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amber Roegner,1 Federico Giannitti,2 Leslie W Woods,2 Asli Mete,2 Birgit Puschner1,2 1Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA; 2California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA Abstract: Lead intoxication in livestock has historically been associated with cattle turned out to pasture and accidental ingestion of lead from drinking crankcase oil, licking grease from machinery, chewing on plumbing or batteries, or drinking water contaminated from leaching materials. Even with the decrease in manufactured items produced with lead, contaminants persist in the landscape and may enter the food supply through animal products. Changing patterns of open range herds moving to new pasture and the increased popularity of urban/suburban backyard chickens or other livestock necessitates public awareness about the clinical signs of lead intoxication, the potential for subclinical animals, public health concerns, particularly for exposure in children, and testing options available. Cases of lead intoxication in livestock demand a thorough case work-up to identify all sources of lead, address subclinical cases, evaluate risk to consumers, and make management suggestions for future prevention. We discuss four recent cases of confirmed lead poisoning in backyard chickens and open range cattle and assess the public health implications therein. Taken as a whole and considering the potential of the remaining herd or flock to be affected without necessarily showing signs, public health officials and veterinarians should be prepared to advise clients on case work-up and management and prevention considerations. Backyard chickens and cattle may not present for suspected lead poisoning as in several of the cases discussed herein yet may still contain concerning tissue or blood levels. The authors believe increased

  20. Effects of lead poisoning on various plasma constituents in the Canada goose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, G.L.; John, T.M.; McKeown, B.A.; Sileo, L.; George, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Plasma glucose, free fatty acid and uric acid levels were measured in lead-poisoned Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although plasma glucose levels were only slightly elevated, uric acid was significantly higher and free fatty acids were significantly lower. Altered plasma levels were attributed to increased protein catabolism and renal dysfunction. Plasma level of growth hormone and prolactin was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Growth hormone remained unchanged while prolactin was unusually high. The increased prolactin levels may reflect an effort to stabilize free fatty acids. 30 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  1. Radioactive waste: the poisoned legacy of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousselet, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear industry produces a huge amount of radioactive waste from one end to the other of the nuclear cycle: i.e. from mining uranium to uranium enrichment through reactor operating, waste reprocessing and dismantling nuclear power plants. Nuclear power is now being 'sold' to political leaders and citizens as an effective way to deal with climate change and ensure security of energy supplies. Nonetheless, nuclear energy is not a viable solution and is thus a major obstacle to the development of clean energy for the future. In addition to safety and security issues, the nuclear industry is, above all, faced with the huge problem of how to deal with the waste it produces and for which it has no solution. This ought to put a brake on the nuclear industry, but instead, against all expectations, its development continues to gather pace. (author)

  2. [Evaluation of initial results of treatment of lead poisoning with EDTA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, V; Adjarov, D; Pavlova, S; Naydenova, E; Kerimova, M; Kuneva, T

    1994-01-01

    The results of EDTA therapy were studied in 37 workers of a battery factory consisting of males with varying degrees of occupational lead poisoning (low exposure: 10 subjects, blood lead levels (PbB) lower than 400 micrograms/l with slight alterations in heme biosynthesis; beyond limit of effect: 5 subjects, PbB > 400 micrograms/l; slight intoxication: 19 subjects, with marked alterations in heme synthesis and preclinical signs of intoxication; average degree of intoxication: 3 subjects with clinical signs of intoxication. Clinical symptoms and the following parameters were investigated: blood lead (PbB), delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in erythrocytes (ALA-D), zinc protoporphyrin (PP) in erythrocytes and delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in 24-hour urine before and after EDTA chelating therapy. Simultaneous measurement of ALA-D and PP showed high diagnostic sensitivity in detecting lead poisoning in occupationally exposed subjects. In view of the high interindividual variability of the results, these indices did not, however, permit a useful differentiation to be made of the different degrees of intoxication at individual level, even though a good correlation was observed between PbB and porphyrin metabolism indices. From the alterations observed in ALA-D and PP values it was not possible to establish an association between degree of alteration and types of clinical symptoms in the different intoxication studies. At the end of EDTA treatment, a clinical improvement was observed in all cases studied but only in 5 cases was a reduction in PbB observed, to levels below 1.20 mol/l, which is accepted as a permissible limit for the general population; in 17 cases PbB remained at levels above the critical value for occupational lead poisoning (400 micrograms/l), although there was a decrease after treatment. The improvement observed in the indices of porphyrin metabolism at the end of treatment was only slight: significant variations were measured only for PbB. After

  3. Case of lead poisoning with polyneuritis of the upper extremities, involving the anterior horns and the pyramidal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limonta, A.; Capellini, A.

    1976-01-01

    Case history of a woman with an occupational record of 27 years' exposure to lead salts contained in enamel paints. The neurological condition presented the typical picture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and arguments are put foward implicating lead poisoning as cause.

  4. Health hazards of China's lead-acid battery industry: a review of its market drivers, production processes, and health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Huang, Lei; Cherry, Christopher R

    2013-08-03

    Despite China's leaded gasoline phase out in 2000, the continued high rates of lead poisoning found in children's blood lead levels reflect the need for identifying and controlling other sources of lead pollution. From 2001 to 2007, 24% of children in China studied (N = 94,778) were lead poisoned with levels exceeding 100 μg/L. These levels stand well above the global average of 16%. These trends reveal that China still faces significant public health challenges, with millions of children currently at risk of lead poisoning. The unprecedented growth of China's lead-acid battery industry from the electric bike, automotive, and photovoltaic industries may explain these persistently high levels, as China remains the world's leading producer, refiner, and consumer of both lead and lead-acid batteries.This review assesses the role of China's rising lead-acid battery industry on lead pollution and exposure. It starts with a synthesis of biological mechanisms of lead exposure followed by an analysis of the key technologies driving the rapid growth of this industry. It then details the four main stages of lead battery production, explaining how each stage results in significant lead loss and pollution. A province-level accounting of each of these industrial operations is also included. Next, reviews of the literature describe how this industry may have contributed to mass lead poisonings throughout China. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of new policies that address the lead-acid battery industry and identifies policy frameworks to mitigate exposure.This paper is the first to integrate the market factors, production processes, and health impacts of China's growing lead-acid battery industry to illustrate its vast public health consequences. The implications of this review are two-fold: it validates calls for a nationwide assessment of lead exposure pathways and levels in China as well as for a more comprehensive investigation into the health impacts of the lead

  5. The effect of lead-based paint hazard remediation on blood lead levels of lead poisoned children in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leighton, Jessica; Klitzman, Susan; Sedlar, Slavenka; Matte, Thomas; Cohen, Neal L.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of lead paint hazard control for children with lead poisoning, few controlled studies that estimate the effect of such control on children's blood lead levels have been published. This retrospective follow-up study examined the effects of lead hazard remediation and its timing on the blood lead levels of lead-poisoned children. From the New York City child blood lead registry, 221 children were selected who had an initial blood lead level of 20-44 μg/dL between 1 July 1994 and 31 December 1996; were 6 months to 6 years of age; had a report of a follow-up blood lead test between 10 and 14 months after the initial test; had a lead-based paint hazard identified in the primary dwelling unit prior to the 10- to 14-month follow-up blood lead test; had resided or spent time at only one address with an identified lead-based paint hazard; and were not chelated. The decline in geometric mean blood lead levels from baseline to 10-14 months later was compared for children whose homes were remediated and whose homes were not remediated during the follow-up period. Regardless of remediation, geometric mean blood lead levels declined significantly from 24.3 μg/dL at the initial diagnosis to 12.3 μg/dL at the 10- to 14-month follow-up blood lead test (P<0.01). Among the 146 children whose homes were remediated the geometric mean blood lead levels declined 53% compared to 41% among the 75 children whose homes were not remediated by the follow-up blood lead test, a remediation effect of approximately 20% (P<0.01). After adjusting for potential confounders, the remediation effect was 11%, although it was no longer significant. Race was the only factor that appeared to confound the relationship: Black children had higher follow-up blood lead levels even after controlling for other factors, including the natural logarithm of the initial blood lead level. The effect of remediation appeared to be stronger for younger (10 to <36 months old) than for older (36

  6. English language YouTube videos as a source of lead poisoning-related information: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Jackson, Ashley M; Yin, Jingjing; Hammond, Rodney N; Adhikari, Atin; Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to lead is detrimental to children's development. YouTube is a form of social media through which people may learn about lead poisoning. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the variation in lead poisoning-related YouTube contents between different video sources. The 100 most viewed lead poisoning-related videos were manually coded, among which, 50 were consumer-generated, 19 were created by health care professionals, and 31 were news. The 100 videos had a total of more than 8.9 million views, with news videos accounting for 63% of those views. The odds of mentioning what lead poisoning is, how to remove lead, and specifically mentioning the danger in ages 1-5 because of rapid growth among videos created by health care professionals were 7.28 times (Odds ratio, OR = 7.28, 95% CI, 2.09, 25.37, p = 0.002); 6.83 times (OR = 6.83, 95% CI, 2.05, 22.75, p = 0.002) and 9.14 times (OR = 9.14, CI, 2.05, 40.70, p = 0.004) that of consumer-generated videos, respectively. In this study, professional videos had more accurate information regarding lead but their videos were less likely to be viewed compared to consumer-generated videos and news videos. If professional videos about lead poisoning can attract more viewers, more people would be better informed and could possibly influence policy agendas, thereby helping communities being affected by lead exposure.

  7. Development of alginate gel beads with a potential use in the treatment against acute lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtat, Djamel; Bouaicha, Malika Nawel; Benamer, Samah; Nacer-Khodja, Assia; Mahlous, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    The objective was to develop alginate beads that could adsorb lead ions in gastric pH, in view to preconize their use in gastric lavage following lead poisoning. The swelling measurements of both, dry and hydrated beads, were carried out in simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The sorption kinetics was examined at lead concentrations ranging from 50 to 200mg/l. Calcium released during the sorption process was investigated. The swelling rate of the dry beads increased considerably with time increase and reached the equilibrium at 736% after 240min; concerning the hydrated beads, the equilibrium swelling reached 139% after 180min. The adsorption of Pb (II) in SGF by dry beads increased with the increase of time and initial lead concentration. The adsorption kinetics of Pb ions by hydrated alginate beads indicated a rapid binding of Pb ions to the sorbent during the first 15min for all the concentrations, followed by a slow increase until the equilibrium was reached after 90min. The adsorption capacity of Pb ions increased with the increase of the storage time in water at 4°C and with the weight. The amount of Ca 2+ released by the beads increased with the increase of Pb ions a rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Saturnismo: a propósito de un caso Lead poisoning: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Honorio Labanda Urbano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Profesora de pintura sobre vidrio y restauración de vidrieras de 65 años acude a la Unidad Médica de Valoración de Incapacidades del Instituto Nacional de la Seguridad Social (INSS con diagnóstico de exposición laboral a plomo. La paciente ha permanecido en Incapacidad Temporal por astenia durante varios meses, y se le detecta tras una reincorporación al trabajo plumbemia elevada, asociada a otros síntomas típicos de la intoxicación por plomo, por lo que se la separa de su ambiente de trabajo. Finalmente, el Equipo de Valoración de Incapacidades, reunido para valorar su caso resuelve Incapacidad Laboral Permanente Total derivada de enfermedad profesional para trabajos en que haya exposición a plomo y otros ototóxicos, exposición a ruidos de riesgo, y para aquellos trabajos en que sea necesaria una comunicación verbal fluida en frecuencias conversacionales normales. Con este caso clínico pretendemos revisar los síntomas del cuadro clínico de saturnismo, así como hacer una reflexión sobre los efectos de la prevención de riesgos para el trabajador.Lead poisoning is most commonly caused by occupational exposure. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman, paint teacher, which was working in reparation of stained glass window. She consults the Medical Incapacity Valoration Unit of National Institute of Social Security with diagnosis of lead occupational intoxication. The patient was not able to word for several months because of presenting asthenia. After reporting for work high lead blood levels were detected, in association with physical symptoms. She was evaluated by a tribunal which settled total long sick-leave due to occupational lead exposure and was restricted for loud works and other ones that need verbal communication in conversational frequencies. With this clinical case we try to check the symptoms of lead poisoning, as well as to think about the effects of prevention of occupational hazards.

  9. Including a Service Learning Educational Research Project in a Biology Course-I: Assessing Community Awareness of Childhood Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted first into yes and no sets…

  10. THE EFFECTS OF CHRONIC LEAD POISONING ON THE VALUES OF HYPERTENSION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivkovic Jovan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the treatment of Roma children from Kosovska Mitrovica suffering from chronic lead poisoning (which began in the second half of the last decade, hypertension has also been observed. The examination and treatment were conducted under the patronage of World Health Organization, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Serbia and local administration. Aim of this work is show correlation between lead levels in blood and hypertension in children. Materials and methods: Lead from capillary blood flow was measured by Lead care analyzer. Extracted blood from a vein measured lead level in the toxicological laboratory of the Institute „Karajovic“ Belgrade. The pressure was measured by standard devices with changeable cuffs and has been expressed in mmHg. Hypertension has been observed in 159 children. They were divided into four groups. First group: non-Roma children (n = 32 with blood lead level of up to 10 mcg/dl. Second group: Roma children (n = 31 with blood lead level of up to 10 mcg/dl. Third group: Roma children (n = 53 with blood lead levels of 10–45 mcg/dl. Fourth group: Roma children (n = 43 with blood lead levels more than 45 mcg/dl, with an average value of 61.6 mcg/dl. Results: There is a statistically significant difference in the elevation of systolic blood pressure between group (chi-square = 31,179; p < 0,001, the first (x = 107,2 mmHg and the fourth group (x =114,6 mmHg, the second (x = 104,5 mmHg and fourth group, third (x =106,4 mmHg and fourth group. There is a statistically significant difference in the elevation of diastolic blood pressure between group (chi-square = 32,028; p < 0,001, the first (x = 67,7 mmHg and the fourth group (x =73,4 mmHg, the second (x = 66 mmHg and third group (x = 69 mmHg, second and fourth group, third and fourth group of children. It is concluded that when the value of lead in the blood was higher its effect on blood pressure was more pronounced. Conclusion: Most children with

  11. Acute methaemoglobinaemia initially treated as organophosphate poisoning leading to atropine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakhandki, Srinivas; Yahya, Mohammed; Praveen, Mudalgi

    2012-07-01

    A case of unknown compound poisoning is presented. It was initially treated as organophosphate poisoning with lack of response. A timely diagnosis of acute methaemoglobinaemia and iatrogenic atropine toxicity was made based on clinical evaluation. Treatment of methaemoglobinaemia using oral methylene blue and of atropine toxicity with supportive measures could save the patient.

  12. Investigation of impurities present in recycling and reusing of scrap lead for accumulator industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, A.; Irfan, N.; Chaudhry, M.M.; Nawab, S.

    2012-01-01

    Recycling and reusing are the basic strategies of reducing solid waste generated from industries. Millions of batteries containing toxic metals and poisonous wastes are discarded every year in Pakistan. Battery waste deposited in landfills increases the concentration of toxic metals in leachates obtained from landfill base. For this reason, recycling of locally available scrap lead has been focused. During reduction and refining stages, samples were obtained at various stages from a five ton lead smelting pot of an accumulator industry. Various impurities present were determined and removed in order to reuse in accumulators. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) techniques were used to analyze the samples obtained at various stages of recycling. This work has been carried out to reduce these impurities and the refining process has thus been optimized. The lead thus obtained is 99.98 % pure. (author)

  13. Suspected lead poisoning in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus in South Africa, in 2008 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. North

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Whilst lead poisoning in raptors, scavenging birds and waterfowl is well studied and common knowledge, there is surprisingly little literature detailing the risk to mammalian scavengers and captive carnivores fed hunted meat. This case report describes the death of two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus following acute onset of nervous symptoms. Clinical signs included hyper-excitability, seizures, arched back, tail held abnormally high and hyper-salivation. Necropsy findings included bullets or a bullet in their stomachs. Kidney and liver lead levels from one cheetah (15.6 ppm and 17 ppm respectively were consistent with a diagnosis of lead poisoning; liver from the second cheetah was not available for testing. Both animals were routinely fed hunted antelope or game birds. This is the first report of oral lead poisoning in captive large carnivores, although these are unlikely to be the first cases. Without awareness of the risks of feeding hunted game, lead exposure will continue to be an underdiagnosed reality in the rehabilitation of endangered carnivores.

  14. Suspected lead poisoning in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) in South Africa, in 2008 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michelle A; Lane, Emily P; Marnewick, Kelly; Caldwell, Peter; Carlisle, Glen; Hoffman, Louw C

    2015-08-13

    Whilst lead poisoning in raptors, scavenging birds and waterfowl is well studied and common knowledge, there is surprisingly little literature detailing the risk to mammalian scavengers and captive carnivores fed hunted meat. This case report describes the death of two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) following acute onset of nervous symptoms. Clinical signs included hyper-excitability, seizures, arched back, tail held abnormally high and hyper-salivation. Necropsy findings included bullets or a bullet in their stomachs. Kidney and liver lead levels from one cheetah (15.6 ppm and 17 ppm respectively) were consistent with a diagnosis of lead poisoning; liver from the second cheetah was not available for testing. Both animals were routinely fed hunted antelope or game birds. This is the first report of oral lead poisoning in captive large carnivores, although these are unlikely to be the first cases. Without awareness of the risks of feeding hunted game, lead exposure will continue to be an underdiagnosed reality in the rehabilitation of endangered carnivores.

  15. Increased Incidence and Altered Risk Demographics of Childhood Lead Poisoning: Predicting the Impacts of the CDC’s 5 µg/dL Reference Value in Massachusetts (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Phoebe; Brabander, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In May 2012, the CDC adopted a new sliding scale reference value for childhood lead poisoning, reducing the former 10 µg/dL benchmark by half. Using Massachusetts (MA) as a model state, we estimated the change in the population of 9–47 month-olds at risk for lead poisoning. We then examined the impact of the 5 µg/dL reference value on the demographic characteristics of lead risk in MA communities. We find that the new CDC benchmark will lead to a 1470% increase in childhood lead poisoning cases among 9–47 month-olds in MA, with nearly 50% of the examined communities experiencing an increased prevalence of lead poisoning. Further, the top 10 MA communities with BLLs ≥5 µg/dL have significantly fewer foreign-born residents and significantly larger white populations than the highest risk communities formerly identified by the MA Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program. The CDC’s new 5 µg/dL lead poisoning benchmark will drastically increase the number of children with elevated BLLs and alter the distribution and demographics high-risk communities in MA. PMID:23202824

  16. The lead and lead-acid battery industries during 2002 and 2007 in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.Y.; Li, A.J.; Finlow, D.E. [Key Lab of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2009-06-01

    In the past 15 years, the center of the international lead market has shifted to China. China has become the largest producer of raw and refined lead, plus the largest consumer. This paper reviews the status of the lead and lead-acid battery industries in China, including lead mining, lead refining, secondary lead production, the lead-acid battery industry, new opportunities for lead-acid batteries, and the environmental problems associated with lead and lead-acid batteries. The output of raw and refined lead has increased annually in China, and now accounts for more than 30% of the world total. As a result of a change in the Chinese government's policy regarding the export of lead, plus an increase in the price of lead, the profits of Chinese lead manufacturers were significantly reduced, the trade deficit of the Chinese lead industry increased, the operating rates of lead smelter enterprises greatly reduced, and some small enterprises were forced to shut down. At the present time, an increasing number of enterprises have begun to produce secondary lead, and the scale of production has expanded from tens of tons to tens of thousands of tons. In 2006, the output of secondary lead in China reached 700,000 tons, but outdated technology and equipment limited development of the secondary lead industry. Because of serious pollution problems, raw material shortages, and fierce price competition in the battery market, changes in the development of the lead-acid battery industry have been dramatic; approximately one thousand medium-sized and small lead-acid battery producers have been closed in the past 3 years. The output of large lead-acid battery enterprises has not been reduced, however, as a result of their manufacturing technology and equipment being comparable to those in other advanced industrial countries. In China, the flourishing development of electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and photovoltaic energy systems should provide ongoing opportunities for

  17. The lead and lead-acid battery industries during 2002 and 2007 in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.Y.; Li, A.J.; Finlow, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    In the past 15 years, the center of the international lead market has shifted to China. China has become the largest producer of raw and refined lead, plus the largest consumer. This paper reviews the status of the lead and lead-acid battery industries in China, including lead mining, lead refining, secondary lead production, the lead-acid battery industry, new opportunities for lead-acid batteries, and the environmental problems associated with lead and lead-acid batteries. The output of raw and refined lead has increased annually in China, and now accounts for more than 30% of the world total. As a result of a change in the Chinese government's policy regarding the export of lead, plus an increase in the price of lead, the profits of Chinese lead manufacturers were significantly reduced, the trade deficit of the Chinese lead industry increased, the operating rates of lead smelter enterprises greatly reduced, and some small enterprises were forced to shut down. At the present time, an increasing number of enterprises have begun to produce secondary lead, and the scale of production has expanded from tens of tons to tens of thousands of tons. In 2006, the output of secondary lead in China reached 700,000 tons, but outdated technology and equipment limited development of the secondary lead industry. Because of serious pollution problems, raw material shortages, and fierce price competition in the battery market, changes in the development of the lead-acid battery industry have been dramatic; approximately one thousand medium-sized and small lead-acid battery producers have been closed in the past 3 years. The output of large lead-acid battery enterprises has not been reduced, however, as a result of their manufacturing technology and equipment being comparable to those in other advanced industrial countries. In China, the flourishing development of electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and photovoltaic energy systems should provide ongoing opportunities for the

  18. Ciguatera fish poisoning in industrial ship crewmembers: a retrospective study in a seaport general practice in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-King, C M; Chen, A; Poon-King, T

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this study was to outline the epidemiology of Ciguatera fish poisoning as seen in a general practice serving two industrial seaports in Trinidad and Tobago, in order to highlight the potential public health implications. A retrospective study was undertaken of all the cases of Ciguatera fish poisoning identified between November 1, 1992 and October 31, 1998 in a seaport general practice to identify signs, symptoms and treatment. An investigation of one outbreak was undertaken. Four outbreaks affecting 42 male ship crewmembers were identified. The suspect fish were caught in northern Caribbean waters en route to Trinidad and Tobago. The most common early symptoms were diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, pruritus and tiredness. In the third outbreak, dysaesthesia was common. Progression to muscular weakness, ataxic gait, unsteadiness and other neurotoxic signs were seen in moderate to severe disease. Hypotension was an important prognostic sign in the initial case. Treatment was symptomatic and supportive and included vitamins B12 and BCO, folic acid, prostigmine, steroids and antihistamines as indicated. In the investigation of the second outbreak, the relative risk of 'eating fish meat' was 5 (95% CI 1.45, 17.27, p ciguatera fish poisoning.' All cases were industrial ship crewmembers. It is suggested that increased clinician awareness with early and appropriate treatment, and focussed public health intervention may help limit the potential public health impact of ciguatera poisoning in industrial ship crewmembers and other fish-consuming communities in the future.

  19. Bio-toxicological supervision op workers exposed to lead poisoning hazard. Systematic examination of amino acids, in urine and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harduin, Jean-Claude

    1971-01-01

    A bio-toxicological chart was established for the workers in a firm handling lead. The known facts concerning professional lead poisoning are outlined, after which the importance of lead work in a nuclear center is discussed. The work station of each man is described and the results of analyses made during atmospheric checks on the site are given with sampling techniques. Since the biological chart is centered on the chromatographic exploration of amino acids in blood and urine, the analytical technique used is described and the different technical modifications made to the standard technique reported. The results obtained on reference subjects are compared with those found in the specialized literature. The results found in lead workers are then presented in the form of histograms, which better illustrate the differences observed with respect to the reference subjects. An hematological and toxicological balance-sheet is drawn up and the correlation existing between the results of coproporphyrine, lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid analyses in urine is checked. Biological detection of lead-poisoning has the advantage of providing an early diagnosis, thus enabling the works doctor to forestall the effects of this professional disease before any clinical symptoms appear. (author) [fr

  20. Acute phosphine poisoning on board a bulk carrier: analysis of factors leading to a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loddé, Brice; Lucas, David; Letort, Jean-Marie; Jegaden, Dominique; Pougnet, Richard; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique

    2015-01-01

    To determine accidental factors, clinical presentation and medical care in cases of seafarers presenting phosphine poisoning symptoms on board a bulk carrier. To consider primary prevention of this pathology, which can have extremely severe consequences. To analyse circumstances resulting in toxic exposure to phosphine in the sea transport sector. To obtain information from medical reports regarding the seafarer's rescue. To identify the causes of this accidental poisoning and how to establish an early, appropriate diagnosis thus avoiding other cases. In February 2008, on board a bulk carrier with a cargo of peas, a 56-year-old seafarer with intense abdominal and chest pains, associated with dizziness, was rescued by helicopter 80 miles away from the coast. Despite being admitted rapidly to hospital, his heart rate decreased associated with respiratory distress. He lost consciousness and convulsed. He finally died of pulmonary oedema, major metabolic acidosis and acute multi organ failure. The following day, the captain issued a rescue call from the same vessel for a 41-year-old man also with abdominal pain, vomiting and dizziness. The ECG only revealed type 1 Brugada syndrome. Then 11 other seafarers were evacuated for observation. 3 showed clinical abnormalities. Collective poisoning was suspected. Medical team found out that aluminium phosphide pellets had been put in the ship's hold for pest control before the vessel's departure. Seafarers were poisoned by phosphine gas spreading through cabins above the hold. It was found that the compartments and ducts were not airtight. Unfortunately, a seafarer on board a bulk carrier died in 2008 because of acute phosphine poisoning. Fumigation performed using this gas needs to be done with extreme care. Systematic checks need to be carried out before sailing to ensure that the vessel's compartments are airtight.

  1. Can Ingestion of Lead Shot and Poisons Change Population Trends of Three European Birds: Grey Partridge, Common Buzzard, and Red Kite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn B Meyer

    Full Text Available Little is known about the magnitude of the effects of lead shot ingestion alone or combined with poisons (e.g., in bait or seeds/granules containing pesticides on population size, growth, and extinction of non-waterbird avian species that ingest these substances. We used population models to create example scenarios demonstrating how changes in these parameters might affect three susceptible species: grey partridge (Perdix perdix, common buzzard (Buteo buteo, and red kite (Milvus milvus. We added or subtracted estimates of mortality due to lead shot ingestion (4-16% of mortality, depending on species and poisons (4-46% of mortality reported in the UK or France to observed mortality of studied populations after models were calibrated to observed population trends. Observed trends were decreasing for partridge (in continental Europe, stable for buzzard (in Germany, and increasing for red kite (in Wales. Although lead shot ingestion and poison at modeled levels did not change the trend direction for the three species, they reduced population size and slowed population growth. Lead shot ingestion at modeled rates reduced population size of partridges by 10%, and when combined with bait and pesticide poisons, by 18%. For buzzards, decrease in mean population size by lead shot and poisons combined was much smaller (≤ 1%. The red kite population has been recovering; however, modeled lead shot ingestion reduced its annual growth rate from 6.5% to 4%, slowing recovery. If mortality from poisoned baits could be removed, the kite population could potentially increase at a rapid annual rate of 12%. The effects are somewhat higher if ingestion of these substances additionally causes sublethal reproductive impairment. These results have uncertainty but suggest that declining or recovering populations are most sensitive to lead shot or poison ingestion, and removal of poisoned baits can have a positive impact on recovering raptor populations that frequently

  2. Health hazards of China’s lead-acid battery industry: a review of its market drivers, production processes, and health impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Despite China’s leaded gasoline phase out in 2000, the continued high rates of lead poisoning found in children’s blood lead levels reflect the need for identifying and controlling other sources of lead pollution. From 2001 to 2007, 24% of children in China studied (N = 94,778) were lead poisoned with levels exceeding 100 μg/L. These levels stand well above the global average of 16%. These trends reveal that China still faces significant public health challenges, with millions of children currently at risk of lead poisoning. The unprecedented growth of China’s lead-acid battery industry from the electric bike, automotive, and photovoltaic industries may explain these persistently high levels, as China remains the world’s leading producer, refiner, and consumer of both lead and lead-acid batteries. This review assesses the role of China’s rising lead-acid battery industry on lead pollution and exposure. It starts with a synthesis of biological mechanisms of lead exposure followed by an analysis of the key technologies driving the rapid growth of this industry. It then details the four main stages of lead battery production, explaining how each stage results in significant lead loss and pollution. A province-level accounting of each of these industrial operations is also included. Next, reviews of the literature describe how this industry may have contributed to mass lead poisonings throughout China. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of new policies that address the lead-acid battery industry and identifies policy frameworks to mitigate exposure. This paper is the first to integrate the market factors, production processes, and health impacts of China’s growing lead-acid battery industry to illustrate its vast public health consequences. The implications of this review are two-fold: it validates calls for a nationwide assessment of lead exposure pathways and levels in China as well as for a more comprehensive investigation into the health

  3. [Discovery and follow-up of a lead-poisoning outbreak in a shantytown of Le Port, Reunion Island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solet, J-L; Renault, P; Denys, J-C; Teulé, G; Dennemont, R-M; Domonte, F; Garnier, C; Aubert, L; Filleul, L; Polycarpe, D

    2013-08-01

    A national survey conducted in 2008-2009 by the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance for detection of lead impact in childhood identified a high blood lead level in a young boy living in the town of "Le Port", Reunion Island. Previously, cases of lead-poisoning on the island had been exceptional; only a dozen cases were reported in the 1980s in adults, related to the use of lead-containing instruments for food preparations. The family of the index case was invited to participate in screening tests and an environmental investigation was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. Screening was then broadened to the neighborhood of the index case and samples of soil outside the home and in the immediate vicinity were taken. The environmental survey was then extended with soil samples taken from the entire geographical area. Information was then provided to local inhabitants (87 families and 287 people) in order to encourage lead blood testing for all children under six years and all pregnant women living in the area. The index case lived in the neighborhood of "The Oasis", a shantytown of Le Port. The results of soil analysis revealed heterogeneous pollution of superficial soils by lead throughout the area of the shantytown, the highest level recorded (5200mg/kg) reached more than 300 times the background level of the natural soils of the island. The screening identified 76 cases of childhood lead-poisoning (blood lead level greater or equal to 100μg/L) among 148 samples (51%). All cases of blood poisoning involved children under the age of 15 years. The median age of children with a positive test was 5.6 years; the median blood lead level was 196μg/L [102-392μg/L]. The main hypothesis to explain the contamination of the soil in the area of the shantytown is the presence of waste deposits (car batteries) and diffuse activities of metal recovery. The authorities managed to remove all the families from the environmental exposure to lead by

  4. Childhood Lead Poisoning Associated with Gold Ore Processing: a Village-Level Investigation—Zamfara State, Nigeria, October–November 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yi-Chun; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Neri, Antonio; Durant, James; Jefferies, Taran; Medina-Marino, Andrew; de Ravello, Lori; Thoroughman, Douglas; Davis, Lora; Dankoli, Raymond S.; Samson, Matthias Y.; Ibrahim, Luka M.; Okechukwu, Ossai; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir T.; Dama, Alhassan H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: During May–June 2010, a childhood lead poisoning outbreak related to gold ore processing was confirmed in two villages in Zamfara State, Nigeria. During June–September of that year, villages with suspected or confirmed childhood lead poisoning continued to be identified in Zamfara State. Objectives: We investigated the extent of childhood lead poisoning [≥ 1 child with a blood lead level (BLL) ≥ 10 µg/dL] and lead contamination (≥ 1 soil/dust sample with a lead level > 400 parts per million) among villages in Zamfara State and identified villages that should be prioritized for urgent interventions. Methods: We used chain-referral sampling to identify villages of interest, defined as villages suspected of participation in gold ore processing during the previous 12 months. We interviewed villagers, determined BLLs among children lead. Results: We identified 131 villages of interest and visited 74 (56%) villages in three local government areas. Fifty-four (77%) of 70 villages that completed the survey reported gold ore processing. Ore-processing villages were more likely to have ≥ 1 child lead poisoning (68% vs. 50%, p = 0.17) or death following convulsions (74% vs. 44%, p = 0.02). Soil/dust contamination and BLL ≥ 45 µg/dL were identified in ore-processing villages only [50% (p lead poisoning or lead contamination was 3.5 times as high in ore-processing villages than the other villages (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 11.3). Conclusion: Childhood lead poisoning and lead contamination were widespread in surveyed areas, particularly among villages that had processed ore recently. Urgent interventions are required to reduce lead exposure, morbidity, and mortality in affected communities. PMID:22766030

  5. Osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia: a skeletal dysplasia that may mimic lead poisoning in a child with hypotonia and seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennel, Emilie A.; John, Susan D.

