WorldWideScience

Sample records for industrial food animal

  1. 78 FR 55727 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0928] Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food Additive... guidance for industry (GFI 221) entitled ``Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

  2. 78 FR 74154 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0928] Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food Additive... for industry (GFI 221) entitled ``Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

  3. Industry and Consumers Awareness for Effective Management of Functional Animal-based Foods in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Wi, Seo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Min; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jae-Woo; Kim, Jin-Man

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers of animal-based foods with health claims have encountered difficulties in the labeling of their products because of a lack of regulation on defining the functionality of animal-based foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish the basic requirements for the development of a definition for functional animal-based foods by investigating consumer and industry awareness. Survey data were collected from 114 industry representatives and 1,100 consumers. Th...

  4. Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Mortensen, Alicja; Broesboel-Jensen, B.

    2012-01-01

    By-products are secondary or discarded products from manufacturing. Contamination of by-products used for feed may result in carryover to animal food products and hence have impact on either animal health or food safety. Feed by-products from bioethanol production include, for example, 'dried...... distillers grain' (DDG) and 'dried distillers grain with solubles' (DDGS) from generation bioethanol production, C5-molasses from generation bioethanol production and glycerol from biodiesel production. By-products from food industry may comprise discarded or downgraded food and food surplus or secondary...... products such as peels, pulpettes, molasses, whey, mask, oil cakes, etc. Contamination of by-products and possible impacts are presented....

  5. Food animal transport: A potential source of community exposures to health hazards from industrial farming (CAFOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Rule

    Full Text Available Summary: Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. We tested the hypothesis that current methods of transporting food animals from farms to slaughterhouses may result in pathogen releases and potential exposures of persons in vehicles traveling on the same road. Air and surface samples were taken from cars driving behind poultry trucks for 17 miles. Air conditioners and fans were turned off and windows fully opened. Background and blank samples were used for quality control. Samples were analyzed for susceptible and drug-resistant strains. Results indicate an increase in the number of total aerobic bacteria including both susceptible and drug-resistant enterococci isolated from air and surface samples, and suggest that food animal transport in open crates introduces a novel route of exposure to harmful microorganisms and may disseminate these pathogens into the general environment. These findings support the need for further exposure characterization, and attention to improving methods of food animal transport, especially in highly trafficked regions of high density farming such as the Delmarva Peninsula. Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, CAFO, Bioaerosol, Food animal transport, Air sampling, Surface sampling

  6. Coping with Power Interruptions in Tanzania: An Industrial Perspective A Case Study of One Small Scale Animal Food Processing Industry in Moshi Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Kavishe, Theodora Ephrem

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in Moshi-Tanzania. The research topic is Coping with Power Interruptions in Tanzania.An Industrial Perspesctive:A Case Study of one Small Scale Animal Food Processing Industry in Moshi Municipality.The objectives are (1) to explore perceptions of staff in the industry and among TANESCO towards interruptions in power supply (2) to describe the coping strategies developed by the industry under study. The study was guided by Resource Dependence Theory (RDT) by Pfeffer an...

  7. Food animal transport: a potential source of community exposures to health hazards from industrial farming (CAFOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Ana M; Evans, Sean L; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2008-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. We tested the hypothesis that current methods of transporting food animals from farms to slaughterhouses may result in pathogen releases and potential exposures of persons in vehicles traveling on the same road. Air and surface samples were taken from cars driving behind poultry trucks for 17 miles. Air conditioners and fans were turned off and windows fully opened. Background and blank samples were used for quality control. Samples were analyzed for susceptible and drug-resistant strains. Results indicate an increase in the number of total aerobic bacteria including both susceptible and drug-resistant enterococci isolated from air and surface samples, and suggest that food animal transport in open crates introduces a novel route of exposure to harmful microorganisms and may disseminate these pathogens into the general environment. These findings support the need for further exposure characterization, and attention to improving methods of food animal transport, especially in highly trafficked regions of high density farming such as the Delmarva Peninsula.

  8. Proximity to Industrial Food Animal Production and Asthma Exacerbations in Pennsylvania, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sara G; Casey, Joan A; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Schwartz, Brian S

    2017-03-31

    The research on industrial food animal production (IFAP) and asthma exacerbations in the United States has relied on small sample sizes and/or self-reported outcomes. We assessed associations of proximity to large-scale and densely stocked swine and dairy/veal IFAP with three types of asthma exacerbations: hospitalizations, emergency encounters, and oral corticosteroid (OCS) medication orders from Geisinger Clinic in Pennsylvania. We used a diagnosis code ( International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification code 493.x) and medication orders from electronic health records to identify these exacerbations among asthma patients ( n = 35,269) from 2005-2012. We compared residential proximity to swine or dairy/veal IFAP (dichotomized as <3 miles (4.8 km) or ≥3 miles) among asthma patients with and without exacerbations and estimated odds ratios using multilevel logistic regression. In adjusted models, proximity to IFAP was associated (odds ratio (95% confidence interval)) with OCS orders (1.11 (1.04-1.19)) and hospitalizations (1.29 (1.15-1.46)), but not emergency encounters (1.12 (0.91-1.37)). This study contributes to growing evidence that IFAP may impact health, in this case clinically-documented asthma exacerbations. No prior study has evaluated the association of IFAP and clinically-documented asthma exacerbations in the United States.

  9. Dose imprecision and resistance: free-choice medicated feeds in industrial food animal production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David C; Davis, Meghan F; Bassett, Anna; Gunther, Andrew; Nachman, Keeve E

    2011-03-01

    Industrial food animal production employs many of the same antibiotics or classes of antibiotics that are used in human medicine. These drugs can be administered to food animals in the form of free-choice medicated feeds (FCMF), where animals choose how much feed to consume. Routine administration of these drugs to livestock selects for microorganisms that are resistant to medications critical to the treatment of clinical infections in humans. In this commentary, we discuss the history of medicated feeds, the nature of FCMF use with regard to dose delivery, and U.S. policies that address antimicrobial drug use in food animals. FCMF makes delivering a predictable, accurate, and intended dose difficult. Overdosing can lead to animal toxicity; underdosing or inconsistent dosing can result in a failure to resolve animal diseases and in the development of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. The delivery of antibiotics to food animals for reasons other than the treatment of clinically diagnosed disease, especially via free-choice feeding methods, should be reconsidered.

  10. The Food Marketing Institute and the National Council of Chain Restaurants: animal welfare and the retail food industry in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K H; Hollingsworth, J

    2005-08-01

    In order to achieve real change, there must be a motivating force and all the stakeholders need to be involved. This is the premise of the animal welfare programme developed for the food retail, wholesale and chain restaurant industries in the United States of America (USA) by the Food Marketing Institute (FMI) and the National Council of Chain Restaurants (NCCR). This paper outlines a collaborative process that retailers and producers in the USA are using to enhance the care and welfare of animals in commercial food production. Although the efforts of the FMI and the NCCR are still underway, the process provides one example of how different parts of the food production system can work together to achieve positive change.

  11. Safety in Serbian animal source food industry and the impact of hazard analysis and critical control points: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašević, I.; Đekić, I.

    2017-09-01

    There is a significant lack of HACCP-educated and/or HACCP-highly trained personnel within the Serbian animal source food workforces and veterinary inspectors, and this can present problems, particularly in hazard identification and assessment activities. However, despite obvious difficulties, HACCP benefits to the Serbian dairy industry are widespread and significant. Improving prerequisite programmes on the farms, mainly through infrastructural investments in milk collectors and transportation vehicles on one hand, and increasing hygiene awareness of farmers through training on the other hand has improved the safety of milk. The decline in bacterial numbers on meat contact surfaces, meat handlers’ hands and cooling facilities presents strong evidence of improved process hygiene and justifies the adoption of HACCP in Serbian meat establishments. Apart from the absence of national food poisoning statistics or national foodborne disease databases, the main obstacle to fully recognising the impact of HACCP on the safety of animal source food in Serbia is the lack of research regarding the occurrence of chemical and/or physical hazards interrelated with its production.

  12. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... safe to eat as food from conventionally bred animals. This conclusion stems from an extensive study of ...

  13. Characterization of the animal by-product meal industry in Costa Rica: Manufacturing practices through the production chain and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, A; Granados-Chinchilla, F; Redondo-Solano, M; Arrieta-González, M; Pineda-Salazar, E; Molina, A

    2018-06-01

    Animal by-product rendering establishments are still relevant industries worldwide. Animal by-product meal safety is paramount to protect feed, animals, and the rest of the food chain from unwanted contamination. As microbiological contamination may arise from inadequate processing of slaughterhouse waste and deficiencies in good manufacturing practices within the rendering facilities, we conducted an overall establishment's inspection, including the product in several parts of the process.An evaluation of the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) was carried out, which included the location and access (i.e., admission) to the facilities, integrated pest management programs, physical condition of the facilities (e.g., infrastructure), equipments, vehicles and transportation, as well as critical control points (i.e., particle size and temperature set at 50 mm, 133°C at atmospheric pressure for 20 min, respectively) recommended by the OIE and the European Commission. The most sensitive points according to the evaluation are physical structure of the facilities (avg 42.2%), access to the facilities (avg 48.6%), and cleaning procedures (avg 51.4%).Also, indicator microorganisms (Salmonella spp., Clostridium spp., total coliforms, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7) were used to evaluate the safety in different parts of the animal meal production process. There was a prevalence of Salmonella spp. of 12.9, 14.3, and 33.3% in Meat and Bone Meal (MBM), poultry by-products, and fish meal, respectively. However, there were no significant differences (P = 0.73) in the prevalence between the different animal meals, according to the data collected.It was also observed that renderings associated with the poultry industry (i.e., 92.0%) obtained the best ratings overall, which reflects a satisfactory development of this sector and the integration of its production system as a whole.

  14. Investment Attractiveness of Food Industries in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. О.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Effective investment is a factor for long-term company development. As enhancement of investment attractiveness is a required condition for economic growth and improvement of living standards, it needs to be on the agenda at government and company level. The article’s objective is to study investment attractiveness of food industries in Ukraine over 2012–2015. Investment attractiveness of food industries can be measured by indicators of liquidity, financial sustainability, and profit rate. Basically, food industries in Ukraine are attractive for investment, which is demonstrated by assessment of the financial indicators. The investment attractiveness worsened slightly in 2015 compared with 2014. The essential problems faced by food industries are shortage of internal funds and negative profit rate of all the activities, assets and own capital. Official statistical data and software package SPSS are used to build the dendrogram, allowing for dividing food industries by level of investment attractiveness into three groups: industries with high, medium and low level of investment attractiveness. It is found that meat industry is the one with the highest level of investment attractiveness. Also, investors should look positively at food-canning industry, oil and animal fat industry, flour-milling industry, starch and starch products industry, and other foods industry.

  15. Polish food industry 2008-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Mroczek, Robert; Drożdż, Jadwiga; Tereszczuk, Mirosława; Urban, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the functioning of the food industry and its various sectors in 2008-2013. Meat and poultry industry. Dairy industry. Fishing industry. Milling industry. Sugar industry. Oil-mill industry. Processing of fruit, vegetables and potatoes. Bakery industry. Confectionery industry. Feed industry. Production of other food products. Production of alcoholic beverages.Tobacco industry. Food industry.

  16. The use of drugs in food animals: benefits and risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ...; however, their use has also raised public health safety concerns. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals provides an overview of why and how drugs are used in the major food-producing animal industries--poultry, dairy, beef, swine, and aquaculture...

  17. Energy use in the food manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    A survey was conducted to find the level of energy consumption in the food manufacturing industry, which is the food processing industry excluding meat, dairy, and brewing. Data were used from 74 factories. The manufacturing industry was divided into 14 industry groups and the 4 major energy consumers were found to be fruit and vegetable processing, sugar refining, animal feed production, and bread and pastry baking. The present report summarizes results from the survey. It determined the following: the sources of energy used by the insu industry and the annual consumption of each energy form; the consumption of fuel and electricity in the production of the various manufactured food products; the minimum practical energy requirement for processing the various food products; and the potential for conservation and the methods for achieving savings.

  18. Food safety and quality assurance : foods of animal origin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Keith L; Hinton, Michael H; Hubbert, William T; Hagstad, Harry V; Spangler, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    The second edition of Food Safety and Quality Assurance is a basic reference for veterinarians, extension specialists, and others who help food-animal producers throughout the food chain to provide...

  19. Applications of Microbial Enzymes in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Parameswaran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of enzymes or microorganisms in food preparations is an age-old process. With the advancement of technology, novel enzymes with wide range of applications and specificity have been developed and new application areas are still being explored. Microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi and their enzymes are widely used in several food preparations for improving the taste and texture and they offer huge economic benefits to industries. Microbial enzymes are the preferred source to plants or animals due to several advantages such as easy, cost-effective and consistent production. The present review discusses the recent advancement in enzyme technology for food industries. A comprehensive list of enzymes used in food processing, the microbial source of these enzymes and the wide range of their application are discussed.

  20. Tracer techniques in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsovskij, E.S.; Sakharov, Eh.V.; Dolinin, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The appicability of radioactive tracer techniques to process control in food industry are considered. Investigations in the field of food industry carried out using the above method are classified. The 1 class included investigations with preliminary preparation of a radioactive indicator and its following introduction in the system studied. The 2 class includes investigations based on the introduction in the system studied of a non-active indicator which is activated in a neutron flux being in samples selected in or after the process investigated. The 3 class includes studies based on investigations of natural radioactivity of certain nuclides in food stuff. The application of tracer techniques to the above classes of investigations in various fields of food industry and the equipment applied are considered in detail [ru

  1. Study of by-products of agro-food industries which could be used for bio-fuel production (animal fat, used food oils, and wine production by-products). Synthesis of the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomy, Catherine; Thonier, Gregoire; Gagnepain, Bruno; Mhiri, Tarek

    2015-04-01

    As the Renewable Energy directive proposes the implementation of incentive arrangements for the production of bio-fuels from biomass, this report proposes a synthesis of a study which addressed three by-products of agro-food industry and of catering (collective, traditional, fast) which can help to reach objectives of energy production from biomass: used food oils, rendered animal fat of category 1 and 2, and vinification by-products (grape marc, lees, sludge). The objectives were to quantify, at the French national and regional levels, present resources and uses for these three by-products, non-valorised volumes and thus potentially available volumes for the production of liquid bio-fuels, to identify present actors and their interactions, and to study the potential of local production of liquid bio-fuels. The study comprised a comprehensive analysis of production and valorisation sectors for the three addressed types of by-products, and an identification of recent experiments implemented for the production of liquid bio-fuels. This synthesis states the lessons learned from the study of these three different sectors, and proposes recommendations for further developments

  2. Cytokines: applications in domestic food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecha, F

    1991-01-01

    Cytokines such as human, bovine, and porcine interferons and human and bovine interleukin-1 and interleukin-2 have been used in vivo in cattle and pigs. Colony-stimulating factors and tumor necrosis factor alpha have been evaluated in vitro in food animals. Studies to evaluate cytokines in domestic food animals have shown that specific and nonspecific immunomodulation is possible in immunosuppressed or pathogen-exposed animals. Cytokine prophylaxis or therapy in food animals may have the greatest potential for control of respiratory disease and mastitis.

  3. Food irradiation combined with refrigeration in food industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, P.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation and refrigeration are both physical treatments used for food preservation. The complementarity of their effects on food is the best reason for their combination. Irradiation is essentially used for disinfestation and refrigeration to protect food against non microbial degradations. Refrigeration and irradiation could be combined for shelf life extension of fresh fruits and vegetables or reduction of microflora in animal products, without loss of quality. Freezing must be combined with ionizing treatments if high doses are necessary as it is the case with destruction of pathogens in meat or food sterilization. Some examples of combination of refrigeration and irradiation are routinely applied in some industrial plants in France but it is expected that more and more combined treatments will be used thanks to research

  4. 21 CFR 501.100 - Animal food; exemptions from labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food; exemptions from labeling. 501.100... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements § 501.100 Animal food; exemptions from labeling. (a) The following foods are exempt...

  5. Biotechnology: Challenge for the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Popov Stevan

    2007-01-01

    According to the broadest definition, biotechnology is the use of living matter (plants, animals and microorganisms) in industry, environment protection, medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology takes a key position in the field of food processing during thousands of years. Last about fifty years brought dynamical development of knowledges in the natural sciences especially in domain of genetics and manipulation of genes. Biotechnology for which active role in the on-coming times could be fore...

  6. Food industry: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D

    2014-01-01

    Open discourse and tolerance between the food industry and public sector is limited. As a result, the public and private sectors are reluctant to collaborate on pressing nutritional issues. Those in the public sector have never heard what they could do to encourage a food company's transition towards healthier foods and beverages, whereas many in the private sector dismissed policies and actions initiated within the public sector. During my career, I have sought to engage the broadest possible stakeholder groups required to develop evidence-based policies and with the aim of improving public health. My recent experience in industry confirmed my view about the need for scientific exchange regardless of the disagreements about policy. Open discourse and partnering is essential if we are to tackle complex food and health issues and improve the global food system. Private-public engagement can provide faster and more sustainable results than government alone without impacting profits. Moreover, a high-quality product in smaller portions will have higher profit margins than a bargain-sized product of lower quality. The food industry and private sector must come together to implement innovative strategies to address urgent nutritional needs. © 2013 The Author. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. FOOD SAFETY IN CATERING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cattaneo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Catering industry plays a very important role in public health management, because about 30% of total daily meals are consumed in catering industry (restaurants, bar. In this work food safety was evaluated in 20 catering centres throughout microbiological analyses of different categories of meals. Results demonstrate that there was an important decrease of microbial contamination between 2006 and 2007, no pathogens were found in 217 samples examined: this was obtained by improving voluntary controls.

  8. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  9. Biotechnology and the food industry: some potentials for Ghana | Klu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology has played a major role in the traditional food and agriculture industry particularly in the areas of food fermentation, biological control of pests, and conventional animal vaccine production. The need to augment food production to meet the increasing population in Ghana requires that modern techniques be ...

  10. Can stress in farm animals increase food safety risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostagno, Marcos H

    2009-09-01

    All farm animals will experience some level of stress during their lives. Stress reduces the fitness of an animal, which can be expressed through failure to achieve production performance standards, or through disease and death. Stress in farm animals can also have detrimental effects on the quality of food products. However, although a common assumption of a potential effect of stress on food safety exists, little is actually known about how this interaction may occur. The aim of this review was to examine the current knowledge of the potential impact of stress in farm animals on food safety risk. Colonization of farm animals by enteric pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Campylobacter, and their subsequent dissemination into the human food chain are a major public health and economic concern for the food industries. This review shows that there is increasing evidence to demonstrate that stress can have a significant deleterious effect on food safety through a variety of potential mechanisms. However, as the impact of stress is difficult to precisely determine, it is imperative that the issue receives more research attention in the interests of optimizing animal welfare and minimizing losses in product yield and quality, as well as to food safety risks to consumers. While there is some evidence linking stress with pathogen carriage and shedding in farm animals, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Understanding when pathogen loads on the farm are the highest or when animals are most susceptible to infection will help identifying times when intervention strategies for pathogen control may be most effective, and consequently, increase the safety of food of animal origin.

  11. 78 FR 75570 - Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products Administered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... Guidance for Industry (GFI) 209, ``The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food... of certain antimicrobial new animal drug products who are interested in revising conditions of use... Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals,'' and to set timelines for stakeholders...

  12. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.17 Animal food labeling warning statements. (a) Self-pressurized containers. (1) The label of a food packaged in...

  13. Evolution of Food Quality Demand in the Food Service Industry in China: The Case of Duck

    OpenAIRE

    Carnegie, Rachel Alison

    2014-01-01

    Booming economic growth and rising consumer incomes have impacted food preferences and purchasing behavior in China. At the same time, several internationally publicized food safety incidents, particularly in the animal husbandry sector, have heightened awareness of and concern for food safety and quality in meat and dairy. Rising quality demand and safety concerns have been studied at length in the food retail sector, but also appear to be important in the food service industry. This researc...

  14. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; da Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  15. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year

  16. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A. [Centro Universitário da FEI, São Bernardo do Campo (Brazil); Medina, Nilberto H. [Instituto de Física da USP, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  17. Packaging systems for animal origin food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.

  18. Residues in food derived from animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossklaus, D.

    1989-01-01

    The first chapter presents a survey of fundamentals and methods of the detection and analysis of residues in food derived from animals, also referring to the resulting health hazards to man, and to the relevant legal provisions. The subsequent chapters have been written by experts of the Federal Health Office, each dealing with particular types of residues such as those of veterinary drugs, additives to animal feeds, pesticide residues, and with environmental pollutants and the contamination of animal products with radionuclides. (MG) With 35 figs., 61 tabs [de

  19. Meat, Milk and Eggs. Analysis of animal food environment relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elferink, E.

    2009-09-25

    This thesis aims at providing options for reduction of the consumption of natural resources by animal source food production and consumption. To formulate options for reducing the natural resource use of animal source food production systems, insight into how these systems function and knowledge of their natural resource use is required. The research goals of the thesis originate from this understanding: To gain insight into the natural resource use of animal source food production systems; To identify possibilities and options to reduce the natural resource use of animal source food production. The land requirements of beef, chicken and pork are determined in Chapter 2. Furthermore, the effect of system changes on the land requirement for meat is analyzed. The various factors that affect land requirements for meat production are identified.Chapter 3 analyses the energy use in the animal source food production systems for chicken, pork, eggs and milk. Results are compared on the basis of fresh weight and on their nutritional value as protein sources. The chapter identifies multiple options for reducing the energy use of animal source food products. A case study of how a change in policy (the banning of meat and bone meal in feed as a result of BSE) can affect the environmental impact of animal source food production is presented in Chapter 4. It also shows the global scale of the animal source food system and the trade-offs that can occur. The relationship between food consumption and the availability of human-inedible residues, feed composition and the environmental impact of meat is analysed in Chapter 5. This chapter shows the possible effect dietary changes can have on the environmental impact of meat. Chapter 6 compares organic and industrial pork production with respect to their natural resource use for different system settings. This chapter shows the factors that determine the natural resource use of feed. Finally, Chapter 7 provides an overview of the

  20. 21 CFR 501.18 - Misbranding of animal food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Misbranding of animal food. 501.18 Section 501.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.18 Misbranding of...

  1. Food for thought: food systems, livestock futures and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Angela

    2013-12-01

    Global food security, livestock production and animal health are inextricably bound. However, our focus on the future tends to disaggregate food and health into largely separate domains. Indeed, much foresight work is either food systems or health-based with little overlap in terms of predictions or narratives. Work on animal health is no exception. Part of the problem is the fundamental misunderstanding of the role, nature and impact of the modern futures tool kit. Here, I outline three key issues in futures research ranging from methodological confusion over the application of scenarios to the failure to effectively integrate multiple methodologies to the gap between the need for more evidence and power and control over futures processes. At its core, however, a better understanding of the narrative and worldview framing much of the futures work in animal health is required to enhance the value and impact of such exercises.

  2. Bioactive Peptides in Animal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Albenzio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw food materials, and enzymes from microorganisms added during food processing. Milk proteins have different polymorphisms for each dairy species that influence the amount and the biochemical characteristics (e.g., amino acid chain, phosphorylation, and glycosylation of the protein. Milk from other species alternative to cow has been exploited for their role in children with cow milk allergy and in some infant pathologies, such as epilepsy, by monitoring the immune status. Different mechanisms concur for bioactive peptides generation from meat and meat products, and their functionality and application as functional ingredients have proven effects on consumer health. Animal food proteins are currently the main source of a range of biologically-active peptides which have gained special interest because they may also influence numerous physiological responses in the organism. The addition of probiotics to animal food products represent a strategy for the increase of molecules with health and functional properties.

  3. Ionizing radiations in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, M.; Tata, A.

    1999-01-01

    Foodstuffs treatment by ionization is able to produce both a shelf-life extension and/or a food borne diseases control through the pathogenic population reduction/elimination. The main process goal is to ensure the hygienic quality and the wholesomeness of products to be marketed, in order to limit food borne diseases originated mainly through the cross contamination process. In fact several products may contain pathogenic agents or bacteria (e.g. Salmonella and Campylbacter in poultry meat), whose associated pathologies are world-wide increasing. At present, over 40 countries provide clearances for the treatment of about 45 different types of foodstuffs and in over 20 of them the ionizing process is already industrially utilized for spices, poultry, shrimps and vegetables. As it refers to process economic aspects, market researches have shown cost figures ranging from few tens to some hundreds Lit/kg, depending on the dose to products. The costs are competitive with alternative treatments, beyond the recovery of economic productivity reduction caused by food borne diseases

  4. The applications of nanotechnology in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Ladan; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush

    2011-09-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential of application in the food industry and processing as new tools for pathogen detection, disease treatment delivery systems, food packaging, and delivery of bioactive compounds to target sites. The application of nanotechnology in food systems will provide new methods to improve safety and the nutritional value of food products. This article will review the current advances of applications of nanotechnology in food science and technology. Also, it describes new current food laws for nanofood and novel articles in the field of risk assessment of using nanotechnology in the food industry.

  5. The food industry and provincial economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Greg; Li, Duo

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the food industry for the Zhejiang provincial economy and for provincial economies generally. It is suggested that the strong ties between the food industry and provincial economies in China means that the food industry can be a key influence in the economic development of regional China. Moreover, the geographically diffuse nature of the food industry in China gives the industry a strategic significance in countering regional inequality within and between provinces, a by-product of China's rapid growth over the past 25 years. For these reasons, change in the food industry, whether it has its origins in the introduction of western fast foods, or in environmental, technological or economic trends, not only assumes significance for the health of the Chinese people (as other papers presented to the International Cuisine and Health Workshop at Hangzhou have pointed out), but also for the wealth of the nation and the way that wealth is distributed.

  6. 77 FR 10753 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Food and Drug Administration Records Access Authority Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Food and Drug Administration Records Access Authority Under the Federal... industry entitled ``FDA Records Access Authority Under Sections 414 and 704 of the Federal Food, Drug...). This updated draft guidance is intended to provide individuals in the human and animal food industries...

  7. Biotechnology: Challenge for the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the broadest definition, biotechnology is the use of living matter (plants, animals and microorganisms in industry, environment protection, medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology takes a key position in the field of food processing during thousands of years. Last about fifty years brought dynamical development of knowledges in the natural sciences especially in domain of genetics and manipulation of genes. Biotechnology for which active role in the on-coming times could be foreseen, not only with respect of R&D, but also in general technological development represents scope of priority in the USA and in European Union (EU as well. It is accepted that the results achieved in biotechnology oversize scientific domain and find their entrance into economics, legislation, quality of life and even of politics. Corresponding with the definition of biotechnology as "the integration of natural sciences and engineering in the application of microorganisms, cells, their components and molecular analogues in production (General assembly of the European federation for Biotechnology, 1989 European Commission (1999 adopted the biotechnological taxonomy, i.e. fields and sub-fields of biotechnology. R&D activities in this domain are oriented to eight fields and branched through them. Fields of biotechnology (EC, 1999 are: 1 Plant biotechnology (agricultural cultivars, trees, bushes etc; 2 Animal biotechnology; 3 Biotechnology in environment protection; 4 Industrial biotechnology (food, feed, paper, textile, pharmaceutical and chemical productions; 5 Industrial biotechnology (production of cells and research of cells - producers of food and of other commodities; 6 Development of humane and veterinarian diagnostics (therapeutical systems 7 Development of the basic biotechnology, and 8 Nontechnical domains of biotechnology. In concordance with some judgments, in the World exist about 4000 biotechnological companies. World market of biotechnological

  8. Solutions for energy recovery of animal waste from leather industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, Gheorghe; Pană, Constantin; Mihaescu, Lucian; Cernat, Alexandru; Negurescu, Niculae; Mocanu, Raluca; Negreanu, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal fats in blend with diesel fuel for energy valorification through combustion. • Animal waste from tanneries as fuel and for biogas production. • Experimental tests using animal fats as fuel for diesel engines. • Experimental tests modifying the characteristic parameters. - Abstract: Secondary products from food and leather industries are regarded as animal wastes. Conversion of these animal wastes into fuels represents an energy recovery solution not only because of their good combustion properties, but also from the viewpoint of supply stability. A tannery factory usually processes 60–70 t/month of crude leathers, resulting in 12–15 t/month of waste. Fats, which can be used as the input fuel for diesel engines (in crude state or as biodiesel), represent 10% of this animal waste, while the rest are proteins that can be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. Herein, we analyse two approaches to the use of animal waste from tanneries: as fuel for diesel engines and for biogas generation for heat production. Diesel fuelling and fuelling by animal wastes are compared in terms of the engine performance and pollutant emissions. The effects of animal waste usage on the pollutant emissions level, exhaust gas temperature, indicated mean effective pressure, maximum pressure, and engine efficiency are analysed. The energy recovery technologies for animal waste, which are analysed in this work, can be easily implemented and can simultaneously solve the problem posed by animal wastes by using them as an alternative to fossil fuels. Animal fats can be considered an excellent alternative fuel for diesel engines without major constructive modifications.

  9. Analysis of the European Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Banse, Martin; McDonald, Scott; Joint Research Centre; Institute for Prospective Technological Studies; Kaditi, Eleni

    2008-01-01

    This report is based on a study assigned to the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) by the European Commission¿s Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (JRC-IPTS) to investigate recent developments in the European food industry and the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade flows on the food industry in the EU-25. The report illustrates trends in and the structure of the European food industry. Past and possible future developments are ana...

  10. Rural development policy and food industry development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens; Hedetoft, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may...... be less appropriate. This paper employs telephone interviews and workshop discussions with firms in isolated locations to investigate their satisfaction with assistance programmes, their ability to innovate (through product introductions) and respond to challenges in the food industry (the emergence...

  11. Irradiation and the food industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on food irradiation. The historical development in France of some industrial applications of food irradiation resulting from efficient technology transfer to the food industry is discussed. The 4 basic steps in successfully marketing any technology transfer, including irradiated foods, are that research must define conditions of the product's application, legislation must specify conditions of its application, consumers must accept the product, and appropriate processing capacity must exist

  12. Linking Food Industry and Agriculture: The Case of Fruit-Juice Industry and Korean Food Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sounghun; Choi, Ji-Hyeon

    2008-01-01

    In Korea, the portion of food industry has increased, while the portion of agriculture keeps decreasing. The alliance between agriculture and food industry results in the synergy between both industries as well as higher farmers' income. The goal of this study is to analyze the current status of the linkages between two food industries (fruit-juice industry and Korean-style meal franchise industry) and agriculture, and then to present the ways to strengthen the linkages. The discussion in thi...

  13. Animal and industrial waste anaerobic digestion: USA status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Pollutants from unmanaged animal and bio-based industrial wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing wastes may contribute to global climate change. One waste management system prevents pollution and converts a disposal problem into a new profit center. Case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel. Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities to properly dispose of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Beyond the farm, extension of the anaerobic digestion process to recover methane has considerable potential for certain classified industries - with a waste stream characterization similar to livestock manures. More than 35 example industries have been identified, and include processors of chemicals, fiber, food, meat, milk, and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries already recover methane for energy. This status report examines some current opportunities for recovering methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes in the US. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned,{close_quotes} are included as a reality check. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some anaerobic digestion projects fail, are provided. The role of management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at facilities willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. Anaerobic digestion can provide monetary benefits and mitigate possible pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality.

  14. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  15. Animation and Game Industry:For a Good Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rose Yan

    2011-01-01

    @@ On October 24th, International Development Forum on Animation and Game Industry was held in Shi-jingshan District Beijing.The Forum was centered on the theme "Innovation and Development of Animation and Game Industry".Experts, government officials, entrepreneurs in the related fields gathered together and discussed the development of the animation and game industry now and in the future.

  16. Consumer and food industries education on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Z.

    2001-01-01

    A survey was conducted on Malaysian food industries to determine the interest and potential applications of food irradiation as an alternative or to complement existing food preservation treatments. A total of 37 food processors representing 5 subsectors of the food industry participated in the survey. Information collected showed that majority of respondents were aware of food irradiation but the level of knowledge was low. Half of respondents perceived food irradiation as safe and 23% will consider using it for commercial purposes. Main concerns of the food processors were safety of the process, safety of irradiated food, efficacy of the process and consumer acceptance. Food irradiation applications considered to have the most potential for use by the food industry, were those which would improve the hygienic quality of food products. Despite the limited knowledge, respondents strongly supported the need to promote food irradiation technology in Malaysia. In view of this finding. various promotional activities have been continuously carried out to increase public awareness and understanding of the technology so as to facilitate acceptance of food irradiation in Malaysia. (author)

  17. INDUSTRIAL FOOD – THE DAILY TOXIN SERVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrodita BORMA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the opposition between industrial and organic food. The method used focuses on an extensive documentation based on statistical data, documentary films, books and articles that provide us various information about the devastating effect of chemicals used by the food industry. Most of the documents used are based on case studies and concrete examples that condemn the current food industry, which “forces” the population of the globe to consume artificial food, (lacking vitamins and minerals, which, according to specialists, “keeps us alive but hurries the end”. In order to change this cruel reality, a growing number of activists (physicians, economists, biologists, chemists, etc. fight to stop the food chaos created by the current food industry, seeking and offering viable solutions for protecting the environment and the public health.

  18. Food irradiation: a reply to the food industry; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, Ari; Piccioni, R.

    1989-01-01

    In a reply to a critical article on food irradiation, Dr Ari Brynjolfsson of the International Facility of Food Irradiation Technology contends that the food industry has no interest in supporting the nuclear industry by using nuclear wastes as radiation sources - high voltage electron generators are more practical and economic. Also World Health Organization Toxicologists have concluded irradiated food is safe toxicologically, nutritionally and microbiologically. A study in India found no difference in polyploidy in children fed irradiated or non-irradiated food. In reply Dr Richard Piccioni suggests that the cancer risk from irradiated food is high, that the Indian study showed that irradiated food can cause an increase in polyploidy in well-fed adults, and suggests that Cs-137 from nuclear reactors will be used in food irradiation. (U.K.)

  19. [A NEW APPROACH FOR FOOD PREFERENCE TESTING IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertin, S V

    2015-10-01

    An article describes the original method allowing to study a mechanism of food preference related to the sensory properties of foods in animals. The method gives a good possibility to select the role of visual and orosensory signaling in food preference as well as to model the processes of physiological and pathological food and drug dependence in animal experiments. The role of discrete food presentation in the formation of the current motivations and food preferences was discussed.

  20. Scenario research: The food industry in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Julia; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2001-01-01

    What kind of foods will the consumers choose to buy in 2010? Will they be buying organic foods, functional foods or go for the cheapest products? Nobody can predict the future. However, by using scenario techniques qualified indications on future developments can be put together. Researchers at MAPP and the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, The Technical University of Denmark have constructed three scenarios about the Danish food industry in 2010. The aim has been to ide...

  1. Scenario research: The food industry in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2001-01-01

    What kind of foods will the consumers choose to buy in 2010? Will they be buying organic foods, functional foods or go for the cheapest products? Nobody can predict the future. However, by using scenario techniques qualified indications on future developments can be put together. Researchers...... at MAPP and the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, The Technical University of Denmark have constructed three scenarios about the Danish food industry in 2010. The aim has been to identify the demands the food industry can expect to meet in the future plus which research areas...... the public research should prioritise in order to support the development of competences within the food industry. The scenarios are isolated developments. In practise, the future is likely to be a combination of the different tendencies within the scenarios. The first scenario 'Naturalness' has focus...

  2. Lipases industrial applications: focus on food and agroindustries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrand David

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes developed and produced for industrial applications represent a market estimated at a global value comprised between $5000 million and $5500 million in 2016. The major applications for industrial enzymes include food and beverages (dairy, bakery, fruit juices, beer, wine, detergents, biofuel productions, animal feed, and other applications such as textiles, leather, and paper processing. Altogether, food and feed applications account for 55–60% of the global enzymes market, and market is still growing at an estimated 6–8% annual growth. The lipases category represents less than 10% of the global enzymes market, with a broad range of industrial applications: detergents, oil processing, food processing and pharmaceutical end-users. Existing applications and new development in the food and agroindustries sectors are reviewed.

  3. Scenarios for the food industry in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Sonne, Anne-Mette

    2001-01-01

    visions of the future of the food industry and to assess their implications for competence requirements. Given the uncertain nature of the environment, food companies cannot rely on today's competencies being sufficient to fulfil the demands of tomorrow's markets. However, predicting the determinants......Predicting the future is impossible; corporate decision-makers have, however, to decide which competencies to develop precisely on this basis. This article presents the results of a research project on scenario analyses in the Danish food industry. The aim of the study is to look at alternative...... of success in the food industry 10 years hence is a daunting task. Scenario techniques can be very useful in this respect (von Reibnitz, 1988). The contribution of the article is the methodological approach to scenario building, which combines academic and industry input and translates the scenarios...

  4. Investment Attractiveness of Food Industries in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    L. О.

    2017-01-01

    Effective investment is a factor for long-term company development. As enhancement of investment attractiveness is a required condition for economic growth and improvement of living standards, it needs to be on the agenda at government and company level. The article’s objective is to study investment attractiveness of food industries in Ukraine over 2012–2015. Investment attractiveness of food industries can be measured by indicators of liquidity, financial sustainability, and profit rate...

  5. Consumer Information in the food service industry vs. food retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Rogge, C.B.E.; Becker, Tilman C.

    2008-01-01

    In order to define consumer expectations over a traceability and information system for the entire food supply chain, the information behaviour of consumers in the food service industry has been subject to an analysis for the first time. In comparison to consumers in retailing, significant differences appear in information seeking behaviour as well as in the information desired.

  6. Safety of Nanotechnology in Food Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Seyed Mohammad; Gilaki, Marzieh; Karchani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of nanotechnology in various industries has been so rapid and widespread because of its wide-ranging applications in our daily lives. Nutrition and food service is one of the biggest industries to be affected by nanotechnology in all areas, changing even the nature of food itself. Whether it’s farming, food packaging, or the prevention of microbial contamination the major food industries have seen dramatic changes because of nanotechnology. Different nanomaterials such as nanopowders, nanotubes, nano-fibers, quantum dots, and metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles are globally produced in large quantities due to their broad applicability in food-related industries. Because of the unique properties of nanostructures and nanomaterials – such as a large surface area, high activity, and small size, there is some concern about the potential for harmful adverse effects of used nanomaterials on health or the environment. However, because of tremendous advances in different industries, this concern may be unnecessary. This paper presents some uses of nanomaterials in food and related industries and their possible side-effects. This review covers the various aspects of nanomaterials and their impact on human exposure, safety, and environmental concerns. PMID:25763176

  7. Exergy analysis in industrial food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, F.K.

    2016-01-01

    The sustainable provision of food on a global scale in the near future is a very serious challenge. This thesis focuses on the assessment and design of sustainable industrial food production chains and processes by using the concept of exergy which is an objective metric based on the first and

  8. 76 FR 72422 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Effectiveness of Anticoccidial Drugs in Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0784] Draft Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Effectiveness of Anticoccidial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  9. Hygienic Design in the Food Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hjelm, M.

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of major concern in food production and processing industry. In 1998 a Danish co-operation programme under the title Centre for Hygienic Design was funded to combine the skills of universities, research institutes and industry to focus on the following...

  10. Innovation in the Food Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traill, W.B.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    2002-01-01

    Twelve food-manufacturing companies in six European countries have been studied with respect to the way in which they innovate, their motivations, and their emphasis on product or process innovation. It is suggested that the traditional demand-pull versus technology-push versus a mixture of both

  11. Energy conservation status in Taiwanese food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Chih-Ming; Chen, Ming-Hue; Hong, Gui-Bing

    2012-01-01

    The food industry in Taiwan is labor intensive, the cost of raw materials is high, and there is much product diversification. Although this industry is primarily small and medium scale, it is a large user of electricity in Taiwan's manufacturing sector. The concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from manufacturing activities and vehicle emissions has increased remarkably. Energy audits are a basic and direct means by which energy efficiency can be improved, energy consumption reduced, and carbon dioxide emissions inhibited. This work summarizes the energy saving potential of 76 firms and the energy savings implemented by 23 firms as determined by energy audit tracking and from the on-line energy declaration system in Taiwan's food industry. The results of this study can serve as a benchmark for developing a quantified list in terms of potential energy savings and opportunities for improving the efficiency of the food industry. - Highlights: ► This work summarizes the energy saving potential and the energy savings implemented in food industry. ► The results of this study can serve as a benchmark for developing a quantified list in terms of potential energy savings. ► The opportunities for improving the efficiency of the food industry can be a reference.

