WorldWideScience

Sample records for industrial farm animal

  1. Food animal transport: A potential source of community exposures to health hazards from industrial farming (CAFOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Rule

    Full Text Available Summary: Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. We tested the hypothesis that current methods of transporting food animals from farms to slaughterhouses may result in pathogen releases and potential exposures of persons in vehicles traveling on the same road. Air and surface samples were taken from cars driving behind poultry trucks for 17 miles. Air conditioners and fans were turned off and windows fully opened. Background and blank samples were used for quality control. Samples were analyzed for susceptible and drug-resistant strains. Results indicate an increase in the number of total aerobic bacteria including both susceptible and drug-resistant enterococci isolated from air and surface samples, and suggest that food animal transport in open crates introduces a novel route of exposure to harmful microorganisms and may disseminate these pathogens into the general environment. These findings support the need for further exposure characterization, and attention to improving methods of food animal transport, especially in highly trafficked regions of high density farming such as the Delmarva Peninsula. Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, CAFO, Bioaerosol, Food animal transport, Air sampling, Surface sampling

  2. Food animal transport: a potential source of community exposures to health hazards from industrial farming (CAFOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Ana M; Evans, Sean L; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2008-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. We tested the hypothesis that current methods of transporting food animals from farms to slaughterhouses may result in pathogen releases and potential exposures of persons in vehicles traveling on the same road. Air and surface samples were taken from cars driving behind poultry trucks for 17 miles. Air conditioners and fans were turned off and windows fully opened. Background and blank samples were used for quality control. Samples were analyzed for susceptible and drug-resistant strains. Results indicate an increase in the number of total aerobic bacteria including both susceptible and drug-resistant enterococci isolated from air and surface samples, and suggest that food animal transport in open crates introduces a novel route of exposure to harmful microorganisms and may disseminate these pathogens into the general environment. These findings support the need for further exposure characterization, and attention to improving methods of food animal transport, especially in highly trafficked regions of high density farming such as the Delmarva Peninsula.

  3. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  4. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  5. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  6. Farming: Animals or machines? | Mitchell | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intensive farming industry, where nonhuman animals are treated as machines in a production process, is abhorrent to many people, and more traditional farming may seem more acceptable ethically. Nowadays, one finds products on the market with labels such as organic and green, which suggest more humane ...

  7. Farm animal proteomics - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...... of the areas where synergy between classic model organism proteomics and farm animal proteomics is rapidly emerging. Focus will be on introducing the special biological traits that play an important role in food production, and on how proteomics may help optimize farm animal production...

  8. Mapping farm animal genomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepica, Stanislav

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 9 (1998), s. 386 ISSN 0044-4847. [Genetics Day-International conference on animal genetics /18./. 08.09.1998-10.09.1998, České Budějovice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/96/0597 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  9. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  10. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: The Common Swine Industry Audit: Future steps to assure positive on-farm animal welfare utilizing validated, repeatable and feasible animal-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairis-Garcia, M; Moeller, S J

    2017-03-01

    The Common Swine Industry Audit (CSIA) was developed and scientifically evaluated through the combined efforts of a task force consisting of university scientists, veterinarians, pork producers, packers, processers, and retail and food service personnel to provide stakeholders throughout the pork chain with a consistent, reliable, and verifiable system to ensure on-farm swine welfare and food safety. The CSIA tool was built from the framework of the Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) site assessment program with the purpose of developing a single, common audit platform for the U.S. swine industry. Twenty-seven key aspects of swine care are captured and evaluated in CSIA and cover the specific focal areas of animal records, animal observations, facilities, and caretakers. Animal-based measures represent approximately 50% of CSIA evaluation criteria and encompass critical failure criteria, including observation of willful acts of abuse and determination of timely euthanasia. Objective, science-based measures of animal well-being parameters (e.g., BCS, lameness, lesions, hernias) are assessed within CSIA using statistically validated sample sizes providing a detection ability of 1% with 95% confidence. The common CSIA platform is used to identify care issues and facilitate continuous improvement in animal care through a validated, repeatable, and feasible animal-based audit process. Task force members provide continual updates to the CSIA tool with a specific focus toward 1) identification and interpretation of appropriate animal-based measures that provide inherent value to pig welfare, 2) establishment of acceptability thresholds for animal-based measures, and 3) interpretation of CSIA data for use and improvement of welfare within the U.S. swine industry.

  11. The Freedoms and Capabilities of Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom...

  12. Radiation sterilization of animal farm sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.; Perkowski, J.; Pekala, W.

    1984-01-01

    Influence of irradiation on organisms appearing in farm sewage has been discussed. Practical examples of employing the radiation to sterilization of municipal wastes and liquid sewage from the industrial swine farms have been presented. (author)

  13. Assessing farm animal welfare without visiting the farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans; Sandøe, Peter

    Animal welfare is typically assessed on farms by external observers making systematic observations of animals and/or the environment. External observers are costly, and efforts to minimize the time spent by external observers are giving rise to a delicate discussion of priorities of costs, validity...... and reliability. In this situation, it is worthwhile to consider the option of systems for assessing the animal welfare without having an external observer visiting the farm....

  14. A Survey of Chinese Citizens’ Perceptions on Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiaolin; Li, Yibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Huoqi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    Farm animal welfare has been gradually recognized as an important issue in most parts of the world. In China, domestic animals were traditionally raised in backyard and treated as an important component of family wealth. Industrialization of animal production brings forth the farm animal welfare concerns recently in China, yet the modern concept of animal welfare has not been publicized and a comprehensive recognition on how consumers and farmers perceive animal welfare is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a survey on public opinions toward farm animal welfare in China, based on pigs (including sows, piglets, and fattening pigs), domestic fowls (including layers and broilers) and their products. From 6,006 effective questionnaires approximately two thirds of the respondents had never heard of ‘animal welfare’; 72.9% of the respondents claimed that, for the sake of animal derived food safety, human beings should improve the rearing conditions for pigs and domestic fowls; 65.8% of the respondents totally or partly agreed on establishing laws to improve animal welfare; more than half of the respondents were willing, or to some extent willing, to pay more for high-welfare animal products, whereas 45.5% of the respondents were not willing or reluctant to pay more. In summary, farm animal welfare is still in its early stage of development and more efforts are needed to improve the public conception to animal welfare in the process of establishing farm animal welfare standards and legislations in China. PMID:25314159

  15. Industrial fluorosis of farm animals in England, attributable to the manufacture of bricks, the calcining of ironstone, and to enamelling processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakemore, F; Bosworth, T J; Green, H H

    1948-01-01

    An account is given of the occurrence in England of fluorosis in farm animals arising from industrial contamination of pasture due to the manufacture of bricks, the calcining of ironstone, and the fumes from a color and enamel factory. It is shown that the contamination of vegetation is entirely superficial and not due to fluorine compounds carried down into the soil by rain. The origin of the aerial fluorine is discussed in relation to the industrial processes involved, and extent of damage related to distance from source and direction of prevailing wind. A map showing levels of pasture contamination (7 ppm to 90 ppm) is given, and this is discussed in relation to the severity of clinical symptoms in animals. Considerable differences were observed in regard to susceptibility of different classes of stock. Urinary analysis was found to be a convenient way of diagnosing fluorosis, especially in sub-clinical cases where no dental signs or obvious skeletal changes were present. By correlating urinary excretion with fluorine values on rib bone removed surgically in an animal taken away from the source of fluorine ingestion, it was found that about half of the original skeletal fluorine still remained after eight months and that, although marked clinical improvement occurred quite soon, urinary values remained far above normal (13 ppm) in equilibrium with the very slow change of bone values in the later stages of skeletal reconstruction.

  16. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura

    2014-01-01

    and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance...... in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal...... and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in farm animal adipose tissue proteomics, mainly in cattle and pigs, but also in poultry, i.e. chicken and in farmed fish. Proteomics...

  17. The well-being of farm animals: challenges and solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benson, G. John; Rollin, Bernard E

    2004-01-01

    .... The Well-Being of Farm Animals: Challenges and Solutions offers veterinarians, veterinary and agriculture students, animal scientists, and food animal producers both practical methods to enhance farm animal well-being, and greater...

  18. What has made deer farming in New Zealand so successful? The importance of venison quality, understanding the industry, the market and the biology of the animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Pearse

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available In summarising these aspects of success within the NZ deer industry we can note: (1 NZ traditional farming skills of pasture based production have been readily adapted to deer farming. (2 The industry has grown with strength through the diversity of its participants, leading farmers, innovative researchers, business investors and leaders and the NZDFA and its membership. All are united in their determination that market signals, rather than farm production demands should shape the development of venison supply and presentation. (3 The frank and rapid exchange of research results, farmer innovation, market information and exchange of experience and ideas within the industry. (4 The overwhelming commitment to quality production. Biologically, deer has their own contributing attributes: (a they are intelligent and easy to farm; (b they are efficient converters of pasture and supplements to venison or to progeny; (c they thrive throughout NZ varied agricultural terrain on native grasses or improved pasture, and have a healthy and long productive life; (d they have enormous climatic and environmental tolerance, a defined breeding season and predictable calving pattern; (e they are immensely seasonal, and now, when feeding and breeding requirements are well understood in terms of that seasonality, productive growth targets are readily set and achieved to accommodate the market signal; (f they are simple to manage with a minimum of labour and physical inputs.

  19. Can stress in farm animals increase food safety risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostagno, Marcos H

    2009-09-01

    All farm animals will experience some level of stress during their lives. Stress reduces the fitness of an animal, which can be expressed through failure to achieve production performance standards, or through disease and death. Stress in farm animals can also have detrimental effects on the quality of food products. However, although a common assumption of a potential effect of stress on food safety exists, little is actually known about how this interaction may occur. The aim of this review was to examine the current knowledge of the potential impact of stress in farm animals on food safety risk. Colonization of farm animals by enteric pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Campylobacter, and their subsequent dissemination into the human food chain are a major public health and economic concern for the food industries. This review shows that there is increasing evidence to demonstrate that stress can have a significant deleterious effect on food safety through a variety of potential mechanisms. However, as the impact of stress is difficult to precisely determine, it is imperative that the issue receives more research attention in the interests of optimizing animal welfare and minimizing losses in product yield and quality, as well as to food safety risks to consumers. While there is some evidence linking stress with pathogen carriage and shedding in farm animals, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Understanding when pathogen loads on the farm are the highest or when animals are most susceptible to infection will help identifying times when intervention strategies for pathogen control may be most effective, and consequently, increase the safety of food of animal origin.

  20. Towards Farm Animal Welfare and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Henry; Blokhuis, Harry; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda

    2018-05-25

    As farm animal welfare becomes an increasingly important component of contemporary global livestock production, animal welfare science and animal welfare policy-making need to find new ways of entering global debates over food security and sustainability. In this paper, we explore the means by which both animal welfare science and policy should articulate with these emerging global debates. Having first established the important gains in animal welfare policy and the maturity of animal welfare science, we identify and explore the potential impact of these current debates and argue that they have the potential for profound change in our understanding of, and our response to, the welfare of animals. We conclude the paper with a number of possible recommendations for how a scientifically informed, sustainable animal welfare policy might flourish.

  1. The role of renewable energy on animal farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csatári, Nándor; Vántus, András

    2015-04-01

    The recent measures in the European Union promote the usage of renewable energies and enhancing the energy efficiency. These measures also effect agriculture, on the one hand by using biofuels mixed into fuel for machinery. Besides biofuels animal farms have opportunities in using renewable energy in several other ways. There are sectors in animal farming, where the energy demand is continuously high in electricity (e.g. forage grinders, mixers, milk coolers, air ventilation systems) or in heating (e.g. stables for poultry or piglets). Beside the energy demand in agricultural sector there are several products and side products suitable for energy production. For example different kinds of organic manures and corn silage could be raw materials for biogas production; plant residues like cereal straw and corn stalk bales could be combusted in boilers. Furthermore solar cells or solar collectors can be mounted on the big roof surfaces of animal farm buildings. Among animal farming sectors, dairy farming in the most energy intensive, and uses the widest variety of energy forms. It is often mentioned as the "heavy industry" of animal farming. In this research 14 dairy farms were examined in Hajdú-Bihar County in the topic of energy demand, renewable energy usage. The questioned farms covers 35% of the dairy cow population in Hajdú-Bihar County. The questions covered the general attributes of the farms and the details of the (existing or planned) renewable energy application. In terms of economic analysis saving, the investment return time and the employment effect was examined. The results show wide variety of applied renewable energy application. Fifty percent of farms uses at least one kind of renewable energy. Two biogas plants, 6 boilers for solid biomass, 2 solar cells. Regarding employment effect biogas plants created some full time workplaces, biomass boilers also needs some work hours to maintain, but none of the farms applied more labour. Besides renewable

  2. Brazilian Citizens' Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Maria C; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Hötzel, Maria J

    2017-09-28

    The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their "social license to operate"; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat). Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle), 82% (poultry), 81% (laying hens), and 60% (swine). A large majority (79%) stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The preference for free

  3. Brazilian Citizens’ Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Yunes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their “social license to operate”; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat. Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle, 82% (poultry, 81% (laying hens, and 60% (swine. A large majority (79% stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The

  4. Disease spread models to estimate highly uncertain emerging diseases losses for animal agriculture insurance policies: an application to the U.S. farm-raised catfish industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagmutt, Francisco J; Sempier, Stephen H; Hanson, Terril R

    2013-10-01

    Emerging diseases (ED) can have devastating effects on agriculture. Consequently, agricultural insurance for ED can develop if basic insurability criteria are met, including the capability to estimate the severity of ED outbreaks with associated uncertainty. The U.S. farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry was used to evaluate the feasibility of using a disease spread simulation modeling framework to estimate the potential losses from new ED for agricultural insurance purposes. Two stochastic models were used to simulate the spread of ED between and within channel catfish ponds in Mississippi (MS) under high, medium, and low disease impact scenarios. The mean (95% prediction interval (PI)) proportion of ponds infected within disease-impacted farms was 7.6% (3.8%, 22.8%), 24.5% (3.8%, 72.0%), and 45.6% (4.0%, 92.3%), and the mean (95% PI) proportion of fish mortalities in ponds affected by the disease was 9.8% (1.4%, 26.7%), 49.2% (4.7%, 60.7%), and 88.3% (85.9%, 90.5%) for the low, medium, and high impact scenarios, respectively. The farm-level mortality losses from an ED were up to 40.3% of the total farm inventory and can be used for insurance premium rate development. Disease spread modeling provides a systematic way to organize the current knowledge on the ED perils and, ultimately, use this information to help develop actuarially sound agricultural insurance policies and premiums. However, the estimates obtained will include a large amount of uncertainty driven by the stochastic nature of disease outbreaks, by the uncertainty in the frequency of future ED occurrences, and by the often sparse data available from past outbreaks. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Public Concern with Farm-Animal Welfare: Religion, Politics, and Human Disadvantage in the Food Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Danielle R.; Lobao, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The welfare of farm animals has become a continuing source of controversy as states seek greater regulation over the livestock industry. However, empirical studies addressing the determinants of public concern for farm-animal welfare are limited. Religion and politics, two institutional bases of attitudes, are rarely explored. Nor have…

  6. Combating radiocesium contamination in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hove, K.; Ekern, A.

    1988-01-01

    Considerable amounts of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident swept central parts of Norway, where especially native mountain areas but also some agricultural land were heavily contaminated. Parts of the heavily polluted areas are important in Norwegian animal production, being grazed by reindeer all year, and by sheep, goats and cattle in the summer. Cs-137 and Cs-134 appeared in feeds shortly after the accident and the levels increased throughout the summer. In this paper some of the results obtained in experiments with contaminated animals in Norway are reviewed. Experiments in connection with the use of uncontaminated feeds for decontamination of farm animals, the transfer of radioactivity to milk, and the use of cesiumbinders to reduce cesium contamination are described

  7. Public perceptions of farm animal cloning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    This report presents a picture of European opinion on farm animal cloning. In the report, both agricultural and biomedical applications of farm animal cloning are considered. With the arrival of Dolly, animal cloning became an integral part of the biotech debate, but this debate did not isolate...... animal cloning as a single issue....

  8. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichm...

  9. Prenatal stress, immunity and neonatal health in farm animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlot, E; Quesnel, H; Prunier, A

    2013-12-01

    The high pre-weaning mortality in farm animal species and poor welfare conditions of reproductive females question modern industrial farming acceptability. A growing body of literature has been produced recently, investigating the impact of maternal stress during gestation on maternal and offspring physiology and behavior in farm animals. Until now, the possible impact of prenatal stress on neonatal health, growth and survival could not be consistently demonstrated, probably because experimental studies use small numbers of animals and thus do not allow accurate estimations. However, the data from literature synthesized in the present review show that in ungulates, maternal stress can sometimes alter important maternal parameters of neonatal survival such as colostrum production (ruminants) and maternal care to the newborn (pigs). Furthermore, maternal stress during gestation can affect maternal immune system and impair her health, which can have an impact on the transfer of pathogens from the mother to her fetus or neonate. Finally, prenatal stress can decrease the ability of the neonate to absorb colostral immunoglobulins, and alter its inflammatory response and lymphocyte functions during the first few weeks of life. Cortisol and reproductive hormones in the case of colostrogenesis are pointed out as possible hormonal mediators. Field data and epidemiological studies are needed to quantify the role of maternal welfare problems in neonatal health and survival.

  10. Objecthood, Agency and Mutualism in Valenced Farm Animal Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ian G. Colditz

    2018-01-01

    Genetic selection of farm animals for productivity, and intensification of farming practices have yielded substantial improvements in efficiency; however, the capacity of animals to cope with environmental challenges has diminished. Understanding how the animal and environment interact is central to efforts to improve the health, fitness, and welfare of animals through breeding and management strategies. The review examines aspects of the environment that are sensed by the animal. The predict...