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a 23-month-old male with hypotonia, developmental delay, and complex seizures. Radiographs revealed profound sclerosis of the metaphyses and epiphyses of the long and short bones in the extremities, with a unique pattern of distribution. Sclerosis also involved the anterior ribs, iliac crests, talus, and calcaneus. The skull and vertebral bodies appeared unaffected. Blood lead levels were normal. We believe that this constellation of clinical and radiographic abnormalities closely resembles osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia (OMD) due to an autosomal recessive defect. Characteristic skeletal findings were instrumental in determining the diagnosis. OMD is a very rare sclerosing bone disorder, first described in 1993. The syndrome is characterized clinically by developmental delay of a progressive nature, hypotonia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and late-onset spastic paraplegia. We encountered a young child with these neurologic symptoms who displayed sclerotic metaphyseal changes on hand radiographs obtained to determine the bone age. Lead poisoning, a known cause of metaphyseal sclerosis, was initially suspected. Careful analysis of the metaphyseal bone changes helped to distinguish this bone dysplasia from lead poisoning and other causes of metaphyseal sclerosis. (orig.)

  6. Diverse Neurological Manifestations of Lead Encephalopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three patients with lead encephalopathy due to industrial poisoning are presented. They all showed a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations, which mimic other neurological presentations. It is emphasised that lead poisoning still occurs in industry, despite efforts at prevention. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 1721 (1974) ...

  7. Population trends in substances used in deliberate self-poisoning leading to intensive care unit admissions from 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Joanna; Johnson, Eric; Bolton, James M; Randall, Jason R; Mota, Natalie; Katz, Cara; Rigatto, Claudio; Skakum, Kurt; Roberts, Dan; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-12-01

    To examine population trends in serious intentional overdoses leading to admission to intensive care units (ICUs) in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Participants consisted of 1,011 individuals presenting to any of the 11 ICUs in Winnipeg, Canada, with deliberate self-poisonings from January 2000 to December 2010. Eight categories of substances were created: poisons, over-the-counter medications, prescription medications, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), sedatives and antidepressants, anticonvulsants, lithium, and cocaine. Using the population of Winnipeg as the denominator, we conducted generalized linear model regression analyses using the Poisson distribution with log link to determine significance of linear trends in overdoses by substance over time. Women accounted for more presentations than men (57.8%), and the largest percentage of overdoses occurred among individuals in the 35- to 54-year age range. A large proportion of admissions were due to multiple overdoses, which accounted for 65.7% of ICU admissions. At the population level, multiple overdoses increased slightly over time (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.02, P < .05), whereas use of poisons (IRR = 0.897, P < .01), over-the-counter medications (IRR = 0.910, P < .01), nonpsychotropic prescription medications (IRR = 0.913, P < .01), anticonvulsants (IRR = 0.880, P < .01), and TCAs (IRR = 0.920, P < .01) decreased over time. Overdoses did not change over time as a function of age or sex. However, severity of overdoses classified by length of stay increased over time (IRR = 1.08, P < .01). It is important for physicians to exercise vigilance while prescribing medication, including being aware of other medications their patients have access to. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Food contamination as a pathway for lead exposure in children during the 2010-2013 lead poisoning epidemic in Zamfara, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohamed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2018-05-01

    In 2010, an estimated 400 to 500 children died of acute lead poisoning associated with artisanal gold mining in Zamfara, Nigeria. Processing of gold ores containing up to 10% lead within residential compounds put residents, especially children, at the highest risk. Principal routes of exposure were incidental ingestion and inhalation of contaminated soil and dusts. Several Nigerian and international health organizations collaborated to reduce lead exposures through environmental remediation and medical treatment. The contribution of contaminated food to total lead exposure was assessed during the environmental health response. Objectives of this investigation were to assess the influence of cultural/dietary habits on lead exposure pathways and estimate the contribution of contaminated food to children's blood lead levels (BLLs). A survey of village dietary practices and staple food lead content was conducted to determine dietary composition, caloric intakes, and lead intake. Potential blood lead increments were estimated using bio-kinetic modeling techniques. Most dietary lead exposure was associated with contamination of staple cereal grains and legumes during post-harvest processing and preparation in contaminated homes. Average post-harvest and processed cereal grain lead levels were 0.32mg/kg and 0.85mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Age-specific food lead intake ranged from 7 to 78μg/day. Lead ingestion and absorption were likely aggravated by the dusty environment, fasting between meals, and nutritional deficiencies. Contamination of staple cereal grains by highly bioavailable pulverized ores could account for as much as 11%-34% of children's BLLs during the epidemic, and were a continuing source after residential soil remediation until stored grain inventories were exhausted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Lead evaluation in blood of workers of batteries industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valbuena P, John J; Duarte, Martha; Marciales Clara

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate the occupational risk of exposure to lead of employees working in three small industries that recycle and manufacture acid lead batteries, the lead and zinc protoporphyrine (ZPP) blood content was determined. The determination was also performed on people not exposed in order to establish comparison values. Venous blood was collected in metal free heparinized glass tubes. Lead was analyzed by atomic absorption with graphite furnace and ZPP by fluorescence. According to Colombian legislation, it was found that around 31 % workers in this type of industries are in dangerous and intoxication exposure. It was also found that 91 % of workers exceed the level of 30 mg Pb/dL blood established as standard by the American Conference governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)

  10. Lead arthritis and lead poisoning following bullet wounds: a clinicopathologic, ultrastructural, and microanalytic study of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, R E; Swedo, J; Cartwright, J; Viegas, S; Custer, E M

    1988-02-01

    Bullet wounds causing lead synovitis in the wrist and knee are reported in two patients, one of whom also developed clinical plumbism. Very high lead levels in the synovial fluid are believed to be responsible for toxicity changes that occurred in the synovium and bone. Ultrastructurally, these alterations included the formation of nuclear lead inclusions, dilation, and degranulation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and deposition of crystalline precipitates in the matrix of the mitochondria in macrophages, osteoclasts, and synoviocytes, as well as the development of cytoplasmic lead inclusions in osteoclasts. Energy-dispersive x-ray elemental analysis (EDXEA) indicated that the nuclear inclusions contained only lead, whereas precipitates within the mitochondria and elsewhere in the cytoplasm were composed of complexes containing lead, calcium, and phosphorus. Similarly constituted extracellular complexes were incorporated into newly formed trabecular bone laid down as a physiologic response to the bullet lodged within the wrist bones. This bone subsequently exhibited defects in bone resorption, which were characterized by depressed osteoclastic function and a unique lesion termed incomplete osteocytic osteolysis. The genesis of this latter lesion is uncertain. The sequestration of the partially degraded bone fragments containing lead complexes into the marrow and eventually into the joint spaces and synovium permitted the recycling of bone lead, and this may have played an important role in inducing clinical plumbism in one of the patients in this study.

  11. Environmental regulations: their impact on the battery and lead industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, John R.

    This paper presents a general overview of the past and current position of the lead industry in relation to environmental legislation and its impact. The lead industry has watched environmental lead levels being steadily reduced down to levels that, ten years ago, would have been considered unachievable. Nevertheless, the industry has managed to survive the effect of the ever-increasing demands of environmental controls. During the last ten to twenty years, lead producers and users have had to assess their future positions, as the cost implications of environmental laws have had a significant impact on their bottom lines. Without doubt, this consideration most definitely affected the viability of many plants. The need to be aware of the existence of new and proposed legislation is of paramount importance, as the threat from the vast array of EEC legislation is ever apparent. Lead companies have all considered environmental legislation to have no more than a nuisance value, but it is of vital importance to the future of the industry that such legislation is approached in a positive and sensible way in order to demonstrate a full commitment to protecting both employees and the general environment. Lead must receive the credit that it so richly deserves.

  12. Lead Polluted Hotspot: Environmental Implication of Unplanned Industrial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikta Sharmin Yousuf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Rayer Bazaar, different industries like tannery, plastic, textile, battery recycling industry etc. are increasing rapidly without considering the environmental issues and deterioration. Since chromium (Cr pollution of this area has been widely investigated due to the presence of tannery industries, this study was focused on examining other environmental factors. Field visits and analytical results of semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis as well as three dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy (3DEEM of water, soil and vegetative tissues indicated that, the area is highly polluted in term of different environmental parameters and metal content. The extremely high lead (Pb content of the soil (1171.7 mg/kg in summer, 2157.1 mg/kg in winter and blackish materials of vegetative tissues (6585.6 mg/kg in summer, 1974.1 mg/kg in winter indicates excessive lead deposition of this area that makes it a lead polluted hotspot. One of the possible sources of the extremely high lead concentration is adjacent battery recycling industry and/or other industries surrounding this area. So it is urgent to take necessary steps to find out immediate options for possible mitigation.

  13. The effect of lead poisoning on hematologic and biochemical values in trumpeter swans and Canada geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavolos, P; Staempfli, S; Sears, W; Gancz, A Y; Smith, D A; Bienzle, D

    2007-12-01

    Lead is a persistent contaminant in the environment, and waterfowl are susceptible to lead toxicity from ingestion of lead pellets and fishing weights. Lead affects numerous physiologic processes through inhibition of enzyme activity and protein function, but its effects on commonly assessed avian blood values are incompletely understood. Our aim was to evaluate hematologic and biochemical changes associated with blood lead concentrations in trumpeter swans and Canada geese. Data for CBCs, plasma biochemical profiles (total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, total bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus, gamma-glutamyltransferase [GGT], aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, amylase, and lipase), and whole blood lead concentrations were retrospectively analyzed for 69 trumpeter swans and 52 Canada geese. Laboratory data obtained prospectively from an additional 20 trumpeter swans also were included. RBC morphology was semiquantitated in blood smears from 70 of the birds. Data were analyzed initially by ANOVA and covariance. A statistical model then was constructed to determine the relationship between each parameter and lead concentration. In both avian species, PCV, hemoglobin concentration, and MCHC decreased significantly (P < .05) with increasing blood lead concentration. Uric acid concentration and GGT activity were increased in trumpeter swans and phosphorus concentration was decreased in Canada geese in association with high blood lead concentration (P < .05). Lead toxicosis induced significant changes in the values of commonly measured hematologic parameters in waterfowl. These changes may be useful indicators of severe lead intoxication during routine laboratory assessment. Changes in clinical chemistry values, although statistically significant, were too inconsistent to serve as indicators of lead toxicosis.

  14. Identifying Lead Markets in the European Automotive Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Thomas; Grimpe, Christoph; Rammer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    for automobiles and national markets differ considerably in their lead market potential. The German market is found to be most promising to serve as a lead market, while other European countries with a strong automotive tradition like France, Italy, the UK, and Sweden score lower. Our findings suggest that firms......This paper presents an indicator-based methodology to identify lead markets in the European automotive industry. The lead market approach tries to explain why certain countries are better positioned than others for developing and launching new products. While much research stresses the role...... of excellence in technology and interaction among users and producers, the lead market approach focuses on the role of demand characteristics. Based on the concept of innovation design, a lead market is defined as a country where customers prefer that design which subsequently becomes the globally dominant...

  15. Research on the path of synergetic development between logistics industry and the leading industry in Fujian province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Qiaoping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistics industry is closely related to other industry, the synergetic development between logistics industry and leading industry is benefit for leading industry to reduce costs, improve efficiency and promote industrial upgrading. This book analyzes the association of logistics industry and leading industry on the basis of the input-output tables of Fujian and proposes advises to promote their synergetic development based on the calculation.

  16. Mechanochemical synthesis of nanocrystalline lead selenide. Industrial approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achimovicova, Marcela; Balaz, Peter [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Inst. of Geotechnics; Durisin, Juraj [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Inst. of Materials Research; Daneu, Nina [Josef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. for Nanostructured Materials; Kovac, Juraj; Satka, Alexander [Slovak Univ. of Technology and International Laser Centre, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Microelectronics; Feldhoff, Armin [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie; Gock, Eberhard [Technical Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Mineral and Waste Processing and Dumping Technology

    2011-04-15

    Mechanochemical synthesis of lead selenide PbSe nanoparticles was performed by high-energy milling of lead and selenium powder in a laboratory planetary ball mill and in an industrial eccentric vibratory mill. Structural properties of the synthesized lead selenide were characterized using X-ray diffraction that confirmed crystalline nature of PbSe nanoparticles. The average size of PbSe crystallites of 37 nm was calculated from X-ray diffraction data using the Williamson-Hall method. The methods of particle size distribution analysis, specific surface area measurement, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used for characterization of surface, mean particle size, and morphology of PbSe. An application of industrial mill verified a possibility of the synthesis of a narrow bandgap semiconductor PbSe at ambient temperature and in a relatively short reaction time. (orig.)

  17. LEAD POISONING OF WATERFOWL AS INDICATORS OF WATER POLLUTION BY HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhmud M.E.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of lead shot in waterfowl gizzards, surveyed in 1969-1985 years was considered in the south ofWestern Siberia and in the southern Ukraine. The gastric contents were investigated of 1722 birds of 13 species. ForMallard, Garganey, Eurasian Teal, and Common Pochard the lead shot was detected in the coastal areas of theDanube Delta. Maximum infestation was registered for Garganey (33,3% and Common Pochard (25,0%. Theresults are compared with data for other European countries. The necessity and effectiveness of interventions aimedat reducing the extent of lead contamination of waterfowl was discussed.

  18. Case report: Radiologic changes of the skeleton in a dog with lead poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinck, J.; Šehić, M.; Žubčić, D.; Jesovsek, S.

    1994-01-01

    The skeleton of a young dog displayed radiological signs of chronic lead intoxication. Osteoclastic changes were demonstrable at the metaphyse of the long bones as well as in all areas with growth activity [de

  19. Chronic lead poisoning in an Iranian opium smoker resident in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Alex; Ferguson, Katie; Dluzewski, Sam; Hussain, Tajammul; Klein, Martin

    2016-11-01

    A 46-year-old man of Iranian origin presented with a 4-day history of colicky abdominal pain and absolute constipation on a background of several weeks of irritability and malaise. He had smoked 10 g of opium per week for a year and a half. On examination, he had diffuse abdominal tenderness and faecal loading. This was cleared, but the abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting persisted. He had extravascular haemolytic anaemia with punctate basophilic stippling on blood film. The patient's serum lead concentration was substantially elevated and he perhaps demonstrated Burton's line. The patient underwent chelation therapy and has recovered clinically and biochemically. Public health experts were notified and conducted an assessment of the risk to the patient and others; their lead exposure questionnaire was subsequently amended. This is an important case report of a UK resident describing lead toxicity secondary to the inhalation of opium. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Poisoning of bees with fluorine-containing industrial waste gases in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurizio, A; Staub, M

    1956-01-01

    Mass poisoning of bees in the vicinity of Swiss Al factories was traced to high quantities of F in the waste gases. Plants and pollen in the vicinity contained 10-214 and 0.9-2.8 mg. % F resp., and collected rain water contained 0.1-10.4 mg. F/sg. dm. The dead bees each contained an av. of 15 ..gamma.. F.

  1. Determination of lead 210 in scales from industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Lígia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Barbosa, João B.S.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial processes such as oil and gas extraction and groundwater exploitation are examples of installations that can accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) during the extraction and production. Lead-210 deposits in the production can be formed by the same mechanisms that occur in the environment through the support of Radon-222, (where 210 Pb is produced at 222 Rn decay) or without support, as 210 Pb. The objective of this work is to evaluate the mineralogical characteristics and determine the activity of lead-210 in the scales using the X-Ray Diffraction and Gamma Spectrometry techniques. Were analyzed fifteen samples, four scales from oil industry, ten scales from groundwater conductors and one for groundwater supply pipe. The highest activity found in the oil scale and groundwater conductors scale was 0.30 ± 0.06 Bq g -1 and 3.80 ± 0.20 Bq g -1 , respectively. (author)

  2. Determination of lead 210 in scales from industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Lígia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Barbosa, João B.S., E-mail: ligsfaria@gmail.com, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br, E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br, E-mail: jbsb@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Industrial processes such as oil and gas extraction and groundwater exploitation are examples of installations that can accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) during the extraction and production. Lead-210 deposits in the production can be formed by the same mechanisms that occur in the environment through the support of Radon-222, (where {sup 210}Pb is produced at {sup 222}Rn decay) or without support, as {sup 210}Pb. The objective of this work is to evaluate the mineralogical characteristics and determine the activity of lead-210 in the scales using the X-Ray Diffraction and Gamma Spectrometry techniques. Were analyzed fifteen samples, four scales from oil industry, ten scales from groundwater conductors and one for groundwater supply pipe. The highest activity found in the oil scale and groundwater conductors scale was 0.30 ± 0.06 Bq g{sup -1} and 3.80 ± 0.20 Bq g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  3. Biological and societal dimensions of lead poisoning in birds in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Anderson, William L.

    2008-01-01

    The ingestion of spent lead shot was known to cause mortality in wild waterfowl in the US a century before the implementation of nontoxic shot regulations began in 1972. The biological foundation for this transition was strongly supported by both field observations and structured scientific investigations. Despite the overwhelming evidence, various societal factors forestalled the full transition to nontoxic shot for waterfowl hunting until 1991. Now, nearly 20 years later, these same factors weigh heavily in current debates about nontoxic shot requirements for hunting other game birds, requiring nontoxic bullets for big game hunting in California Condor range and for restricting the use of small lead sinkers and jig heads for sport-fishing. As with waterfowl, a strong science-based foundation is requisite for further transitions to nontoxic ammunition and fishing weights. Our experiences have taught us that the societal aspects of this transition are as important as the biological components and must be adequately addressed before alternatives to toxic lead ammunition, fishing weights, and other materials will be accepted as an investment in wildlife conservation.

  4. Benjamin Franklin's risk factors for gout and stones: from genes and diet to possible lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Stanley; Hagemann, Ian S

    2008-06-01

    Benjamin Franklin's medical history shows that he suffered from repeated attacks of gout and a large bladder stone. These conditions caused him considerable pain, markedly decreased his mobility, and likely contributed in indirect ways to his decline and eventual death from a pulmonary disorder. This article examines Franklin's risk factors for gout and stones, both as Franklin understood them and as we know them today. Significantly, both of these disorders are associated with high blood levels of uric acid, a metabolic by-product. Franklin's risk factors included his gender, genetics, diet, drinking, advanced age, psoriasis, and exposure to lead. Although it is impossible to assign a weight to each of these factors, it can be shown that a number of factors, each capable of raising uric acid levels, converged and conspired against him.

  5. The influence of environmental conditions on lead transfer from spent gunshot to sediments and water: Other routes for Pb poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowski, Łukasz J

    2017-11-01

    Lead (Pb) from spent gunshot and fishing sinkers is recognized as the main source of Pb poisoning among waterfowl. It is also suspected to directly pollute water and sediments, but no appropriate, comprehensive evaluation of this issue has so far been carried out. An experiment on Pb pellets in microcosms (n = 160) with two sediment types (mud and gravel), three water pH values (4, 7 and 9) and two wind levels (wind and windless simulation) was therefore run. Substantial differences in Pb transfer (measured with ICP-OES) between sediment types and pH levels of water were observed. Simulated wind conditions were a significant factor only for some variables and circumstances. The strongest Pb deposit to water and sediments occurred in mud microcosms with water of pH value of 4. Median pellet erosion during the experiment differed little between sediment types. The experiment revealed that Pb transfer from spent gunshot to the environment occurs only in specific environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Basel Convention: effect on the Asian secondary lead industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, J. W.

    The Basel Convention has had a dramatic effect on the world trade in scrap materials. The scope of implementation is broader than was originally intended. This is due mainly to uncertainties created by a failure to distinguish between waste for disposal and waste destined for recycling. Spent lead/acid batteries and other lead scrap flows from OECD to non-OECD countries have been restricted to the point where secondary lead production is being affected. Export-import flows between OECD members have also changed as recycling is being contained within those countries. The economics of recycling in OECD countries may result in a smaller percentage of scrap being recycled. The established lead/acid battery industry in the Asian region, which relies heavily on imported scrap, will now be forced to import more finished metal, to maintain output. With strong economic growth forecast for the region, and no substitute for the lead-based battery, the supply situation is unlikely to ease.

  7. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  8. Smart Capsules for Lead Removal from Industrial Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylkowski, Bartosz; Jastrząb, Renata

    2017-04-10

    Ground and especially drinking water could be contaminated by heavy metal ions such as lead and chromium, or the metalloid arsenic, discarded from industrial wastewater. These heavy metal ions are regarded as highly toxic pollutants which could cause a wide range of health problems in case of a long-term accumulation in the body. Thus, there have been many efforts to reduce the concentration of lead ions in effluent wastewater. They have included the establishment of stringent permissible discharge levels and management policies, the application of various pollution-control technologies, and the development of adsorbent materials for lead reduction. According to Science [1] encapsulation, developed approximately 65 years ago, has been defined as a major interdisciplinary research technology. Encapsulation has been used to deliver almost everything from advanced drugs to unique consumer sensory experiences. In this chapter we review the art of encapsulation technology as a potential breakthrough solution for a recyclable removal system for lead ions. Moreover, in order to provide the readers with a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of recent developments and innovative applications in this field, we highlight some remarkable advantages of encapsulation for heavy metal remove, such as simplicity of preparation, applicability for a wide range of selective extractants, large special interfacial area, ability for concentration of metal ions from dilute solutions, and less leakage of harmful components to the environment.

  9. China's wind industry: Leading in deployment, lagging in innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Long T.; Branstetter, Lee; Azevedo, Inês M.L.

    2017-01-01

    China's massive carbon emissions and air pollution concerns have led its government to embrace clean energy innovation as a means of transitioning to a more sustainable energy system. We address the question of whether China's wind industry has become an important source of clean energy technology innovation. We find that in terms of wind capacity expansion, China has delivered enormous progress, increasing its wind capacity from virtually no wind capacity in the early 2000s to 140 GW by 2015. However, in terms of innovation and cost competitiveness, the outcomes were more limited: Chinese wind turbine manufacturers have secured few international patents and achieved moderate learning rates compared to the global industry's historical learning rate. Leading China-based indigenous producers are likely to remain important global players for the foreseeable future, but further progress in reducing the cost of capital equipment may slow relative to the recent past. However, opportunities in lowering curtailment rates and improving turbine quality can reduce China's overall levelized cost of electricity for wind. - Highlights: • Analyze wind power patenting trends of Chinese inventors and firms. • Many Chinese patents, though few were granted by foreign patent offices. • Chinese international patents are less likely to be cited than foreign counterparts. • China's wind industry managed to reduce production costs, but learning rate is low.

  10. Bony changes in cows affected with chronic fluorine poisoning caused by industrial waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasarov, E; Tatarov, B; Dimitrov, G; Kantschev, L; Kovatschev, K

    1972-01-01

    Cows affected with chronic fluorine poisoning were thoroughly examined and the findings ff clinical, anatomical-pathological, x-ray, chemical and histological examinations are reported with particular reference to changes of skeletal bones. The most significant bony changes were periosteal hyperostosis on metacarpal and metatarsal bones, local resorption of the compact substance which appeared to have a sponge-like pattern, and a destructive process in the areas surrounding Havers' and Volkmann's canals. Changes of the trabecular pattern were observed in the spongy substance of the above mentioned bones. Trabeculae showed signs of atrophy - they were thinned or coarsely thickened - and their contours were well contrasted. Regularly shaped osteons were not frequently found in the spongy substance. Marked narrowing of the medullary canal was seen.

  11. Dieffenbachia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbcane poisoning; Leopard lily poisoning; Tuft root poisoning ... Get the following information: Person's age, weight, and condition Parts of the plant that were eaten, if known Time swallowed Amount swallowed

  12. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Kerosene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Cologne poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the product Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002847.htm Bee poison To use the sharing features on this page, ... Time of the sting Location of the sting Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  19. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Yew poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Educational Case: Lead Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E. C. Knollmann-Ritschel MD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The following fictional case is intended as a learning tool within the Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME, a set of national standards for teaching pathology. These are divided into three basic competencies: Disease Mechanisms and Processes, Organ System Pathology, and Diagnostic Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology. For additional information, and a full list of learning objectives for all three competencies, see http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2374289517715040 .

  5. Remediation of lead from lead electroplating industrial effluent using sago waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyanthi, G P; Shanthi, G

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals are known toxicants, which inflict acute disorders to the living beings. Electroplating industries pose great threat to the environment through heavy load of metals in the wastewater discharged on land and water sources. In the present study, sago processing waste, which is both a waste and a pollutant, was used to adsorb lead ions from lead electroplating industrial effluent. Two types of sago wastes, namely, coarse sago waste and fine sago waste were used to study their adsorption capacity with the batch adsorption and Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The parameters that were considered for batch adsorption were pH (4, 5 and 6), time of contact (1, 2 and 3 hrs), temperature (30, 37 and 45 degrees C) and dosage of the adsorbent (2,4 and 6 g/L). The optimal condition for the effective removal of lead was found to be pH 5, time of contact 3 hrs, temperature 30 degrees C and dosage 4 g/L with coarse sago waste than fine sago waste.

  6. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  7. Manejo de la intoxicación por plomo en la niñez Managing childhood lead poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morri E Markowitz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo hace una revisión del manejo clínico de la intoxicación por plomo en la niñez. Se menciona las definiciones de las diferentes técnicas de medición usadas para la determinación de plomo, y se destacan sus ventajas y posibles limitaciones. La medición de los niveles de plomo sanguíneo puede realizarse utilizando muestra de sangre anticoagulada por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica voltametría anódica. Sin embargo, un método más eficiente para medir las concentraciones de plomo en hueso es mediante fluorescencia de Rayos X o para la determinación sistémica en un nivel bioquímico una técnica adecuada es la determinación de los niveles de plomo en orina. El tratamiento incluye la eliminación de la fuente de exposición, cambios en los hábitos de los niños y una dieta adecuada en calcio y hierro. La quelación con edetato de calcio y succimer elimina el plomo del esqueleto, el cual es eliminado por riñón; puede salvar vidas cuando la intoxicación es importante, y existe una reducción a corto plazo seguida de un aumento subsecuente de los niveles de plomo sanguíneo. En casos graves suele requerirse de dosis repetidas. La terapia de quelación puede ser necesaria en casos de niveles de plomo sanguíneo por arriba de 45 µg/dl. La quelación reduce los niveles de plomo sanguíneo y los síntomas asociados, sin embargo, la disminución cognoscitiva puede ser irreversible, por lo que la utilización de medidas preventivas es mucho mejor que las de curación.This paper reviews the clinical management of children with lead poisoning. A first step is to define the measures to be used in their assessment and be aware of the limitations. Measurements of blood lead levels can be made on anti-coagulated whole blood samples using either: atomic absorption spectroscopy or anodic stripping voltametry. However a more accurate method is fluorescent RX'ray of the skeleton or systematic biochemical tests of lead

  8. Leading causes of death from injury and poisoning by age, sex and urban/rural areas in Tianjin, China 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guohong; Choi, Bernard C K; Wang, Dezheng; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Wenlong; Wu, Tongyu; Chang, Gai

    2011-05-01

    Injury and poisoning are a growing public health concern in China due to rapid economic growth, which has resulted in many cases with an injury-prone environment, such as overcrowded traffic, booming construction, and work-related stress. This study investigates the distribution and trends of deaths from injury and poisoning in Tianjin, China, by age, sex and urban/rural status, from 1999 to 2006. The study used data from the all-cause mortality surveillance system maintained by the Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Each death certificate recorded 53 variables. Cause of death was coded using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Standardized mortality rates and proportions of deaths were analyzed. Traffic accidents, suicide, poisoning, drowning and fall were the leading causes of fatal injuries in Tianjin from 1999 to 2006. Injury mortality rates were high in males, in rural areas, and in the older age groups. Despite low injury mortality rates, injury accounted for close to 50% of all deaths amongst the 5-29 year age group. Traffic accident mortality rates increased, although not significantly so, during the period from 1999 to 2006. Injury prevention and control is a high public health priority in Tianjin. Our detailed table on the number of deaths by causes of fatal injuries and by age group provides important information to set prevention strategies in the nurseries, schools, workplace and seniors homes. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. BIOREMOVAL OF LEAD IN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER BY MICROALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RANITHA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The removal of heavy metals from our environment especially wastewater is now shifting from the use of conventional removal method such as chemical precipitation, coagulation and membrane filtration to the use of bioremoval method. The presence of heavy metals in the environment is of major concern because of their toxicity, bioaccumulating tendency, and threat to human life and the environment. In recent years, many low cost sorbents such as microalgae, fungi bacteria and lignocellulosic agricultural by-products have been investigated for their biosorption capacity towards heavy metals. In this project, the focus is on bioremoval of heavy metals in wastewater using marine microalgae. The study will be emphasize on the efficiency of two marine microalgae named Nannochloropsis oculata and Tetraselmis chuii in treating the Lead (Pb content in industrial wasterwater. An experiment on the effect of various Pb concentration (10/20/40/60/80/100mg/L towards the microalgae has been studied. The obtained result showed that the content of chlorophyll-A in the microalgae sample, after 7 days of exposures to Pb, decreased as the Pb concentration increased. Besides that, Tetraselmis chuii was found to be more sensitive compared to Nannochloropsis oculata where both were able to tolerate the Pb concentration of up to only 20mg/L and 60mg/L, respectively.