  12. FOOD HYPERSENSITIVITY AND PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Lisitsyn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of people with food hypersensitivity, namely food intolerance and food allergies, grows every year. Food intolerance is classified into following types: enzymopathy; leaky gut syndrome; psychogenic food intolerance; detoxification insufficiency and true food intolerance. Food allergens mainly are glycoproteins, haptensor polypeptides. Most cases of food allergy are IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Recent discoveries in medicine, detailing and classification of food hypersensitivity require further researches to develop modern techniques and product recipes with specified propertiesfor consumers with food hypersensitivity. Existing technologies are based on the elimination and or reduction of the content of the allergenic substance in food. The article provides an overview of causes of food intolerance and food allergy, legislative background, a list of food allergens and methods of control, market profile of hypoallergenic produce and scientific approaches to creating hypoallergenic food products based on raw materials of animal origin.

  13. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. 77 FR 69634 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Effectiveness of Anticoccidial Drugs in Food-Producing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0784] Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Effectiveness of Anticoccidial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals... Effectiveness of Anticoccidial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals.'' The guidance provides guidance to industry for...

  15. Factors affecting the adoption of genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Kleter, G.A.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Pakky Reddy, G.

    2012-01-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this

  16. The use of drugs in food animals: benefits and risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    .... The volume discusses the prevalence of human pathogens in foods of animal origin. It also addresses the transfer of resistance in animal microbes to human pathogens and the resulting risk of human disease...

  17. 77 FR 72254 - New Animal Drugs; Updating Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 500, 520, 522, 524, 529, 556, and 558 [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1067] RIN 0910-AG17 New Animal Drugs; Updating Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs in Food AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...

  18. From alternative Agriculture to the Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorkild; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    1997-01-01

    for organic agriculture over the last decade.Organic food production is now developing fast in some EU member states. This recent development is not only marked by more positive attitudes towards organic products from the food industry but also by an increasing need for a matching response in terms of food...... policy. Relevance: The EU regulation 2092/91/EEC is mainly focused on organic agriculture, but as the food industryenters this field the need emerges for a more specific interpretation, development and implementation of the organic principles and methods in processing, handling and distribution. Whether...

  19. Should we reject animal source foods to save the planet? A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the next 40 years, the global livestock industry will have to considerably increase production in order to supply the population with animal-source foods, yet the industry must concurrently improve the three metrics of sustainability – economic viability, environmental stewardship and social responsibility. Environmental ...

  20. Animals on drugs: understanding the role of pharmaceutical companies in the animal-industrial complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, Richard

    2013-12-01

    In this paper I revisit previous critiques that I have made of much, though by no means all, bioethical discourse. These pertain to faithfulness to dualistic ontology, a taken-for-granted normative anthropocentrism, and the exclusion of a consideration of how political economy shapes the conditions for bioethical discourse (Twine Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8(3):285-295, 2005; International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food 16(3):1-18, 2007, 2010). Part of my argument around bioethical dualist ontology is to critique the assumption of a division between the "medical" (human) and "agricultural" (nonhuman) and to show various ways in which they are interrelated. I deepen this analysis with a focus on transnational pharmaceutical companies, with specific attention to their role in enhancing agricultural production through animal drug administration. I employ the topical case of antibiotics in order to speak to current debates in not only the interdisciplinary field of bioethics but also that of animal studies. More generally, the animal-industrial complex (Twine Journal for Critical Animal Studies 10(1):12-39, 2012) is underlined as a highly relevant bioethical object that deserves more conceptual and empirical attention.

  1. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  2. An industrial radiation source for food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, R.

    1986-01-01

    The scientific linacs realized by CGR MeV in France have been installed in several research centers, the medical accelerators of CGR MeV have been installed in radiotherapy centers all over the world, and the industrial linacs have been used for radiography in heavy industries. Based on the experience for 30 years, CGR MeV has realized a new industrial radiation source for food processing. CARIC is going to install a new machine of CGR MeV, CASSITRON, as the demand for radiation increased. This machine has been devised specially for industrial irradiation purpose. Its main features are security, simplicity and reliability, and it is easy to incorporate it into a production line. The use of CASSITRON for food industry, the ionizing effect on mechanically separated poultry meat, the capital and processing cost and others are explained. Only 10 % of medical disposable supplies is treated by ionizing energy in France. The irradiation for food decontamination, and that for industrial treatment are demanded. Therefore, CARIC is going to increase the capacity by installing a CASSITRON for sterilization. The capital and processing cost are shown. The start of operation is expected in March, 1986. At present, a CASSITRON is being installed in the SPI food processing factory, and starts operation in a few weeks. (Kako, I.)

  3. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Rendered ingredients significantly influence sustainability, quality, and safety of pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, D L; Meisinger, J L

    2015-03-01

    The rendering industry collects and safely processes approximately 25 million t of animal byproducts each year in the United States. Rendering plants process a variety of raw materials from food animal production, principally offal from slaughterhouses, but include whole animals that die on farms or in transit and other materials such as bone, feathers, and blood. By recycling these byproducts into various protein, fat, and mineral products, including meat and bone meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, and various types of animal fats and greases, the sustainability of food animal production is greatly enhanced. The rendering industry is conscious of its role in the prevention of disease and microbiological control and providing safe feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and pets. The processing of otherwise low-value OM from the livestock production and meat processing industries through rendering drastically reduces the amount of waste. If not rendered, biological materials would be deposited in landfills, burned, buried, or inappropriately dumped with large amounts of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other compounds polluting air and water. The majority of rendered protein products are used as animal feed. Rendered products are especially valuable to the livestock and pet food industries because of their high protein content, digestible AA levels (especially lysine), mineral availability (especially calcium and phosphorous), and relatively low cost in relation to their nutrient value. The use of these reclaimed and recycled materials in pet food is a much more sustainable model than using human food for pets.

  4. Progressive technologies in the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyleova, L.; Sukova, I.

    1987-01-01

    The collection of papers presented at the training of food industry specialists contains 14 papers, of which 3 were incorporated in INIS. All deal with the radiation treatment of foods and feeds, various equipment and technologies used for the purpose, major radiation effects and the advantages of irradiation techniques. Also discussed are adverse effects of radiation on foodstuffs, questions of legislation and future prospects. (M.D.)

  5. Phage therapy in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersen, Lorraine; O'Mahony, Jim; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; McAuliffe, Olivia; Coffey, Aidan

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in modern technologies, the food industry is continuously challenged with the threat of microbial contamination. The overuse of antibiotics has further escalated this problem, resulting in the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant foodborne pathogens. Efforts to develop new methods for controlling microbial contamination in food and the food processing environment are extremely important. Accordingly, bacteriophages (phages) and their derivatives have emerged as novel, viable, and safe options for the prevention, treatment, and/or eradication of these contaminants in a range of foods and food processing environments. Whole phages, modified phages, and their derivatives are discussed in terms of current uses and future potential as antimicrobials in the traditional farm-to-fork context, encompassing areas such as primary production, postharvest processing, biosanitation, and biodetection. The review also presents some safety concerns to ensure safe and effective exploitation of bacteriophages in the future.

  6. Radiation-Hygienic control of animal food in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicentijevic, M.; Vukovic, D.; Mitrovic, R.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation-hygienic control of animal food (concentrated fodder, row material for making fodder and food for pets) was done through the first and second circle of radiation biotechnology monitoring system (BIMOS) in 1996. The gamma-spectrometry determined activity of 137 Cs was less than 2,65 Bq/kg with one sample of fish flour exception (23,9 Bq/kg), so the completely radiation safety for animal food was confirmed. (author)

  7. 78 FR 59624 - Guidance for Industry #223: Small Entity Compliance Guide-Declaring Color Additives in Animal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 501 [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-1088] Guidance for Industry 223: Small Entity Compliance Guide--Declaring Color Additives... industry 223 entitled ``Small Entity Compliance Guide--Declaring Color Additives in Animal Foods.'' This...

  8. All about Food Chains. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Whether animals are herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores, each one is part of an eternal food chain that carries on from one generation to the next. In this videotape, students learn more about terms like "predator,""pre-consumer" and "producer," as well as the cycles of food chains and food webs and how they support…

  9. Animals and trees: food for thought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Openshaw, K.

    1979-01-01

    In many areas of Africa, combining tree-growing with animal rearing is advantageous, as the trees provide shade, animal fodder and timber for fuel and building, while grazing animals reduce the fire hazard from ground vegetation and improve soil fertility through droppings. Acacia albida, Prosopis cineraria, P. chilensis, leucaena leucocephala and Ailanthus excelsa are discussed as promising fodder trees, and an appendix is included with notes on 21 other trees for fodder or the production of medicines.

  10. Growth promoting antibiotics in food animal production: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P; Boland, John J; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Considerable controversy persists regarding the use of human antibiotics to promote growth in animals raised for food. The authors examined the economic effect of removing antibiotics used for growth promotion in commercial broiler chickens. The authors utilized data published by the Perdue company, the fourth largest poultry producer in the United States, in which a non-randomized controlled trial of growth-promoting antibiotic (GPA) use was conducted with seven million broiler chickens to evaluate the impact of removing GPAs on production. Positive production changes were associated with GPA use, but were insufficient to offset the cost of the antibiotics. The net effect of using GPAs was a lost value of 0.0093 dollars per chicken (about 0.45% of total cost). Based upon these data, the authors found no basis for the claim that the use of GPAs lowers the cost of production. Note that this study does not include veterinary cost changes or changes in performance variability associated with the removal of GPAs. This economic analysis is the first study to the authors' knowledge utilizing large-scale empirical data collected by U.S. industry, in which it is demonstrated that the use of GPAs in poultry production is associated with economic losses to the producers. These data are of considerable importance in the ongoing national debate concerning the continued use of antibiotics for growth promotion of food animals. Based on the industry study and the resulting economic impact, the use of GPAs in U.S. poultry production should be reconsidered.

  11. Complexity management in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The many stakeholders in the food industry with their diverse interests make this industry complex and interesting to work with. There are four main stakeholders; 1) The customers with their increased demand for customized products, quick delivery times and increased responsiveness, 2) The author......The many stakeholders in the food industry with their diverse interests make this industry complex and interesting to work with. There are four main stakeholders; 1) The customers with their increased demand for customized products, quick delivery times and increased responsiveness, 2...... this complexity and finding a method for using these complexity factors in economic calculations. The research question this paper seeks to address is therefore “Which complexity factors can be quantified in the food industry and how can they be used in economic calculations?” A case study of a SME Danish bread...... producer will address the research question due to the explorative nature of this study and the limited amount of previous research within this field....

  12. Food reformulation: the challenges to the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttriss, Judith L

    2013-02-01

    The role of the food industry (retailers, manufacturers and food service) in helping consumers eat healthily and sustainably has been receiving considerable attention in recent years. This paper focuses on the challenges facing the food industry and the role of food reformulation in meeting these challenges, through the lens of a public health nutritionist. Attention has been heightened by the Government's Responsibility Deal, launched in early 2011 by the Department of Health (England), by the UK's engagement with the global food security and food supply sustainability agendas and by the Government Office of Science's Foresight report. The Responsibility Deal's food network has to date focused on reduction of trans fatty acids, salt and calories and out-of-home calorie labelling (in food service settings). New pledges are expected soon on increasing fruit and vegetable intakes. Reformulation is a major feature of the Responsibility Deal's approach, and along with other approaches such as portion control, choice editing and information provision, there is potential to increase the breadth of healthier choices available to the public. With the exception of fruit and vegetables, the emphasis has been almost exclusively on aspects of the diet that are in excess for many of the population (e.g. energy and salt). Evidence of low consumption of some key micronutrients by some groups of the population, particularly adolescents and young adults, often alongside excess energy intake compared with expenditure, is all too often overlooked. This paper summarises the progress made to date, the challenges faced and the opportunities that exist, with particular focus on reformulation. One of the biggest challenges is the relatively poor understanding of how to effect positive and long-term dietary behaviour change. The paper concludes that, in isolation, reformulation is unlikely to provide a complete solution to the challenge of improving eating patterns and nutrient provision

  13. Encapsulation in the food industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, B F; Kermasha, S; Alli, I; Mulligan, C N

    1999-05-01

    Encapsulation involves the incorporation of food ingredients, enzymes, cells or other materials in small capsules. Applications for this technique have increased in the food industry since the encapsulated materials can be protected from moisture, heat or other extreme conditions, thus enhancing their stability and maintaining viability. Encapsulation in foods is also utilized to mask odours or tastes. Various techniques are employed to form the capsules, including spray drying, spray chilling or spray cooling, extrusion coating, fluidized bed coating, liposome entrapment, coacervation, inclusion complexation, centrifugal extrusion and rotational suspension separation. Each of these techniques is discussed in this review. A wide variety of foods is encapsulated--flavouring agents, acids bases, artificial sweeteners, colourants, preservatives, leavening agents, antioxidants, agents with undesirable flavours, odours and nutrients, among others. The use of encapsulation for sweeteners such as aspartame and flavours in chewing gum is well known. Fats, starches, dextrins, alginates, protein and lipid materials can be employed as encapsulating materials. Various methods exist to release the ingredients from the capsules. Release can be site-specific, stage-specific or signalled by changes in pH, temperature, irradiation or osmotic shock. In the food industry, the most common method is by solvent-activated release. The addition of water to dry beverages or cake mixes is an example. Liposomes have been applied in cheese-making, and its use in the preparation of food emulsions such as spreads, margarine and mayonnaise is a developing area. Most recent developments include the encapsulation of foods in the areas of controlled release, carrier materials, preparation methods and sweetener immobilization. New markets are being developed and current research is underway to reduce the high production costs and lack of food-grade materials.

  14. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  15. Biogeochemistry: Food for early animal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Andrew H.

    2017-08-01

    A revised timeline for when algae became ecologically important among plankton in the ancient oceans reveals a link between chemical changes in those waters and the emergence of animals in marine ecosystems. See Letter p.578

  16. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reperant, L. A.; Brown, I. H.; Haenen, O. L.; de Jong, M. D.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Papa, A.; Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; Kuiken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known

  17. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); I.H. Brown (Ian); Haenen, O.L.; M.D. de Jong (Menno); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Papa (Anna); Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCompanion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society,

  18. Prospects of robotics in food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshed IQBAL

    Full Text Available Abstract Technological advancements in various domains have broadened the application horizon of robotics to an incredible extent. Highlighting a very recent application area, this paper presents a comprehensive review of robotics application in food industry. Robots essentially have the potential to transform the processes in food processing and handling, palletizing and packing and food serving. Therefore, recent years witnessed tremendously increased trend of robots deployment in food sector. Consequently, the aspects related with robot kinematics, dynamics, hygiene, economic efficiency, human-robot interaction, safety and protection and operation and maintenance are of critical importance and are discussed in the present review. A comparison of actual robots being used in the industry is also presented. The review reveals that the food serving sector is the new potential area in which ample research opportunities exist by integrating advancements from various technology domains. It is anticipated that wider dissemination of research developments in ‘robo-food’ will stimulate more collaborations among the research community and contribute to further developments.

  19. Radiation microbiology relevant to the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Destruction or inactivation of most microbial cells takes place at relatively low doses of gamma irradiation, making 'pasteurising' treatment of several food commodities in the dose range of 1 to 10 kGy a feasible decontamination method. Several factors may influence the effectiveness of an irradiation process, and should be taken into account when radurisation of foods is practised. Damage to microbes is enhanced in the presence of oxygen and at low pH levels, whereas substances such as sulfhydryl compounds tend to act as protectors. Living organisms may be arranged in the order of increasing resistance to ionising radiation, as follows: higher animals, insects, vegetative bacteria, yeasts and fungi, bacterial endospores and viruses. Most food spoilage organisms as well as food-borne pathogens (D 10 -values for the majority ranging between 0,08 and 0,5 kGy) are sensitive to relatively small irradiation doses. Although several bacterial endospores may survive in radurised foods (D 10 -values ranging between 1,5 and 5,0 kGy), additional safety factors (e.g. low pH, refrigeration, reduced Eh, reduced a w , preservatives) may contribute to the shelf stability of a given food

  20. Investigation into the animal species contents of popular wet pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Isabella R; Atterbury, Robert; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2015-03-10

    The use of the generic term "meat and animal derivatives" in declared ingredient lists of pet foods in the European Union is virtually universal. In the wake of the 2013 "horse meat scandal" in the human food chain, we examined the presence and authenticity of animal sources (cow, chicken, pig and horse) of proteins in a range of popular wet pet foods in the United Kingdom. Seventeen leading dog and cat foods were sampled for the relative presence of DNA from each of the four animal species by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. No horse DNA was detected. However, there was detection at substantial levels of unspecified animal species in most products tested. In 14 out of 17 samples, bovine, porcine and chicken DNA were found in various proportions and combinations but were not explicitly identified on the product labels. Of the 7 products with prominent headline descriptions containing the term "with beef", only 2 were found to contain more bovine DNA (>50%) than pig and chicken DNA combined. There is a need for the pet food industry to show greater transparency to customers in the disclosure of the types of animal proteins (animal species and tissue types) in their products. Full disclosure of animal contents will (a) allow more informed choices to be made on purchases which are particularly important for pets with food allergies, (b) reduce the risk of product misinterpretation by shoppers, and (c) avoid potential religious concerns.

  1. Food industry hungry for energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, D

    1989-04-01

    The United Kingdom food and drink industry is a significant user of energy. Energy use figures are given showing the breakdown in terms of different sectors of the industry and also in terms of the fuel used. Four energy monitoring and target setting demonstration projects are outlined at factories typical of their type in different sectors. The projects have resulted in a much greater awareness by management in the factories involved of energy consumption and waste. Examples are given of improved energy efficiency and consequent energy savings which have resulted from this awareness. (U.K.).

  2. Integrating animal health and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J A; Silva, P

    2013-08-01

    Surveillance at the slaughterhouse level for animal health and food safety purposes encompasses examination for the presence of pathology, pathogens, drug residues, chemical contaminants and antimicrobial resistance. Government, industry and academia are the primary proponents of such surveillance. A variety of policies and policy instruments from voluntary to legislative may be applied to promote or obligate participation. Efforts to integrate data across such diverse organisations encounter significant legal, logistical and financial challenges. Enhancement of policies to encourage effective integration of animal health and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control should promote: a long-term approach; collaboration among government, industry and academia; application of a risk-based scheme; and transparent public access to data, with generation of consumer-oriented communications derived from the data. A strong case can be made that the complementary pursuit of both sustainable animal health and food safety can continue to be aided by surveillance at the slaughterhouse level.

  3. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  4. What foods are identified as animal friendly by Italian consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Di Pasquale

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Italian market, voluntary certifications implying higher levels of animal welfare generally fall into wider production schemes. Despite of the results of EU surveys indicating that about 50% of Italian consumers can easily identify and find animal-friendly products, they still are distributed scarcely or discontinuously in the main retail chains. To assess the apparent contradiction between the intricate information consumers receive from labels and their declared awareness about animal welfare, a survey was conducted in Emilia Romagna region on 355 Italian consumers (face-to-face interviews based on a structured, semi-close-ended questionnaire. Overall, consumers showed a low degree of knowledge about animal welfare attributes, animal farming conditions and animal protection policies (about 30% of correct answers, and a low level of awareness of the effects of their purchasing choices on the welfare of farmed animals (22%. The respondents also showed difficulties in identifying animal-friendly products and often confused them with other certified foods, having sometimes a weak connection (or none at all to animal welfare (e.g., Protected Designation of Origin products. However, most consumers declared to be ready to pay a premium price in name of animal welfare. In conclusion, a labelling system for the welfare content of animal-derived foods is confirmed to be an effective strategy to compensate the efforts of farmers in improving animal welfare, provided that the information given is clear and able to fill the substantial lack of consumer knowledge.

  5. Irradiation of foods of animal origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkarevic, A.

    1985-01-01

    A system is suggested which permits the irradiation of liquid and semi-solid materials, using wasted radiation in conventional package irradiation plants. Various appliances control the flow parameters, temperature, and environment during irradiation. As possible materials, various derivatives of the meat industry are suggested

  6. Food animal supply and consumption pattern in Akwa Ibom State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three-year retrospective study (1994-1996) of food animal supply and consumption in Akwa Ibom State was carried out, based on records kept at the Veterinary Services Department of the Ministry of Agriculture. This was complemented with visits to appraise operational areas and interviews of the operators. The animals ...

  7. Environmental and health impacts of using food waste as animal feed: a comparative analysis of food waste management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J; Kim, Mi Hyung; Balmford, Andrew; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2017-01-01

    The disposal of food waste is a large environmental problem. In the United Kingdom (UK), approximately 15 million tonnes of food are wasted each year, mostly disposed of in landfill, via composting, or anaerobic digestion (AD). European Union (EU) guidelines state that food waste should preferentially be used as animal feed though for most food waste this practice is currently illegal, because of disease control concerns. Interest in the potential diversion of food waste for animal feed is however growing, with a number of East Asian states offering working examples of safe food waste recycling - based on tight regulation and rendering food waste safe through heat treatment. This study investigates the potential benefits of diverting food waste for pig feed in the UK. A hybrid, consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to compare the environmental and health impacts of four technologies for food waste processing: two technologies of South Korean style-animal feed production (as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed) were compared with two widespread UK disposal technologies: AD and composting. Results of 14 mid-point impact categories show that the processing of food waste as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed have the best and second-best scores, respectively, for 13/14 and 12/14 environmental and health impacts. The low impact of food waste feed stems in large part from its substitution of conventional feed, the production of which has substantial environmental and health impacts. While the re-legalisation of the use of food waste as pig feed could offer environmental and public health benefits, this will require support from policy makers, the public, and the pig industry, as well as investment in separated food waste collection which currently occurs in only a minority of regions.

  8. Sustainable diets: The interaction between food industry, nutrition, health and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaffar, Ayten Aylin

    2016-03-01

    Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Clostridium difficile in Humans and Food Animals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-06-30

    Clostridium difficile is an antibiotic-resistant bacterium that causes diarrhea and sometimes serious intestinal illnesses. In recent years, C. difficile infections have been increasing in number and severity, including among some people outside healthcare settings. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Michael Jhung discusses his recent study that looked at a new, increasingly prevalent strain of C. difficile in people and compared it to a strain historically found in animals to see whether the two might be linked. The study is published in the July 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Created: 6/30/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 7/3/2008.

  10. Clostridium difficile in Humans and Food Animals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Clostridium difficile is an antibiotic-resistant bacterium that causes diarrhea and sometimes serious intestinal illnesses. In recent years, C. difficile infections have been increasing in number and severity, including among some people outside healthcare settings. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Michael Jhung discusses his recent study that looked at a new, increasingly prevalent strain of C. difficile in people and compared it to a strain historically found in animals to see whether the two might be linked. The study is published in the July 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases.

  11. Analytical methods used for the authentication of food of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ouissam; Zadravec, Manuela; Baeten, Vincent; Mikuš, Tomislav; Lešić, Tina; Vulić, Ana; Prpić, Jelena; Jemeršić, Lorena; Pleadin, Jelka

    2018-04-25

    Since adulteration can have serious consequences on human health, it affects market growth by destroying consumer confidence. Therefore, authentication of food is important for food processors, retailers and consumers, but also for regulatory authorities. However, a complex nature of food and an increase in types of adulterants make their detection difficult, so that food authentication often poses a challenge. This review focuses on analytical approaches to authentication of food of animal origin, with an emphasis put on determination of specific ingredients, geographical origin and adulteration by virtue of substitution. This review highlights a current overview of the application of target approaches in cases when the compound of interest is known and non-target approaches for screening issues. Papers cited herein mainly concern milk, cheese, meat and honey. Moreover, advantages, disadvantages as well as challenges regarding the use of both approaches in official food control but also in food industry are investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enzymes- An Existing and Promising Tool of Food Processing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Lalitagauri; Pramanik, Sunita; Bera, Debabrata

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme catalyzed process technology has enormous potential in the food sectors as indicated by the recent patents studies. It is very well realized that the adaptation of the enzyme catalyzed process depends on the availability of enzyme in affordable prices. Enzymes may be used in different food sectors like dairy, fruits & vegetable processing, meat tenderization, fish processing, brewery and wine making, starch processing and many other. Commercially only a small number of enzymes are used because of several factors including instability of enzymes during processing and high cost. More and more enzymes for food technology are now derived from specially selected or genetically modified microorganisms grown in industrial scale fermenters. Enzymes with microbial source have commercial advantages of using microbial fermentation rather than animal and plant extraction to produce food enzymes. At present only a relatively small number of enzymes are used commercially in food processing. But the number is increasing day by day and field of application will be expanded more and more in near future. The purpose of this review is to describe the practical applications of enzymes in the field of food processing.

  13. Piperidine alkaloids: human and food animal teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R

    2012-06-01

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PARATUBERCULOSIS AND FOOD OF ANIMAL ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Sarli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratubercolosis (MAP is the causative agent of Johne’s disease (or paratubercolosis,a chronic infectious enteritis in cattle, sheep and goats. Infected animals shed viable MAP in their milk, faeces and semen. MAP may have a role in development of Crohn’s disease,a chronic inflammatory bowel disease in humans, via the consumption of contamined milk and milk products, meat and contamined water supplies. For some authors pasteurization is not sufficient to kill all MAP cells present in milk and it has been cultured from raw or pasteurizated milk and isolated from cheese. MAP has not isolated from retail beef to date, although limited testing has been carried out. Probably MAP may be involved in other chronic diseases like Type-1 Diabetes. Which is the possible public health consequence of periodically use by susceptible individuals is uncertain.

  15. Clostridium difficile in Food and Animals: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C; Taminiau, B; Van Broeck, J; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2016-01-01

    Zoonoses are infections or diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans through direct contact, close proximity or the environment. Clostridium difficile is ubiquitous in the environment, and the bacterium is able to colonise the intestinal tract of both animals and humans. Since domestic and food animals frequently test positive for toxigenic C. difficile, even without showing any signs of disease, it seems plausible that C. difficile could be zoonotic. Therefore, animals could play an essential role as carriers of the bacterium. In addition, the presence of the spores in different meats, fish, fruits and vegetables suggests a risk of foodborne transmission. This review summarises the current available data on C. difficile in animals and foods, from when the bacterium was first described up to the present.

  16. Cleansing and Disinfection in the Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhtan Baskaya

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the applications of industrial hygiene, it is of utmost importance to define the potential risk factors in the business enterprise in question, to pay sufficient consideration to those factors, and to spend every effort for their checking and elimination. In that sense, cleansing and disinfection applications have a basic importance. Food hygiene covers all the efforts spent in order to ensure the proper conditions for the production of healthy food at every stage of the production process, extending from the farm to the table. Cleansing is the removal of the dirt or food leftovers found on the tools and equipment contacting food, and preventing their conversion into a convenient millieu for the reproduction of microorganisms. Cleansing is the process of removing not only the visible dirts and leftovers, but also a large part of the visible microorganisms. Disinfection is applied after cleansing; it is the process of disintegration of microorganisms which can cause contamination, or reduction of those microorganisms to minimum levels so that they can not create any harmful effects. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(1.000: 93-106

  17. Energy potential in the food industry; Store energipotensialer i naeringsmiddelindustrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, E; Risberg, T M; Mydske, H J; Helgerud, H E

    2007-07-01

    The food industry is one of the most power consuming industries (excluding the heavy industry) and has large potential for reducing the energy consumption. This report explains the most energy efficient measures and if the injunctions are followed

  18. 21 CFR 501.3 - Identity labeling of animal food in package form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identity labeling of animal food in package form... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.3 Identity labeling of animal food in package form. (a) The principal display panel of a food in...

  19. 21 CFR 501.8 - Labeling of animal food with number of servings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of animal food with number of servings... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.8 Labeling of animal food with number of servings. (a) The label of any package of a food which...

  20. 77 FR 22328 - Guidance for Industry on the Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0094] Guidance for Industry on the Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  1. The Potential of Animal By-Products in Food Systems: Production, Prospects and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde O. Alao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of animal by-products has continued to witness tremendous growth over the last decade. This is due to its potential to combat protein malnutrition and food insecurity in many countries. Shortly after slaughter, animal by-products are separated into edible or inedible parts. The edible part accounts for 55% of the production while the remaining part is regarded as inedible by-products (IEBPs. These IEBPs can be re-processed into sustainable products for agricultural and industrial uses. The efficient utilization of animal by-products can alleviate the prevailing cost and scarcity of feed materials, which have high competition between animals and humans. This will also aid in reducing environmental pollution in the society. In this regard, proper utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta can result in cheaper feed, reduction in competition and lower cost of production. Over the years, the utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta as feed in livestock feed has been successfully carried out without any adverse effect on the animals. However, there are emerging gaps that need to be further addressed regarding the food security and sustainability of the products. Therefore, the objective of this review highlights the efficacy and effectiveness of using animal by-products as alternative sources of feed ingredients, and the constraints associated with their production to boost livestock performance in the industry at large.

  2. Skin protection in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A; Kelterer, D; Bartsch, R; Stadeler, M; Elsner, P

    2007-01-01

    In food occupations, like in many other skin risk occupations, the regular use of personal protection equipment, i.e. of skin protection ointments and protective gloves, is recommended as well as regular skin care for the prevention of occupational hand dermatitis. We investigated the uptake and maintenance of different prevention strategies (instructions for skin protection and skin care, prevocational skin hardening with UV light) in food occupations and their efficacy in the primary prevention of vocationally caused hand dermatitis. We could show that the acceptance and regular use of skin protection and care measures could be significantly increased by theoretical and practical instructions in food industry trainees. The highest acceptance was seen with skin protection ointment (100%) and skin care (90%). Protective gloves (43.3%) were used to a lesser extent. The hand dermatitis point prevalence in the groups after 6 months was 13.3% (skin protection), 19.4% (UV hardening) and 29.1% (controls). These clinical trends were supported by statistically significant differences in the basal TEWL values. Adequate skin protection and regular skin care seem to be promising for the prevention of occupationally caused hand dermatitis. The experimental approach using UV hardening prevocationally did not fulfil the expectations.

  3. Contribution of inhalation by food animals to man's ingestion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.

    1985-01-01

    Animals' inhalation (AI) pathway was evaluated for 57 radionuclides using infant dose predictions from the food-chain model LIMCAL. With ingestion transfer coefficients fMi to define transfer from the respiratory tract to milk, the AI pathway appeared to be insignificant compared to animals' plant ingestion, as implicitly assumed in most environmental assessment models for nuclear installations. Using ICRP Publication 30 respiratory clearance models for man to adjust ingestion transfer coefficients, animals' inhalation appeared to be important, particularly for some actinide radionuclides. The AI pathway also appeared to be significant relative to man's inhalation, especially for infants. The importance of the AI pathway varied greatly between radionuclides, and results strongly suggest that it cannot be ignored in environmental assessments. Until better data become available to implement this pathway fully, adjusted ingestion transfer coefficient values can be used for transfer from animals' respiratory tract to milk and other food products

  4. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance among food animals: Principles and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    Large amounts of antimicrobial agents are in the production of food animals used for therapy and prophylactics of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents causes problems in the therapy of infections through the selection for resistance among bacteria...... pathogenic for animals or humans. Current knowledge regarding the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, the quantitative impact of the use of different antimicrobial agents on selection for resistance and the most appropriate treatment regimes to limit the development of resistance......, there are major differences between programmes designed to detect changes in a national population, individual herds or groups of animals. In addition, programmes have to be designed differently according to whether the aim is to determine changes in resistance for all antimicrobial agents or only...

  5. Importance of Animals in Agricultural Sustainability and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan C; Aaron, Debra K; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    A conservative projection shows the world's population growing by 32% (to 9.5 billion) by 2050 and 53% (to 11 billion) by 2100 compared with its current level of 7.2 billion. Because most arable land worldwide is already in use, and water and energy also are limiting, increased production of food will require a substantial increase in efficiency. In this article, we highlight the importance of animals to achieving food security in terms of their valuable contributions to agricultural sustainability, especially in developing countries, and the high nutritional value of animal products in the diet. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Human health hazard from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals and food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Collignon, P.

    2006-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in the modern farm industry has created a reservoir of resistant bacteria in food animals. Foods of animal origin are often contaminated with enterococci that are likely to contribute resistance genes, virulence factors, or other properties to enterococci IN humans....... The potential hazard to human health from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals is questioned by some scientists because of evidence of host specificity of enterococci. Similarly, the occurrences of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci in hospitals have lead to the misconception that antimicrobial-resistant...... to change the current view that antimicrobial-resistant enterococci from animals pose a threat to human health. On the contrary, antimicrobial resistance genes appear to spread freely between enterococci from different reservoirs, irrespective of their apparent host association....

  7. 21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption: (1) Such use must be accomplished in accordance with an appropriate medical rationale; and (2) If... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  8. Top of the food chain: Product services in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Andrew M.; Simon, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the environmental impact of the food industry supply chain and explore the potential for new product-service systems in the food sector, which has not been subject to a great deal of eco-design research. Data from a cross-sector analysis of UK industry, concentrating on the sectors representing the food industry supply chain, is utilised. These sectors are agriculture, food processing, retailing, food services, and kitchen equipment. The analysis combines economic ...

  9. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear techniques applied to animal production and health are concentrated in three main fields: Animal nutrition, reproduction and animal health. Isotopic markers, both radioactive (''1''4C, ''5 1 Cr, 32 P and 35 S) and stable ( 15 N), have been used in the development of feeding strategies by understanding the rumen fermentation process, and how protein and other nutrients are utilized to determine a balanced diet for meeting animal requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. The simple and easily applicable technology was developed for the preparation of a urea mineral multi nutrient block as a supplement and animal cake for the replacement of concentrate feed used by dairy cattle holders. The model was developed in Yerli Kara Cattle and its cross-breeds to estimate protein requirements of animals. Progesterone immunoassays (RIA/EIA) make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle, sheep and goats. A milk progesterone enzyme immunoassay kit known as Reprokon was developed at our Center. The kit has licensed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As for animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminitic diseases. The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic techniques were used on the diagnosis of babesiosis, a disease which cause great economic loss in livestock in Turkey. Food irradiation is the treatment of raw, semi-processed or processed food or food ingredients with ionizing radiation to achieve a reduction of losses due to insect infestation, germination of root crops, spoilage and deterioration of perishable produce, and/or the control of microorganisms and other organisms that cause food borne diseases

  10. Quality Regimes in Agro-Food Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staricco, Juan Ignacio; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine the transformative potential of changing quality regimes in agro-food industries through the analysis of whether Fair Trade wine in Argentina provides a meaningful economic alternative that goes beyond the impact it has on direct beneficiaries. The wine sector has a long...... history in valorizing a variety of quality dimensions, and has developed one of the most complex and sophisticated quality infrastructures, making it an ideal terrain of analysis. Furthermore, it is going through a major process of restructuring in which the battle-lines are drawn along the application......, challenge and re-interpretation of different quality content. Through the lenses of a sector-adjusted version of regulation theory, we show that the Fair Trade wine sector does not substantially deviate from the conventional wine economy in Argentina. Instead of empowering the most vulnerable groups, those...

  11. Consumer perceptions of food products from cloned animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaskell, George; Kronberger, Nicole; Fischler, Claude

    2007-01-01

    In the view of the authors of this report converging lines of theoretical and empirical research suggest that cloned meat is likely to be a controversial issue with the European public, sitting as it does at the nexus of sensitivities around food, animals and the life sciences. If, as appears...

  12. Food allergy: What do we learn from animal models?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Wijk, F. van; Penninks, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes selected articles on animal models of food allergy published in 2003. The research areas that are covered include mechanistic studies, the search for new therapies, as well as screening models for hazard identification of potential allergens. Recent findings

  13. Attitudes towards genetically modified animals in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Coles, D.; Houdebine, L.M.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

  14. 21 CFR 530.21 - Prohibitions for food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibitions for food-producing animals. 530.21... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Specific Provisions Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals § 530.21 Prohibitions for...

  15. Development of the innovative food industry in the conditions of ensuring food security

    OpenAIRE

    Berdiev S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to ensure the safety of food and through the development of innovative food industry and learning to increase the production of food. Work to ensure food security of the Republic of Uzbekistan has its own characteristics and analysis of trends and problems identified in this area. As well as ensuring the safety of food and food industry offer based on the priority directions of scientific and practical recommendations developed.

  16. WATER CONDITIONING FOR FOOD INDUSTRY USES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAISA NASTAS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water conditioning for food industry uses. Tap (drinkingwater from many localities of Moldova doesn’t always correspond to the “Sanitarystandards for drinking water quality” or to the requirements of the “Regulation fornon-alcoholic beverages”, requiring the need for additional purification/conditioning. This paper presents research regarding the removal/adsorption of themain pollutants in tap water (iron, manganese, aluminum, humic substances,trihalomethanes on supports of local carbon adsorbents made from vegetableproducts (stones of peach and plum, walnut shells. Experiments were performedin dynamic conditions in columns of carbon adsorbents. As work solutions wasused tap water where pollutants have been introduced in amounts equivalent to 3maximum allowable concentrations. Carbonaceous adsorbents used forremoval/adsorption of pollutants in dynamic conditions, reveal a capacity of up to1:400 volumes adsorbent: solution before breakthrough. Combined filter, utilizingactive carbons, was constructed and tested for conditioning of tap water forbeverage and food production. The results demonstrated efficient remove oforganic substances and heavy metals by filtering of about 700 volumes of waterper volume of filter.

  17. Conversion of food industrial wastes into bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, P H; Chua, H; Huang, A L; Lo, W; Chen, G Q

    1998-01-01

    The usage of plastics in packaging and disposable products, and the generation of plastic waste, have been increasing drastically. Broader usage of biodegradable plastics in packaging and disposable products as a solution to environmental problems would heavily depend on further reduction of costs and the discovery of novel biodegradable plastics with improved properties. In the authors' laboratories, various carbohydrates in the growth media, including sucrose, lactic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and various combinations of butyric and valeric acids, were utilized as the carbon (c) sources for the production of bioplastics by Alcaligenes eutrophus. As the first step in pursuit of eventual usage of industrial food wastewater as nutrients for microorganisms to synthesize bioplastics, the authors investigated the usage of malt wastes from a beer brewery plant as the C sources for the production of bioplastics by microorganisms. Specific polymer production yield by A. Latus DSM 1124 increased to 70% polymer/cell (g/g) and 32 g/L cell dry wt, using malt wastes as the C source. The results of these experiments indicated that, with the use of different types of food wastes as the C source, different polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers could be produced with distinct polymer properties.

  18. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  19. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Yamatani, Shoich; Watahara, Masashi; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  20. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Wendi L.; Love, H. Alan; Capps, Oral, Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Determinants of merger and acquisition activity in the food industry are analyzed using logit regression analysis. Factors affecting the food processing, food retailing and food service sectors are considered. Results indicate merger and acquisition activity in all three sectors are significantly influenced by antitrust activity, profitability and real gross domestic product.

  1. The development of Corporate social responsibility in Lithuanian food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Navickas, Valentinas; Kontautienė, Rima

    2014-01-01

    The authors of the article analyze the development of corporate social responsibility in Lithuanian food industry. By emphasize the importance of food industry as one of the largest manufacturing group in Lithuania and its strong impact and high dependence on the economy, the environment and on society, implementation of principles and practice of corporate social responsibility is of high relevance for this sector. The paper deals with the main indicators of Lithuanian food industry in...

  2. Commoditizing Nonhuman Animals and Their Consumers: Industrial Livestock Production, Animal Welfare, and Ecological Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod-Kilmurray, Heather

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing research on the effects of industrial livestock production on the environment and human health, but less on the effects this has on animal welfare and ecological justice. The concept of ecological justice as a tool for achieving sustainability is gaining traction in the legal world. Klaus Bosselman defines ecological justice as…

  3. 77 FR 22327 - Draft Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... resistance in human and animal bacterial pathogens when medically important antimicrobial drugs are used in... Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals'' and to set timelines... Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals'' (GFI 209) and (2) the...