  11. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Companies that produce or sell food products from farm animals can have a major influence on the lives and welfare of these animals. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) conducts an annual evaluation of the farm animal welfare-related disclosures of some of the world’s largest food companies. The programme looks at companies’ published policies and commitments and examines whether these might lead to actions that can improve animal welfare on farms. It also assesses whether companies show leadership in this field. The BBFAW found that, in 2012 and 2013, around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue, and that, between 2012 and 2013, there was clear evidence of an increased level of disclosure on farm animal welfare awareness in the companies that were assessed. However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies had published comprehensive farm animal welfare policies, suggesting that many companies have yet to report on farm animal welfare as a business issue or disclose their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society. Abstract The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p animal welfare

  12. Healthy, happy and humane: evidence in farm animal welfare policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, B.B.; Buller, H.

    2013-01-01

    There has been a dramatic expansion and diversification of knowledge, expertise and expectation associated with farm animal welfare and we witness its increasing adoption within legislative and policy strategies. This article examines how the understanding of what constitutes farm animal welfare and

  13. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... as well as animal health and welfare professionals (veterinarians and advisors) is paramount. This paper provides an overview of some current animal health and welfare planning initiatives and explains the principles of animal health and welfare planning which are being implemented in ANIPLAN partner...

  14. Exploring the role of farm animals in providing care at care farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, Jan; Bruin, de Simone R.; Berget, Bente; Elings, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    We explore the role of farm animals in providing care to different types of participants at care farms (e.g., youngsters with behavioural problems, people with severe mental problems and people with dementia). Care farms provide alternative and promising settings where people can interact with

  15. Exploring the Role of Farm Animals in Providing Care at Care Farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, Jan; De Bruin, Simone R; Berget, Bente; Elings, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    We explore the role of farm animals in providing care to different types of participants at care farms (e.g., youngsters with behavioural problems, people with severe mental problems and people with dementia). Care farms provide alternative and promising settings where people can interact with

  16. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Sullivan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012 and 70 (2013 of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. However, only 34% (2012 and 44% (2013 of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  17. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies' Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A

    2017-03-06

    The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company's commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world's largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% ( p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test). However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  18. Farm workers’ perception of animal welfare – A Danish Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger

    2017-01-01

    The welfare of farm animals depends on development in production systems, economic drivers and regulation but also human factors – such as farmers’ perceptions of animal welfare, management strategies, communication, knowledge and training. In this study I have examined the perception of animal...

  19. Exploring the Role of Farm Animals in Providing Care at Care Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassink, Jan; De Bruin, Simone R.; Berget, Bente; Elings, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper provides insight into the role of farm animals in farm-based programs and their importance to different types of participants. Farm animals provide real work, close relationships, challenging tasks and opportunities for reflection. They also contribute to a welcoming atmosphere for various types of participants. Abstract We explore the role of farm animals in providing care to different types of participants at care farms (e.g., youngsters with behavioural problems, people with severe mental problems and people with dementia). Care farms provide alternative and promising settings where people can interact with animals compared to a therapeutic healthcare setting. We performed a literature review, conducted focus group meetings and carried out secondary data-analysis of qualitative studies involving care farmers and different types of participants. We found that farm animals are important to many participants and have a large number of potential benefits. They can (i) provide meaningful day occupation; (ii) generate valued relationships; (iii) help people master tasks; (iv) provide opportunities for reciprocity; (v) can distract people from them problems; (vi) provide relaxation; (vii) facilitate customized care; (viii) facilitate relationships with other people; (ix) stimulate healthy behavior; (x) contribute to a welcoming environment; (xi) make it possible to experience basic elements of life; and (xii) provide opportunities for reflection and feedback. This shows the multi-facetted importance of interacting with animals on care farms. In this study the types of activities with animals and their value to different types of participants varied. Farm animals are an important element of the care farm environment that can address the care needs of different types of participants. PMID:28574435

  20. Constraints to utilization of draft animal power technology at farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Animal traction utilisation in Uganda dates back to 1909 when it was ... farm operations as prioritized by farmers are vital for enhanced productivity of labour, land and livestock at smallholder level. .... Ground nuts ... Hand-push or DAP sprayer.

  1. New Opportunities of Valorising Animal Produce: Turning Animal Farms into Educational Agrotouristic Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Samfira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Being a relatively new domain, educational agri-tourism activity involves a number of factors influencing its development: knowledge of the economic, social and cultural domain limits but in the same time accurate information about farm availability to receive children and/or people with special needs. For this paper was created a questionnaire (with 19 items for farmers in order to find if there is availability to develop and to change their farm in a certain way - to educate new generation through the relation with animals life and care, eating natural food and being creative in the nature. This questionnaire was applied to 60 farmers from the Timiş County and the answers have shown that many of them (95% are willing to receive person with special needs and there are farmers which think they don’t have anything to offer to develop and strengthen some certain traits in children personality and about the advantages for parents, teachers and local community.

  2. Assessment of antibiotic use in farm animals in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manishimwe, Rosine; Nishimwe, Kizito; Ojok, Lonzy

    2017-08-01

    The irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animals is highly related to the emergence and increase of antibiotic-resistant bacteria worldwide. A cross-sectional survey aimed at evaluating the current level of practices regarding antibiotic use in farm animals in Rwanda was carried out countrywide. Interviews were conducted on 229 farmers rearing different types of animals. The study has revealed that almost all respondent farmers could name at least one antibiotic used in farm animals and peni-streptomycin was named by most of them (95.6%). The use of antibiotics in farm animals was observed in the majority of respondents (97.4%). It was found that 44.4 and 26.5% of respondents reported that they used antibiotics for disease prevention and growth promotion, respectively. The use of non-prescribed antibiotics in animals was also reported by more than the half of respondent farmers (55.6%). The majority of farmers had a moderate level of practices regarding antibiotic use in farm animals (73.5%), very few had a high level (26%) and only one respondent had a low level. The high level of practices in regard to antibiotic use in animals was associated with the location of the farm, the type of reared animals, and the rearing system. The results of this study give an insight into antibiotics usage practices in farm animals in Rwanda. The generated information can guide sensitizations and promotions of the prudent use of antibiotics among farmers in order to limit the increase of antibiotic resistance in the country.

  3. The globalisation of farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D

    2014-04-01

    Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter.

  4. Economic Decisions in Farm Animal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    Animal health economics deals with quantifying the economic effects of animal disease, decision support tools in animal health management and further analysis of the management's impact at animal, herd or national level. Scientists from The Netherlands, France and Sweden have since 1988 organised...... informal workshops to exchange their knowledge and expertise in this field of science. This report contains the summary of the presentations given by 12 PhD students and 2 senior scientists of the Animal Health Economics workshops which was held on the 9th and 10th of November, 2006 at the Research Centre...... Foulum in Denmark. Different disciplines and approaches within Animal Health Economics are dealt with by the different scientists and the report contains a variety of novel results and projects. The resulting discussion is summarized in the report....

  5. Is the profitability of Canadian freestall farms associated with their performance on an animal welfare assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villettaz Robichaud, M; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Haley, D; Orsel, K; Pellerin, D

    2018-03-01

    Improving animal welfare on farm can sometimes require substantial financial investments. The Canadian dairy industry recently updated their Code of Practice for the care of dairy animals and created a mandatory on-farm animal care assessment (proAction Animal Care). Motivating dairy farmers to follow the recommendations of the Code of Practice and successfully meet the targets of the on-farm assessment can be enhanced by financial gain associated with improved animal welfare. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between meeting or not meeting several criteria from an on-farm animal welfare assessment and the farms' productivity and profitability indicators. Data from 130 freestall farms (20 using automatic milking systems) were used to calculate the results of the animal care assessment. Productivity and profitability indicators, including milk production, somatic cell count, reproduction, and longevity, were retrieved from the regional dairy herd improvement association databases. Economic margins over replacement costs were also calculated. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations between welfare and productivity and profitability indicators. The proportion of automatic milking system farms that met the proAction criterion for hock lesions was higher compared with parlor farms and lower for the neck lesion criterion. The proAction criterion for lameness prevalence was significantly associated with average corrected milk production per year. Average days in milk (DIM) at first breeding acted as an effect modifier for this association, resulting in a steeper increase of milk production in farms that met the criterion with increasing average DIM at first breeding. The reproduction and longevity indicators studied were not significantly associated with meeting or not meeting the proAction criteria investigated in this study. Meeting the proAction lameness prevalence parameter was associated

  6. Animal welfare decisions in Dutch poultry and pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    The minimum level of animal welfare (AW) is guaranteed by EU and national legislation in most European countries. Within the current international economic and political environment further improvements in the welfare of farm animals predominantly rely on market

  7. Discovery based and targeted Mass Spectrometry in farm animal proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke

    2013-01-01

    for investigating farm animal biology. SRM is particularly important for validation biomarker candidates This talk will introduce the use of different mass spectrometry approaches through examples related to food quality and animal welfare, including studies of gut health in pigs, host pathogen interactions...

  8. [German poultry farming between animal welfare and global market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Michael; Damme, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Despite the positive tendencies concerning sales output in the poultry production, the margins per single animal are extremely low. This circumstance leads inevitably to an increasing number of animals per farm. Also the German egg production is currently confronted with a great challenge due to changes of the legislation of animal welfare in animal farming (German Tierschutz-Nutztierhaltungs-Verordnung), the EU-zoonosis-regulation (2160/2003) and because of the avian influenza difficulties. In addition, the globalization has tightened the competitive conditions during production. Therefore, innovation potential and specialization are mandatory premises for the continuity within a free market economy. In all farming systems there has to be made a consideration between animal welfare, economy and ecology, whereas, based on animal welfare, the "ethical limit" has the utmost importance. It has to be accounted for the concept of fulfilment of demand and prevention of harm. The success of agricultural animal farming depends, last but not least, on a good and robust state of health of the live stock. The German consumer will have to accept that a high quality and high welfare poultry product will have their price, even in the global market. The sale orientation on non-European production methods is not acceptable under the aspect of animal welfare.

  9. Telos and the Ethics of Animal Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning

    2012-01-01

    analysis of animals based upon this Aristotelian idea (Rollin in Animal rights and human morality (1st ed. 1981). Prometheus Books, New York, 2006b). Telos is here employed to illustrate the dimensions of what matters in welfare assessment and ethical evaluation. The second half of the article addresses...

  10. A Decade of Progress toward Ending the Intensive Confinement of Farm Animals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sara; Shapiro, Paul; Rowan, Andrew

    2017-05-15

    In this paper, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) farm animal protection work over the preceding decade is described from the perspective of the organization. Prior to 2002, there were few legal protections for animals on the farm, and in 2005, a new campaign at the HSUS began to advance state ballot initiatives throughout the country, with a decisive advancement in California (Proposition 2) that paved the way for further progress. Combining legislative work with undercover farm and slaughterhouse investigations, litigation and corporate engagement, the HSUS and fellow animal protection organizations have made substantial progress in transitioning the veal, pork and egg industries away from intensive confinement systems that keep the animals in cages and crates. Investigations have become an important tool for demonstrating widespread inhumane practices, building public support and convincing the retail sector to publish meaningful animal welfare policies. While federal legislation protecting animals on the farm stalled, there has been steady state-by-state progress, and this is complemented by major brands such as McDonald's and Walmart pledging to purchase only from suppliers using cage-free and crate-free animal housing systems. The evolution of societal expectations regarding animals has helped propel the recent wave of progress and may also be driven, in part, by the work of animal protection organizations.

  11. A Decade of Progress toward Ending the Intensive Confinement of Farm Animals in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Shields

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS farm animal protection work over the preceding decade is described from the perspective of the organization. Prior to 2002, there were few legal protections for animals on the farm, and in 2005, a new campaign at the HSUS began to advance state ballot initiatives throughout the country, with a decisive advancement in California (Proposition 2 that paved the way for further progress. Combining legislative work with undercover farm and slaughterhouse investigations, litigation and corporate engagement, the HSUS and fellow animal protection organizations have made substantial progress in transitioning the veal, pork and egg industries away from intensive confinement systems that keep the animals in cages and crates. Investigations have become an important tool for demonstrating widespread inhumane practices, building public support and convincing the retail sector to publish meaningful animal welfare policies. While federal legislation protecting animals on the farm stalled, there has been steady state-by-state progress, and this is complemented by major brands such as McDonald’s and Walmart pledging to purchase only from suppliers using cage-free and crate-free animal housing systems. The evolution of societal expectations regarding animals has helped propel the recent wave of progress and may also be driven, in part, by the work of animal protection organizations.

  12. Is the profitability of Canadian tiestall farms associated with their performance on an animal welfare assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villettaz Robichaud, M; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Haley, D B; Pellerin, D

    2018-03-01

    criterion compared with farms that did not. Farms that met the proAction electric trainer placement criterion had 4.6% more cows in their third or greater lactation. These results suggest that some associations exist between the productivity of Canadian tiestall farms and meeting several parameters of the proAction Animal Care assessment. Meeting these criteria is unlikely to impose any economic burden to the dairy industry as a whole. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Decade of Progress toward Ending the Intensive Confinement of Farm Animals in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sara; Shapiro, Paul; Rowan, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Over the past ten years, unprecedented changes in the way farm animals are kept on intensive production facilities have begun to take hold in the U.S. veal, egg and pork industries. Propelled by growing public support for animal welfare, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) has successfully led the effort to transition farms from using restrictive cages and crates to more open aviary and group housing systems that offer the animals far more freedom to express natural behavior. This paper describes the background history of the movement, the strategy and approach of the campaign and the challenges that were overcome to enable this major shift in farming practices. The events chronicled are set within the context of the larger societal concern for animals and the important contributions of other animal protection organizations. Abstract In this paper, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) farm animal protection work over the preceding decade is described from the perspective of the organization. Prior to 2002, there were few legal protections for animals on the farm, and in 2005, a new campaign at the HSUS began to advance state ballot initiatives throughout the country, with a decisive advancement in California (Proposition 2) that paved the way for further progress. Combining legislative work with undercover farm and slaughterhouse investigations, litigation and corporate engagement, the HSUS and fellow animal protection organizations have made substantial progress in transitioning the veal, pork and egg industries away from intensive confinement systems that keep the animals in cages and crates. Investigations have become an important tool for demonstrating widespread inhumane practices, building public support and convincing the retail sector to publish meaningful animal welfare policies. While federal legislation protecting animals on the farm stalled, there has been steady state-by-state progress, and this is complemented by

  14. Vancomycin resistant enterococci in farm animals – occurrence and importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Nilsson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The view on enterococci has over the years shifted from harmless commensals to opportunistic but important pathogens mainly causing nosocomial infections. One important part of this development is the emergence of vancomycin resistance enterococci (VRE. The term VRE includes several combinations of bacterial species and resistance genes of which the most clinically important is Enterococcus faecium with vanA type vancomycin resistance. This variant is also the most common VRE among farm animals. The reason for VRE being present among farm animals is selection by extensive use of the vancomycin analog avoparcin for growth promotion. Once the use of avoparcin was discontinued, the prevalence of VRE among farm animals decreased. However, VRE are still present among farm animals and by spread via food products they could potentially have a negative impact on public health. This review is based on the PhD thesis Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci in Swedish Broilers – Emergence, Epidemiology and Elimination and makes a short summary of VRE in humans and food producing animals. The specific situation regarding VRE in Swedish broiler production is also mentioned.

  15. Water and the Welfare of Farm Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Von Keyserlingk, Marina A.G.; Phillips, Clive J.C.; Nielsen, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Provision of adequate water supplies is essential for the welfare of farmanimals. Water forms the largest component of an animal's body and is an essentialnutrient required for all biological functions, including temperature regulation, digestion, foetal development, and production. This essential nutrient can only be restricted for short periods of time. Water deprivation results in substantial welfare concerns, as it can hinder biological functioning, and has been associated withmorbidity a...

  16. Animal based parameters are no panacea for on-farm monitoring of animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    On-farm monitoring of animal welfare is an important, present-day objective in animal welfare science. Scientists tend to focus exclusively on animal-based parameters, possibly because using environment-based parameters could be begging the question why welfare has been affected and because

  17. Road transport of farm animals: effects of journey duration on animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Dybkjær, Lise; Herskin, Mette S

    2011-01-01

    Transport of farm animals gives rise to concern about their welfare. Specific attention has been given to the duration of animal transport, and maximum journey durations are used in legislation that seek to minimise any negative impact of transport on animal welfare. This paper reviews the relati...

  18. The science and technology of farm animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vajta, Gábor

    , goats, horses, cats, etc. have been cloned with the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. Although the technology still has relatively low success rates and there seems to be substantial problems with the welfare of some of the cloned animals, cloning is used both within basic research...... include the production of genetically identical animals for research purposes, and also the creation of genetically modified animals. In the agricultural sector, cloning can be used as a tool within farm animal breeding. We do not intend to give an exhaustive review of the all the literature available...

  19. ON-FARM MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jug

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The on-farm management systems under development in order to insure data collection, regular data processing needed on a farm as well as automatic data exchange between farm and computing centre. The core of information system presents relational database (RDBMS accompanied with tools developed in APIIS. A system analysis method has been done on two pig industrial units, on national selection program for swine in Slovenia, and compared with examples from other countries and species. Public domain software like PostgreSQL, Perl and Linux have been chosen for use on farms and can be replaced with commercial software like Oracle for more demanding central systems. The system contains at this stage applications for entering, managing, and viewing the data as well as transferring the information between local and central databases.

  20. Farm animal welfare across borders: A vision for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Zhao, Ruquian

    2012-01-01

    , 2012; Matthews and Hemsworth, 2012). The cost of and willingness to pay for improved farm animal welfare infl uence not only international markets, but also i ncentives, education, guidelines, and legislation put in place to change the way we raise production species. These issues are highly pertinent...