  10. Status of the lead/acid battery industry in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J.

    The Malaysian automotive battery industry has an over-capacity and is experiencing a highly competitive situation in the domestic market. In the medium term, therefore, the industry will concentrate on making advances in battery design and technology, and on improving productivity. The manufacture of industrial batteries is similarly under pressure, particularly from foreign products. At present, it is not feasible to produce locally all the various types of industrial batteries required by the home market.

  11. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in Combination Therapy with D-penicillamine and N-Acetylcysteine (NAC in Lead Poisoning in Opium Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Shojaeepour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: N-acetylcysteine (NAC is a putative antioxidant and has gained attention as a promising agent for chelating heavy metals including lead. Considering the animal studies results, we hypothesized that adding NAC to the treatment regimen may improve the success of treatment with lead chelators. Methods: A total of 46 patients who were lead-poisoned opioid addicts were divided into two groups randomly and treated with d-penicillamine (DP, 1g/day in four equal divided doses and NAC+DP (1 g/day + 150 mg/kg/day. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by hospitalization period. Meanwhile, the oxidative stress parameters including lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, glutathione concentration and super oxide dismutase (SOD activity were determined on admission and discharge and compared with healthy normal controls. Results: Hospitalization period was not different between the two groups. Treatment with DP and DP+NAC significantly decreased oxidative stress in patients. On the discharge day, the SOD activity and TAC were significantly higher in DP+NAC group in comparison with the DP group. Conclusion: Although NAC recovers antioxidant capacity, the advantages of NAC in improvement of DP efficacy in lead poisoning is questionable. Further studies with larger sample size and combination with other chelators are recommended.

  12. Studying the pollution of Barada river environment with poisonous elements resulting from leather industry (i.e. tanning industry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Al-Masri, M.S.; Sarheel, A.; Al-Somel, N.

    2000-07-01

    The impact of tanning and electroplating industry on the eastern part of Barada river environment has been evaluated. Sediment, soil and plant samples were collected from nine sites at the river near the eastern industrial complex during 1999. Results of instrumental neutron activation analysis have shown high levels of chrome in sediment collected near the tanning factories; the highest value obtained being 2692 ppm. In addition, relatively high levels of Cr were also found in the agriculture soil collected near the riverbank in the industrial complex; Cr concentrations in plant leaves grown at riverbank were found low and this due strong bounding of Cr to soil. Other trace metals such as copper was about 4000 ppm, which is much higher than the natural levels; electroplating shops are the main source of this element in the area. Furthermore, concentrations of the studied trace metals have decreased as the elements were found to be at low concentrations, but the obtained data can be used as a baseline for future monitoring. (Author)

  13. Traditional medicine: a rare cause of lead poisoning in Western countries [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2c6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Muller

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old man from Bhutan was admitted to the emergency department with a 5-day history of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Enhanced abdominal CT scan was found negative, however laboratory tests showed hemolytic anemia and basophilic stippling which are often seen in lead and heavy metal poisoning. Additional tests revealed a high level of lead in blood and urine. The patient was administered a chelator treatment with rapid improvement of the symptoms. A detailed interview revealed that the patient had been taking daily Bhutanese traditional medicines to treat a Bell’s palsy from which he had been suffering for a few months. The analysis of these medicines confirmed the presence of a high level of lead.

  14. Merthiolate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merthiolate poisoning is difficult to treat. How well a person does depends on the amount of poison swallowed and how quickly treatment was received. The faster a person gets medical help, the better the chance for recovery. Kidney dialysis ( ...

  15. Benzene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be admitted to the hospital if the poisoning is severe. ... benzene they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The ... Poisoning can cause rapid death. However, deaths have occurred ...

  16. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prolonged treatment often is needed to reverse the poisoning. This may include staying in the hospital intensive care unit and getting long-term therapy. Some effects of the poison may last for ...

  17. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prolonged treatment often is needed to reverse the poisoning. This may include staying in the hospital intensive care unit and getting long-term therapy. Some effects of the poison may last for ...

  18. [Studies on the industrial styrene poisoning (Part X). Determination of styrene in biological materials by gas chromatography (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, K; Horiguchi, S

    1980-09-01

    For monitoring solvents exposure, it is useful to determine not only metabolites of the solvents in urine but also the solvents themselves in blood and tissues. In a series of studies on the industrial styrene poisoning, we have been determining styrene in blood and other tissues as occasion calls. Our examination of the method is presented in this report. The outline on the method is as follows: Aliquots of 0.5g of tissues being added 5 ml of n-hexane are homogenized by a high-speed homogenizer (Polytoron) for 10 to 30 seconds and the filtrates containing extracts are analyzed for styrene by gas chromatography. The linearity was ascertained from the calibration curve obtained by adding the known quantities of styrene (4, 10, 20, 40, 100 ppm) to the blood, liver and adipose tissues of rats. Rates of recoveries of styrene from the above tissues were 92 to 101 per cent. Reproducibility of this method was examined by repeating determinations of styrene in the blood, liver and adipose tissues of rats exposed to 500 ppm styrene for 4 hours, the coefficients of variation being 2.8 to 14.0 per cent. There was an approximately linear relationship between the styrene concentration (0 to 1,000 ppm) of the exposed air and those in the blood of exposed rats. We conclude that our simple and rapid method is applicable to determination of solvents other than styrene in organs and tissues by combining suitable solvents for extraction and packings of gas chromatography.

  19. Removal of Chromium and Lead from Industrial Wastewater Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hilal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research an attempt is made on the ability of aerobic treatment of synthetic solutions containing lead and chromium using effective microorganisms within the reactor. To achieve the desired objectives of the research, synthetic aqueous solutions of lead and chromium was used in the concentration of chromium and lead ions of 5, 10,50 and 100 mg / l .The work was done at constant pH equal to 4.5 and temperature of 30 ± 1 º C. Effective microorganisms solutions was added to the reactor at Vol.% of 1/50 ,1/100 ,1/500 and 1/1000, with retention time was 24 hours to measure the heavy metals concentration the atomic absorption device was used. The experimental results showed that each 1mg / l of lead and chromium ions need 24 mg of effective microorganisms to achieve removal of 92.0% and 82.60% for lead and chromium respectively. Increasing the concentration of effective microorganisms increases the surface of adsorption and thus increasing the removal efficiency. It is found that the microorganisms activity occur in the first five hours of processing and about 94% of adsorption capacity of biomass will take place. It is also found the selectivity of microorganisms to lead ions is higher than for chromium ions.

  20. Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific evidenced by lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in surface waters and aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, Céline; Ranville, Mara A; Conaway, Christopher H; Landing, William M; Buck, Clifton S; Morton, Peter L; Flegal, A Russell

    2011-12-01

    Recent trends of atmospheric lead deposition to the North Pacific were investigated with analyses of lead in aerosols and surface waters collected on the fourth Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Contaminant Baseline Survey from May to June, 2002. Lead concentrations of the aerosols varied by 2 orders of magnitude (0.1-26.4 pmol/m(3)) due in part to variations in dust deposition during the cruise. The ranges in lead aerosol enrichment factors relative to iron (1-119) and aluminum (3-168) were similar, evidencing the transport of Asian industrial lead aerosols across the North Pacific. The oceanic deposition of some of those aerosols was substantiated by the gradient of lead concentrations of North Pacific waters, which varied 3-fold (32.7-103.5 pmol/kg), were highest along with the Asian margin of the basin, and decreased eastward. The hypothesized predominance of Asian industrial lead inputs to the North Pacific was further corroborated by the lead isotopic composition of ocean surface waters ((206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.157-1.169; (208)Pb/(206)Pb = 2.093-2.118), which fell within the range of isotopic ratios reported in Asian aerosols that are primarily attributed to Chinese industrial lead emissions.

  1. Chlorine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gas) Gas released when opening a partially filled industrial container of chlorine tablets that have been sitting ... change in acid level of the blood (pH balance), which leads to damage in all of the ...

  2. Plutos Services: Lead Generation System for the Hotel Advertising Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Farhad

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a business model of Plutos Services and the implementation of a digital concierge service within the hotel advertising industry. The model contains a basic company overview, external analysis, internal analysis and a final recommendation of the business strategy it should use to succeed. I researched the business environment in Canada to determine its position in the current market. I evaluated different strategic alternatives and sub-recommendations for implementing its s...

  3. Analysis of lead/acid battery life cycle factors: their impact on society and the lead industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J. G. S.; Wood, J. R.; Ralph, B.; Fenn, R.

    The underlying theme of this paper is that society, globally, is undergoing a fundamental conceptual shift in the way it views the environment and the role of industry within it. There are views in certain quarters that this could result in the virtual elimination of the lead industry's entire product range. Despite these threats, it is argued that the prospects for the lead industry appear to be relatively favourable in a number of respects. The industry's future depends to a significant degree, however, upon its ability to argue its case in a number of key areas. It is contended, therefore, that if appropriate strategies and means are promulgated, the prospects of the industry would appear to be relatively healthy. But, for this to happen with optimal effectiveness, a conceptual change will be necessary within the industry. New strategies and tools will have to be developed. These will require a significantly more integrated, holistically based and 'reflexive' approach than previously. The main elements of such an approach are outlined. With reference to the authors' ongoing research into automotive lead/acid starting lighting ignition (SLI) batteries, the paper shows how the technique of in-depth life cycle assessment (LCA), appropriately adapted to the needs of the industry, will provide a crucial role in this new approach. It also shows how it may be used as an internal design and assessment tool to identify those stages in the battery life cycle that give rise to the greatest environmental burdens, and to assess the effects of changes in the cycle to those burdens. It is argued that the development of this approach requires the serious and urgent attention of the whole of the lead industry. Also to make the LCA tool fully effective, it must be based on a 'live' database that is produced, maintained and continually updated by the industry.

  4. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  5. Beryllium poisonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-01

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis

  6. Mercurial poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, B

    1924-01-01

    Cats which had been kept in a thermometer factory to catch rats were afflicted with mercury poisoning. So were the rats they were supposed to eat. The symptoms of mercury poisoning were the same in both species. The source of mercury for these animals is a fine film of the metal which coats floors, a result of accidental spills during the manufacturing process.

  7. Cascading impacts of anthropogenically driven habitat loss: deforestation, flooding, and possible lead poisoning in howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos; Olguín, Eugenia J; Garcia-Feria, Luis; Tapia-Fierro, Karla; Chapman, Colin A

    2015-01-01

    To construct informed conservation plans, researchers must go beyond understanding readily apparent threats such as habitat loss and bush-meat hunting. They must predict subtle and cascading effects of anthropogenic environmental modifications. This study considered a potential cascading effect of deforestation on the howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) of Balancán, Mexico. Deforestation intensifies flooding. Thus, we predicted that increased flooding of the Usumacinta River, which creates large bodies of water that slowly evaporate, would produce increased lead content in the soils and plants, resulting in lead exposure in the howler monkeys. The average lead levels were 18.18 ± 6.76 ppm in the soils and 5.85 ± 4.37 ppm in the plants. However, the average lead content of the hair of 13 captured howler monkeys was 24.12 ± 5.84 ppm. The lead levels in the animals were correlated with 2 of 15 blood traits (lactate dehydrogenase and total bilirubin) previously documented to be associated with exposure to lead. Our research illustrates the urgent need to set reference values indicating when adverse impacts of high environmental lead levels occur, whether anthropogenic or natural, and the need to evaluate possible cascading effects of deforestation on primates.

  8. Mercury pOIsonIng

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of mercury poisoning is reported and clinical observations of 6 .... fish ingested and occupational exposure. .... exposed to mercury as a result of inadequate industrial safety standards, and ... WHO Tech Rep Ser 1980; No. 674: 102-115.

  9. Alternative drugs go global: possible lead and/ or mercury intoxication from imported natural health products and a need for scientifically evaluated poisoning monitoring from environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia Therese; Baur, Xaver; Harth, Volker; Hahn, Axel

    2016-01-01

    With increases in globalization, cultural remedies from Chinese, Ayurvedic, Arab and other traditions have become more available to international consumers, offering unfamiliar "Natural Health Products" (NHP), used as alternative medicine or supplementary medicine. Contamination with toxic ingredients including lead, mercury, arsenic, and other toxic elements has been documented in several of these products from various parts of the globe, particularly from some parts of Asia and the Orient. We have been following this development in the last 6 years and have analyzed n  = 20 such products (60 analyses) from patients with intoxication symptoms in a pilot study, showing alarming high concentrations of mercury and/or lead (the first one in "therapeutic" doses). 82 % of the studied NHP contained lead concentrations above the EU limit for dietary supplements. 62 % of the samples exceeded the limit values for mercury. Elevated blood lead and mercury levels in patients along with clinical intoxication symptoms corroborate the causal assumption of intoxication (s). We present one detailed clinical case report of severe lead and mercury intoxications and give an overview about blood concentration related symptoms and signs of n  = 41 case reports of mercury intoxications of the German monitoring BfR-DocCenter. For NHP there is evidence on a distinct toxicological risk with alarming low awareness for a possible intoxication which prevents potentially life-saving diagnostic steps in affected cases. In many cases patients do not communicate the events to their physicians or the local health authority so that case reports (e.g. the BfR-DocCentre) are missing. Thus, there is an urgent need to raise awareness and to initiate more suitable monitory systems (e.g. National Monitoring of Poisonings) and control practice protecting the public.

  10. Environmental lead hazard to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, S K

    1992-01-01

    Clinically evident lead poisoning is rare in Indian children but is more common than in adults. In children, lead poisoning may appear as fever, seizures, anemia, or abdominal pain, while in adults it is more likely to manifest as chronic minor peripheral neuropathy or gum pigmentation. Children with acute lead poisoning can be treated with chelators such as EDTA and BAL, but many are left with permanent brain damage. The most common sources of acute lead poisoning in Indian children are inhalation of fumes from burned car batteries, ingestion of flaking paint, consuming food cooked in cheap aluminum or brass utensils, and eating contaminated soil. The sources of chronic lead poisoning are water from lead pipes and fumes from industrial or automotive exhaust. Another common source in India is application of "kajjal" to children's eyes. Sources of lead in Western countries, such as drinking water, canned food, residential paint, automotive fuel, and ambient air quality, are regulated by law. None of these are regulated in India.

  11. Survey of current lead use, handling, hygiene, and contaminant controls among New Jersey industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, James D; Lefkowitz, Daniel K; Valiante, David; Gerwel, Barbara; Bresnitz, Eddy

    2007-08-01

    In 2003, a chemical handling and use survey was mailed to New Jersey employers identified as currently using lead in their industrial processes. This survey was used to ascertain characteristics about lead use, handling, and protection of employees during manufacturing operations. The survey included a diverse group of current lead users with a total lead use range from less than 1 pound to more than 63 million pounds of lead per year. The survey allowed for a comprehensive characterization of hazards and protective measures associated with this metal, still commonly used in many products and industrial processes. Forty-five surveys were returned by companies that are listed in the New Jersey Adult Blood Lead Registry, which is part of the New Jersey Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program. This program records and investigates cases of adults with greater than 25 mu g/dL of lead in their blood; most cases are related to occupational exposures. This survey found that greater than 25% of these surveyed companies with significant potential for lead exposure did not employ commonly used and basic industrial hygiene practices. In addition, the survey found that 24% of these companies had not conducted air sampling within the last 3 years. Air sampling is the primary trigger for compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) general industry lead standard. Only 17% of the companies have ever been cited for a violation of the OSHA lead standard, and only 46% of these companies have ever had an OSHA inspection. State-based surveillance can be a useful tool for OSHA enforcement activities. Elevated blood lead values in adults should be considered as a trigger for required compliance with an OSHA general industry lead standard.

  12. Lead isotopic fingerprinting of aerosols to characterize the sources of atmospheric lead in an industrial city of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indra S.; Bizimis, Michael; Tripathi, Sachchida Nand; Paul, Debajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic Pb in the environment is primarily sourced from combustion of fossil fuel and high-temperature industries such as smelters. Identifying the sources and pathways of anthropogenic Pb in the environment is important because Pb toxicity is known to have adverse effects on human health. Pb pollution sources for America, Europe, and China are well documented. However, sources of atmospheric Pb are unknown in India, particularly after leaded gasoline was phased out in 2000. India has a developing economy with a rapidly emerging automobile and high temperature industry, and anthropogenic Pb emission is expected to rise in the next decade. In this study, we report on the Pb-isotope compositions and trace metal ratios of airborne particulates collected in Kanpur, a large city in northern part of India. The study shows that the PM10 aerosols had elevated concentration of Cd, Pb, Zn, As, and Cu in the Kanpur area, however their concentrations are well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency chronic exposure limit. Lead isotopic and trace metal data reveal industrial emission as the plausible source of anthropogenic Pb in the atmosphere in Kanpur. However, Pb isotopic compositions of potential source end-members are required to fully evaluate Pb contamination in India over time. This is the first study that characterizes the isotopic composition of atmospheric Pb in an Indian city after leaded gasoline was phased out by 2000.

  13. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  14. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safely , for more information . If you use an e-cigarette, keep the liquid nicotine refills locked up out ... to a child. See Liquid Nicotine Used in E-Cigarettes Can Kill Children . Never place poisonous products in ...

  15. Sachet poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of perfumed powder or a mix of dried flowers, herbs, spices, and aromatic wood shavings (potpourri). Some ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  16. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Farmer B, Seger DL. ... Textbook of Critical Care . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 153. Meehan TJ. Approach to the ...

  17. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002480.htm Acetone poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. ...

  18. Comparison of the U.S. lead recycling industry in 1998 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Since 1998, the structure of the lead recycling industry has changed and trade patterns of the domestic lead recycling industry have shifted. Although the domestic demand for lead has remained relatively constant since 1998, production of lead has increasingly shifted to the domestic secondary lead industry. The last primary lead smelter in the United States closed at the end of 2013, at which time the secondary lead industry became the sole source of domestic lead production. The amount of lead recovered annually from scrap batteries generally increased from about 900,000 metric tons in 1995 to more than 1,100,000 metric tons in 2012. The percentage of total U.S. lead production attributed to battery scrap increased from 65 percent in 1995 to 87 percent in 2012. Since the North American Free Trade Agreement took effect in 1994, trade patterns among the United States, Canada, and Mexico have changed for recycled lead products. In the late 1990s, the principal sources of lead waste and scrap not derived from batteries were Canada, Mexico, and South America; by 2011, the principal sources were Central America and Asia, with decreasing amounts from Canada and South America. Since 1998, the amount of lead derived from imported batteries and scrap from Canada has ranged from 50 to 90 percent, and the amount imported from Mexico has ranged from 3 to 20 percent. Canada received about 50 percent of the lead contained in spent lead-acid batteries and scrap exported from the United States in 1998, and Mexico received about 4 percent. By 2012, however, the amount of lead scrap exported to Canada had decreased to about 10 percent, and the amount of lead-based scrap products, primarily batteries, exported to Mexico from the United States had increased to 47 percent. Vertical integration of the domestic secondary lead industry and higher costs required to implement more stringent ambient air standards in the United States have led some companies to shift lead recycling

  19. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animals can also be poisoned by carbon monoxide. People who have pets at home may notice that their animals become ... or unresponsive from carbon monoxide exposure. Often the pets will ... these conditions. This can lead to a delay in getting help.

  20. More evidence of unpublished industry studies of lead smelter/refinery workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Lead smelter/refinery workers in the US have had significant exposure to lead and are an important occupational group to study to understand the health effects of chronic lead exposure in adults. Recent research found evidence that studies of lead smelter/refinery workers have been conducted but not published. This paper presents further evidence for this contention. Objectives To present further evidence of industry conducted, unpublished epidemiologic studies of lead smelter/refinery workers and health outcomes. Methods Historical research relying on primary sources such as internal industry documents and published studies. Results ASARCO smelter/refinery workers were studied in the early 1980s and found to have increased risk of lung cancer and stroke in one study, but not in another. Conclusions Because occupational lead exposure is an on-going concern for US and overseas workers, all epidemiologic studies should be made available to evaluate and update occupational health and safety standards. PMID:26070220

  1. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  2. Removal of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from simulated industrial effluents using silica powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, T.; Awan, A.; Arshad, M.; Khan, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid industrial development have led to the recognition and increasing understanding of interrelationship between pollution, public health and environment. Industrial development results in the generation of industrial effluents, and if untreated results in water, sediment and soil pollution. In Pakistan most of the industrial effluents are discharged into surrounding ecosystems without any treatment. Industrial wastes and emission contain toxic and hazardous substances, most of which are detrimental to human health. Extensive efforts are being made around the world for the removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents. A laboratory scale study was designed for removal of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn from simulated solutions at various weight of silica (0.5gm, 1gm, 2 gm, 3gm and 4 gm), Voltammeter was used to quantify the metals. Maximum removal of all metals was achieved with 4 gm of silica. Absorption of lead onto silic a was higher than other metals. (author)

  3. Organic environmental poisons in Norwegian freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    According to this article, the level of organic poisons in Norwegian freshwater fish is, on the whole, is too small to threaten human health. It has been found, however, that liver from some species such as burbot, from some lakes, should not be eaten. These lakes are found to contain higher levels of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane). Previously, pregnant or breast-feeding women anywhere in Norway have been advised not to eat pike, large perch or large trout because of too much mercury. Other people should not eat these species more often than once per month. In general, the level of organic environmental poisons is higher in the southern part of the country than in the northern part. The sediments of the lakes in large parts of South Norway are contaminated with lead, mercury and cadmium as compared with the conditions before the industrial revolution. However, the level of metals in the lake sediments are relatively low, and these substances are unlikely to appear in the food chain, by and large. The anthropogenic emission of lead was insignificant before the industrial revolution. The exception of lead from German mining industry in the 1700s

  4. Blood lead level studies by the Public Health Service in an industrial stress area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, G.

    1981-12-01

    The general directions of the European Community concerning lead resulted to be useful for analysing the biologic impact on the population living in an industrial immission area and for differentiating within this locality affected and non-affected residential districts. Consequently the social-hygienic and regional-hygienic measures are limited and justified territorially. The environmental parameters, their relation to the distance at which an industrial plant is situated and the blood lead values are indicated. Recommendations are given, which concern the protection of health and even the reconstruction of the residential area by immission-reducing measures. It was found that the lead impact on children is higher than that on grown-ups. Tables illustrate the symptomatology of lead impacts, its relation to blood lead concentration, the degree of impact measured in children and grown-ups and the corresponding necessary measures as auxiliary methods for the Public Health Service and the physicians.

  5. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a commonly prescribed treatment for bipolar affective disorder. However, treatment is complicated by lithium's narrow therapeutic index and the influence of kidney function, both of which increase the risk of toxicity. Therefore, careful attention to dosing, monitoring, and titration...... is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...

  6. Exploring How Peer Communities Enable Lead User Innovations to Become Standard Equipment in the Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hienerth, Christoph; Lettl, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Literature on new product development indicates that on average around 40% of new products fail across different industries (e.g., Crawford, ; Crawford and Di Benedetto, ). Out of those that survive only few become widely accepted standard equipment in the industry (Utterback, ). Literature...... they are developed. It is therefore the aim of this study to shed light on how innovations become widely accepted by large segments of the market and specifically which demand-side forces are at work. An approach suitable for pursuing this objective is to focus on those individuals who are on the leading edge...... with respect to an important market trend (lead users) and their respective peer communities. As little knowledge is available, an explorative case study design is applied, working with cases from two different industries, specifically the medical equipment and sporting equipment industry. A longitudinal...

  7. Study of lead phytoavailability for atmospheric industrial micronic and sub-micronic particles in relation with lead speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzu, G. [EcoLab UMR 5245 CNRS-INPT-UPS, ENSAT BP 32607 Auzeville Tolosane, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France)], E-mail: gaelle.uzu@ensat.fr; Sobanska, S. [LASIR UMR 8516, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Batiment C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail: Sophie.Sobanska@univ-lille1.fr; Aliouane, Y. [EcoLab UMR 5245 CNRS-INPT-UPS, ENSAT BP 32607 Auzeville Tolosane, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); Pradere, P. [Chemical Metal Treatment Company, STCM, 30-32 chemin de Fondeyre, 31200 Toulouse (France)], E-mail: p.pradere@stc-metaux.com; Dumat, C. [EcoLab UMR 5245 CNRS-INPT-UPS, ENSAT BP 32607 Auzeville Tolosane, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France)], E-mail: camille.dumat@ensat.fr

    2009-04-15

    Particles from channelled emissions of a battery recycling facility were size-segregated and investigated to correlate their speciation and morphology with their transfer towards lettuce. Microculture experiments carried out with various calcareous soils spiked with micronic and sub-micronic particles (1650 {+-} 20 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) highlighted a greater transfer in soils mixed with the finest particles. According to XRD and Raman spectroscopy results, the two fractions presented differences in the amount of minor lead compounds like carbonates, but their speciation was quite similar, in decreasing order of abundance: PbS, PbSO{sub 4}, PbSO{sub 4}.PbO, {alpha}-PbO and Pb{sup 0}. Morphology investigations revealed that PM{sub 2.5} (i.e. Particulate Matter 2.5 composed of particles suspended in air with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 {mu}m or less) contained many Pb nanoballs and nanocrystals which could influence lead availability. The soil-plant transfer of lead was mainly influenced by size and was very well estimated by 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2} extraction. - The soil-lettuce lead transfer from atmospheric industrial sub-micronic and micronic particles depends on particle size.

  8. Study of lead phytoavailability for atmospheric industrial micronic and sub-micronic particles in relation with lead speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzu, G.; Sobanska, S.; Aliouane, Y.; Pradere, P.; Dumat, C.

    2009-01-01

    Particles from channelled emissions of a battery recycling facility were size-segregated and investigated to correlate their speciation and morphology with their transfer towards lettuce. Microculture experiments carried out with various calcareous soils spiked with micronic and sub-micronic particles (1650 ± 20 mg Pb kg -1 ) highlighted a greater transfer in soils mixed with the finest particles. According to XRD and Raman spectroscopy results, the two fractions presented differences in the amount of minor lead compounds like carbonates, but their speciation was quite similar, in decreasing order of abundance: PbS, PbSO 4 , PbSO 4 .PbO, α-PbO and Pb 0 . Morphology investigations revealed that PM 2.5 (i.e. Particulate Matter 2.5 composed of particles suspended in air with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 μm or less) contained many Pb nanoballs and nanocrystals which could influence lead availability. The soil-plant transfer of lead was mainly influenced by size and was very well estimated by 0.01 M CaCl 2 extraction. - The soil-lettuce lead transfer from atmospheric industrial sub-micronic and micronic particles depends on particle size

  9. Study of the Barada river environment pollution with poisonous trace elements resulting from tanning and electroplating industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Sarheel, A.; Al-Somel, N.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of leather industry impact on Barada river environment, specifically in the eastern part of Damascus was made. Differential samples such as sediments, soil, and plantations from various locations were collected. results show high increase of chromium in river's sediment and soil adjacent to the river banks. However, such increase was not noticed in plantations or tree leaves. Copper and nickel concentrations were also high in sediments due to waste coming out of the electroplating industry. Concentration of titanium, one of the polishing and coloring industry's wastes, was noticed to be rather high too. Concentration of all previous pollutants was noticed to decrease as the distance become farther from the industrial complex. (Author)

  10. Effects of lead pollution at industrial contaminated sites on sentinel juvenile Achatina achatina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenso, I E; Ologhobo, A D

    2009-01-01

    We investigated juvenile Achatina achatina snails exposed as sentinels in plastic cages for 12 weeks to compare lead pollution at dump sites of abandoned battery factory (Niger Delta, Nigeria). Results indicated 0.56, 20.37, 200.42 and 1200.30 microg/g soil lead at control, storage, dried effluent and waste dump sites, respectively. There were significant (p lead pollution. Snails were tolerant of all levels of lead pollution with no mortalities. This novel approach provides a basis for use of snail data in environmental pollution assessment of industrial sites.

  11. Identification of historical lead sources in roof dust and recent lake sediments from an industrialized are: Indications from lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenhall, B.E.; Depers, A.M.; Jones, B.G.; Chiaradia, M.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence and stable lead (Pb) isotopic analyses have been undertaken on dusts, known from microscopic investigation to contain significant quantities of industrially- and urban-derived particulate matter, present in the roof cavities of houses in the Illawarra region (N.S.W., Australia), with the objective of examining the historic record of Pb pollution. All investigated houses contained in excess of 250 μg g -1 Pb, with dwellings close to a copper smelter, in a large industrial complex including a major steelworks, containing higher (>2500 μg g -1 ) Pb concentrations. The isotopic composition in the dusts, expressed here as 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, is relatively constant at 17.0, irrespective of dwelling age or distance from the industrial complex. Contamination of the dusts by Pb sourced from paint cannot explain the isotopic uniformity of the dust samples. Isotopic modelling indicates that the dusts contain Pb derived from the copper smelter, gasoline-air Pb and a minor contribution from the steelworks. Isotopic calculations, together with records of particulate pollution emission, indicate a link between the Pb in roof dusts and Pb contamination of the near surface lagoonal sediments. Over the last five decades, atmospheric fallout of Pb-bearing particulate matter appears to have been the dominant pathway for addition of Pb to the lagoon and dwellings in the Illawarra region

  12. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carbon monoxide is known as the silent killer, being colorless, odourless, and tasteless. Initially non-irritating, it is very difficult for people to detect Carbon monoxide is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter due to insufficient oxygen supply that prevents complete oxidation of carbon to C02. During World War II, Nazis used gas vans to kill an estimated over 700,000 prisoners by carbon monoxide poisoning. This method was also used in the gas chambers ofseveral death camps. The true number of incidents of carbon monoxide poisoning is unknown, since many non-lethal exposures go undetected From the available data, carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common cause of injury and death due to poisoning worldwide. Clinical features and management: The signs of carbon monoxide poisoning vary with concentration and length of exposure. Subtle cardiovascular or neurobehavioural effects occur at low concentration. The onset of chronic poisoning is usually insidious and easily mistaken for viral prodrome, depression, or gastroenteritis in children. The classic sign of carbon monoxide poisoning which is actually more often seen in the dead than the living is appearing red-cheeked and healthy. Cherry pink colour develops in nails, skin and mucosa. In acute poisoning, common abnormalities of posture and tone are cogwheel rigidity, opisthotonus, spasticity or flaccidity and seizures. Retinal haemorrhages and the classic cherry red skin colour are seldom seen. Different people andpopulations may have different carbon monoxide tolerance levels. On average, exposures at 100ppm or greater is dangerous to human health. Treatment and prevention: The mainstay of treatment is 100% oxygen administration until the COHb level is normal When the patient is stable enough to be transported, hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT should be considered This treatment is safe and well tolerated Public education about the danger of carbon monoxide, with

  13. A medical mystery. Lead poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van der Klooster

    2004-01-01

    textabstractA 25-year-old schizophrenic man presented with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss and anaemia. He was noted to be malnourished with generalised muscle atrophy. Laboratory investigations showed Hb 4.7 mmol/L, MCV 80fl, bilirubin 75 micromol/L and reticulocyte

  14. Changing corporate culture within the European lead/acid battery industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Recent economic and political factors have had a strong influence on the lead/acid battery industry in both West and East Europe. Since the publication in 1989 by Batteries International and the Lead Development Association of a map of European battery factories, the number of battery companies has declined. By 1992, a significant shift had taken place in the share of the lead/acid battery market in Europe with the result that a few companies came to influence a major proportion of battery production and sales. The reasons for this relatively fast structural change are examined. Under the pressure from continuing internal and external forces, likely outcomes for battery business in Europe are proposed as the lead/acid industry changes to meet new challenges. (orig.)