  4. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Genetically Modified Animals in the Food and Pharmaceutical Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of genetically modified (GM animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scoping study was conducted to assess research relevant to understanding the main drivers influencing the adoption of GM applications and their potential risks and benefits. Public and producers’ acceptance, public policies, human health, animal welfare, environmental impact and sustainability are considered as the main factors affecting the application of GM animal techniques in livestock and pharmaceutical chains.

  5. Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing demand in proteins to feed the ever-growing world population has necessitated the industrialization and transportation of livestock using different means of transportation across several ecological zones with different climatic conditions. The stress factors acting on animals during road transportation are ...

  6. Green perspective in food industry production line design: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, C. Y.; Sin, T. C.; Liyana, M. R. N.; Awang, A.; Fathullah, M.

    2017-09-01

    The design of green manufacturing process in food industries is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Several process such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, bleaching, sterilization, extraction and filtering have been applied efficiency in the food industry. Due to the rapid development of food and peripheral technology, the use of new physical processing or auxiliary processing methods can maintain food inherent nutrients, texture, color, and freshness and also reduce environmental pollution and energy consumption in food processing. Hence, this review paper will study and summarize the effects of green manufacturing process in food industries in term of waste reduction, materials and sustainability manufacturing. In any case, All the food processing equipment must comply with strict standards and regulation, this action will ensure the securing the food quality and safety of food products to consumers.

  7. Wild animals used as food medicine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Oliveira, Tacyana Pereira Ribeiro; Rosa, Ierecê Lucena

    2013-01-01

    The connection between eating and healing is common in traditional folk medical systems, and the multiple possibilities resulting from the combination of biodiversity and culture confer a wealth and complexity in terms of knowledge of the flora and fauna as to their potential as food medicine. The growing awareness of the links between traditional therapeutic-alimentary uses of wildlife and conservation has drawn attention to the gaps in knowledge on the social, economic, and biological contexts in which different forms of traditional wildlife uses take place, particularly with regard to zootherapeutic resources. In this study we interviewed 124 merchants and 203 traditional users of animal-derived remedies in Brazil, aiming at documenting the animal species used as foods and medicines in urban and rural areas of the country. At least 354 wild animal species are used in Brazilian traditional medicine, of which 157 are also used as food. The high degree of overlap between medicinal and alimentary uses of wild animals highlights the importance of understanding the socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological contexts in which those traditional uses take place for elucidating their potential impact on public health and biodiversity conservation.

  8. Wild Animals Used as Food Medicine in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The connection between eating and healing is common in traditional folk medical systems, and the multiple possibilities resulting from the combination of biodiversity and culture confer a wealth and complexity in terms of knowledge of the flora and fauna as to their potential as food medicine. The growing awareness of the links between traditional therapeutic-alimentary uses of wildlife and conservation has drawn attention to the gaps in knowledge on the social, economic, and biological contexts in which different forms of traditional wildlife uses take place, particularly with regard to zootherapeutic resources. In this study we interviewed 124 merchants and 203 traditional users of animal-derived remedies in Brazil, aiming at documenting the animal species used as foods and medicines in urban and rural areas of the country. At least 354 wild animal species are used in Brazilian traditional medicine, of which 157 are also used as food. The high degree of overlap between medicinal and alimentary uses of wild animals highlights the importance of understanding the socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological contexts in which those traditional uses take place for elucidating their potential impact on public health and biodiversity conservation.

  9. Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the “precautionary principle.” Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans—directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

  10. Animal DNA identification in food products and animal feed by real time polymerase chain reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Мар’янівна Іщенко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Approbation of diagnostic tests for species identification of beef, pork and chicken by real time polymerase chain reaction method was done. Meat food, including heat treated and animal feed, was used for research. The fact of inconsistencies was revealed for product composition of some meat products that is marked by manufacturer 

  11. Transgenic and cloned animals in the food chain--are we prepared to tackle it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesan, Premanandh; Bin Salem, Samara

    2015-11-01

    Transgenic and cloned animal production for various purposes has been increasing rapidly in recent times. While the actual impact of these animals in the food chain is unknown, the significance of tracking and monitoring measures to curb accidental and or deliberate release has been discussed. Religious perspectives from different faiths and traditions have been presented. Although the concept of substantial equivalence satisfies the technical and nutritional requirements of these products when assessed against comparators, public opinion and religious concerns should also be considered by the regulators while developing policy regulations. In conclusion, measures to prevent real or perceived risks of transgenic and cloned animals in food production require global coordinated action. It is worthwhile to consider establishing effective tracking systems and analytical procedures as this will be a valuable tool if a global consensus is not reached on policy regulation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Food for Thought: The Translation of Culinary References in Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar González-Vera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Food has traditionally been a cultural symbol reflecting historical roots in every country. It is precisely those cultural bonds that have made the translation of culinary references so difficult. The translation of food-related terms requires translators to consider, on the one hand, the cultural associations embedded in these terms, their meaning and function in the ST and, on the other hand, the translatability of the terms in the TT. As a socio-cultural phenomenon, food plays a fundamental role in the process of globalization in which we are immersed. We cannot disregard the fact that cultures are merging and that the introduction of new food terminology in our lexicon provides irrefutable evidence of globalization and acculturation. This paper focuses on the analysis of the role of food and its translation in the process of globalization. It analyses the relationship between food and culture in animated films like the Shrek saga, The princess and the frog, or Brave -films where food is not the focal point, but where it serves different purposes, such as acculturation, recreation of cultural identities and stereotypes, or humour. The analysis includes a study of the translation techniques applied in the dubbed versions of these films and their relationship to the process of domestication and foreignization in order to assess the social implications in texts aimed at a young audience.

  13. Status of industrial fluoride pollution and its diverse adverse health effects in man and domestic animals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal; Choubisa, Darshana

    2016-04-01

    Hydrofluorosis in humans and domestic animals is a worldwide health problem and caused by a prolonged period of fluoride exposure through drinking of fluoride contaminated water. But in recent years, due to rapid industrialization in India, diverse serious health problems among industrial workers and residents and domestic animals living in the industrial areas due to fluoride pollution are on the rise. A number of coal-burning and industrial activities such as power-generating stations, welding operations and the manufacturing or production of steel, iron, aluminum, zinc, phosphorus, chemical fertilizers, bricks, glass, plastic, cement, and hydrofluoric acid are generally discharging fluoride in both gaseous and particulate/dust forms into surrounding environments which create a industrial fluoride pollution and are an important cause of occupational exposure to fluoride in several countries including India. An industrial emitted fluoride contaminates not only surrounding soil, air, and water but also vegetation, crops and many other biotic communities on which man and animals are generally dependants for food. Long- time of inhalation or ingestion of industrial fluoride also causes serious health problems in the forms of industrial and neighborhood fluorosis. In India, whatever research works conducted so far on the chronic industrial fluoride intoxication or poisoning (industrial and neighborhood fluorosis) in man and various species of domestic animals due to a prolonged period of industrial fluoride exposure or pollution (contamination) are critically reviewed in the present communication. Simultaneously, we are also focused the various bio-indicators and bio-markers for chronic industrial fluoride intoxication or pollution.

  14. The intertwine of nanotechnology with the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Alshammari Fanar; Han, Jong-Hun; Kim, Byung-Chun; Rather, Irfan A

    2018-01-01

    The past decade has proven the competence of nanotechnology in almost all known fields. The evolution of nanotechnology today in the area of the food industry has been largely and has had a lot of contribution in the food processing, food package, and food preservation. The increasing global human population has come with growing population to be fed, and food production is not adjusted to at par with the growing population. This mismatch has shown the real essence of food preservation so that food products can reach to people on a global scale. The introduction of nanotechnology in the food industry has made it easy to transport foods to different parts of the world by extending the shelf-life of most food products. Even with this beneficial aspect of nanotechnology, it has not been proven an entire full-proof measure, and the field is still open to changing technology. It suffices to note that nanotechnology has to a big extent succeed in curbing the extent of food wastage due to food spoilage by the microbial infestation. Nanotechnology has focused on fresh foods, ensuring a healthier food by employing nano-delivery systems in the process. The delivery systems are the ones, which carries the food supplements. However, these are certain sets of regulations that must be followed to tame or control the health related risks of nanotechnology in food industries. This paper outlines the role of nanotechnology at different levels of the food industry including, packaging of food, processing of food and the various preservation techniques all aiming to increase the shelf life of the food products.

  15. Strategies to enable the adoption of animal biotechnology to sustainably improve global food safety and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizard, Mark; Hallerman, Eric; Fahrenkrug, Scott; Newell-McGloughlin, Martina; Gibson, John; de Loos, Frans; Wagner, Stefan; Laible, Götz; Han, Jae Yong; D'Occhio, Michael; Kelly, Lisa; Lowenthal, John; Gobius, Kari; Silva, Primal; Cooper, Caitlin; Doran, Tim

    2016-10-01

    The ability to generate transgenic animals has existed for over 30 years, and from those early days many predicted that the technology would have beneficial applications in agriculture. Numerous transgenic agricultural animals now exist, however to date only one product from a transgenic animal has been approved for the food chain, due in part to cumbersome regulations. Recently, new techniques such as precision breeding have emerged, which enables the introduction of desired traits without the use of transgenes. The rapidly growing human population, environmental degradation, and concerns related to zoonotic and pandemic diseases have increased pressure on the animal agriculture sector to provide a safe, secure and sustainable food supply. There is a clear need to adopt transgenic technologies as well as new methods such as gene editing and precision breeding to meet these challenges and the rising demand for animal products. To achieve this goal, cooperation, education, and communication between multiple stakeholders-including scientists, industry, farmers, governments, trade organizations, NGOs and the public-is necessary. This report is the culmination of concepts first discussed at an OECD sponsored conference and aims to identify the main barriers to the adoption of animal biotechnology, tactics for navigating those barriers, strategies to improve public perception and trust, as well as industry engagement, and actions for governments and trade organizations including the OECD to harmonize regulations and trade agreements. Specifically, the report focuses on animal biotechnologies that are intended to improve breeding and genetics and currently are not routinely used in commercial animal agriculture. We put forward recommendations on how scientists, regulators, and trade organizations can work together to ensure that the potential benefits of animal biotechnology can be realized to meet the future needs of agriculture to feed the world.

  16. [Food processing industry--the salt shock to the consumers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Andabaka, Damir

    2010-05-01

    Industrial food production and processing is necessarily connected with the use of salt. Salt or sodium chloride is used as a preservative, spice, agent for color maintenance, texture, and to regulate fermentation by stopping the growth of bacteria, yeast and mold. Besides kitchen salt, other types of salt that also contain sodium are used in various technological processes in food preparing industry. Most of the "hidden" salt, 70%-75%, can be brought to the body by using industrial food, which, unfortunately, has been increasingly used due to the modern way of life. Bread and bakery products, meat products, various sauces, dried fish, various types of cheese, fast food, conserved vegetables, ready-made soups and food additives are the most common industrial foods rich in sodium. Many actions have been taken all over the world to restrict salt consumption. The World Health Organization recommends the upper limit of salt input of 5 g per day. These actions appeal to food industry to reduce the proportion of salt in their products. Besides lower salt addition during manufacture, food industry can use salt substitutes, in particular potassium chloride (KCl), in combination with additives that can mask the absence of salt, and flavor intensifiers that also enhance the product salinity. However, food industry is still quite resistant to reducing salt in their products for fear from losing profits.

  17. Benefits of nitrogen for food, fibre and industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoumann Jensen, L.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Hoek, K.W. van der; Damgaard Poulsen, H.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Pallière, C.; Lammel, J.; Brentrup, F.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Willems, J.; Grinsven, H. van

    2011-01-01

    Nature of the issue • Reactive nitrogen (N r ) has well-documented positive eff ects in agricultural and industrial production systems, human nutrition and food security. Limited N r supply was a key constraint to European food and industrial production, which has been overcome by Nr from the

  18. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  19. Applications of sonochemistry in Russian food processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasulya, Olga; Shestakov, Sergey; Bogush, Vladimir; Potoroko, Irina; Cherepanov, Pavel; Krasulya, Boris

    2014-11-01

    In food industry, conventional methodologies such as grinding, mixing, and heat treatment are used for food processing and preservation. These processes have been well studied for many centuries and used in the conversion of raw food materials to consumable food products. This report is dedicated to the application of a cost-efficient method of energy transfer caused by acoustic cavitation effects in food processing, overall, having significant impacts on the development of relatively new area of food processing such as food sonochemistry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Allergen management in the food industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boye, Joyce I; Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb

    2010-01-01

    "This book comprehensively addresses the sources of allergenic contaminants in foods, their fate during processing, and the specific measures that need to be taken to minimize their occurrence in foods...

  1. Allergen management in the food industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boye, Joyce I; Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb

    2010-01-01

    .... Starting with an introduction to food allergens, the book follows with sections on food allergen management during production and processing, guidelines for the processing of specific allergen-free...

  2. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Empirical Findings from Dutch Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    van der Vorst, Jack G.A.J.; Peeters, Lotte; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems). SCALE aims to improve the sustainability of food and drink supply chain logistics in the context of rising food demands, increasing energy prices and the need to reduce environmentally damaging emissions. More in particular, SCALE aims to deliver a number of tools and frameworks valuable for the agri-food sector to secure ...

  4. Training requirements for agro-food industry in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro D. Gaspar; Rita Pinheiro; Cláudia Domingues; Celestino Almeida; Teresa Paiva; Carlos D. Pereira; Manuela Vaz-Velho

    2015-01-01

    Agro-food companies are aware that the technical and soft skills of their employees directly influence business performance and, consequently, improving those skills will enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of their companies. This paper presents the main results of the AgriTraining project “Training requirements for the agro-food industry". Activities in pursuit of the objectives of this project involved: (1) analysis of the training needs in the agro-food industry in Portugal; (2) anal...

  5. Utilization of INIS and AGRIS by the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefflerova, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Technical Information Centre of the Food Industry has begun publishing user handbooks on various foreign services, such as Chemical Abstracts and the CAS, the International Food Information Service - Food Science and Technology Abstracts, the magnetic tape service Engineering Index - COMPENDEX, the DERWENT patent service, a handbook on the services provided by INIS and by AGRIS/FAO. (M.D.)

  6. Cooking, industrial processing and caloric density of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    During human evolution, the development of a wide range of cooking processing techniques enabled humans to provide their social group with maximum benefits from limited food resources. Industrial processing and mass market distribution made available high food calorie density foods to the world

  7. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, F.K.; Moejes, S.N.; Rossier Miranda, F.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy

  8. Competition for Jurisdiction Over Food Industry in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungeun Park

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the government’s multilateral effort to control food safety, there have been constantly many shock events threatening citizens’ health. This paper points out the matter of food safety management system with a view of competition for jurisdiction over food industry among the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and affiliated organizations. Use description qualitative method in research. Each ministry has separate basic positions and approaches to food industry policy: regulation and promotion.The policy image has been changed into “regulation” as public anxiety and concern for hazardous foods has grown since the end of 1990. They competeto take charge of promoting or regulating the food industry by establishing or amending laws, expanding organizations and mobilizing a coalition.Coordination by policy committee, cooperation between agencies, and integration of agencies were introduced as measures to eliminate unnecessary competition for jurisdiction.

  9. Industrialization development of food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dianhua

    2004-01-01

    This report introduces present status on food irradiation at home and abroad in detail. It also introduces the scientific research and application in reducing diseases caused by food borne pathogens, quarantine control of import and export products, grain store and killing insects in traditional Chinese medicine. The report also analyzes the problems in developing food irradiation in China and gives some suggestions

  10. Radiation Sensitivity of some Food Borne Bacterial Pathogens in Animal Foods and Minced Meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, W.S.; Ali, A.R.; Alexan, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteriological examination of 100 samples of animal food stuffs (fish meal and bone and meat meal; as models of dry food materials) and 50 samples of minced meat (as a model of moist food materials) revealed the isolation of different bacterial pathogens; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus spp., Staph. aureus and Salmonella species, in a decreasing order of occurrence. In the experiment; the dry food stuffs were sterilized in autoclave and the minced meat was sterilized by gamma irradiation at 10 kGy. The efficacy of gamma irradiation against the inoculated bacterial isolates (E coli 0157: H7, Salmonella enteritidis and Staph. aureus) in animal food stuffs and minced meat was investigated. Irradiated samples were stored at room temperature (25 degree C) for 2 weeks. The food borne pathogens used in this study showed a difference in radiation sensitivity. E. coli 0157: H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis were eradicated at 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. Also, inoculated pathogens in minced meat were more sensitive to ionizing radiation than dry animal food stuffs. It could be concluded that low doses of gamma irradiation are effective means of inactivating pathogenic bacteria. This radiation sensitivity is related to the bacterial isolates and the evaluated growth

  11. Economic Factors Impacting Food Allergen Management: Perspectives from the Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L; Kao, Lauren M; Schuster, Erik; Smith, Bridget M

    2017-10-01

    Food allergies affect up to 8% of children in the United States and may occasionally lead to severe life-threatening reactions. Because there is currently no cure for food allergies, strict avoidance of the allergen-containing foods is the only means of preventing an allergic reaction. Consumers rely on food manufacturers to reliably track and declare the presence of food allergens in products. Over the past 10 to 20 years, the food industry has increasingly adopted allergen control approaches in its processing facilities. However, the major industry costs related to food allergen management have not been fully described. The objective of this study was to characterize the factors that contribute to the economic impact of food allergen control practices on the food industry. A focus group (n = 100) was conducted with food industry professionals to identify key areas of cost for food allergen management. A survey based on the domains identified was then developed and disseminated to a convenience sample (n = 50) of quality control food industry specialists with knowledge of their company's food allergen management practices. Nearly all companies (92%) produced food products containing one or more of the top eight allergenic foods recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or sesame seeds. Cleaning procedures, employee training, and the potential for a recall due to allergen cross-contact were most frequently rated as the important factors in food allergen management. Recalls due to food allergen cross-contact, cleaning procedures, equipment and premises design, and employee training were ranked as the greatest allergen management expenses. Although 96% of companies had a food allergen control plan in place, nearly half (42%) had at least one food allergen-related recall within the past 5 years. The industry appears to endorse a willingness to unify precautionary allergen labeling to communicate a clear message more effectively to consumers.

  12. Dynamic technical inefficiency and industrial concentration in the Indonesian food and beverages industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Maman; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between industrial concentration and technical inefficiency in the Indonesian food and beverages industry using a dynamic performance measure (dynamic technical inefficiency) that accounts for the presence of adjustment costs.

  13. Preventing type 2 diabetes: Changing the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M; Kenan, W R

    2016-06-01

    Improving our global diet by working with the food industry is a fairly complex task. Previously the global food manufacturing companies and governments were the major players. However, matters have shifted rapidly so that food retailers, food manufacturers, the restaurant-food service sector, and agribusinesses are now the major players. The current modern system of packaged processed food has now penetrated the globe-rich and poor, rural and urban are all in reach of this food system. Consequently, working with this complex sector when possible and an array of governmental regulatory large-scale options to improve our diet have increased in importance. Taxation of unhealthy foods and beverages, marketing controls, and front of the package labeling are the primary current options. Evaluations of the impacts of both public and industry initiatives are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Food irradiation combined with refrigeration in food industrial plants. L'ionisation combinee au froid dans les industries agro-alimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisseau, P. (CEA Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Physiologie Vegetale et Ecosystemes)

    1991-04-01

    Food irradiation and refrigeration are both physical treatments used for food preservation. The complementarity of their effects on food is the best reason for their combination. Irradiation is essentially used for disinfestation and refrigeration to protect food against non microbial degradations. Refrigeration and irradiation could be combined for shelf life extension of fresh fruits and vegetables or reduction of microflora in animal products, without loss of quality. Freezing must be combined with ionizing treatments if high doses are necessary as it is the case with destruction of pathogens in meat or food sterilization. Some examples of combination of refrigeration and irradiation are routinely applied in some industrial plants in France but it is expected that more and more combined treatments will be used thanks to research.

  15. Local fall-out and the animal food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prat, G.; Mercier, F.J.

    1967-01-01

    The local consequences of fresh fall-out, especially in the case of atmospheric nuclear explosions, are reviewed from the point of view of the internal contamination of the consumer of foodstuffs of animal origin. The edibility of foodstuffs derived from animals having grazed in the presence of fall-out is evaluated both from the wholesome and radio-toxicological points of view. The contamination level of these foodstuffs is calculated as a function of the ground fall-out, and of agronomical and ecological parameters for each radio-nuclide of the animal food chain. The internal exposure of the human consumer is calculated from this level as a function of the diet and of various parameters especially temporal. The equivalent dose to each critical organ, including the digestive tract is deduced from the burdens of each organ. From this a nutritional hygiene in the areas affected by fall-out is obtained, in relationship to the action levels fixed by the responsible authorities in exceptional circumstances. Criteria for these action levels are given as function of the food rations. (authors) [fr

  16. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of animal and food isolates of Salmonella enterica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Tania; López-Martin, Juana; Gädicke, Paula

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial resistance to one or more antimicrobiak is worrisome. To determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials of Salmonella entérica isolates from animáis and food, from the Laboratory of Veterinary Microbiology at the University of Concepción. The samples were isolated according to traditional microbiological methods standardized protocols. Resistance was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations (2008). Nine serotypes were identified among the 68 isolates. Strains were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 11 patterns of resistance were identified. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 20.5% of the strains tested. The most common was Oxytetracycline resistance (69.1%). Infood, the predominant serotype was S. Derby (2.9%) and S. Senftenberg (2.9%), which is commonly found infood intended for animal consumption. In samples of animal origin, the predominant serotypes were S. infantis (33.8%) and S. Group E (3.9;-;-) (23.5%). The frequeney of resistance found and the impending risk that these strains could reach humans through the food chain, should prompt a follow-up study of this pathogen.

  17. Application of Ultrasound in the Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Orlando Delgado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is an emerging technology with more research and development for food preservation, one of the qualities of is the reduction of the concentration of microorganisms, inhibition of enzyme activity without altering the physical, chemical and nutritional foods.It was conducted direffent literature sources analysis to develop a document with ultrasound applications in main food technology processing, the benefits of cavitation effect, intensity and frequency applied in each of researching works that have been made today.

  18. Starter Cultures: Uses in the Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    2014-01-01

    Starter cultures are preparations of microorganisms serving as inoculants for the production of fermented foods. The production of cheese, yogurt, fermented milk, wine, sauerkraut, hams, and sausages occurs through the use of starter cultures that are consistent, predictable, and safe. The cultures...... provide the food products with a multitude of properties. Acidification of the food matrix is a primary property in a large number of food fermentations. Acidification activity often will be used to define packaging size and the unit of activity, whereas other characteristics differentiate a culture from...

  19. Training requirements for agro-food industry in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro D. Gaspar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agro-food companies are aware that the technical and soft skills of their employees directly influence business performance and, consequently, improving those skills will enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of their companies. This paper presents the main results of the AgriTraining project “Training requirements for the agro-food industry". Activities in pursuit of the objectives of this project involved: (1 analysis of the training needs in the agro-food industry in Portugal; (2 analysis of the training provision and the training organizations; (3 analysis of market trends; (4 definition of a training strategy; and (5 adjustment and development of training strategies for the agro-food sector. This last activity comprised the development of training curricula, suitable for the food sector as a whole and adjusted for the specific needs of some traditional industries, in order to promote the development and competitiveness of the agro-food industry in Portugal. Such training curricula aimed to promote the uptake of innovative technologies and methodologies, increase the ability of agro-food industries to invest and take risks, and enable adoption of European Community standards for production and marketing. Gaps in training supply were identified and the training provision was updated according to the needs of the agro-food companies. It was determined that companies need and demand knowledge and innovation to increase their competitive position for internationalization purposes. It was possible to define a training strategy based on market-orientation for agro-food differentiation.

  20. Biodiesel production from algae grown on food industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureed, Khadija; Kanwal, Shamsa; Hussain, Azhar; Noureen, Shamaila; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Waqas, Rashid

    2018-04-10

    Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater. This study was conducted to optimize the growth of microalgal strains and to assess biodiesel production potential of algae using untreated food industry wastewater as a source of nutrients. The food industry wastewater was collected and analyzed for its physicochemical characteristics. Different dilutions (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100%) of this wastewater were made with distilled water, and growth of two microalgal strains (Cladophora sp. and Spyrogyra sp.) was recorded. Each type of wastewater was inoculated with microalgae, and biomass was harvested after 7 days. The growth of both strains was also evaluated at varying temperatures, pH and light periods to optimize the algal growth for enhanced biodiesel production. After optimization, biodiesel production by Spyrogyra sp. was recorded in real food industry wastewater. The algal biomass increased with increasing level of food industry wastewater and was at maximum with 100% wastewater. Moreover, statistically similar results were found with algal growth on 100% wastewater and also on Bristol's media. The Cladophora sp. produced higher biomass than Spyrogyra sp. while growing on food industry wastewater. The optimal growth of both microalgal strains was observed at temperature 30 °C, pH: 8, light 24 h. Cladophora sp. was further evaluated for biodiesel production while growing on 100% wastewater and found that this strain produced high level of oil and biodiesel. Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater.

  1. A review of metal release in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2006-01-01

    processes, storing equipment as well as cleaning and sanitising procedures are reviewed. Stainless steel is the most widely used metallic material in the food industry; however other metals and their alloys are also briefly treated. The review deals with phenomena mainly relating to electrochemical......The objective of this review is to outline literature on metal release in the food industry. Key results are reviewed from publications with high scientific level as well as papers with focus on industrial aspects. Examples of food products with a corrosive effect are given, and cases concerning...

  2. Branding behavior in the Danish Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Alister Derek; Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas; Skadkær Møller, Anja

    2006-01-01

    and supporting features of the Danish food marketing chain, six econometric models are specified. Specification accounts for dependent variables' characteristics (count and fractional data, and truncated samples). Missing values are replaced using Griliches' method (Griliches, 1986). Large firms are found to own...... in the Danish food system and its employment of retailers' own-label brands...

  3. Snack foods and dental caries. Investigations using laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenby, T H

    1990-05-05

    The nation's eating habits are undergoing major transformation, with a swing away from traditional meals to a huge increase in snack consumption, but very little is known of the nutritional and dental implications of this change. The research project reported here evaluated a range of snack foods in caries-active laboratory animals, comparing them, as dietary ingredients, with noncariogenic and cariogenic (sugar) diets. The findings showed the very low cariogenicity of salted peanuts, followed by ready-salted and salt and vinegar crisps, extruded maize, mixed-starch and prefabricated/fried potato products, and cheese-filled puffs. Other varieties of crisps (cheese and onion and special shapes) proved to be more cariogenic, not far short of semi-sweet biscuits in some cases. It is concluded that the severity of the processing undergone by the snack foods and the nature of the flavouring agents with which they are coated can influence their dental properties.

  4. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, Mohd Shafie; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  5. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  6. Model systems to study immunomodulation in domestic food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J A; Flaming, K P

    1990-01-01

    Development of immunomodulators for use in food producing animals is an active area of research. This research has generally incorporated aspects of immunosuppression in model systems. This methodology is appropriate because most of the research has been aimed at developing immunomodulators for certain economically significant diseases in which immunosuppression is believed to be an important component of their pathogenesis. The primary focus has been on stress-associated diseases (especially bovine respiratory disease), infectious diseases in young animals, and mastitis. The model systems used have limitations, but they have demonstrated that immunomodulators are capable of significantly increasing resistance to these important infectious disease syndromes. As our understanding of molecular immunology increases and as more potential immunomodulators become available, the use of relevant model systems should greatly aid advancement in the field of immunomodulation.

  7. The need for animal source foods by Kenyan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwibo, Nimrod O; Neumann, Charlotte G

    2003-11-01

    Food intake and dietary patterns in Kenyan households have been studied since the 1920s. Reports on breastfeeding, nutrient intake, micronutrient deficiencies and the impacts of malaria and intestinal parasites on nutritional status are reviewed. Diets are mainly cereal-based, with tubers and a variety of vegetables and fruits when available. White maize, sorghum and millet are high in phytate and fiber, which inhibit the absorption of micronutrients such as zinc and iron. Communities growing cash crops have little land for food crops. Although households may own cattle, goats and poultry, commonly these are not consumed. Adults in nomadic communities consume more meat than nonpastoralists. Lakeside and oceanside communities do not consume adequate amounts of fish. Poor households have a limited capacity to grow and purchase food, therefore they have more nutrient deficiencies. Early weaning to cereal porridge deprives the infant of protein and other nutrients from human milk. Other milk is consumed only in small amounts in sweetened tea. Older children eat adult diets, which are extremely bulky and hard to digest. Anemia is mainly due to iron deficiency, malaria and intestinal parasites. In general, Kenyan children have inadequate intakes of energy, fat and micronutrients such as calcium, zinc, iron, riboflavin and vitamins A and B-12. The multiple micronutrient deficiencies may contribute to early onset of stunting and poor child development, whereas lack of calcium together with vitamin D deficiency are responsible for the resurgence of rickets. There is an urgent need to increase the intake of animal source foods by Kenyan children.

  8. Potency Of Bacteriocin For Animal Health And Food Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chotiah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria related to animal and public health stresses the importance of decreasing the use of antibiotics in animal production. The reduction of antibiotic application in livestock can only be achieved if alternative antimicrobial strategies are available. A number of strategies have been explored to control microbial pathogens and to improve growth and feed efficiency in livestock without the use of antibiotics. Bacteriocins have been more extensively studied and proposed as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics in animal husbandry. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides ribosomally synthesized by many species of Bacteria and some strains of Archaea. In general, bacteriocins just exhibited bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against other bacteria that are closely related to the producing strain. The main mechanisms of bacteriocin activity vary from pore formation in cytoplasmic membranes to the inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis and enzyme activities (RNAse or DNAse in target cells. The use of bacteriocins in probiotic applications, as preservatives, and most excitingly as alternatives to conventional antibiotics is being broadly explored and studied. This review will describe the bacteriocins potency for animal health and food safety, as well as the results of bacteriocin study that had been conducted in Indonesia.

  9. Approaches of the German food industry for addressing the issue of food losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    In the food industry the subject of food losses is of great importance due to economic balance and an efficient application of resources as well as the development of an efficient food chain system. This paper presents the explorative results of a quantitative survey of leading companies of the German food industry to evaluate the relevance and handling of this issue. The investigation reveals that the topic food losses have a high significance in the food industry which will probably increase in future. A sample breakdown by branches indicates that the issue has the highest relevance for companies in the confectionery industry. These companies as well as those in the meat and fish industry want to consider the subject prospectively more powerful in their companies. Across the food industry, there is no communication to consumers of the efforts concerning food losses. And companies in the confectionery industry and in the fruit and vegetable industry rather want to engage more powerful in this topic if consumers' interest increases. But in order to minimize food losses at all stages along the supply chain, communication and collaboration at all stages is essential, especially the communication to consumers. Thus, it has to be verified whether a suitable communication can lead to advantages in competition and become an important issue for companies to differentiate from competitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 20826 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ...] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration and Industry... Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and... written requests for single copies of the guidance document entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and...

  11. 77 FR 64999 - Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility Registrations and... industry entitled ``Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility Registrations and... made available a draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food [[Page...

  12. 77 FR 48990 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Categories in Food Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Categories in Food Facility Registrations and... industry entitled ``Necessity of the Use of Food Categories in Food Facility Registrations and Updates to... announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Necessity of the Use of Food...

  13. 76 FR 25538 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Interim final rule; request for comments... food for human or animal consumption. As required by the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), FDA... provide procedures for administrative detention of food for human or animal consumption under the...

  14. 21 CFR 510.110 - Antibiotics used in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antibiotics used in food-producing animals. 510... Rulings and Decisions § 510.110 Antibiotics used in food-producing animals. (a) The Food and Drug... has requested an evaluation of the public health aspects of the use of antibiotics in veterinary...

  15. 77 FR 56175 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 [Docket No. FDA-2012-F-0949] Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food... 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to provide for...

  16. Microbiological research and development for the food industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taormina, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    "This book serves as a primer and reference for industrial food microbiologists who typically gain the information provided through on-the-job experience or from a consultant instead of in the classroom...

  17. Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Brower, Charles; Gilbert, Marius; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Levin, Simon A.; Robinson, Timothy P.; Teillant, Aude; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2015-01-01

    Demand for animal protein for human consumption is rising globally at an unprecedented rate. Modern animal production practices are associated with regular use of antimicrobials, potentially increasing selection pressure on bacteria to become resistant. Despite the significant potential consequences for antimicrobial resistance, there has been no quantitative measurement of global antimicrobial consumption by livestock. We address this gap by using Bayesian statistical models combining maps of livestock densities, economic projections of demand for meat products, and current estimates of antimicrobial consumption in high-income countries to map antimicrobial use in food animals for 2010 and 2030. We estimate that the global average annual consumption of antimicrobials per kilogram of animal produced was 45 mg⋅kg−1, 148 mg⋅kg−1, and 172 mg⋅kg−1 for cattle, chicken, and pigs, respectively. Starting from this baseline, we estimate that between 2010 and 2030, the global consumption of antimicrobials will increase by 67%, from 63,151 ± 1,560 tons to 105,596 ± 3,605 tons. Up to a third of the increase in consumption in livestock between 2010 and 2030 is imputable to shifting production practices in middle-income countries where extensive farming systems will be replaced by large-scale intensive farming operations that routinely use antimicrobials in subtherapeutic doses. For Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, the increase in antimicrobial consumption will be 99%, up to seven times the projected population growth in this group of countries. Better understanding of the consequences of the uninhibited growth in veterinary antimicrobial consumption is needed to assess its potential effects on animal and human health. PMID:25792457

  18. Life and health insurance industry investments in fast food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Arun V; McCormick, Danny; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U; Boyd, J Wesley

    2010-06-01

    Previous research on health and life insurers' financial investments has highlighted the tension between profit maximization and the public good. We ascertained health and life insurance firms' holdings in the fast food industry, an industry that is increasingly understood to negatively impact public health. Insurers own $1.88 billion of stock in the 5 leading fast food companies. We argue that insurers ought to be held to a higher standard of corporate responsibility, and we offer potential solutions.

  19. Breakfast Cereals: The Extreme Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Connor

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of my talk today is to review several aspects of the market structure, strategic rivalry, and economic performance of the ready-to-eat cereals industry. To do so, I will at times take a long historical view of the breakfast cereals industry because many of the behaviors we observe today seem to me to be imbedded in habits of business rivalry that were learned many decades ago and yet persist today. My perspective on the RTE breakfast cereals industry is informed by nearly twenty y...

  20. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi My Dieu

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become one of the top agricultural countries in the world by the year 2010. However, it is not difficult to recognize that the rapid growth of food processing industry in Vietnam goes together with environm...

  1. Identifying Competencies in the Food Service Industry. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Linda M.

    This report documents a research project conducted to ascertain what specific occupational competencies are necessary for employees in the food service industry. Questionnaires were mailed to employers, in restaurants and hospitals and to graduates of high school and postsecondary food service programs. The respondents completed 316 position…

  2. Management Science/Industrial Engineering Techniques to Reduce Food Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Murray

    This paper examines the contributions of Industrial Engineering and Management Science toward reduction in the cost of production and distribution of food. Food processing firms were requested to respond to a questionnaire which asked for examples of their use of various operations research tools and information on the number of operations…

  3. Quality function deployment in the food industry: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.I.A.; Dekker, M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed literature review on the topic of the application of quality function deployment (QFD) in the food industry. This review is extended with a thorough description of the methodologies involved in the practice of QFD within food companies, exemplified with the help of a

  4. Advantage of irradiation in food industry, technical and economical constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, P.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation is an effective method to extend the conservation and to increase the hygienic security of food. Nevertheless the use of irradiation remains limited in food industry. The prospects of different applications are evaluated, referring to the other alternative technologies. The advantage of adequate irradiation facilities incorporated or not into the plants are compared [fr

  5. Hotel & Food Service Industries. Workforce & Workplace Literacy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCL Brief, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This brief gives an overview of the topic of workplace literacy for the hotel and food service industries and lists program contacts. The following organizations operate employee basic skills programs for hotel and food service employees, provide technical assistance, or operate grant programs: Essential Skills Resource Center; Language Training…

  6. Carbon emissions reduction in China's food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Lei, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the changes in carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption in China's food industry from 1986 to 2010 based on the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method. The results show that energy intensity (EI) and industrial activity (IA) are the main determinants of the changes in carbon dioxide. Energy intensity (EI) contributes to decrease in emissions within 25 years while industrial activity (IA) acts in a positive way to increase the emissions level. Industry scale (IS) mostly contributes to increase in emissions except for the time interval 1996–2000. However, for both carbon intensity (CI) and energy structure (ES), they have a volatile but not significant influence on emissions in the different time intervals. To further understand the effects, we analyze the cumulative emission during the whole period 1986–2010. The results further testify that energy intensity and industrial activity are the most important factors affecting reduction and growth of carbon emissions. The results indicate that efforts to reduce emission in China's food industry should focus on the enhancement of energy efficiency, the optimization of industrial scale and the restructuring energy use. Finally, recommendations are provided for the reduction of carbon dioxide in China's food industry. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in China's food industry. • LMDI decomposition analysis is conducted for finding out the driving forces. • Industrial activity is the main driving force of CO 2 emissions in this industry. • Energy intensity is the main factor mitigating carbon emissions in this industry. • Main advice: improving energy efficiency, optimizing industrial scale.

  7. Product development in the European and overseas food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Balogh, Sandor

    2007-01-01

    In the present study various product development trends in the food industry are reviewed with the main focus on convenience, organic and functional foods. Also highlighted are differences between the U.S. and Europe in terms of consumer habits and food supply trends. Through exploring the reasons behind differences in the extent of product innovation, the author illustrates the different role convenience products have in the US and European markets. Also revealed is the relationship linking ...

  8. From alternative Agriculture to the Food Industry, The Need for Changes in Food Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild

    1997-01-01

    have established rules and control systems for organic agriculture (the last decade). A break-through of organic food production is now taking place in some EU member states. This third change is indicated by more positive attitudes to organic products from the food industry but also by an increasing...... need for a more appropriate respons in the food policy....

  9. Nanotechnology: current uses and future applications in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Chung, Ill-Min

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology intend new and innovative applications in the food industry. Nanotechnology exposed to be an efficient method in many fields, particularly the food industry and the area of functional foods. Though as is the circumstance with the growth of any novel food processing technology, food packaging material, or food ingredient, additional studies are needed to demonstrate the potential benefits of nanotechnologies and engineered nanomaterials designed for use in foods without adverse health effects. Nanoemulsions display numerous advantages over conventional emulsions due to the small droplets size they contain: high optical clarity, excellent physical constancy against gravitational partition and droplet accumulation, and improved bioavailability of encapsulated materials, which make them suitable for food applications. Nano-encapsulation is the most significant favorable technologies having the possibility to ensnare bioactive chemicals. This review highlights the applications of current nanotechnology research in food technology and agriculture, including nanoemulsion, nanocomposites, nanosensors, nano-encapsulation, food packaging, and propose future developments in the developing field of agrifood nanotechnology. Also, an overview of nanostructured materials, and their current applications and future perspectives in food science are also presented.

  10. Monitoring Industrial Food Processes Using Spectroscopy & Chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dorthe Kjær; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade rapid spectroscopic measurements have revolutionized quality control in practically all areas of primary food and feed production. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR & NIT) has been implemented for monitoring the quality of millions of samples of cereals, milk and meat with unprec......In the last decade rapid spectroscopic measurements have revolutionized quality control in practically all areas of primary food and feed production. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR & NIT) has been implemented for monitoring the quality of millions of samples of cereals, milk and meat...