  1. Plea Bargaining: A Recreation of George Orwell's Animal Farm in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Farm is an allegorical novel by George Orwell in which he depicted social injustice precipitated by the insincerity of leadership and the betrayal of the people by their leaders which has made the novel relevant as the experience depicted therein “seamlessly steps into the realities of everyday life” (Achebe 2012) in ...

  2. A radioimmunoassay for anti-virus antibodies in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodak, L.; Smid, B.; Sedlacek, M.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for determination of antibodies to Aujeszky's disease virus in piq serum is described. The results show a number of advantaqes of this method over the routinely employed virus-neutralization test. The possibility of using the RIA method in diagnosing other viral diseases of farm animals is suggested. (authors)

  3. Genetics of ovulation rate in farm animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rate of ovulation (i.e. fecundity is largely influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The ovarian growth factorsincluding members of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs play a central role in determining ovulation quota and litter size.Naturally occurring mutation in sheep and knock-out and knock–down studies in murine indicated the importance of bonemorphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B(BMPR1B genes in mammals. These factors have major regulatory roles during the gonadotrophin-independent and -dependent stages of follicle development. Understanding of BMPs in reproduction assists in the treatment of infertility/sterility in animals.

  4. Risk and profitability of animal and crop production in Slovak farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tóth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on profitability and risk of crop and animal production based on an analysis of farms operating in Slovak Republic. The individual farm data used for the analysis are from the database of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic. For our analysis, data were selected according to the farm production orientation to the subset of crop farms and animal farms. The selecting criterion for production orientation was the percentage share of revenues from crop production, or revenues from animal production from the overall revenues from own products and services. We analyse profitability of farms divided into groups based on the type of production into crop and animal farms (according to the share in sales from crop or animal production. Using descriptive statistics and portfolio theory we simulate the total farm profitability and volatility of animal and crop production in Slovakia. The modified Markowitz portfolio theory approach was used to estimate the total risk of portfolios of crop and animal farms. Based on the results we conclude that in the long run crop farms are profitable and profit from crop production is used to cover the losses from animal production in mixed farms. Farms focused on animal production only are efficient and profitable, but the profitability is lower in comparison with crop farms. Animal farms results are less volatile than crop farms. Large farms tend to production with lower value added and can generate enough profit for the owner.

  5. Mapping farm animal welfare research in an enlarged Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene K.; Košťál, Ľubor; Bilčík, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Against the background of divergent political developments across Europe, farm animal welfare (FAW) science has evolved during the last three decades as an inter-disciplinary research area. Recent achievements include pan-European research projects and the implementation of animal welfare...... on questionnaires sent out to a wide researcher network in regions of an enlarged Europe, we found differences with regard to ‘input factors’ such as human resources, animal and laboratory facilities and national and international research funding and ‘output factors’ such as inter/national collaboration...

  6. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

      The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production.......  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  7. Animal-assisted therapy with farm animals for persons with psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Berget

    Full Text Available Animal-assisted therapy (AAT with farm animals for humans with psychiatric disorders may reduce depression and state anxiety, and increase self-efficacy, in many participants. Social support by the farmer appears to be important. Positive effects are best documented for persons with affective disorders or clinical depression. Effects may sometimes take a long time to be detectable, but may occur earlier if the participants are encouraged to perform more complex working skills. Progress must however be individually adapted allowing for flexibility, also between days. Therapists involved with mental health show a pronounced belief in the effects of AAT with farm animals, variation being related to type of disorder, therapist's sex and his/her experience with AAT. Research is still scarce and further research is required to optimize and individually adapt the design of farm animal-assisted interventions.

  8. Animal-assisted therapy with farm animals for persons with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berget, Bente; Braastad, Bjarne O

    2011-01-01

    Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) with farm animals for humans with psychiatric disorders may reduce depression and state anxiety, and increase self-efficacy, in many participants. Social support by the farmer appears to be important. Positive effects are best documented for persons with affective disorders or clinical depression. Effects may sometimes take a long time to be detectable, but may occur earlier if the participants are encouraged to perform more complex working skills. Progress must however be individually adapted allowing for flexibility, also between days. Therapists involved with mental health show a pronounced belief in the effects of AAT with farm animals, variation being related to type of disorder, therapist's sex and his/her experience with AAT. Research is still scarce and further research is required to optimize and individually adapt the design of farm animal-assisted interventions.

  9. Animal behavior and well-being symposium: Farm animal welfare assurance: science and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; Butterworth, A; Swanson, J C

    2011-04-01

    Public and consumer pressure for assurances that farm animals are raised humanely has led to a range of private and public animal welfare standards, and for methods to assess compliance with these standards. The standards usually claim to be science based, but even though researchers have developed measures of animal welfare and have tested the effects of housing and management variables on welfare within controlled laboratory settings, there are challenges in extending this research to develop on-site animal welfare standards. The standards need to be validated against a definition of welfare that has broad support and which is amenable to scientific investigation. Ensuring that such standards acknowledge scientific uncertainty is also challenging, and balanced input from all scientific disciplines dealing with animal welfare is needed. Agencies providing animal welfare audit services need to integrate these scientific standards and legal requirements into successful programs that effectively measure and objectively report compliance. On-farm assessment of animal welfare requires a combination of animal-based measures to assess the actual state of welfare and resource-based measures to identify risk factors. We illustrate this by referring to a method of assessing welfare in broiler flocks. Compliance with animal welfare standards requires buy-in from all stakeholders, and this will be best achieved by a process of inclusion in the development of pragmatic assessment methods and the development of audit programs verifying the conditions and continuous improvement of farm animal welfare.

  10. Animal Welfare in Relation to Standards in Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammarberg Karl-Erik

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804/1999 are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations and the recommendations that phytotherapeutic essences and homeopathic products take precedence over the so called chemically-synthesised allopatic veterinary medical products, and that the use of the same is prohibited for preventive treatments. Key questions here are the lack of scientific evidence concerning homeopathy in animals, and that Swedish veterinarians are not allowed to work with homeopathy. Differences in interpretation of the regulations between animal owners and veterinarians will also be discussed. What is a disease that needs treatment? Who is to decide about the treatment? Parasitic infections are discussed as an illustrative example. Other consequences of the regulations concerning the animal welfare are problems in certain geographical zones, for instance subarctic areas where necessary crops are impossible to grow. Animal transports and splitting mother-offspring are briefly discussed as future problems to be handled in the regulations, and the paper ends by presenting the need of regulated herd health control programs in organic husbandry, which can detect and focus on welfare and production problems. The organic movement is not static, and must not be so.

  11. A survey of mites on farm animals in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaj, M M; Beesley, W N; Awan, M A

    1992-10-01

    In 1985-1988, 2287 farm animals (cattle, camels, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys, dogs and rabbits) suspected of carrying parasitic mites were examined at 58 farms throughout Libya. Mites were identified on 1303 of these animals. The commonest parasites on cattle were Psoroptes and Chorioptes, on camels and sheep were Sarcoptes and Psoroptes, and on goats were Sarcoptes and Demodex. Infested horses carrier Psoroptes or Chorioptes, and one donkey carried Sarcoptes. Otodectes was common on dogs, but Sarcoptes was rare and no Demodex were seen. Rabbits often had psoroptic ear mange or sarcoptic body mange. Dermanyssus gallinae and Ornithonyssus bursa were seen on chickens, but no mites were found on pigeons, ducks or turkeys.

  12. Mapping farm animal welfare research in an enlarged Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene K.; Košťál, Ľubor; Bilčík, Boris

    2017-01-01

    )’ was moderately correlated with the input factors for FAW research such as the average number of PhDs currently employed in the institutions (rs = 0.66; p researchers (rs = 0.56; p ...Against the background of divergent political developments across Europe, farm animal welfare (FAW) science has evolved during the last three decades as an inter-disciplinary research area. Recent achievements include pan-European research projects and the implementation of animal welfare...... assessment systems on-farm. The aim of this study was mapping activities for FAW science and investigating geographical differences in FAW research in Europe (EU28 + candidate countries and the European Economic Area) with regard to available resources (e.g. human resources, infrastructure, funding...

  13. George Orwell's Animal Farm: A metonym for a dictatorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sewlall

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available George Orwell’s Animal Farm is traditionally read as a satire on dictatorships in general, and the Bolshevik Revolution in particular. This article postulates the notion that the schema of the book has attained the force of metonymy to such an extent that whenever one alludes to the title of the book or some lines from it, one conjures up images associated with a dictatorship. The title of the book has become a part of the conceptual political lexicon of the English language to refer to the corruption of a utopian ideology. As an ideological state, Animal Farm has its vision, which is embedded in its constitution; it has the vote, a national anthem and a flag. It even has its patriots, double-dealers, social engineers and lechers. In this way the title Animal Farm, like Joseph Heller’s Catch-22, or Thomas More’s Utopia, functions metonymically to map a conceptual framework which matches the coordinates of the book. The article concludes with a look at contemporary society to show how Orwell’s satire endorses the words of Lord Acton, namely, that power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely.

  14. Transgenesis may affect farm animal welfare: a case for systematic risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Hopster, H.; Oldenbroek, K.; Kruip, T.A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers (potentially) harmful consequences of transgenesis for farm animal welfare and examines the strategy of studying health and welfare of transgenic farm animals. Evidence is discussed showing that treatments imposed in the context of farm animal transgenesis are by no means

  15. Environmental and human health challenges of industrial livestock and poultry farming in China and their mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa; Tao, Shu

    2017-10-01

    Driven by the growing demand for food products of animal origin, industrial livestock and poultry production has become increasingly popular and is on the track of becoming an important source of environmental pollution in China. Although concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have higher production efficiency and profitability with less resource consumption compared to the traditional family-based and "free range" farming, they bring significant environmental pollution concerns and pose public health risks. Gaseous pollutants and bioaerosols are emitted directly from CAFOs, which have health implications on animal producers and neighboring communities. A range of pollutants are excreted with the animal waste, including nutrients, pathogens, natural and synthetic hormones, veterinary antimicrobials, and heavy metals, which can enter local farmland soils, surface water, and groundwater, during the storage and disposal of animal waste, and pose direct and indirect human health risks. The extensive use of antimicrobials in CAFOs also contributes to the global public health concern of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Efforts on treating the large volumes of manure generated in CAFOs should be enhanced (e.g., by biogas digesters and integrated farm systems) to minimize their impacts on the environment and human health. Furthermore, the use of veterinary drugs and feed additives in industrial livestock and poultry farming should be controlled, which will not only make the animal food products much safer to the consumers, but also render the manure more benign for treatment and disposal on farmlands. While improving the sustainability of animal farming, China also needs to promote healthy food consumption, which not only improves public health from avoiding high-meat diets, but also slows down the expansion of industrial animal farming, and thus reduces the associated environmental and public health risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Animal and industrial waste anaerobic digestion: USA status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Pollutants from unmanaged animal and bio-based industrial wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing wastes may contribute to global climate change. One waste management system prevents pollution and converts a disposal problem into a new profit center. Case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel. Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities to properly dispose of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Beyond the farm, extension of the anaerobic digestion process to recover methane has considerable potential for certain classified industries - with a waste stream characterization similar to livestock manures. More than 35 example industries have been identified, and include processors of chemicals, fiber, food, meat, milk, and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries already recover methane for energy. This status report examines some current opportunities for recovering methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes in the US. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned,{close_quotes} are included as a reality check. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some anaerobic digestion projects fail, are provided. The role of management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at facilities willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. Anaerobic digestion can provide monetary benefits and mitigate possible pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality.

  17. Determinants associated with veterinary antimicrobial prescribing in farm animals in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D.C.; Jaarsma, A.D.C.; Gugten, van der A.C.; Verheij, T.J.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A

  18. Determinants Associated with Veterinary Antimicrobial Prescribing in Farm Animals in the Netherlands : A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D. C.; Jaarsma, A. D. C.; van der Gugten, A. C.; Verheij, T. J. M.; Wagenaar, J. A.

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A

  19. Determinants associated with veterinary antimicrobial prescribing in farm animals in the Netherlands : A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D. C.; Jaarsma, A. D C; van der Gugten, A. C.; Verheij, T. J M; Wagenaar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A

  20. Opinions of veterinarians on antimicrobial use in farm animals in Flanders and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D. C.; Jaarsma, A. D. C.; Verheij, T. J. M.; Wagenaar, J. A.; Dewulf, J.

    2016-01-01

    Veterinarians play an important role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals. This study aims to quantify opinions of veterinarians from the Netherlands and Flanders regarding antimicrobial use and resistance issues in farm animals. An online survey was sent out to 678 and 1100 farm

  1. Sequential sampling: a novel method in farm animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, C A E; Main, D C J; Mullan, S; Haskell, M J; Browne, W J

    2016-02-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is an important welfare issue. As part of a welfare assessment, herd level lameness prevalence can be estimated from scoring a sample of animals, where higher levels of accuracy are associated with larger sample sizes. As the financial cost is related to the number of cows sampled, smaller samples are preferred. Sequential sampling schemes have been used for informing decision making in clinical trials. Sequential sampling involves taking samples in stages, where sampling can stop early depending on the estimated lameness prevalence. When welfare assessment is used for a pass/fail decision, a similar approach could be applied to reduce the overall sample size. The sampling schemes proposed here apply the principles of sequential sampling within a diagnostic testing framework. This study develops three sequential sampling schemes of increasing complexity to classify 80 fully assessed UK dairy farms, each with known lameness prevalence. Using the Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme, the first 'basic' scheme involves two sampling events. At the first sampling event half the Welfare Quality sample size is drawn, and then depending on the outcome, sampling either stops or is continued and the same number of animals is sampled again. In the second 'cautious' scheme, an adaptation is made to ensure that correctly classifying a farm as 'bad' is done with greater certainty. The third scheme is the only scheme to go beyond lameness as a binary measure and investigates the potential for increasing accuracy by incorporating the number of severely lame cows into the decision. The three schemes are evaluated with respect to accuracy and average sample size by running 100 000 simulations for each scheme, and a comparison is made with the fixed size Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme. All three schemes performed almost as well as the fixed size scheme but with much smaller average sample sizes. For the third scheme, an overall

  2. Advancement in the Feeding and Nutrition of Farm Animals of Bangladesh and a Panoramic View 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Shahidul Huque

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes genesis and the advances of schooling, research and extension of animal nutrition science and practices in Bangladesh. It portrays sine qua non of the advancement of animal nutrition, fodder production and frontier knowledge of allied disciplines. Domestic growth of good practices and its global and regional competitive advantages are delineated for supporting the growing need of safe animal sourced food pillared with profit, people, planet and the ethics of sustainable production of farm animals. A vision of becoming world middle income country with a national population plateau of around 202.0 million and demographic shifts by 2050 may require the annual production of 130.0 and 27.0 thousand tons of manufactured dairy and beef feed furthering global trading competitions for feed ingredients. This competition may be minimized through the production and supply of domestic sourced unique quality feeds and value additions to roughages. Capacity enhancement in research, education and extension will boost socioeconomic and the production efficiency of farm animals and enhance sustainable growth of feed industry racing with regional and global competitions.

  3. Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Background The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. Discussions An a...

  4. ASSURING QUALITY IN FARM ANIMAL WELFARE CURRICULA: THE CASE OF WELFOOD CURRICULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze virtual learning environments and to provide a framework for assuring quality in farm animal welfare curricula. The framework is constructed according to the experimental learning for a case study developed in the context of the Leonardo da Vinci Community Vocational Training Action Pilot Project entitled “WELFOOD-Promoting quality assurance in animal welfare-environment-food quality interaction studies through upgraded e-Learning”. WELFOOD addressed objectives such as improvement and competencies of the skills in vocational training to promote employability and facilitate integration and reintegration in terms of capabilities and knowledge, needed for improved technologies in animal husbandry and food industry.

  5. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; Velkers, Francisca C; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S

    2017-02-21

    A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting "robust" animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  6. Sustainability of Governing Structures in Bulgarian Farming Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabrin Bachev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue of assessment of absolute and comparative sustainability of major governing structures in agrarian and farming industries is among the most topical issues for researchers, farmers, investors, administrators, politicians, interests groups, and the public worldwide. Despite this issue, practically there are no assessments on the sustainability level of the major types of Bulgarian farming enterprises in the conditions of European Union Common Agricultural Policy implementation. This study applies a holistic framework and assesses the absolute and comparative sustainability of major governing structures in Bulgarian farming industry—unregistered holdings, sole traders, cooperatives, and companies of various types. In this paper, the method of the study is outlined, the inclusion of a novel “governance aspect” of sustainability is justified, and the overall characteristics of the surveyed farming enterprises are presented. Then, the integral, governance, economic, social, and environmental sustainability of the farming structures of different juridical types is assessed. Next, the structure of farming enterprises with different sustainability levels is analyzed. Finally, the conclusion from this study and the directions for further research and amelioration of sustainability assessments are presented.

  7. Role of leptin in farm animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mácajová, M; Lamosová, D; Zeman, M

    2004-05-01

    The discovery of hormone leptin has led to better understanding of the energy balance control. In addition to its effects on food intake and energy expenditure, leptin has now been implicated as a mediator of diverse physiological functions. Recently, leptin has been cloned in several domestic species. The sequence similarity suggests a common function or mechanism of this peptide hormone across species. Leptin receptors are expressed in most of tissues, which is consistent with the multiplicity of leptin functions. The main goal of this review was to summarize knowledge about effect of leptin on physiology of farm animals. Experiments point to a stimulatory action of leptin on growth hormone (GH) secretion, normal growth and development of the brain. Surprisingly, leptin is synthesized at a high rate in placenta and may function as a growth factor for fetus, signalling the nutritional status from the mother to her offspring. Maturation of reproductive system can be stimulated by leptin administration. Morphological and hormonal changes, consistent with a major role of leptin in the reproductive system, have also been described, including the stimulation of the release of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin. Leptin has a substantial effect on food intake and feeding behaviour in animals. Administration of leptin reduces food intake. Its level decrease within hours after initiation of fasting. Leptin also serves as a mediator of the adaptation to fasting, and this role may be the primary function for which was the molecule evolved.