  15. Radioactive waste: the poisoned legacy of the nuclear industry; Dechets radioactifs: l'heritage empoisonne du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousselet, Y. [Campagne Climat/Energie - Greenpeace (France)

    2011-02-15

    The nuclear industry produces a huge amount of radioactive waste from one end to the other of the nuclear cycle: i.e. from mining uranium to uranium enrichment through reactor operating, waste reprocessing and dismantling nuclear power plants. Nuclear power is now being 'sold' to political leaders and citizens as an effective way to deal with climate change and ensure security of energy supplies. Nonetheless, nuclear energy is not a viable solution and is thus a major obstacle to the development of clean energy for the future. In addition to safety and security issues, the nuclear industry is, above all, faced with the huge problem of how to deal with the waste it produces and for which it has no solution. This ought to put a brake on the nuclear industry, but instead, against all expectations, its development continues to gather pace. (author)

  16. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison ivy rash Overview Poison ivy rash is caused by an allergic reaction to an oily resin called urushiol (u-ROO-she-ol). This oil is in the leaves, stems and roots of poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. Wash your ...

  17. Tendencies of development of defensive-industrial complex of lead nations of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Salnikova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of development of defensive-industrial complex of lead nations of the world is conducted , namely the United States of America and countries-participants of European Union and NATO. Also in the the article control system of the defensive-industrial policy of the USA is schematically represented. The analysed materials gave an opportunity to draw conclusion, that guidance of military industrial concerns of the USA managed clearly to define acceptable strategies of restructuring and successfully to realize them, integrating new enterprises with the use of front-rank methods of organizational management that became the basic engine of development of defensive industry of the USA. To the number of basic progress of defensive-industrial complex of lead nations-participants of NATO and EU trends it is possible to take the following: creation of the large defensive-industrial integrated structures on development and production of modern armament and military technique on national, transnational and transatlantic levels; rapprochement of military and civil sectors of economy; large corporations go across from mass to the «flexible» production, due to what it is possible to arrive at high efficiency of production of weapons and military equipment even at small series; through diminishing of volumes of assignations on the purchase of defensive products and considerable complication of the modern systems of armament, some leading defensive firms-contractors began to work from the production of armament and military technique to scientific research-and-developments.

  18. Carbon monoxide poisoning - Immediate diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid complications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, L.D. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (oil, kerosene, coal, wood) or the inadequate ventilation of natural gas. When carbon monoxide is introduced into the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, reducing the number of binding sites available for oxygen. Carbon monoxide also changes the structure of the hemoglobin molecule, which makes it even more difficult for oxygen that has attached to be released into tissues. The resulting tissue ischemia can lead to organ failure, permanent changes in cognition, or death. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in industrialized countries.

  19. The comparative analysis of traumas and poisonings incidence and mortality rates from them at workers and men-employees, workers of the nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birukov A.P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims the estimation of incidence of traumas and poisonings, and mortality from them at workers of the Russian nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station, in view of their social structure. Material and methods. Carrying out this research, we used the information base of the Register of the persons exposed by radiation after the Chernobyl accident. There had been registered as of January, 1, 1998: liquidators of 1986-1987 years — 12882 people (men — 84,3%, liquidators of 1988-1990 years —2313 people (men — 88,3%. There had been presented parameters of case rate and mortality of men, separately workers and employees of the given cohort. Results. Lower level of traumas and poisonings incidence at employees had been revealed (2-2,4 times lower, than at the workers, the mortality of traumas and poisonings at employees were also 1,1-2,9 times lower (on the average — in 2,0 times is revealed. The alcoholism essentially raises a traumatism at liquidators. The traumatism above at the liquidators, suffering a chronic alcoholism, in 1,9-3,3 times. The distinctions in coefficients of the mortality from traumas and poisonings and the incidence by them for age groups of the men-liquidators were revealed. Conclusion. The essential difference in parameters of men-liquidators' health, workers of the nuclear industry, and workers shows that a social factor renders significant influence on health of a studied contingent of persons. Age features in many respects define value of parameters of incidence of traumas and poisonings and death rates from them a studied contingent. In radiation epidemiological researches it is necessary to consider biological and social factors necessarily.

  20. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  1. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Upgrading to lead firm position via international acquisition: learning from the global biomass power plant industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Fold, Niels; Hansen, Teis

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the case of a Chinese firm that has upgraded to lead firm position in the global biomass power plant industry mainly through acquisitions of technological frontier firms in Denmark. Sustaining the lead firm position was, however, challenged by difficulties in developing...... innovative capability. Drawing on the literature on (i) firm-level technological capability and (ii) knowledge transfer in international acquisitions, we explain the reasons for insufficient innovative capability building. Based on these empirical findings, we suggest maintaining the existing upgrading...

  3. Removal of lead from the industrial and synthetic Cu-Pb-Fe alloy with argon barbotage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Oleksiak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of research on removal of lead from synthetic and industrial Cu-Pb-Fe alloy with argon barbotage are presented. For examinations was taken a synthetic alloy and industrial alloy coming “Glogow II” Copperworks. As basic research equipment was used a pipe resistance furnace enabling heating of samples up to 1 473 K. Examinations were made in 2 test series. The 1 series was performed on the synthetic alloy, while in 2 series was used an industrial alloy. All series were conducted at 1 473 K and with gas fl ow 5,55•10-6, 6,94•10-6, 8,33•10-6, 9,72•10-6 m3•s-1.

  4. Compatibility of agriculture and petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    Problems observed in the interaction of agriculture and the petroleum industry are discussed. A wide variety of chemicals are used at drill sites. Caustic soda, chromates, asbestos, crude oil, and thread collar compound (30-50% lead) can all cause cattle poisoning. Cattle can fall into mud pits and drown. Well fracking can lead to spillage of acids onto pasture or crop land. After well production, animal poisonings can occur from salt water or lead from oil and grease, and injuries can be caused by the moving parts of the pumper unit. Salt water ingestion is a common problem, and salt concentrations >1% in drinking water can cause salt poisoning. Arsenic- and chromate-based corrosion inhibitors can cause poisoning of cattle. Broken transmission lines and leakage of petroleums allow cattle access to these substances

  5. Lead in the blood of children living close to industrial point sources in Bulgaria and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeke-Wetstein, C.; Bainova, A.; Georgieva, R.; Huzior-Balajewicz, A.; Bacon, J. R.

    2003-05-01

    ln Eastern European countries some industrial point sources are still suspected to have unacceptable emission rates of lead that pose a major health risk in particular to children. An interdisciplinary research project under the auspices of the EU had the aims (I) to monitor the current contamination of two industrial zones in Bulgaria and Poland, (2) to relate the Pb levels in ecological strata to the internal exposure of children, (3) to develop public health strategies in order to reduce the health risk by heavy metals. The human monitoring of Pb in Poland did not show increased health risks for the children living in an industrial zone close to Krakow. Bulgarian children, however, exceeded the WHO limit of 100 μg lead per litre blood by over one hundred percent (240 μg/1). Samples of soil, fodder and livestock organs showed elevated concentrations of lead. Recent literature results are compared with the findings in Bulgaria and Poland. The sources of the high internal exposure of children are discussed. Public health strategies to prevent mental dysfunction in Bulgarian children at risk include awareness building and social masures.

  6. An odyssey of environmental pollution: the rise, fall and remobilization of industrial lead in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. P.; Kristensen, L.; Liqin, W.; Harvey, P. J.; Dong, C.; Rouillon, M.

    2015-12-01

    The use of lead in automobile gasoline resulted in more than 240,000 tonnes of lead being emitted to the Australian environment over its 70-year period of use starting in 1932. The consequences of the emissions and subsequent depositions have resulted in marked contamination of urban and peri-urban aerosols, soils, plants and humans. This paper charts these effects and examines the extent of recovery from one of the most pervasive and persistent environmental pollutants. Lead isotopic composition of Adelaide and Sydney aerosol filters show that air lead composition shifts from values that approximate Broken Hill type ores, the predominant lead source used in gasoline (1.04 206Pb/207Pb and 2.31 208Pb/207Pb), towards ratios that more closely match local uncontaminated soil and bedrock values (Adelaide ~1.19 206Pb/207Pb and ~2.50 208Pb/207Pb; Sydney ~1.15 206Pb/207Pb and 2.48 208Pb/207Pb). Proxy atmospheric measurements from historic wine, lichen and fungi samples extending over 120 years show how both concentration and composition values shifted in the middle to late 20th century to reflect petrol emissions and then recovered rapidly at the end of the century as leaded gasoline consumption declined. For example, lead in wine from South Australia fell from >100 μg/L in the 1960s and 1970s to < 5 μg/L in the 2010s due to the removal of the primary source of atmospheric lead - gasoline. However, measurement of contemporary surface soils, ash produced from wildfires and air filters demonstrate that the effect of depositions persists and industrial lead and other toxic metals (including arsenic, cadmium and nickel) are subject to frequent remobilization. Predicted increases in wildfires and the generation of lead, arsenic and cadmium toxic particulates warrants greater consideration of the risk for vulnerable populations and firefighters who are most exposed.

  7. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konca, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2014-03-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock is presented here with clinical and laboratory features. In this case, we aim to report that accidental ingestion of plants resembling vegetables that are consumed daily can lead to serious complications and even death.

  8. Fruit stones from industrial waste for the removal of lead ions from polluted water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, M N

    2006-08-01

    Lead, one of the earliest metals recognized and used by humans, has a long history of beneficial use. However, it is now recognized as toxic and as posing a widespread threat to humans and wildlife. Treatment of lead from polluted water and wastewater has received a great deal of attention. Adsorption is one of the most common technologies for the treatment of lead-polluted water. This technique was evaluated here, with the goal of identifying innovative, low-cost adsorbent. This study presents experiments undertaken to determine the suitable conditions for the use of peach and apricot stones, produced from food industries as solid waste, as adsorbents for the removal of lead from aqueous solution. Chemical stability of adsorbents, effect of pH, adsorbents dose, adsorption time and equilibrium concentration were studied. The results reveal that adsorption of lead ions onto peach stone was stronger than onto apricot stone up to 3.36% at 3 h adsorption time. Suitable equilibrium time for the adsorption was 3-5 h (% Pb adsorption 93% for apricot and 97.64% for peach). The effective adsorption range for pH in the range was 7-8. Application of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models show high adsorption maximum and binding energies for using these adsorbents for the removal of lead ions from contaminated water and wastewater.

  9. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  10. Cadmium, an environmental poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, A K

    1974-04-15

    In recent years, industrial employment of cadmium has increased considerably. Cadmium is now present in the environment and has caused acute and chronic poisoning. Inhalation of cadmium vapor or dust causes pulmonary damage while the kidney is the critical organ in absorption of cadmium. The element accumulates in the kidney and causes tubular damage or 200 ppm in the renal cortex. In animal experiments, cadmium may cause raised blood pressure, sterility and malignant tumors. On account of the pronounced tendency of cadmium to accumulate and its toxicity, it is important to trace sources and to reduce exposure of the population. 62 references.

  11. Will the leading firm continue to dominate the market in the Taiwan notebook industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsiao-Ping; Yeh, Ming-Liang; Sher, Peter J.; Chiu, Yi-Chia

    2007-09-01

    This study investigates whether the market share leader in the notebook industry in Taiwan is likely to maintain its dominant position. Market share data are used to investigate the intensity of competitiveness in the industry, and data on the gap in market shares are employed to elucidate the dominance of the leading firm in Taiwan's notebook industry during the 1998-2004 period. The newly developed Panel SURADF tests advanced by Breuer et al. [Misleading inferences from panel unit root tests with an illustration from purchasing power parity, Rev. Int. Econ. 9 (3) (2001) 482-493] are employed to determine whether the market share gap is stationary or not. Unlike other panel-based unit root tests which are joint tests of a unit root for all members of a panel and are incapable of determining the mix of I(0) and I(1) series in a panel setting, the Panel SURADF tests have the advantage of being able to investigate a separate unit root null hypothesis for each individual panel member and are, therefore, able to identify how many and which series in a panel are stationary processes. The empirical results from several panel-based unit root tests substantiate that the market shares of the firms studied here are non-stationary, indicating that Taiwan's notebook industry is highly competitive; however, Breuer et al.'s [12] Panel SURADF tests unequivocally show that only Compal is stationary with respect to market share gap. In terms of sales volume, Compal is the second largest firm in the notebook industry in Taiwan, and the results indicate that it alone has the opportunity to become the market share leader in the notebook industry.

  12. Assessment of lead in blood samples of children residing in the vicinity of industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, F.; Kazi, T.G.; Afridi, H.I.; Brahaman, K.D.; Arain, S.S.; Panhwar, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the lead (Pb) distributions in blood and prevalence of elevated Pb exposure among children, age ranged (5-10 years), residing near industrialized region of Hyderabad city, Pakistan. For comparison, biological samples of children of same age group from non-industrial area were also analyzed. The Pb concentration in blood samples was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The results showed that significantly higher proportion of children living in the vicinity of industrial area, had blood Pb levels (BLL) in the range of 15.4-35.6 micro g/dL, and 8.51-16.7 micro g/dL for those of non-industrial area. The blood Pb level was higher in boys of both groups as compared to girls of same age group, but the difference was not significant (p=0.178). Negative correlation was observed between BLL and hemoglobin levels (p<0.001), while positive correlation was observed between BLL and age. (author)

  13. Vitrification of lead-rich solid ashes from incineration of hazardous industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavouras, P.; Kaimakamis, G.; Ioannidis, Th. A.; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Kokkou, S.; Pavlidou, E.; Antonopoulos, I.; Sofoniou, M.; Zouboulis, A.; Hadjiantoniou, C.P.; Nouet, G.; Prakouras, A.; Karakostas, Th.

    2003-01-01

    Lead-rich solid industrial wastes were vitrified by the addition of glass formers in various concentrations, to produce non-toxic vitreous stabilized products that can be freely disposed or used as construction materials. Toxicity of both the as-received industrial solid waste and the stabilized products was determined using standard leaching test procedures. The chemically stable vitreous products were subjected to thermal annealing in order to investigate the extent of crystal separation that could occur during cooling of large pieces of glass. Leaching tests were repeated to investigate the relation between annealing process and chemical stability. X-ray, scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques were employed to identify the microstructure of stabilized products before and after thermal treatment. Relation between synthesis and processing, chemical stability and microstructure was investigated

  14. BUSINESS SURVEY LIQUIDITY MEASURE AS A LEADING INDICATOR OF CROATIAN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Čižmešija

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Business survey liquidity measure is one of the modifications of the uniform EU business survey methodology applied in Croatia. Consequent liquidity problem have been, since socialist times, one of the major problem for Croatia's business. The problem rapidly increased between 1995 and 2000 and now it again represents the main difficulty for the Croatian economy. In order to improve the forecasting properties of business survey liquidity measure, some econometric models ware applied. Based on the regression analysis we concluded that the changes in the liquidity variable can predict the direction of changes in industrial production with one quarter lead. The results also show that liquidity can be a proxy of the Industrial Confidence Indicator in the observed period. The empirical analysis was performed using quarterly data covering the period from the first quarter 2005 to the fourth quarter 2011. The data sources were Privredni vjesnik (a business magazine in Croatia and the Croatian Bureau of Statistics.

  15. Food poisoning. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askar, A.; Treptow, H.

    1982-01-15

    In the present study information about food poisoning is compared and reviewed. From the viewpoint of a food technologist the toxic substances are represented in four sections: 1. Residues of substances used by plants and animals: pesticides, antibiotics, sexual hormones and psychopharmaces. 2. Environmental contaminants: heavy metals, radionuclides and polycyclic hydrocarbons. 3. Substances developing during the manufacture: food additives, asbest, parts of packing materials, and residual solvents. 4. Substances arising from processing: smoked and roasted food, non enzymatic reaction, oxidized and heated fats and irradiated foods. The mere presence of toxic substances does not make food unsafe or poisonous. Dangerous, because of their toxic or carcinogenic effects are: Pesticides (especially chlorinated organic pesticides), heavy metals (especially lead, mercury and cadmium), polycyclic hydrocarbons (3,4-benzpyren), nitrosamines and vinyl chloride. The other components are only dangerous if they are present in large ammounts. A good and responsible practise of agriculture and food manufacture processes, a watchful and competent official food control and well informed consumers can limit the danger of food poisoning and human health.

  16. Accidental childhood poisoning in Benin City: Still a problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental poisoning (AP) is a leading cause of ill – health and deaths among. Nigerian children. Reports on AP are infrequent in Nigeria. This retrospective descriptive study examined the prevailing pattern of accidental childhood poisoning in Benin City. Accidental poisonings were identified in 226 (3.3%) of the cases ...

  17. Removal of lead ions from industrial waste water by using biomaterials – a novel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malairajan Singanan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple cost effective and eco-friendly method for the remediation of lead from industrial wastewater has been investigated. A novel biomaterial, Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae a medicinal plant, was used for the removal of lead ions from synthetic wastewater and the method was also applied for real sample analysis. The operational pH of the experimental solution was fixed as 4.5. The optimum amount of bioadsorbent was 3.5 g. The Pb(II ions removal efficiency of the raw bioadsorbent was also determined. The removal efficiency of the activated carbon of the bioadsorbent was excellent. 98 % removal of Pb(II ions was achieved at the dose rate of 3.5 g. The optimum contact time was estimated to be 160 minutes.

  18. Ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  19. Soil microbial respiration and PICT responses to an industrial and historic lead pollution: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, Annette; Capowiez, Line; Mombo, Stéphane; Schreck, Eva; Dumat, Camille; Deola, Frédéric; Capowiez, Yvan

    2016-03-01

    We performed a field investigation to study the long-term impacts of Pb soil contamination on soil microbial communities and their catabolic structure in the context of an industrial site consisting of a plot of land surrounding a secondary lead smelter. Microbial biomass, catabolic profiles, and ecotoxicological responses (PICT) were monitored on soils sampled at selected locations along 110-m transects established on the site. We confirmed the high toxicity of Pb on respirations and microbial and fungal biomasses by measuring positive correlations with distance from the wall factory and negative correlation with total Pb concentrations. Pb contamination also induced changes in microbial and fungal catabolic structure (from carbohydrates to amino acids through carboxylic malic acid). Moreover, PICT measurement allowed to establish causal linkages between lead and its effect on biological communities taking into account the contamination history of the ecosystem at community level. The positive correlation between qCO2 (based on respiration and substrate use) and PICT suggested that the Pb stress-induced acquisition of tolerance came at a greater energy cost for microbial communities in order to cope with the toxicity of the metal. In this industrial context of long-term polymetallic contamination dominated by Pb in a field experiment, we confirmed impacts of this metal on soil functioning through microbial communities, as previously observed for earthworm communities.

  20. Isolation of Lead Resistant Bacteria from Lead Contaminated Soil Samples Collected from Sundar Industrial Estate and their Potential Use in Bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, F.; Adalat, R.; Munir, N.; Aftab, F.

    2015-01-01

    Industrial waste water pollution is one of the most controversial problem especially in countries like Pakistan. Human activities and the release of industrial waste have resulted the accumulation of metals in the environment. Noxious chemicals like heavy metals include cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, nickel, etc. that pollute the soils, ground water, sediments and surface waters re present in soluble form. Biosorpotion is a form of bioremediation by which metal ions are adsorbed from polluted site by microorganisms. Samples collected from industrial area were analyzed for lead contamination by Flame Atomic Spectrophotometer. Soil samples of Sundar Industrial Estate were highly resistant to different concentrations (300ppm, 800ppm, and 1600ppm) of Pb+2 whereas, the sample PbFa-458 showed maximum (127.9819mg/L) absorption of Pb+2, so can be used for environmental cleanup. From 24 selected lead resistant strains PbFa-136, PbFa-287, PbFa-960 showed resistance to multimetals, multidrug and high lead concentrations i.e 1800ppm, 2000ppm. Lead resistant strains were predicted as Klebsiella or Eenterobacter, Bacillus, Shigella, Salmonella and Enteroccocus. (author)

  1. Intensive Care Management of Organophosphate Poisoned Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Pesticide poisonings remain a serious public .... prevent or increase threshold for the development of seizure, which ... Nigeria. Procurement of consumables and equipment ... enormous financial burden on them often leading to.

  2. A restrospective study of acute systemic poisoning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is commonly used in several industries (dyeing furs, photochemical processes, tyre vulcanisation industries, oxidisable hair dye, etc.). Its allergic effect is well established and many studies are devoted to the subject, but PPD systemic poisoning is not understood. Several acute PPD poisoning ...

  3. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  4. A survey of hazardous and toxic wastes from lead and zinc industries in Zanjan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamesi, J.; Asadi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Angoran, situated in north-west of Zanjan province is unique in Middle East in respect of its rich reserves of Lead and Zinc minerals. These valuable reserves have attracted a number of Lead and Zinc industries into the province. With the absent of a proper waste management practices, a great deal of hazardous and toxic wastes are produced which contains a high percent of heavy metals that are potential sources for soil and water pollution. In this paper, after recognition of the main sources of the pollutants, the affected and vulnerable areas are mapped using Geographic Information System. The quality and quantity of these hazardous wastes are then evaluated by sampling and analyzing the samples and by taking into account the undesirable environmental conditions faced by the province, a number of preventive and curative measures for a better waste management practices are introduced. The annual wastes produced by 22 Zinc plants in the province are calculated to be about 260000 tons of filter cake leachates, 13000 tons of Cobalt filter cake, and 6550 tons of Cadmium-Nickel filter cakes. Two active Lead factories in the province are also producing about 13000 tons of slag annually. These wastes are containing 27000 ton Zinc, 9220 ton Lead, 560 ton Cadmium and 242000 tons of other wastes, that are left in open spaces within the factory or is dumped in dry riverbeds or near river valleys.The wastes are transported and deposited by wind in the environment and are washed by rain into the river systems or are soaked into the ground polluting the underground aquifers. Based of Basel Convention, these wastes are given international codes (Y 23, Y 31, Y 26, Y 46). Possession, disposal, and recycling of such wastes must be undertaken with specific management measures

  5. Nicotinic plant poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G

    2009-09-01

    , symptoms typically follow a biphasic pattern. The early phase consists of nicotinic cholinergic stimulation resulting in symptoms such as abdominal pain, hypertension, tachycardia, and tremors. The second inhibitory phase is delayed and often heralded by hypotension, bradycardia, and dyspnea, finally leading to coma and respiratory failure. Supportive care is the mainstay of management with primary emphasis on cardiovascular and respiratory support to ensure recovery. Exposure to plants containing nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids can lead to severe poisoning but, with prompt supportive care, patients should make a full recovery.

  6. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...

  7. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  8. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  9. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  10. Diagnosis of acute poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    functional tissue damage in ... cury or alcohol) .... †The degree of poisoning, together with drug or poison levels, usually determines the .... monoxide, caffeine and the sym- .... the brain. It usually occurs when two or more drugs, which increase.

  11. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  12. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  13. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  14. Burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsume, Tomohiro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the effect of water elimination and the effect of burn-up residue boron, thereby reduce the effect of burnable poison rods as the neutron poisons at the final stage of reactor core lifetime. Constitution: In a burnable poison rod according to the present invention, a hollow burnable poison material is filled in an external fuel can, an inner fuel can mounted with a carbon rod is inserted to the hollow portion of the burnable poison material and helium gases are charged in the outer fuel can. In such a burnable poison rod, the reactivity worths after the burning are reduced to one-half as compared with the conventional case. Accordingly, since the effect of the burnable poison as the neutron poisons is reduced at the final stage of the reactor core of lifetime, the excess reactivity of the reactor core is increased. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Cancer mortality among female and male workers occupationally exposed to inorganic lead in the printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilychova, Svetlana A; Zaridze, David G

    2012-02-01

    Evaluation of the carcinogenicity of lead for humans has been based primarily on the results of studies on occupationally exposed men, although gender differences in lead metabolism have been reported. In addition, most of the previous studies have been limited by a failure to identify and control for co-exposures to other known occupational carcinogens. The present study follows an industrial cohort of workers, mostly women, with moderate lead exposure and no confounding by other occupational exposures. Workers, employed at least 2 years between 1950 and 1978 in manual and mechanical (linotype) typesetting and type foundries in 27 printing plants in Moscow, were included in the cohort, which comprised 1423 men and 3102 women. The cohort was followed up during 1979-2003 and contributed 93,682 person-years of observation. Follow-up was 97.7% complete. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs, based on mortality rates of the Moscow general population and adjusted for gender, age and calendar time, were calculated for the total cohort as well as subcohorts stratified by various exposure parameters. Among women, mortality from all causes, circulatory diseases and all cancers combined was lower than that in the Moscow general population and was similar across work groups. Among men, there was excess overall mortality, mainly due to increased mortality from ischaemic heart disease. For both sexes, no significant excess risk for any cancer site was observed, although some dose-response patterns were found. In the overall cohort, mortality from cancers of the kidney and pancreas increased up to twofold in the highest tertile of cumulative lead exposure based on duration and a relative ranking of the three subcohorts (9 deaths; SMR=2.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.07) and (18 deaths; SMR=2.32, 95% CI 1.46 to 3.68), respectively. Similar mortality trends for these two cancers were found in analyses by gender. Consistencies by sex and exposure level make a strong case for a

  16. Transdermal carbamate poisoning – a case of misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Kumar Rajbanshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pesticide poisoning is a common mode of intentional self harm. Oral ingestion is the usual mode of poisoning. However, inhalation, accidental or occupational transdermal exposure leading to acute or chronic poisoning can be the other route of poisoning. It has been seen that the purpose of poising is suicidal intensity in most of the cases. We report an unusual case where the victim had acute pesticide poisoning through transdermal route that was intended for non suicidal purpose. The patient was managed successfully with immediate decontamination and adequate antidote.

  17. Opportunities for cost reduction and improved environmental impact in the lead and lead/acid battery industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, N.

    The opportunities for cost reduction through improved environmental performance exist in many companies, but often are not realized. This paper describes the efforts of a typical firm — Calder Industrial Materials (CIM) — that is experiencing ever-tighter environmental controls and profit erosion through the effects of new environmental legislation. At the same time, however, CIM sees opportunities to reduce its environmental burden and cut costs. As the story unfolds, readers may well discover many parallels with their own companies. It may even spur some into action, for remember, every £1000 saved requires ten times the turnover to generate the same profit.

  18. Description of 3,180 courses of chelation with dimercaptosuccinic acid in children ≤ 5 y with severe lead poisoning in Zamfara, Northern Nigeria: a retrospective analysis of programme data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Thurtle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF discovered extensive lead poisoning impacting several thousand children in rural northern Nigeria. An estimated 400 fatalities had occurred over 3 mo. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC confirmed widespread contamination from lead-rich ore being processed for gold, and environmental management was begun. MSF commenced a medical management programme that included treatment with the oral chelating agent 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, succimer. Here we describe and evaluate the changes in venous blood lead level (VBLL associated with DMSA treatment in the largest cohort of children ≤ 5 y of age with severe paediatric lead intoxication reported to date to our knowledge. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a retrospective analysis of programme data, we describe change in VBLL after DMSA treatment courses in a cohort of 1,156 children ≤ 5 y of age who underwent between one and 15 courses of chelation treatment. Courses of DMSA of 19 or 28 d duration administered to children with VBLL ≥ 45 µg/dl were included. Impact of DMSA was calculated as end-course VBLL as a percentage of pre-course VBLL (ECP. Mixed model regression with nested random effects was used to evaluate the relative associations of covariates with ECP. Of 3,180 treatment courses administered, 36% and 6% of courses commenced with VBLL ≥ 80 µg/dl and ≥ 120 µg/dl, respectively. Overall mean ECP was 74.5% (95% CI 69.7%-79.7%; among 159 inpatient courses, ECP was 47.7% (95% CI 39.7%-57.3%. ECP after 19-d courses (n = 2,262 was lower in older children, first-ever courses, courses with a longer interval since a previous course, courses with more directly observed doses, and courses with higher pre-course VBLLs. Low haemoglobin was associated with higher ECP. Twenty children aged ≤ 5 y who commenced chelation died during the period studied, with lead poisoning a primary factor in six deaths. Monitoring of alanine

  19. Evaluation Of Methadone Poisoning in Hospitalized Children: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Maamouri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Upload poisoning is one of the most dangerous and common poisoning in Iranian children. Depression of the respiratory and central nervous systems may lead to significant toxicity. Even low doses of uploads are dangerous in pediatrics under 6 years old. Methadone is the most toxic of the uploads; small doses as low as a single tablet can lead to death. According to this information we decided to evaluate methadone poisoning in Hospitalized Children

  20. Lead evaluation in blood of workers of batteries industries; Evaluacion de plomo en sangre de trabajadores de industrias de baterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valbuena P, John J; Duarte, Martha; Clara, Marciales

    2001-07-01

    In order to evaluate the occupational risk of exposure to lead of employees working in three small industries that recycle and manufacture acid lead batteries, the lead and zinc protoporphyrine (ZPP) blood content was determined. The determination was also performed on people not exposed in order to establish comparison values. Venous blood was collected in metal free heparinized glass tubes. Lead was analyzed by atomic absorption with graphite furnace and ZPP by fluorescence. According to Colombian legislation, it was found that around 31 % workers in this type of industries are in dangerous and intoxication exposure. It was also found that 91 % of workers exceed the level of 30 mg Pb/dL blood established as standard by the American Conference governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)

  1. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Magnitudes and sources of precipitation and dry deposition fluxes of industrial and natural leads to the North Pacific at Enewetak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settle, D.M.; Patterson, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    A total atmospheric PB input flux of 7 ng Pb cm - 2 yr - 1 was measured in the North Pacific Easterlies at Enewetak. Parameters used to measure this flux were ratio of dry deposition flux to precipitation flux; Pb/ 210 Pb in precipitation and seawater; 210 Pb flux; washout factor; and Pb concentrations in air, rain, and dry deposition deposits. Relations among these parameters estabilished at Enewetak were used to recompute and comfirm previous estimates of lead fluxes to the oceans (ng Pb cm - 2 yr - 1 ) at the following locations: North Altantic Westerlies, 170; North Pacific Westerlies, 50; and South Pacific Easterlies, 3. Prehistoric lead output fluxes to sediments (ng Pb cm - 2 yr - 1 ) at these locations have been previously measured and were 4 (Enewetak); 30 North Atlantic Westerlies; 3 North Pacific Westerlies; 4 South Pacific Easterlies. These data show that the rates of atmospheric imputs of lead to the oceans vary directly with variations in rates of upwind emission of industrial lead from urban complexes on land. In the North Pacific and North Atlantic, present rates of atmospheric lead inputs are 10-fold greater than prehistoric outputs. In equatorial regions, present inputs and past outputs are more nearly equal. These observations disclose the effects of intense industrial atmospheric emissions of lead in the northern hemisphere westerlies which have overwhelmed prehistoric natural fluxes of lead to the oceans. The average concentration of lead in marine air at Enewetak is 170n pg m - 3 and varies less than a factor of 2 from that mean. One to 15% of this lead comes from seaspray, while the remainder comes from sources on land. About 90% of the seaspray lead is industrial, while 80 to 99% of that originating from land sources is industrial. Concentrations of lead in rain at Enewetak range from 6 to 63 pg/g with a mean value of 28

  3. Carbon monoxide poisoning at motels, hotels, and resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lindell K; Deru, Kayla

    2007-07-01

    Each year, more than 200 people in the United States die from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Poisoning has occurred at motels, hotels, and resorts. Congressional mandate requires smoke alarms in all guest rooms; however, smoke alarms do not detect CO. Data on patients poisoned at hotels, motels, and resorts were evaluated at a hyperbaric medicine service. In 2005, legal databases and online news databanks were searched to discover additional incidents. Only victims evaluated in hospitals or declared dead at the scene were included. Cases of intentional poisoning and poisoning from fires were excluded. Between 1989 and 2004, 68 incidents of CO poisoning occurring at hotels, motels, and resorts were identified, resulting in 772 accidentally poisoned: 711 guests, 41 employees or owners, and 20 rescue personnel. Of those poisoned, 27 died, 66 had confirmed sequelae, and 6 had sequelae resulting in a jury verdict. Lodging-operated, faulty room heating caused 45 incidents, pool/spa boilers 16, CO entrained from outdoors 5, and unreported sources caused 2 incidents. Public verdicts have averaged $4.8 million per incident (range, $1 million to $17.5 million). Poisoning occurred at hotels of all classes. Despite these incidents, most properties did not install CO alarms, and requirements for CO alarms at hotels, motels, and resorts are rare. Guests of motels, hotels, and resorts remain at risk for injury or death from CO poisoning. Measures to prevent CO poisoning of guests and employees of the lodging industry should be evaluated.