  11. What design can bring to the food industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schifferstein, H.N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Even though designers are specifically trained to create and build new products, their contribution to innovation in the food industry is relatively small. The industry seems unfamiliar with the ways in which designers operate and may be unaware of the added value they may provide. Therefore, this

  12. [Food industry funding and epidemiologic research in public health nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Tardón, Adonina; Romaguera, Dora; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Vioque, Jesús

    The interests of the food industry to fund nutrition and health research are not limited to promoting scientific advances. Recently, several systematic reviews conducted about the effect of sugar-sweetened beverages and health outcomes have shown some biased conclusions in studies that acknowledge industry sponsorship. In this context, the Nutrition Working Group of the Spanish Epidemiology Society presented a scientific session entitled Food industry and epidemiologic research at its annual meeting. In a round table, four experts in nutrition research presented their points of view about whether the food industry should fund nutrition-related research and the related potential conflicts of interest of the food industry. All the experts agreed not only on defending independence in nutritional epidemiology regarding the design, interpretation and conclusion of their studies but also on the crucial need for guaranteed scientific rigor, scientific quality of the results and measures to protect studies against potential biases related to the conflicts of interest of funding by the food industry. Drs Pérez-Farinós and Romaguera believe that the most effective way to prevent conflicts of interest would be not to allow the food industry to fund nutrition research; Drs Marcos and Martínez-González suggested the need to establish mechanisms and strategies to prevent the potential influences of the food industry in selecting researchers or institutional sponsorship and in the analysis and results of the studies, to ensure maximum independence for researchers, as well as their professional ethics. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. FEATURES OF FORMATION SCENARIOS OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy Nozhenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the topic – the invention of approaches to enterprise development oil and fat industry. The goal – to identify features of formation scenarios for the food industry. The chosen methodology allowed to analyze and evaluate the functioning of state enterprises. Results are discovering the benefits of scenario planning to find ways of business development. Novelty – a rationale for the use of scenario planning for enterprise development oil and fat industry, developing a set of scenarios. The practical significance – providing specific scenarios for enterprises of oil and fat industry. Keywords: scenario planning, scenario development, enterprise, oil and fat industry outlook. JEL: L 66

  14. Evaluating Industry Self-Regulation of Food Marketing to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dale L; Castonguay, Jessica S; Filer, Christine R

    2015-08-01

    Concern has grown about the role of televised food advertising as a contributor to childhood obesity. In response, the food industry adopted a program of self-regulation, with participating companies pledging to limit child-targeted advertising to healthier products. The implicit promise of the industry initiative is a significant improvement in the overall nutritional quality of foods marketed to children, thereby negating the need for governmental regulation to accomplish that objective. This study assesses the efficacy of industry self-regulation by comparing advertising content on children's TV programs before and after self-regulation was implemented. A systematic content analysis of food advertisements (n=625 in 2007, n=354 in 2013) appearing in children's TV programs on the most popular cable and broadcast channels was conducted. All analyses were conducted in 2014. Findings indicated that no significant improvement in the overall nutritional quality of foods marketed to children has been achieved since industry self-regulation was adopted. In 2013, 80.5% of all foods advertised to children on TV were for products in the poorest nutritional category, and thus pose high risk for contributing to obesity. The lack of significant improvement in the nutritional quality of food marketed to children is likely a result of the weak nutritional standards for defining healthy foods employed by industry, and because a substantial proportion of child-oriented food marketers do not participate in self-regulation. The lack of success achieved by self-regulation indicates that other policy actions are needed to effectively reduce children's exposure to obesogenic food advertising. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Review of the Poultry Meat Production Industry for Food Safety in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyono, N. D.; Utami, M. M. D.

    2018-01-01

    Poultry meat is an indispensable source of animal protein in human growth and development, so it is in great demand by people all over the world. Poultry meat has several advantages, namely the quality of nutrition is good enough, delicious taste, relatively affordable price, easy to get and accepted all levels of society with diverse backgrounds. The era of globalization requires competitive products, such as chicken meat in Indonesia, the current chicken meat industry is not only based on high production capacity and decreased production costs but also chicken products are safe to eat. As a consequence of trade liberalization, the poultry industry faces the threat of competition with cheaper products with better quality. The food safety of chicken meat starts from the farm, processing process until consumed. Food safety is a requirement of food products that must be handled by involving government, industry and consumers.

  16. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.42 Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. All mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product inspected under this part shall be marked and...

  17. Emerging Food Processing Technologies and Factors Impacting their Industrial Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Anushree; Rajauria, Gaurav; O'Donnell, Colm P; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2018-06-04

    Innovative food processing technologies have been widely investigated in food processing research in recent years. These technologies offer key advantages for advancing the preservation and quality of conventional foods, for combatting the growing challenges posed by globalization, increased competitive pressures and diverse consumer demands. However, there is a need to increase the level of adoption of novel technologies to ensure the potential benefits of these technologies are exploited more by the food industry. This review outlines emerging thermal and non-thermal food processing technologies with regard to their mechanisms, applications and commercial aspects. The level of adoption of novel food processing technologies by the food industry is outlined and the factors that impact their industrial adoption are discussed. At an industry level, the technological capabilities of individual companies, their size, market share as well as their absorptive capacity impact adoption of a novel technology. Characteristics of the technology itself such as costs involved in its development and commercialization, associated risks and relative advantage, its level of complexity and compatibility influence the technology's adoption. The review concludes that a deep understanding of the development and application of a technology along with the factors influencing its acceptance are critical for its commercial adoption.

  18. 75 FR 64733 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...] Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal AGENCY: Food... announcing that Arcadia Biosciences, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations..., Davis, CA 95618. The petition proposes to amend the food additive regulations in part 573 Food Additives...

  19. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (5): discrepancies between ingredients and labeling in commercial pet foods

    OpenAIRE

    Olivry, Thierry; Mueller, Ralf S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Elimination dietary trials for the diagnosis of adverse food reactions (food allergies) in dogs and cats are often conducted with commercial pet foods while relying on their label to select those not containing previously-eaten ingredients. There are concerns that industrial pet foods might contain unlisted food sources that could negate the usefulness of performing food trials. Furthermore, unidentified ingredients might cause clinical reactions in patients hypersensitive to such ...

  20. Logistics integration processes in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez, Cristina

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the integration process that firms follow to implement Supply Chain Management (SCM). This study has been inspired in the integration model proposed by Stevens (1989). He suggests that companies internally integrate first and then extend integration to other supply chain members, such as customers and suppliers. To analyse the integration process a survey was conducted among Spanish food manufacturers. The results show that there are companies in three different integratio...

  1. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Companies that produce or sell food products from farm animals can have a major influence on the lives and welfare of these animals. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) conducts an annual evaluation of the farm animal welfare-related disclosures of some of the world’s largest food companies. The programme looks at companies’ published policies and commitments and examines whether these might lead to actions that can improve animal welfare on farms. It also assesses whether companies show leadership in this field. The BBFAW found that, in 2012 and 2013, around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue, and that, between 2012 and 2013, there was clear evidence of an increased level of disclosure on farm animal welfare awareness in the companies that were assessed. However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies had published comprehensive farm animal welfare policies, suggesting that many companies have yet to report on farm animal welfare as a business issue or disclose their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society. Abstract The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p animal welfare

  2. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Sullivan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012 and 70 (2013 of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. However, only 34% (2012 and 44% (2013 of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  3. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies' Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A

    2017-03-06

    The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company's commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world's largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% ( p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test). However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  4. 75 FR 22599 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration and Industry Procedures for Section 513(g) Requests for Information Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic... and Industry Procedures for Section 513(g) Requests for Information Under the Federal Food, Drug, and...

  5. Modeling of processing technologies in food industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, V. G.; Sagitov, R. F.; Popov, V. P.; Bachirov, V. D.; Akhmadieva, Z. R.; TSirkaeva, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    Currently, the society is facing an urgent need to solve the problems of nutrition (products with increased nutrition value) and to develop energy-saving technologies for food products. A mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer of polymer materials in the extruder is rather successful these days. Mathematical description of movement and heat exchange during extrusion of gluten-protein-starch-containing material similar to pasta dough in its structure, were taken as a framework for the mathematical model presented in this paper.

  6. Application of radioimmunoassay in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, P.; Fukal, L.; Kas, J.

    1983-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay can be used in evaluating the quality and wholesomeness of food. The method is advantageous for its speed, specificity, high sensitivity, relative ease of performance, and the possibility of performing a great number of parallel determinations using automation and computer evaluation. It can be used in determining macromolecules of proteins and enzymes. The determination of papain in beer is shown by way of example. Other possibilities of the method include: the determination of microbial toxins of the peptide nature, vitamins, hormones, antibiotics, pesticides and their residues, alkaloids, and carcinogenic materials. (M.D.)

  7. Risk Management for New Product Development Projects in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porananond, D.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Project risk management provides a guideline for decision making in new product development (NPD projects, reducing uncertainty and increasing success rate. However, the acceptance of formal risk management applications in industry, especially for NPD projects is still in question. A study of a food conglomerate in Thailand found that only 9% of NPD projects used a systematic approach for managing risk. 61% of the projects realised the importance of risk management, while the remaining 30% did not involve risk management at all. This study aims to develop a risk management model for NPD projects in the food industry. The first section of this paper reviews the literature on risk management theory, including international standards for risk and project management (ISO31000 and ISO21500, publications for the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, by a professional organisation the Project Management Institute (PMI, and also academic research. 182 academic papers, published between January 2002 and August 2012 were selected. The second part interviews conducted with eight NPD experts from five of the major food manufacturers in Thailand to examine their risk management practices and problems. Conclusions are made on five topics : classification of research method, project type and industrial segment, distribution of articles by region, tools & techniques for risk management and risk factors in projects. Specific requirements of risk management for NPD projects in the food industry are identified. A risk management model and the concept of risk management applications for the food industry are proposed.

  8. 76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 [Docket No. FDA-2009-F-0525] Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid AGENCY...) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to...

  9. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBDG

    Associates of the Institute of Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of ... nutrition), the role of animal source foods as part of a healthy diet requires continuous investment ... Keywords: Animal source foods, livestock products, nutrition, health ..... sensation of fullness that persists after eating until hunger returns (Benelam, ...

  10. Ecological problems in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Milan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In regard to the development of agricultural and food technologies Yugoslavia up till now has not had a developed strategy of "development of the environment" - an ecological strategy, nor has it in that respect had clearly defined political scientifically-based strategies. Current efforts to define developmental concepts are almost completely neglected, foremost in the "promotion of new ecologically justified technologies" and the formation of national programs of sustainable development. World trends in this area are already directed to the production and promotion of so-called "healthy food" which, designated in several ways, is becoming more and more present on the tables of developed countries. Yugoslavia, beside its current economic difficulties, has great potential and a elastic chance to follow world trends and completely satisfy the EU standards EVRO-EMA and world ecological standards ISO 14 000 by the quality implementation of well planned ecologically and economically rational programs. n order to undertake appropriate measures for "sustainable development", it s previously necessary to assess the problem and objectively establish the status.

  11. Designing Industrial Networks Using Ecological Food Web Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Astrid; Bras, Bert; Weissburg, Marc

    2016-10-18

    Biologically Inspired Design (biomimicry) and Industrial Ecology both look to natural systems to enhance the sustainability and performance of engineered products, systems and industries. Bioinspired design (BID) traditionally has focused on a unit operation and single product level. In contrast, this paper describes how principles of network organization derived from analysis of ecosystem properties can be applied to industrial system networks. Specifically, this paper examines the applicability of particular food web matrix properties as design rules for economically and biologically sustainable industrial networks, using an optimization model developed for a carpet recycling network. Carpet recycling network designs based on traditional cost and emissions based optimization are compared to designs obtained using optimizations based solely on ecological food web metrics. The analysis suggests that networks optimized using food web metrics also were superior from a traditional cost and emissions perspective; correlations between optimization using ecological metrics and traditional optimization ranged generally from 0.70 to 0.96, with flow-based metrics being superior to structural parameters. Four structural food parameters provided correlations nearly the same as that obtained using all structural parameters, but individual structural parameters provided much less satisfactory correlations. The analysis indicates that bioinspired design principles from ecosystems can lead to both environmentally and economically sustainable industrial resource networks, and represent guidelines for designing sustainable industry networks.

  12. Agency perspectives on food safety for the products of animal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, H J; Jones, K M; Rudenko, L

    2012-08-01

    Animal biotechnology represents one subset of tools among a larger set of technologies for potential use to meet increasing world demands for food. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer continue to make positive contributions in food animal production. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) performed a comprehensive risk assessment to identify potential food consumption or animal health risks associated with animal cloning, an emerging ART. At that time, FDA concluded that animal cloning posed no unique risks either to animal health or to food consumption, and food from animal clones and their sexually reproduced offspring required no additional federal regulation beyond that applicable to conventionally bred animals of the species examined. At this time, no new information has arisen that would necessitate a change in FDA's conclusions on food from animal clones or their sexually reproduced offspring. Use of recombinant DNA technologies to produce genetically engineered (GE) animals represents another emerging technology with potential to impact food animal production. In its regulation of GE animals, FDA follows a cumulative, risk-based approach to address scientific questions related to the GE animals. FDA evaluates data and information on the safety, effectiveness and stability of the GE event. FDA carries out its review at several levels (e.g. molecular biology, animal safety, food safety, environmental safety and claim validation). GE animal sponsors provide data to address risk questions for each level. This manuscript discusses FDA's role in evaluation of animal cloning and GE animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Market surveillance for the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen

    1993-01-01

    , intraorganizational decision processes, and organizational resources. 8. For end users, cognitive structures can be measured by the instrument food-related life style, intraorganizational decision processes refer to family decision-making, and organizational resources to households' equipment with time and money. 9....... For distributors, decision-makers' cognitive structures may be measured by an instrument termed retail supplier evaluation style, intraorganizational decision processes refer to retail purchasing routines, and organizational resources to distributors overall sales, profit, number of outlets etc. 10....... For competitors, decision-makers' cognitive structures refer to their subjective key success factors, intraorganizational decision processes to managerial decision-making, and organizational resources to companies' scores on the market's key success factors....

  14. Applications of prebiotics in food industry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Vinti; Chakkaravarthi, S

    2017-12-01

    Benefits of prebiotics for stimulating a healthy intestinal tract are well known. From suppression of pathogens to proliferation of indigenous bacteria of intestines, prebiotics have it all. Since the research on the scope of prebiotics is expanding, new applications are coming up every day thus upgrading the choices consumer has for a healthy living. Incorporation of prebiotics in a wide range of products that food industry offers on shelf is an innovative way to replace fat and sugars along with enhancing the mouthfeel by providing better tongue lubrication. In some cases, the thermal stability of the product is improved along with other sensory, textural and physiological benefits. This paper gives an overview of the various prebiotics available from different sources and their applications in various segments of food industry, notably dairy, beverage, processed fruit-vegetable, bakery, confectionary, extruded snack, sweetener, infant formula, pet food and livestock industry. The effects observed on addition of various prebiotics are also elaborated.

  15. The Role of the Food Industry in Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a complex disease of diverse etiology. Among the potential influences in the development of obesity, the food supply chain remains an important influence. We provide a conceptual overview related to the food industry's role in obesity prevention. We first discuss some limitations of current public health efforts. We then describe how a model that attends to personal autonomy in the context of supportive policy intervention can empower individuals in their efforts to navigate the food supply chain. We then provide an evidence informed overview of key areas where continued efforts to collaboratively engage the food industry, through solution-focused dialogue and action, have the potential to contribute to obesity prevention. While challenging, appropriately transparent, well-governed public-private partnerships have the demonstrated potential to benefit the communities we serve.

  16. Characteristics of food industry web sites and "advergames" targeting children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Jennifer; Bell, Robert A; Cassady, Diana

    2010-01-01

    To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A total of 290 Web pages and 247 unique games on 19 Internet sites were examined. Games, found on 81% of Web sites, were the most predominant promotion strategy used. All games had at least 1 brand identifier, with logos being most frequently used. On average Web sites contained 1 "healthful" message for every 45 exposures to brand identifiers. Food companies use Web sites to extend their television advertising to promote brand loyalty among children. These sites almost exclusively promoted food items high in sugar and fat. Health professionals need to monitor food industry marketing practices used in "new media." Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Challenges in packaging waste management in the fast food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnio, Teija [Digita Oy, P.O. Box 135, FI-00521 Helsinki (Finland); Haemaelaeinen, Anne [Department of Energy and Environmental Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2008-02-15

    The recovery of solid waste is required by waste legislation, and also by the public. In some industries, however, waste is mostly disposed of in landfills despite of its high recoverability. Practical experiences show that the fast food industry is one example of these industries. A majority of the solid waste generated in the fast food industry is packaging waste, which is highly recoverable. The main research problem of this study was to find out the means of promoting the recovery of packaging waste generated in the fast food industry. Additionally, the goal of this article was to widen academic understanding on packaging waste management in the fast food industry, as the subject has not gained large academic interest previously. The study showed that the theoretical recovery rate of packaging waste in the fast food industry is high, 93% of the total annual amount, while the actual recovery rate is only 29% of the total annual amount. The total recovery potential of packaging waste is 64% of the total annual amount. The achievable recovery potential, 33% of the total annual amount, could be recovered, but is not mainly because of non-working waste management practices. The theoretical recovery potential of 31% of the total annual amount of packaging waste cannot be recovered by the existing solid waste infrastructure because of the obscure status of commercial waste, the improper operation of producer organisations, and the municipal autonomy. The research indicated that it is possible to reach the achievable recovery potential in the existing solid waste infrastructure through new waste management practices, which are designed and operated according to waste producers' needs and demands. The theoretical recovery potential can be reached by increasing the consistency of the solid waste infrastructure through governmental action. (author)

  18. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR FOOD INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER DECONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Krzemińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High organic matter content is a basic problem in food industry wastewaters. Typically, the amount and composition of the effluent varies considerably. In the article four groups of advanced processes and their combination of food industry wastewater treatment have been reviewed: electrochemical oxidation (EC, Fenton’s process, ozonation of water and photocatalytic processes. All advanced oxidation processes (AOP`s are characterized by a common chemical feature: the capability of exploiting high reactivity of HO• radicals in driving oxidation processes which are suitable for achieving decolonization and odour reduction, and the complete mineralization or increase of bioavailability of recalcitrant organic pollutants.

  19. Price Rigidity and Industrial Concentration: Evidence from the Indonesian Food and Beverages Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, M.; Emvalomatis, G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between industrial concentration and price rigidity in the Indonesian food and beverages industry. A Cournot model of firm behavior is used in which prices adjust according to a partial adjustment mechanism. The model is applied to panel data of the

  20. Greening Food Processing Industry in Vietnam: Putting Industrial Ecology to Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi My Dieu,

    2003-01-01

    The significant contribution to Vietnam's gross domestic product over the years give evidence of the important role of food processing industry in the economic and industrial development of the country. This is even more relevant from now onwards, as it is Vietnam's development strategy to become

  1. Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in providing scientific advice on the welfare of food producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serratosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The survey describes the work of the Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in the provision of scientific advice on the welfare of food producing animals including animal health and food safety aspects, where relevant, and on the impact of these scientific assessments on the EU regulatory framework. EFSA was created in 2002 with the mission to provide advice and scientific and technical support for the Community legislation and policies in all fields which have a direct or indirect impact on food and feed safety, plant health, environment and animal health and animal welfare. When providing objective and independent science-based advice, the risk assessment approach should be followed, whenever possible. The AHAW Panel of EFSA provides specific advices on risk factors related to animal diseases and welfare, mainly of food producing animals, including fish. According to EFSA’s remit, ethical, socio-economic, cultural and religious aspects are outside the scope of the EFSA’s assessments. Since 2004, the Animal Health and Welfare Panel of EFSA adopted a total of 21 scientific opinions on animal welfare. Animal diseases and food safety aspects have also been taken into account, where relevant. Animal welfare aspects have been considered in some scientific opinions on animal diseases (e.g. AI, FMD. The AHAW Panel is currently working on five scientific opinions on the welfare of dairy cows and on the welfare aspects of the stunning and killing of farmed fish for eight fish species (salmon, trout, carp, eel, tuna, sea bass, sea bream and turbot. The possible interactions and implications for food safety and animal disease have been considered, when relevant, in most of the AW scientific opinions, involving other areas of expertise in EFSA, like Biohazards, Contaminants and Plant Health. The final aim of EFSA’s scientific assessments on animal welfare is to support animal welfare EU legislation on the

  2. Life cycle of PCBs and contamination of the environment and of food products from animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Roland; Herold, Christine; Hollert, Henner; Kamphues, Josef; Ungemach, Linda; Blepp, Markus; Ballschmiter, Karlheinz

    2018-06-01

    This report gives a summary of the historic use, former management and current release of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Germany and assesses the impact of the life cycle of PCBs on the contamination of the environment and of food products of animal origin. In Germany 60,000 t of PCBs were used in transformers, capacitors or as hydraulic oils. The use of PCB oils in these "closed applications", has been banned in Germany in 2000. Thirty to 50% of these PCBs were not appropriately managed. In West Germany, 24,000 t of PCBs were used in open applications, mainly as additive (plasticiser, flame retardant) in sealants and paints in buildings and other construction. The continued use in open applications has not been banned, and in 2013, an estimated more than 12,000 t of PCBs were still present in buildings and other constructions. These open PCB applications continuously emit PCBs into the environment with an estimated release of 7-12 t per year. This amount is in agreement with deposition measurements (estimated to 18 t) and emission estimates for Switzerland. The atmospheric PCB releases still have an relevant impact on vegetation and livestock feed. In addition, PCBs in open applications on farms are still a sources of contamination for farmed animals. Furthermore, the historic production, use, recycling and disposal of PCBs have contaminated soils along the lifecycle. This legacy of contaminated soils and contaminated feed, individually or collectively, can lead to exceedance of maximum levels in food products from animals. In beef and chicken, soil levels of 5 ng PCB-TEQ/kg and for chicken with high soil exposure even 2 ng PCB-TEQ/kg can lead to exceedance of EU limits in meat and eggs. Areas at and around industries having produced or used or managed PCBs, or facilities and areas where PCBs were disposed need to be assessed in respect to potential contamination of food-producing animals. For a large share of impacted land, management measures

  3. Hormonal growth promoting agents in food producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephany, Rainer W

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the use of hormonal doping agents in sports to enhance the performance of athletes, in the livestock industry hormonal growth promoters ("anabolics") are used to increase the production of muscle meat. This leads to international disputes about the safety of meat originating from animals treated with such anabolics.As a consequence of the total ban in the EU of all hormonal active growth promoters ("hormones") in livestock production, in contrast to their legal use [e.g. of five such hormones (17beta-estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, trenbolone and zeranol) as small solid ear implants and two hormones as feed additives for feedlot heifers (melengestrol acetate) and for swine (ractopamine) in the USA], the regulatory controls also differ sharply between the EU and the USA.In the EU the treatment of slaughter animals is the regulatory offence that has to be controlled in inspection programs. In the USA testing for compliance of a regulatory maximum residue level in the edible product (muscle, fat, liver or kidney) is the purpose of the inspection program (if any).The EU inspection programs focus on sample materials that are more suitable for testing for banned substances, especially if the animals are still on the farm, such as urine and feces or hair. In the case of slaughtered animals, the more favored sample materials are bile, blood, eyes and sometimes liver. Only in rare occasions is muscle meat sampled. This happens only in the case of import controls or in monitoring programs of meat sampled in butcher shops or supermarkets.As a result, data on hormone concentrations in muscle meat samples from the EU market are very rare and are obtained in most cases from small programs on an ad hoc basis. EU data for natural hormones in meat are even rarer because of the absence of "legal natural levels" for these hormones in compliance testing. With the exception of samples from the application sites - in the EU the site of injection of liquid hormone

  4. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from food production animals to humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Cleef, van B.A.G.L.; Graat, E.A.M.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    International surveillance of antimicrobial use in food animal production shows that methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), traditionally a human pathogen associated with hospitals, has emerged in the community and animals. Since 1961, MRSA has been causing human infections in hospitals

  5. Comparing environmental impacts from insects for feed and food as an alternative to animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Hansen, Hanne Helene; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2018-01-01

    This chapter systematically compares and contrasts the known environmental impacts of traditional vertebrate animal production with insect production intended for both food and animal feed. There are major physiological and biological differences between traditional livestock species and insects,...

  6. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  7. A survey of food allergen control practices in the U.S. food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M; Khan, Nazleen; Yajnik, Monali

    2013-02-01

    Despite awareness of the importance of food allergy as a public health issue, recalls and adverse reactions linked to undeclared allergens in foods continue to occur with high frequency. To reduce the overall incidence of such problems and to ensure that food-allergic consumers have the information they need to prevent adverse reactions, it is important to understand which allergen control practices are currently used by the food industry. Therefore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration carried out directed inspections of registered food facilities in 2010 to obtain a broader understanding of industry allergen control practices in the United States. The results of these inspections show that allergen awareness and the use of allergen controls have increased greatly in the last decade, but that small facilities lag in implementing allergen controls.

  8. 77 FR 71750 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    .... FDA-2012-F-1100] DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food... (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed a petition proposing that the food additive...) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2273) has been filed by DSM...

  9. 78 FR 77384 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    .... FDA-2013-F-1539] DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food... (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed a petition proposing that the food additive... U.S.C. 348(b)(5)), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2276) has been filed by DSM...

  10. 75 FR 62545 - Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Virginiamycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ...] Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Virginiamycin AGENCY: Food and... that Ferm Solutions, Inc. has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended..., Drug, and Cosmetic Act (section 409(b)(5) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5)), notice is given that a food additive...

  11. 76 FR 48751 - Lanxess Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Calcium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    .... FDA-2011-F-0549] Lanxess Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Calcium Formate AGENCY... Administration (FDA) is announcing that Lanxess Corp. has filed a petition proposing that the food additive..., PA 15275-1112. The petition proposes to amend the food additive regulations in part 573 Food...

  12. Natural and artificial radioactivity in commercial food for domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    The levels of natural radioactivity throughout the planet and their eventual consequences are studied by Environmental Radioprotection. Over the past years, the international agencies concerned with radiation protection have debated over the practices conducted so far, regarding the protection of the fauna and ora, which believed that the recommendations implemented for human beings assured that other species were also protected. Thus, assessments of the activity concentration of different radionuclides in the environment, as well as the absorbed doses for species from different ecosystems, due to internal and external exposures, are needed. Brazil holds the second largest dog and cat population in the world and annually produces over 2 million tons of feed. The present work has investigated the radioactivity levels in commercial brands of dry dog and cat food, using high resolution gamma spectrometry. The results have shown activity concentrations for artificial radionuclides below the detector's Minimum Detectable Activity and also, low concentration levels for the natural radionuclides, varying from 0,9 ± 0,3 Bq/kg up to 5,1 ± 0,7 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, from 1,2 ± 0,4 Bq/kg up to 11,1 ± 1,0 Bq/kg for 232 Th and from 156 ± 7 Bq/kg up to 410± 19 Bq/kg for 40 K. In order to verify the mineral content in pet food, EDXRF technique was applied and, using multivariate statistics, correlations between the mineral and radionuclide content were verified. The good correlation observed between concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and calcium could be associated with meat and bone our used in feed manufacturing. The internal dose for some organs were inferred by Monte Carlo method and the results were no higher than 1 μGy/day. In summary, results have shown that the activity levels found in the pet food are low enough to conclude that the brands evaluated carry no radiological risks for the animals that consume them. (author)

  13. Challenging Barriers to the Evolution of the Saudi Animation Industry Life-Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Alharbi, O.; Baines, E.

    2015-01-01

    Conference proceedings were published with the paper available on https://www.waset.org/abstracts/industrial-and-manufacturing-engineering/27685 The animation industry is one of the creative industries that have attracted recent historiographical attention. However, there has been very limited research on Saudi Arabian and wider Arabian animation industries, while there are a large number of studies that have covered this issue for North America, Europe and East Asia. The existing studies ...

  14. Prebiotics in food animals, a potential to reduce foodborne pathogens and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animals can be seriously impacted by bacterial pathogens that affect their growth efficiency and overall health, as well as food safety of animal-derived products. Some pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, can be a shared problem for both human and animal health and can be found in many animal ...

  15. Prebiotics in food animals: A potential to reduce foodborne pathogens and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animals can be seriously impacted by bacterial pathogens that affect their growth efficiency and overall health, as well as food safety of animal-derived products. Some pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, can be a shared problem for both human and animal health and can be found in many animal ...

  16. 76 FR 71248 - Animal Food Labeling; Declaration of Certifiable Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... survey of pet food products for dogs, cats, rabbits, and guinea pigs, however, found that only 13 of the... change the wording of their labels. Animal feeds for a limited number of production animals, such as... assumptions on the use of color additives in animal feeds for production animals in general, and in particular...

  17. The Efficiency of Halal Processed Food Industry in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ali Mohd Noor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency is indispensable for an industry to ensure cost reduction and profit maximization. It also helps the industry to be competitive and remain in the market. In 2010, Malaysia aims to be the world halal hub. The hub should capture at least five percent of the world halal market with at least 10,000 exporting firms. However the hub failed due to the small number of firms efficiency that finally contribute to less number of firms export. Thus, this study aimed to measure the efficiency of halal processed food industry in Malaysia using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. Input variables used were local raw inputs, labour, and monetary assets of halal food industry in Malaysia. Meanwhile the output used was the total sales revenue of the halal industry in Malaysia. The study shows that very few indusries are efficient in each category led by meat, dairy, cordials and juices, marine products, food crops, and grains industry. Therefore, the government needs to emphasize on industry’s efficiency to be competitive and be the world halal hub in the future.

  18. Much Ado about Nothing?- The Influence of Functional Food on Profitability of German Food Industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittkopp, Antje

    2002-01-01

    Product innovation is a competitive strategy in food industry. Successful product development management is a key determinant of a firm?s performance. In recent years functional foods, which are innovative food products that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition, have become increasingly important in Germany. Using the structure-conductperformance approach it can be argued that product innovation raises barriers to entry and thus improve profitability. This study examines the effect ...

  19. A survey of antimicrobial usage in animals in South Africa with specific reference to food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, Hayley; Swan, Gerry; van Vuuren, Moritz

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to set a benchmark for a monitoring and surveillance programme on the volumes of antimicrobials available and consumed by animals for the benefit of animal health in South Africa. This survey was collated from data available from 2002 to 2004. The authorised antimicrobials available in South Africa were firstly reviewed. The majority of available antimicrobials were registered under the Stock Remedies Act 36 1947. Secondly, volumes of antimicrobials consumed were then surveyed and it was found that the majority of consumed antimicrobials were from the macrolide and pleuromutilin classes, followed by the tetracycline class, the sulphonamide class and lastly the penicillin class.Results showed that 68.5% of the antimicrobials surveyed were administered as in-feed medications. 17.5% of the total volume of antimicrobials utilised were parenteral antimicrobials, whereas antimicrobials for water medication constituted 12% of the total and 'other' dosage forms, for example the topical and aural dosage forms, constituted 1.5% of the total. Intramammary antimicrobials represented 0.04% of the total. The surveillance systems for veterinary antimicrobials used by other countries were scrutinised and compared. It was concluded that a combination of the surveillance systems applied by Australia and the United Kingdom is the best model (with modifications) to apply to the animal health industry in South Africa. Such a surveillance system, of the volumes of veterinary antimicrobials consumed, should ideally be implemented in conjunction with a veterinary antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programme. This will generate meaningful data that will contribute to the rational administration of antimicrobials in order to preserve the efficacy of the existing antimicrobials in South Africa.

  20. A survey of antimicrobial usage in animals in South Africa with specific reference to food animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Eagar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to set a benchmark for a monitoring and surveillance programme on the volumes of antimicrobials available and consumed by animals for the benefit of animal health in South Africa. This survey was collated from data available from 2002 to 2004. The authorised antimicrobials available in South Africa were firstly reviewed. The majority of available antimicrobials were registered under the Stock Remedies Act 36 1947. Secondly, volumes of antimicrobials consumed were then surveyed and it was found that the majority of consumed antimicrobials were from the macrolide and pleuromutilin classes, followed by the tetracycline class, the sulphonamide class and lastly the penicillin class.Results showed that 68.5% of the antimicrobials surveyed were administered as in-feed medications. 17.5% of the total volume of antimicrobials utilised were parenteral antimicrobials, whereas antimicrobials for water medication constituted 12% of the total and ’other‘ dosage forms, for example the topical and aural dosage forms, constituted 1.5% of the total. Intramammary antimicrobials represented 0.04% of the total. The surveillance systems for veterinary antimicrobials used by other countries were scrutinised and compared. It was concluded that a combination of the surveillance systems applied by Australia and the United Kingdom is the best model (with modifications to apply to the animal health industry in South Africa. Such a surveillance system, of the volumes of veterinary antimicrobials consumed, should ideally be implemented in conjunction with a veterinary antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programme. This will generate meaningful data that will contribute to the rational administration of antimicrobials in order to preserve the efficacy of the existing antimicrobials in South Africa.

  1. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: The Common Swine Industry Audit: Future steps to assure positive on-farm animal welfare utilizing validated, repeatable and feasible animal-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairis-Garcia, M; Moeller, S J

    2017-03-01

    The Common Swine Industry Audit (CSIA) was developed and scientifically evaluated through the combined efforts of a task force consisting of university scientists, veterinarians, pork producers, packers, processers, and retail and food service personnel to provide stakeholders throughout the pork chain with a consistent, reliable, and verifiable system to ensure on-farm swine welfare and food safety. The CSIA tool was built from the framework of the Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) site assessment program with the purpose of developing a single, common audit platform for the U.S. swine industry. Twenty-seven key aspects of swine care are captured and evaluated in CSIA and cover the specific focal areas of animal records, animal observations, facilities, and caretakers. Animal-based measures represent approximately 50% of CSIA evaluation criteria and encompass critical failure criteria, including observation of willful acts of abuse and determination of timely euthanasia. Objective, science-based measures of animal well-being parameters (e.g., BCS, lameness, lesions, hernias) are assessed within CSIA using statistically validated sample sizes providing a detection ability of 1% with 95% confidence. The common CSIA platform is used to identify care issues and facilitate continuous improvement in animal care through a validated, repeatable, and feasible animal-based audit process. Task force members provide continual updates to the CSIA tool with a specific focus toward 1) identification and interpretation of appropriate animal-based measures that provide inherent value to pig welfare, 2) establishment of acceptability thresholds for animal-based measures, and 3) interpretation of CSIA data for use and improvement of welfare within the U.S. swine industry.

  2. Food waste generation and industrial uses: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Francesca; Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-11-01

    Food waste is made up of materials intended for human consumption that are subsequently discharged, lost, degraded or contaminated. The problem of food waste is currently on an increase, involving all sectors of waste management from collection to disposal; the identifying of sustainable solutions extends to all contributors to the food supply chains, agricultural and industrial sectors, as well as retailers and final consumers. A series of solutions may be implemented in the appropriate management of food waste, and prioritised in a similar way to waste management hierarchy. The most sought-after solutions are represented by avoidance and donation of edible fractions to social services. Food waste is also employed in industrial processes for the production of biofuels or biopolymers. Further steps foresee the recovery of nutrients and fixation of carbon by composting. Final and less desirable options are incineration and landfilling. A considerable amount of research has been carried out on food waste with a view to the recovery of energy or related products. The present review aims to provide an overview of current debate on food waste definitions, generation and reduction strategies, and conversion technologies emerging from the biorefinery concept. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biofilms in the Food Industry: Health Aspects and Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galié, Serena; García-Gutiérrez, Coral; Miguélez, Elisa M.; Villar, Claudio J.; Lombó, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    Diverse microorganisms are able to grow on food matrixes and along food industry infrastructures. This growth may give rise to biofilms. This review summarizes, on the one hand, the current knowledge regarding the main bacterial species responsible for initial colonization, maturation and dispersal of food industry biofilms, as well as their associated health issues in dairy products, ready-to-eat foods and other food matrixes. These human pathogens include Bacillus cereus (which secretes toxins that can cause diarrhea and vomiting symptoms), Escherichia coli (which may include enterotoxigenic and even enterohemorrhagic strains), Listeria monocytogenes (a ubiquitous species in soil and water that can lead to abortion in pregnant women and other serious complications in children and the elderly), Salmonella enterica (which, when contaminating a food pipeline biofilm, may induce massive outbreaks and even death in children and elderly), and Staphylococcus aureus (known for its numerous enteric toxins). On the other hand, this review describes the currently available biofilm prevention and disruption methods in food factories, including steel surface modifications (such as nanoparticles with different metal oxides, nanocomposites, antimicrobial polymers, hydrogels or liposomes), cell-signaling inhibition strategies (such as lactic and citric acids), chemical treatments (such as ozone, quaternary ammonium compounds, NaOCl and other sanitizers), enzymatic disruption strategies (such as cellulases, proteases, glycosidases and DNAses), non-thermal plasma treatments, the use of bacteriophages (such as P100), bacteriocins (such us nisin), biosurfactants (such as lichenysin or surfactin) and plant essential oils (such as citral- or carvacrol-containing oils). PMID:29867809

  4. Biofilms in the Food Industry: Health Aspects and Control Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Galié

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse microorganisms are able to grow on food matrixes and along food industry infrastructures. This growth may give rise to biofilms. This review summarizes, on the one hand, the current knowledge regarding the main bacterial species responsible for initial colonization, maturation and dispersal of food industry biofilms, as well as their associated health issues in dairy products, ready-to-eat foods and other food matrixes. These human pathogens include Bacillus cereus (which secretes toxins that can cause diarrhea and vomiting symptoms, Escherichia coli (which may include enterotoxigenic and even enterohemorrhagic strains, Listeria monocytogenes (a ubiquitous species in soil and water that can lead to abortion in pregnant women and other serious complications in children and the elderly, Salmonella enterica (which, when contaminating a food pipeline biofilm, may induce massive outbreaks and even death in children and elderly, and Staphylococcus aureus (known for its numerous enteric toxins. On the other hand, this review describes the currently available biofilm prevention and disruption methods in food factories, including steel surface modifications (such as nanoparticles with different metal oxides, nanocomposites, antimicrobial polymers, hydrogels or liposomes, cell-signaling inhibition strategies (such as lactic and citric acids, chemical treatments (such as ozone, quaternary ammonium compounds, NaOCl and other sanitizers, enzymatic disruption strategies (such as cellulases, proteases, glycosidases and DNAses, non-thermal plasma treatments, the use of bacteriophages (such as P100, bacteriocins (such us nisin, biosurfactants (such as lichenysin or surfactin and plant essential oils (such as citral- or carvacrol-containing oils.

  5. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential application of lipid organogels for food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Kamila Ferreira; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan

    2018-03-01

    Controversial issues regarding the role of trans fatty acids in food have led to progressive changes in the legislation of several countries to include more information for consumers. In response, the industries decided to gradually replace trans fat in various products with the development of fatty bases of equivalent functionality and economic viability to partially hydrogenated fats, causing, however, a substantial increase in the content of saturated fatty acids in foods. Today, the lipid science aims to define alternatives to a problem that is widely discussed by health organizations worldwide: limit the saturated fat content in food available to the population. In this context, organogels have been indicated as a viable alternative to obtain semi-solid fats with reduced content of saturated fatty acids and compatible properties for food application. The objective of this review was to present the studies that address the lipid organogels as an alternative for food application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Food Addiction and Binge Eating: Lessons Learned from Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diéguez, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The feeding process is required for basic life, influenced by environment cues and tightly regulated according to demands of the internal milieu by regulatory brain circuits. Although eating behaviour cannot be considered “addictive” under normal circumstances, people can become “addicted” to this behaviour, similarly to how some people are addicted to drugs. The symptoms, cravings and causes of “eating addiction” are remarkably similar to those experienced by drug addicts, and both drug-seeking behaviour as eating addiction share the same neural pathways. However, while the drug addiction process has been highly characterised, eating addiction is a nascent field. In fact, there is still a great controversy over the concept of “food addiction”. This review aims to summarize the most relevant animal models of “eating addictive behaviour”, emphasising binge eating disorder, that could help us to understand the neurobiological mechanisms hidden under this behaviour, and to improve the psychotherapy and pharmacological treatment in patients suffering from these pathologies. PMID:29324652

  8. Association between the consumption of antimicrobial agents in animal husbandry and the occurrence of resistant bacteria among food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1999-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used in food animals for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals may cause problems in the therapy of infections by selecting for resistance among bacteria pathogenic for animals...... animals, the quantitative impact of the use of different antimicrobial agents on selection for resistance and the most appropriate treatment regimens to limit the development of resistance is incomplete. Surveillance programmes monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption...... or humans. The emergence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes following the use of antimicrobial agents is relatively well documented and it seems evident that all antimicrobial agents will select for resistance. However, current knowledge regarding the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in food...