  8. Update welzijnsprestaties biologische veehouderij = Update animal welfare status of organic farming in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, M.A.W.; Pinxterhuis, J.B.; Vrolijk, M.

    2010-01-01

    Organic farming intends to farm in a socially responsible manner, with attention for, among others, environment, climate, nature and landscape, food quality, income and animal welfare. This report focuses on animal welfare, as one of the sustainability themes. The existing knowledge about the

  9. Determinants associated with veterinary antimicrobial prescribing in farm animals in the Netherlands: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, D C; Jaarsma, A D C; van der Gugten, A C; Verheij, T J M; Wagenaar, J A

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A thorough understanding of veterinarians' current prescribing practices and their reasons to prescribe antimicrobials might offer leads for interventions to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study of factors that influence prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians. Semi-structured interviews with eleven farm animal veterinarians were conducted, which were taped, transcribed and iteratively analysed. This preliminary analysis was further discussed and refined in an expert meeting. A final conceptual model was derived from the analysis and sent to all the respondents for validation. Many conflicting interests are identifiable when it comes to antimicrobial prescribing by farm animal veterinarians. Belief in the professional obligation to alleviate animal suffering, financial dependency on clients, risk avoidance, shortcomings in advisory skills, financial barriers for structural veterinary herd health advisory services, lack of farmers' compliance to veterinary recommendations, public health interests, personal beliefs regarding the veterinary contribution to antimicrobial resistance and major economic powers are all influential determinants in antimicrobial prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians. Interventions to change prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians could address attitudes and advisory skills of veterinarians, as well as provide tools to deal with (perceived) pressure from farmers and advisors to prescribe antimicrobials. Additional (policy) measures could probably support farm animal veterinarians in acting as a more independent animal health consultant. © 2014 Blackwell

  10. Animal welfare in brown trout farming: hematological results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forneris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of stress resulting from fish farming has received considerable attention in this last period and fish welfare in aquaculture is a relevant topic, very important for the future of aquaculture (Watson et al., 2004; Klinger et al., 1996; Peres et al., 2004; Ron et al., 1995;Wagner et al., 1995;Watson et al., 1998. Brown trout farming is less developed then rainbow trout farming, but this kind of fish farming is increasing, mainly for fish conservation and restocking aquaculture.

  11. Reproductive research on farm animals for Australia--some long-distance goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G B

    1995-01-01

    In Australia, much of the research on the reproduction of farm animals has emphasised the technological manipulation of the reproductive tract, gametes and embryos. However, most of the animal production in Australia is still based on sheep and beef cattle enterprises that are managed on an extensive scale; the managers need technologies that can be easily and cheaply implemented on a large scale, and that are aimed at extensive control rather than intensive manipulation. For example, for synchronizing oestrus in the wool flocks the "ram effect' has, and probably always will have, far more impact on extensive grazing systems than technologies based on exogenous prostaglandins or progestagens. This can also apply to the newer animal industries (such as emu farming), to human problems (such as population control), and to environmental problems (such as control of feral animals). Moreover, under the pressure of public opinion, the industries that are currently intensive are going 'free range'. In addition, surgical managerial tools (such as castration) will probably have to be abandoned or replaced. To cope with such profound influences, new types of reproductive management systems will be needed. This paper is an attempt to broaden our research horizons by developing the concept of 'control systems technologies', aimed at controlling reproductive performance rather than simply improving it. Ideas for such technologies already exist and are evident in the responses to environmental factors that our farm animals developed under the pressure of natural selection (before domestication). Stress, nutrition, photoperiod, lactation, and socio-sexual cues (e.g. pheromones) can all exert profound effects on reproductive activity. We already have a good grasp of the final common pathway through which the brain responses to these factors affect gonadal activity, namely the hypothalamic system that generates pulses of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. All we need to do is learn

  12. Effect of structural animal health planning on antimicrobial use and animal health variables in conventional dairy farming in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, David C; Graveland, Haitske; Eijck, Ineke A J M; Schepers, René W M; Heederik, Dick J J; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-06-01

    Widespread veterinary use of antimicrobials might contribute to the increasing burden of antimicrobial resistance. Despite many successful efforts to reduce veterinary antimicrobial use in the Netherlands, antimicrobial use on a substantial number of farms has remained relatively high over the past few years. Farm-specific solutions are required to further lower antimicrobial use on these farms. Reducing the burden of animal diseases at the farm level by means of a structured approach to animal health planning could be promising. This intervention study aimed to evaluate the main effects of an animal health planning program developed by an advisory team consisting of a dairy farmer, his veterinarian, and his feed adviser under the guidance of a professional facilitator. During an initial farm visit, the advisory team developed a farm-specific animal health planning program with support from the facilitator. After 1 yr, the effects of this program on animal health, production parameters, and antimicrobial use were evaluated and compared with control farms that did not have a facilitated animal health planning program. Antimicrobial use on intervention farms was significantly reduced between the start and the end of the study period; however, no significant differences in the rate of reduction between the intervention and control groups could be observed (-19% and -14%, respectively). Reduced antimicrobial use did not result in negative effects on animal health and production parameters during the study period in both groups. On intervention farms, a significant positive relationship was found between the percentage of completed action points at farm level and the percentage reduction in antimicrobial use. The level of compliance with action points and the quality of collaboration between farmer and advisers were positively associated with the accomplishment of corresponding objectives. However, the total number of objectives was negatively associated with the level

  13. Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 1: Farm livestock and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Raimon; Croubels, Siska; Caloni, Francesca; Sachana, Magda; Davanzo, Franca; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Berny, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    The lack of a reference Veterinary Poison Control Centre for the European Union (EU) means that clinicians find it difficult to obtain information on poisoning episodes. This three-part review collates published and unpublished data obtained from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last decade in order to provide a broader toxicoepidemiological perspective. The first article critically evaluates the national situation in the five European countries and concludes that information for livestock and poultry is limited and fragmentary compared to other animal groups. The analysis has revealed that clinical cases of poisoning are only occasionally studied in depth and that cattle are the species most frequently reported. Several plants and mycotoxins, a few pesticides and metals, together with contaminants of industrial origin, such as dioxins, are responsible for most of the recorded cases. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC CROP AND ANIMAL FARMS IN ROMANIA. COMPARATIVE EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The organic sector in our country, although as shown in continuous development, faces a multitude of problems: the climatic conditions of our country, characterized by periods of drought in many parts of the country, high input prices, the majority of which are imported; difficulties in identifying markets for products, reduced subsidies, standardized conditions difficult to meet, etc. The problems the sector is facing reflect in the organization of the production activity and hence the economic performance of farm production. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to analyze on the basis of annual financial and accounting information collected in the two vegetable farms and the two animal breeding farms, their efficiency / inefficiency, and the results were compared to identify the causes of the differences obtained in the efficiency at a farm level. The results obtained reveal a higher level of return on integrated vegetable farm in a joint recovery and a high efficiency for chain integrated animal farms.

  15. Renewable Energy From Animal Biomass – Farm Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Amour, Kenneth [Vermont Public Power Supply Authority, Waterbury Center, VT (United States)

    2013-08-31

    The major goal of the project is to develop 2 anaerobic digesters on family farms in rural Vermont. We have accomplished half of that goal, with 1 digester operating on the Gebbie Maplehurst Farm in Greensboro, Vermont. The 2nd digester is planned as a student demonstration unit at Vermont Technical College in Randolph Center, Vermont. That half of the project has not commenced. We will limit our discussion to the Gebbie Maplehurst Farm project. A 150MW generator is installed on the farm and is producing electricity which is being sold as part of the Standard Offer Program within the State of Vermont. The induction generator is the first of its kind manufactured by Martin Machinery of Latham, Missouri. The project is currently generating approximately 15% - 20% of the capacity as shown in appendix I. However, it is anticipated that details will quickly be worked out to increase that capacity factor.

  16. Animation and Game Industry:For a Good Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rose Yan

    2011-01-01

    @@ On October 24th, International Development Forum on Animation and Game Industry was held in Shi-jingshan District Beijing.The Forum was centered on the theme "Innovation and Development of Animation and Game Industry".Experts, government officials, entrepreneurs in the related fields gathered together and discussed the development of the animation and game industry now and in the future.

  17. Potential of plant polyphenols to combat oxidative stress and inflammatory processes in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, D K; Ringseis, R; Eder, K

    2017-08-01

    Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites which have been shown to exert antioxidative and antiinflamma tory effects in cell culture, rodent and human studies. Based on the fact that conditions of oxidative stress and inflammation are highly relevant in farm animals, polyphenols are considered as promising feed additives in the nutrition of farm animals. However, in contrast to many studies existing with model animals and humans, potential antioxidative and antiinflammatory effects of polyphenols have been less investigated in farm animals so far. This review aims to give an overview about potential antioxidative and antiinflammatory effects in farm animals. The first part of the review highlights the occurrence and the consequences of oxidative stress and inflammation on animal health and performance. The second part of the review deals with bioavailability and metabolism of polyphenols in farm animals. The third and main part of the review presents an overview of the findings from studies which investigated the effects of polyphenols of various plant sources in pigs, poultry and cattle, with particular consideration of effects on the antioxidant system and inflammation. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Qualitative stakeholder analysis for the development of sustainable monitoringssystem for farm animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Greef, de K.H.; Hopster, H.

    2005-01-01

    Continued concern for animal welfare may be alleviated when welfare would be monitored on farms. Monitoring can be characterized as an information system where various stakeholders periodically exchange relevant information. Stakeholders include producers, consumers, retailers, the government,

  19. Farm Animal Welfare Influences on Markets and Consumer Attitudes in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C.; Teixeira, Dayane Lemos

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, animal welfare has become an important element of sustainable production that has evolved along with the transformation of animal production systems. Consumer attitudes towards farm animal welfare are changing around the world, especially at emerging markets of Asia, Africa...... and Latin America. Survey-based research on consumer attitudes towards farm animal welfare has increased. However, the geographical coverage of studies on consumer attitudes and perceptions about farm animal welfare has mostly been limited to Europe, and North America. Until now, Latin American consumers......’ attitudes towards animal welfare have not been well studied. Despite the fact that Mexico, Chile and Brazil belong to the same region (according to international organizations), there are marked differences between these countries in terms of their economical and geographical characteristics among other...

  20. The relationship between animal welfare and economic performance at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Forkman, Björn

    We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique data set of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections of the co......We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique data set of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections...... of the compliance with the animal welfare legislation. We find large variations in economic performance indicators and animal welfare indicators. The relationship between these two indicators is rather weak, but tends to be slightly positive. We conclude that management has a major influence on both economic...... performance and animal welfare so that good farm managers are able to obey all animal welfare regulations and, at the same time, achieve a high economic performance....

  1. Dilemmas experienced by government veterinarians when responding professionally to farm animal welfare incidents in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, C; Kelly, P; Blake, M; Hanlon, A; More, S J

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies the dilemmas experienced by government veterinarians during their investigations of farm animal welfare incidents that involve herd owner social, health, and/or psychological difficulties. The paper builds on exploratory qualitative research into the impact of these difficulties on farm animal welfare. The study used a qualitative research approach. Focus groups were conducted. In Ireland, an Early Warning System (EWS), which brings together relevant agencies, is in place to identify and prevent farm animal welfare problems before they become critical. This study is concerned with the experiences of government veterinarians who respond to farm animal welfare incidents. Specific focus is on incidents that involve herd owner social/psychological/health-related difficulties. In total, n=18 government veterinarians (representing 15 per cent of the population sample), all with a keen interest in farm animal welfare, participated. These were selected on the basis of their interest, experience, and involvement in farm animal welfare. One government veterinarian declined to participate. Four focus groups were conducted with government veterinarians. These took place in the south (S), south-west (SW), midlands (M), and north-west region of Ireland (NW). All 16 District Veterinary Offices (DVOs) were represented in the focus groups. The results reveal three professional dilemmas that exist for government veterinarians: (1) defining professional parameters; (2) determining the appropriate response; (3) involvement versus detachment. Participants reported not wanting any additional training. Instead, it was agreed that a formal bridge to social service providers who have the professional capability to respond appropriately and with confidence, was required. Clearly defined guidelines are required for government veterinarians in their encounters with farm animal welfare incidents where there is a complex human component. A coordinated multiagency approach

  2. From cruelty to welfare: the emergence of farm animal welfare in Britain, 1964-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-03-01

    There is a long history of concern in Britain for how animals are treated. Until the 1960s, these concerns were expressed largely in terms of cruelty or suffering, which was prevented through various acts of Parliament. Over the period 1964-71, amidst public debates about intensive farming, a new discourse of animal welfare emerged. To understand what welfare meant and how it became established as a term, a concept and a target of government regulation, it is necessary to examine farming politics and practices, the existing tradition of animal protection and attempts to rethink the nature of animal suffering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting farm-level animal populations using environmental and socioeconomic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Mary; Jewell, Christopher; McKenzie, Joanna; Hollings, Tracey; Robinson, Andrew; Burgman, Mark; Bingham, Paul; Carpenter, Tim

    2017-09-15

    Accurate information on the geographic distribution of domestic animal populations helps biosecurity authorities to efficiently prepare for and rapidly eradicate exotic diseases, such as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). Developing and maintaining sufficiently high-quality data resources is expensive and time consuming. Statistical modelling of population density and distribution has only begun to be applied to farm animal populations, although it is commonly used in wildlife ecology. We developed zero-inflated Poisson regression models in a Bayesian framework using environmental and socioeconomic variables to predict the counts of livestock units (LSUs) and of cattle on spatially referenced farm polygons in a commercially available New Zealand farm database, Agribase. Farm-level counts of cattle and of LSUs varied considerably by region, because of the heterogeneous farming landscape in New Zealand. The amount of high quality pasture per farm was significantly associated with the presence of both cattle and LSUs. Internal model validation (predictive performance) showed that the models were able to predict the count of the animal population on groups of farms that were located in randomly selected 3km zones with a high level of accuracy. Predicting cattle or LSU counts on individual farms was less accurate. Predicted counts were statistically significantly more variable for farms that were contract grazing dry stock, such as replacement dairy heifers and dairy cattle not currently producing milk, compared with other farm types. This analysis presents a way to predict numbers of LSUs and cattle for farms using environmental and socio-economic data. The technique has the potential to be extrapolated to predicting other pastoral based livestock species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists’ Perceptions of Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A.; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H.; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary We studied different EU production standards and initiatives to determine whether there is still room or not for further animal welfare improvement, and which should be the best way to achieve it. Many of the adopted measures in these standards and initiatives are scientifically supported, but other aspects that are equally important for animal welfare are not included in any of them. Animal welfare improvement should consider, for each country, those aspects actually benefiting animals, but also the social expectations within each country. Economic constraints might explain the gap between what society demands, and what farm animals actually need. Abstract Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts’ assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways’ design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what

  5. The interaction of ethical questions and farm animal welfare science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2012-01-01

    , following debates starting in the early 1990s, it is now widely recognised that scientific assessments of animal welfare simply cannot avoid making ethical assumptions. Using simple but realistic examples, the presentation will explain how ethical assumptions inform the study and assessment of animal...... states (pain and enjoyment or pleasure)? Perhaps we should try to assess preference satisfaction, or the extent to which the animal lives in a natural way. By choosing a specific definition of animal welfare the researcher will be taking a stance on what matters in our dealings with animals. Secondly....... Would such a narrow focus miss something of ethical importance? Thirdly, ethical assumptions are hugely important when researchers aggregate their results in an effort to say something about the net welfare of a group of animals. Here decisions have to be taken as to how different aspects of animal...

  6. Role of joy in farm animal welfare legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gall, Philipp; Gjerris, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    While animal welfare is commonly invoked in legal debates regarding non-human animals kept for food purposes, the concept of animal joy is rarely mentioned in such contexts. This paper analyzes the relationship between welfare and joy in the German animal protection law (GAPL) and in the EU...... directive 98/58/EC. Based on a review of scientific and philosophical approaches towards animal welfare, joy is argued to be a part of welfare. Nevertheless, joy is ignored in the German and EU legal provisions. While there may be economic disadvantages of legally protecting animal joy, it is argued...... that overlooking elements of joy cannot be justified from any ethical perspective that claims to take animal welfare into consideration. In order to clarify the aims of the legal provisions, decision-makers need to define the role joy ought to play in welfare legislation....

  7. Do terrestrial animals avoid areas close to turbines in functioning wind farms in agricultural landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopucki, Rafał; Klich, Daniel; Gielarek, Sylwia

    2017-07-01

    Most studies on the effects of wind energy on animals have focused on avian and bat activity, habitat use, and mortality, whereas very few have been published on terrestrial, non-volant wildlife. In this paper, we studied the utilization of functioning wind farm areas by four terrestrial animals common to agricultural landscapes: European roe deer, European hare, red fox, and the common pheasant. Firstly, we expected that the studied animals do not avoid areas close to turbines and utilize the whole area of functioning wind farms with a frequency similar to the control areas. Secondly, we expected that there is no relation between the turbine proximity and the number of tracks of these animals. The study was conducted over two winter seasons using the snow-tracking method along 100 m linear transects. In total, 583 transects were recorded. Wind farm operations may affect terrestrial animals both in wind farm interiors and in a 700-m buffer zone around the edge of turbines. The reactions of animals were species specific. Herbivorous mammals (roe deer and European hare) avoided wind farm interiors and proximity to turbines. The common pheasant showed a positive reaction to wind turbine proximity. The red fox had the most neutral response to wind turbines. Although this species visited wind farm interiors less often than the control area, there was no relation between fox track density and turbine proximity. Greater weight should be given to the effects of wind farms on non-flying wildlife than at present. Investors and regulatory authorities should always consider the likely impacts of wind farms during environmental impact assessments and try to reduce these negative effects.