  4. Chronic arsenic poisoning following ayurvedic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Benzeeta; Goyal, Palvi; Flora, S J S; Gill, K D; Singh, Surjit

    2014-12-01

    Ayurveda, Indian traditional system of medicine, is practiced commonly in South East Asia and in many parts of the world. Many ayurvedic drugs contain heavy metals and may lead to metal toxicity. Of these, chronic lead poisoning is the most common. Chronic arsenic poisoning following the use of ayurvedic medication, though reported, is rare. We describe three patients who presented with features of chronic arsenic poisoning following prolonged ayurvedic medication use. The diagnosis of chronic arsenic poisoning was confirmed by high arsenic levels in the blood, urine, hair, and nails in all the three patients and in ayurvedic drug in two patients. The ayurvedic medication was discontinued and treatment with D-penicillamine started. At 6 months after treatment, blood arsenic levels returned to normal with clinical recovery in all of them. Arsenic poisoning following ayurvedic medication is much less common than lead poisoning, though mineral ayurvedic medicines may lead to it. We used D-penicillamine as chelator and all of them recovered. Whether withdrawal of medication alone or D-penicillamine also played a role in recovery is unclear and needs to be assessed.

  5. Lead Adsorption into Activated Carbon: A Critical Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead has been widely used in many industries due to its desirable chemical and physical properties such as its malleability and resistance to corrosion. However, Lead poisoning is a serious health hazard that causes severe damage to multiple target organs including kidney, liver,...

  6. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Research and development regarding the retaining mechanism of lead ions in industrial wastewaters using natural matter with remarkable properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, A.; Iepure, G.

    2017-05-01

    The paper shows the studying of the retaining mechanism of lead ions in industrial wastewaters through static and dynamic ion exchange mechanisms. In the experimental determinations of the lead metallic ion retention, metallurgical industry wastewaters have been used on samples of volcanic zeolite tuff (from Barsana, Maramures), samples that show a high concentration of lead ions and an acidic pH. The results showed that both the static and the dynamic ion exchanges ended with good results and they were consistent with other studies conducted on clinoptilolite zeolite tuff. Knowing that the industrial sector is an important source of environment pollution and degradation and being aware of what a serious threat the heavy metal pollution is, due to their high toxicity and stability, the experiment may find applicability in different aspects, both in the Maramures mining basing as well as in the worldwide controlling and directing of the polluting processes.

  8. Immobilisation of lead and zinc in contaminated soil using compost derived from industrial eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the capacity of a compost obtained by co-composting of industrial eggshell (CES) to immobilise lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in an acidic soil contaminated by mining activities. Mature compost without eggshell (CWES) and natural eggshell (ES) were also tested as soil amendments for comparison purposes. Three different application rates were used for each material, ensuring the same quantity in terms of neutralizing capacity. Incubation experiments were conducted under controlled conditions and CO2 emissions monitored for 94 days. The environmental availability of Pb and Zn in the amended soil was assessed and bioassays were performed at the end of the incubation period. When eggshells were present, the CES compost raised the soil pH to values higher than 6 and reduced the soil mobile fraction for both Pb and Zn, in more than 95%. Soil toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri was also suppressed and environmental risk decreased to "low level". However, the immobilisation in the acid insoluble soil component was significantly achieved only for Zn. In addition, regarding soil carbon dynamics the CO2-C emissions were enhanced, mainly in the case of the highest rate of amendment. Both first order-E and parallel first order models may adequately describe the kinetic data of CO2-C cumulative release. Without eggshells, the CWES compost revealed limited effect on heavy metals immobilisation, likely due to its small capacity to correct soil acidity, at lower application rates. Using solely eggshells, the ES waste had similar outcomes when compared with CES, but at the higher application rate, CO2 emissions were enhanced with the eggshell compost due to the contribution of biotic carbon present therein. Therefore, this study points out that CES is an effective liming material and may be used for in situ remediation of contaminated soil with Pb and Zn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poison sumac. Protectants such as baking soda or colloidal oatmeal relieve minor irritation and itching. Aluminum acetate ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  10. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  11. Factors That Lead to Environmentally Sustainable Practices in the Restaurant Industry: A Qualitative Analysis of Two Green Restaurant Innovators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyheim, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, more organizations, including restaurants, have concerned themselves with sustainability. As with any new endeavor, guidance is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that lead to environmentally sustainable practices in the restaurant industry. Using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory as a…

  12. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum Poisoning In A Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capan KONCA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock is presented here with clinical and laboratory features. In this case, we aim to report that accidental ingestion of plants resembling vegetables that are consumed daily can lead to serious complications and even death.

  13. Erbium: alternative poison? stabilisation additive? what future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, J.; Asou, M.

    2001-01-01

    Erbium was proposed as alternative poison to gadolinium at a very early stage. The potential interest of this poison compared to gadolinium is that it presents a relatively low ( 167 Er) absorption cross section in the thermal range and a non-negligible resonance integral that lead to a relatively slow consumption kinetic rather adapted to long or even very long cycles. The poisoning mode adapted to this poison, homogeneous in low concentration (< 3 %), does not downgrade the power distribution, on the one hand, as the absorption is low and spatially homogeneous, and the thermal conductivity, on the other hand, as the addition in the fuel oxide is in low quantity. A review of knowledge acquired as regards Er, from the 1960's to now, is presented. (authors)

  14. Feasibility of lead removal from industrial effluents by sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L. A.; Diez, M.; Rodriguez, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Battery manufacturing wastewater contains high concentration of sulphate and lead at low pH values. Biogical treatment by anaerobic reduction of sulphate to sulphite, with organic matter as electron donor, increases alkalinity and allow precipitating lead as sulphide. the type of organic matter, COD/SO 4 ratio and lead concentration over sulphate reduction rate are investigated in this work. (Author)

  15. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  16. How Does Service Quality Lead to Loyalty in the Hotel Industry in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Tafreshi Motlagh; Ehsan Sadeh; Sina Sadeh; Hamidreza Jafari; Jafar Azizi Morovat; Amir Enaamzadeh

    2013-01-01

    This is a fact that loyal customers not only use the services of the hotel frequently but also suggest the services to other potential clients. It is obvious that loyal customers can guarantee the life of the business in the hotel industry. The theoretical background of the loyalty in the hotel industry indicates that loyalty is a consequence of hotel service quality. The main purpose of this study is to investigate how the service quality ends in loyalty in hotel industry in Iran. Review on ...

  17. Editorial: Lead Risk Assessment and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard W. Mielke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1980, Clair C. Patterson stated: “Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older urban areas of the United States have been rendered more or less uninhabitable by the millions of tons of poisonous industrial lead residues that have accumulated in cities during the past century”. We live in the near future about which this quote expressed concern. This special volume of 19 papers explores the status of scientific evidence regarding Dr. Patterson’s statement on the habitability of the environments of communities. Authors from 10 countries describe a variety of lead issues in the context of large and small communities, smelter sites, lead industries, lead-based painted houses, and vehicle fuel treated with lead additives dispersed by traffic. These articles represent the microcosm of the larger health issues associated with lead. The challenges of lead risk require a concerted global action for primary prevention.

  18. Hospitality industry veteran to lead workshop on boosting sales and business

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Hospitality industry expert Howard Feiertag will teach participants how to energize sales and boost business during the "Hospitality Sales" workshop, April 27 and 28 at the Hotel Roanoke and Conference Center in Roanoke, Va.

  19. Leading Players of the Global Petrochemical Industry. Overview of Groups - SWOTs - Benchmarking - Company Profiles and Financials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-02-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Overview: The Sector, Ranking, Performance Analysis; 2. Company Profiles: ExxonMobil, Total, BASF, Dow Chemical, Reliance Industries, Sabic, LyondellBasell, Mitsubishi Chemical, LG Chem, Sumitomo Chemical; 3. Sources; 4. Annexes

  20. Intoxicação por chumbo e saúde infantil: ações intersetoriais para o enfrentamento da questão Lead poisoning and child health: integrated efforts to combat this problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niura Aparecida de Moura Ribeiro Padula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inquérito epidemiológico realizado pela Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo e Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Bauru visou à realização de exames de plumbemia em 853 crianças de 0 a 12 anos, em Bauru, São Paulo, Brasil (2002, a partir de indícios de chumbo oriundo de resíduos industriais nas proximidades de uma fábrica de baterias. Os níveis sangüíneos de chumbo no grupo controle foram inferiores aos apresentados pelo grupo exposto (p An epidemiological survey was carried out by technicians of the State Health Secretary and the Municipal Health Secretary of Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil, due to excessive atmospheric lead emissions caused by a battery manufacturer. This survey included 853 children from 0 to 12 years old, in a 1,000-meter area from the polluting source, in Bauru (2002. The blood lead levels of children in the exposed group were higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05. 314 children were found to have dosages equal or superior to 10µg/dl, the limit stipulated by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public services, universities, and volunteers developed some activities aiming at child diagnosis and treatment. The Municipal Health Secretary coordinated remediation initiatives such as: scraping the superficial surface of streets, internal aspiration of houses with professional equipment, and washing and sealing tanks. Through this work, the Lead Poisoning Study and Research Group (GEPICCB shares an integrated, interdisciplinary, and interinstitutional action proposal.

  1. Intoxicação por chumbo em crianças e o discurso da imprensa Lead poisoning in children and media discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Emy Tomita

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Houve ampla divulgação na mídia sobre a descoberta e interdição de uma fábrica de baterias com elevada emissão de chumbo, no município de Bauru (SP, em 2002, dada a relevância do assunto para a saúde pública. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar as publicações na imprensa relativas à contaminação ambiental por chumbo em uma área residencial, sua repercussão sobre a saúde infantil e as iniciativas do poder público para enfrentamento desta questão. A análise do discurso da imprensa escrita é realizada mediante a leitura de notícias publicadas no ano de 2002, utilizando ferramentas de análise qualitativa. A partir da abordagem da imprensa sobre esta sucessão de acontecimentos, esta reflexão constitui uma contribuição à elaboração de programas educativos que têm como foco os cuidados com o meio ambiente e as suas repercussões sobre a saúde da população.The finding and interdiction of a battery factory with high lead emission got massive media coverage in the city of Bauru (SP, in 2002, given the relevance of this issue to public health. Aiming at evaluating the publications in the press related to lead environmental contamination in a residential area, its repercussion on infantile health and the initiatives of government to face this subject, the present study has been delineated. The analysis of the press discourse is accomplished by the reading of news published in the year of 2002, using tools of qualitative analysis. Starting from the approach of the press on this sequence of events, this reflection represents a contribution to the elaboration of educational programs that focus on the care of the environment and its impact on public health.

  2. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Since then, the death or stranding of other marine animals, including whales, has been suspected or confirmed to ... sickened or die due to domoic acid poisoning. Animals poisoned by domoic acid include seabirds and marine mammals, including sea lions, sea otters, whales. Domoic- ...

  3. Poisoning - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well-Being 6 - Poison Safety - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... Well-Being 6 - Poison Safety - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Dari (دری) Expand Section ...

  4. Arsenical poisoning of racehorses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, G.N.; Fawell, E.V.; Brown, J.K.

    1964-03-07

    A case of arsenic poisoning in a training stable of Thoroughbred racehorses is described. This was due to the accidental spilling of an arsenical rat poison into the corn bin. Nine horses were affected. The mortality rate was 100 per cent. 1 table.

  5. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  6. Coordination chemistry of two heavy metals: I, Ligand preferences in lead(II) complexation, toward the development of therapeutic agents for lead poisoning: II, Plutonium solubility and speciation relevant to the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, Mary Patricia [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The coordination chemistry and solution behavior of the toxic ions lead(II) and plutonium(IV, V, VI) have been investigated. The ligand pKas and ligand-lead(II) stability constants of one hydroxamic acid and four thiohydroaxamic acids were determined. Solution thermodynamic results indicate that thiohydroxamic acids are more acidic and slightly better lead chelators than hydroxamates, e.g., N-methylthioaceto-hydroxamic acid, pKa = 5.94, logβ120 = 10.92; acetohydroxamic acid, pKa = 9.34, logβ120 = 9.52. The syntheses of lead complexes of two bulky hydroxamate ligands are presented. The X-ray crystal structures show the lead hydroxamates are di-bridged dimers with irregular five-coordinate geometry about the metal atom and a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. Molecular orbital calculations of a lead hydroxamate and a highly symmetric pseudo octahedral lead complex were performed. The thermodynamic stability of plutonium(IV) complexes of the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO), and two octadentate derivatives of DFO were investigated using competition spectrophotometric titrations. The stability constant measured for the plutonium(IV) complex of DFO-methylterephthalamide is logβ120 = 41.7. The solubility limited speciation of 242Pu as a function of time in near neutral carbonate solution was measured. Individual solutions of plutonium in a single oxidation state were added to individual solutions at pH = 6.0, T = 30.0, 1.93 mM dissolved carbonate, and sampled over intervals up to 150 days. Plutonium solubility was measured, and speciation was investigated using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemical methods.

  7. Coordination chemistry of two heavy metals: I, Ligand preferences in lead(II) complexation, toward the development of therapeutic agents for lead poisoning: II, Plutonium solubility and speciation relevant to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, M.P.

    1993-11-01

    The coordination chemistry and solution behavior of the toxic ions lead(II) and plutonium(IV, V, VI) have been investigated. The ligand pK a s and ligand-lead(II) stability constants of one hydroxamic acid and four thiohydroaxamic acids were determined. Solution thermodynamic results indicate that thiohydroxamic acids are more acidic and slightly better lead chelators than hydroxamates, e.g., N-methylthioaceto-hydroxamic acid, pK a = 5.94, logβ 120 = 10.92; acetohydroxamic acid, pK a = 9.34, logβ l20 = 9.52. The syntheses of lead complexes of two bulky hydroxamate ligands are presented. The X-ray crystal structures show the lead hydroxamates are di-bridged dimers with irregular five-coordinate geometry about the metal atom and a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. Molecular orbital calculations of a lead hydroxamate and a highly symmetric pseudo octahedral lead complex were performed. The thermodynamic stability of plutonium(IV) complexes of the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO), and two octadentate derivatives of DFO were investigated using competition spectrophotometric titrations. The stability constant measured for the plutonium(IV) complex of DFO-methylterephthalamide is logβ 110 = 41.7. The solubility limited speciation of 242 Pu as a function of time in near neutral carbonate solution was measured. Individual solutions of plutonium in a single oxidation state were added to individual solutions at pH = 6.0, T = 30.0, 1.93 mM dissolved carbonate, and sampled over intervals up to 150 days. Plutonium solubility was measured, and speciation was investigated using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemical methods

  8. Gaseous poison injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Sugisaki, Toshihiko; Inada, Ikuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly control the chain reaction due to thermal neutrons in a reactor core by using gaseous poisons as back-up means for control rod drives. Constitution: Gaseous poisons having a large neutron absorption cross section are used as back-up means for control rod drives. Upon failure of control rod insertion, the gaseous poisons are injected into the lower portion of the reactor core to control the reactor power. As the gaseous poisons, vapors at a high temperature and a higher pressure than that of the coolants in the reactor core are injected to control the reactor power due to the void effects. Since the gaseous poisons thus employed rapidly reach the reactor core and form gas bubbles therein, the deccelerating effect of the thermal neutrons is decreased to reduce the chain reaction. (Moriyama, K.)

  9. Lead Exposure: A Summary of Global Studies and the Need for New Studies from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Shaik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning (plumbism can cause irreversible genetic and reproductive toxicity, hematological effects, neurological damage, and cardiovascular effects. Despite many efforts to minimize lead poisoning, it continues to be a major health concern in many developing and developed countries. Despite efforts to control lead exposure and toxicity, serious cases of lead poisoning increasingly occur as a result of higher vehicular traffic and industrialization. The biomarkers for identification of genetic susceptibility to a particular disease are useful to identify individuals who are at risk for lead poisoning. Although many such studies have been taken up elsewhere, very few studies were performed in Saudi Arabia to assess susceptibility to lead poisoning. This indicates an urgent need for testing of susceptible individuals. The present paper was planned to understand the genetic susceptibility to lead toxicity in the various population studies conducted worldwide and also to correlate it with the current scenario in Saudi Arabia. Such studies are necessary for appropriate precautions in terms of diet and avoiding exposure to be used in order to prevent adverse health effects.

  10. Poisonous plants of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

  11. The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Research and Development Leading to a Revolution in Technology and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    dual-use deliveries to entice commercial interest at the earliest stages. NRO transition goals aim to create commercial “ pull ” to enable rapid... GOALI ), Partnerships for Innovation (PFI) , and Industry-University Cooperative Research Centers (IUCRC) • Partnership with small businesses and large

  12. Leading Change: A Case Study of Alamo Academies--An Industry-Driven Workforce Partnership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaodan; Bowman, Gene

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors focus on the initiation and development of the Alamo Academies, aiming to illustrate an exemplary industry-driven model that addresses workforce development in local community. After a brief introduction of the context, the authors summarized major factors that contribute to the success of the collaboration model,…

  13. Do ecolabels lead to better environmental outcomes in the international shipping industry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Rivas Hermann, Roberto; Smink, Carla Kornelia

    into a mature service industry with global operations, we show that concerns about ecolabel environmental effectiveness also have relevance here. Shipping ecolabels fall short of best practices for design and governance. Our study has policy implications for the achievement of better environmental outcomes...

  14. Transport signatures of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, S. M.; Hansen, E. B.; Higginbotham, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate effects of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island with strong tunnel coupling to normal-metal leads. In addition to the main Coulomb blockade diamonds, "shadow" diamonds appear, shifted by 1e in gate voltage, consistent with transport through an excited (poisoned) state...

  15. Epidemiology of paediatric poisoning reporting to a tertiary hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median age of the children was 24 months (interquartile range 24 - 48 months). Kerosene was the leading cause of poisoning (39.5%). Conclusion. Paediatric poisoning is a major health hazard in children living in Kumasi and its environs. This can possibly be attributed to a lack of adequate supervision of children and ...

  16. Evaluating the Effect of Lead Time on Quality Service Delivery in the Banking Industry in Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Okyere

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Customers are becoming more attracted to quality service delivery and are being impatience and unsatisfied when they had to be delayed or wait for longer times before they are served.  Hence, Quality Service Delivery is of utmost importance to every service organisation especially financial industry. Most financial institutions focus attention on product innovation at the expense of lead time management which is a major factor in ensuring service quality and customer satisfaction. Consequently, this research looks at evaluating the effect of lead time on quality service delivery in the Banking Industry in Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. The study relied on Primary data collected through questionnaires, observation and interview instruments, administered to staff and customers of some selected branches of a commercial bank in the study area. The data was analysed qualitatively. The researchers realised that despite the immense importance of lead time on quality service delivery, little attention is given to the concept. It was revealed that, customers were dissatisfied with the commercial bank’s services as a result of the unnecessary delays and queuing at the bank premises. The long lead time was found to be attributable to plant/system failure, skill gap on the part of employees, ATM underutilization and frequent breakdowns, among others. This has consequently resulted into long lead time, waiting, queuing and unnecessary delay at the banking hall. It is recommended that Tellers should be provided with electronic card readers for verification of customer’s data and processing to be faster.

  17. Implementing shared governance in a patient care support industry: information technology leading the way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Lou Ann

    2014-06-01

    Implementing technology in the clinical setting is not a project but rather a journey in transforming care delivery. As nursing leaders in healthcare and patient care support organizations embrace technology to drive reforms in quality and efficiency, growing opportunities exist to share experiences between these industries. This department submission describes the journey to nursing shared governance from the perspective of an information technology-based company realizing the goal of supporting patient care.

  18. "One thing leads to anothercommodities" - linkages and industrial development: a conceptual overview

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Mike; Kaplinsky, Raphael; Kaplan, David

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Sahara African commodity exporting economies have benefitted greatly from the commodities boom of the past decade. The conventional wisdom argues that resource extraction is corrosive of industrial development. This is due to a combination of the macroeconomic consequences of resource exploitation and the assumed enclave nature of capital- and technology-intensive mineral and energy extraction. The paper challenges this pessimistic �resource curse� argument and argues that there are u...

  19. Certain cases of poisoning by arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristol, P; Fourcade, J; Ravoire, J; Bezenech, C

    1939-05-01

    Cases of acute and chronic poisoning by arsenic are reported. Diffuse pains, angor, edema of the limbs and genitals, complicated by heptic insufficiency and chronic bronchitis were determined in a subject having lived near an industrial plant processing arseniferous ores for several years. The plant emitted several hundred kg of finely dispersed arsenic oxide daily which settled on forage and vegetables. Symptoms of poisoning by arsenic were also detected in cattle in the same area. The installation of Cottrell type dust separators has helped to suppress the arsenic oxide emissions.

  20. Reliability and microstructure of lead-free solder joints in industrial electronics after accelerated thermal aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scaltro, F.; Biglari, M.H.; Kodentsov, A.; Yakovleva, O.; Brom, E.

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of lead-free (LF) solder joints in surface-mounted device components (SMD) has been investigated after thermo-cycle testing. Kirkendall voids have been observed at the interface component/solder together with the formation of fractures. The evolution, the morphology and the elemental

  1. City/industry/utility partnership leads to innovative combined heat and power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, J. [Savage and Associates, Quesnel, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed a combined heat and power (CHP) project that was launched in Quesnel, British Columbia. The CHP is being developed in phases in which new components will enter the system, providing added benefits. Hot oil from a sawmill bioenergy system will be used to heat lumber kilns, generate electricity at an Organic Rankine Cycle co-generation plant, and heat water for a District Energy Loop (DEL) to heat up to 22 existing buildings in the city as well as sawmill and planer buildings. The DEL piping would comprise a 5 kilometre loop. The energy would come from recovered sawmill space heating, recovered stack energy, and additional biomass energy. All of the district heating and 41 per cent of the power would be from heat recovered from the existing industrial operation. This bio-economy vision ultimately involves incorporating a biogas digester into the system to process food, regional organic waste, and pulp mill residuals, relying on bio-solids and heat from the mill. The fertilizer from the digester would then be used in a biomass plantation, which would provide materials to industry for many products, including bio-refining. This project evolved in response to concerns about the ecological effects and long-term economics of aggressive utilization of forest biomass. 15 figs.

  2. Adsorption of copper, nickel and lead ions from synthetic semiconductor industrial wastewater by palm shell activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onundi, Y. B.; Mamun, A. A.; Al Khatib, M. F.; Ahmad, Y. M.

    2010-01-01

    Granular activated carbon produced from palm kernel shell was used as adsorbent to remove copper, nickel and lead ions from a synthesized industrial wastewater. Laboratory experimental investigation was carried out to identify the effect of p H and contact time on adsorption of lead, copper and nickel from the mixed metals solution. Equilibrium adsorption experiments at ambient room temperature were carried out and fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models. Results showed that p H 5 was the most suitable, while the maximum adsorbent capacity was at a dosage of 1 g/L, recording a sorption capacity of 1.337 mg/g for lead, 1.581 mg/g for copper and 0.130 mg/g for nickel. The percentage metal removal approached equilibrium within 30 minutes for lead, 75 minutes for copper and nickel, with lead recording 100 p ercent , copper 97 p ercent a nd nickel 55 p ercent r emoval, having a trend of Pb 2+ > Cu 2+ > Ni 2+ . Langmuir model had higher R 2 values of 0.977, 0.817 and 0.978 for copper, nickel and lead respectively, which fitted the equilibrium adsorption process more than Freundlich model for the three metals.

  3. Historical review of European gasoline lead content regulations and their impact on German industrial markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, C. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    1999-07-01

    Environmental protection policies in the automobile market were not implemented until the motorisation of the masses in the 1960s caused an increasing environmental burden. The rising air pollution was considered a latent danger for humans, animals and plants. In the years up to 1985 the EU passed several regulations to limit the mass pollutants CO, CxHy and NOx. Germany was the first EU-member nation to also be concerned with lead in gasoline, passing reduction regulations as early as in 1971. In 1986, several EU-member nations implemented the supply of unleaded gasoline. This decision was predominantly based on information about widespread forest damage. The reduction of lead emissions due to these regulations could be verified in different environmental systems. An example of this was the decline of atmospheric lead concentrations and human blood lead levels in Germany. The German mineral oil and automobile markets were also affected. The price trend of unleaded fuel was heavily influenced by tax incentives which benefited not only the gasoline traders but also the consumers. With regard to the distribution system, the market positions particularly of the medium-sized traders and the independent importers were weakened. In the automobile market, favourable terms of competition were experienced by producers who had already gained experience with catalyst systems in the U.S.-market. The gasoline lead content regulations had no effects on further economic indicators, except for competition. (orig.) [German] Infolge der Massenmotorisierung in den 60er Jahren stieg die Umweltbelastung durch den Automobilverkehr stark an. Luftverschmutzung durch Kraftfahrzeuge wurde erstmalig als latente Gefahr fuer die Gesundheit von Mensch, Tier und Pflanze wahrgenommen. Dies charakterisierte den Beginn der Umweltpolitik im Automobilsektor. Bis 1985 verabschiedete die Europaeische Union (EU) mehrere Rahmenrichtlinien zur Reduktion der Luftschadstoffe CO, CxHy und NOx. 1971 war

  4. [Characterization of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents in China between 1989 and 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Tao; Wang, Huan-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Shu-Yang; Du, Xie-Yi; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Jian

    2006-12-01

    To analyze severe acute occupational poisoning accidents reported in China between 1989 and 2003, and to study the characteristics of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents and provide scientific evidences for prevention and control strategies. The data from the national occupational poisoning case reporting system were analyzed with descriptive methods. (1) There were 506 acute severe occupational poisoning accidents for 15 years with 4 657 workers poisoned. The total poisoning rate was 54.8%, and the total mortality was 16.5%. The average poisoning age was (31.9 +/- 9.8) years old and the average death age was (33.7 +/- 10.3) years old. The poisoning accidents occurred more in men than in women. (2) There were more than 112 chemicals which caused these poisoning accidents. Most of the accidents caused by hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, benzene and homologs, metal and metalloid and carbon dioxide, and the types of chemicals varied in different types of industries. (3) The accidents mainly occurred in chemical industry, manufacture, water disposal industry, mining and construction industry, and the risk was higher in some jobs than others, such as cleanout, machine maintenance and repair, production, mine and digging. The accidents occurred more frequently from April to August each year. (1) The control over the severe acute occupational poisoning is urgent. (2) The trend of the characteristics of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents is centralized in the high risk industries, poisons and jobs. (3) The characteristics of the accidents varied in different types of industries. (4) It is the key point to strengthen the supervision on poisoning.

  5. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical surfaces with hair-like ... urushiol". These are called Rhus plants after the old scientific name (it was changed to toxidendron). A ...

  6. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  7. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found in fumes produced any time you burn fuel in cars or trucks, small engines, stoves, lanterns, ... prevent CO poisoning in my home? Install a battery-operated or battery back-up CO detector in ...

  8. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  9. Drain cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Activated charcoal, which is used to treat other types of poisoning does not effectively treat (adsorb) sodium hydroxide. For skin exposure, treatment may include: Surgical removal of burned skin (debridement) Transfer to a hospital that specializes in burn ...

  10. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it be!" aptly ... is caused by an allergic reaction ( allergic contact dermatitis ) to the oily coating that covers of these ...

  11. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  12. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002871.htm Jerusalem cherry poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The Jerusalem cherry is a plant that belongs to the ...

  13. Chicken and Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Chicken and Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Americans eat more chicken every year than any other meat. Chicken can ...

  14. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hours a day, 7 days a week. Be Smart about Storage Store all medicines and household products ... call medicine "candy." Identify poisonous plants in your house and yard and place them out of reach ...