  9. Characteristics of Food Industry Web Sites and "Advergames" Targeting Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Jennifer; Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. Design: A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A…

  10. Behavioral Safety in the Food Services Industry: Challenges and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebbon, Angela; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; Austin, John

    2012-01-01

    During the course of a 6-year behavioral safety consult at a food and drink industry site, data were collected on the number of Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordable incidents, number of lost and restricted days, and number of peer safety observations. Employees were trained to identify safe and unsafe behavior, conduct peer…

  11. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Grunow, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates are

  12. Logistics outsourcing by Taiwanese and Dutch food processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsin-I Hsiao, L.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate outsourcing of different types of logistics activities in Taiwanese food industry, and benchmark with practices in The Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach – The outsourcing of four levels of logistics activities is investigated: transportation (level 1),

  13. Customer-driven manufacturing in the food processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, D.P. van

    2000-01-01

    Food processing industry copes with high logistical demands from its customers. This paper studies a company changing to more customer (order) driven manufacturing. In order to help decide which products should be made to order and which made to stock, a frame is developed and applied to find and

  14. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  15. The utilization of irradiation techniques in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation technical researches and the main areas of nuclear technical applications are surveyed, and the main areas where nuclear techniques are used are reported. Then an overview on radiation techniques including radiostimulation, radiomutation, radurization, radioecology and isotope techniques used in the food industry is presented. (author) 4 refs

  16. Successful new product development in the food packaging industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... In the context of the food industry, process and product innovations are usually the ... The analysis is proposed in the form of a case study-based research, which was carried out ...

  17. Strategies to reduce sodium consumption: a food industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötsch, Mariska; Busch, Johanneke; Batenburg, Max; Liem, Gie; Tareilus, Erwin; Mueller, Rudi; Meijer, Gert

    2009-11-01

    The global high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease has raised concerns regarding the sodium content of the foods which we consume. Over 75% of sodium intake in industrialized diets is likely to come from processed and restaurant foods. Therefore international authorities, such as the World Health Organisation, are encouraging the food industry to reduce sodium levels in their products. Significant sodium reduction is not without complications as salt plays an important role in taste, and in some products is needed also for preservation and processing. The most promising sodium reduction strategy is to adapt the preference of consumers for saltiness by reducing sodium in products in small steps. However, this is a time-consuming approach that needs to be applied industry-wide in order to be effective. Therefore the food industry is also investigating solutions that will maintain the same perceived salt intensity at lower sodium levels. Each of these has specific advantages, disadvantages, and time lines for implementation. Currently applied approaches are resulting in sodium reduction between 20-30%. Further reduction will require new technologies. Research into the physiology of taste perception and salt receptors is an emerging area of science that is needed in order to achieve larger sodium reductions.

  18. Farm inputs under pressure from the European food industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levidow, L.; Bijman, J.

    2002-01-01

    The rise of own-brand labels has made retailers more vulnerable and responsive to consumer concerns. In response to widespread protest, the European food industry has sought to exclude GM ingredients and to minimize pesticide usage from their supplies. In particular, retailers have developed common

  19. The Power of Story in an Animation Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Satria Adidharma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After the founding of the Walt Disney Company, animation becomes something necessary in our everyday life. The real power why the animation bigger is the storytelling. Story is the main key why animation is loveable by audiences. This writing will be focusing on the behind reason why the story is important in animation and will be giving some examples the success story of some animation which have a great story to tell. The design methodology focuses on data research, market research and literature book. This writing is a preliminary research because from the author concern, there are not many writings debating whether which part in the development will be focused on to developing some animation projects. This writing hopefully will help people who want to build some animation projects and will guide them to make decision because in order to build some animation project there will be a massive effort to be conducted. Hopefully, in the future, there will be more animation produced from Indonesian. To be an unforgettable work, it must have a great story.

  20. Electron beam processing in food industry - technology and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallien, Cl.L.; Ferradini, C.; Paquin, J.; Sadat, T.

    1985-01-01

    After nearly 40 years of research and thousands of positive experimentations, the fact that ionising radiations could be used for food preservation has been taken into account by the joint Expert Committee of the UN agencies, FAO, WHO and IAEA, who recommended this type of treatment in 1981 allowing doses up to 10 kGy. The market for irradiated food is actually small, but it could develop rapidly. National authorities who establish the regulations are becoming very active: so, in 1984, the US FDA has issued a proposed rule to regulate the commercial applications of food irradiation. It is timely to propose a MODEL that should really convince administration, food industry executives and consumers organizations that food irradiation is more than academic speculation: an industrial processing and an economical imperative. To this aim, we have defined an integrated model assembling (a) a sample product; (b) the optimal treatment conditions for this product, including a reliable dosimetry control system; and (c) a most efficient and competitive treatment unit that can suit a wide range of industrial needs. (author)

  1. Analyzing scheduling in the food-processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Production scheduling has been widely studied in several research areas, resulting in a large number of methods, prescriptions, and approaches. However, the impact on scheduling practice seems relatively low. This is also the case in the food-processing industry, where industry......-specific characteristics induce specific and complex scheduling problems. Based on ideas about decomposition of the scheduling task and the production process, we develop an analysis methodology for scheduling problems in food processing. This combines an analysis of structural (technological) elements of the production...... process with an analysis of the tasks of the scheduler. This helps to understand, describe, and structure scheduling problems in food processing, and forms a basis for improving scheduling and applying methods developed in literature. It also helps in evaluating the organisational structures...

  2. A study on current risk assessments and guidelines on the use of food animal products derived from cloned animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin

    2017-10-01

    The author widely surveyed and analyzed the food safety issues, ethical issues, permits, and approval of animal products from animals cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer worldwide. As a result of a 2-year survey, the author found that there is no evidence that meat and milk derived from cloned animals or their progeny pose a risk to food safety in terms of genotoxicity, adverse reproductive effects, or allergic reactions. Most countries have not approved meat and milk derived from cloned animals, and their progeny are entering the food supply. To establish the guidelines, the author suggests four principles of safety assessment for meat and milk derived from cloned animals. The four main principles for safety assessment are similarities of chemical composition, adverse reproductive effects, genotoxicity, and allergic reactions under the influence of meat and milk from cloned animals and noncloned counterparts. This principle means that meat and milk derived from a cloned animal are safe if there are no differences in the four safety assessments of meat and milk between cloned animal's progeny and noncloned counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. FINANCIAL SECURITY OF FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the fi nancial security of food industry enterprises in Poland in 2009–2013, with particular emphasis on the processing industry of milk and cheese production, including those operating in the form of dairy cooperatives. The analysis was conducted using unpublished data of GUS, as well as individual fi nancial data on dairy cooperatives. The study indicates that the manufacturing sector of food and beverage production, as well as milk processing and cheese making, according to the established measures of fi nancial security, can be considered safe. This assessment, however, is varied and results from the specifi c industries, especially in relation to capital management.

  4. Nanoscience and nanotechnologies in food industries: opportunities and research trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Chakraborty, Arkadyuti Roy; Melvin Samuel, S.; Ramalingam, Chidambaram; Shanker, Rishi; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2014-06-01

    Nanomaterials have gained importance in various fields of science, technology, medicine, colloid technologies, diagnostics, drug delivery, personal care applications and others due to their small size and unique physico-chemical characteristic. Apart from above mentioned area, it is also extensively being used in food sector specifically in preservation and packaging. The future applications in food can also be extended to improve the shelf life, food quality, safety, fortification and biosensors for contaminated or spoiled food or food packaging. Different types and shapes of nanomaterials are being employed depending upon the need and nature of the food. Characterisation of these nanomaterials is essential to understand the interaction with the food matrix and also with biological compartment. This review is focused on application of nanotechnology in food industries. It also gives insight on commercial products in market with usage of nanomaterials, current research and future aspects in these areas. Currently, they are being incorporated into commercial products at a faster rate than the development of knowledge and regulations to mitigate potential health and environmental impacts associated with their manufacturing, application and disposal. As nanomaterials are finding new application every day, care should be taken about their potential toxic effects.

  5. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  6. Antioxidants in foods: state of the science important to the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, John W; Kong, Ah-Ng; Hintze, Korry J; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Ji, Li Li; Lei, Xin Gen

    2011-07-13

    Antioxidant foods and ingredients are an important component of the food industry. In the past, antioxidants were used primarily to control oxidation and retard spoilage, but today many are used because of putative health benefits. However, the traditional message that oxidative stress, which involves the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is the basis for chronic diseases and aging is being reexamined. Accumulating evidence suggests that ROS exert essential metabolic functions and that removal of too many ROS can upset cell signaling pathways and actually increase the risk of chronic disease. It is imperative that the food industry be aware of progress in this field to present the science relative to foods in a forthright and clear manner. This may mean reexamining the health implications of adding large amounts of antioxidants to foods.

  7. Carotenoids of Microalgae Used in Food Industry and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateau, Hélène; Solymosi, Katalin; Marchand, Justine; Schoefs, Benoît

    2017-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the consumption of processed food increased dramatically. During processing, food material loses many of its natural properties. The simple restoration of the original properties of the processed food as well as fortification require food supplementation with compounds prepared chemically or of natural origin. The observations that natural food additives are safer and better accepted by consumers than synthetic ones have strongly increased the demand for natural compounds. Because some of them have only a low abundance or are even rare, their market price can be very high. This is the case for most carotenoids of natural origin to which this review is dedicated. The increasing demand for food additives of natural origin contributes to an accelerated depletion of traditional natural resources already threatened by intensive agriculture and pollution. To overcome these difficulties and satisfy the demand, alternative sources for natural carotenoids have to be found. In this context, photosynthetic microalgae present a very high potential because they contain carotenoids and are able to produce particular carotenoids under stress. Their potential also resides in the fact that only ten thousands of microalgal strains have been described while hundred thousands of species are predicted to exist. Carotenoids have been known for ages for their antioxidant and coloring properties, and a large body of evidence has been accumulated about their health potential. This review summarizes both the medicinal and food industry applications of microalgae with emphasis on the former. In addition, traditional and alternative microalgal sources used for industrial carotenoid extraction, the chemical and physical properties, the biosynthesis and the localization of carotenoids in algae are also briefly discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Perspectives on crowdsourcing : Can experiences in the food & beverage industry be transferred to the fashion industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Hultberg, Emelie

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing can today be found in practically any industry, but the extent to which it is used differ widely. A report from last year, published by the crowdsourcing platform eYeka (eYeka 2015b), shows that the fashion industry is among the industries using crowdsourcing the least. Brands that are more inclined to using crowdsourcing are those working with fast moving consumer goods (FMCG). That includes many brands from the food & beverage industry such as Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Danone etc....

  9. Economic Feasibility Study for Using Irradiation Technology in Preservation of Animalism Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gameel, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study discus the economic feasibility for the preservation animalism foods by using irradiation technology. This study has included the technical data, regression foretelling for the throughput, determination of irradiators types and radiation sources activity. This study comprises the financial analysis for the establishment animalism foods irradiation facilities (types: tote box, pallet conveyor) and the national return

  10. Animal husbandry and food production in China and Europe: A shared moral problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijboom, F.L.B.; Li, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    In China and Europe many millions of animals are used for food production. For both regions animal food production is considered to be important for both the internal market, but also for export. In spite of these similarities there are many differences. First, while in Europe there currently is a

  11. 75 FR 55798 - North American Bioproducts Corporation; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Penicillin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ...] North American Bioproducts Corporation; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Penicillin G... food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of penicillin G procaine as an... Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to provide for the safe use of penicillin G procaine as an...

  12. Preliminary Studies for the Application of Irradiated-Food to Food Service Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Dong-Ho; Seo, Min-Won

    2008-04-15

    This study is to investigate ways to improve the marketability of irradiated food materials, through examining reports on toxicological safety and public acceptance of irradiated food materials. Many studies have reaffirmed the mutagenic, genotoxicological, microbiological, and nutritional safety of food irradiation, and consider it an important tool to reduce loss of food due to spoilage and pests. Although food irradiation could provide an opportunity to replace certain pesticides and food additives, there is ambivalence among consumers on whether or not the technology provides a real benefit. An easy and inexpensive tool to identify irradiation trace residue in foods, public trust building in industry through educating consumers with the benefit and uses of irradiation process are thought to be key elements for a successful market for irradiated food. Gamma irradiation at 50 kGy was applied to food materials for institutional food-service to evaluate their possible genotoxicity. The genotoxicity of 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service was evaluated by Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, chromosomal aberration test and in vivo micronucleus assay. The results of bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 were negative in the 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay with and without metabolic activation. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells and in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, no significant difference in the incidences of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei was observed between non-irradiated and 50 kGy-irradiated food materials. These results indicate that food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions.

  13. Preliminary Studies for the Application of Irradiated-Food to Food Service Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Dong-Ho; Seo, Min-Won

    2008-04-01

    This study is to investigate ways to improve the marketability of irradiated food materials, through examining reports on toxicological safety and public acceptance of irradiated food materials. Many studies have reaffirmed the mutagenic, genotoxicological, microbiological, and nutritional safety of food irradiation, and consider it an important tool to reduce loss of food due to spoilage and pests. Although food irradiation could provide an opportunity to replace certain pesticides and food additives, there is ambivalence among consumers on whether or not the technology provides a real benefit. An easy and inexpensive tool to identify irradiation trace residue in foods, public trust building in industry through educating consumers with the benefit and uses of irradiation process are thought to be key elements for a successful market for irradiated food. Gamma irradiation at 50 kGy was applied to food materials for institutional food-service to evaluate their possible genotoxicity. The genotoxicity of 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service was evaluated by Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, chromosomal aberration test and in vivo micronucleus assay. The results of bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 were negative in the 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay with and without metabolic activation. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells and in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, no significant difference in the incidences of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei was observed between non-irradiated and 50 kGy-irradiated food materials. These results indicate that food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions

  14. Harmful influence of industrial dusts upon plants and animal organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziubek, T

    1967-01-01

    Contamination of the atmosphere near aluminum and copper foundries and phosphate fertilizer plants is caused mainly by fluorine compounds. The contamination damages plants, meadows, and pastures adjacent to factories or situated in the vicinity and has an indirect effect on domestic animals fed with fodder from such grasslands. Grassland vegetation 100-3000 m from the factories were investigated by measuring the quality and quantity of dust; 0-30 mg% fluorine compounds were found. Changes in cattle tissue (teeth and bones), a decrease in lactation, and a stunting of young animal growth were noted. A considerable decrease in the hemoglobin in the animals investigated also occurred.

  15. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria: a challenge for the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were first described in the 1940s, but whereas new antibiotics were being discovered at a steady rate, the consequences of this phenomenon were slow to be appreciated. At present, the paucity of new antimicrobials coming into the market has led to the problem of antibiotic resistance fast escalating into a global health crisis. Although the selective pressure exerted by the use of antibiotics (particularly overuse or misuse) has been deemed the major factor in the emergence of bacterial resistance to these antimicrobials, concerns about the role of the food industry have been growing in recent years and have been raised at both national and international levels. The selective pressure exerted by the use of antibiotics (primary production) and biocides (e.g., disinfectants, food and feed preservatives, or decontaminants) is the main driving force behind the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance throughout the food chain. Genetically modified (GM) crops with antibiotic resistance marker genes, microorganisms added intentionally to the food chain (probiotic or technological) with potentially transferable antimicrobial resistance genes, and food processing technologies used at sub-lethal doses (e.g., alternative non-thermal treatments) are also issues for concern. This paper presents the main trends in antibiotic resistance and antibiotic development in recent decades, as well as their economic and health consequences, current knowledge concerning the generation, dissemination, and mechanisms of antibacterial resistance, progress to date on the possible routes for emergence of resistance throughout the food chain and the role of foods as a vehicle for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The main approaches to prevention and control of the development, selection, and spread of antibacterial resistance in the food industry are also addressed.

  16. NATURAL SURFACTANTS AND THEIR USE IN FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Kreps

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms produce wide range of surfactants, generally called biosurfactants. These compounds are mainly divided according to their molecular weight, physico - chemical properties and mode of action. Saponins, plant surfactants, have properties of  soap and they are high foaming and therefore are used in cosmetic (shampoos, liquid soaps et cetera and food industry (sweeteners, food additives into the effervescents et cetera. Most of them are spread in plants of agriculture importance and some of them are basic segments in human food. They often occur in plants (in more then 100 species. Saponins can be find in vegetables as a soya, a bean, a lentil, a spinach, a tomato, a potato, a garlic, a onion. Today biosurfactants are mainly used in bioremediation but they can be utilized in many sectors of food industry. We have paid attention to some microbial and plant surfactants and their prospects of exploitation in this industry.doi:10.5219/170 

  17. Water as a factor of differentiation in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Nardone

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To foster their competitive advantage, food firms pay an increasing attention to strategies that tend to distinguish their products from the one supplied by their competitors, dedicating to this task most of their resources, knowledge and creativity. In such a framework, also the resource “water”, often seen as an homogenous product, is more and more utilized in the advertisement as an element that increase the quality of the final good. This paper aims to build a model that can explain the observed behavior in the different food industries and that can give some insights about the future perspectives of the utilization of the water as a differentiation factor. To reach this goal, first we present a survey of the commercials of specific food industries (beverages, pasta, bread, fresh produce in which it is shown the contribute of water on the product. On the base of the empirical evidence, we argue that the propensity to use the water as an element of differentiation is greater when greater are the degree of technological knowledge, the consumers’ perceptions, and the importance of the differentiation strategy in that specific industry. Since we expect that these three factors will increase over time, we also conclude that it is rational to experiment a generalized increase of the utilization of the water in the commercials of the food products. We also recommend to extend the analysis testing the results using a quantitative approach.

  18. Water as a factor of differentiation in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Nardone

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available To foster their competitive advantage, food firms pay an increasing attention to strategies that tend to distinguish their products from the one supplied by their competitors, dedicating to this task most of their resources, knowledge and creativity. In such a framework, also the resource “water”, often seen as an homogenous product, is more and more utilized in the advertisement as an element that increase the quality of the final good. This paper aims to build a model that can explain the observed behavior in the different food industries and that can give some insights about the future perspectives of the utilization of the water as a differentiation factor. To reach this goal, first we present a survey of the commercials of specific food industries (beverages, pasta, bread, fresh produce in which it is shown the contribute of water on the product. On the base of the empirical evidence, we argue that the propensity to use the water as an element of differentiation is greater when greater are the degree of technological knowledge, the consumers’ perceptions, and the importance of the differentiation strategy in that specific industry. Since we expect that these three factors will increase over time, we also conclude that it is rational to experiment a generalized increase of the utilization of the water in the commercials of the food products. We also recommend to extend the analysis testing the results using a quantitative approach.

  19. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Moejes, Sanne N.; Rossier-Miranda, Francisco J.; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Boom, Remko M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy consumed in all the industrial bread chains studied. The par-baked brown bun production chain had the best thermodynamic performance because of the highest rational exergetic efficiency (71.2%), the lowest specific exergy losses (5.4 MJ/kg brown bun), and the almost lowest cumulative exergy losses (4768 MJ/1000 kg of dough processed). However, recycling of bread waste is also exergetically efficient when the total fermented surplus is utilizable. Clearly, preventing material losses (i.e. utilizing raw materials maximally) improves the exergetic efficiency of industrial bread chains. In addition, most of the physical (non-material related) exergy losses occurred at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. Consequently, any additional improvement in industrial bread production should focus on the design of thermodynamically efficient baking and cooling processes, and on the use of technologies throughout the chain that consume the lowest possible physical exergy. - Highlights: • Preventing material losses is the best way to enhance the exergetic efficiency. • Most of the physical exergy losses occur at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. • Par-baking “saves” chemical exergy but consumes an equal amount of physical exergy

  20. Evaluation of food safety management systems in Serbian dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tomašević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports incentives, costs, difficulties and benefits of food safety management systems implementation in the Serbian dairy industry. The survey involved 27 food business operators with the national milk and dairy market share of 65 %. Almost two thirds of the assessed dairy producers (70.4 % claimed that they had a fully operational and certified HACCP system in place, while 29.6 % implemented HACCP, but had no third party certification. ISO 22000 was implemented and certified in 29.6 % of the companies, while only 11.1 % had implemented and certified IFS standard. The most important incentive for implementing food safety management systems for Serbian dairy producers was to increase and improve safety and quality of dairy products. The cost of product investigation/analysis and hiring external consultants were related to the initial set-up of food safety management system with the greatest importance. Serbian dairy industry was not greatly concerned by the financial side of implementing food safety management systems due to the fact that majority of prerequisite programmes were in place and regularly used by almost 100 % of the producers surveyed. The presence of competency gap between the generic knowledge for manufacturing food products and the knowledge necessary to develop and implement food safety management systems was confirmed, despite the fact that 58.8 % of Serbian dairy managers had university level of education. Our study brings about the innovation emphasizing the attitudes and the motivation of the food production staff as the most important barrier for the development and implementation of HACCP. The most important identified benefit was increased safety of dairy products with the mean rank scores of 6.85. The increased customer confidence and working discipline of staff employed in food processing were also found as important benefits of implementing/operating HACCP. The study shows that the level of HACCP

  1. A survey of antimicrobial usage in animals in South Africa with specific reference to food animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Eagar

    2012-08-01

    Results showed that 68.5% of the antimicrobials surveyed were administered as in-feed medications. 17.5% of the total volume of antimicrobials utilised were parenteral antimicrobials, whereas antimicrobials for water medication constituted 12% of the total and ’other‘ dosage forms, for example the topical and aural dosage forms, constituted 1.5% of the total. Intramammary antimicrobials represented 0.04% of the total. The surveillance systems for veterinary antimicrobials used by other countries were scrutinised and compared. It was concluded that a combination of the surveillance systems applied by Australia and the United Kingdom is the best model (with modifications to apply to the animal health industry in South Africa. Such a surveillance system, of the volumes of veterinary antimicrobials consumed, should ideally be implemented in conjunction with a veterinary antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programme. This will generate meaningful data that will contribute to the rational administration of antimicrobials in order to preserve the efficacy of the existing antimicrobials in South Africa.

  2. Industrial halal meat production and animal welfare: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M M; Pufpaff, K M; Amir, M

    2016-10-01

    Islam teaches zero-tolerance to all forms of animal abuse throughout the halal meat production supply chain and demands that when animals are slaughtered, they must be slaughtered in the mindful and attentive way espoused by the Prophet Muhammad. Why then are poor practices and animal welfare abuses still occurring during halal meat production, and how can they be reduced or eliminated? In this review we discuss how improvements might be achieved through: (1) training of staff regarding the religious and regulatory requirements of animal welfare from on-farm to slaughter; (2) empathy and compassion assessment of applicants prior to employment; (3) installation of CCTV cameras around lairage and slaughter sites; (4) regular employee follow-up training to minimise 'compassion fatigue'; (5) incorporating animal welfare requirements in halal certification; (6) using mosque-based sermons by Imams to increase awareness of animal welfare issues; and (7) making portable humane slaughter units available to small cottage operations and home/neighbourhood-kills through mosque-based organizations/structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analytical methods for waste minimisation in the convenience food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, R; Staikos, T; Rahimifard, S

    2009-04-01

    Waste creation in some sectors of the food industry is substantial, and while much of the used material is non-hazardous and biodegradable, it is often poorly dealt with and simply sent to landfill mixed with other types of waste. In this context, overproduction wastes were found in a number of cases to account for 20-40% of the material wastes generated by convenience food manufacturers (such as ready-meals and sandwiches), often simply just to meet the challenging demands placed on the manufacturer due to the short order reaction time provided by the supermarkets. Identifying specific classes of waste helps to minimise their creation, through consideration of what the materials constitute and why they were generated. This paper aims to provide means by which food industry wastes can be identified, and demonstrate these mechanisms through a practical example. The research reported in this paper investigated the various categories of waste and generated three analytical methods for the support of waste minimisation activities by food manufacturers. The waste classifications and analyses are intended to complement existing waste minimisation approaches and are described through consideration of a case study convenience food manufacturer that realised significant financial savings through waste measurement, analysis and reduction.

  4. Energy conservation by hyperfiltration: food industry background literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-15

    The application of hyperfiltration to selected food product streams and food processing wastewaters for energy conservation was examined. This literature survey had led to the following conclusions: no research has been conducted in the food industry using membranes with hot process streams due to the temperature limitation (< 40/sup 0/C) of the typically studied cellulose acetate membranes; based on the bench-scale research reviewed, concentration of fruit and vegetable juices with membranes appears to be technically feasible; pretreatment and product recovery research was conducted with membranes on citrus peel oil, potato processing and brine wastewaters and wheys. The experiments demonstrated that these applications are feasible; many of the problems that have been identified with membranes are associated with either the suspended solids or the high osmotic pressure and viscosity of many foods; research using dynamic membranes has been conducted with various effluents, at temperatures to approx. 100/sup 0/C, at pressures to 1200 psi and with suspended solids to approx. 2%; and, the dynamic membrane is being prototype tested by NASA for high temperature processing of shower water. The literature review substantiates potential for dynamic membrane on porous stainless tubes to process a number of hot process and effluent streams in the food processing industry. Hot water for recycle and product concentrations are major areas with potential for economic application. The two plants involved in the first phase of the project should be reviewed to identify potential energy conservation applications. As many as possible of the conservation applications should be tested during the screening phase at each site. The most promising applications at each site should be evaluated more intensively to establish engineering estimates of the economics of this technology for the canned fruit and vegetable segment of the food industry.

  5. Traditional food: a better compatibility with industry requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Christophe; Guyot, Anne-Clothilde; Rossi, Daniel; Notarfonso, Maurizio

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this article is to summarise the main results of the TRUEFOOD Integrated project, which is supported by the European Commission in the European Framework Program 6 (FP6). This project started in 2006 and ended in 2010. TRUEFOOD aimed to improve quality and safety and introduce innovation into Traditional European Food production systems through research, demonstration, dissemination and training activities. It focuses on increasing value to both consumers and producers and on supporting the development of realistic business plans for all components of the food chain, using a farm-to-fork approach. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  7. Multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria in frozen food (ready to cook food) of animal origin sold in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Fouzia; Kamrunnahar,; Afroz, Hafsa; Jahan, Afroz; Fakruddin, Md.; Datta, Suvamoy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the bacterial load and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates obtained from (ready to cook) frozen food samples of animal origin in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A total of 20 samples of frozen ready to cook food of animal origin were purchased from different separate grocery stores in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bacteria were isolated and identified based on the basis of biochemical properties. Results: A total of 57 isolates has been isolated from 20 sample...

  8. 76 FR 22904 - Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Erythromycin Thiocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...] Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Erythromycin Thiocyanate AGENCY... announcing that Ferm Solutions, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be..., Drug, and Cosmetic Act (section 409(b)(5) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5)), notice is given that a food additive...

  9. 78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 [Docket No. FDA-2008-F-0151] Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate... and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and...

  10. Contrasting Attitudes towards Animal Welfare Issues within the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Braghieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive systems have facilitated the production of animal-based products at relatively low prices. On one hand, these methods have been increasingly considered to be responsible for a dramatic reduction in animal welfare, as indicated by the high prevalence of stereotypies in sows, brittle bones in hens, lameness in broilers and short life span in dairy cattle. As a consequence, large segments of animal welfare-sensitive consumers have been identified. On the other hand, price conscious consumers, if accepting higher prices, are more likely to require explicit justification of returns in quality. Therefore, scientifically validated monitoring systems for assessing the welfare of farm animals have been developed in order to provide a certification system, allow the differentiation of animal-based products through constant and reliable signaling systems, and promote animal welfare friendly farming systems.

  11. The opportunity cost of animal based diets exceeds all food losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepon, Alon; Eshel, Gidon; Noor, Elad; Milo, Ron

    2018-04-10

    Food loss is widely recognized as undermining food security and environmental sustainability. However, consumption of resource-intensive food items instead of more efficient, equally nutritious alternatives can also be considered as an effective food loss. Here we define and quantify these opportunity food losses as the food loss associated with consuming resource-intensive animal-based items instead of plant-based alternatives which are nutritionally comparable, e.g., in terms of protein content. We consider replacements that minimize cropland use for each of the main US animal-based food categories. We find that although the characteristic conventional retail-to-consumer food losses are ≈30% for plant and animal products, the opportunity food losses of beef, pork, dairy, poultry, and eggs are 96%, 90%, 75%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. This arises because plant-based replacement diets can produce 20-fold and twofold more nutritionally similar food per cropland than beef and eggs, the most and least resource-intensive animal categories, respectively. Although conventional and opportunity food losses are both targets for improvement, the high opportunity food losses highlight the large potential savings beyond conventionally defined food losses. Concurrently replacing all animal-based items in the US diet with plant-based alternatives will add enough food to feed, in full, 350 million additional people, well above the expected benefits of eliminating all supply chain food waste. These results highlight the importance of dietary shifts to improving food availability and security. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  12. Operating Guangzhou Hotel Industry with Service Concept of Cantonese Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ As the completion of New Baiyun International Airport and Pazhou International Conference Center and the fast development of exhibition industry, the commerce and trade position of Guangzhou (the historical and cultural international city) is growing with each passing day. With the Cantonese food service concept and guest receiving methods of "Culture, Trend,Friendly and Hospitality", Guangzhou hotel industry has won the satisfaction from domestic and foreign businessmen and tourists. With the cultural tinge of and trend of Lingnan, Guangzhou hotels have become the display window to foreign guests. Guangzhou hotels treat all the guests very well during the spring and autumn China Export Commodities Fairs.

  13. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    by the appearance of changing demands and technological opportunities, which potentially can lead to differentiation possibilities. The article describes a framework for the study of industrial buying of food commodities and the results of a conjoint study based on interviews with oil purchasers in the margarine...... and mayonnaise industries in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. The main result of the study is that the price is an omnipotent decision criterion, when vegetable fats and mayonnaise producers buy vegetable oil, but also that product and supplier criteria can be used to segment...

  14. Innovation Systems Research in the Italian Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ornella Wanda Maietta

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to determine the role that R&D networking, through the collaboration of firms with universities, plays among the determinants of product and process innovation in the Italian food and drink industry and how geographical proximity to a university affects both R&D university-industry collaboration and innovation. The data are sourced from the 7th (1995-1997), 8th (1998-2000), 9th (2001-2003) and 10th (2004-2006) waves of Capitalia survey data. The approach is a tri...

  15. The determinants of firm exit in the French food industries

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Pierre; Mathieu, Claude

    2012-01-01

    A semi-parametric approach is used to estimate firm propensity to exit. The unobserved individual productivity of a firm is first estimated using the Ackerberg et al. (2006) approach and then introduced as a determinant of firm exit in conjunction with other variables that may serve as barriers to exit, including the firm’s level of sunk costs and the industry concentration. Using an unbalanced panel of data for 5,849 firms in French food industries from 1996 to 2002, we find a signifi...

  16. Agro-food industry growth and obesity in China: what role for regulating food advertising and promotion and nutrition labelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, C

    2008-03-01

    Taking a food supply chain approach, this paper examines the regulation of food marketing and nutrition labelling as strategies to help combat obesity in China in an era of rapid agro-food industry growth. China is the largest food producer and consumer in the world. Since the early 1980s, the agro-food industry has undergone phenomenal expansion throughout the food supply chain, from agricultural production to trade, agro-food processing to food retailing, and from food service to advertising and promotion. This industry growth, alongside related socioeconomic changes and government policies, has encouraged a 'nutrition transition'. China's population, especially in urban areas, is now consuming significantly more energy from dietary fat, which is leading to higher rates of obesity. Regulation of food advertising and promotion and nutrition labelling has the potential to help prevent the further growth of obesity in China and encourage the agro-food industry to supplier healthier foods. Government legislation and guidance, as well as self-regulation and voluntary initiatives, are needed to reduce children's exposure to food advertising and promotion, and increase the effectiveness of nutrition labelling. Policies on food marketing and nutrition labelling should be adapted to the China context, and accompanied by further action throughout the food supply chain. Given China's unique characteristics and position in the world today, there is an opportunity for the government and the agro-food industry to lead the world by creating a balanced, health promoting model of complementary legislation and industry action.

  17. Delivering high-level food industry skills for future food security through Advanced Training Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Frazier, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council’s Advanced Training Partnerships initiative represents a significant investment in the provision of high-level skills for the UK food industry sector to address global food security from farm to fork. This paper summarises the background, aims and scope of the Advanced Training Partnerships, their development so far, and offers a view on future directions and evaluation of impact.

  18. Potential Applications of Immobilized β-Galactosidase in Food Processing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmjit S. Panesar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme β-galactosidase can be obtained from a wide variety of sources such as microorganisms, plants, and animals. The use of β-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk and whey is one of the promising enzymatic applications in food and dairy processing industries. The enzyme can be used in either soluble or immobilized forms but the soluble enzyme can be used only for batch processes and the immobilized form has the advantage of being used in batch wise as well as in continuous operation. Immobilization has been found to be convenient method to make enzyme thermostable and to prevent the loss of enzyme activity. This review has been focused on the different types of techniques used for the immobilization of β-galactosidase and its potential applications in food industry.

  19. Framework for managing mycotoxin risks in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert C; Ford, Randall M; Helander, Mary E; Marecki, Janusz; Natarajan, Ramesh; Ray, Bonnie

    2014-12-01

    We propose a methodological framework for managing mycotoxin risks in the food processing industry. Mycotoxin contamination is a well-known threat to public health that has economic significance for the food processing industry; it is imperative to address mycotoxin risks holistically, at all points in the procurement, processing, and distribution pipeline, by tracking the relevant data, adopting best practices, and providing suitable adaptive controls. The proposed framework includes (i) an information and data repository, (ii) a collaborative infrastructure with analysis and simulation tools, (iii) standardized testing and acceptance sampling procedures, and (iv) processes that link the risk assessments and testing results to the sourcing, production, and product release steps. The implementation of suitable acceptance sampling protocols for mycotoxin testing is considered in some detail.

  20. The analysis of aspects of food industry competitiveness in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešić Cariša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive ability of the company in modern business conditions is difficult to achieve and easy to lose. The reason for this attitude is the fact that the rapid technological improvement enabled the technology with becoming available to everyone in the world under reasonable terms. Competitiveness of domestic companies is very low. Insufficient application of knowledge, low technological level of enterprises, unproductiveness and inefficiency are just part of the problem. Food industry in Serbia shares the fate of domestic economy - non-competitiveness is one of the main factors which affect the crisis in agricultural sector. The authors of this paper, based on the available national and international statistical data, have done analysis and display of competitive opportunities of domestic economy in general and in particular sectors of food industry. The authors also indicate the possibility of improving competitiveness.

  1. New applications of near infrared spectroscopy in the food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenewald, C.A. (Peter Rassloff Instruments and Services, Norwood, South Africa)

    The near infrared spectroscopic method of analysis was initially developed for rapid analyses of protein in wheat. A brief explanation of the theory and history of near infrared spectroscopic analysis will be given. Research was done on the application of near infrared spectroscopic (NIR) in the food industry. Especially exciting was the breakthrough achieved in applying NIR to determine the dry solid content of bread. Such application could revolutionise the baking industry. Results will also be presented of research done on the application of NIR techniques for the determination of protein and fat in bread based on dry matter; hardness in wheat; absorption and sedimentation in pasta products; and use in process control in snack products manufacture. The limitations that were found in the application of NIR analysis will also be covered. The developments in NIR technology may result in these methods becoming standard practice in many food laboratories.

  2. New applications of near infrared spectroscopy in the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewald, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The near infrared spectroscopic method of analysis was initially developed for rapid analyses of protein in wheat. A brief explanation of the theory and history of near infrared spectroscopic analysis will be given. Research was done on the application of near infrared spectroscopic (NIR) in the food industry. Especially exciting was the breakthrough achieved in applying NIR to determine the dry solid content of bread. Such application could revolutionise the baking industry. Results will also be presented of research done on the application of NIR techniques for the determination of protein and fat in bread based on dry matter; hardness in wheat; absorption and sedimentation in pasta products; and use in process control in snack products manufacture. The limitations that were found in the application of NIR analysis will also be covered. The developments in NIR technology may result in these methods becoming standard practice in many food laboratories

  3. Health risk from veterinary antimicrobial use in China's food animal production and its reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-12-01

    The overuse and misuse of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, in food animal production in China cause environmental pollution and wide food safety concerns, and pose public health risk with the selection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that can spread from animal populations to humans. Elevated abundance and diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and resistant bacteria (including multi-drug resistant strains) in food-producing animals, food products of animal origin, microbiota of human gut, and environmental media impacted by intensive animal farming have been reported. To rein in drug use in food animal production and protect public health, the government made a total of 227 veterinary drugs, including 150 antimicrobial products, available only by prescription from licensed veterinarians for curing, controlling, and preventing animal diseases in March 2014. So far the regulatory ban on non-therapeutic use has failed to bring major changes to the long-standing practice of drug overuse and misuse in animal husbandry and aquaculture, and significant improvement in its implementation and enforcement is necessary. A range of measures, including improving access to veterinary services, strengthening supervision on veterinary drug production and distribution, increasing research and development efforts, and enhancing animal health management, are recommended to facilitate transition toward rational use of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, and to reduce the public health risk arising from AMR development in animal agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stefanou, Spiro E

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change.

  5. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change. PMID:26057878

  6. Solutions for the food processing industry; Shokuhin seizogyo solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, T; Iwami, N [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-10

    To improve quality control and maintain stable operation, the food processing industry requires problem solutions in total, including not only processing and operation control divisions but also quality control, design and production technology, and maintenance divisions. This paper describes solutions for HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point) support, quality control, and maintenance, in order to improve the quality level, ensure traceability and realize stable processing operations. (author)

  7. Occupational safety and health in the food and drink industries.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoda S

    1993-01-01

    Chapter 5 examines "Safety and health issues in respect of women workers in the food and drink industries". The paper provides information on the impact of technological progress in the sector; identifies the general hazards encountered; describes the injuries and diseases suffered by workers and concentrates on the most common approaches adopted for their prevention; and concludes by emphasizing the importance of adopting a tripartite approach to the solution of safety and health problems.

  8. Fluidized bed anaerobic biodegration of food industry wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toldra, F.; Flors, A.; Lequerica, J.L.; Valles, S.

    1987-01-01

    Anaerobic fluidized bed reactors were used to reduce the COD of low-strength food industry wastewaters. Soluble organic removal efficiencies of 75%, 80% and 50% were obtained for hog slaughterhouse, dairy and brewery wastewaters, respectively, at 35 degrees C and 8 hours hydraulic retention time. Removal efficiencies decreased with decreasing temperature (35 degrees C to 20 degrees C); no detrimental effect of temperature was observed when treating the slaughterhouse wastewater. Methane production rate was only relevant on brewery wastewater treatment. (Refs. 17).

  9. Business process of reputation management of food industry enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Derevianko Olena. H.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article is development of the methodical base of reputation management directed at formalisation of theoretical provisions and explanation how to organise reputation management at food industry enterprises. The article shows prospectiveness of use of the Business Process Management concept in reputation management. Using the diagram of the Reputation Management business process environment the article shows its key participants (suppliers and clients of the business process) a...

  10. Using smartphones to improve animal health and food security ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 mai 2016 ... Primary animal health workers in Laos learn to use smartphones in their practice. A smartphone application developed with IDRC support is helping primary animal health workers (PAHWs) in Laos PDR to quickly and accurately answer questions and treat poultry. The app is also helping farmers raise ...

  11. Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... transportation are numerous and the responses of the animal to them are complex, non-specific and ..... at 3 h after a 6 h journey in male Japanese goats. During ..... animals are subjected to concomitant action of transport- tation and heat stress .... those measured in moving vehicles (Warriss et al., 1993).