  8. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists' Perceptions of Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A M

    2013-08-14

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts' assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways' design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what farm animals are likely to need are related to transportation and space availability, with economic constraints being the most plausible explanation.

  9. The Profitability of Animal Husbandry Activities on Farms in Dry Farming Areas and the Interaction between Crop Production and Animal Husbandry: The Case of Ankara Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tanrıvermis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the linkages between livestock and crop farming activities and provides a comparative analysis of the profitability of different livestock activities in the highlands of Ankara. The data was collected from 52 sample farms in the Nallıhan, Aya¸s, Güdül and Beypazarı districts of Ankara by way of a questionnaire, where the farms have, on average, 20.7 ha of land and are thus regarded as small family farms. Insufficient irrigated land and working capital, weak market relations and the pressure of high population brings about a requirement to strengthen crop-livestock interaction. Production on the farms is generally carried out in extensive conditions, with goat, sheep and cattle husbandry in addition to crop production. Crop production makes up for 20.8% of the total gross production value on the farms. Of this figure, the entire yields of wheat, barley, pulses, straw and fodder crops are used for own consumption by the households, along with 74% of the wheat and 77% of the barley produced. The research results indicate that the current management systems may be defined as mixed farms in terms of crop–livestock linkages. The average total income of the households surveyed is 9,412.0 USD, of which 63.4% comes from farming activities. Every 1 USD invested in animal husbandry provides an income of 1.12 USD from dairy cattle breeding, 1.13 USD from Angora goat breeding, 1.16 USD from sheep breeding and 1.27 USD from ordinary goat breeding. It has been found that ordinary goat breeding, which provides the greatest relative profitability for the farms, offers many advantages, and that the transition from Angora goat breeding to ordinary goat breeding through the breeding of ordinary male goats into the Angora herd has occurred in recent years. The results of the survey indicate that supporting crop production with animal husbandry is considered a requirement in order to maintain economic and social sustainability in the farms

  10. Opinions of veterinarians on antimicrobial use in farm animals in Flanders and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, M; Speksnijder, D C; Jaarsma, A D C; Verheij, T J M; Wagenaar, J A; Dewulf, J

    2016-07-16

    Veterinarians play an important role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals. This study aims to quantify opinions of veterinarians from the Netherlands and Flanders regarding antimicrobial use and resistance issues in farm animals. An online survey was sent out to 678 and 1100 farm animal veterinarians in Flanders and the Netherlands, of which 174 and 437 were returned respectively. Suboptimal climate conditions were regarded as the most important cause for high antimicrobial use in farm animals. Flemish veterinarians also regarded insufficient biosecurity measures and farmers' mentality as important determinants, while the Dutch respondents ranked insufficient immunity of young animals and economic considerations of farmers as major causes. The majority of Dutch respondents (63.8 per cent) supported the existing national policy, which aimed to halve veterinary antimicrobial use, while the Flemish (32.9 per cent) were less supportive of such a policy. Improvements in housing and climate conditions, biosecurity measures and strict control of specific infectious diseases were seen as important and promising measures to reduce antimicrobial use. To reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals, some shared approaches might be applicable in both countries. However, cultural, political and societal differences between Flanders and the Netherlands require differentiated approaches to reduce veterinary antimicrobial use. British Veterinary Association.

  11. [The attitude of German veterinarians towards farm animal welfare: results of a cluster analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Heinke; Kemper, Nicole; Theuvsen, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the issue of animal welfare in intensive livestock production systems has been subjected to increasing criticism from the broad public. Some groups in society ask for higher animal welfare standards and there is an increas- ing number of consumers who prefer meat from more animal friendly husbandry systems. An intense social debate on animal welfare has flared up in the recent past. Veterinarians are considered as experts for the assessment of animal welfare. Nevertheless they are rarely consulted in the current debate. Therefore, only little is known about their attitude towards animal welfare in livestock farming. Even for Germany, there is so far no comprehensive analysis about their atti- tudes towards animal welfare and animal welfare programs. In the present study, 433 veterinarians were questioned via an online survey. The results show that veterinarians have a very differentiated perception of the issue animal welfare. Four groups (clusters) which have different attitudes towards livestock farming, voluntary animal welfare programs, farm size and the effects of national animal welfare standards were identified.

  12. A simple value-distinction approach aids transparency in farm animal welfare debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, de K.H.; Stafleu, F.; Lauwere, de C.C.

    2006-01-01

    Public debate on acceptable farm animal husbandry suffers from a confusion of tongues. To clarify positions of various stakeholder groups in their joint search for acceptable solutions, the concept of animal welfare was split up into three notions: no suffering, respect for intrinsic value, and

  13. Direct versus Indirect Questioning: An Application to the Well-Being of Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Jayson L.; Norwood, F. Bailey

    2010-01-01

    Recent events suggest people are increasingly concerned not just with their own well-being but that of animals as well. However, there is little systematic evidence on people's willingness-to-trade their own well-being and quality of life for improvements in the well-being of farm animals. In this paper, we utilize a straightforward and…

  14. Assessing the human-animal relationship in farmed species: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waiblinger, S.; Boivin, X.; Pedersen, V.; Tosi, M.; Janczak, A.M.; Visser, E.K.; Jones, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper focuses on six main issues. First, we briefly explain why an increased understanding of the human¿animal relationship (HAR) is an essential component of any strategy intended to improve the welfare of farmed animals and their stockpersons. Second, we list the main internal and

  15. An on-farm investigation of beef suckler herds using an animal welfare index (AWI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Mickael; Prendiville, Daniel J; Crowe, Mark A; Veissier, Isabelle; Earley, Bernadette

    2010-12-13

    Beef suckler farms (194 farms throughout 13 counties) were assessed once with housed cattle and once with cattle at grass using an animal welfare index (AWI). Twenty-three of the 194 farms were revisited a year later and re-evaluated using the AWI and the Tier-Gerechtheits-Index 35L/2000 (TGI35L/2000). Thirty-three indicators were collected in five categories: locomotion (5 indicators); social interactions (between animals) (7), flooring (5), environment (7) and Stockpersonship (9). Three indicators relating to the size of the farm were also collected.Improving animal welfare is an increasingly important aspect of livestock production systems predominantly due to increased consumer concern about the source of animal products. The objectives were (i) to evaluate animal welfare of Irish beef suckler herds using an animal welfare index (AWI), (ii) to examine correlations between parameters, how they influence the AWI and investigate the applicability of the parameters used, (iii) to investigate the impact of the activity of the farmer (full-time or part-time), the interest of the farmer and the number of animals on the AWI. The mean AWI was 65% and ranged from 54% to 83%. The grazing period represented 16.5% of the total points of the AWI. Seventy percent of the farms were rated as "Very Good" or "Excellent". There was no difference (P > 0.05) in AWI between full-time and part-time farmers. Part-time farmers had greater (P = 0.01) "social interactions": calving (P = 0.03) and weaning (P animals (P = 0.03) and their animals had less lameness (P = 0.01). The number of animals on-farm and the interest of the Stockperson were negatively and positively correlated (P = 0.001), respectively, with the AWI. A hierarchical classification was performed to examine how the indicators influenced the AWI. The AWI was easily applicable for an on-farm evaluation of welfare. The Stockpersonship was an important factor in determining the AWI (11% of the total variation) more

  16. Animal breeding in organic farming:Discussion paper

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, Wytze; Baars, Nauta; Groen, Ab; Veerkamp, Roel; Roep, Dirk

    2001-01-01

    It is uncertain whether animals which have been bred for conventional production are capable of optimum performance in organic conditions. In conventional agriculture there is a movement towards maximum control of production conditions in order to optimise animals' yield in intensive production systems. By contrast, organic agriculture is based on natural processes and closed cycles, and takes into account the underlying connections between production factors. Following organic ideology, prod...

  17. Simulation of between-farm transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Ontario, Canada using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Krishna K; Revie, Crawford W; Hurnik, Daniel; Poljak, Zvonimir; Sanchez, Javier

    2015-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), a viral disease of swine, has major economic impacts on the swine industry. The North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM) is a spatial, stochastic, farm level state-transition modeling framework originally developed to simulate highly contagious and foreign livestock diseases. The objectives of this study were to develop a model to simulate between-farm spread of a homologous strain of PRRS virus in Ontario swine farms via direct (animal movement) and indirect (sharing of trucks between farms) contacts using the NAADSM and to compare the patterns and extent of outbreak under different simulated conditions. A total of 2552 swine farms in Ontario province were allocated to each census division of Ontario and geo-locations of the farms were randomly generated within the agriculture land of each Census Division. Contact rates among different production types were obtained using pig movement information from four regions in Canada. A total of 24 scenarios were developed involving various direct (movement of infected animals) and indirect (pig transportation trucks) contact parameters in combination with alternating the production type of the farm in which the infection was seeded. Outbreaks were simulated for one year with 1000 replications. The median number of farms infected, proportion of farms with multiple outbreaks and time to reach the peak epidemic were used to compare the size, progression and extent of outbreaks. Scenarios involving spread only by direct contact between farms resulted in outbreaks where the median percentage of infected farms ranged from 31.5 to 37% of all farms. In scenarios with both direct and indirect contact, the median percentage of infected farms increased to a range from 41.6 to 48.6%. Furthermore, scenarios with both direct and indirect contact resulted in a 44% increase in median epidemic size when compared to the direct contact scenarios. Incorporation of both animal

  18. Pigs and profits: hybrids of animals, technology and humans in Danish industrialised farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Vaarst, Mette; Bubandt, Nils

    2013-01-01

    that attend the separation between ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ in the modern constitution, we trace how this paradox plays itself out on Danish pig farms. The paper argues that, although they have to be consistently ignored, hybrids of various kinds are essential to the co-production of meat and profit......Farm animals live and die as part of a food production system rich in paradoxes. One central paradox of modern farming revolves around the classic anthropological opposition between ‘nature’ and ‘culture’. Inspired by Bruno Latour's diagnosis of the processes of purification and mediation...

  19. On-farm conditions that compromise animal welfare that can be monitored at the slaughter plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Temple

    2017-10-01

    Handling and stunning at slaughter plants has greatly improved through the use of numerical scoring. The purpose of this paper is to encourage the use of numerical scoring systems at the slaughter plants to assess conditions that compromise welfare that occurred either during transport or on the farm. Some of the transport problems that can be assessed are bruises, death losses, and injured animals. Welfare issues that occurred on the farm that can be assessed at the abattoir are body condition, lameness, lesions, injuries, animal cleanliness and internal pathology. There are important welfare issues that cannot be assessed at slaughter. They are on-farm euthanasia methods, use of analgesics during surgeries, and the type of animal housing systems. Welfare evaluations at slaughter have the potential to greatly improve welfare. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. U.S. consumers attitudes toward farm animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kathleen R; Lusk, Jayson L

    2011-10-01

    In January 2008, the United States Food and Drug Administration concluded "meat and milk from cattle, swine, and goat clones or their offspring are as safe to eat as food we eat from those species now" (U.S. FDA, 2010). However, cloning remains a very controversial topic. A web-based survey administered by Knowledge Networks was used to determine U.S. consumers' awareness of and attitudes toward meat and milk from cloned cattle. Findings reveal consumers do not differentiate much between products from cloned animals and products from non-cloned animals. Overall consumers are concerned that animal cloning is an unnatural process and that it will lead to human cloning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pluripotent stem cells and reprogrammed cells in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Imialek, Monika; Kues, Wilfried; Carnwath, Joseph W; Niemann, Heiner

    2011-08-01

    Pluripotent cells are unique because of their ability to differentiate into the cell lineages forming the entire organism. True pluripotent stem cells with germ line contribution have been reported for mice and rats. Human pluripotent cells share numerous features of pluripotentiality, but confirmation of their in vivo capacity for germ line contribution is impossible due to ethical and legal restrictions. Progress toward derivation of embryonic stem cells from domestic species has been made, but the derived cells were not able to produce germ line chimeras and thus are termed embryonic stem-like cells. However, domestic animals, in particular the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are excellent large animals models, in which the clinical potential of stem cell therapies can be studied. Reprogramming technologies for somatic cells, including somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion, in vitro culture in the presence of cell extracts, in vitro conversion of adult unipotent spermatogonial stem cells into germ line derived pluripotent stem cells, and transduction with reprogramming factors have been developed with the goal of obtaining pluripotent, germ line competent stem cells from domestic animals. This review summarizes the present state of the art in the derivation and maintenance of pluripotent stem cells in domestic animals.

  2. Farm animal health managements and treatment practices at Diga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal sex, age, species and body condition were considered. Cases were characterized and determined using tentative diagnosis and patho-gnomonic signs. The owners were also interviewed for local name of the disease. The respective therapeutic drugs used were also assessed. Male cattle (57.7%), poultry (76.3%) ...

  3. Draft Animal Power at the Core of Strategies of Family Farms in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Havard

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis was carried out on the use of draft animal power in three contrasted situations: the groundnut basin of Senegal, North-Cameroon, and Eastern Burkina Faso. The objective was to characterize draft animal power within farms. In each situation, data were collected according to specific methods and tools, and with the collaboration of various partners, but they did not allow for comparisons between the three countries. In any case, the analysis shows that farmers’ access to animal draft is often a difficult and step by step project. The first step is the acquisition of draft animals, which can require years of effort. The introduction of animal traction leads to major changes in the production system of farmers who need to find a balance between land and energy availability, and manpower. The use of animals helps expand cultivated areas and develop crop/livestock integration. It changes the work organization and distribution, and generates new incomes. Finally, it creates new tasks related to husbandry activities, which thus lead to more expenses from farmers. At the farm level, analyses show that farmers acquire implements in various ways and therefore use various strategies in order to have access to and retain animal traction. They also confirm the central role of animal traction in the life cycle of the farms. At the village level, they show the determining role of work and land exchanges among farms in the process of animal traction acquisition. This process is at an advanced stage in the Senegalese groundnut basin and at an earlier stage in Eastern Burkina Faso and North-Cameroon. It is essential to assist these processes. Priorities must be given to the acquisition of draft animals for unequipped farmers in Eastern Burkina Faso and North-Cameroon, and to taking sustainable measures in all three countries studied, particularly in Senegal: diversified activities, technique control, area-specific innovations.

  4. Introduction of infected animals to herds is an important route for the spread of Yersinia enterocolitica infection between pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, S; Nikunen, S; Korkeala, H

    2014-01-01

    Altogether, 369 pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica isolates from 1,118 fecal samples collected from 22 pig farms of different production types were characterized by biotyping, serotyping, and genotyping using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis. We investigated the distribution of the different genotypes at the farm level and their association with different farm conditions. Pigs were found to carry and transmit Y. enterocolitica between farms, because the same genotypes were found on farms that had previously transported the pigs between them. The purchase of new animals for the farms associated significantly with the number of different multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis types of Y. enterocolitica found within a farm. Some genotypes seemed to persist on farms for years. The results of this study show that pigs purchased from infected herds transmit Y. enterocolitica infection between farms. Certain pig farms may act as long-term sources of infection.

  5. Usage of Farm Animal Waste for Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankina, O. V.; Chernysh, A. P.; Sankin, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    The article considers problems connecting with the development of cattle breeding in Russia, especially the utilization of animals and poultry waste products. Basing on the foreign scientists’ experience, it has been proposed different solutions to this problem in terms of the Russian Federation, conducted the study, and presented the results of the undertaken experiments. Recommendations on the use of substances, that speed up fermentation processes at certain temperatures, has been developed.

  6. Pluripotent cells in farm animals: state of the art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Imialek, Monika; Niemann, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, embryonic germ cells and embryonic carcinoma cells are a unique type of cell because they remain undifferentiated indefinitely in in vitro culture, show self-renewal and possess the ability to differentiate into derivatives of the three germ layers. These capabilities make them a unique in vitro model for studying development, differentiation and for targeted modification of the genome. True pluripotent ESCs have only been described in the laboratory mouse and rat. However, rodent physiology and anatomy differ substantially from that of humans, detracting from the value of the rodent model for studies of human diseases and the development of cellular therapies in regenerative medicine. Recently, progress in the isolation of pluripotent cells in farm animals has been made and new technologies for reprogramming of somatic cells into a pluripotent state have been developed. Prior to clinical application of therapeutic cells differentiated from pluripotent stem cells in human patients, their survival and the absence of tumourigenic potential must be assessed in suitable preclinical large animal models. The establishment of pluripotent cell lines in farm animals may provide new opportunities for the production of transgenic animals, would facilitate development and validation of large animal models for evaluating ESC-based therapies and would thus contribute to the improvement of human and animal health. This review summarises the recent progress in the derivation of pluripotent and reprogrammed cells from farm animals. We refer to our recent review on this area, to which this article is complementary.

  7. Use and non-use values as motivational construct dimensions for farm animal welfare: impacts on the economic outcome for the farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, H; Lagerkvist, C J; Azar, G

    2018-01-24

    This study explored how farmers' motivation in terms of use values and/or non-use values to work with farm animal welfare are associated with the economic outcome for the farm. Use values in farm animal welfare refer to economic value derived from productivity and profitability considerations. Non-use values in farm animal welfare refer to economic value derived from good animal welfare, irrespective of the use the farmer derives from the animal, currently or in the future. The analysis was based on detailed information about the income statements of a sample of Swedish dairy farmers, obtained from the Swedish Farm Economic Survey, complemented with survey information about their perceived use and non-use values in farm animal welfare. The findings suggest that farm economic outcome is significantly associated with motivation in terms of use values, but not so much with motivation in terms of non-use values. This is interesting from a policy point of view, because it indicates that farmers with different approaches to farm animal welfare may experience different economic outcomes for their farms. Findings can, for instance, be used to strengthen farmers' engagement in various private quality assurance standards, which generally focus on values of non-use type, by pointing to that realisation of such values will not impair the economic outcome of the farms. Moreover, findings also suggest that farmers' economic incentives for engagement in such standards may need to be further strengthened in order to become more attractive, as findings point to that a focus on non-use values generally is not associated with more favourable economic outcomes.