  15. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  16. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science of Poisons . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education/Medical; 2013:chap 6. Review Date ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  17. Nail polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science of Poisons . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2013:chap 24. Kulig K. General ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  18. Burnable poison rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsume, Tomohiro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the reactor core lifetime by decreasing the effect of neutron absorption of burnable poison rods by using material with less neutron absorbing effect. Constitution: Stainless steels used so far as the coating material for burnable poison rods have relatively great absorption in the thermal neutral region and are not preferred in view of the neutron economy. Burnable poison rods having fuel can made of zirconium alloy shows absorption the thermal neutron region lower by one digit than that of stainless steels but they shows absorption in the resonance region and the cost is higher. In view of the above, the fuel can of the burnable poison material is made of aluminum or aluminu alloy. This can reduce the neutron absorbing effect by stainless steel fuel can and effectively utilize neutrons that have been wastefully absorbed and consumed in stainless steels. (Takahashi, M.)

  19. Uso de los datos de plumbemia para evaluar y prevenir el envenenamiento infantil por plomo en Latinoamérica Use of blood lead data in epidemiological studies to assess and prevent childhood lead poisoning in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La exposición al plomo es una amenaza seria para la salud de los niños, que se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en la Región de América Latina. Los funcionarios de salud pública necesitan identificar fuentes de exposición al plomo, así como sus efectos en la salud, para poder diseñar, implantar y evaluar las actividades preventivas y de control. Para evaluar la magnitud del problema del plomo es necesario definir tres elementos clave: a las fuentes potenciales de exposición, b los indicadores que se utilizarán para evaluar los efectos en la salud y la exposición en el medio ambiente, y c las estrategias de muestreo de la población en riesgo. Se pueden utilizar varias estrategias con el fin de seleccionar la población blanco dependiendo de los objetivos del estudio, el tiempo límite y los recursos disponibles. Si el objetivo es evaluar la magnitud y las fuentes del problema pueden emplearse los siguientes métodos de muestreo: a el muestreo al azar basado en la población; b el muestreo al azar basado en las facilidades dentro de los hospitales, las guarderías o las escuelas; c el muestreo objetivo de los grupos de alto riesgo; d el muestreo de conveniencia (de voluntarios, y e el reporte de los casos (éste puede conducir a la identificación de las poblaciones en riesgo, además de las fuentes de exposición. Para todos los diseños de muestreo, la información debe incluir tanto el uso de un cuestionario para el informe general de los participantes y de las fuentes potenciales locales de exposición, como la recolección de las muestras biológicas. En la interpretación de los datos se debe considerar el tipo de muestreo utilizado, el porcentaje de falta de respuesta y los factores que pueden influir en las mediciones del plomo en sangre, como la edad y la variación de la temporada. Las mediciones del plomo en la sangre se deben integrar dentro de una estrategia general para la prevención de toxicidad.Exposure to lead is a

  20. Advancements in valve technology and industry lessons lead to improved plant reliability and cost savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.; Kalsi, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Plant reliability and safety hinges on the proper functioning of several valves. Recent advancements in valve technology have resulted in new analytical and test methods for evaluating and improving valve and actuator reliability. This is especially significant in critical service applications in which the economic impact of a valve failure on production, outage schedules and consequential damages far surpasses the initial equipment purchase price. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in valve technology driven by reliability concerns and cost savings objectives without comprising safety in the Nuclear Power Industry. This overview is based on over 27 years of experience in supporting US and International nuclear power utilities, and contributing to EPRI, and NSSS Owners' Groups in developing generic models/methodologies to address industry wide issues; performing design basis reviews; and implementing plant-wide valve reliability improvement programs. Various analytical prediction software and hardware solutions and training seminars are now available to implement valve programs covering power plants' lifecycle from the construction phase through life extension and power up rate. These tools and methodologies can enhance valve-engineering activities including the selection, sizing, proper application, condition monitoring, failure analysis, and condition based maintenance optimization with a focus on potential bad actors. This paper offers two such examples, the Kalsi Valve and Actuator Program (KVAP) and Check Valve Analysis and Prioritization (CVAP) [1-3, 8, 9, 11-13]. The advanced, validated torque prediction models incorporated into KVAP software for AOVs and MOVs have improved reliability of margin predictions and enabled cost savings through elimination of unwarranted equipment modifications. CVAP models provides a basis to prioritize the population of valves recommended for preventive maintenance, inspection and/or modification, allowing

  1. Lead - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... billion people had toxic (poisonous) blood lead levels. Food Sources Lead can be found in canned goods if there is lead solder in the ... to bottled water for drinking and cooking. Avoid canned goods from foreign ... cans goes into effect. If imported wine containers have a lead foil ...

  2. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša; Vuković-Ercegović Gordana; Šegrt Zoran; Đorđević Snežana; Jović-Stošić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collecte...

  3. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  4. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  5. Lead paste recycling based on conversion into battery grade oxides. Electrochemical tests and industrial production of new batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusillo, G.; Rosestolato, D.; Scura, F.; Cattarin, S.; Mattarozzi, L.; Guerriero, P.; Gambirasi, A.; Brianese, N.; Staiti, P.; Guerriero, R.; La Sala, G.

    2018-03-01

    We present the preparation and characterization of pure lead monoxide obtained through recycling of the lead paste recovered from exhausted lead acid batteries. The recycling is based on a hydrometallurgical procedure reported in a STC Patent, that includes simple chemical operations (desulphurisation, leaching, precipitation, filtration) and a final thermal conversion. Materials obtained by treatment at 600 °C consist predominantly of β-PbO. The electrochemical behaviour of Positive Active Mass (PAM) prepared from different materials (or mixtures) is then investigated and compared. An optimized oxide material, obtained by prolonged (8 h) thermal treatment at 600 °C, consists of pure β-PbO and appears suitable for preparation of battery elements, alone or in mixture with a small fraction (10%-30%) of traditional industrial leady oxide. The resulting battery performances are similar to those obtained from pure leady oxide. In comparison with traditional recycling processes, the proposed method guarantees lower energy consumption, limited environmental impact and reduced operating risk for industry workers.

  6. Protect the Ones You Love From Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from poisoning, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  7. Assessment of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry using lichen species Canoparmelia texana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardo, Lucio, E-mail: lucioleo@ipen.br [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Mazzilli, Barbara Paci; Damatto, Sandra Regina [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Saiki, Mitiko [Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Barros de Oliveira, Sonia Maria [Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    This paper examines the viability of using Canoparmelia texana lichen species as a bioindicator of air pollution by radionuclides and rare earth elements (REEs) in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry. The lichen and soil samples were analyzed for uranium, thorium and REEs by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined either by Gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) (soils) or by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting using a gas flow proportional counter (lichens). The lichens samples concentrate radionuclides (on the average 25-fold higher than the background for this species) and REEs (on the average 10-fold higher), therefore they can be used as a fingerprint of contamination by the operation of the tin industry.

  8. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A.Z.; Salamatinia, B.; Mootabadi, H.; Bhatia, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (author)

  9. The importance of observation of structural changes of lead acid battery active mass in special applications in the mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zimáková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To be able to use lead acid batteries in particularly difficult conditions in the mining industry, it is very important to understand the events that occur during traction operation of mining carts, or auxiliary lighting. Failure of lead accumulators in the hazardous environments, where it is desired non-explosive embodiment, may have fatal consequences. The paper describes the possibility of observing changes in active materials at the microscopic level. The process of charging and discharging lead-acid accumulator has been described in many publications. The aim of this article is to supplement known information about a series of images and analysis that will accurately show progressive changes in the structure of the negative electrode. Negative electrodes are, at each cycle, charged and discharged under the same conditions, scanned with a scanning electron microscope, the elemental analysis (EDS is performed, and the size of the individual sulfate crystals is measured. Previously measured results indicate that during the charging the conversion of PbSO4 crystals into a charged form of the active mass is not complete, and there is a rapid increase in the size of lead sulfate crystals on the negative electrode. This article compares changes in electrode surface composition after two cycles. There is a clear loss of lead and, on the other hand, the visible growth of sulfur. This indicates progressive surface sulfation.

  10. IT substitution for energy leads to a resilient structure for a survival strategy of Japan's electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Chihiro; Kishioka, Miharu; Carvajal, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The dramatic surge in information technology (IT) around the world, and an evolving global economy, are subjecting firms to megacompetition. This is the case, particularly in Japan's electric power industry, where the power rate is one of the highest in the world; hence it is noted that Japan's industry has lost its price competitiveness in the world market, resulting in stagnation of production, hence leading to stagnation in power demand. In addition, an increase in trends of customer's preferences and the variety of participants in the power supply race, have put electric power companies at the mercy of customers with alternative supply sources. Given that uncertainty with respect to energy security, as well as power generation and distribution systems safety increases, as strongly cautioned by the recent blackout in the US and Canada, a dramatic conversion of existing strategies would be indispensable for electric power companies. A conversion from a high-demand-elasticity dependent, supply structure to a resilient structure is required. While the former aims at constructing a high-demand-elasticity supply structure, based on the myth of high growth of demand, the latter aims at maintaining profit, while minimizing the elasticities of factors with high uncertainty, such as energy resources and costly capital investment linked to a fluctuating power demand. This paper demonstrates the significance of IT substitution for energy through consortia structure, thereby utilizing IT spillover and leading to resilience and leveraging consortia structure as Japan's electric power industry survival strategy. An empirical analysis using Japan's nine leading electric power companies over the last quarter century has been conducted

  11. Resuspension of soil as a source of airborne lead near industrial facilities and highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Thomas M; Heeraman, Deo A; Sirin, Gorkem; Ashbaugh, Lowell L

    2002-06-01

    Geologic materials are an important source of airborne particulate matter less than 10 microm aerodynamic diameter (PM10), but the contribution of contaminated soil to concentrations of Pb and other trace elements in air has not been documented. To examine the potential significance of this mechanism, surface soil samples with a range of bulk soil Pb concentrations were obtained near five industrial facilities and along roadsides and were resuspended in a specially designed laboratory chamber. The concentration of Pb and other trace elements was measured in the bulk soil, in soil size fractions, and in PM10 generated during resuspension of soils and fractions. Average yields of PM10 from dry soils ranged from 0.169 to 0.869 mg of PM10/g of soil. Yields declined approximately linearly with increasing geometric mean particle size of the bulk soil. The resulting PM10 had average Pb concentrations as high as 2283 mg/kg for samples from a secondary Pb smelter. Pb was enriched in PM10 by 5.36-88.7 times as compared with uncontaminated California soils. Total production of PM10 bound Pb from the soil samples varied between 0.012 and 1.2 mg of Pb/kg of bulk soil. During a relatively large erosion event, a contaminated site might contribute approximately 300 ng/m3 of PM10-bound Pb to air. Contribution of soil from contaminated sites to airborne element balances thus deserves consideration when constructing receptor models for source apportionment or attempting to control airborne Pb emissions.

  12. Phytoextractor Potential of Cultivated Species in Industrial Area Contaminated by Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvânia Maria de Souza Gomes Nascimento

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: High growth rate is one of the criteria used for the selection of species to be used in metal phytoextraction programs. This study was carried out to characterize the growth characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., castor bean (Ricinus communis L., corn (Zea mays L, and vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Nash] grown on a soil contaminated with lead (Pb, with and without pH correction, to improve agronomic practices regarding phytoremediation programs. The experiment was designed as a randomized block with four replications; treatments were arranged in a split-plot arrangement, with the main plot representing the species (sunflower, castor bean, corn, and vetiver, with or without pH correction and soil fertilization, and the split-plot representing harvest periods (60, 90, and 120 days after planting. After variance analysis and mean comparison analysis of the data by the Tukey test (p≤0.05, a significant effect was observed from soil pH correction for vetiver in all of the growth variables evaluated, except for the leaf area index at 120 days after planting (DAP. Castor bean and sunflower plants in soil with high acidity conditions, without pH correction (pH˂4.0, were affected by soil Pb levels. Corn plants benefited from soil pH correction and had improved results for the plant height, diameter, and leaf area variables at 60 and 90 DAP, as well as leaf area index at 60 DAP. There was no increase in these variables between the harvest periods evaluated. Regarding phytoextraction potential, corn and vetiver had the highest Pb translocation to the plant shoots at 90 DAP and were therefore considered the most suitable species for phytoremediation of the area under study. Overall, liming was essential for improving species biomass production for all the species studied in soils with high Pb availability in solution.

  13. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjević, Snezana; Stosić, Jasmina Jović

    2016-03-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender), benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old), middle aged (41-65-year old) and elderly (older than 65). During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  14. Self poisoning in the home by mercury and its compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H. (Glasgow Univ. (UK). Dept. of Forensic Medicine)

    1982-01-01

    Mercury poisoning can take place in the home. The metal may be present as a toy and the compounds as medicines or cosmetics. Unfortunately these materials are considered to be harmless and the victims do not connect the symptoms of poisoning (if recognised as such) with them. The tissue mercury levels are similar to those found in industrial exposure and as with them no relationship between symptoms and tissue concentrations can be found.

  15. Self poisoning in the home by mercury and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.

    1982-01-01

    Mercury poisoning can take place in the home. The metal may be present as a toy and the compounds as medicines or cosmetics. Unfortunately these materials are considered to be harmless and the victims do not connect the symptoms of poisoning (if recognised as such) with them. The tissue mercury levels are similar to those found in industrial exposure and as with them no relationship between symptoms and tissue concentrations can be found. (author)

  16. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  17. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  18. Occurrence of lead, copper, zinc, and arsenic compounds in atmospheric dusts, and the sources of these impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J T; Bloxam, H C.L.

    1933-06-30

    The authors indicate that the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal for industrial and electrical power causes the deposition of zinc, arsenic, copper, and lead which are then found in the dust and soots of most urban areas. They express the fear that these dusts, if not poisonous, may be expected to be injurious to the health of man, animals, and plants.

  19. Amitraz poisoning: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alexander Molina-Bolaños

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Amitraz is an insecticide compound used worldwide for controlling pests, especially in agricultural and livestock areas. However, amitraz poisoning in Colombia is rare. This article reports the case of an 18-year-old female patient who was admitted in the emergency service 3 hours after the intake of an unknown amount of Triatox® (amitraz. The patient presented with a depressed level of consciousness, respiratory distress, hypotension, bradycardia, myosis and metabolic acidosis compensated with respiratory alkalosis. Initial treatment was provided using life support measures in the emergency ward, and subsequent transfer and support in the intensive care unit. She was discharged 24 hours after admission. This case considers the clinical similarity between amitraz poisoning and poisoning caused by other more frequent toxic compounds such as carbamates, organophosphates and opioids, which require different management.

  20. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Wray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This oral boards case is appropriate for all emergency medicine learners (residents, interns, and medical students. Introduction: Carbon monoxide (CO is a colorless and odorless gas that typically results from combustion. It binds hemoglobin, dissociating oxygen, causing headache, weakness, confusion and possible seizure or coma. Pulse oxygen levels may be falsely elevated. Practitioners should maintain a high index of suspicion for carbon monoxide poisoning. If caught early CO poisoning is reversible with oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Objectives: The learner will assess a patient with altered mental status and weakness, ultimately identifying that the patient has carbon monoxide poisoning. The learner will treat the patient with oxygen and admit/transfer the patient for hyperbaric oxygenation. Method: Oral boards case

  1. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  2. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  3. Kinetics and equilibrium modelling of lead uptake by algae Gelidium and algal waste from agar extraction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2007-05-08

    Pb(II) biosorption onto algae Gelidium, algal waste from agar extraction industry and a composite material was studied. Discrete and continuous site distribution models were used to describe the biosorption equilibrium at different pH (5.3, 4 and 3), considering competition among Pb(II) ions and protons. The affinity distribution function of Pb(II) on the active sites was calculated by the Sips distribution. The Langmuir equilibrium constant was compared with the apparent affinity calculated by the discrete model, showing higher affinity for lead ions at higher pH values. Kinetic experiments were conducted at initial Pb(II) concentrations of 29-104 mgl(-1) and data fitted to pseudo-first Lagergren and second-order models. The adsorptive behaviour of biosorbent particles was modelled using a batch mass transfer kinetic model, which successfully predicts Pb(II) concentration profiles at different initial lead concentration and pH, and provides significant insights on the biosorbents performance. Average values of homogeneous diffusivity, D(h), are 3.6 x 10(-8); 6.1 x 10(-8) and 2.4 x 10(-8)cm(2)s(-1), respectively, for Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. The concentration of lead inside biosorbent particles follows a parabolic profile that becomes linear near equilibrium.

  4. Kinetics and equilibrium modelling of lead uptake by algae Gelidium and algal waste from agar extraction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilar, Vitor J.P.; Botelho, Cidalia M.S.; Boaventura, Rui A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Pb(II) biosorption onto algae Gelidium, algal waste from agar extraction industry and a composite material was studied. Discrete and continuous site distribution models were used to describe the biosorption equilibrium at different pH (5.3, 4 and 3), considering competition among Pb(II) ions and protons. The affinity distribution function of Pb(II) on the active sites was calculated by the Sips distribution. The Langmuir equilibrium constant was compared with the apparent affinity calculated by the discrete model, showing higher affinity for lead ions at higher pH values. Kinetic experiments were conducted at initial Pb(II) concentrations of 29-104 mg l -1 and data fitted to pseudo-first Lagergren and second-order models. The adsorptive behaviour of biosorbent particles was modelled using a batch mass transfer kinetic model, which successfully predicts Pb(II) concentration profiles at different initial lead concentration and pH, and provides significant insights on the biosorbents performance. Average values of homogeneous diffusivity, D h , are 3.6 x 10 -8 ; 6.1 x 10 -8 and 2.4 x 10 -8 cm 2 s -1 , respectively, for Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. The concentration of lead inside biosorbent particles follows a parabolic profile that becomes linear near equilibrium

  5. Kinetics and equilibrium modelling of lead uptake by algae Gelidium and algal waste from agar extraction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, Vitor J.P. [Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering (LSRE), Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Botelho, Cidalia M.S. [Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering (LSRE), Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Boaventura, Rui A.R. [Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering (LSRE), Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: bventura@fe.up.pt

    2007-05-08

    Pb(II) biosorption onto algae Gelidium, algal waste from agar extraction industry and a composite material was studied. Discrete and continuous site distribution models were used to describe the biosorption equilibrium at different pH (5.3, 4 and 3), considering competition among Pb(II) ions and protons. The affinity distribution function of Pb(II) on the active sites was calculated by the Sips distribution. The Langmuir equilibrium constant was compared with the apparent affinity calculated by the discrete model, showing higher affinity for lead ions at higher pH values. Kinetic experiments were conducted at initial Pb(II) concentrations of 29-104 mg l{sup -1} and data fitted to pseudo-first Lagergren and second-order models. The adsorptive behaviour of biosorbent particles was modelled using a batch mass transfer kinetic model, which successfully predicts Pb(II) concentration profiles at different initial lead concentration and pH, and provides significant insights on the biosorbents performance. Average values of homogeneous diffusivity, D {sub h}, are 3.6 x 10{sup -8}; 6.1 x 10{sup -8} and 2.4 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, respectively, for Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. The concentration of lead inside biosorbent particles follows a parabolic profile that becomes linear near equilibrium.

  6. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family by acting wisely in case of a power outage and learning the symptoms of CO poisoning. How to Recognize CO Poisoning The most common symptoms of CO poisoning are headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, and confusion. People who are sleeping or who ...

  7. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  8. Childhood pesticide poisoning in Zhejiang, China: a retrospective analysis from 2006 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimaer, Aziguli; Chen, Guangdi; Zhang, Meibian; Zhou, Lifang; Fang, Xinglin; Jiang, Wei

    2017-06-28

    Pesticide poisoning in children has been a serious public health issue around the world, especially in the developing countries where agriculture is still one of the largest economic sectors. The purpose of this study was to analyze epidemiological characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in children from Zhejiang province, China. The pesticide poisoning cases for children were retrieved from Occupational Disease Surveillance and Reporting System, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China. The incident cases, deaths, and fatality rate of child pesticide poisoning from 2006 through 2015 were calculated. During the study period, totally 2952 children were poisoned by pesticides, with 66 deaths, resulting in a fatality rate of 2.24%. Among them, there were 1607 male cases with 28 deaths, and 1345 female cases with 38 deaths. Most of the cases occurred in preschool children (1349) and adolescent age group (1269). Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were the cause of most poisonings (1130), leading to 34 deaths. The highest fatality rate (3.13%) was due to poisoning by herbicides and fungicides, causing 14 deaths out of 448 cases. Poisoning occurred mostly in rural areas (78%). And most pesticide poisoning occurred in the summer (896) and fall (811), while fewest poisoning cases in the winter (483) but with the highest fatality rate (3.52%). This study shows that pesticide poisoning of children is a major health problem in Zhejiang, suggesting preventive strategies should be conducted to control childhood pesticide poisoning.

  9. Childhood pesticide poisoning in Zhejiang, China: a retrospective analysis from 2006 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziguli Yimaer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide poisoning in children has been a serious public health issue around the world, especially in the developing countries where agriculture is still one of the largest economic sectors. The purpose of this study was to analyze epidemiological characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning in children from Zhejiang province, China. Methods The pesticide poisoning cases for children were retrieved from Occupational Disease Surveillance and Reporting System, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China. The incident cases, deaths, and fatality rate of child pesticide poisoning from 2006 through 2015 were calculated. Results During the study period, totally 2952 children were poisoned by pesticides, with 66 deaths, resulting in a fatality rate of 2.24%. Among them, there were 1607 male cases with 28 deaths, and 1345 female cases with 38 deaths. Most of the cases occurred in preschool children (1349 and adolescent age group (1269. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were the cause of most poisonings (1130, leading to 34 deaths. The highest fatality rate (3.13% was due to poisoning by herbicides and fungicides, causing 14 deaths out of 448 cases. Poisoning occurred mostly in rural areas (78%. And most pesticide poisoning occurred in the summer (896 and fall (811, while fewest poisoning cases in the winter (483 but with the highest fatality rate (3.52%. Conclusions This study shows that pesticide poisoning of children is a major health problem in Zhejiang, suggesting preventive strategies should be conducted to control childhood pesticide poisoning.

  10. "If you know you exist, it's just marketing poison": meanings of tobacco industry targeting in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Thomson, Katherine; Offen, Naphtali; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-06-01

    In the public health literature, it is generally assumed that the perception of "targeting" as positive or negative by the targeted audience depends on the product or message being promoted. Smoking prevalence rates are high among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, but little is known about how they perceive tobacco industry targeting. We conducted focus groups with LGBT individuals in 4 US cities to explore their perceptions. Our findings indicated that focus group participants often responded positively to tobacco company targeting. Targeting connoted community visibility, legitimacy, and economic viability. Participants did not view tobacco as a gay health issue. Targeting is a key aspect of corporate-community interaction. A better understanding of targeting may aid public health efforts to counter corporate disease promotion.

  11. Occupational health programme for lead workers in battery plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Kook

    The realization of problems resulting from the exposure to undue high lead levels of workers in lead-using industries, particularly in storage battery plants, has given rise to a new occupational health service, the so-called type specific (harmful agent specific) group occupational health. In 1988, the Korean Ministry of Labor designated the Institute of Industrial Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, as an authorized organization to take care of lead workers in lead industries. The following occupational health services are provided by the Institute: (i) physical health examination; (ii) biological monitoring with zinc protoporphyrin, urine δ-aminolevulinic acid and blood lead; (iii) respiratory protection with maintenance-free respirators; (iv) measurement of the environmental condition of workplaces; (v) health education. A three-year occupational health programme for lead workers has contributed to improvements in the working conditions of lead industries, particularly in large-scale battery plants, and has decreased the unnecessary high lead burden of workers through on-going medical surveillance with biological monitoring and health education schemes. The strong commitment of both employers and the government to improve the working conditions of lead industries, together with the full cooperation of lead workers, has served to reduce the high lead burdens of lead workers. This decreases the number of lead-poisoning cases and provides more comfortable workplaces, particularly in battery plants.

  12. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, A.; Demange, M.; Carton, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance [fr

  13. [Rapeseed poisoning of wild herbivores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Schmid, H

    1992-06-01

    Beginning with the simultaneous occurrence of the first extensive sowing of 00-rape and local increased losses among hares and roe deer in Western Germany and Austria at the end of 1986, the clinical and morphological symptoms of rape poisoning are discussed. They consist of damage to endo- and epithelium, cell membranes, blood, liver and in the so called "rape-blindness". Subsequently, the most important toxic agents of rape including their metabolites are presented. They consist in alkenyl- and indolyl-glucosinolates, leading to isothiocyanates (mustard oils), thiocyanates or thiocyanate ions resp., nitriles and antithyroid agents (e.g. goitrin) as well as S-methylcysteine sulphoxide and its metabolites, particularly dimethyl disulphide. Finally, the activity spectrum of the toxic agents or the metabolites and the clinical picture of the affected wildlife in 1986 are compared with the result that the losses of that period are most likely to be traced back to rape poisoning and that the rape-blindness mentioned is to be interpreted as a thiocyanate-psychosis.

  14. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  15. Oven cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. If the ...

  16. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...

  17. Sulfur poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julian, R J; Harrison, K B

    1975-01-01

    A case of sulfur poisoning is described in which 12 of 20 cattle died following the feeding of sulfur. Respiratory distress and abdominal pain were the prominent signs. Examination of one animal revealed vasculitis and necrosis of the rumen and abomasal wall. The possible toxic effects of sulfur are discussed.

  18. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... done more than 1 hour after touching the plant's sap. Flush the eyes out with water. Take care to clean under the fingernails well to remove ... room. If you are concerned, call your health care provider or poison control. At the ... Take a sample of the plant with you to the doctor or hospital, if ...

  19. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva, Sergio; Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1989-01-01

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al 2 O 3 -B 4 C and Al 2 O 3 -Gd 2 O 3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B 4 C or Gd 2 O 3 in Al 2 O 3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author) [es

  20. Poison Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care , Technology: For more info about the national Poison Help program and to request materials visit: http Seniors & Disabilities Services Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention State of Alaska myAlaska My

  1. Separation and Molecular Identification of Resistant Bacteria to Lead from Behbahan Bidboland Gas Refinery Wastewater (Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Mehrbakhsh; Monir Doudi; Hossein Motamedi

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals are one of the pollution sources in environment. The pollution due to these metals is the problem that could have negative impact on water. Human is faced with these poisons effects due to occupational reasons. The lead is regarded as heavy metal whose industrial applications cause environmental pollution in high rate.The aim of this project was Separation and Molecular Identification of Resistant Bacteria to Lead from Behbahan Bidboland Gas Refinery Wastewater (Iran). For thi...

  2. [Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin-Mat, A

    1994-01-01

    In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning.

  3. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  4. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  5. New legal requirements for submission of product information to poisons centres in EU member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Ronald; Brekelmans, Pieter; Desel, Herbert; de Vries, Irma

    2018-01-01

    In the past eight years, the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT) has been intensively involved in a European Commission led process to develop EU legislation on the information of hazardous products that companies have to notify to EU Poisons Centres (or equivalent "appointed bodies"). As a result of this process, the Commission adopted Regulation (EU) No 2017/542, amending the CLP Regulation by adding an Annex on harmonised product submission requirements. Harmonised mixture information requirements: Detailed and consistent information on the composition of the hazardous product will become available to EU Poisons Centres (PC). The information will be submitted by companies to PCs (or equivalent "appointed bodies") using a web-based software application or in-house software. Two new important features are introduced. Firstly, to be able to rapidly identify the product formula, a Unique Formula Identifier (UFI) on the product label links to the submitted information. Secondly, for better comparability of reports on poisonings between EU member states, a harmonised Product Categorisation System will specify the intended use of a product. Rapid product identification and availability of detailed composition information will lead to timely and adequate medical intervention. This may lead to considerable reduction in healthcare costs. Additionally, for companies trading across the EU, costs of submission of this information will be reduced significantly. Next steps: From 2017, an implementation period has started, consisting of a three-year period for stakeholders to implement the new requirements, followed by a gradual applicability for consumer products (2020), professional products (2021) and industrial use-only products (2024). Technical tools to generate the electronic format and the UFI together with guidance documents are expected to be made available by the end of 2017 by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Guidance on

  6. Poison control services in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yiqun; Sun Chengye

    2004-01-01

    The following aspects are discussed: the public health problems of acute poisoning in China in recent years; the characteristics of acute poisoning; the negative effects of poison cases on the society and economy. The four stages of development of a poison control system in China are: (1) clinical hospital as the only facility used for detoxification; (2) institutes and hospitals of occupational medicine got involved in the program; (3) the traditional model of poison control changed to the modern National Poison Control Center (NPCC), and its network got established and it began to play a key role; (4) establishment of a multi-disciplinary network for dealing with emergencies in which chemical poison control is an important component. Introduction of the operations of the NPCC: the functions of the center are a 24 h hotline service, clinical consultants service, poison identification and diagnosis, laboratory analysis, education for public, training for physicians, coordination of anti-dotes, and the development of a network of poison control centers for dealing with chemical emergencies. The work practice and achievement of NPCC and its network in the field of poison control during the last 3 years is discussed. Lessons from SARS infection: to extend the network, to strengthen multi-disciplinary cooperation, enhance communication between centers, to pay attention to capacity building, to improve reporting systems, and to share resources

  7. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... o Do not use glazed ceramics, home remedies, cosmetics, or leaded-crystal glassware unless you know that they are lead safe. o If you live near an industry, mine, or waste site that may have contaminated ...

  8. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  9. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  10. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

 PMID:9285467

  11. Small dose... big poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  12. The good and the bad of poisonous plants: an introduction to the USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kevin D; Panter, Kip E; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L

    2012-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory (PPRL), about the unique services and activities of the PPRL and the potential assistance that they can provide to plant poisoning incidences. The PPRL is a federal research laboratory. It is part of the Agricultural Research Service, the in-house research arm of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The mission of the PPRL is to identify toxic plants and their toxic compounds, determine how the plants poison animals, and develop diagnostic and prognostic procedures for poisoned animals. Furthermore, the PPRL's mission is to identify the conditions under which poisoning occurs and develop management strategies and treatments to reduce losses. Information obtained through research efforts at the PPRL is mostly used by the livestock industry, natural resource managers, veterinarians, chemists, plant and animal scientists, extension personnel, and other state and federal agencies. PPRL currently has 9 scientists and 17 support staff, representing various disciplines consisting of toxicology, reproductive toxicology, veterinary medicine, chemistry, animal science, range science, and plant physiology. This team of scientists provides an interdisciplinary approach to applied and basic research to develop solutions to plant intoxications. While the mission of the PPRL primarily impacts the livestock industry, spinoff benefits such as development of animal models, isolation and characterization of novel compounds, elucidation of biological and molecular mechanisms of action, national and international collaborations, and outreach efforts are significant to biomedical researchers. The staff at the PPRL has extensive knowledge regarding a number of poisonous plants. Although the focus of their knowledge is on plants that affect livestock, oftentimes, these plants are also poisonous to humans, and thus, similar principles could apply for cases of human poisonings. Consequently, the information provided

  13. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  14. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  15. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethylene glycol poisoning. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency centre after drinking 300 ml of antifreeze. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for a respiratory rate of 28 bpm, GCS of 9 and slight nystagmus. Arterial blood gas revealed: pH 7.167, pCO2. 3.01 kPa, pO2 13.0 kPa (on room air), HCO3-.