  12. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  13. THE NATIONAL AUTHORITY FOR ANIMAL HEALTH AND FOOD SAFETY, THE MAIN BODY INVOLVED IN FOOD SAFETY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRUTA-ELENA ISPAS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to present the role, functions and responsibilities of the National Authority for Animal Health and Food Safety as the main body involved in food safety in Romania. It will be also exposed the Regulation 178/2002 of the European Parliament and the Council, the general food ”law” in Europe, and Law 150/2004, which transposed into Romanian legislation Regulation 178/2002.

  14. Emerging roles of engineered nanomaterials in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, V J

    2011-10-01

    Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and the manipulation of materials at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology involves the design, production and use of structures through control of the size and shape of the materials at the nanometre scale. Nanotechnology in the food sector is an emerging area with considerable research and potential products. There is particular interest in the definition and regulation of engineered nanomaterials. This term covers three classes of nanomaterials: natural and processed nanostructures in foods; particulate nanomaterials metabolized or excreted on digestion; and particulate nanomaterials not broken down on digestion, which accumulate in the body. This review describes examples of these classes and their likely status in the food industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hosseinzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.

  16. Electrospun nanofibres in agriculture and the food industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noruzi, Masumeh

    2016-11-01

    The interesting characteristics of electrospun nanofibres, such as high surface-to-volume ratio, nanoporosity, and high safety, make them suitable candidates for use in a variety of applications. In the recent decade, electrospun nanofibres have been applied to different potential fields such as filtration, wound dressing, drug delivery, etc. and a significant number of review papers have been published in these fields. However, the use of electrospun nanofibres in agriculture is comparatively novel and is still in its infancy. In this paper, the specific applications of electrospun nanofibres in agriculture and food science, including plant protection using pheromone-loaded nanofibres, plant protection using encapsulation of biocontrol agents, preparation of protective clothes for farm workers, encapsulation of agrochemical materials, deoxyribonucleic acid extraction in agricultural research studies, pre-concentration and measurement of pesticides in crops and environmental samples, preparation of nanobiosensors for pesticide detection, encapsulation of food materials, fabrication of food packaging materials, and filtration of beverage products are reviewed and discussed. This paper may help researchers develop the use of electrospun nanofibres in agriculture and food science to address some serious problems such as the intensive use of pesticides. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The importance and use of nanopacking in food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to satisfy the increasing demand for food production which will reach the consumers in a safe condition, and at the same time meet their expectations in terms of quality, the packaging industry has been continually developing and striving to implement new technologies such as nanotechnology. By application of nanoparticles and other nanomaterials of various organic and inorganic compounds in standard packaging materials, the quality of packaging such as polymer-flexibility, gas barrier properties, temperature/moisture/ light stability, thermal and chemical stability and biodegradability has been improved. Moreover, the use of polymer nanotechnology enables constant monitoring of packaging conditions, providing in that way the preservation of fresh food, extension of shelf life of foods and improvement of products quality and safety. The application of nanopackaging on the market is slowed due to lack of data on potential risk to human health and the impact on the environment, as well as to lack of legal regulations. These shortcomings affect public perception of nanotechnology, but when these problems are overcome application of nanopackaging promises to become an irreplaceable part of industrial production of food.

  18. Characterizing the rapid spread of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV through an animal food manufacturing facility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni L Schumacher

    Full Text Available New regulatory and consumer demands highlight the importance of animal feed as a part of our national food safety system. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV is the first viral pathogen confirmed to be widely transmissible in animal food. Because the potential for viral contamination in animal food is not well characterized, the objectives of this study were to 1 observe the magnitude of virus contamination in an animal food manufacturing facility, and 2 investigate a proposed method, feed sequencing, to decrease virus decontamination on animal food-contact surfaces. A U.S. virulent PEDV isolate was used to inoculate 50 kg swine feed, which was mixed, conveyed, and discharged into bags using pilot-scale feed manufacturing equipment. Surfaces were swabbed and analyzed for the presence of PEDV RNA by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Environmental swabs indicated complete contamination of animal food-contact surfaces (0/40 vs. 48/48, positive baseline samples/total baseline samples, positive subsequent samples/total subsequent samples, respectively; P < 0.05 and near complete contamination of non-animal food-contact surfaces (0/24 vs. 16/18, positive baseline samples/total baseline samples, positive subsequent samples/total subsequent samples, respectively; P < 0.05. Flushing animal food-contact surfaces with low-risk feed is commonly used to reduce cross-contamination in animal feed manufacturing. Thus, four subsequent 50 kg batches of virus-free swine feed were manufactured using the same system to test its impact on decontaminating animal food-contact surfaces. Even after 4 subsequent sequences, animal food-contact surfaces retained viral RNA (28/33 positive samples/total samples, with conveying system being more contaminated than the mixer. A bioassay to test infectivity of dust from animal food-contact surfaces failed to produce infectivity. This study demonstrates the potential widespread viral contamination of

  19. Is the Inclusion of Animal Source Foods in Fortified Blended Foods Justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen E. Noriega

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fortified blended foods (FBF are used for the prevention and treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM in nutritionally vulnerable individuals, particularly children. A recent review of FBF recommended the addition of animal source food (ASF in the form of whey protein concentrate (WPC, especially to corn-soy blends. The justification for this recommendation includes the potential of ASF to increase length, weight, muscle mass accretion and recovery from wasting, as well as to improve protein quality and provide essential growth factors. Evidence was collected from the following four different types of studies: (1 epidemiological; (2 ASF versus no intervention or a low-calorie control; (3 ASF versus an isocaloric non-ASF; and (4 ASF versus an isocaloric, isonitrogenous non-ASF. Epidemiological studies consistently associated improved growth outcomes with ASF consumption; however, little evidence from isocaloric and isocaloric, isonitrogenous interventions was found to support the inclusion of meat or milk in FBF. Evidence suggests that whey may benefit muscle mass accretion, but not linear growth. Overall, little evidence supports the costly addition of WPC to FBFs. Further, randomized isocaloric, isonitrogenous ASF interventions with nutritionally vulnerable children are needed.

  20. Electrolyzed water and its application in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricova, D; Stephan, R; Zweifel, C

    2008-09-01

    Electrolyzed water (EW) is gaining popularity as a sanitizer in the food industries of many countries. By electrolysis, a dilute sodium chloride solution dissociates into acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), which has a pH of 2 to 3, an oxidation-reduction potential of >1,100 mV, and an active chlorine content of 10 to 90 ppm, and basic electrolyzed water (BEW), which has a pH of 10 to 13 and an oxidation-reduction potential of -800 to -900 mV. Vegetative cells of various bacteria in suspension were generally reduced by > 6.0 log CFU/ml when AEW was used. However, AEW is a less effective bactericide on utensils, surfaces, and food products because of factors such as surface type and the presence of organic matter. Reductions of bacteria on surfaces and utensils or vegetables and fruits mainly ranged from about 2.0 to 6.0 or 1.0 to 3.5 orders of magnitude, respectively. Higher reductions were obtained for tomatoes. For chicken carcasses, pork, and fish, reductions ranged from about 0.8 to 3.0, 1.0 to 1.8, and 0.4 to 2.8 orders of magnitude, respectively. Considerable reductions were achieved with AEW on eggs. On some food commodities, treatment with BEW followed by AEW produced higher reductions than did treatment with AEW only. EW technology deserves consideration when discussing industrial sanitization of equipment and decontamination of food products. Nevertheless, decontamination treatments for food products always should be considered part of an integral food safety system. Such treatments cannot replace strict adherence to good manufacturing and hygiene practices.

  1. BYPRODUCTS OF THE SUGAR INDUSTRY AS ANIMAL FEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion of the feeding value of molasses, bagasse and sugar cane tops with special .... complete cattle feeds it is being used by the industry at rates of 10 to 1J90, the ... used molasses at levels of up to 59o (creep, starter ra- tions), 1g9o (grower ...

  2. Potential Applications of Carbohydrases Immobilization in the Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contesini, Fabiano Jares; de Alencar Figueira, Joelise; Kawaguti, Haroldo Yukio; de Barros Fernandes, Pedro Carlos; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Nascimento, Maria da Graça; Sato, Hélia Harumi

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrases find a wide application in industrial processes and products, mainly in the food industry. With these enzymes, it is possible to obtain different types of sugar syrups (viz. glucose, fructose and inverted sugar syrups), prebiotics (viz. galactooligossacharides and fructooligossacharides) and isomaltulose, which is an interesting sweetener substitute for sucrose to improve the sensory properties of juices and wines and to reduce lactose in milk. The most important carbohydrases to accomplish these goals are of microbial origin and include amylases (α-amylases and glucoamylases), invertases, inulinases, galactosidases, glucosidases, fructosyltransferases, pectinases and glucosyltransferases. Yet, for all these processes to be cost-effective for industrial application, a very efficient, simple and cheap immobilization technique is required. Immobilization techniques can involve adsorption, entrapment or covalent bonding of the enzyme into an insoluble support, or carrier-free methods, usually based on the formation of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs). They include a broad variety of supports, such as magnetic materials, gums, gels, synthetic polymers and ionic resins. All these techniques present advantages and disadvantages and several parameters must be considered. In this work, the most recent and important studies on the immobilization of carbohydrases with potential application in the food industry are reviewed. PMID:23344046

  3. An overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maria Manuela Mendes; de Almeida, Andre M; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2016-08-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) in the Caribbean have a high economic burden. Public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. In spite of undertaking limited surveillance on FBD in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significance are poorly documented, giving rise to concerns about the importance of the livestock, food animal product sectors, and consumption patterns. In this review, we report the available published literature over the last 20 years on selected bacterial foodborne zoonoses in the Caribbean region and also address other food safety-related aspects (e.g., FBD food attribution, importance, surveillance), mainly aiming at recognizing data gaps and identifying possible research approaches in the animal health sector.

  4. Application of elements of microbiological risk assessment in the food industry via a tiered approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwen, van S.J.C.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    Food safety control is a matter for concern for all parts of the food supply chain, including governments that develop food safety policy, food industries that must control potential hazards, and consumers who need to keep to the intended use of the food. In the future, food safety policy may be set

  5. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally...... validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant...

  6. The Ideal Criteria of Supplier Selection for SMEs Food Processing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ramlan Rohaizan; Engku Abu Bakar Engku Muhammad Nazri; Mahmud Fatimah; Ng Hooi Keng

    2016-01-01

    Selection of good supplier is important to determine the performance and profitability of SMEs food processing industry. The lack of managerial capability on supplier selection in SMEs food processing industry affects the competitiveness of SMEs food processing industry. This research aims to determine the ideal criteria of supplier for food processing industry using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The research was carried out in a quantitative method by distributing questionnaires to 50 ...

  7. 75 FR 29350 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as Established.... The agency is also seeking comments from industry on the Reportable Food Registry requirements, and... the implementation of the Reportable Food Registry on September 8, 2009, and informs industry about...

  8. 75 FR 73107 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ...] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Blood Lancet Labeling; Availability AGENCY... announcing the availability of the guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration... single copies of the guidance document entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...

  9. 78 FR 11654 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Providing Information About...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Providing Information About... Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Providing Information About Pediatric Uses of...ComplianceRegulatoryInformation/default.htm . To receive ``Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

  10. Outstanding animal studies in allergy I. From asthma to food allergy and anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Roth-Walter, Franziska

    2017-06-01

    Animal models published within the past 18 months on asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, all conditions of rising public health concern, were reviewed. While domestic animals spontaneously develop asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, in animal models, divergent sensitization and challenge routes, dosages, intervals and antigens are used to induce asthmatic, food allergic or anaphylactic phenotypes. This must be considered in the interpretation of results. Instead of model antigens, gradually relevant allergens such as house dust mite in asthma, and food allergens like peanut, apple and peach in food allergy research were used. Novel engineered mouse models such as a mouse with a T-cell receptor for house dust mite allergen Der p 1, or with transgenic human hFcγR genes, facilitated the investigation of single molecules of interest. Whole-body plethysmography has become a state-of-the-art in-vivo readout in asthma research. In food allergy and anaphylaxis research, novel techniques were developed allowing real-time monitoring of in-vivo effects following allergen challenge. Networks to share tissues were established as an effort to reduce animal experiments in allergy which cannot be replaced by in-vitro measures. Natural and artificial animal models were used to explore the pathophysiology of asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis and to improve prophylactic and therapeutic measures. Especially the novel mouse models mimicking molecular aspects of the complex immune network in asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis will facilitate proof-of-concept studies under controlled conditions.

  11. Premature culling of production animals; ethical questions related to killing animals in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Meijboom, F.L.B.; Stassen, E.N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to analyse the importance of longevity in relation to the welfare of production animals. I hypothesize that the concept of longevity helps to support the moral intuition that premature culling of animals is a moral wrong. The analysis shows that the interpretation of the

  12. Eating patterns, diet quality and energy balance: a perspective about applications and future directions for the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layman, Donald K

    2014-07-01

    The food industry is the point of final integration of consumer food choices with dietary guidelines. For more than 40 years, nutrition recommendations emphasized reducing dietary intake of animal fats, cholesterol, and protein and increasing intake of cereal grains. The food industry responded by creating a convenient, low cost and diverse food supply that featured fat-free cookies, cholesterol-free margarines, and spaghetti with artificial meat sauce. However, research focused on obesity, aging, and Metabolic Syndrome has demonstrated merits of increased dietary protein and reduced amounts of carbohydrates. Dietary guidelines have changed from a conceptual framework of a daily balance of food groups represented as building blocks in a pyramid designed to encourage consumers to avoid fat, to a plate design that creates a meal approach to nutrition and highlights protein and vegetables and minimizes grain carbohydrates. Coincident with the changing dietary guidelines, consumers are placing higher priority on foods for health and seeking foods with more protein, less sugars and minimal processing that are fresh, natural, and with fewer added ingredients. Individual food companies must adapt to changing nutrition knowledge, dietary guidelines, and consumer priorities. The impact on the food industry will be specific to each company based on their products, culture and capacity to adapt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. E-Business Developmental Issues in the Australian Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohini Singh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses e-business developmental issues in the Australian Food industry that were identified from a research project funded by the Australian Research Council. Data was gathered from interviews with 11 food organisations in the year 2000, most of which can be classified as ‘bricks and clicks’. These 11 companies were traditional businesses that had adopted e-business as a new way of doing business. The findings of the paper highlight the fact that the B2B is the predominant e-business model in the Australian Food Industry, EDI is an important foundation technology platform for developing B2B e-business, e-procurement was an important reason for adopting B2B e-business and improved supply chain management was the most important achievement from E-Business for these organizations. It also highlighted the fact e-business developed in-house with an IT department managed e-business sites better than those that outsourced the development.

  14. Bacterial biofilm formation in different surfaces of food industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Angélica Dalla Costa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The term biofilm describes the sessile microbial life form, characterized by microorganism adhesion to any surface and with the production of extracellular polymeric substances. In food industries, the formation of biofilms results in serious problems, since it can be a contamination source of the food product, compromising the final product quality and consumer health. The aim of this study was to verify the adhesion of biofilms (sessile cells of pathogenic and/or deteriorating bacteria against surfaces of the food industry. The bacterial species tested were Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 and Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028. It was used stainless steel and polypropylene coupons as contact surfaces. The results demonstrated that P. aeruginosa and S. Typhimurium showed higher biofilm formation capacity. Statistically, there was no difference in count of P. aeruginosa and S. Typhimurium (p > 0.05 cells. The same occurred between L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. However, the counts of P. aeruginosa and S. Typhimurium cells were statistically higher than S. aureus and L. monocytogenes (p < 0.05. By means of scanning electron microscopy it was also found increased adhesion of P. aeruginosa. The results revealed that P. aeruginosa was the bacterial species with higher biofilm formation capacity among the others.

  15. Optimum Resource Allocation and Eliminating Waste Inside Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandru Nagarajan Sathiyabama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to allocate optimum resources for wrapping section and suggesting a suitable method that need to be in place for successful elimination of waste inside the food industry wrapping section. It also includes identifying the main reasons for various types of wastages inside wrapping section and cost of all the wastages. The paper is based on the observation and research using the approach of lean tools and techniques. The methodology used for evaluating data is value stream mapping and some statistical SPSS tools for analysis. Data’s are real and are gathered from three different production shifts inside a food industry wrapping section. The main reasons for wastages inside the wrapping section are highlighted. Finally, the paper was concluded by estimating total cost of wastages and recommended suitable way to save the wastage costs. The need of change of jaws inside the wrapping machines, regular maintenance of all machines throughout the industry and training the personnel are recommended. The possible methods along with its benefits to reduce waste, operators, improve productivity and business growth was also highlighted.

  16. Protein engineering and its applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Swati; Rafiq, Aasima; Sharma, Savita

    2017-07-24

    Protein engineering is a young discipline that has been branched out from the field of genetic engineering. Protein engineering is based on the available knowledge about the proteins structure/function(s), tools/instruments, software, bioinformatics database, available cloned gene, knowledge about available protein, vectors, recombinant strains and other materials that could lead to change in the protein backbone. Protein produced properly from genetic engineering process means a protein that is able to fold correctly and to do particular function(s) efficiently even after being subjected to engineering practices. Protein is modified through its gene or chemically. However, modification of protein through gene is easier. There is no specific limitation of Protein Engineering tools; any technique that can lead to change the protein constituent of amino acid and result in the modification of protein structure/function is in the frame of Protein Engineering. Meanwhile, there are some common tools used to reach a specific target. More active industrial and pharmaceutical based proteins have been invented by the field of Protein Engineering to introduce new function as well as to change its interaction with surrounding environment. A variety of protein engineering applications have been reported in the literature. These applications range from biocatalysis for food and industry to environmental, medical and nanobiotechnology applications. Successful combinations of various protein engineering methods had led to successful results in food industries and have created a scope to maintain the quality of finished product after processing.

  17. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and health. ... the widest array of complex scientific, economic, environmental and political issues. ... investment in research and extrapolation of information towards appropriate ...

  18. The Impact of Excluding Food Guarding from a Standardized Behavioral Canine Assessment in Animal Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan-Gibbons, Heather; Dolan, Emily D.; Reid, Pamela; Slater, Margaret R.; Mulligan, Hugh; Weiss, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Recent research has called into question the value of the food guarding assessment as a predictive tool for determining the safety of shelter dogs. This study examined the effect of eliminating the food guarding assessment in nine U.S. animal shelters. It was found that when the food guarding assessment was removed, bites or other injuries to staff or adopters did not increase. However, dogs exhibiting food guarding behavior were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized than dogs in the general population. Based on previous research and this study’s findings, the authors recommend that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment. Abstract Many shelters euthanize or restrict adoptions for dogs that exhibit food guarding while in the animal shelter. However, previous research showed that only half the dogs exhibiting food guarding during an assessment food guard in the home. So, dogs are often misidentified as future food guarders during shelter assessments. We examined the impact of shelters omitting food guarding assessments. Nine shelters conducted a two-month baseline period of assessing for food guarding followed by a two-month investigative period during which they omitted the food guarding assessment. Dogs that guarded their food during a standardized assessment were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized. When the shelters stopped assessing for food guarding, there was no significant difference in the rate of returns of food guarding dogs, even though more dogs were adopted because fewer were identified with food guarding behavior. Additionally, the number of injuries to staff, volunteers, and adopters was low (104 incidents from a total of 14,180 dogs) and did not change when the food guarding assessment was omitted. These results support a recommendation that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment. PMID:29419746

  19. Treatment, promotion, commotion: Antibiotic alternatives in food-producing animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternatives to antibiotics in animal agriculture are urgently needed but present a complex problem because of their various uses: disease treatment, disease prevention, and feed efficiency improvement. Numerous antibiotic alternatives, such as feed amended with pre- and probiotics, have been propos...

  20. Designing foods: animal product options in the marketplace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    ... of Animal Products Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original retained, and from the created cannot be files XML from however, formatting, recomposed typesetti...

  1. Effect of probiotics and prebiotics on food animal immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the largest interface between an animal’s internal milieu and its exterior environment. As such, it forms a physical barrier between both environments. However, the function of the GI tract in the well-being of an animal is more complex than this passive role. Th...

  2. Using smartphones to improve animal health and food security ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-05

    May 5, 2016 ... The app is also helping farmers raise healthier animals and improve their own ... and found to be a convenient and user-friendly tool for learning and ... of smartphone-based knowledge mobilization technology for building the ...

  3. Market structure, price rigidity, and performance in the Indonesian food and beverages industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: industrial concentration, price rigidity, technical efficiency, price-cost margin, Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP), new empirical industrial organization (NEIO), Indonesian food and beverages industry, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), system of equations

  4. Bacteriophages as Weapons Against Bacterial Biofilms in the Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Rodríguez-Rubio, Lorena; Martínez, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Ana; García, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Microbiological contamination in the food industry is often attributed to the presence of biofilms in processing plants. Bacterial biofilms are complex communities of bacteria attached to a surface and surrounded by an extracellular polymeric material. Their extreme resistance to cleaning and disinfecting processes is related to a unique organization, which implies a differential bacterial growth and gene expression inside the biofilm. The impact of biofilms on health, and the economic consequences, has promoted the development of different approaches to control or remove biofilm formation. Recently, successful results in phage therapy have boosted new research in bacteriophages and phage lytic proteins for biofilm eradication. In this regard, this review examines the environmental factors that determine biofilm development in food-processing equipment. In addition, future perspectives for the use of bacteriophage-derived tools as disinfectants are discussed.

  5. PIGEON PEA (Cajanus cajan AN ALTERNATIVE IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Navarro V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current situation of inadequate nutrition in the population of many countries, including Colombia. Search sources rich in proteins and low-cost alternatives. The pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan is an important legume that contain a mo derate amount of protein, calories, vitamins and minerals, its use in foods is limited by the presence of anti-nutritional factors, which can be reduced or eliminated through the use of treatments. The proteins have functional properties that can be take advantage in meat, dairy and bakery products. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the skills nutritional and functional properties of pigeon pea application opportunities in various applications in the food industry.

  6. Overlap of food addiction and substance use disorders definitions: analysis of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-10-01

    Food has both homeostatic and hedonic components, which makes it a potent natural reward. Food related reward could therefore promote an escalation of intake and trigger symptoms associated to withdrawal, suggesting a behavioral parallel with substance abuse. Animal and human theoretical models of food reward and addiction have emerged, raising further interrogations on the validity of a bond between Substance Use Disorders, as clinically categorized in the DSM 5, and food reward. These models propose that highly palatable food items, rich in sugar and/or fat, are overly stimulating to the brain's reward pathways. Moreover, studies have also investigated the possibility of causal link between food reward and the contemporary obesity epidemic, with obesity being potentiated and maintained due to this overwhelming food reward. Although natural rewards are a hot topic in the definition and categorization of Substance Use Disorders, proofs of concept and definite evidence are still inconclusive. This review focuses on available results from experimental studies in animal and human models exploring the concept of food addiction, in an effort to determine if it depicts a specific phenotype and if there is truly a neurobiological similarity between food addiction and Substance Use Disorders. It describes results from sugar, fat and sweet-fat bingeing in rodent models, and behavioral and neurobiological assessments in different human populations. Although pieces of behavioral and neurobiological evidence supporting a food addiction phenotype in animals and humans are interesting, it seems premature to conclude on its validity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fuzzy Models to Deal with Sensory Data in Food Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serge Guillaume; Brigitte Charnomordic

    2004-01-01

    Sensory data are, due to the lack of an absolute reference, imprecise and uncertain data. Fuzzy logic can handle uncertainty and can be used in approximate reasoning. Automatic learning procedures allow to generate fuzzy reasoning rules from data including numerical and symbolic or sensory variables. We briefly present an induction method that was developed to extract qualitative knowledge from data samples. The induction process is run under interpretability constraints to ensure the fuzzy rules have a meaning for the human expert. We then study two applied problems in the food industry: sensory evaluation and process modeling.

  8. Cogeneration handbook for the food processing industry. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakin, D.E.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fasbender, A.G.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the food processing industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  9. Sugar ester surfactants: enzymatic synthesis and applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair S; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    Sugar esters are non-ionic surfactants that can be synthesized in a single enzymatic reaction step using lipases. The stability and efficiency of lipases under unusual conditions and using non-conventional media can be significantly improved through immobilization and protein engineering. Also, the development of de novo enzymes has seen a significant increase lately under the scope of the new field of synthetic biology. Depending on the esterification degree and the nature of fatty acid and/or sugar, a range of sugar esters can be synthesized. Due to their surface activity and emulsifying capacity, sugar esters are promising for applications in food industry.

  10. [Study on recent status of development of genetically modified animals developed not for food purposes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Osamu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) animals can be classified into two groups, those developed for food purposes and those developed not for food purposes. We investigated the recent status of development of GM animals developed not for food purposes. Among the GM animals developed not for food purposes, GM fish, chickens, and pigs were selected because many articles have been published on these organisms. Relevant articles published between 2008 and 2011 were surveyed using PubMed and transgenic fish, chicken, or pig as keywords. Then, studies on organisms that could potentially contaminate the food chain with products from these GM animals were selected and analyzed. Fifteen articles on GM fish were found. These articles were classified into four categories: bioreactor (n = 4), resistance to microorganisms (n = 6), resistance to environmental stresses (n = 1), and detection of chemicals (n = 4). Zebrafish were used in 8 of the articles. Six, three, and three articles were reported from Taiwan, Canada and China. Seven articles on GM chickens were found. These articles were classified into two categories: bioreactor (n = 5), and resistance to pathogens (n = 2). Two articles were reported from Japan and Korea, each. As for GM pigs, 43 articles were found. These articles were classified into three categories: xenotransplantation (n = 36), bioreactor (n = 6), and environmental cleanup (n = 1). Nineteen, seven, six, and five articles were reported from USA, Germany, Korea and Taiwan, respectively. Understanding the recent development of GM animals produced not for food purpose is important for assuring the safety of food.

  11. Fumonisins in Aspergillus niger: Industrial and food aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Mogensen, Jesper

    Introduction: Fumonisins are toxic seconday metabolites from Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusaria, from Tolypocladium and Aspergillus niger 1,2. Being a generalist Aspergillus niger is the workhorse in a very large number of industrial applications, and is also a common contaminant in foods....... Fumonisin production by A. niger is depending on temperature and water activity, but is produced mostly on substrates with high maounts of sugar or salt 1,3,4. We wanted to find out whether industrial strains could produce fumonisins in worst case scenarios and if fumonisin production was only a feature...... ever used in biotechnology could produce fuminisins B2, B4 & B6. The strains could be subdivided into two clades (representing A. niger and the “phylospecies” A. awamori), and there were fumonisin producers in both clades. Ochratoxin A was also produced by strains in both clades, but only...

  12. 21 CFR 501.5 - Animal food; name and place of business of manufacturer, packer, or distributor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food; name and place of business of... LABELING General Provisions § 501.5 Animal food; name and place of business of manufacturer, packer, or... which the business is conducted shall be used. (c) Where the food is not manufactured by the person...

  13. ON THE STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytriy Nekhaychuk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article delas with the issues of strategic development of enterprises on the example ofthe food industry companies. The work suggests the classification of the factors influencing the strategy planning into internal and external ones, which, in their turn, can affect the quantitative indicators established by the enterprise as the objectives. It is clarified that taking into account the financial capabilities of the enterprise in strategic planning will allow to evaluate strategic ones more realistically. It is shown that the ultimate tasks of strategic planning are to correspond to the real capabilities of the enterprise and they are to be aimed at maximizing the use of the existing potential of the enterprise. When planning a corporate strategy, the main goal should be to create a different way of development, based on all resources and skills, which is the opposite of environmental constraints. The study also shows the company’s strategies in conditions of uncertain external environment. The investigation identifies some strategic goals that are the initial objectives of strategic planning, namely, it focuses on attractive markets, increasing the market segment, and retaining the existing market positions. It is proved that the preference for a specific development strategy of the industry depends on the existing positions and the positions that will be achieved as a result of the implementation of the previous strategies, the specifications of the goods circulating in the market, the market conditions and the degree of its competition, the development of state regulation, and the resource potential of the industry. As for the food industry enterprises, when choosing a strategy, it is suggested to use the following methods: “assessing the impact of macro-environment factors”, “determining the driving forces of the industry”, “clarifying and evaluating the key factors of success” and “determining the influence groups”.

  14. Trends in Food Research and Development: A Survey of the Commercial Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    top priority of research and development in the food industry; however, the consumer market has chanqed dramatically since the beginning of this decade...Canned & Preserved Fruits & Vegetables 45.6 204 Grain Mill Products 32.4 205 Bakery Products 33.8 206 Sugar & Confectionery Products 32.4 207 Fats & Oils...15.6 40.6 39.1 Aseptic Packaging of Particulates 0.0 0.0 14.5 36.0 49.5 Genetic Engineering 1.5 7.6 21.2 36.4 33.3 The market share of frozen foods is

  15. Assessing Student Attitudes toward Animal Welfare, Resource Use, and Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Patricia A.; Richards, Martha J.; Wilson, Lowell L.; Coe, Brenda L.; Fivek, Marianne L.; Brown, Michele B.

    2000-01-01

    Students participating in the Pennsylvania Governor's School for Agricultural Sciences (n=192) studied animal welfare, resource use, and food safety. They ranked food safety as a primary concern. Students with and without agricultural backgrounds showed positive changes in knowledge and perception of issues after the course. (SK)

  16. The impact of information on consumer preferences for different animal food production methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The motivation for the present study is to understand food choice in relation to animal food production and to study how preferences are influenced by information. To do this, we carried out a choice experiment. In the analysis, we focus on chickens reared indoors and outdoors and chicken labelled...

  17. Managing the gut microbiome of food animals with tools of microbial ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The removal of antibiotics from animal feed as mandated by the European Union in 2006 and recently proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration will require new strategies to maintain animal health, optimize nutrition, and control foodborne pathogens. We have recently pursued three main approa...

  18. Food Chains. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The food chain provides a clear example of how life continues year after year. Students learn how the cycle of energy starts with the sun,…

  19. Concept of protection of food of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijačević Zora M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The currently valid regulations (Official Gazette 26/2002 define the requirements for the quality of milk and milk products. The same legislature defines also the concept of composite products, that is, products in which part of the fat or proteins have been substituted with fat or proteins of different origin. A composite product must include the term composite in its name, and the part of the declaration which lists the contents of total proteins and fat must specify the part of plant proteins and fat in total proteins and fat of milk products. With the growth of the population and the concern for health, new requirements have been set, and consumers expect a food article to meet not only the nutritive requirements, but also to have certain functional characteristics, or that it is not burdened with components which have a negative effect on health (the presence of cholesterol, sodium chloride, a high percentage of saturated fatty acids. The complete substitution of one milk component results in a completely new product. A change in the traditional composition of a certain food article must be clearly declared, so as not to confuse consumers and to provide them with the possibility of choice. In our market, there have lately appeared products that are marked as imitations, alternatives, diet cheese, vegetable cheese. Modified products which do not meet the traditional identity standards must be marked as imitations, in case they are nutritionally inferior with respect to the traditionally standardized food articles, or as substitutes or alternatives, in the event that they are a nutritive equivalent to the traditional food articles. The lack of legal regulations for this category of product leads to the irregular declaration of such products, and consequently provides false information about the characteristics of such articles to the consumer. It is necessary to regulate this area with the respective laws in order to protect the consumer.

  20. OPTIPOLYGEN - Optimum integration of polygeneration in the food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    The expression polygeneration is defined as the use of multiple primary energy inputs to create multiple energy outputs. The aim of the project OPTIPOLYGEN is to investigate the potential of utilising and implementing polygeneration technologies in the food and drink industry. Due to its significant and simultaneous demand for process-heat, electricity and cooling, the food and drink industry is especially suitable for polygeneration. The work of the project comprised efforts covering everything from surveys of current utilisation of polygeneration to estimating the potential use in the future as well as evaluating the obstacles for further development. Moreover, the project did also have the aim to aid future implementations by developing and disseminating tools for faster evaluation of food plants applicability for polygeneration. These tools comprise technical guidelines, a web-based feasibility calculator as well as training materials for consultants and educators. All these tools are made available for interested bodies on the project website www.optipolygen.org . The results of the project reveal that whether polygeneration is applicable or not at a specific site is a complex question and depends on many details that may vary significantly by the local circumstances of each plant. Thus in order to be able to estimate the potential a thorough investigation of each plant site has to be undertaken comprising several issues such as: availability of local energy infrastructure, fuels, rules of electricity trade and transmission, district heat trade and transmission, carbon dioxide tax, regulations concerning biodegradable waste handling, subsidies, etc.. However, by disregarding these local differences and by instead extrapolating available technical and statistical data, the current potential for polygeneration in EU-15 food and drink industry is estimated to amount to 73,1 TWh{sub el}/year. The largest potentials are estimated to be in the meat and fish industry

  1. Food waste in the Swiss food service industry - Magnitude and potential for reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Alexandra; Buchli, Jürg; Göbel, Christine; Müller, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Food losses occur across the whole food supply chain. They have negative effects on the economy and the environment, and they are not justifiable from an ethical point of view. The food service industry was identified by Beretta et al. (2013) as the third largest source of food waste based on food input at each stage of the value added chain. The total losses are estimated 18% of the food input, the avoidable losses 13.5%. However, these estimations are related with considerable uncertainty. To get more reliable and detailed data of food losses in this sector, the waste from two companies (in the education and business sectors) was classified into four categories (storage losses, preparation losses, serving losses, and plate waste) and seven food classes and measured for a period of five days. A questionnaire evaluated customer reaction, and a material flow analysis was used to describe the mass and monetary losses within the process chain. The study found that in company A (education sector) 10.73% and in company B (business sector) 7.69% of the mass of all food delivered was wasted during the process chain. From this, 91.98% of the waste in company A and 78.14% in company B were classified as avoidable. The highest proportion of waste occurred from serving losses with starch accompaniments and vegetables being the most frequently wasted items. The quantities of waste per meal were 91.23 g (value CHF 0.74) and 85.86 g (value CHF 0.44) for company A and company B, respectively. The annual loss averaged 10.47 tonnes (value CHF 85,047) in company A and 16.55 tonnes (value CHF 85,169) in company B. The customer survey showed that 15.79% (n=356) of the respondents in company A and 18.32% (n=382) in company B produced plate waste. The main causes of plate waste cited were 'portion served by staff too large' and 'lack of hunger'. Sustainable measures need to be implemented in the food service industry to reduce food waste and to improve efficiency. Copyright © 2014

  2. INFLUENCE OF PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS ON ANIMAL OVARIAN CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Sirotkin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our studies was to examine (1 the effect of environmental contaminants (benzene, toluene and xylen on basic ovarian cell functions (proliferation, apoptosis, secretory activity in different animal species (rabbit, pig, cow, and (2 whether gonadotropic hormone (FSH and plant molecules (quercetin, resveratrol or extract of yucca can affect these functions and modify effect of environmental contaminants. It was observed, that the culture of either porcine or bovine ovarian cells with benzene, toluene or xylen promote apoptosis (accumulation of apoptosis markers bax and p53 and proliferation (accumulation of PCNA. Furthermore, additions of these contaminants were able either up- or down-regulate the release of progesterone, oxytocin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and prostaglandin F by cultured porcine, rabbit and bovine ovarian cells and their response to addition of FSH. FSH additions promoted proliferation, apoptosis and release of molecules listed above by porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, FSH was able to modify and to prevent. Some effects of BTEX on these cells. The effects of either quercetin or resveratrol on basic porcine ovarian cell functions were observed, but these plant molecules were not able to prevent BTEX effect. Feeding of rabbits with yucca extract caused changes in release of progesterone, IGF-I and prostaglandin F by their ovarian cells, as well as to modify and prevent the influence of benzene on ovarian hormone release. The obtained data suggest that (1 the negative effect of BTEX on reproduction can be due to their influence on ovarian cell apoptosis, proliferation, turnover and release of peptide and steroid hormones and growth factors, and that (2 FSH and plant molecules can regulate ovarian cell functions and prevent some effects of BTEX on these cells.

  3. Cereal bran fractionation: processing techniques for the recovery of functional components and their applications to the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Aprea, Eugenio

    2012-04-01

    Bran is the outer part of cereal grains that is separated during the cereals de-hulling and milling processes. It was considered in the past a by-product of cereal industry employed mainly as animal feed. Cereal bran, being particularly rich in different functional biopolymers, bio-active compounds and essential fatty acids, attracted the interest of pharmaceutical and food industry. Furthermore, the peculiar techno-functional properties of brans together with their particular physiological and nutritional aspects have led to a great interest in their incorporation as main or secondary components in different groups of food products including bakery and confectionery products, breakfast cereals and extruded foodstuffs, emulsions and functional dairy products and pasta products. In the first part of the present work the main fractionation processes, bran fractions properties and their physicochemical and technological properties are briefly reviewed. In the second part, relevant applications, with emphasis on patents, in food industry are reviewed as well.

  4. Analysis of the corporate political activity of major food industry actors in Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Wate, Jillian; Tukana, Isimeli; Sacks, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of mortality in Fiji, a middle-income country in the Pacific. Some food products processed sold and marketed by the food industry are major contributors to the NCD epidemic, and the food industry is widely identified as having strong economic and political power. However, little research has been undertaken on the attempts by the food industry to influence public health-related policies and programs in its favour. The ?corporat...

  5. Analysis of Information Sharing Mechanism in the Food Industry Green Supply Chain Management and Operation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ye-ming; Yin, Fang-fang; Fu, Xian-zhi

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively address the issues of environmental pollution and food safety in food industry, the green supply chain management should be used in the food industry. However, information sharing is the basis of supply chain management. For this purpose, on the basis of describing the connotation of food industry green supply chain management, the paper introduces the contents and the effects of information sharing mode in detail. It focuses on the barriers of the implementation of in...

  6. Establish Central Kitchen under HACCP Control in Food and Beverage Industry to Ensure Food Safety and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Qi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, food safety and hygiene have been a social problem. So, it is worth studying in-depth that how to control the safety and hygiene of food and beverage. This paper proposes to establish central kitchens under HACCP control to ensure food safety and hygiene in the food and beverage industry. Considering the practical difficulties in the application of HACCP, this paper introduces the establishment of dishes HACCP system with some examples to give the reference of the food and beverage industry. Central kitchens have many advantages while HACCP is the golden standard to ensure food safety and hygiene, hence, it will ensure food safety and hygiene if both can be combined with in the use of food and beverage industry.

  7. Innovative Integrated Management System (IIMS for Sustainable Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttiprasit Prasert

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is evident that the long-term survival and growth of global food industry depend on the availability and efficient use of raw materials, energy and water and other facilities under the concept of sustainable practice, i.e. in environment, society and economics. Quality and safety managements are essential to ensure that the industry can continue to support the communities in which it operates. Awarding a number of certifications to show the high standing of international quality and hygiene characteristics are currently necessary, e.g. ISO 9001: 2000, GMP/GHP, HACCP, ISO 22000, BRC and etc. To minimize the cost and maximize the efficiency, the Innovative Integration Management System (IIMS has been implemented effectively under the frameworks of sustainability in a numbers of national and international food production companies in Thailand during the past years. This will allow the organization to integrate all common processes such as management review, document control, record control, training, monitoring & measuring, data analysing, internal audits, and corrective and preventive actions whereas the critical or specific processes required by each standard are still retained harmoniously with the others.

  8. Business process of reputation management of food industry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derevianko Olena. H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is development of the methodical base of reputation management directed at formalisation of theoretical provisions and explanation how to organise reputation management at food industry enterprises. The article shows prospectiveness of use of the Business Process Management concept in reputation management. Using the diagram of the Reputation Management business process environment the article shows its key participants (suppliers and clients of the business process and identifies their place in formation of the enterprise reputation. It also shows that the reputation management should be considered a business process of the highest level of management. Construction of the flow structure of the Reputation Management business process allows uncovering the logic of interrelation of inlets and outlets within the framework of the specified main stages of the business process: assessment of the current state of reputation, collection of information about stakeholders, identification of PR strategy goals, planning of necessary resources, realisation of the PR strategy, assessment of efficiency and process monitoring. The article offers the flow, functional and organisational structures of the Reputation Management business process for food industry enterprises. Moreover, justification of functional and organisational structures of the Reputation Management business process gives a possibility to distribute functions of reputation management between specific executors and establish responsibility for each stage of the business process.