  8. [Dermatomycoses due to pets and farm animals : neglected infections?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Vissiennon, T; Wichmann, K; Gräser, Y; Tchernev, G

    2012-11-01

    Dermatomycoses due to contact with pets and livestock frequently affect children and young adults. Zoophilic dermatophytes are the main important causative agents. It has long been known that the often high inflammatory dermatophytoses of the skin and the scalp are caused mostly by Microsporum canis. Due to an absence of an obligation for reporting fungal infections of the skin to the Public Health Office in Germany, an unnoticed but significant change in responsible pathogens has occurred. Today an increasing number of infections due to zoophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale (formerly Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae are found. The latter mentioned dermatophyte is the anamorph species of the teleomorph Arthroderma benhamiae, which originally was isolated in the Far East (Japan). Source of infection of these dermatophytes are small rodents, in particular guinea pigs. These animals are bought in pet shops by the parents of those children who later are affected by the fungal infection. The coincidental purchase of the relevant fungal pathogen is not obvious to the parents. As a consequence, highly contagious dermatophytoses occur, often tinea capitis sometimes with kerion formation. Further dermatophytes should be considered as cause of a zoophilic dermatomycosis. Both Trichophyton verrucosum, the cause of the ringworm in cattle, and Trichophyton erinacei following contact to hedgehogs are worthy of note. Yeasts cannot be ignored as cause of dermatomycosis, especially Malassezia pachydermatis, the only non-lipophilic species within the genus Malassezia, which can be transferred from dog to men. Cryptococcus neoformans also comes from animal sources. The mucous yeast occurs in bird's dropping, and it causes both pulmonary and central nervous system infections, but also primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis in immunocompromised patients (HIV/AIDS) as possible consequence after contact to these animals.

  9. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruford, Michael W; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Amaral, Andreia J; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F; Hall, Stephen J G; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However,

  10. The relationship between animal welfare and economic performance at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Forkman, Björn

    2018-01-01

    We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique dataset of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections of the com...

  11. Brain tumors in children and adolescents and exposure to animals and farm life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Röösli, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of brain tumors in children and adolescents is largely unknown, and very few environmental risk factors have been identified. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between pre- or postnatal animal contacts or farm exposures and the risk of childhood brain tumors (CBTs...

  12. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruford, M.W.; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Megens, Hendrik Jan

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR).

  13. Public morals in private hands? : a study into the evolving path of farm animal welfare governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toschi Maciel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Executive summary

    The advancement of regulatory instruments providing for farm animal welfare measures has been marked by various political and regulatory constraints in both domestic and international settings.In an attempt to overcome some of these constraints, a number of

  14. Understanding "Animal Farm": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodden, John

    "Animal Farm" is a political allegory of the USSR written in the form of a fable. Its stinging moral warning against the abuse of power is demonstrated in this casebook through a wide variety of historical, political, and literary documents that are directly applicable to George Orwell's novel. Included in the casebook are passages from…

  15. Gamma-ray spectrometry experiments with large farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daburon, Francois; Remy, Jacques; Grillon, Gerard; Tricaud, Yves; Nizza, Pierre

    1971-11-01

    Following a short presentation of the problem and a quick survey of the various types of monitors reported in the literature, the monitoring facilities of the laboratory for sheep, swine and cattle are described from both the points of view of detection and contention of the animals and phantoms used for calibration. The problems of radioisotopes distribution in the body have been carefully studied in order to try and show out their changes or cope with the modifications involved in the counting geometry. Some examples are given: iodine metabolism in dairy cattle, assessment of the foetus and annex body burdens following the administration of 131 I, rate of transit of an ingested insoluble compound ( 131 BaSO 4 ), determination of the site of uptake of a radionuclide ( 177 Lu and l41 Ce) by the interpretation of the scanning data [fr

  16. Lighting Energy Saving with Light Pipe in Farm Animal Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans von Wachenfelt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish animal production sector has potential for saving electric lighting of €4-9 million per year using efficient daylight utilisation. To demonstrate this, two light pipe systems, Velux® (house 1 and Solatube® (house 2, are installed in two identical pig houses to determine if the required light intensity, daylight autonomy (DA, and reduced electricity use for illumination can be achieved. In each house, three light sensors continuously measure the indoor daylight relative to an outdoor sensor. If the horizontal illuminance at pig height decreases below 40 lux between 08.00 and 16.00 hours, an automatic control system activates the lights, and electricity use is measured. The daylight factor (DF and DA are determined for each house, based on annual climate data. The mean annual DA of 48% and 55% is achieved for house 1 and house 2, respectively. Light pipes in house 2 have delivered significantly more DA than those in house 1. The most common illuminance range between 0 and 160 lux is recorded in both houses, corresponding to approximately 82% and 83% of daylight time for house 1 and house 2, respectively. Further, the daylighting system for house 2 has produced a uniform DF distribution between 0.05 and 0.59. The results demonstrate that considerable electric energy savings can be achieved in the animal production sector using light pipes. Saving 50% of electric lighting would correspond to 36 GWh or 2520 t CO2 per year for Sweden, but currently the energy savings are not making the investment profitable.

  17. Prevalent Diseases Identified in Semi-Industrial Poultry Farming in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in 2003-2007 with the aim of identifying prevalent diseases in modern poultry farming in Mali. It covered 22 modern layer farms located in the suburban areas of Bamako District and of Sikasso and Segou towns. Analyses focused on a total of 536 samples, 260 sera, 254 eggs, 149 organ samples, ...

  18. The Navajo Agricultural Projects Industry: Subsistence Farming to Corporate Agribusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tom

    1979-01-01

    Originally designed to create small farms for individual Navajos, the irrigation project has grown into a single 110,000-acre corporate agribusiness, the land's management has fallen out of the grasp of individual Navajos, and the idea of subsistence farming has been plowed under for the planting of major money-making crops. (NQ)

  19. Prospects from agroecology and industrial ecology for animal production in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, B; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Jouven, M; Thomas, M; Tichit, M

    2013-06-01

    Agroecology and industrial ecology can be viewed as complementary means for reducing the environmental footprint of animal farming systems: agroecology mainly by stimulating natural processes to reduce inputs, and industrial ecology by closing system loops, thereby reducing demand for raw materials, lowering pollution and saving on waste treatment. Surprisingly, animal farming systems have so far been ignored in most agroecological thinking. On the basis of a study by Altieri, who identified the key ecological processes to be optimized, we propose five principles for the design of sustainable animal production systems: (i) adopting management practices aiming to improve animal health, (ii) decreasing the inputs needed for production, (iii) decreasing pollution by optimizing the metabolic functioning of farming systems, (iv) enhancing diversity within animal production systems to strengthen their resilience and (v) preserving biological diversity in agroecosystems by adapting management practices. We then discuss how these different principles combine to generate environmental, social and economic performance in six animal production systems (ruminants, pigs, rabbits and aquaculture) covering a long gradient of intensification. The two principles concerning economy of inputs and reduction of pollution emerged in nearly all the case studies, a finding that can be explained by the economic and regulatory constraints affecting animal production. Integrated management of animal health was seldom mobilized, as alternatives to chemical drugs have only recently been investigated, and the results are not yet transferable to farming practices. A number of ecological functions and ecosystem services (recycling of nutrients, forage yield, pollination, resistance to weed invasion, etc.) are closely linked to biodiversity, and their persistence depends largely on maintaining biological diversity in agroecosystems. We conclude that the development of such ecology

  20. Animal Production Performance and Herd Management in Suckling Farms on Réunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Choisis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In Réunion, because of the insularity and the small size of farms, improving cattle farm productivity involves increas­ing technical management aspects. To analyze relationships between herd management practices and animal perform­ances, a survey was conducted in ten suckling farms, located in the Highlands, from 1999 to 2002. Three sets of 4, 8 and 3 variables, respectively, were thus extracted from the moni­toring database: animal performances (calving interval, fertil­ity rate, body weight at standard age, live meat production, farmers’ practices (grazing time per hectare and paddock, time interval between two passages, paddock size, stocking rate, feed complementation of weaned animals and lactating cows, culling rate, and environment (rainfall, herbage production, body condition score of cows. An analysis of co-inertia was carried out on the first two tables to analyze relationships between animal production performances and practices. A significant correlation was observed between the two tables. The results of the co-inertia analysis were interpreted for each farm. Beyond specific constraints, they revealed proximities between farms and herd management based on various strat­egies, which were relevant with the observed performances. A STATICO analysis was performed to assess relationships between performance parameters and environment parameters for the four studied years. It revealed that there was a stable costructure between the environment and performance tables. This suggests that practices had a highly structuring effect on animal production and that some system adjustments miti­gated the climate effects.

  1. Development of a decision support system for assessing farm animal welfare in relation to husbandry systems: Strategy and prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Due to increasing empirical information on farm animal welfare since the 1960s, the prospects for sound decisionmaking concerning welfare have improved. This paper describes a strategy to develop a decision-making aid, a decision support system, for assessment of farm-animal welfare based on

  2. Role of oxytocin in improving the welfare of farm animals - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Sato, Shusuke

    2017-04-01

    Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the welfare of farm animals, which have been evaluated using behavioral and physiological measures. However, so far, the measures have almost always been used to estimate poor welfare. In this review, firstly we focus on how oxytocin (OT) relates to positive social behavior, pleasure, and stress tolerance, and second on which management factors stimulate OT release. OT induces maternal and affiliative behaviors and has an anti-stress effect. Further, OT is produced during enjoyable events, and has positive feedback on its own release as well. Therefore, to some extent, the relationship of OT to positive normal behavior was mutually beneficial-heightened OT concentration owing to comfortable rearing conditions induces positive social behavior, which in turn may increase OT concentration. Hence, studies on animal welfare should pay more attention to increasing comfort and the stress tolerance, rather than only focusing on when stress occurs in farm animals.

  3. Molecular farming on rescue of pharma industry for next generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled; Makhzoum, Abdullah; Trémouillaux-Guiller, Jocelyne

    2016-10-01

    Recombinant proteins expressed in plants have been emerged as a novel branch of the biopharmaceutical industry, offering practical and safety advantages over traditional approaches. Cultivable in various platforms (i.e. open field, greenhouses or bioreactors), plants hold great potential to produce different types of therapeutic proteins with reduced risks of contamination with human and animal pathogens. To maximize the yield and quality of plant-made pharmaceuticals, crucial factors should be taken into account, including host plants, expression cassettes, subcellular localization, post-translational modifications, and protein extraction and purification methods. DNA technology and genetic transformation methods have also contributed to great parts with substantial improvements. To play their proper function and stability, proteins require multiple post-translational modifications such as glycosylation. Intensive glycoengineering research has been performed to reduce the immunogenicity of recombinant proteins produced in plants. Important strategies have also been developed to minimize the proteolysis effects and enhance protein accumulation. With growing human population and new epidemic threats, the need for new medications will be paramount so that the traditional pharmaceutical industry will not be alone to answer medication demands for upcoming generations. Here, we review several aspects of plant molecular pharming and outline some important challenges that hamper these ambitious biotechnological developments.

  4. The Future of Drones in the Modern Farming Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Stein

    2018-01-01

    partnerships between hardware and software providers are enabling the creation of more integrated, end-to-end drone solutions, capable of meeting the needs of agriculture professionals worldwide and influencing future developments in modern farming.

  5. [Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and seneciosis in farm animals. Part 1: occurrence, chemistry and toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, E

    2011-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids belong to a class of phytotoxins which are present in more than 6000 plant species. The disease seneciosis in farm animals represents the severe poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids from plants of the genus Senecio. This form of poisoning has been known since the end of the 19th century in Germany, the USA, Canada and New Zealand, and is mainly caused by Senecio jacobaea and related Senecio spp. in farm animals, including poultry. Animal poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids is of worldwide importance. In Germany poisoning of horses and cattle by Senecio jacobaea, which was earlier named Schweinsberg disease, is of renewed relevance for veterinary medicine. The disease occurs almost entirely as a consequence of chronic poisoning and in general ends fatally. The ultimate cause is the formation of toxic metabolites of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the liver, and their covalent binding to nucleic acids and proteins leading to liver cirrhosis. Because many pyrrolizidine alkaloids possess mutagenic, and a few also carcinogenic properties, European and international authorities are concerned about possible residue levels in food of animal origin. The review addresses in its first part several aspects, being the occurrence, the chemistry, and the toxicology of pyrrolizidine alkaloids as well as animal intoxications by poisonous plants. In the second part (46) clinical characteristics of animal seneciosis, the therapeutic interventions, the significant species differences and a critical assessment of so-called nontoxic amounts of Senecio plants in animal fodder with reference to cumulative lethal toxin doses are presented.

  6. European organic dairy farmers' preference for animal health management within the farm management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soest, F J S; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-11-01

    The expertise and knowledge of veterinary advisors on improving animal health management is key towards a better herd health status. However, veterinary advisors are not always aware of the goals and priorities of dairy farmers. To dairy farmers animal health is only one aspect of farm management and resources may be allocated to other more preferred areas. Veterinary advisors may experience this as non-compliant with their advice. To explore the preferences of European Union (EU) organic dairy farmers for improved animal health management relative to other farm management areas an adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) was performed. A total of 215 farmers participated originating from organic dairy farms in France (n = 70), Germany (n = 60), Spain (n = 28) and Sweden (n = 57). The management areas udder health and claw health represented animal health management whereas barn, calf and pasture management represented potential conflicting management areas. Results indicate that EU organic dairy farmers differ in their preferences for improved animal health management within the farming system. In general, improved calf management was the most preferred area and improved claw health management was found to be least preferred, the remaining areas were of intermediate interest. Cluster analyses on claw health measures and udder health measures resulted in respectively seven and nine distinct preference profiles. The results indicate a high degree of variation in farmers' preference, which cannot be explained by the typical herd characteristics. With the individual preferences revealed by ACA, a veterinary advisor can now find out whether his intended advice is directed at a favourable or unfavourable management area of the farmer. If the latter is the case the veterinarian should first create awareness of the problem to the farmer. Insights in individual farmers preferences will allow veterinary advisors to better understand why farmers were incompliant with their advice

  7. Early Exposure to Dogs and Farm Animals and the Risk of Childhood Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Tove; Lundholm, Cecilia; Örtqvist, Anne K; Fall, Katja; Fang, Fang; Hedhammar, Åke; Kämpe, Olle; Ingelsson, Erik; Almqvist, Catarina

    2015-11-01

    The association between early exposure to animals and childhood asthma is not clear, and previous studies have yielded contradictory results. To determine whether exposure to dogs and farm animals confers a risk of asthma. In a nationwide cohort study, the association between early exposure to dogs and farm animals and the risk of asthma was evaluated and included all children born in Sweden from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2010 (N = 1,011,051), using registry data on dog and farm registration, asthma medication, diagnosis, and confounders for parents and their children. The association was assessed as the odds ratio (OR) for a current diagnosis of asthma at age 6 years for school-aged children and as the hazard ratio (HR) for incident asthma at ages 1 to 5 years for preschool-aged children. Data were analyzed from January 1, 2007, to September 30, 2012. Living with a dog or farm animal. Childhood asthma diagnosis and medication used. Of the 1,011,051 children born during the study period, 376,638 preschool-aged (53,460 [14.2%] exposed to dogs and 1729 [0.5%] exposed to farm animals) and 276,298 school-aged children (22,629 [8.2%] exposed to dogs and 958 [0.3%] exposed to farm animals) were included in the analyses. Of these, 18,799 children (5.0%) in the preschool-aged children's cohort experienced an asthmatic event before baseline, and 28,511 cases of asthma and 906,071 years at risk were recorded during follow-up (incidence rate, 3.1 cases per 1000 years at risk). In the school-aged children's cohort, 11,585 children (4.2%) experienced an asthmatic event during the seventh year of life. Dog exposure during the first year of life was associated with a decreased risk of asthma in school-aged children (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.81-0.93) and in preschool-aged children 3 years or older (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99) but not in children younger than 3 years (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.07). Results were comparable when analyzing only first-born children. Farm animal

  8. Experience of radiation treatment of laboratory and farm animal feeds in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadudvari, I.