  16. Antidotes for Cyanide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    treatment, six task forces formulated recom- mendations for a national structure of prehospital EM by family physicians, ambulance nurses , and hospital...competencies between ambulance nurses and prehospital physicians. Eur J Emerg Med 2011; 18:322 327. Antidotes for cyanide poisoning Vikhyat S. Bebarta...the study model (limited to 60 min after the start of cyanide infusion) and the hemodynamic parameters as end points, instead of long-term sequelae

  17. Chemical analysis of plants that poison livestock: Successes, challenges, and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisonous plants have a devastating impact on the livestock industry, as well as human health. In order to fully understand the effects of poisonous plants, multiple scientific disciplines are required. Chemical analysis of plant secondary compounds is key to identifying the responsible toxins, char...

  18. Chemical Analysis of Plants that Poison Livestock: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kevin D; Lee, Stephen T; Cook, Daniel; Gardner, Dale R; Pfister, James A

    2018-04-04

    Poisonous plants have a devastating impact on the livestock industry as well as human health. To fully understand the effects of poisonous plants, multiple scientific disciplines are required. Chemical analysis of plant secondary compounds is key to identifying the responsible toxins, characterizing their metabolism, and understanding their effects on animals and humans. In this review, we highlight some of the successes in studying poisonous plants and mitigating their toxic effects. We also highlight some of the remaining challenges and opportunities with regards to the chemical analysis of poisonous plants.

  19. Treating Lead Toxicity: Possibilities beyond Synthetic Chelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shambhavi Tannir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead, a ubiquitous metal, is one of the most abundant elements present on earth. Its easy availability and cost effectiveness made it an extremely popular component in the industrial revolution. However, its hazardous health effects were not considered at the time. Over the last few decades, with the adverse effects of lead coming to the forefront, nations across the world have started to recognize and treat lead toxicity. The most reliable and used method until now has been chelation therapy. Recent research has suggested the use of natural products and sources to treat lead poisoning with minimal or no side effects. This review has tried to summarize a few of the natural products/sources being investigated by various groups.

  20. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  1. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  2. [Analysis of organic solvent poisonings occurring in Japan from 1995 to 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Syou; Nawata, Hideki; Ogawa, Yasutaka

    2011-01-01

    Statistical analyses based on incidence rate were carried out for organic solvent poisonings occurring in Japan. We used the published data of "Typical cases of occupational diseases" and "Current situation of occupational disease occurrence" in the "Industrial Hygiene Guidebook (Roudoueisei no Shiori)". The number of workers as a population of occupational solvent handlers was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. The annual incidences of solvent poisoning from 1995 to 2006, poisoning, death-by-poisoning, and secondary poisoning were 3.3-5.4, 0.0-0.83, and 0.0-0.34 cases/(100,000 solvent handlers × yr), respectively. Annual incidence classified by manufacturing, construction, and other services were 2.5, 52.0, and 6.1, respectively. Manufacturing showed a small increase from 1999 to 2003, and stopped increasing after 2004. Construction had a peak in 2000. Other services notably decreased from 14.4 in 1999 to 2.5 in 2006. The monthly distribution of the number of poisoning cases was prominent in January. Annual incidences of poisoning, death-by-poisoning, and secondary poisoning were 3.9, 0.5, 0.2 for toluene, 3.5, 0.5, 0.3 for xylene, and 16.4, 4.7, 2.3 for trichloroethylene, respectively. The annual incidences classified by industry and solvents showed no change for manufacturing, whereas that for construction notably decreased from 88.6 in 2000 to 12.0 in 2006.

  3. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  4. Lead and the London Metal Exchange — a happy marriage? The outlook for prices and pricing issues confronting the lead industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, A.

    The outlook for the supply-demand balance for refined lead is addressed and takes into account the growing non-fundamental forces on price determination. The market for refined lead is presently experiencing its first year of surplus since the major crisis of the early 1990s. Earlier in the decade, the dissolution of the Soviet Union and recession in developed economies led to a significant rise in London Metal Exchange (LME) stocks. An acceleration absorbed these stocks in an 18-month period in the mid-1990s, and LME lead prices reacted to the market deficit by peaking above US900. Since then the market has balanced, yet prices have declined steadily to less that 50% of their peak levels. It is argued that, on fundamental grounds, prices have fallen below justified levels. As much of the reason for this depression between 1997 and 1999 has been the generally depressive effect of the Asian economic crisis on financial markets, the level of lead prices may now be due for a correction. Other metals have begun to increase during the first half of 1999 and lead, given its neutral fundamental outlook, is now poised to participate in the generally more buoyant moods across LME metals. An increase of approximately 10% in average LME 3-month settlement prices is forecast and will result in annual average prices of US 570/tonne over the course of 1999. Monthly averages and spot prices are predicted to exceed this level, particularly during peak third-quarter demand.

  5. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Diagnosis of acute poisoning | Tygerberg Poison Information Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 8 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Diagnosis of acute poisoning. - Tygerberg Poison ...

  7. Effect of lead pollution control on environmental and childhood blood lead level in Nantong, China: an interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei; Yan, Beizhan; Li, Hongbo; Sun, Hong; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-04

    Children's blood lead levels and prevalence of lead poisoning in China are significantly higher than in developed countries, though a substantial decrease has been observed. Since 2011, strict lead control policies in lead-related industries have been implemented in China, but the success of these policies is unknown. In this study, we collected environmental samples, questionnaire data, and blood samples from 106 children from 1 to 14 years old, before and after implementation of lead-usage control policy in wire rope factories by local government in Zhuhang, Nantong in 2012. Results showed that, one year after the lead control, lead concentrations sharply decreased in both environmental and biological samples with a decrease of 0.43 μg/m3 (-84.3%) in ambient air samples, 0.22 mg/kg (-36.1%) in vegetable samples, 441.1 mg/kg (-43.7%) in dust samples, and 6.24 μg/dL (-51.5%) in childhood blood lead levels (BLL). This study demonstrates the success of lead control policies in promoting the prevention and control of childhood lead poisoning in Nantong, China.

  8. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  9. [Recommendations for the prevention of poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintegi, S; Esparza, M J; González, J C; Rubio, B; Sánchez, F; Vila, J J; Yagüe, F; Benítez, M T

    2015-12-01

    Poisoning is the fifth leading cause of death from unintentional injury in the WHO European region, while Spain is in the group with a lower rate. Most involuntary poisonings occur in young children while they are at the home, due to unintentional ingestion of therapeutic drugs or household products. Of these, a large percentage is stored in non-original containers and/or within reach of children. In this article, the Committee on Safety and Non-Intentional Injury Prevention in Childhood of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides a series of recommendations, educational as well as legal, to prevent such cases. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Physicians, reformers and occupational disease: the discovery of radium poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.

    1987-01-01

    Teenage girls and young women, whose job it was to apply luminous paint containing radium to watches during World War I, were among the first industrial radiation poisoning victims in the United States. This paper recounts both the story of how their afflictions became recognized occupational diseases and of the tangled web of governmental-industrial-academic collusion (largely based on industrial funding of research and experts) which delayed this recognition. It shows how these industrial-academic arrangements led to the establishment of the major academic training programs in occupational medical and industrial hygiene still in existence. Using historical sources, this study provides evidence of moral lapses by medical researchers, including directly lying to the victims, withholding data on the true extent of illness and radiation contamination and of distorting evidence. The pivotal role of the Consumers League and of Dr. Alice Hamilton in establishing the truth of the radium dial painting poisonings is discussed

  11. Does climate policy lead to relocation with adverse effects for GHG emissions or not? A first assessment of the spillovers of climate policy for energy intensive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M.; Worrell, E.

    2004-12-01

    Energy-intensive industries play a special role in climate policy. World-wide, industry is responsible for about 50% of greenhouse gas emissions. The emission intensity makes these industries an important target for climate policy. At the same time these industries are particularly vulnerable if climate policy would lead to higher energy costs, and if they would be unable to offset these increased costs. The side effects of climate policy on GHG emissions in foreign countries are typically referred to as 'spillovers'. Negative spillovers reduce the effectiveness of a climate policy, while positive spillovers increase its effectiveness. This paper provides a review of the literature on the spillover effects of climate policy for carbon intensive industries. Reviews of past trends in production location of energy-intensive industries show an increased share of non-Annex 1 countries. However, this trend is primarily driven by demand growth, and there is no empirical evidence for a role of environmental policy in these development patterns. In contrast, climate models do show a strong carbon leakage of emissions from these industries. Even though that climate policy may have a more profound impact than previous environmental policies, the results of the modelling are ambiguous. The energy and carbon intensity of energy-intensive industries is rapidly declining in most developing countries, and reducing the 'gap' between industrialized and developing countries. Still, considerable potential for emission reduction exists, both in developing and industrialized countries. Technology development is likely to deliver further reductions in energy use and CO2 emissions. Despite the potential for positive spillovers in the energy-intensive industries, none of the models used in the analysis of spillovers of climate policies has an endogenous representation of technological change for the energy-intensive industries. This underlines the need for a better understanding of

  12. Poisonous plants in New Zealand: a review of those that are most commonly enquired about to the National Poisons Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G; Lambie, Bruce S; Wilkins, Gerard T; Schep, Leo J

    2012-12-14

    New Zealand has a number of plants, both native and introduced, contact with which can lead to poisoning. The New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NZNPC) frequently receives enquiries regarding exposures to poisonous plants. Poisonous plants can cause harm following inadvertent ingestion, via skin contact, eye exposures or inhalation of sawdust or smoked plant matter. The purpose of this article is to determine the 15 most common poisonous plant enquiries to the NZNPC and provide a review of current literature, discussing the symptoms that might arise upon exposure to these poisonous plants and the recommended medical management of such poisonings. Call data from the NZNPC telephone collection databases regarding human plant exposures between 2003 and 2010 were analysed retrospectively. The most common plants causing human poisoning were selected as the basis for this review. An extensive literature review was also performed by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Further information was obtained from book chapters, relevant news reports and web material. For the years 2003-2010 inclusive, a total of 256,969 enquiries were received by the NZNPC. Of these enquiries, 11,049 involved exposures to plants and fungi. The most common poisonous plant enquiries, in decreasing order of frequency, were: black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), arum lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), kowhai (Sophora spp.), euphorbia (Euphorbia spp.), peace lily (Spathiphyllum spp.), agapanthus (Agapanthus spp.), stinking iris (Iris foetidissima), rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum), taro (Colocasia esculentum), oleander (Nerium oleander), daffodil (Narcissus spp.), hemlock (Conium maculatum), karaka (Corynocarpus laevigatus), foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and ongaonga/New Zealand tree nettle (Urtica ferox). The combined total of enquiries for these 15 species was 2754 calls (representing approximately 25% of all enquiries regarding plant exposures). The signs

  13. Presence of lead in opium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaee-Afshar, Mahmoud; Khazaeli, Payam; Behnam, Behzad; Rezazadehkermani, Mohammad; Ashraf-Ganjooei, Narges

    2008-09-01

    Opium addiction is a common form of addiction in Middle East countries such as Iran. Recently several reports suggested some kinds of pathologic findings such as abdominal pain, nephropathy, and anemia in opium addict patients. Such pathologic findings suggest lead poisoning in the patients. In this study, the concentration of lead in 10 opium samples was evaluated. The mean concentration of lead in the opium samples was 1.88 ppm. This may explain some of the pathologic findings found in addict patients. The authors would suggest further investigations to evaluate the lead concentration in opium addicts' sera and also routine screening for lead poisoning in opium addict patients.

  14. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsiun Cho

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: Children with CO poisoning had good outcomes in this series. Although improperly vented exhaust from water heaters and house fires were the most common causes, intentional poisoning by parents through charcoal burning was also an important factor. Early identification of DNS risk factors might help to provide better care.

  15. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  16. Copper sulphate poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M

    1975-01-01

    In the archives of the Clinic for Internal Diseases of Domestic Animals at the Veterinary Faculty of Zagreb University some thirty cases of horse disease diagnosed as copper sulphate poisoning were noted. The data correspond in many respects to the clinical findings of copper sulphate poisoning in other domestic animals. A series of experimental horse poisonings were undertaken in order to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate. The research results are as follows: Horses are sensitive to copper sulphate. Even a single application of 0.125 g/kg body weight in 1% concentration by means of incubation into the stomach causes stomach and gut disturbances and other poisoning symptoms. Poisoning occurs in two types: acute and chronic. The former appears after one to three applications of copper sulphate solution and is characterized by gastroenteritis, haemolysis, jaundice and haemoglobinuria with signs of consecutive damage of kidney, liver and other organs. The disease, from the first application to death lasts for two weeks. Chronic poisoning is caused by ingestion of dry copper sulphate in food (1% solution dried on hay or clover) for two or more months. There are chronic disturbances of stomach and gut and loss of weight, and consecutive (three to four) haemolytic crises similar to those of acute poisoning. From the beginning of poisoning to death six or more months can elapse.

  17. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review of the litera...... of NAC has not been definitively demonstrated....

  18. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  19. Plunkett's E-Commerce & Internet Business Almanac 2012 E-Commerce & Internet Business Industry Market Research, Statistics, Trends & Leading Companies

    CERN Document Server

    Plunkett, Jack W

    2012-01-01

    Market research guide to the e-commerce and Internet business-a tool for strategic planning, competitive intelligence, employment searches or financial research. Contains trends analysis, globalization, trade, statistical tables and an industry glossary. Includes our profiles of nearly 450 top e-commerce and internet industry firms, featuring addresses, phone numbers and executive names.

  20. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed all...... treatment should be continued during ECTR. (4) Cessation of ECTR is indicated when clinical improvement is apparent. This report provides detailed descriptions of the rationale for all recommendations. In summary, patients with long-acting barbiturate poisoning should be treated with ECTR provided at least......-acting barbiturates are dialyzable and short-acting barbiturates are moderately dialyzable. Four key recommendations were made. (1) The use of ECTR should be restricted to cases of severe long-acting barbiturate poisoning. (2) The indications for ECTR in this setting are the presence of prolonged coma, respiratory...

  1. Prevalence of Organophosphate Poisoning In Batticaloa, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maheswaran umakanth

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deliberate self-harm (DSH is a global problem which has steadily increased over the past few years in developing countries and has become as one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in these countries. The aim of this prospective study was to analyze the prevalence of organophosphate poisoning among other acute DSH cases admitted to the medical ward at Batticaloa Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka. We report the socio-demographic, and outcome of organophosphate poisoning. Method: The prospective study comprises of 121 cases of acute poisoning admitted at Batticaloa Teaching Hospital (BTH, Sri Lanka. This study was conducted for a period of three months from April 12 through July 12, 2017. Results: Among the subjects, 119 (98.34% cases had intentional poisoning and only two cases (1.65% accidental poisoning. Poisoning with organophosphate compounds (OP 23 (19% was the second leading type. There were 13 (56.5% males and 10 (43.5% females. Most of the patients were under the age group of 20-29 years old. 21 cases lived in rural areas and 2 in urban areas. Out of 23 patients, there were 2 (8.7% deaths, 18 (78.3% were discharged without any complications. Conclusion: DSH in Sri Lanka is reported to be associated with interpersonal conflict, short premeditation, as well as alcohol misuse among males.

  2. Study of trends of poisoning in the cases reported to government hospital, Yavatmal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuganti Prabhakar Vaidya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India is a developing country in south Asia. Rural population of this country is mostly dependant on agriculture. Pesticides, mainly the organophosphorus compounds are the most frequently used substances in agriculture and thus are easily accessible. Animal bites such as snake bite, scorpion bites are also common, as people here are mainly involved in the field work. Aims: This includes, knowing the pattern of poisoning in India along with various parameters, such as mode of poisoning, type of poison, outcome of the poisoning, the most vulnerable age group involved in poisoning, so that the study will help in rapid clinical diagnosis and immediate treatment of the cases leading to decreased mortality and morbidity. Setting and design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Govt. Hospital, Yavatmal. Poisoning cases reported to casualty and post-mortem cases of poisoning brought to the hospital from 01/06/2003 to 30/05/2004 were included in the study. Result: Total 1003 patients studied; acute poisoning in the age group of 21-30 years was the most common with higher frequency in males. Most common mode was suicidal. Most common agent responsible for poisoning was organophosphorus compounds followed by snake bite. Overall mortality due to poisoning was 12%. It was highest in insecticidal poisoning. Conclusion: It was seen that adults between 21 and 30 years of age were more prone to suicidal poisoning with organophosphorous compounds followed by accidental poisoning due to snake bite. Steps are needed to be taken to educate the people, to improve their socioeconomic status and also to provide better treatment facilities at grass root level.

  3. Integrating science and business models of sustainability for environmentally-challenging industries such as secondary lead smelters: a systematic review and analysis of findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, A M; Sequeira, R; Tolaymat, T; Kohler, J; Wallace, S; Rinder, M

    2010-09-01

    Secondary lead smelters (SLS) represent an environmentally-challenging industry as they deal with toxic substances posing potential threats to both human and environmental health, consequently, they operate under strict government regulations. Such challenges have resulted in the significant reduction of SLS plants in the last three decades. In addition, the domestic recycling of lead has been on a steep decline in the past 10 years as the amount of lead recovered has remained virtually unchanged while consumption has increased. Therefore, one may wonder whether sustainable development can be achieved among SLS. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a roadmap for sustainable development can be established for SLS. The following aims were established in support of the study objective: (1) to conduct a systematic review and an analysis of models of sustainable systems with a particular emphasis on SLS; (2) to document the challenges for the U.S. secondary lead smelting industry; and (3) to explore practices and concepts which act as vehicles for SLS on the road to sustainable development. An evidence-based methodology was adopted to achieve the study objective. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted to implement the aforementioned specific aims. Inclusion criteria were established to filter out irrelevant scientific papers and reports. The relevant articles were closely scrutinized and appraised to extract the required information and data for the possible development of a sustainable roadmap. The search process yielded a number of research articles which were utilized in the systematic review. Two types of models emerged: management/business and science/mathematical models. Although the management/business models explored actions to achieve sustainable growth in the industrial enterprise, science/mathematical models attempted to explain the sustainable behaviors and properties aiming at predominantly ecosystem management. As such

  4. Risk and protective behaviours for residential carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Douglas J; Poehlman, Jon A; Damon, Scott A; Williams, Peyton N

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional, non-fire-related carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of poisoning death and injury in the USA. Residential poisonings caused by faulty furnaces are the most common type of CO exposure. However, these poisonings are largely preventable with annual furnace inspections and CO alarm installation. This study aimed to identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs that might lead consumers to adopt these protective behaviours. In August 2009, four focus groups (n=29) were conducted with homeowners in Chicago, Illinois, USA, to identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs that lead consumers to adopt risk and protective behaviours. Discussions were transcribed and the findings were analysed using an ordered meta-matrix. Focus group participants were aware of CO poisoning and supported the idea of regular furnace inspections. However, few participants consistently scheduled professional inspections for fear of costly repairs and unscrupulous contractors. Participants often owned CO alarms, but many did not locate them properly, nor maintain them. Some participants confused CO and natural gas and were unsure how to react if a CO alarm sounds. Participants stated that incentives, such as discounts and inspector selection tips, would make them more likely to schedule furnace inspections. Participants also identified trustworthy sources for CO education, including realtors, fire departments, home insurance agents and local media outlets. Participants' residential CO risk behaviours are not random but driven by underlying knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Correcting misperceptions, providing incentives and partnering with trustworthy sources might encourage greater consumer adoption of protective behaviours.

  5. Endosulfan poisoning: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Qadir, Tooba Fatima; Moin, Ariba; Fatima, Huda; Hussain, Syed Ather; Madadin, Mohammed; Pasha, Syed Bilal; Al Rubaish, Fatima A; Senthilkumaran, S

    2017-10-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine (OC) insecticide, is a widely used agricultural pesticide, despite its life threatening toxic effects. In this review, the pharmacokinetics of endosulfan, mechanism of endosulfan toxicity, clinical presentations and management, histopathological findings, and toxicological analysis are described, in addition to its environmental toxicity. The toxic effects of endosulfan can affect many organs and systems presenting in a wide array of signs and symptoms. Although termed a restricted OC-classed pesticide, it continues to be used, especially in the developing world, owing to its beneficial effects on agriculture. Several cases of endosulfan poisoning have been reported from different regions of the world. Whether accidental or intentional, endosulfan ingestion proves to be fatal unless immediate, aggressive treatment is initiated. Management is mainly supportive as no antidote exists for endosulfan poisoning as yet. The use of endosulfan needs to be strictly regulated and eventually banned worldwide altogether to lower the current morbidity and mortality resulting from this pesticide. Additionally, monitoring biological samples, using non-invasive techniques such as breast milk sampling, can provide an effective method of observing the elimination of this environmentally persistent organic pollutant from the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Organophosphorus poisoning (acute).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Peter G

    2011-05-17

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute organophosphorus poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 62 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: activated charcoal (single or multiple doses), alpha(2) adrenergic receptor agonists, atropine, benzodiazepines, butyrylcholinesterase replacement therapy, cathartics, extracorporeal clearance, gastric lavage, glycopyrronium bromide (glycopyrrolate), ipecacuanha (ipecac), magnesium sulphate, milk or other home remedy immediately after ingestion, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, organophosphorus hydrolases, oximes, removing contaminated clothes and washing the poisoned person, and sodium bicarbonate.

  7. [Clinical manifestations of lead levels in children exposed to automobile battery recycling processes in Soacha and Bogotá, D.C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Carlos Mauricio; Gutiérrez, Myriam; Echeverry, Jairo

    2008-03-01

    Lead is a harmless metal if not handled directly in the industrial process. Even thought lead has been eliminated from the gasoline in many countries, automobile battery recycling continues to be a potential source of exposure and intoxication for the workers and their families, particularly of low income. The current investigation was initiated after an index case of lead poisoning was reported from Soacha, Cundinamarca, in central Colombia. Clinical investigation established lead levels and lead poison frequency in children with para-occupational lead exposure in the process of recycling automobile batteries. This was designed as a descriptive study, with selection of subjects with high risk of possible lead exposure. Minors, mostly of school age were recruited based on referral by relatives, neighbors or acquaintances, all of whom were involved in para-occupational exposure. Thirty two children, less than 12 years old (majority school age), were included. General and specific examinations of the children were made, and blood samples were taken for lead and hematological determinations. All subjects showed high levels of lead (2-9 times the maximum acceptable value) and, according to established criteria, two-thirds were rated as severely poisoned. The children with high levels of lead had tendency toward more specific hematological compromise and showing black gingival bordering (Burton border). This study communicates to the sanitary authorities and government a clear sign of alarm in that measures must be taken to diminish the occupational or para-occupational lead exposure of children by way of the automobile battery recycling industry.

  8. [Heavy metal poisoning and renal injury in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Li-Ping; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Xiao-Yun

    2014-04-01

    Along with global environmental pollution resulting from economic development, heavy metal poisoning in children has become an increasingly serious health problem in the world. It can lead to renal injury, which tends to be misdiagnosed due to the lack of obvious or specific early clinical manifestations in children. Early prevention, diagnosis and intervention are valuable for the recovery of renal function and children's good health and growth. This paper reviews the mechanism of renal injury caused by heavy metal poisoning in children, as well as the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prevention and treatment of renal injury caused by lead, mercury, cadmium, and chromium.

  9. [The comparative analysis of acute poisoning characteristics between cities and rural areas in Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-fang; Liu, Qing-hua

    2012-06-01

    To compare the acute-poisoning characteristics between city and rural areas of Guangxi Province in order to provide clinical data for the formation of treatment strategies of acute poisoning in Guangxi. Data of acute poisoning patients as treated in 36 municipal and 12 county hospitals, and also 15 rural clinics in 11 cities of Guangxi during 2005 to 2009 were collected and analyzed according to poisoning population, poisoning site, poisoning process, and poisoning degree. By analysing 3678 and 2153 cases of acute poisoning patients in rural and urban areas, the gender [χ (2) = 5.53, P old (11.17% vs. 8.69%), farmers by occupation (74.84% vs. 2.79%), home (80.64% vs. 78.07%), sites of labor (11.83% vs. 3.07%) and other sites (4.08% vs. 2.97%), and the chief causes were professional (3.10% vs. 1.30%), taken by mistake (21.85% vs. 20.91%), homicide (0.30% vs. 0.28%), and suicide (39.07% vs. 18.77%), and by pesticide (60.94% vs. 12.13%), plant (7.08% vs. 2.88%) and animal poisons (7.73% vs. 6.56%), belonging to severe poisoning (25.86% vs. 19.04%) were higher than those in town. In the town, poisoning occurred predominantly in female (55.09% vs. 51.90%), age below 19 years old (23.78% vs. 19.44%), unemployed (33.35% vs. 13.76%), student (17.53% vs. 8.43%), industrial workers (31.95% vs. 2.69%), executives (10.84% vs. 0.22%) and other professional (3.53% vs. 0.05%); occurred in schools (8.78% vs. 0.82%), restaurants (5.48% vs. 1.55%), place of entertainment (1.63% vs. 1.09%), by accidental (52.23% vs. 31.27%), therapeutic (4.46% vs. 2.56%), and other reasons (2.04% vs. 1.85%); by chemicals (33.19% vs. 8.55%), medicines (24.31% vs. 9.12%), and other types of poison (20.92% vs. 6.59%); light and medium degree of poisoning (44.87% vs. 41.22%, 36.09% vs. 32.93%) were higher than those in rural areas. Regarding the acute poisoning in Guangxi, the composition of population, the poisoning sites and causes, the types of poisons, the poisoning degree are distinctly different

  10. Effects of poison panel shrinkage and gaps on fuel storage rack reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, W.A.; Mueller, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Fixed poison panels are used in spent fuel rack designs to increase enrichment limits and reduce cell spacing; therefore, assurances that the maximum rack reactivity will meet the design limit (0.95) throughout the lifetime of the racks depend on the continued effectiveness of the poison with time. Industry data have shown that poison panels will shrink under irradiated conditions. From recent data, however, poison panels have been found to have gaps spanning their width after relatively short operating periods. This paper presents results of studies showing the fuel rack reactivity changes associated with poison panel shrinkage and formation of gaps. The discovery of gaps in the fuel rack poison panels at an operating plant raises concerns regarding the effectiveness of the poison over the lifetime of the fuel racks. Studies performed to evaluate the effect of the poison panel shrinkage on reactivity show that reactivity changes from zero to several percent are possible depending on the initial panel size. Results of recent studies show that some gaps can be accommodated in the fuel rack poison panels at the fuel midplane without causing the fuel rack K eff limit to be exceeded. With worst-case assumptions concerning gap size and the number of panels affected, other actions will likely be required to show that the rack K eff design limit will not be exceeded

  11. The politics of lead toxicology and the devastating consequences for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, David; Markowitz, Gerald

    2007-10-01

    At virtually every step in the history of the uncovering of lead's toxic qualities, resistance was shown by a variety of industrial interests to the association of lead and toxicity. During the first half of the last century, three primary means were used to undermine the growing body of evidence: first, the lead industry sought to control lead research by sponsoring and funding university research. In the 1920s, the General Motors Company, with the aide of DuPont and Standard Oil Companies, established the Kettering Labs, a research unit at the University of Cincinnati which, for many decades was largely supported by industry funds. In the same decade, the lead industry sponsored the research of Joseph Aub at Harvard who worked on neurophysiology of lead. A second way was to shape our understanding of lead itself, portraying it as an indispensable and healthful element essential for all modern life. Lead was portrayed as safe for children to use, be around, and even touch. The third way that lead was exempted from the normal public health measures and regulatory apparatus that had largely controlled phosphorus poisoning, poor quality food and meats and other potential public health hazards was more insidious and involved directly influencing the scientific integrity of the clinical observations and research. Throughout the past century tremendous pressure by the lead industry itself was brought to bear to quiet, even intimidate, researchers and clinicians who reported on or identified lead as a hazard. This article will draw on our previous work and add new documentation of the trajectory of industry attempts to keep out of the public view the tremendous threat of lead poisoning to children. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine.

  13. Description of 3,180 Courses of Chelation with Dimercaptosuccinic Acid in Children ≤5 y with Severe Lead Poisoning in Zamfara, Northern Nigeria: A Retrospective Analysis of Programme Data

    OpenAIRE

    Thurtle, Natalie; Greig, Jane; Cooney, Lauren; Amitai, Yona; Ariti, Cono; Brown, Mary Jean; Kosnett, Michael J.; Moussally, Krystel; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Akpan, Henry; Shanks, Leslie; Dargan, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Lead, a toxic metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust, is now present throughout the environment because of human activities. For many years, lead was added to paint and gasoline and used in solder for water pipes. In addition, the mining, smelting, and refining of some metallic ores releases lead into the environment. Inhalation of contaminated air, consumption of contaminated food and water, and contact with dust that contains lead raises venous blood le...

  14. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the POISON...

  15. Histamine fish poisoning revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehane, L; Olley, J

    2000-06-30

    Histamine (or scombroid) fish poisoning (HFP) is reviewed in a risk-assessment framework in an attempt to arrive at an informed characterisation of risk. Histamine is the main toxin involved in HFP, but the disease is not uncomplicated histamine poisoning. Although it is generally associated with high levels of histamine (> or =50 mg/100 g) in bacterially contaminated fish of particular species, the pathogenesis of HFP has not been clearly elucidated. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain why histamine consumed in spoiled fish is more toxic than pure histamine taken orally, but none has proved totally satisfactory. Urocanic acid, like histamine, an imidazole compound derived from histidine in spoiling fish, may be the "missing factor" in HFP. cis-Urocanic acid has recently been recognised as a mast cell degranulator, and endogenous histamine from mast cell degranulation may augment the exogenous histamine consumed in spoiled fish. HFP is a mild disease, but is important in relation to food safety and international trade. Consumers are becoming more demanding, and litigation following food poisoning incidents is becoming more common. Producers, distributors and restaurants are increasingly held liable for the quality of the products they handle and sell. Many countries have set guidelines for maximum permitted levels of histamine in fish. However, histamine concentrations within a spoiled fish are extremely variable, as is the threshold toxic dose. Until the identity, levels and potency of possible potentiators and/or mast-cell-degranulating factors are elucidated, it is difficult to establish regulatory limits for histamine in foods on the basis of potential health hazard. Histidine decarboxylating bacteria produce histamine from free histidine in spoiling fish. Although some are present in the normal microbial flora of live fish, most seem to be derived from post-catching contamination on board fishing vessels, at the processing plant or in the

  16. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  17. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Occult carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J N

    1987-01-01

    A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms when the source of carbon monoxide was removed. Exposed household pets provided an important clue to the diagnosis in some cases. Recurrent occult carbon monoxide poisoning may be a frequently overlooked cause of persistent or recurrent headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, abdominal pain, diarrhea and unusual spells.