  9. Animating Domain-Specific Complex Knowledge : An Analysis of Organic Food Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The pivotal point of this paper is an analysis and a discussion of the animated film “MultiTrust”. The film is a result a research project dealing with the “Multicriteria assessment and communication of effects of organic food systems”. A primary intention of this project was to help consumers make...... informed choices when it comes to purchasing organic foods. The animation presents a novel way of communicating domain-specific knowledge of organic food products to consumers. In order to analyze “MultiTrust”, a model of analysis is presented, which is framed by the research field communication...

  10. Preferences for food safety and animal welare - a choice experiment study comparing organic and conventional consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Mørkbak, Morten; Denver, Sigrid

    Food quality attributes such as food safety and animal welfare are increasingly influencing consumers' choices of food products. These attributes are not readily traded in the markets. Hence, stated preference methods have proven to be valuable tools for eliciting preferences for such non......-traded attributes. A discrete choice experiment is employed, and the results indicate that consumers in general are willing to pay a premium for campylobacter-free chicken and for improved animal welfare; and they are willing to pay an additional premium for a product containing both attributes. Further, we find...

  11. Short history of regulations and approved indications of antimicrobial drugs for food animals in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, V V; DeMars, Z

    2017-06-01

    We review historical availability and regulation, and recent indications of antimicrobial drugs for food animals in the USA. We summarize the timeline of introduction of individual antimicrobial drug classes from the 1930s to present, history of regulation of antimicrobial drugs from the 1930s to present and indications of antimicrobial drugs in 1996-2014 for food animals in the USA. The history of antimicrobial drug regulation demonstrates a historical precedent for harmonized regulations of antimicrobials 'for human and other animals' in the USA. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Metabolic transit of radionucleides in domestic animals and radiocontamination of the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daburon, F.

    1991-01-01

    Food chain radiocontaminants are detailed according to their conditions of production and their physico-chemical and biological properties. The modalities of their dispersion in the environment are studied in soils, surface water, plants and animals. Transfer factors from soil to plants and plants to animals are given for the three main radiocontaminants, i.e. iodine, strontium and caesium; their metabolic transit is described specially in ruminants. Countermeasures are discussed for limitating the radionuclides transfer from soil to plants and from plants to animals, specially using Prussian blue derivatives. Intervention levels for food and feeding stuffs are reminded according to the last EEC recommendations

  13. Food safety issues and training methods for ready-to-eat foods in the grocery industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Margaret; Ghiselli, Richard

    2005-10-01

    As Americans have become more pressed for time, the use of convenient, simplified meals become a way of life. One aspect of this trend, known as Home Meal Replacement (IIMR), has increased in sales since its inception. Between 1999 and 2001, the average annual expenditure per consumer rose 5.6 pereent, and $958 per person per year was spent in 2002. Along with this growth, food safety risks may have increased. The study reported here examined efforts being undertaken by grocery and convenience stores to control the wholesomeness of INR food items. After a convenience sample of 500 grocery store executives was identified, a 32-item questionnaire was developed and mailed to the executives. The results indicate that the industry has taken food safety seriously with only 10 pereent reporting that they have no food safety training. The executives cited employee turnover as a major concern in food safety today, along with lack of food safety knowledge of the consumer and improper holding temperatures.

  14. Impacts of cereal ergot in food animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eCoufal-Majewski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the 5th century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops. Furthermore, the unpredictability of climate change may have detrimental impacts to important cereal crops such as wheat, barley and rye, favouring ergot production. Allowable limits for ergot in livestock feed are confusing as they may be determined by proportions of ergot bodies or by total levels of alkaloids, measurements which may differ widely in their estimation of toxicity. The proportion of individual alkaloids including ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety and genotype. Considerable animal to animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome.

  15. Food consumption risks associated with animal clones: what should be investigated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, Larisa; Matheson, John C; Adams, Amey L; Dubbin, Eric S; Greenlees, Kevin J

    2004-01-01

    Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT), or cloning, is likely to be used for the expansion of elite breeding stock of agronomically important livestock used for food. The Center for Veterinary Medicine at the US Food and Drug Administration has been developing a risk assessment to identify hazards and characterize food consumption risks that may result from cloning. The risk assessment is comprised of two prongs. The first evaluates the health of animal clones, and is referred to as the Critical Biological Systems Approach. The second considers the composition of meat and milk from animal clones. Assessing the safety of food products from animal clones and their progeny, at least during these early stages of the development of the technology, is best accomplished by using both approaches: prospectively drawing on our knowledge of biological systems in development and maturation, and in retrograde, from an analysis of food products. Subtle hazards and potential risks that may be posed by animal clones must, however, be considered in the context of other mutations and epigenetic changes that occur in all food animal populations.

  16. ICP-AES analysis of trace elements in serum from animals fed with irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi

    1986-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by ICP-AES in serum from animals fed with irradiated food is described. In order to demonstrate that irradiated food is suitable for human consumption, it is necessary to perform an experiment of animal feeding with these food before use for human. Trace element analysis in animal serum could provide an actual evidence for further human consumption study. 53 serum samples of the rats fed with irradiated food were obtained. After ashed and solved, ICP-AES analysis has been used for determining 20 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitation is in the range of 10 -2 -10 -3 ppm for different elements. The recovery of elements is from 70.08% to 98.28%. The relative standard deviation is found to be 0.71% to 11.52%

  17. Public Concern with Farm-Animal Welfare: Religion, Politics, and Human Disadvantage in the Food Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Danielle R.; Lobao, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The welfare of farm animals has become a continuing source of controversy as states seek greater regulation over the livestock industry. However, empirical studies addressing the determinants of public concern for farm-animal welfare are limited. Religion and politics, two institutional bases of attitudes, are rarely explored. Nor have…

  18. Potentialities of biotechnology for the reduction and utilization for energy purposes of wastes generated by food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-19

    The study dealt with the present trends in biotechnology related to the methods for the reduction and utilization, for energy purposes, of wastes generated by food industry and to the methods for controlling the emission of pollutants from industrial plants with emphasis on meat industry, dairy industry, food-packing trade, sugar industry, vinification, fatty foods, fish meal, beverage industry.

  19. Deep Eutectic Solvents pretreatment of agro-industrial food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procentese, Alessandra; Raganati, Francesca; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Rehmann, Lars; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Waste biomass from agro-food industries are a reliable and readily exploitable resource. From the circular economy point of view, direct residues from these industries exploited for production of fuel/chemicals is a winning issue, because it reduces the environmental/cost impact and improves the eco-sustainability of productions. The present paper reports recent results of deep eutectic solvent (DES) pretreatment on a selected group of the agro-industrial food wastes (AFWs) produced in Europe. In particular, apple residues, potato peels, coffee silverskin, and brewer's spent grains were pretreated with two DESs, (choline chloride-glycerol and choline chloride-ethylene glycol) for fermentable sugar production. Pretreated biomass was enzymatic digested by commercial enzymes to produce fermentable sugars. Operating conditions of the DES pretreatment were changed in wide intervals. The solid to solvent ratio ranged between 1:8 and 1:32, and the temperature between 60 and 150 °C. The DES reaction time was set at 3 h. Optimal operating conditions were: 3 h pretreatment with choline chloride-glycerol at 1:16 biomass to solvent ratio and 115 °C. Moreover, to assess the expected European amount of fermentable sugars from the investigated AFWs, a market analysis was carried out. The overall sugar production was about 217 kt yr -1 , whose main fraction was from the hydrolysis of BSGs pretreated with choline chloride-glycerol DES at the optimal conditions. The reported results boost deep investigation on lignocellulosic biomass using DES. This investigated new class of solvents is easy to prepare, biodegradable and cheaper than ionic liquid. Moreover, they reported good results in terms of sugars' release at mild operating conditions (time, temperature and pressure).

  20. Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The administration of antimicrobial drugs to food animals at low doses for extended durations for growth promotion and disease prevention has been linked to the global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Internationally, multiple jurisdictions have responded by restricting antimicrobial use for these purposes, and by requiring a veterinary prescription to use these drugs in food animals. Opponents of these policies have argued that restrictions have been detrimental to food animal production where they have been adopted. Methods We surveyed the antimicrobial use policies of 17 political jurisdictions outside of the United States with respect to growth promotion, disease prevention, and veterinary oversight, and reviewed the available evidence regarding their production impacts, including measures of animal health. Jurisdictions were included if they were a top-five importer of a major U.S. food animal product in 2011, as differences between the policies of the U.S. and other jurisdictions may lead to trade barriers to U.S. food animal product exports. Jurisdictions were also included if information on their policies was publicly available in English. We searched the peer-reviewed and grey literatures and corresponded with jurisdictions’ U.S. embassies, regulators, and local experts. Results Jurisdictions were categorized by whether they prohibit use of antimicrobials for growth promotion and/or use of antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription. Of the 17 jurisdictions surveyed, six jurisdictions have prohibited both types of use, five jurisdictions have prohibited one use but not the other use, and five jurisdictions have not prohibited either use, while information was not available for one jurisdiction. Data on the production impacts of these prohibitions were limited, although available data, especially from Denmark and Sweden, suggest that restrictions on growth promotion use can be implemented with minimal production consequences

  1. Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Dina Fine; Smith, Tyler J S; Nachman, Keeve E

    2013-10-16

    The administration of antimicrobial drugs to food animals at low doses for extended durations for growth promotion and disease prevention has been linked to the global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Internationally, multiple jurisdictions have responded by restricting antimicrobial use for these purposes, and by requiring a veterinary prescription to use these drugs in food animals. Opponents of these policies have argued that restrictions have been detrimental to food animal production where they have been adopted. We surveyed the antimicrobial use policies of 17 political jurisdictions outside of the United States with respect to growth promotion, disease prevention, and veterinary oversight, and reviewed the available evidence regarding their production impacts, including measures of animal health. Jurisdictions were included if they were a top-five importer of a major U.S. food animal product in 2011, as differences between the policies of the U.S. and other jurisdictions may lead to trade barriers to U.S. food animal product exports. Jurisdictions were also included if information on their policies was publicly available in English. We searched the peer-reviewed and grey literatures and corresponded with jurisdictions' U.S. embassies, regulators, and local experts. Jurisdictions were categorized by whether they prohibit use of antimicrobials for growth promotion and/or use of antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription. Of the 17 jurisdictions surveyed, six jurisdictions have prohibited both types of use, five jurisdictions have prohibited one use but not the other use, and five jurisdictions have not prohibited either use, while information was not available for one jurisdiction. Data on the production impacts of these prohibitions were limited, although available data, especially from Denmark and Sweden, suggest that restrictions on growth promotion use can be implemented with minimal production consequences. A majority of leading U.S. trade

  2. The Impact of Excluding Food Guarding from a Standardized Behavioral Canine Assessment in Animal Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Mohan-Gibbons

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many shelters euthanize or restrict adoptions for dogs that exhibit food guarding while in the animal shelter. However, previous research showed that only half the dogs exhibiting food guarding during an assessment food guard in the home. So, dogs are often misidentified as future food guarders during shelter assessments. We examined the impact of shelters omitting food guarding assessments. Nine shelters conducted a two-month baseline period of assessing for food guarding followed by a two-month investigative period during which they omitted the food guarding assessment. Dogs that guarded their food during a standardized assessment were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized. When the shelters stopped assessing for food guarding, there was no significant difference in the rate of returns of food guarding dogs, even though more dogs were adopted because fewer were identified with food guarding behavior. Additionally, the number of injuries to staff, volunteers, and adopters was low (104 incidents from a total of 14,180 dogs and did not change when the food guarding assessment was omitted. These results support a recommendation that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment.

  3. Effects of animal source food and micronutrient fortification in complementary food products on body composition, iron status, and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick; Touch, Bunthang; Chhoun, Chamnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional quality of complementary foods often limits growth. Animal source foods, such as milk or meat, are often unaffordable. Local affordable alternatives are needed. Objective: We evaluate the efficacy of 2 newly developed, rice-based complementary food products: WinFood (WF......) with small fish and edible spiders and WinFood-Lite (WF-L) fortified with small fish, against 2 existing fortified corn-soy blend products, CSB+ (purely plant based) and CSB++ (8% dried skimmed milk). Design: In total, 419 infants aged 6 mo were enrolled in this randomized, single-blinded study for 9 mo...... increase in knee-heel length in WF-L compared with CSB+ was not significant. Conclusions: No difference was found between the locally produced products (WF and WF-L) and the CSBs. Micronutrient fortification may be necessary, and small fish may be an affordable alternative to milk to improve complementary...

  4. Consumer attitudes to vaccination of food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudamore, J M

    2007-08-01

    The 2001 outbreak of foot and mouth disease in the United Kingdom was unprecedented, with the need to develop a vaccination policy at the height of the epidemic. The extent of consumer concerns about eating products derived from vaccinated animals was unknown as survey results were equivocal. A recent survey on avian influenza reveals that the European public are well informed about the disease and its control, but over 50% of respondents would be reluctant to consume meat from vaccinated birds. There is little specific information available on consumer views about routine vaccination for other diseases. Their concerns appear to increase in an emergency situation when there is heightened awareness through the media. With the development of newer types of vaccines consumers will need more assurance about the safety and use of these products. This article examines these issues and makes practical recommendations for ensuring public confidence when emergency vaccination for disease control is proposed.

  5. The use of exergetic indicators in the food industry - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K; Rossier-Miranda, Francisco J; van der Goot, Atze Jan; Boom, Remko M

    2017-01-02

    Assessment of sustainability will become more relevant for the food industry in the years to come. Analysis based on exergy, including the use of exergetic indicators and Grassmann diagrams, is a useful tool for the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the efficiency of industrial food chains. In this paper, we review the methodology of exergy analysis and the exergetic indicators that are most appropriate for use in the food industry. The challenges of applying exergy analysis in industrial food chains and the specific features of food processes are also discussed.

  6. Comparing immediate-type food allergy in humans and companion animals-revealing unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pali-Schöll, I; De Lucia, M; Jackson, H; Janda, J; Mueller, R S; Jensen-Jarolim, E

    2017-11-01

    Adverse food reactions occur in human as well as veterinary patients. Systematic comparison may lead to improved recommendations for prevention and treatment in both. In this position paper, we summarize the current knowledge on immediate-type food allergy vs other food adverse reactions in companion animals, and compare this to the human situation. While the prevalence of food allergy in humans has been well studied for some allergens, this remains to be investigated for animal patients, where owner-reported as well as veterinarian-diagnosed food adverse reactions are on the increase. The characteristics of the disease in humans vs dogs, cats, and horses are most often caused by similar, but sometimes species-dependent different pathophysiological mechanisms, prompting the specific clinical symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments. Furthermore, little is known about the allergen molecules causative for type I food allergy in animals, which, like in human patients, could represent predictive biomarkers for risk evaluation. The definite diagnosis of food allergy relies-as in humans-on elimination diet and provocation tests. Besides allergen avoidance in daily practice, novel treatment options and tolerization strategies are underway. Taken together, numerous knowledge gaps were identified in veterinary food allergy, which need to be filled by systematic comparative studies. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 76 FR 61103 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; De Novo Classification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0689] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; De Novo Classification Process... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

  8. 77 FR 74671 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration (Fifth Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-1002] Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration (Fifth Edition) AGENCY... announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Questions and Answers Regarding Food...

  9. 76 FR 68767 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; De Novo Classification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0689] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; De Novo Classification Process... for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; De Novo Classification Process (Evaluation of...

  10. 78 FR 5185 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Humanitarian Use Device (HUD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0847] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Humanitarian Use Device (HUD) Designations... public comment ``Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Humanitarian Use...

  11. Proposed food and drug administration protection action guides for human food and animal feed: Rationale and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shleien, B.; Schmidt, G.D.; Chiacchierini, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration is proposing Protective Action Guides (PAG's) to be used in the event that a radiological incident results in the radioactive contamination of human food and animal feed. PAG's are proposed for two levels of response: (1) PREVENTIVE PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should take protective action to prevent or reduce the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed. (2) EMERGENCY PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should isolate food containing radioactivity to prevent its introduction into commerce and determine whether condemnation or another disposition is appropriate. Derived response levels, which are defined as the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed corresponding to the above PAG's, are proposed for radionuclides of most significance. The presentation will discuss the supporting rationale as well as the numerical limits for the PAG's. This rationale is based on the process of risk assessment and cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis. The risk assessment compares the risk of radiation exposure to the risk from prevalent hazards accepted by society and from variability of the natural radiation environment. The cost-benefit analysis is limited to protective actions efficacious in the reduction of iodine-131 dose to the thyroid via the milk pathway (condemnation and use of stored feed). In addition, the metabolic and agricultural transfer models that were used to calculate derived response levels will be described briefly. (author)

  12. Proposed food and drug administration protection action guides for human food and animal feed: Rationale and limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shleien, B; Schmidt, G D; Chiacchierini, R P [Food and Drug Administration, Bureau of Radiological Health, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1978-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration is proposing Protective Action Guides (PAG's) to be used in the event that a radiological incident results in the radioactive contamination of human food and animal feed. PAG's are proposed for two levels of response: (1) PREVENTIVE PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should take protective action to prevent or reduce the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed. (2) EMERGENCY PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should isolate food containing radioactivity to prevent its introduction into commerce and determine whether condemnation or another disposition is appropriate. Derived response levels, which are defined as the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed corresponding to the above PAG's, are proposed for radionuclides of most significance. The presentation will discuss the supporting rationale as well as the numerical limits for the PAG's. This rationale is based on the process of risk assessment and cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis. The risk assessment compares the risk of radiation exposure to the risk from prevalent hazards accepted by society and from variability of the natural radiation environment. The cost-benefit analysis is limited to protective actions efficacious in the reduction of iodine-131 dose to the thyroid via the milk pathway (condemnation and use of stored feed). In addition, the metabolic and agricultural transfer models that were used to calculate derived response levels will be described briefly. (author)

  13. Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou V

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vangelis Economou,1 Panagiota Gousia2 1Department of Hygiene and Technology of Food of Animal Origin, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Food-Water Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece Abstract: One of the major breakthroughs in the history of medicine is undoubtedly the discovery of antibiotics. Their use in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine has resulted in healthier and more productive farm animals, ensuring the welfare and health of both animals and humans. Unfortunately, from the first use of penicillin, the resistance countdown started to tick. Nowadays, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing, and resistance to antibiotics is probably the major public health problem. Antibiotic use in farm animals has been criticized for contributing to the emergence of resistance. The use and misuse of antibiotics in farm animal settings as growth promoters or as nonspecific means of infection prevention and treatment has boosted antibiotic consumption and resistance among bacteria in the animal habitat. This reservoir of resistance can be transmitted directly or indirectly to humans through food consumption and direct or indirect contact. Resistant bacteria can cause serious health effects directly or via the transmission of the antibiotic resistance traits to pathogens, causing illnesses that are difficult to treat and that therefore have higher morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, the selection and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains can be disseminated to the environment via animal waste, enhancing the resistance reservoir that exists in the environmental microbiome. In this review, an effort is made to highlight the various factors that contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in farm animals and to

  14. Performance assessment of food safety management systems in animal-based food companies in view of their context characteristics: A European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Kirezieva, K.; Hagelaar, G.; Rovira, J.; Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.

    2015-01-01

    Recurrently the question arises if efforts in food safety management system (FSMS) have resulted in effective systems in animal-based food production systems. The aim of this study was to gain an insight in the performance of FSMS in European animal-based food production companies in view of their

  15. Animal board invited review: advances in proteomics for animal and food sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, A M; Bassols, A; Bendixen, E; Bhide, M; Ceciliani, F; Cristobal, S; Eckersall, P D; Hollung, K; Lisacek, F; Mazzucchelli, G; McLaughlin, M; Miller, I; Nally, J E; Plowman, J; Renaut, J; Rodrigues, P; Roncada, P; Staric, J; Turk, R

    2015-01-01

    Animal production and health (APH) is an important sector in the world economy, representing a large proportion of the budget of all member states in the European Union and in other continents. APH is a highly competitive sector with a strong emphasis on innovation and, albeit with country to country variations, on scientific research. Proteomics (the study of all proteins present in a given tissue or fluid - i.e. the proteome) has an enormous potential when applied to APH. Nevertheless, for a variety of reasons and in contrast to disciplines such as plant sciences or human biomedicine, such potential is only now being tapped. To counter such limited usage, 6 years ago we created a consortium dedicated to the applications of Proteomics to APH, specifically in the form of a Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action, termed FA1002--Proteomics in Farm Animals: www.cost-faproteomics.org. In 4 years, the consortium quickly enlarged to a total of 31 countries in Europe, as well as Israel, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand. This article has a triple purpose. First, we aim to provide clear examples on the applications and benefits of the use of proteomics in all aspects related to APH. Second, we provide insights and possibilities on the new trends and objectives for APH proteomics applications and technologies for the years to come. Finally, we provide an overview and balance of the major activities and accomplishments of the COST Action on Farm Animal Proteomics. These include activities such as the organization of seminars, workshops and major scientific conferences, organization of summer schools, financing Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) and the generation of scientific literature. Overall, the Action has attained all of the proposed objectives and has made considerable difference by putting proteomics on the global map for animal and veterinary researchers in general and by contributing significantly to reduce the East-West and North-South gaps

  16. Assessing the effect, on animal model, of mixture of food additives, on the water balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, on the animal model, the effect of modification of diet composition and administration of selected food additives on water balance in the body. The study was conducted with 48 males and 48 females (separately for each sex) of Wistar strain rats divided into four groups. For drinking, the animals from groups I and III were receiving water, whereas the animals from groups II and IV were administered 5 ml of a solution of selected food additives (potassium nitrate - E 252, sodium nitrite - E 250, benzoic acid - E 210, sorbic acid - E 200, and monosodium glutamate - E 621). Doses of the administered food additives were computed taking into account the average intake by men, expressed per body mass unit. Having drunk the solution, the animals were provided water for drinking. The mixture of selected food additives applied in the experiment was found to facilitate water retention in the body both in the case of both male and female rats, and differences observed between the volume of ingested fluids and the volume of excreted urine were statistically significant in the animals fed the basal diet. The type of feed mixture provided to the animals affected the site of water retention - in the case of animals receiving the basal diet analyses demonstrated a significant increase in water content in the liver tissue, whereas in the animals fed the modified diet water was observed to accumulate in the vascular bed. Taking into account the fact of water retention in the vascular bed, the effects of food additives intake may be more adverse in the case of females.

  17. The Globalization of Innovation in the Danish Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakonsson, Stine Jessen

    2012-01-01

    The internationalization of innovation in the food industry is becoming increasingly oriented towards emerging markets. Innovative lead firms express a need for ‘tapping into knowledge’ by collaborating with research facilities, customers and suppliers in these new locations. European firms...... experience a push towards market expansion and knowledge generation directed at emerging markets. This results in new network constructs: global innovation networks. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it identifies and outlines the determining factors behind the internationalization of innovation due...... to the need to access new markets and knowledge. This unfolds through strategies of exploitation and exploration. Second, it investigates the extent to which these strategies connect to position in the value chain and factors in the host economy. In this, the potential impact at the receiving end...

  18. Mathematical modelling of thermal storage systems for the food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A.; Lacarra, G. [Universidad Publica de Navarra Campus Arrosadia, Pamplona (Spain). Area de Tecnologia de Alimentos

    1999-07-01

    Dynamic mathematical models of two thermal storage systems used in the food industry to produce chilled water are presented; an ice-bank system and a holding tank system. The variability of the refrigeration demand with time was taken into account in the model. A zoned approach using mass and energy balances was applied. Heat transfer phenomena in the evaporator were modelled using empirical correlations. The experimental validation of the mathematical models on an ice-bank system at pilot plant scale, and a centralized refrigeration system with a holding tank in a winery, showed accurate prediction. Simple models are adequate to predict the dynamic behaviour of these refrigeration systems under variable heat loads. (Author)

  19. Notes on sample preparation of food: food of plant and animal origins, and daily meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilgeist, M.

    1992-01-01

    The procedure of food sample preparation to determine their specific radioactivity, analogous to chemical residue analysis, is laid down in the relevant sets of regulations. Several procedural steps of sample preparation of single food and composite food are dealt with. The sample size necessary for gamma spectroscopy and Sr-89/Sr-90 analysis, and the incineration step to enrich radionuclides are explained. Finally, enrichment by freeze drying of the high-volatile radionuclide I-131 is considered. (orig.) [de

  20. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert; López-Expósito, Iván; Bouchaud, Grégory; Blanchard, Carine; Bodinier, Marie; Smit, Joost; Pieters, Raymond; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; de Wit, Nicole; Untersmayr, Eva; Adel-Patient, Karine; Knippels, Leon; Epstein, Michelle M; Noti, Mario; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Kimber, Ian; Verhoeckx, Kitty; O'Mahony, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem of increasing concern. The insufficiency of protein sources for human nutrition in a world with a growing population is also a significant problem. The introduction of new protein sources into the diet, such as newly developed innovative foods or foods produced using new technologies and production processes, insects, algae, duckweed, or agricultural products from third countries, creates the opportunity for development of new food allergies, and this in turn has driven the need to develop test methods capable of characterizing the allergenic potential of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant controls and endpoints measured.

  1. Salmonella contamination: a significant challenge to the global marketing of animal food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Plym, Forshell; Wierup, M

    2006-08-01

    Salmonellosis is the most common food-borne bacterial disease in the world. Salmonella is a significant pathogen for food-producing animals and these animals are the primary source of salmonellosis. It is estimated that herd prevalence varies between 0% and 90%, depending on the animal species and region. The pathogen is spread by trade in animals and non-heated animal food products. The emergence of strains that are resistant to antimicrobials, often as a result of antimicrobial usage in animals, is a public health hazard of great concern. It is increasingly accepted that the prevalence of Salmonella in animal production must be decreased and, in the European Union, plans to achieve this are currently being implemented. In this paper, the authors propose various risk mitigation strategies. Successful control must focus on a range of preventive actions because there is no simple 'silver bullet' solution to reduce Salmonella contamination. The authors conclude that the key to controlling Salmonella is to follow the general rules that have been successfully applied to other infectious diseases.

  2. 78 FR 20326 - Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 100.250 Food Facility Registration-Human and Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... before it begins work on the final version of the CPG, submit either electronic or written comments on... reasonable probability of causing serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals, FDA may... registration. The draft CPG also contains information that may be useful for the regulated industry and to the...

  3. Conversion of industrial food wastes by Alcaligenes latus into polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, P H; Chua, H; Huang, A L; Ho, K P

    1999-01-01

    Broader usage of biodegradable plastics in packaging and disposable products as a solution to environmental problems would heavily depend on further reduction of costs and the discovery of novel biodegradable plastics with improved properties. As the first step in our pursuit of eventual usage of industrial food wastewater as nutrients for microorganisms to synthesise environmental-friendly bioplastics, we investigated the usage of soya wastes from a soya milk dairy, and malt wastes from a beer brewery plant as the carbon sources for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by selected strain of microorganism. Bench experiments showed that Alcaligenes latus DSM 1124 used the nutrients from malt and soya wastes to biosynthesise PHAs. The final dried cell mass and specific polymer production of A. latus DSM 1124 were 32g/L and 70% polymer/cells (g/g), 18.42 g/L and 32.57% polymer/cell (g/g), and 28 g/L and 36% polymer/cells (g/g), from malt waste, soya waste, and from sucrose, respectively. These results suggest that many types of food wastes might be used as the carbon source for the production of PHA.

  4. Absenteeism following a workplace intervention for older food industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siukola, A; Virtanen, P; Huhtala, H; Nygård, C-H

    2011-12-01

    The effects of workplace interventions on sickness absence are poorly understood, in particular in ageing workers. To analyse the effects of a senior programme on sickness absence among blue-collar food industry workers of a food company in Finland. We followed up 129 employees aged 55 years or older, who participated in a senior programme (intervention group), and 229 employees of the same age from the same company who did not participate (control group). Total sickness absence days and spells of 1-3, 4-7, 8-21 and >21 days were recorded for the members of the intervention group from the year before joining the programme and for the control group starting at age 54 years. Both groups were followed for up to 6 years. The median number of sickness absence days per person-year increased significantly from baseline in both groups during the follow-up. Compared with the control group, the intervention group had increased risk for 1-3 days spells [rate ratio 1.34 (1.21-1.48)] and 4-7 days spells [rate ratio 1.23 (1.07-1.41)], but the risk for >21 days spells was decreased [rate ratio 0.68 (0.53-0.88)] after participation in the senior programme. A programme to enhance individual work well-being in ageing workers may increase short-term but reduce long-term sickness absence.

  5. The structural changes of the food industry in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajderllari, Luljeta; Karantininis, Konstantinos

    This paper studies the structural changes of food industry in the EU-27. We first provide a detailed description of the relative importance of the various sectors in the food industry. The structure is studied by calculating Gini coefficients for the EU members with regard to food industry. We find...... that the food industry is one of the most important components of the manufacturing sectors in terms of turnover and employment. Enterprises in the EU are relatively large in terms of turnover but small in the number of enterprises with the dairy and meat sectors being the most important branches of the food...... industry regarding the share of turnover, employment and enterprises. During the eight years 2000-2007, the Gini coefficient of the food industry in the EU is very close to 1, indicating a high degree of concentration....

  6. The Ideal Criteria of Supplier Selection for SMEs Food Processing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlan Rohaizan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection of good supplier is important to determine the performance and profitability of SMEs food processing industry. The lack of managerial capability on supplier selection in SMEs food processing industry affects the competitiveness of SMEs food processing industry. This research aims to determine the ideal criteria of supplier for food processing industry using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The research was carried out in a quantitative method by distributing questionnaires to 50 SMEs food processing industries. The collected data analysed using Expert Choice software to rank the supplier selection criteria. The result shows that criteria for supplier selection are ranked by cost, quality, service, delivery and management and organisation while purchase cost, audit result, defect analysis, transportation cost and fast responsiveness are the first five sub-criteria. The result of this research intends to improve managerial capabilities of SMEs food processing industry in supplier selection.

  7. Antibiotic resistance of staphylococci from humans, food and different animal species according to data of the Hungarian resistance monitoring system in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszanyitzky, Eva J; Jánosi, Sz; Egyed, Zsuzsanna; Agost, Gizella; Semjén, G

    2003-01-01

    Based on data of the Hungarian resistance monitoring system the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus strains of human and animal origin was studied. No methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbouring mecA gene were isolated from animals in 2001. Penicillin resistance, mediated by penicillinase production, was the most frequent among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from humans (96%), from bovine mastitis (55%), from foods (45%) and from dogs. In staphylococci isolated from animals low resistance percentages to aminoglycosides (0-2%), fluoroquinolones (0.5-3%) and sulphonamides (0.5-4%) were found but in strains isolated humans these figures were higher (1-14%, 5-18% and 3-31%, respectively). The most frequent antibiotic resistance profiles of strains isolated from animals and food were penicillin/tetracycline, penicillin/lincomycin and penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline. Penicillin/tetracycline resistance was exhibited by strains from mastitis (3), samples from the meat industry (31), poultry flocks (1), poultry industry (1), noodle (1) and horses (2). Penicillin/lincomycin resistance was found in 10 Staphylococcus strains from mastitis, 1 from the dairy industry, 1 from the meat industry and 6 from dogs. Isolates from mastitis (2), from the dairy industry (2), from pigs (1), from the meat industry (1) and from poultry (1) harboured penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline resistance pattern. Multiresistant strains were usually isolated only from one and sometimes from two animal species; therefore, the spread of defined resistant strains (clones) among different animal species could not be demonstrated. These results also suggest that the transfer of antibiotic resistance of S. aureus from animals to humans probably occurs less frequently than is generally assumed.

  8. FOOD INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF THE FOOD SECURITY OF REGIONS OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Mykolaichuk

    2017-12-01

    nutrition is one of the prerequisites for increasing the life expectancy of the population. The development of the production of these goods positively affects the economy, because it provides employment, rapid cash flow, and budget filling. However, food consumption is limited by physiological needs. Therefore, the potential capacity of the food market depends on the demographic structure, population size, and rational consumption standards. According to the results of the study, excessive consumption of bread and potatoes by Ukrainian people and too little consumed meat and dairy products, fruits are detected. During the years of Ukraine’s independence, the share of livestock farming in agricultural complexes of regions has significantly decreased. In plant growing, there are also structural changes in the direction of reducing the forage base and increasing crop areas under technical crops that deplete the land. These changes threaten the irreversible loss of soil fertility. Therefore, governmental stimulation is required not only for the revival of livestock but also for the rational use of sown areas. Practical implications. The results of a comparative assessment of the potential capacity of regional food markets with the current state of satisfaction of the population’s needs will reveal the necessary directions for the development of the food industry and agriculture of the regions. Value/originality. A systematic approach to the formation of plans for the development of the food industry that meets the requirements of food security and the corresponding changes in the ratio of livestock and crop production, the structure of crop areas is proposed. This approach has not only a scientific novelty but also contributes to increasing the positive impact of the food industry on the sustainable development of both individual regions and the country as a whole.

  9. 76 FR 43689 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Mobile Medical Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0530] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Mobile Medical Applications; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  10. 78 FR 21128 - Molecular Diagnostic Instruments With Combined Functions; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0258] Molecular Diagnostic Instruments With Combined Functions; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food...

  11. 78 FR 41069 - Medical Device Reporting for Manufacturers; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0743] Medical Device Reporting for Manufacturers; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  12. 78 FR 15370 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Recommendations for Labeling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0168] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Recommendations for Labeling Medical...; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  13. 76 FR 6477 - Industry Exchange Workshop on Food and Drug Administration Drug and Device Requirements; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Industry Exchange Workshop on Food and Drug Administration Drug and Device Requirements; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  14. Applications of aerospace technology in industry. A technology transfer profile: Food technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Food processing and preservation technologies are reviewed, expected technological advances are considered including processing and market factors. NASA contributions to food technology and nutrition are presented with examples of transfer from NASA to industry.

  15. Food industry firms' economic incentives to provide nutritional information to the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ronit, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Information asymmetries between producers and consumers exist with respect to nutritional characteristics of foods and beverages. This paper aims to analyze firms’ methods to supply nutritional information, focusing on three specific food industries: breakfast cereals, snacks and soft drinks...

  16. Canine Food Preference Assessment of Animal and Vegetable Ingredient-Based Diets Using Single-Pan Tests and Behavioral Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan C. Callon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of canine food selection is critical for both the pet food industry and dog owners, since owners want quality foods that are palatable, while fulfilling their pet’s nutritional requirements. There are two common methods for assessing canine food preference: the two-pan test and the one-pan test. Neither test fully accounts for the complexity of the canine feeding experience nor do they provide applicable representations of canine feeding behavior in the home. The objectives of this study were to (1 determine whether dogs display a preference for animal ingredient-based diets when compared with vegetable ingredient-based diets and (2 examine whether dogs experience neophobia when presented with a novel diet. Eight adult Beagles (average age = 24 months, weighing 8–12 kg were individually fed each of four novel diets in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design, with 10-d treatment periods and four dietary treatments. Data were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures and significance was declared when p < 0.05. The diets were: animal and vegetable ingredient-based diets, and animal- and vegetable-based ingredients diluted with anhydrous α-d-glucose. The diluted diets were used for a larger study to determine true mineral digestibility. Dogs were fed twice per day (0800 and 1300 h. Behavioral observations were made by video on the first, and last 2 days of each 10-day treatment period of both a.m. and p.m. feedings. Time to consume feed, distraction, hesitation, level of anticipation pre-consumption, and interest post-consumption were recorded. Dogs experienced initial disruptive (neophobic effects of a novel diet. Neophobia was demonstrated by a decreased (slower rate of consumption, increased distraction during consumption of the diet, and increased hesitation on the first day of each new diet (p < 0.05. The level of interest post-consumption was highest when dogs consumed the animal

  17. Influencing Factors of Catering and Food Service Industry Based on Principal Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zi Tang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific analysis of influencing factors is of great importance for the healthy development of catering and food service industry. This study attempts to present a set of critical indicators for evaluating the contribution of influencing factors to catering and food service industry in the particular context of Harbin City, Northeast China. Ten indicators that correlate closely with catering and food service industry were identified and performed by the principal component analysis method u...

  18. Measurement of Conjectural Variations Elasticity in an Oligopoly Structure (Using Iwata Approach for Iranians Food and Beverage Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nabishahyakitash

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate Conjectural Variations elasticity in Iranians Food and Beverage industry using Iwata approach, The conjectural variation function is extracted from demand and supply information also optimization process on producers’ behavior. The experimental estimates of conjectural variation elasticities were obtained based on price elasticity of demand, cost elasticity and marginal cost elasticity for the selected industries. In this research demand function AIDS was used to obtain the price elasticity. The AIDS function was estimated using SUR and the demand price elasticity is calculated by calfent. The results show that "Vegetable oils and animal" industry with 19.37 have the most conjectural variation elasticity among the selected industries (The more divergent the conjectural variation elasticity is from zero the more likely the monopoly exists. In addition, dairy, sugar and malt industries have the most conjectural variation elasticity with 18.01, 17.18, and 10.51 respectively.

  19. 75 FR 59268 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Acidified Foods; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, belong to a separate category that is not relevant to the... the draft guidance, processors of non-acidified foods (e.g., some acid foods or fermented foods) who... regulations. Under the draft guidance, processors of acid foods and fermented foods who conclude that such...

  20. Non-animal approaches for toxicokinetics in risk evaluations of food chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Ans; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to review the availability and predictive value of non-animal toxicokinetic approaches and to evaluate their current use in European risk evaluations of food contaminants, additives and food contact materials, as well as pesticides and medicines. Results revealed little use of quantitative animal or human kinetic data in risk evaluations of food chemicals, compared with pesticides and medicines. Risk evaluations of medicines provided sufficient in vivo kinetic data from different species to evaluate the predictive value of animal kinetic data for humans. These data showed a relatively poor correlation between the in vivo bioavailability in rats and dogs versus that in humans. In contrast, in vitro (human) kinetic data have been demonstrated to provide adequate predictions of the fate of compounds in humans, using appropriate in vitro-in vivo scalers and by integration of in vitro kinetic data with in silico kinetic modelling. Even though in vitro kinetic data were found to be occasionally included within risk evaluations of food chemicals, particularly results from Caco-2 absorption experiments and in vitro data on gut-microbial conversions, only minor use of in vitro methods for metabolism and quantitative in vitro-in vivo extrapolation methods was identified. Yet, such quantitative predictions are essential in the development of alternatives to animal testing as well as to increase human relevance of toxicological risk evaluations. Future research should aim at further improving and validating quantitative alternative methods for kinetics, thereby increasing regulatory acceptance of non-animal kinetic data.

  1. Palm oil - towards a sustainable future? : Challanges and opportunites for the Swedish food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The food industry faces problems relating to the sustainability of palm oil as a food commodity. These problem areas include social, environmental, economic and health issues. The food industry also competes with increasing palm oil demands from the energy sector. This case study identifies and analyzes different perspectives regarding sustainable palm oil as a food commodity in Sweden through interviews with palm oil experts in different businesses and organizations. This study focuses on ho...

  2. Antibiotic resistance--consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Björn; Greko, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics.

  3. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines..., blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; requirements for unrestricted entry. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal materials intended for use in...

  4. 9 CFR 95.16 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal...

  5. MANAGEMENT OF QUALITY AND SAFETY OF FOOD PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryana Yonkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria is famous not only in Europe but throughout the world, except for its rich natural and cultural heritage, but also traditional dairy products (yogurt and cheese - cow, sheep, buffalo and goats; yellow cheese, honey and bee products, rose oil. To be competitive on national and international markets, food production must meet the requirements for quality assurance and food safety. The article presents the key economic indicators and threats related to quality management and safety of food products of animal origin in relation to the conservation of components of the environment and human health.

  6. Regulatory and biosafety issues in relation to transgenic animals in food and agriculture, feeds containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) and veterinary biologics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochhar, H.P.S.; Gifford, G.A.; Kahn, S.