    1979-01-01

    The testing of methods suitable for the disinfection and sterilization of farm and laboratory animal feeds, and research into the effects of the methods on feeds and animals, started in Hungary within the last decade. Altogether, 871 tonnes of feeds sterilized and disinfected by various methods were used in 1976 for the feeding of farm and laboratory animals. Gamma radiation was used for sterilization of approx. 90 tonnes. Feeds for SPF animals were sterilized mainly at 1.5 Mrad, but 2.0-2.5 Mrad levels were also used. Feeds for germ-free animals were sterilized at a level of 4.5 Mrad. Experience gained over the past ten years has shown that irradiation at levels between 1.5 and 2.5 Mrad is excellent for the sterilization of mouse, rat, guinea pig and poultry feeds. Quality deterioration of the feeds remained slight and only slight decomposition of vitamins A and E and among the essential amino acids of lysine was observed. The irradiated feeds were readily consumed by the animals. In some cases, e.g. mice and rats, it was observed that weight gain in groups receiving irradiated diets exceeded that in groups fed on untreated or autoclaved diets, and at the same time the daily feed consumption in the groups receiving irradiated feed also increased. No adverse effect on reproduction and health of the farm and laboratory animals fed on irradiated feeds was observed. In Hungary the widespread use of feeds sterilized by irradiation is hindered, in spite of several advantages over feeds sterilized by conventional methods, mainly by the high cost of the irradiation and the supplemental costs associated with special packing and delivery. Therefore only a modest increase in the utilization of irradiated feeds can be expected in the next few years. (author)

  9. Policing Farm Animal Welfare in Federated Nations: The Problem of Dual Federalism in Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In any federation of states, societal oversight of farm animal welfare (agriculture policy arena, prevention) is more difficult to achieve than providing punishment of individuals abusing of companion animals (post injury). The constitutional division of powers and historical policy related to animal agriculture and non-government organization policing cruelty of companion animals may be entrenched. With changing societal expectations of agriculture production, each level of government may hesitate to take the lead, due to financial or ideological beliefs and simultaneously, obstruct the other government level from taking the lead, based on constitutional grounds. The tradition of private policing of companion animal abuse offences may be unworkable in the provision of protection for animals used in industrial production. Abstract In recent European animal welfare statutes, human actions injurious to animals are new “offences” articulated as an injury to societal norms in addition to property damage. A crime is foremost a violation of a community moral standard. Violating a societal norm puts society out of balance and justice is served when that balance is returned. Criminal law normally requires the presence of mens rea, or evil intent, a particular state of mind; however, dereliction of duties towards animals (or children) is usually described as being of varying levels of negligence but, rarely can be so egregious that it constitutes criminal societal injury. In instrumental justice, the “public goods” delivered by criminal law are commonly classified as retribution, incapacitation and general deterrence. Prevention is a small, if present, outcome of criminal justice. Quazi-criminal law intends to establish certain expected (moral) standards of human behavior where by statute, the obligations of one party to another are clearly articulated as strict liability. Although largely moral in nature, this class of laws focuses on achieving

  10. Farm animal practitioners' views on their use and expectations of veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P A; Epperson, W B

    2013-05-11

    Diagnostic sampling of farm animals by private veterinary practitioners can be an important contributing factor towards the discovery of emerging and exotic diseases. This focus group study of farm animal practitioners in Northern Ireland investigated their use and expectations of diagnostic veterinary laboratories, and elicited their opinions on the role of the private practitioner in veterinary surveillance and the protection of rural public health. The veterinarians were enthusiastic users of diagnostic laboratories, and regarded their own role in surveillance as pivotal. They attached great importance to their veterinary public health duties, and called for more collaboration with their medical general practitioner counterparts. The findings of this research can be used to guide future development of veterinary diagnostic services; provide further insights into the mechanics of scanning surveillance; and measure progress towards a 'One Health' approach between veterinarians and physicians in one geographical region of the UK.

  11. Chloride/bromide ratios in leachate derived from farm-animal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, P.F.

    2003-01-01

    Results have important implications for identifying animal sources of contaminated groundwater. - Ratios of conservative chemicals have been used to identify sources of groundwater contamination. While chloride/bromide ratios have been reported for several common sources of groundwater contamination, little work has been done on leachate derived from farm-animal waste. In this study, chloride/bromide ratios were measured in leachate derived from longhorn-cattle, quarter-horse, and pygme-goat waste at a farm in Abilene, Texas, USA. (Minimum, median, and maximum) chloride/bromide ratios of (66.5, 85.6, and 167), (119, 146, and 156), and (35.4, 57.8, and 165) were observed for cattle, horses, and goats, respectively. These ratios are below typical values for domestic wastewater and within the range commonly observed for oilfield brine. Results of this study have important implications for identifying sources of contaminated groundwater in settings with significant livestock and/or oil production

  12. Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inside the Life of a Teen and Her Guinea Pig Busy Ferrets Take Commitment Dogs and Boys Build ... illness (for example, ruffled feathers or decreased egg production). Pigs infected with influenza may be coughing, sneezing, ...

  13. Investigation of thyroid parameters in farm animal by means of 125I in vitro tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinecke, P.; Leuthold, G.

    1988-01-01

    125 I in vitro tests especially thyroid hormone radioimmunoassays rendered it possible to study thyroidal activity of domestic animals even in large random tests. Parameters of thyroidal activity, such as effective T 4 quotient, T 3 value and total T 3 content, were investigated as to their connection to growth and environmental influence. The estimation of the hereditability yielded only low h 2 coefficients except in the T 3 value. All parameters studied depended to a great extent on farm conditions

  14. Risks to farm animals from pathogens in composted catering waste containing meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P

    2004-07-17

    Uncooked meat may contain animal pathogens, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy, foot-and-mouth disease virus, African swine fever virus and classical swine fever virus, and to prevent outbreaks of these diseases in farm animals, the disposal of meat from catering waste is controlled under the Animal By-Products Regulations. This paper estimates the risks to farm animals of grazing land on to which compost, produced by the composting of catering waste containing meat, has been applied. The factors controlling the level of risk are the separation of the meat at source, the efficiency of the composting process, and the decay and dilution of the pathogens in soil. The net pathogen destruction by the composting process is determined largely by the degree of bypass, and to accommodate the possibility of large joints or even whole carcases being discarded uncooked to catering waste, a time/temperature condition of 60 degrees C for two days is recommended. Where data are lacking, worst-case assumptions have been applied. According to the model, classical swine fever virus constitutes the highest risk, but the assessment shows that a two-barrier composting approach, together with a two-month grazing ban, reduces the risk to one infection in pigs every 190 years in England and Wales. This work defined the operational conditions for the composting of catering waste as set out in the Animal By-Products Regulations 2003 (SI 1482).

  15. The Relationship between Farmers’ Perceptions and Animal Welfare Standards in Sheep Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. Kılıç

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relationship between welfare standards in sheep farms and farmers’ perceptions of factors affecting animal welfare. We developed a scale of 34 items to measure farmers’ perceptions of animal welfare. We examined the relationships among variables in farmers’ characteristics, our observations, and farmers’ expressed perceptions through a t test, variance analysis and correlation analysis. Results of the research suggested that higher welfare standards for sheep exist on farms run by farmers who have a higher perception level of animal welfare. These farmers believed that personnel and shelter conditions were more effective than veterinary inspection, feeding and other factors in terms of animal welfare. In addition, we detected a significant relationship between the farmers’ perceptions and their gender, educational level, whether they enjoyed their work, or whether they applied the custom of religious sacrifice. Our results showed that emotional and cognitive factors related to farmers’ perceptions may offer opportunities for progress in the domain of animal welfare.

  16. The concept of animal welfare at the interface between producers and scientists: the example of organic pig farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Christine

    2011-06-01

    In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health, ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes-besides traditional terms of animal welfare-'regeneration' and 'naturalness'. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use complex parameters, include natural behaviour and a systemic view. Furthermore, various parties with seemingly conflicting interests are involved, causing ethical dilemmas, such as the use of nose rings for outdoor sows (impaired animal welfare vs. destruction of humus). Solutions can only be found when foundational concepts are translated and applied to practical situations. On-farm animal welfare assessment and implementation of improvement strategies are increasingly relevant scientific areas. They combine on-farm welfare assessment, identification of key problem areas and connected risk factors. Constant communication between all parties is crucial for success. Animal health and welfare planning is one application of this approach, which was carried out on Austrian organic pig farms as well as organic dairy farms in seven European countries. The projects included welfare assessment, feedback and benchmarking as a tool for communication between farmers, advisors and scientists. Finally goals were set by the farmer and improvement strategies applicable to organic farming were implemented. This included prevention of disease by management strategies instead of routine treatment with pharmaceutical products. It appeared that next to problem structuring, multidisciplinary problem solving demands good communications skills to relate animal welfare science to value reflections.

  17. Hematological reaction of farm animals to total ionizing radiation (survey of literature)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglikov, B.P.

    1984-06-01

    Hematological changes in the peripheral blood of farm animals after x-ray or gamma-irradiation are described and discussed on the basis of material from the literature. Aplastic anemia was found in all animals studied 2-3 weeks after irradiation. Complete restoration of erythrocyte concentration did not occur for a very long time after irradiation. The leukocyte count dropped markedly after irradiation. Maximum thrombocytopenia correlated with the height of the hemorrhagic syndrome. All formed elements of the blood changed quantitatively after irradiation and all changes were directly related to the irradiation dose. Thrombocytopenia followed leukocytopenia in the animals and the lowest concentration of platelets in the blood was noted before animals died. Data presented in the literature are unsuitable for quantification of results by mathematical processing. 61 references.

  18. Cohabitation with farm animals in urban households with and without occupational farm work: associations between participation in educational activities and good hygiene practices in at-risk households cohabiting with farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somphou, Phoupasong; Takano, Takehito; Nakamura, Keiko

    2008-11-01

    This study was performed to investigate patterns of cohabitation with farm animals in urban households in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic, with regard to animal-to-human disease transmission. We also investigated the association between participation in hygiene-related educational activities and good hygiene practices in households with or without cohabitation with animals. A survey regarding cohabitation with animals, socioeconomic characteristics and participation in educational activities was conducted among 1,497 households randomly sampled from urban districts of Vientiane in 2001. Rates of satisfactory performance of recommended good hygiene practices according to a program commencing in 1996 were compared among households cohabiting with animals with or without participation in educational activities (reference group). Even among households not engaged in agriculture as a major source of income, 54.4, 34.9, 7.9, 3.1 and 35.7% cohabited with chickens, ducks, cattle, buffaloes and dogs, respectively. The percentage of households fulfilling the recommendations for good hygiene practices was 56.7%. The rates of satisfactory hygiene practices among households participating in health education and cohabitating with chickens, ducks or cattle were greater than those in the reference group (OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.2, 2.3; OR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.3, 3.0; OR = 2.3, 95%CI = 1.0, 4.9) regardless of socioeconomic factors. Households cohabiting with animals showed poorer rates of satisfactory hygiene practices than those without animals. Cohabitation with farm animals is common in urban Vientiane regardless of household involvement in agriculture. Further effort is required to improve hygiene conditions, despite some positive effects of health education even in households cohabiting with animals.

  19. Industrial halal meat production and animal welfare: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M M; Pufpaff, K M; Amir, M

    2016-10-01

    Islam teaches zero-tolerance to all forms of animal abuse throughout the halal meat production supply chain and demands that when animals are slaughtered, they must be slaughtered in the mindful and attentive way espoused by the Prophet Muhammad. Why then are poor practices and animal welfare abuses still occurring during halal meat production, and how can they be reduced or eliminated? In this review we discuss how improvements might be achieved through: (1) training of staff regarding the religious and regulatory requirements of animal welfare from on-farm to slaughter; (2) empathy and compassion assessment of applicants prior to employment; (3) installation of CCTV cameras around lairage and slaughter sites; (4) regular employee follow-up training to minimise 'compassion fatigue'; (5) incorporating animal welfare requirements in halal certification; (6) using mosque-based sermons by Imams to increase awareness of animal welfare issues; and (7) making portable humane slaughter units available to small cottage operations and home/neighbourhood-kills through mosque-based organizations/structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Prototype Tool to Enable Farmers to Measure and Improve the Welfare Performance of the Farm Animal Enterprise: The Unified Field Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Ian G.; Ferguson, Drewe M.; Collins, Teresa; Matthews, Lindsay; Hemsworth, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Benchmarking is a tool widely used in agricultural industries that harnesses the experience of farmers to generate knowledge of practices that lead to better on-farm productivity and performance. We propose, by analogy with production performance, a method for measuring the animal welfare performance of an enterprise and describe a tool for farmers to monitor and improve the animal welfare performance of their business. A general framework is outlined for assessing and monitoring risks to animal welfare based on measures of animals, the environment they are kept in and how they are managed. The tool would enable farmers to continually improve animal welfare. Abstract Schemes for the assessment of farm animal welfare and assurance of welfare standards have proliferated in recent years. An acknowledged short-coming has been the lack of impact of these schemes on the welfare standards achieved on farm due in part to sociological factors concerning their implementation. Here we propose the concept of welfare performance based on a broad set of performance attributes of an enterprise and describe a tool based on risk assessment and benchmarking methods for measuring and managing welfare performance. The tool termed the Unified Field Index is presented in a general form comprising three modules addressing animal, resource, and management factors. Domains within these modules accommodate the principle conceptual perspectives for welfare assessment: biological functioning; emotional states; and naturalness. Pan-enterprise analysis in any livestock sector could be used to benchmark welfare performance of individual enterprises and also provide statistics of welfare performance for the livestock sector. An advantage of this concept of welfare performance is its use of continuous scales of measurement rather than traditional pass/fail measures. Through the feedback provided via benchmarking, the tool should help farmers better engage in on-going improvement of

  1. Survey on animal welfare in nine hundred and forty three Italian dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Peli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The final results of a survey on welfare of dairy cows in 7 Italian Regions are presented. The study has been performed on 943 farms in southern and central Italy to highlight critical and strong points concerning animal welfare in dairy systems, by using direct and indirect criteria. To assess animal welfare, a checklist based on 303 parameters has been used; indirect criteria have been organised in 5 general areas concerning Farm management, Farming and housing systems, Environment, Feeding, Health and hygiene; other resource-based criteria were considered in 5 specific areas for the different productive categories (lactating cows, dry cows, pregnant heifers, cows comeback, calves up to 8 weeks and calves between 8 weeks and 6 months; finally, an Indicators section focused on animal based criteria. Parameters have been valued as conforming or not conforming on the basis of the current lesgislation on animal welfare, and in the other cases by the use of a semi-quantitative scale such as poor, satisfactory, good or very good referring to scientific literature and reports by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare panel of the European Food Safety Authority. Among the 249 examined parameters (54 criteria have been valued as descriptive, 15 showed a failure prevalence inferior to 1%; for the remaining parameters, the overall non-compliance prevalence on the whole sample ranged from a maximum of 67% to a minimum of 2%, showing an inverse proportionality correlation with the herd size. One hundred and ten parameters were judged as poor (96 or not in compliance with the rules in force (14 in more than 10% of the examined herds. The most common non-compliance aspects detected in the different areas concern calves management, staff training and prophylaxis programmes; staff training levels were inversely related to failure prevalences in almost all areas. The combination of direct and indirect criteria has allowed to fully embrace recommendations on the

  2. Countermeasures for reduction of radioactive contamination of farm animals and animal products in agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of food products reaching the consumer may be a serious problem following radioactive contamination deposited in the agricultural environment. A wide variety of measures is available to reduce or prevent the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain and hence reduce the radiation dose to the consumer. This paper reviews both literature sources and practice of applying agricultural countermeasures: Interventions at the soil-plant step, at the plant-animal step, and at the foodstuff-man step. In practice, the most effective countermeasures which can be used to reduce radionuclide contamination of animals in agricultural ecosystems will be obtained by a combination of both management changes and the use of chemical binders to prevent gut absorption. Social, economic, and practical considerations of the countermeasures such as availability, technical feasibility, acceptability and side-effects need to be also taken into account. (authors)

  3. Countermeasures for reduction of radioactive contamination of farm animals and animal products in agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.

    2006-01-01

    A wide variety of measures is available to reduce or prevent the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain and hence reduce the radiation dose to the consumer. In this mini-review, both literature sources and the practice of applying agricultural countermeasures are summarized very shortly: Interventions at the soil-plant step, at the plant-animal step, and at the foodstuff-man step. (authors)

  4. Relationship of trade patterns of the Danish swine industry animal movements network to potential disease spread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Barfod, Kristen; Mortensen, Sten

    2007-01-01

    homogeneity in farm-to-farm relationship should only be used for large-scale interpretation and for epidemic preparedness. The network approach, based on graph theory, can be used efficiently to express more precisely, on a local scale (premise), the heterogeneity of animal movements. This approach...... number of pigs was 24. The largest percentage of movements was from farm to abattoir (82.5%); the median number of pigs per movement was 24 and the maximum number was 2018. For the whole period the median and maximum Euclidean distances observed in farm-to-farm movements were 22 km and 289 km...... respectively, while in the farm-to-abattoir movements, they were 36.2 km and 285 km. The network related to one specific premise showed that the median number of premises was mainly away from slaughter pig farms (3) or breeder farms (26) and mainly to an abattoir (1535). The assumption that animal movements...

  5. Attitudes and perceptions of Dutch veterinarians on their role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, David C.; Jaarsma, Debbie A C; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about attitudes of veterinarians towards antibiotic use and reduction opportunities, and their interaction with farmers herein. Therefore, a questionnaire was developed and sent out to Dutch farm animal veterinarians. The response rate was 40%. Categorical Principal Component

  6. The Effect of Stress, Attitudes, and Behavior on Safety during Animal Handling in Swedish Dairy Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Cecilia; Pinzke, Stefan; Keeling, Linda J; Lundqvist, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Working with livestock is a hazardous activity, and animals have been found to be the most frequent injury source on dairy farms. Understanding the risk factors for injury and the causal relationships related to injuries and animal handling is important for developing prevention strategies and effective safety interventions. This study examined stress and handler attitude as possible risk factors for animal handling injuries in dairy farming, in particular when moving cows. Twelve dairy farms were visited on two occasions representing different stress levels: when cows were being moved to milking (low stress) and to hoof trimming (high stress). Behavioral observations of handlers and cows were performed, and questionnaires were completed on attitudes (risk acceptance, safety locus of control, and attitudes toward cows) and stress (perceived stress/energy level and job strain). The injury risks were found to be higher when moving cows to hoof trimming compared with moving cows to milking and gentle, moderately forceful, and forceful interactions were more frequently used. When moving cows to milking, observed risk situations were related only to the perceived energy level of the handler. When moving cows to hoof trimming, injury risks were correlated to job strain and time spent in the risk zone (defined as the area where the handler could be hit by the cow's head or hind legs). The time spent in the risk zone was positively correlated with job strain, age, and experience. Attitudes were not found to have significant impact on safety but were to some extent indirectly involved. These results suggest that the main focus in injury reduction work should be on reducing the time the handler spends in close proximity to animals during aversive procedures and on minimizing cow fear and stress by proper handling techniques and appropriate design of handling facilities.

  7. Cool roofs with high solar reflectance for the welfare of dairy farming animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santunione, G.; Libbra, A.; Muscio, A.