  19. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  20. Using poison center exposure calls to predict methadone poisoning deaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabarun Dasgupta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC. In an era of improved electronic surveillance capabilities, exposure calls to PCs may be an alternate indicator of trends in overdose mortality. METHODS: We used PC call counts for methadone that were reported to the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS® System in 2006 and 2007. US death certificate data were used to identify deaths due to methadone. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship of deaths and poison center calls. RESULTS: Compared to decedents, poison center callers tended to be younger, more often female, at home and less likely to require medical attention. A strong association was found with PC calls and methadone mortality (b=0.88, se=0.42, t=9.5, df=1, p<0.0001, R(2 =0.77. These findings were robust to large changes in a sensitivity analysis assessing the impact of underreporting of methadone overdose deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that calls to poison centers for methadone are correlated with poisoning mortality as identified on death certificates. Calls received by poison centers may be used for timely surveillance of mortality due to methadone. In the midst of the prescription opioid overdose epidemic, electronic surveillance tools that report in real-time are powerful public health tools.

  1. Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 1: Farm livestock and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Raimon; Croubels, Siska; Caloni, Francesca; Sachana, Magda; Davanzo, Franca; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Berny, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    The lack of a reference Veterinary Poison Control Centre for the European Union (EU) means that clinicians find it difficult to obtain information on poisoning episodes. This three-part review collates published and unpublished data obtained from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last decade in order to provide a broader toxicoepidemiological perspective. The first article critically evaluates the national situation in the five European countries and concludes that information for livestock and poultry is limited and fragmentary compared to other animal groups. The analysis has revealed that clinical cases of poisoning are only occasionally studied in depth and that cattle are the species most frequently reported. Several plants and mycotoxins, a few pesticides and metals, together with contaminants of industrial origin, such as dioxins, are responsible for most of the recorded cases. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Remediation efficiency of lead-contaminated soil at an industrial site by ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-jie; Huang, Jin-lou; Liu, Zhi-qiang; Yue, Xi

    2013-09-01

    This research chose five lead-contaminated sites of a lead-acid battery factory to analyze the speciation distribution and concentration of lead. Under the same conditions (0.1 mol x L(-1) EDTA,30 min, 25 degrees C), the removal effect of heavy metal was compared between ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction (UCE) and conventional chemical extraction ( CCE), and the variation of lead speciation was further explored. The results showed that the lead removal efficiency of UCE was significantly better than CCE. The lead removal efficiency of WS, A, B, C and BZ was 10.06%, 48.29%, 48.69%, 53.28% and 36.26% under CCE. While the removal efficiency of the UCE was 22.42%, 69.31%, 71.00%, 74.49% and 71.58%, with the average efficiency higher by 22%. By comparing the speciation distribution of the two washing methods, it was found that the acid extractable content maintained or decreased after UCE, whereas it showed an increasing trend after CCE. The reduction effect of the reducible was as high as 98% by UCE. UCE also showed a more efficient reduction effect of the organic matter-sulfite bounded form and the residual form. Hence, it is feasible to improve the washing efficiency of heavy metal contained in soil by conducting the cleaning process with the help of ultrasonic wave, which is a simple and fast mean to remove lead from contaminated sites.

  3. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles......) despite its high protein binding and made the following recommendations. ECTR would be reasonable in select cases of severe phenytoin poisoning (neutral recommendation, 3D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma is present or expected (graded 2D) and it would be reasonable if prolonged incapacitating ataxia...... is present or expected (graded 3D). If ECTR is used, it should be discontinued when clinical improvement is apparent (graded 1D). The preferred ECTR modality in phenytoin poisoning is intermittent hemodialysis (graded 1D), but hemoperfusion is an acceptable alternative if hemodialysis is not available...

  4. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  5. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    Dit literatuuroverzicht bevat informatie betreffende het "neurotoxic shellfish poisoning" (NSP) syndroom en de veroorzakende toxines, nl.de brevetoxines, welke geproduceerd worden door de dinoflagellaat Gymnodinium breve. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van de brevetoxines,

  6. RPV housed ATWS poison tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a boiling water reactor (BWR) wherein housed within a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is a nuclear core and an upper steam dome connected to a steam outlet in the RPV. The improvement comprises: a pressurized vessel disposed in the steam dome containing a neutron poison effective for inactivating the core and a first line for assaying the poison which first line runs to the outside of the RPV, the vessel being vented to the steam dome to pressurize the poison contained therein, the vessel being connected by a second line terminating beneath the core, the second line containing a valve which is actuable to release the poison through the line upon its actuation

  7. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  8. The poisoning of NRX pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.H.

    1959-09-01

    The experimental methods used to study the poisoning of the NRX reactor are described and the operation of the reactor in relation to these methods is reviewed for the period February to September 1948. (author)

  9. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  10. [A case of Veratrum poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, M; Andreetto, B; Ballaris, M A; Panio, A; Piervittori, R

    1996-05-01

    A poisoning from a Veratrum album infusion mistaken for Gentiana lutea is described. Confusion between these two plants can easily occur because they are very similar, although flowers and disposition of leaves allow their botanic determinat: V. album leaves are alternate and flowers are white, while G. lutea leaves are opposite and flowers yellow. The poisoning involves gastrointestinal (pyrosis, vomiting) and cardiocirculatory systems (bradyarrhy-thmias, A-V dissociation, vasodilatation) Atropine is the drug of choice.

  11. Acute selenium poisoning in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbedy, B J; Dickson, J

    1969-10-01

    An outbreak of sodium selenite poisoning is reported in which 180 of 190 six-weeks-old lambs died. The estimated dose rate of the selenium was 6.4 mg/kg body weight. Liver concentrations of selenium at the time of poisoning averaged 64 ppM and 15 days later liver and kidney concentrations of selenium averaged 26 ppM and 7.4 ppM respectively.

  12. Scombroid fish poisoning: an overlooked marine food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M L; Yang, C C; Yang, G Y; Ger, J; Deng, J F

    1997-08-01

    Scombroid fish poisoning is a food-borne chemical intoxication caused by certain spoiled fish that contain a large amount of histamine and some biogenic diamines. It has gradually become a world-wide medical problem and probably is the most common cause of fish poisoning. As the data on the incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Taiwan remains scarce, we report 2 incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Northern Taiwan. We collected data of the 2 outbreaks of suspected fish poisoning which were reported to us in 1996. An epidemiological investigation was undertaken. Questionnaire interviews were given to persons who ate lunch in the same cafeteria in outbreak 2. The leftover fish were sent for species identification and toxin analysis. The first incident involving 4 women occurred in March 1996. All cases experienced flush, dizziness, blurred vision and skin rashes after eating lunch. A non-scombroid fish of Makaira with histamine levels as high as 84.13 mg/100 g flesh was implicated in this incident. In August 1996, another incident involving some cases who ate lunch at the same cafeteria were investigated. A total of 146 questionnaires were distributed with a return of 132 questionnaires (90.4%). Fifty-five employees reported positive signs or symptoms; 48 persons who ate fish and 7 women who did not eat fish were ill. Fish was the only food associated with the illness with an attack rate of 73.8% (p < 0.001). The incriminated fish was later identified as a scombroid fish of Euthynnus with a histamine content of 271.9 mg/100 g flesh in 1 leftover piece and 118.5 mg/100 g flesh in another piece. Most cases in these 2 outbreaks received treatment with antihistamines and had rapid and complete recovery. The diagnosis of scombroid fish poisoning could be misdiagnosed as food allergy or bacterial food poisoning if physicians are not aware of such poisoning. The nonspecific but characteristic symptomatology of histamine food poisoning and previous consumption of fish

  13. Frequency of Cardiac Arrhythmias in Patients with Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Aziz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac failure is the major lethal consequence of aluminum phosphide (AlP poisoning. This study was designed to determine the frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in patients with AlP poisoning. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, patients with definitive history of AlP poisoning treated at emergency department of Allied Hospital Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from July 2013 to November 2014 were included. On admission, twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG was performed for all patients. During admission, all patients underwent continuous cardiac monitoring using a cardiac monitor. If an arrhythmia was suspected on the cardiac monitor, another ECG was obtained immediately.  Results: During the study period, 100 patients with AlP poisoning (63% men were treated at Allied Hospital Faisalabad. Mean age of the patients was 26.7 ± 7.9 years ranging from 16 to 54 years. Tachycardia was detected in 68 patients and bradycardia in 12 patients. Hypotension was observed in 75 patients. Eighty patients developed cardiac arrhythmia. The most frequent arrhythmia was atrial fibrillation (31% of patients followed by ventricular fibrillation (20%, ventricular tachycardia (17%, 3rd degree AV block (7% and 2nd degree AV block (5%. In total, 78 patients died, depicting a 78% mortality rate following wheat pill poisoning. Among those who died, seventy-one patients had cardiac arrhythmia. Comparison of death rate between patients with and without cardiac arrhythmia showed a significant difference (71/80 (88.8% vs. 7/20 (35%; P < 0.001.  Conclusion: Wheat pill poisoning causes a very high mortality, and circulatory collapse is the major cause of death among these patients. Most of the patients with AlP poisoning develop cardiac arrhythmias which are invariably life threatening. Early detection of cardiac disorders and proper management of arrhythmias may reduce mortalities.

  14. The Emergence of Industrial Marketing Management as the Leading Academic Journal in Business-to-Business Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Benedetto, C. Anthony; Lindgreen, Adam

    2018-01-01

    During 1994–2016, Peter LaPlaca served as editor-in-chief of Industrial Marketing Management, an era in which the research discipline surrounding business-to-business marketing showed remarkable growth and attracted the attention of scholars worldwide. This article traces the evolving maturity...... of the discipline during these years by analyzing not just statistics but also the content of the premier journal in this area, Industrial Marketing Management. The number of papers submitted and articles published per year, the growth in the journal's impact factor, the increased presence of international authors...... and editorial board members, and the arrival of meta-analyses and special issues on emerging research topics all indicate the level of maturity and scope of the business-to-business marketing research discipline attained during this period— thanks to the expert guidance and tireless efforts of Professor La...

  15. Industrial inline PVD metallization for silicon solar cells with laser fired contacts leading to 21.8% efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Nekarda, J.; Reinwand, D.; Hartmann, P.; Preu, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we present the latest results of our experiments in regard to an industrially feasible inline physical vapor deposition (PVD) metallization method for the rear side of passivated solar cells. In an earlier publication, the quality of such processed layers and the feasibility of the tool was already shown and compared with a commonly used laboratory process based on electron beam evaporation. Since then a difference in the Voc potential in the range of ~ 4 mV between both ...

  16. Leading Players of the Global Renewable Energy Equipment Industry. Overview of Groups - SWOTs - Benchmarking - Company Profiles and Financials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Overview: The Sector, Ranking, Performance Analysis; 2. Company Profiles: Toshiba, Vestas, Dong Energy, GE Renewable Energy, Siemens, Goldwind, First Solar, SunPower, Andritz, Yingli Green Energy; 3. Sources; 4. Annexes

  17. Leading Players of the European Power and Gas Industry Overview of Groups - SWOTs - Benchmarking - Company Profiles and Financials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Overview: The Sector, Ranking, Performance Analysis; 2. Company Profiles: EDF, Enel, Engie, RWE, E.ON, SSE, Iberdrola, Gas Natural Fenosa, Vattenfall, EDP; 3. Sources; 4. Annexes

  18. Leading Players of the Global Oil and Gas Industry. Overview of Groups - SWOTs - Benchmarking - Company Profiles and Financials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Overview: The Sector, Ranking, Performance Analysis; 2. Company Profiles: Sinopec, PetroChina, Shell, ExxonMobil, BP, Total, Chevron, Gazprom, Lukoil, Eni; 3. Sources; 4. Annexes

  19. What is the definition of a poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uges, D R

    2001-03-01

    New insights in medicine and acceptable treatments necessitates an adjustment of the existing definition of clinical or forensic poisoning to: 'An individual's medical or social unacceptable condition as a consequence of being under influence of an exogenous substance in a dose too high for the person concerned'. For medical and legal purposes it is important to know how the victim became poisoned. In general, there are three ways of causing medical poisoning: accidental poisoning, including iatrogenic poisoning, experimental and intentional poisoning. Nowadays iatrogenic intoxication, poisoning caused by the Münchhausen's syndrome (by proxy) and experimental poisoning (designer drugs) have a major place in contemporary toxicology. Although some toxicologists use the word 'intoxication' only overdoses with central effects, in this article 'intoxication' and 'poisoning' are considered to be synonymous.

  20. Manurial properties of lead nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, R A

    1924-01-01

    Water culture, pot and field experiments were conducted in order to determine the toxic and stimulating limit of lead nitrate in solution. Oats and rye grass were evaluated for evidence of lead poisoning. Results indicate that except in solutions of fairly high concentration, soil adsorbs the lead and destroys the toxicity of soluble lead salts. There was evidence to show that the addition of lead salts increased the rate of nitrification in soil.

  1. Recent Trends in Atmospheric Lead Levels at an Urban-Industrial District of Metropolitan Lisbon, Portugal, through PIXE Analysis of Air-Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M. Carmo; Reis, Miguel A.; Pacheco, Adriano M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Despite a steep decline in primary, traffic-related loads, lead in the environment is still much of an issue. Current atmospheric levels may be unmistakably reflecting the widespread use of cleaner fuels, yet decades of uncontrolled emissions from mobile sources have made lead to pervade every terrestrial (and aquatic) ecosystem, from where it keeps re-entering the lower troposphere, at least in terms of local circulation. The continuing surveillance of airborne-lead levels is thus necessary, not just for ensuring a strict compliance with regulatory decisions, but also for assisting in the implementation of remediation and/or rehabilitation policies. In Portugal, unleaded gasoline was made generally available in 1990, yet both leaded and lead-free varieties were commercialised until 1998. After that, all vehicles were compelled to use unleaded gasoline. Even though it is certainly too early for a full trend analysis of airborne levels and their response to the ban on lead, concentrations in ambient air over an important urban-industrial corridor within the Lisbon metropolitan area show a steady, sharp decrease through the last decade. Since 2000, airborne-lead data seems somewhat stabilised and, as far as busy conurbations are concerned, roughly within the values that were usually observed in the rural hinterland back in the mid 1990s

  2. Determination of trace amount of lead in industrial and municipal effluent water samples based on dispersive liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirkhanloo, H. [Iranian Petroleum Industry Health Research Institute, Occupational and Environmental Health Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sedighi, K.; Mousavi, H. Z., E-mail: hzmousavi@semnan.ac.ir [Semnan University, College of Science, Department of Chemistry, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a simple, sensitive and accurate method was developed for the determination of lead ion by combining ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid extraction (Il-DLL E) with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Tetraethyl thiuram disulfide (Tetd), acetone and 1-octyl-3m ethylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [(C{sub 8}MIM) (PF{sub 6})] were used as the chelating agent, dispersive and extraction solvent, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 5-190 μg L{sup -1} of lead and the detection limit was 0.8 μg L{sup -1} with a sample volume of 200 ml. The proposed method was validated by the analysis of one certified reference material and applied successfully to the determination of lead in real water samples. (Author)

  3. Determination of trace amount of lead in industrial and municipal effluent water samples based on dispersive liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkhanloo, H.; Sedighi, K.; Mousavi, H. Z.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a simple, sensitive and accurate method was developed for the determination of lead ion by combining ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid extraction (Il-DLL E) with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Tetraethyl thiuram disulfide (Tetd), acetone and 1-octyl-3m ethylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [(C 8 MIM) (PF 6 )] were used as the chelating agent, dispersive and extraction solvent, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 5-190 μg L -1 of lead and the detection limit was 0.8 μg L -1 with a sample volume of 200 ml. The proposed method was validated by the analysis of one certified reference material and applied successfully to the determination of lead in real water samples. (Author)

  4. [Characterization of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents related to irritating gases in China between 1989 and 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xie-Yi; Zhang, Min; Wang, Huan-Qiang; Li, Tao; Wang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Shu-Yang; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Jian; Ji, Li-Ying

    2006-12-01

    To analyze severe acute occupational poisoning accidents related to irritating gases reported in China between 1989 and 2003, and to study the characteristics of severe acute occupational poisoning accidents and provide scientific evidences for prevention and control strategies. The data from the national occupational poisoning case reporting system were analyzed with descriptive methods. (1) There were 92 severe acute occupational poisoning accidents related to asphyxiating gases during 15 years, which showed that there were 14.5 accidents occurred each year. Forty types of chemicals were reported to cause poisoning accidents directly. On average, there were 14.5 persons poisoned and 0.8 persons died of poisoning in each event. The number of death of poisoning reached 7 in most of the severe accidents. Chlorine was the main irritating gas resulting in poisoning accidents according to the number of accidents, cases and death. (1) The severe acute occupational poisoning related to irritating gases are more dangerous than others because of it is involved in more cases in each accident. (2) The accidents have concentricity in the certain types of chemicals, industries and jobs, and should be focused on control. (3) It is important to develop the program about early warning and forecast and the first aid.

  5. Antidotes for poisoning by alcohols that form toxic metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Kenneth; Jacobsen, Dag; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2016-03-01

    The alcohols, methanol, ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol, have many features in common, the most important of which is the fact that the compounds themselves are relatively non-toxic but are metabolized, initially by alcohol dehydrogenase, to various toxic intermediates. These compounds are readily available worldwide in commercial products as well as in homemade alcoholic beverages, both of which lead to most of the poisoning cases, from either unintentional or intentional ingestion. Although relatively infrequent in overall occurrence, poisonings by metabolically-toxic alcohols do unfortunately occur in outbreaks and can result in severe morbidity and mortality. These poisonings have traditionally been treated with ethanol since it competes for the active site of alcohol dehydrogenase and decreases the formation of toxic metabolites. Although ethanol can be effective in these poisonings, there are substantial practical problems with its use and so fomepizole, a potent competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, was developed for a hopefully better treatment for metabolically-toxic alcohol poisonings. Fomepizole has few side effects and is easy to use in practice and it may obviate the need for haemodialysis in some, but not all, patients. Hence, fomepizole has largely replaced ethanol as the toxic alcohol antidote in many countries. Nevertheless, ethanol remains an important alternative because access to fomepizole can be limited, the cost may appear excessive, or the physician may prefer ethanol due to experience. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Dog poisoning with furadan 35-ST (carbamate insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of poisoning of a dog with Furadan 35-ST in Serbia is described. The active ingredient of Furadan 35-ST is carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7- benzofuranyl methyl carbamate, a carbamate insecticide, acaricide and nematocide. This highly poisonous substance is classified by the World Health Organisation into Class 1 b and in Serbia into Group 1 of The List of Poisons. Pathological assessment revealed hyperaemia and degenerative and necrotic changes in the liver, kidneys and heart. In addition, lysis of the nuclei in the motor neurons, loss of tigroid substance and pericellular oedema in the ventral horns of the spinal cord, and acute pancreatitis were found. In addition to the non-specific changes (hyperaemia, degenerative and necrotic changes in the parenchymal organs, the ones in the ventral horns of the spinal cord and acute pancreatitis may lead to carbamate poisoning being suspected. The diagnosis was established on the grounds of toxicological-chemical conformation of carbofuran by means of GC-MS in addition to the macroscopic, microscopic findings in tissue samples taken from the stomach and the liver, which confirmed the suspicion of the dog having been poisoned with the carbamate insecticide. In the current case the results of the diagnostic procedures provided foundations for the initiation of criminal proceedings.

  7. Recent developments in the field of arrow and dart poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Geneviève; Angenot, Luc

    2005-08-22

    Arrow and dart poisons, considered as conventional natural sources for future drug discovery, have already provided numerous biologically active molecules used as drugs in therapeutic applications or in pharmacological research. Plants containing alkaloids or cardiotonic glycosides have generally been the main ingredients responsible for the efficacy of these poisons, although some animals, such as frogs, have also been employed. This paper, without being exhaustive, reports the greater strides made during the past 15 years in the understanding of the chemical nature and biological properties of arrow and dart poison constituents. Examples both of promising biological properties shown by these molecules and of crucial discoveries achieved by their use as pharmacological tools are given. Further studies of these toxic principles are likely to enable scientists to find new valuable lead compounds, useful in many fields of research, like oncology, inflammation and infectious diseases.

  8. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  9. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B Kevin; Dear, James W; Antoine, Daniel J

    2015-10-19

    Paracetamol directly causes around 150 deaths per year in UK. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute paracetamol poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 127 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 64 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 46 studies and the further review of 18 full publications. Of the 18 full articles evaluated, one systematic review was updated and one RCT was added at this update. In addition, two systematic reviews and three RCTs not meeting our inclusion criteria were added to the Comment sections. We performed a GRADE evaluation for three PICO combinations. In this systematic overview we categorised the efficacy for six interventions, based on information about the effectiveness and safety of activated charcoal (single or multiple dose), gastric lavage, haemodialysis, liver transplant, methionine, and acetylcysteine.

  10. How does development lead time affect performance over the ramp-up lifecycle? : evidence from the consumer electronics industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pufall, A.A.; Fransoo, J.C.; Jong, de A.; Kok, de A.G.

    2012-01-01

    In the fast-paced world of consumer electronics, short development lead times and efficient product ramp-ups are invaluable. The sooner and faster a firm can ramp-up production of a new product, the faster it can start to earn revenues, profit from early market opportunities, establish technology

  11. 77 FR 47882 - Lead in General Industry Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ..., hand delivery, express mail, messenger, or courier service: When using this method, you must submit a...., Washington, DC 20210. Deliveries (hand, express mail, messenger, and courier service) are accepted during the... program and notifying laundry personnel of lead hazards; instituting programs for exposure monitoring and...

  12. Epidemiology of acute poisoning in children presenting to the poisoning treatment center at Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt, 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Sonya M. S.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hayes, Bryan D.; El-Setouhy, Maged; Smith, Gordon S.; Sakr, Mahmoud Lotfy; Tawfik, Hany; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric poisonings represent a major and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Epidemiologic information about poisoning among children in many lower- and middle-income countries is scarce. This study describes the epidemiology of acute poisonings in children presenting to Ain Shams University's Poisoning Treatment Center (ASU-PTC) in Cairo and determines the causative agents and characteristics of acute poisoning in several pediatric age groups. Methods This retrospective study involved acutely poisoned patients, 0 to 18 years of age, who presented to the ASU-PTC between 1/1/2009 and 12/31/2013. Data were extracted from electronic records maintained by the ASU-PTC. Collected data included demographics, substance of exposure, circumstances of the poisoning, patient disposition, and outcome. Results During the 5-year study period, 38,470 patients meeting our criteria were treated by the ASU-PTC; 19,987 (52%) were younger than 6 years of age; 4,196 (11%) were 6 to 12 years; and 14,287 (37%) were >12 years. Unintentional poisoning accounted for 68.5% of the ingestions, though among adolescents 84.1% of ingestions were with self-harm intent. In all age groups, the most frequent causative drugs were non-opioid analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics. The most common nonpharmaceutical agents were corrosives in preschool children and pesticides in adolescents. Most patients had no/minor effects (29,174 [75.8%]); hospitalization rates were highest among adolescents. There were 119 deaths (case fatality rate of 0.3), primarily from pesticide ingestion. Conclusion Poisoning in preschool children is mainly unintentional and commonly due to nonpharmaceutical agents while poisoning in adolescents is mainly intentional (self-harm). Pesticides, mainly organophosphorous compounds and carbamates, were the most frequent agent leading to morbidity and mortality. PMID:26653953

  13. Epidemiology of acute poisoning in children presenting to the poisoning treatment center at Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Sonya M S; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hirshon, John Mark; Hayes, Bryan D; El-Setouhy, Maged; Smith, Gordon S; Sakr, Mahmoud Lotfy; Tawfik, Hany; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric poisonings represent a major and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Epidemiologic information about poisoning among children in many lower- and middle-income countries is scarce. This study describes the epidemiology of acute poisonings in children presenting to Ain Shams University's Poisoning Treatment Center (ASU-PTC) in Cairo and determines the causative agents and characteristics of acute poisoning in several pediatric age groups. This retrospective study involved acutely poisoned patients, 0-18 years of age, who presented to the ASU-PTC between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. Data were extracted from electronic records maintained by the ASU-PTC. Collected data included demographics, substance of exposure, circumstances of the poisoning, patient disposition, and outcome. During the 5-year study period, 38 470 patients meeting our criteria were treated by the ASU-PTC; 19 987 (52%) were younger than 6 years of age; 4196 (11%) were 6-12 years; and 14 287 (37%) were >12 years. Unintentional poisoning accounted for 68.5% of the ingestions, though among adolescents 84.1% of ingestions were with self-harm intent. In all age groups, the most frequent causative drugs were non-opioid analgesics, antipyretics, and antirheumatics. The most common nonpharmaceutical agents were corrosives in preschool children and pesticides in adolescents. Most patients had no/minor effects (29 174 [75.8%]); hospitalization rates were highest among adolescents. There were 119 deaths (case fatality rate of 0.3), primarily from pesticide ingestion. Poisoning in preschool children is mainly unintentional and commonly due to nonpharmaceutical agents whereas poisoning in adolescents is mainly intentional (self-harm). Pesticides, mainly organophosphorous compounds and carbamates, were the most frequent agents leading to morbidity and mortality.

  14. Metal and metalloid foliar uptake by various plant species exposed to atmospheric industrial fallout: Mechanisms involved for lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, E., E-mail: eva.schreck@ensat.fr [Universite de Toulouse (France); INP, UPS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); Foucault, Y. [Universite de Toulouse (France); INP, UPS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); STCM, Societe de Traitements Chimiques des Metaux, 30 Avenue de Fondeyre 31200 Toulouse (France); Sarret, G. [ISTerre (UMR 5275), Universite J. Fourier and CNRS, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Sobanska, S. [LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Universite de Lille 1, Bat. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Cecillon, L. [ISTerre (UMR 5275), Universite J. Fourier and CNRS, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Castrec-Rouelle, M. [Universite Pierre and Marie Curie (UPMC-Paris 6), Bioemco (Biogeochimie et Ecologie des Milieux Continentaux), Site Jussieu, Tour 56, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Uzu, G. [Laboratoire d' Aerologie (UMR 5560), OMP, UPS 14, Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); GET (UMR 5563), IRD, 14, Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Dumat, C. [Universite de Toulouse (France); INP, UPS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France)

    2012-06-15

    Fine and ultrafine metallic particulate matters (PMs) are emitted from metallurgic activities in peri-urban zones into the atmosphere and can be deposited in terrestrial ecosystems. The foliar transfer of metals and metalloids and their fate in plant leaves remain unclear, although this way of penetration may be a major contributor to the transfer of metals into plants. This study focused on the foliar uptake of various metals and metalloids from enriched PM (Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb, As, and especially lead (Pb)) resulting from the emissions of a battery-recycling factory. Metal and metalloid foliar uptake by various vegetable species, exhibiting different morphologies, use (food or fodder) and life-cycle (lettuce, parsley and rye-grass) were studied. The mechanisms involved in foliar metal transfer from atmospheric particulate matter fallout, using lead (Pb) as a model element was also investigated. Several complementary techniques (micro-X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry) were used to investigate the localization and the speciation of lead in their edible parts, i.e. leaves. The results showed lead-enriched PM on the surface of plant leaves. Biogeochemical transformations occurred on the leaf surfaces with the formation of lead secondary species (PbCO{sub 3} and organic Pb). Some compounds were internalized in their primary form (PbSO{sub 4}) underneath an organic layer. Internalization through the cuticle or penetration through stomata openings are proposed as two major mechanisms involved in foliar uptake of particulate matter. - Graphical abstract: Overall picture of performed observations and mechanisms potentially involved in lead foliar uptake. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Foliar uptake of metallic particulate matter (PM) is of environmental and health concerns. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The leaf morphology influences the adsorption

  15. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  16. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and

  17. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  18. Races of Infant Industry Protection and Government Sponsored R&D Pograms in Lead Markets - Implications for (Capital) Goods' Durability and Trade Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    Infant industries have come to be associated with behind the frontier technologies in developing countries. This paper takes a fresh look at the infant industry problem and in the more contemporary perspective of developed-emerging economy competition in lead markets such as for example the global...... partly could be conforming to national culture and institutions which may be fundamental determinants of our preference for things that endure. The best policy when preference is informative from a global governance perspective is either by targeting the supply side to make producers switch...... their learning priorities via standards for engaging in R&D programs. Or by targeting the demand side giving incentives that make consumers align their behavior with the most rational consumption choice once including the dimension of durability. However, the latter policy can only affect the intervening country...

  19. Favored use of anti-predator netting (APN) applied for the farming of clams leads to little benefits to industry while increasing nearshore impacts and plastics pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2015-02-15

    An overview of the efficacy of anti-predator netting (APN) used by the shellfish industry is presented. There is little support that the currently favored APN effectively protects farmed clams from predators. Evidence does suggest that APN leads to impacts and pollution. APN is an attractant for predators, e.g., crabs, by providing a refuge within Ulva sp. which attaches onto the surface of APN. APN entrains silt and organic matter and increases sediment temperatures degrading habitat underneath the APN. APN present hazards to fish and wildlife and is a source of plastics to the marine environment. The continued use of ineffective APN does not serve either the environment or industry well, and many of these issues could be addressed through the alternate use of "ancient" technology used by aboriginal people to maintain clam gardens; building of rock walls optimizing the amount of clam habitat thereby increasing numbers without the use of APN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Ciguatera poisoning in Spanish travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, Joaquim; Macià, Maria; Oliveira, Inés; Corachán, Manuel

    2003-05-31

    Ciguatera poisoning appears after ingestion of contaminated fish from tropical coral reefs. Due to the diversity of clinical symptoms and the absence of a specific test in humans, the diagnosis is often difficult. A retrospective study of 10 patients consulting for a clinical and epidemiological picture compatible with ciguatera poisoning after a trip to tropical countries between 1993 and 2000. Most infections but one were acquired in the Caribbean area and there were 8 females. Clinical manifestations started within the first 24 hours after fish ingestion. Chief symptoms were diarrhea and nausea, followed by neurological symptoms, mainly limbs paresthesias that persisted for several weeks. The severity of clinical symptoms was variable and not related to age or initial symptoms. Ciguatera poisoning has to be considered in the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis affecting travellers to tropical areas.