    2005-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. To regulate this new and powerful technology predicated on limited background information is a challenge not only for the regulators, but also for the developers of such animals, who strive to prove that the animals are safe and merit bio-equivalency to their conventional counterparts. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those assessed of posing an unacceptable risk. Adoption of transgenic technology for use in agriculture will depend upon various factors that range from perceived benefits for humans and animals, to safe propagation, animal welfare considerations and integrity of species, as well as effects on bio-diversity. A regulatory framework designed to address the concerns connected with the environmental release of transgenic animals needs to also take into account the ability of genetically modified animals to survive and compete with conventional populations. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should ensure high standards for human and animal health; a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement; and maintenance of genetic diversity. Feeds obtained by use of biotechnology have to be evaluated for animal and human safety by using parameters that define their molecular characterization, nutritional qualities and toxicological aspects, while veterinary biologics derived from

  7. Use of a bacteriophage cocktail to control Salmonella in food and the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spricigo, Denis Augusto; Bardina, Carlota; Cortés, Pilar; Llagostera, Montserrat

    2013-07-15

    The use of lytic bacteriophages for the biocontrol of food-borne pathogens in food and in the food industry is gaining increasing acceptance. In this study, the effectiveness of a bacteriophage cocktail composed of three different lytic bacteriophages (UAB_Phi 20, UAB_Phi78, and UAB_Phi87) was determined in four different food matrices (pig skin, chicken breasts, fresh eggs, and packaged lettuce) experimentally contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. A significant bacterial reduction (>4 and 2 log/cm(2) for S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, respectively; p≤0.005) was obtained in pig skin sprayed with the bacteriophage cocktail and then incubated at 33 °C for 6h. Significant decreases in the concentration of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis were also measured in chicken breasts dipped for 5 min in a solution containing the bacteriophage cocktail and then refrigerated at 4 °C for 7 days (2.2 and 0.9 log10 cfu/g, respectively; p≤0.0001) as well as in lettuce similarly treated for 60 min at room temperature (3.9 and 2.2 log10 cfu/g, respectively; p≤0.005). However, only a minor reduction of the bacterial concentration (0.9 log10 cfu/cm(2) of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium; p≤0.005) was achieved in fresh eggs sprayed with the bacteriophage cocktail and then incubated at 25 °C for 2 h. These results show the potential effectiveness of this bacteriophage cocktail as a biocontrol agent of Salmonella in several food matrices under conditions similar to those used in their production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of Information Sharing Mechanism in the Food Industry Green Supply Chain Management and Operation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively address the issues of environmental pollution and food safety in food industry,the green supply chain management should be used in the food industry.However,information sharing is the basis of supply chain management.For this purpose,on the basis of describing the connotation of food industry green supply chain management,the paper introduces the contents and the effects of information sharing mode in detail.It focuses on the barriers of the implementation of information-sharing mechanisms in the food industry green supply chain management and operation process and analyzes the necessity of using information sharing mechanism among the members of the food industry green supply chain management mode by game theory,so as to strengthen the competitiveness of enterprises through supply chain management.

  9. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  10. Multi-mycotoxin analysis of animal feed and animal-derived food using LC-MS/MS system with timed and highly selective reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Liu, Na; Yang, Lingchen; Deng, Yifeng; Wang, Jianhua; Song, Suquan; Lin, Shanhai; Wu, Aibo; Zhou, Zhenlei; Hou, Jiafa

    2015-09-01

    Mycotoxins have the potential to enter the human food chain through carry-over of contaminants from feed into animal-derived products. The objective of the study was to develop a reliable and sensitive method for the analysis of 30 mycotoxins in animal feed and animal-derived food (meat, edible animal tissues, and milk) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the study, three extraction procedures, as well as various cleanup procedures, were evaluated to select the most suitable sample preparation procedure for different sample matrices. In addition, timed and highly selective reaction monitoring on LC-MS/MS was used to filter out isobaric matrix interferences. The performance characteristics (linearity, sensitivity, recovery, precision, and specificity) of the method were determined according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and 401/2006/EC. The established method was successfully applied to screening of mycotoxins in animal feed and animal-derived food. The results indicated that mycotoxin contamination in feed directly influenced the presence of mycotoxin in animal-derived food. Graphical abstract Multi-mycotoxin analysis of animal feed and animal-derived food using LC-MS/MS.

  11. Microbial transglutaminase and its application in the food industry. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieliszek, Marek; Misiewicz, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The extremely high costs of manufacturing transglutaminase from animal origin (EC 2.3.2.13) have prompted scientists to search for new sources of this enzyme. Interdisciplinary efforts have been aimed at producing enzymes synthesised by microorganisms which may have a wider scope of use. Transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyses the formation of isopeptide bonds between proteins. Its cross-linking property is widely used in various processes: to manufacture cheese and other dairy products, in meat processing, to produce edible films and to manufacture bakery products. Transglutaminase has considerable potential to improve the firmness, viscosity, elasticity and water-binding capacity of food products. In 1989, microbial transglutaminase was isolated from Streptoverticillium sp. Its characterisation indicated that this isoform could be extremely useful as a biotechnological tool in the food industry. Currently, enzymatic preparations are used in almost all industrial branches because of their wide variety and low costs associated with their biotechnical production processes. This paper presents an overview of the literature addressing the characteristics and applications of transglutaminase.

  12. A summary index for antimicrobial resistance in food animals in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, Arie H; Graveland, Haitske; van de Kassteele, Jan; Zomer, Tizza P; Veldman, Kees; Bouwknegt, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    The Dutch government has set targets for reduction of antimicrobial usage in food animals, stipulating a 50% reduction in usage (on a weight basis) in 2013 as compared to 2009 and a 70% decrease in 2015. A monitoring program has been instituted to evaluate the impact on antimicrobial resistance

  13. Radioactive contamination of foods from fallout as a source of error in some animal experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, C G

    1957-01-01

    Radioactivity in control animals since 1956 has increased so as to vitiate experiments. The activity of foods used was measured. The counts are given for rat cubes, milk, peas, sugar, flour, cabbage, carrot, cauliflower, salt, semolina, and water. The high count of the cabbage is probably from /sup 137/Cs present as 4 micromicrocuries/g.

  14. Esterilização de farinha de subprodutos animais em esterilizador industrial Industrial sterilization of animal meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Antônio Mazutti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As farinhas de subprodutos animais se apresentam como uma fonte praticamente completa da maioria dos aminoácidos requeridos para uma alimentação equilibrada. Estas farinhas são amplamente usadas para corrigir as deficiências nutricionais, que ocorrem em outras matérias-primas para rações, como os farelos de origem vegetal. No entanto, constituem um ambiente favorável à proliferação de microrganismos, tanto durante o processamento quanto na estocagem. A Portaria SARC 002 de 13/02/2003 no Anexo I da Instrução Normativa Número 15 do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento propõe que a etapa de esterilização das farinhas poderá ser realizada antes do processo de cocção dos subprodutos ou na própria farinha, contanto que seja empregado vapor saturado direto a uma temperatura mínima de 133 °C por um tempo mínimo de 20 minutos. Industrialmente, o que se deseja é obter um produto final com padrões higiênicos sanitários aceitáveis, com teor proteico o mais alto possível. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar diferentes estratégias de processamento da farinha de subprodutos de indústria de aves, observando aquela mais eficiente para a esterilização: se no subproduto antes da digestão ou se na própria farinha. Foram realizados testes em escala piloto com capacidade para 150 kg e em escala industrial com capacidade de 3.000 kg. O processo de esterilização em escala industrial apresentou um melhor desempenho comparado com o processo piloto. O teor de proteína aumentou em todos os testes e a digestibilidade final da farinha foi de aproximadamente 92%, o que eleva seu valor de mercado. Com relação à eliminação de microrganismos, o processo industrial foi eficiente, uma vez que não foi verificada contagem em nenhum dos três testes realizados.Animal meal obtained from animal offal offers a fairly complete source of most of the aminoacids required for a balanced animal diet. These

  15. Thawing and storage system for frozen food in the food service industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komada, Hitoshi; Tamura, Toshiyuki

    1988-02-01

    Thawing and storage system for frozen food in the food service industries was studied. The air flowing system was adequate for thawing owing to the convenience and quality retaining. Thawing time could not be reduced at 98% humidity and over 5/sup 0/C, even if the thawing temperature was elevated, and was lengthened at 5/sup 0/C or less. Further the thawing time could not be reduced by increasing the flowing speed at 1m/s or more. When the humidity was 65%, the thawing time was lengthened by 15%. The free drip was increased linearly with the increase of thawing temperature, so that a little higher thawing temperature than the frozen one was preferable. After the completion of thawing, the food was cooled suddenly in the pressing process to uniform the thawing and prevent the surface drip. Considering the structure decomposition and change, the storage temperature of -1/sup 0/C and the variation of +0.5/sup 0/C were desirable. The newly developed high humidity thawing cabinet resulted the better recovery of cell structure, less dripping amount and high quality thawing. A Super Chiller employing an inverter compressor resulted lower temperature variation and was effective for beef curing. (25 figs, 7 tabs, 4 refs)

  16. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. The recent accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment from the Chernobyl accident, demonstrated the need for veterinary, ecological, physical and medical sciences to be prepared to respond to an incident in order to protect the environment, food chain, other agricultural assets and humans from the adverse effects of radionuclides. Several presentations suggested that even with the best technologies, national and regional commitment, and relatively unrestricted resource levels, nuclear incidents can cross international boundaries and can contaminate the environment to the extent that the integrity of various food and water supplies can be at risk. Speakers and subsequent discussers tended to concentrate on the issues associated with lessening future environmental impacts if similar types of incidents should occur again.

  17. Hydrothermal treatment for inactivating some hygienic microbial indicators from food waste-amended animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Li, Huan

    2012-07-01

    To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TPC), and molds and yeast (MY) were analyzed during the hydrothermal process. Results showed that indicators' concentrations were substantially reduced after hydrothermal treatment, with a greater reduction observed when the waste was treated with a higher temperature and pressure and a longer ramping time. The 110 degrees C hydrothermal treatment for 60 min was sufficient to disinfect food waste as animal feed from the viewpoint of hygienic safety. Results obtained so far indicate that hydrothermal treatment can significantly decrease microbial indicators' concentrations but does not lead to complete sterilization, because MY survived even after 60 min treatment at 110 degrees C. The information from the present study will contribute to the microbial risk control of food waste-amended animal feed, to cope with legislation on food or feed safety.

  18. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. The recent accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment from the Chernobyl accident, demonstrated the need for veterinary, ecological, physical and medical sciences to be prepared to respond to an incident in order to protect the environment, food chain, other agricultural assets and humans from the adverse effects of radionuclides. Several presentations suggested that even with the best technologies, national and regional commitment, and relatively unrestricted resource levels, nuclear incidents can cross international boundaries and can contaminate the environment to the extent that the integrity of various food and water supplies can be at risk. Speakers and subsequent discussers tended to concentrate on the issues associated with lessening future environmental impacts if similar types of incidents should occur again

  19. Eating frequency, food intake, and weight: a systematic review of human and animal experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie eRaynor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating frequently during the day, or grazing, has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism, aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1 to 24 eating occasions per day, lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks, and sample sizes (3 to 56 participants/animals per condition. Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: 1 human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; 2 human studies conducted in field settings; 3 animal studies with experimental periods 1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5% found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7% finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.

  20. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    . This primarily results from the fact that defined single substances can be dosed to laboratory animals at very large multiples of the expected human exposure, thus giving a large margin of safety. In contrast foodstuffs are bulky, lead to satiation and can only be included in the diet at much lower multiples of expected human intakes. When testing whole foods, the possible highest concentration of the GM food and feed in the laboratory animal diet may be limited because of nutritional imbalance of the diet, or by the presence of compounds with a known toxicological profile. The aim of the 90-days rodent feeding study with the whole GM food and feed is to assess potential unintended effects of toxicological and/or nutritional relevance and to establish whether the GM food and feed is as safe and nutritious as its traditional comparator rather than determining qualitative and quantitative intrinsic toxicity of defined food constituents. The design of the study should be adapted from the OECD 90-day rodent toxicity study. The precise study design has to take into account the nature of the food and feed and the characteristics of the new trait(s) and their intended role in the GM food and feed. A 90-day animal feeding trial has a large capacity (sensitivity and specificity) to detect potential toxicological effects of single well defined compounds. This can be concluded from data reported on the toxicology of a wide range of industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, food substances, environmental, and agricultural chemicals. It is possible to model the sensitivity of the rat subchronic feeding study for the detection of hypothetically increased amount of compounds such as anti-nutrients, toxicants or secondary metabolites. With respect to the detection of potential unintended effects in whole GM food and feed, it is unlikely that substances present in small amounts and with a low toxic potential will result in any observable (unintended) effects in a 90-day rodent feeding

  1. Legal, administrative and psychological barriers against industrial application of food irradiation and the trade in irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, J.C.

    1977-11-01

    In the author's view, the legal and administrative barrier against industrial application of food irradiation and trading can be described as follows: even if public health authorities in each country concerned, are convinced by the scientific evidence that the food irradiation process is acceptable, they will only be willing to accept irradiated food exported from another country if they are assured that irradiation has been performed in an approved and acceptable manner. The psychological barrier which is more complex consists of three interconnected factors: attitude of the public towards irradiated food, confidence of national authorities in the capability of food processors, the lack of cooperation between government Agencies. (NEA) [fr

  2. Food industrial wastewater reuse by membrane bio-reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patthanant Natpinit

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to study the possibility and performance of treating food industrial wastewater by Membrane BioReactor (MBR. In addition, the effluent of MBR was treated by Reverse Osmosis system (RO to reuse in boiler or cooling tower. The membranes of hollow fiber type were filled in the aerobic tank with aerobe bacteria. The total area of membrane 6 units was 630 m2 so the flux of the operation was 0.25 m/d or 150 m3/d. The spiral wound RO was operated at 100 m3/d of influent and received 72 m3/d of permeate. The sludge volume (MLSS of MBR was maintained at 8,000-10,000 mg/l. The average COD and SS of MBR influent were 600 mg/l and 300 mg/l respectively. After treating by MBR, COD and SS of effluent were maintained at less than 100 mg/l and less than 10 mg/l respectively. In the same way, COD and SS of RO permeate were less than 10 mg/l and less than 5 mg/l respectively.

  3. Evolutionary distance from human homologs reflects allergenicity of animal food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, John A; Breiteneder, Heimo; Mills, E N Clare

    2007-12-01

    In silico analysis of allergens can identify putative relationships among protein sequence, structure, and allergenic properties. Such systematic analysis reveals that most plant food allergens belong to a restricted number of protein superfamilies, with pollen allergens behaving similarly. We have investigated the structural relationships of animal food allergens and their evolutionary relatedness to human homologs to define how closely a protein must resemble a human counterpart to lose its allergenic potential. Profile-based sequence homology methods were used to classify animal food allergens into Pfam families, and in silico analyses of their evolutionary and structural relationships were performed. Animal food allergens could be classified into 3 main families--tropomyosins, EF-hand proteins, and caseins--along with 14 minor families each composed of 1 to 3 allergens. The evolutionary relationships of each of these allergen superfamilies showed that in general, proteins with a sequence identity to a human homolog above approximately 62% were rarely allergenic. Single substitutions in otherwise highly conserved regions containing IgE epitopes in EF-hand parvalbumins may modulate allergenicity. These data support the premise that certain protein structures are more allergenic than others. Contrasting with plant food allergens, animal allergens, such as the highly conserved tropomyosins, challenge the capability of the human immune system to discriminate between foreign and self-proteins. Such immune responses run close to becoming autoimmune responses. Exploiting the closeness between animal allergens and their human homologs in the development of recombinant allergens for immunotherapy will need to consider the potential for developing unanticipated autoimmune responses.

  4. World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on use of medically important antimicrobials in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidara-Kane, Awa; Angulo, Frederick J; Conly, John M; Minato, Yuki; Silbergeld, Ellen K; McEwen, Scott A; Collignon, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in food-producing animals selects for antimicrobial resistance that can be transmitted to humans via food or other transmission routes. The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2005 ranked the medical importance of antimicrobials used in humans. In late 2017, to preserve the effectiveness of medically important antimicrobials for humans, WHO released guidelines on use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals that incorporated the latest WHO rankings. WHO commissioned systematic reviews and literature reviews, and convened a Guideline Development Group (GDG) of external experts free of unacceptable conflicts-of-interest. The GDG assessed the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, and formulated recommendations using a structured evidence-to-decision approach that considered the balance of benefits and harms, feasibility, resource implications, and impact on equity. The resulting guidelines were peer-reviewed by an independent External Review Group and approved by the WHO Guidelines Review Committee. These guidelines recommend reductions in the overall use of medically important antimicrobials in food-producing animals, including complete restriction of use of antimicrobials for growth promotion and for disease prevention (i.e., in healthy animals considered at risk of infection). These guidelines also recommend that antimicrobials identified as critically important for humans not be used in food-producing animals for treatment or disease control unless susceptibility testing demonstrates the drug to be the only treatment option. To preserve the effectiveness of medically important antimicrobials, veterinarians, farmers, regulatory agencies, and all other stakeholders are urged to adopt these recommendations and work towards implementation of these guidelines.

  5. Lipase catalyzed ester synthesis for food processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravindan Rajendran

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are one of the most important industrial biocatalyst which catalyzes the hydrolysis of lipids. It can also reverse the reaction at minimum water activity. Because of this pliable nature, it is widely exploited to catalyze the diverse bioconversion reactions, such as hydrolysis, esterification, interesterification, alcoholysis, acidolysis and aminolysis. The property to synthesize the esters from the fatty acids and glycerol promotes its use in various ester synthesis. The esters synthesized by lipase finds applications in numerous fields such as biodiesel production, resolution of the recemic drugs, fat and lipid modification, flavour synthesis, synthesis of enantiopure pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. It plays a crucial role in the food processing industries since the process is unaffected by the unwanted side products. Lipase modifications such as the surfactant coating, molecular imprinting to suit for the non-aqueous ester synthesis have also been reported. This review deals with lipase catalyzed ester synthesis, esterification strategies, optimum conditions and their applications in food processing industries.Lipases são catalizadores industriais dos mais importantes, os quais catalizam a hidrólise de lipídeos. Também podem reverter a reação a um mínimo de atividade de água. Devido sua natureza flexível, é amplamente explorada para catalizar uma diversidade de reações de bioconversão como hidrólise, esterificação, interesterificação, alcoólise, acidólise e aminólise. A propriedade de síntese de esteres a partir de ácidos graxos e glicerol promoveu seu uso em várias sínteses de esteres. Os esteres sintetizados por lipases encontram aplicação em numerosos campos como a produção de biodiesel, resolução de drogas racêmicas, modificação de gorduras e lipídios, sintese de aromas, síntese de produtos farmacêuticos enantiopuro e nutracêuticos. As lipases possuem um papel crucial nas indústrias de

  6. The role of the food industry in health: lessons from tobacco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capewell, Simon; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion

    2018-03-01

    In this review, we highlight poor diet as the biggest risk factor for non-communicable diseases. We examine the denial tactics used by the food industry, how they reflect the tactics previously used by the tobacco industry, and how campaigners can use this knowledge to achieve future public health successes. Data sources are wide ranging, notably publications relating to public health, obesity and processed food, the effectiveness hierarchy and food industry denialism tactics. Global burden of disease analyses consistently demonstrate that poor diet produces a bigger burden of non-communicable disease than tobacco, alcohol and inactivity put together. The lessons learnt from the tobacco control experience of successfully fighting the tobacco industry can be applied to other industries including processed food and sugary drinks. Tackling obesity and poor diet is a more complex issue than tobacco. Food industries continue to promote weak or ineffective policies such as voluntary reformulation, and resist regulation and taxation. However, the UK food industry now faces increasing pressure from professionals, public and politicians to accept reformulation and taxes, or face more stringent measures. The rise in childhood and adult obesity needs to be arrested and then reversed. Unhealthy processed food and sugary drinks are a major contributing factor. There is increasing interest in the tactics being used by the food industry to resist change. Advocacy and activism will be essential to counter these denialism tactics and ensure that scientific evidence is translated into effective regulation and taxation.

  7. Cross-industry Collaborations in the Convergence Area of Functional Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Broring, Stefanie; Omta, S.W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Convergence processes are based on the activity of distinct industry sectors showing crossindustry
    collaborations. The aim of this paper is to analyze cross-industry collaborations between
    the food and pharmaceutical sectors in the convergence area of functional foods. Selected
    companies

  8. Main achievements of the World Organisation for Animal Health/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization network on animal influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hamilton, Keith; Kim, L Mia; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Capua, Ilaria; Edwards, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) joint network of expertise on animal influenza (OFFLU) includes all ten OIE/FAO reference laboratories and collaborating centers for avian influenza, other diagnostic laboratories, research and academic institutions, and experts in the fields of virology, epidemiology, vaccinology, and molecular biology. OFFLU has made significant progress in improving its infrastructure, in identifying and addressing technical gaps, and in establishing associations among leading veterinary institutions. Interaction with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Program is also critical, and mechanisms for permanent interaction are being developed. OFFLU played a key role in the WHO/OIE/FAO Joint Technical Consultation held in Verona (October 7-9, 2008), which provided an opportunity to highlight and share knowledge and identify potential gaps regarding issues at the human-animal interface for avian influenza. OFFLU experts also contributed to the working group for the Unified Nomenclature System for H5N1 influenza viruses based on hemagglutinin gene phylogeny (WHO/OIE/FAO, H5N1 Evolution Working Group, Towards a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:el, 2008). OFFLU technical activities, led by expert scientists from OIE/FAO reference institutions and coordinated by OIE and FAO focal points, have been prioritized to include commercial diagnostic kit evaluation, applied epidemiology, biosafety, vaccination, proficiency testing, development of standardized reference materials for sera and RNA, and issues at the human-animal interface. The progress to date and future plans for these groups will be presented. OFFLU is also involved in two national projects implemented by FAO in Indonesia and Egypt that seek to establish sustainable mechanisms for monitoring virus circulation, including viral

  9. PLM in the Food Industry: An Explorative Empirical Research in the Italian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Pinna , Claudia; Taisch , Marco; Terzi , Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Part 5: PLM and Innovation; International audience; The Food and Beverage (F&B) industry has a unique role in all countries’ economies because it is essential to people lives. In this paper, the focus will be on the Italian food industry, one of the main food producer. This study will present the first results of a wider research that has as main aim to understand how PLM is adopted in the food industry, its limits and its challenges. Indeed, the first results show the level of knowledge of P...

  10. Monitoring the prevalence of genetically modified maize in commercial animal feeds and food products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkec, Aydin; Lucas, Stuart J; Karlık, Elif

    2016-07-01

    EU legislation strictly controls use of genetically modified (GM) crops in food and feed products, and requires them to be labelled if the total GM content is greater than 9 g kg(-1) (for approved GM crops). We screened maize-containing food and feed products from Turkey to assess the prevalence of GM material. With this aim, 83 food and feed products - none labelled as containing GM material - were screened using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for four common GM elements (35S/NOS/bar/FMV). Of these, 18.2% of feeds and 6% of food samples tested positive for one or more of these elements, and were subjected to event-specific PCR to identify which GM organisms they contained. Most samples were negative for the approved GM events tested, suggesting that they may contain adventitious GM contaminants. One sample was shown to contain an unapproved GM event (MON810, along with GA21) at a concentration well above the statutory labelling requirement. Current legislation has restricted the penetration of GM maize into the Turkish food industry but not eliminated it, and the proliferation of different GM events is making monitoring increasingly complex. Our results indicate that labelling requirements are not being followed in some cases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Resilience in the Romanian Food Industry. Preliminary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical situations occurring in the food chain represent a cause for concern for companies, consumers and government authorities. Food product supply continuity assurance is supported by economic considerations coming from producers or food product merchants, by the increasing demand that exists on the market or by the political implications regarding food security assurance among the population. The study focuses on assessing the extent to which the food sector economic agents are prepared to face potential critical situations in the unfolding of their business activities. In Romania there haven’t been carried out any studies regarding food chain resilience regarding critical incidents and the economic impact of these incidents on the food sector. The main objective of the research was the Romanian food chain resilience assessment to critical situations, having a highly applicative character. It was based on questionnaires given to a representative sample of companies and it highlighted the food companies’ resilience to critical situations. The responding economic agents were mainly from the agro-food production, food distribution, food production and distribution, and other related domains. The research regarding food chain resilience to critical situations in Romania showed a primary character of the concept; therefore, this sector must be developed both at a strategic and operational level.

  12. Microbiological research and development for the food industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taormina, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    .... A broad range of topics is covered including the basics of setting up a food microbiology laboratory, procedures for validating the efficacy of process and product food safety controls, practices...

  13. [Techniques and possibilities of traceability of food: genotyping of the domestic animal population as an innovative contribution to food safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, G

    2004-07-01

    Traceability of meat has become a very important aspect of quality assurance of food. DNA analyses could be used for identification and verification of farm animals and animal derived products. A prerequisite is the collection of qualified samples from entire populations of production animals or from regionally or specially characterised animal populations. The expenditure for conventional carrying out collection, preservation, cataloguing, and storage would be enormous. Therefore we have developed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive method for the collection using the ear tagging process and for preservation of samples at room temperature. A similar collection technology can also be used for sampling of carcasses, meat and meat products. Isolation of DNA from these tissue samples can be preformed using a new single step technology. For identifying individuals microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms are analysed. Comparison of DNA fingerprints or SNP signatures allows to traceback samples collected from products to the animals they are coming from. If the system will be established on a nationwide basis the total costs would be less than 0.05 EUR per kilogram meat sold.

  14. Quality assurance and halal control points for the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, An Nee; Jamaludin, Mohd Hafiz; Soon, Jan Mei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose\\ud To determine the understanding of halal concept among food production workers and to develop a generic Halal Control Point (HCP) Plan for the manufacturing of processed foods.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud A mixed method (interviews, surveys and microbiological analyses) approach was used to analyze the hygiene and halal practices of four food processing plants in Penang, Malaysia. Two hundred food production workers were surveyed (and quality assurance staff were interview...

  15. Research Investments and Market Structure in the Food Processing, Agricultural Input, and Biofuel Industries Worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglie, Keith O.; Heisey, Paul W.; King, John L.; Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Schimmelpfennig, David E.; Wang, Sun Ling

    2011-01-01

    Meeting growing global demand for food, fiber, and biofuel requires robust investment in agricultural research and development (R&D) from both public and private sectors. This study examines global R&D spending by private industry in seven agricultural input sectors, food manufacturing, and biofuel and describes the changing structure of these industries. In 2007 (the latest year for which comprehensive estimates are available), the private sector spent $19.7 billion on food and agricultural ...

  16. The Instrumentarium for Providing the Competitiveness of Exports of the Food Industry Products of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Tunitska Julia M.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at analyzing the dynamics, structure, and problems of the innovation development of the food industry and substantiating the directions of its intensification as a factor in the development of a competitive exports of Ukrainian food products. The article carries out a detailed analysis of the dynamics and structure of the innovation activity of Ukrainian food industry in the period from 2007 to 2015, in particular the characteristics of its resource and innovation provisi...

  17. 75 FR 17143 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Medical Devices; Neurological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-D-0495] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Medical Devices; Neurological and Physical Medicine Device Guidance Documents; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...

  18. 76 FR 789 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Section 905(j) Reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0635] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Section 905(j) Reports: Demonstrating Substantial Equivalence for Tobacco Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...

  19. 76 FR 70151 - Draft Guidance for Industry, Clinical Investigators, Institutional Review Boards, and Food and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0790] Draft Guidance for Industry, Clinical Investigators, Institutional Review Boards, and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration Decisions for Investigational Device Exemption Clinical...

  20. 76 FR 50740 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Procedures for Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0514] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Procedures for Handling Section 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice...

  1. 78 FR 14557 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Investigational Device Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-D-0010] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff: Investigational Device Exemption Guidance for Retinal Prostheses; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  2. 75 FR 36425 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; In Vitro Diagnostic Studies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2007-D-0076] (formerly Docket No. 2007D-0387) Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; In Vitro Diagnostic Studies--Frequently Asked Questions; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...

  3. 75 FR 57963 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Establishing the Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0459] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Establishing the Performance Characteristics of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for the Detection of Helicobacter pylori; Availability AGENCY: Food...

  4. 75 FR 47603 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Recommendations for Premarket...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0395] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Recommendations for Premarket Notifications for Lamotrigine and Zonisamide Assays; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...

  5. 77 FR 74195 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Design Considerations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-1161] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Design Considerations for Devices Intended for Home Use; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  6. 75 FR 44267 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Medical Devices; Neurological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-N-0495] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Medical Devices; Neurological and Physical Medicine Device Guidance Document; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  7. Assessment of Native Languages for Food Safety Training Programs for Meat Industry Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sherrlyn S.; Cordray, Joseph C.; Sapp, Stephen; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Anderson, Barbara; Wenger, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training.…

  8. How the Food Processing Industry Is Diversifying Rural Minnesota. JSRI Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennelly, Katherine; Leitner, Helga

    The diversification of rural Minnesota is largely the result of the restructuring of the food processing industry and its recruitment of low-wage laborers. The relocation and expansion of food processing plants into rural areas of Minnesota creates a demand for low-wage labor that can not be met locally. Food processing businesses attract…

  9. Use of irradiation to assure the hygienic quality of animal origin foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna Carbajal, P. C.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation process for food preservation is a physical method comparable to heat or refrigeration and consist on the exposure of products packed or in bulk to gamma rays comming from Cobalt-60 or Cesium-137 or accelerated electrons and X rays produced by electric machines known as accelerators. Foods are exposed to this form of energy during a pre-stablished period in facilities named irradiators. At industrial level, the irradiation process requires a well stablished control to reach a good quality in the product. This quality control is carry out by means of dosimetry, a system which assures that the energy amount received by food is correct. Benefits derived of irradiation process in meat products as chicken, beef and pork as well as implications in matter of health and economics are presented in this work. Different aspects of irradiation process as a control to assure the hygienic quality, costs, different option of irradiators at industrial level, its advantages upon other processes, and its benefits at social level, are presented in this work. With respect to wholesomeness of irradiated food, main studies to strenghten that an irradiated food is safe, non toxic, do not imply microbian risks. it has the better nutritional quality, it has no radioactive remains and it is not a radioactivity inductor, in a word is an inocuous food, are presented in this study (Author)

  10. Non-human C. difficile Reservoirs and Sources: Animals, Food, Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina; Seyboldt, Christian; Rupnik, Maja

    2018-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is ubiquitous and is found in humans, animals and in variety of environments. The substantial overlap of ribotypes between all three main reservoirs suggests the extensive transmissions. Here we give the overview of European studies investigating farm, companion and wild animals, food and environments including water, soil, sediment, waste water treatment plants, biogas plants, air and households. Studies in Europe are more numerous especially in last couple of years, but are still fragmented in terms of countries, animal species or type of environment covered. Soil seem to be the habitat of divergent unusual lineages of C. difficile. But the most important aspect of animals and environment is their role in C. difficile transmissions and their potential as a source for human infection is discussed.

  11. An assessment of antimicrobial consumption in food producing animals in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitema, E.S.; Kikuvi, G.M.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2001-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are useful for control of bacterial infections in food animals and man. Their prudent use in these animals is important to control any possible development and transfer of resistance between animals and man. The objective of this study was to generate quantitative information...... to evaluate antimicrobial usage patterns by animal species, route of administration, antimicrobial class and type of use from 1995 to 1999 in Kenya. Theses data are essential for risk analysis and planning and can be helpful in interpreting resistance surveillance data, and evaluating the effectiveness...... of prudent use efforts and antimicrobial resistance mitigation strategies. Data on quantities of active substance classes were collected from the official records of the Pharmacy and Poisons Board of the Ministry of Health and analysed in MS Excel 2000 program. The mean antimicrobial consumption for the 5...

  12. Residues of carcinogenic animal drugs in food: difficulties in evaluation of human safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A

    1979-01-01

    The indisputable need to intensify animal production in order to provide an adequate food supply for the world population involves the use of substances that are highly potent pharmacologically and toxicologically. The history of regulatory action with regard to such additives is similar to that for other substances: first, no regulation; next, an over-reaction; and now decisions based on judicious evaluation of scientific facts. One factor that differentiates the chemicals used in animal production from other food additives is that both the parent compounds and their metabolites appear in edible products, posing problems both for the analytical detection and safety evaluation of such residues. It would be unrealistic to propose 'zero' tolerances for these additives, even if they are carcinogenic. The benefits gained from drugs that cure and prevent infections and parasitic diseases in food-producing animals, and the fact that analytical methods can now detect very small quantities make the presence of low levels of these substances in food unobjectionable.

  13. An Empirical Study on Marketing Effectiveness Evaluation of Green Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yazhou Xiong; Qianxia Lu; Rui Wang

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the marketing effectiveness of green food industry in Hubei Province via fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. Based on the cost basis of analysis of present situation, an evaluation system of marketing effectiveness evaluation on green food industry is established from three aspects, including the industry factor, policy factor and marketing performance factor. And fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to make the quantitative research, analyze the major obstacl...

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance in Food Animals and the Environment in Nigeria: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurudeen Olalekan Oloso

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR has emerged as a global health threat, which has elicited a high-level political declaration at the United Nations General Assembly, 2016. In response, member countries agreed to pay greater attention to the surveillance and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship. The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control called for a review of AMR in Nigeria using a “One Health approach”. As anecdotal evidence suggests that food animal health and production rely heavily on antimicrobials, it becomes imperative to understand AMR trends in food animals and the environment. We reviewed previous studies to curate data and evaluate the contributions of food animals and the environment (2000–2016 to the AMR burden in Nigeria using a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA flowchart focused on three areas: Antimicrobial resistance, residues, and antiseptics studies. Only one of the 48 antimicrobial studies did not report multidrug resistance. At least 18 bacterial spp. were found to be resistant to various locally available antimicrobials. All 16 residue studies reported high levels of drug residues either in the form of prevalence or concentration above the recommended international limit. Fourteen different “resistotypes” were found in some commonly used antiseptics. High levels of residues and AMR were found in food animals destined for the human food chain. High levels of residues and antimicrobials discharged into environments sustain the AMR pool. These had evolved into potential public health challenges that need attention. These findings constitute public health threats for Nigeria’s teeming population and require attention.

  15. Features of food industry on the Internet: A case of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Davidavičienė

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify and present the current situation of Lithuanian food industry sector in terms of online presence, use of e-marketing tools and internet strategy implementation, paying attention to food manufacturers, marketers, and food delivery (including fast food and restaurants. The following methods as comparative analysis of the scientific literature, secondary data analysis, data comparison and logical grouping, graphical representation of data, and descriptive statistics employed. For empirical study, it was decided to investigate online activities of the food industry sector of Lithuania using structured observation technique. Following assumptions were formed after study: companies of food industry are more oriented to Russia than to European market, and Baltic market is really important for this sector. It is necessary to investigate food industry sector activities and strategies in other regions, and to develop model of Internet strategy forming for food industry by online presence decisions. The originality of this work lies in studying some aspects of strategic and tactical decisions related to online presence of food industry companies of Lithuania.

  16. Proper context: Comparison studies demonstrate that United States food-animal production antimicrobial uses have minimal impact on antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States (US) it is estimated that food-animal production agriculture accounts for >70% of antimicrobial (AM) use leading to concerns that agricultural uses "substantially drive" antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Many studies report AMR in food-animal production settings without comparison...

  17. 78 FR 64428 - Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Animal Food Combinations for Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    .... FDA-2013-N-1043] Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Animal Food Combinations for... entitled ``Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Animal Food Combinations for Activities...(n) of the FD&C Act. II. Qualitative Risk Assessment As explained in the draft RA, we conducted the...

  18. The role of the pharmaceutical animal health industry in post-marketing surveillance of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, S

    1993-06-01

    The pharmaceutical animal health industry must be committed to the total life cycle of products, i.e. during both the pre- and post-marketing period. Support of antibacterial agents during the postmarketing period is not restricted to maintaining a well-established distribution and promotion system. Care has to be taken continuously to maintain and/or improve the quality, safety (for user, target animal and environment) and clinical efficacy. The pharmaceutical industry contributes to this by: 1. Introducing antibacterials in different animal species for the most effective disease condition only and by ensuring the veterinary profession is informed about relevant findings on: a. the mechanism of action; b. pharmacodynamic properties; c. pharmacokinetic properties (plasma, target tissue); d. clinical efficacy data and in vitro sensitivity data; e. valid species-specific MIC breakpoints; f. precise dose and treatment regime. 2. Updating on a regular basis on: a. new findings on the mechanism of action (in vitro and in vivo); b. the optimal use program in the light of changes in animal husbandry, farm management and epidemiology on national and international level; c. adjustment of species-specific MIC breakpoints when necessary. 3. Providing continuous information in collaboration with animal health laboratories about: a. clinical field surveillance for efficacy (national, international); b. in vitro sensitivity/resistance surveillance (national, international); c. use of in vitro data to support prediction of in vivo efficacy. Surveillance of resistance, in vitro, is therefore part of a package of information needed on a routine basis by the pharmaceutical industry to allow the best possible use of antibacterials and to minimize induction of resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals with an industrial X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas; Grohmann, Carsten; Schumacher, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Dedicated precise small laboratory animal irradiation sources are needed for basic cancer research and to meet this need expensive high precision radiation devices have been developed. To avoid such expenses a cost efficient way is presented to construct a device for partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals by adding specific components to an industrial X-ray tube. A custom made radiation field tube was added to an industrial 200 kV X-ray tube. A light field display as well as a monitor ionization chamber were implemented. The field size can rapidly be changed by individual inserts of MCP96 that are used for secondary collimation of the beam. Depth dose curves and cross sectional profiles were determined with the use of a custom made water phantom. More components like positioning lasers, a custom made treatment couch, and a commercial isoflurane anesthesia unit were added to complete the system. With the accessories described secondary small field sizes down to 10 by 10 mm 2 (secondary collimator size) could be achieved. The dosimetry of the beam was constructed like those for conventional stereotactical clinical linear accelerators. The water phantom created showed an accuracy of 1 mm and was well suited for all measurements. With the anesthesia unit attached to the custom made treatment couch the system is ideal for the radiation treatment of small laboratory animals like mice. It was feasible to shrink the field size of an industrial X-ray tube from whole animal irradiation to precise partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals. Even smaller secondary collimator sizes than 10 by 10 mm 2 are feasible with adequate secondary collimator inserts. Our custom made water phantom was well suited for the basic dosimetry of the X-ray tube.

  20. Prospects from agroecology and industrial ecology for animal production in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, B; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Jouven, M; Thomas, M; Tichit, M

    2013-06-01

    Agroecology and industrial ecology can be viewed as complementary means for reducing the environmental footprint of animal farming systems: agroecology mainly by stimulating natural processes to reduce inputs, and industrial ecology by closing system loops, thereby reducing demand for raw materials, lowering pollution and saving on waste treatment. Surprisingly, animal farming systems have so far been ignored in most agroecological thinking. On the basis of a study by Altieri, who identified the key ecological processes to be optimized, we propose five principles for the design of sustainable animal production systems: (i) adopting management practices aiming to improve animal health, (ii) decreasing the inputs needed for production, (iii) decreasing pollution by optimizing the metabolic functioning of farming systems, (iv) enhancing diversity within animal production systems to strengthen their resilience and (v) preserving biological diversity in agroecosystems by adapting management practices. We then discuss how these different principles combine to generate environmental, social and economic performance in six animal production systems (ruminants, pigs, rabbits and aquaculture) covering a long gradient of intensification. The two principles concerning economy of inputs and reduction of pollution emerged in nearly all the case studies, a finding that can be explained by the economic and regulatory constraints affecting animal production. Integrated management of animal health was seldom mobilized, as alternatives to chemical drugs have only recently been investigated, and the results are not yet transferable to farming practices. A number of ecological functions and ecosystem services (recycling of nutrients, forage yield, pollination, resistance to weed invasion, etc.) are closely linked to biodiversity, and their persistence depends largely on maintaining biological diversity in agroecosystems. We conclude that the development of such ecology