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring livestock welfare in dairy farming promotes the production capacity of the animals in terms of both quantity and quality. In welfare conditions, the animals can produce at their full potential. For the dairy cattle the most debilitating period of the year is summer, when the stress arising from overheating induces physiological alterations that compromise the animals’ productivity. In this study, the summer discomfort of dairy animals is primarily quantified and the production loss is quantified versus the Temperature Humidity Index (THI), which correlates the values of temperature and relative humidity to the thermal stress. In order to reduce or eliminate such thermal stress, it is then proposed to coat the roof of the stables with a paint having high solar reflectance and thermal emittance, that is a cool roof product. This type of roofing solution can considerably limit the overheating of stables caused by solar radiation, thus providing a positive impact on the animals’ welfare and improving significantly their productivity in summer.

  8. Green Care: A Review of the Benefits and Potential of Animal-Assisted Care Farming Globally and in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Brianna; Bitler Davis, Doris

    2017-04-13

    The term Green Care includes therapeutic, social or educational interventions involving farming; farm animals; gardening or general contact with nature. Although Green Care can occur in any setting in which there is interaction with plants or animals, this review focuses on therapeutic practices occurring on farms. The efficacy of care farming is discussed and the broad utilization of care farming and farm care communities in Europe is reviewed. Though evidence from care farms in the United States is included in this review, the empirical evidence which could determine its efficacy is lacking. For example, the empirical evidence supporting or refuting the efficacy of therapeutic horseback riding in adults is minimal, while there is little non-equine care farming literature with children. The health care systems in Europe are also much different than those in the United States. In order for insurance companies to cover Green Care techniques in the United States, extensive research is necessary. This paper proposes community-based ways that Green Care methods can be utilized without insurance in the United States. Though Green Care can certainly be provided in urban areas, this paper focuses on ways rural areas can utilize existing farms to benefit the mental and physical health of their communities.

  9. Setting the farm animal welfare scene in North America /ESTABELECENDO O CENÁRIO DE BEM-ESTAR ANIMAL NA AMÉRICA DO NORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA K. JOHNSON

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe main areas of interest that this paper will address are to, set the scene on what animal welfare is, the schools that one can subscribe and how this could influence the direction that farm animal welfare could go. Second, to provide an overview on some of the critical farm animal welfare events that have occurred over the past 10 years in North America and finally to detail the legislative events; past and future that will affect farm animal welfare. Animal welfare is not a term that arose in science to express a scientific concept; rather it arose in western civilization through society to express ethical concern regarding the treatment of animals. There are three “schools of welfare”, the first school is feeling-based, the second is functioning-based and the third is nature-based. Over the past decade there has been an escalation of welfare related events inNorth America, ranging from agribusiness and marketing through to humane and animal rights groups. These events include under cover investigations that have been conducted on farm and in plants. There have been numerous campaigns against fast food chain restaurants and more recently humane and rights groups have purchased shares into these companies to voice their opinions and to have a vote. In addition there has been a push for assuring on farm animal welfarethrough a plethora of assessment, certification and third party auditing programs. More recently, successful legislative initiatives have altered the way producers are able to house farm animals in several states and in 2005 there was an update to the 28 hour rule. In conclusion, all individuals involved in keeping animals for food have a huge responsibility in making sure that their animals are housed, raised, transported and processed humanely. In addition agribusinesses will need to show increasing accountability back to their customers and consumers that farm animal welfare is of critical

  10. Solutions for energy recovery of animal waste from leather industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, Gheorghe; Pană, Constantin; Mihaescu, Lucian; Cernat, Alexandru; Negurescu, Niculae; Mocanu, Raluca; Negreanu, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal fats in blend with diesel fuel for energy valorification through combustion. • Animal waste from tanneries as fuel and for biogas production. • Experimental tests using animal fats as fuel for diesel engines. • Experimental tests modifying the characteristic parameters. - Abstract: Secondary products from food and leather industries are regarded as animal wastes. Conversion of these animal wastes into fuels represents an energy recovery solution not only because of their good combustion properties, but also from the viewpoint of supply stability. A tannery factory usually processes 60–70 t/month of crude leathers, resulting in 12–15 t/month of waste. Fats, which can be used as the input fuel for diesel engines (in crude state or as biodiesel), represent 10% of this animal waste, while the rest are proteins that can be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. Herein, we analyse two approaches to the use of animal waste from tanneries: as fuel for diesel engines and for biogas generation for heat production. Diesel fuelling and fuelling by animal wastes are compared in terms of the engine performance and pollutant emissions. The effects of animal waste usage on the pollutant emissions level, exhaust gas temperature, indicated mean effective pressure, maximum pressure, and engine efficiency are analysed. The energy recovery technologies for animal waste, which are analysed in this work, can be easily implemented and can simultaneously solve the problem posed by animal wastes by using them as an alternative to fossil fuels. Animal fats can be considered an excellent alternative fuel for diesel engines without major constructive modifications.

  11. Animal movement network analysis as a tool to map farms serving as contamination source in cattle cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Aragão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bovine cysticercosis is a problem distributed worldwide that result in economic losses mainly due to the condemnation of infected carcasses. One of the difficulties in applying control measures is the identification of the source of infection, especially because cattle are typically acquired from multiple farms. Here, we tested the utility of an animal movement network constructed with data from a farm that acquires cattle from several other different farms to map the major contributors of cysticercosis propagation. Additionally, based on the results of the network analysis, we deployed a sanitary management and drug treatment scheme to decrease cysticercosis’ occurrence in the farm. Six farms that had commercial trades were identified by the animal movement network and characterized as the main contributors to the occurrence of cysticercosis in the studied farm. The identification of farms with a putative risk of Taenia saginata infection using the animal movement network along with the proper sanitary management and drug treatment resulted in a gradual decrease in cysticercosis prevalence, from 25% in 2010 to 3.7% in 2011 and 1.8% in 2012. These results suggest that the animal movement network can contribute towards controlling bovine cysticercosis, thus minimizing economic losses and preventing human taeniasis.

  12. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in veal calf farming: human MRSA carriage related with animal antimicrobial usage and farm hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graveland, Haitske; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Heesterbeek, Hans; Mevius, Dik; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Heederik, Dick

    2010-06-08

    Recently a specific MRSA sequence type, ST398, emerged in food production animals and farmers. Risk factors for carrying MRSA ST398 in both animals and humans have not been fully evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal calves and humans working and living on these farms. A sample of 102 veal calf farms were randomly selected and visited from March 2007-February 2008. Participating farmers were asked to fill in a questionnaire (n = 390) to identify potential risk factors. A nasal swab was taken from each participant. Furthermore, nasal swabs were taken from calves (n = 2151). Swabs were analysed for MRSA by selective enrichment and suspected colonies were confirmed as MRSA by using slide coagulase test and PCR for presence of the mecA-gene. Spa types were identified and a random selection of each spa type was tested with ST398 specific PCR. The Sequence Type of non ST398 strains was determined. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Human MRSA carriage was strongly associated with intensity of animal contact and with the number of MRSA positive animals on the farm. Calves were more often carrier when treated with antibiotics, while farm hygiene was associated with a lower prevalence of MRSA. This is the first study showing direct associations between animal and human carriage of ST398. The direct associations between animal and human MRSA carriage and the association between MRSA and antimicrobial use in calves implicate prudent use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  13. The importance of antioxidants in the protection against mycotoxicoses in farm animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are biologically active substances that are synthesized by saprophytic and parasitic fungi, and which, when taken into organism by ingestion, can provoke intoxications known as mycotoxicoses. Farm animals show different susceptibility to mycotoxins depending on various factors: genetic (species and breeds, physiological (age and obesity and environmental (hygienic and climatic. One of the mechanisms of mycotoxin activities is peroxidation of lipids brought about directly by the production of free radicals or by increased sensitivity of tissue to peroxidation. Peroxidation of lipids provoked by mycotoxins is caused by low level of natural antioxidants, so they have a crucial role in the protection against mycotoxins. Nutritive stress can influence negatively the relationship between antioxidants/pro-oxidants, and mycotoxins are nowadays regarded as leading factors of stress induced by nutrition. This optimal relationship can be regulated by the use of antioxidants in food (selenium, vitamin E, carotenoids, etc. known to prevent tissue damages caused by free radicals. Selenium and vitamin E are essential nutrients which contribute to the preservation of animal health by realizing mutual biological activities in the organism. This paper presents the findings on mechanisms of the action of different species of mycotoxins and the importance of antioxidative protection in farm animals, as well as the results of our investigations of influence of mycotoxins on the occurrence of some reproductive disorders in pigs.

  14. Intracellular, genetic or congenital immunisation--transgenic approaches to increase disease resistance of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M; Brem, G

    1996-01-26

    Novel approaches to modify disease resistance or susceptibility in livestock are justified not only by economical reasons and with respect to animal welfare but also by recent advancements in molecular genetics. The control or elimination of infectious pathogens in farm animals is historically achieved by the use of vaccines and drugs and by quarantine safeguards and eradication. Currently, research on the improvement of disease resistance based on nucleic acid technology focuses on two main issues: additive gene transfer and the development of nucleic acid vaccines. The strategies aim at the stable or transient expression of components known to influence non-specific or specific host defence mechanisms against infectious pathogens. Thus, candidates for gene transfer experiments include all genes inducing or conferring innate and acquired immunity as well as specific disease resistance genes. Referring to the site and mode of action and the source of the effective agent the strategies are termed 'intracellular', 'genetic' and 'congenital' immunisation. The targeted disruption (deletive gene transfer) of disease susceptibility genes awaits the establishment of totipotential embryonic cell lineages in farm animals. The cytokine network regulates cellular viability, growth and differentiation in physiological and pathophysiological states. The identification of the JAK-STAT pathway used by many cytokines for their intracellular signal propagation has provided not only new target molecules for modulating the immune response but will also permit the further elucidation of host-pathogen interactions and resistance mechanisms.

  15. Associations between membership of farm assurance and organic certification schemes and compliance with animal welfare legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KilBride, A L; Mason, S A; Honeyman, P C; Pritchard, D G; Hepple, S; Green, L E

    2012-02-11

    Animal health (AH) defines the outcome of their inspections of livestock holdings as full compliance with the legislation and welfare code (A), compliance with the legislation but not the code (B), non-compliance with legislation but no pain, distress or suffering obvious in the animals (C) or evidence of unnecessary pain or unnecessary distress (D). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether membership of farm assurance or organic certification schemes was associated with compliance with animal welfare legislation as inspected by AH. Participating schemes provided details of their members, past and present, and these records were matched against inspection data from AH. Multivariable multilevel logistic binomial models were built to investigate the association between compliance with legislation and membership of a farm assurance/organic scheme. The percentage of inspections coded A, B, C or D was 37.1, 35.6, 20.2 and 7.1 per cent, respectively. Once adjusted for year, country, enterprise, herd size and reason for inspection, there was a pattern of significantly reduced risk of codes C and D compared with A and B, in certified enterprises compared with the enterprises that were not known to be certified in all species.

  16. Morphofunctional reaction of bacteria treated with antimicrobial peptides derived from farm animal platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Dymova, Veronica V; Kartashova, Olga L; Sycheva, Maria V

    2015-03-01

    Classical microbiological approach and atomic force microscopy were used to evaluate the mechanisms of biological activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) derived from platelets of farm animals. It is established that AMPs inhibit both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) microorganisms. Differences revealed in the biological activity of AMP preparations obtained from the organisms of various species can be reduced to quantitative differences. While qualitative changes of bacterial cells were substantially similar, changes in the integrity of cell walls resulted in disintegration of the bacterial outer and/or cytoplasmic membranes.

  17. Serotypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Farm Animals in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zong Hui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. can indirectly infect humans via transfer from animals and animal-derived food products, and thereby cause potentially fatal diseases. Therefore, gaining an understanding of Salmonella infection in farm animals is increasingly important. The aim of this study was to identify the distribution of serotypes in Salmonella samples isolated from chickens (n = 837, pigs (n = 930, and dairy cows (n = 418 in central China (Henan, Hubei, and Hunan provinces in 2010–2011, and investigate the susceptibility of strains to antimicrobial agents. Salmonella isolates were identified by PCR amplification of the invA gene, serotypes were determined by using a slide agglutination test for O and H antigens, and susceptibility to 24 antimicrobials was tested using the agar dilution method. In total, 248 Salmonella strains were identified: 105, 105, and 38 from chickens, dairy cows, and pigs, respectively. Additionally, 209 strains were identified in unhealthy pigs from the Huazhong Agricultural University veterinary hospital. Among these 457 strains, the dominant serotypes were Typhimurium in serogroup B, IIIb in serogroup C, and Enteritidis in serogroup D. In antimicrobial susceptibility tests, 41.14% of Salmonella spp. were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents, 48.14% were resistant to at least one, and 34.72% were resistant to more than three classes. Strains were highly resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (39.61%, nalidixic acid (39.17%, doxycycline (28.22%, and tetracycline (27.58%. Resistance to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones ranged from 5.25% to 7.44% and 19.04% to 24.51%, respectively. Among penicillin-resistant and cephalosporin-resistant strains, 25 isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs. The multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing Salmonella strains identified in healthy animals here will present a challenge for veterinary medicine and farm animal husbandry, and could also pose a threat to public health

  18. Sampling strategies in antimicrobial resistance monitoring: evaluating how precision and sensitivity vary with the number of animals sampled per farm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehisa Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Because antimicrobial resistance in food-producing animals is a major public health concern, many countries have implemented antimicrobial monitoring systems at a national level. When designing a sampling scheme for antimicrobial resistance monitoring, it is necessary to consider both cost effectiveness and statistical plausibility. In this study, we examined how sampling scheme precision and sensitivity can vary with the number of animals sampled from each farm, while keeping the overall sample size constant to avoid additional sampling costs. Five sampling strategies were investigated. These employed 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 animal samples per farm, with a total of 12 animals sampled in each strategy. A total of 1,500 Escherichia coli isolates from 300 fattening pigs on 30 farms were tested for resistance against 12 antimicrobials. The performance of each sampling strategy was evaluated by bootstrap resampling from the observational data. In the bootstrapping procedure, farms, animals, and isolates were selected randomly with replacement, and a total of 10,000 replications were conducted. For each antimicrobial, we observed that the standard deviation and 2.5-97.5 percentile interval of resistance prevalence were smallest in the sampling strategy that employed 1 animal per farm. The proportion of bootstrap samples that included at least 1 isolate with resistance was also evaluated as an indicator of the sensitivity of the sampling strategy to previously unidentified antimicrobial resistance. The proportion was greatest with 1 sample per farm and decreased with larger samples per farm. We concluded that when the total number of samples is pre-specified, the most precise and sensitive sampling strategy involves collecting 1 sample per farm.

  19. Invited review: Animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment for dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, M; Vieira, A; Barbieri, S; Ajuda, I; Stilwell, G; Mattiello, S

    2014-11-01

    This paper reviews animal-based welfare indicators to develop a valid, reliable, and feasible on-farm welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats. The indicators were considered in the light of the 4 accepted principles (good feeding, good housing, good health, appropriate behavior) subdivided into 12 criteria developed by the European Welfare Quality program. We will only examine the practical indicators to be used on-farm, excluding those requiring the use of specific instruments or laboratory analysis and those that are recorded at the slaughterhouse. Body condition score, hair coat condition, and queuing at the feed barrier or at the drinker seem the most promising indicators for the assessment of the "good feeding" principle. As to "good housing," some indicators were considered promising for assessing "comfort around resting" (e.g., resting in contact with a wall) or "thermal comfort" (e.g., panting score for the detection of heat stress and shivering score for the detection of cold stress). Several indicators related to "good health," such as lameness, claw overgrowth, presence of external abscesses, and hair coat condition, were identified. As to the "appropriate behavior" principle, different criteria have been identified: agonistic behavior is largely used as the "expression of social behavior" criterion, but it is often not feasible for on-farm assessment. Latency to first contact and the avoidance distance test can be used as criteria for assessing the quality of the human-animal relationship. Qualitative behavior assessment seems to be a promising indicator for addressing the "positive emotional state" criterion. Promising indicators were identified for most of the considered criteria; however, no valid indicator has been identified for "expression of other behaviors." Interobserver reliability has rarely been assessed and warrants further attention; in contrast, short-term intraobserver reliability is frequently assessed and some studies consider mid

  20. The dairy industry: a brief description of production practices, trends, and farm characteristics around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douphrate, David I; Hagevoort, G Robert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Reynolds, Stephen J; Jakob, Martina; Kinsel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The global dairy industry is composed of a multitude of countries with unique production practices and consumer markets. The global average number of cows per farm is about 1-2 cows; however, as a farm business model transitions from sustenance to market production, the average herd size, and subsequent labor force increases. Dairy production is unique as an agricultural commodity because milk is produced daily, for 365 days per year. With the introduction of new technology such as the milking parlor, the global industry trend is one of increasing farm sizes. The farm sizes are the largest in the United States; however, the European Union produces the most milk compared with other global producers. Dairy production is essential for economic development and sustainable communities in rural areas. However, the required capital investment and availability of local markets and labor are continued challenges. Due to farm expansion, international producers are faced with new challenges related to assuring food safety and a safe working environment for their workforce. These challenges exist in addition to the cultural and language barriers related to an increasing dependence on immigrant labor in many regions of the world. Continued success of the global dairy industry is vital. Therefore, research should continue to address the identification of occupational risk factors associated with injuries and illnesses, as well as develop cost-effective interventions and practices that lead to the minimization or elimination of these injuries and illnesses on a global scale, among our valuable population of dairy producers and workers.

  1. A FORESIGHT REFLECTION ON SUSTAINABLE METHODS FOR CONTROLLING MAMMALIAN FARM ANIMAL REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Chemineau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Controlling farm animal reproduction was/is one of the essential tools for domestication of species. It is still of high interest for genetic improvement, adjustment of production to feed availability, to market and reduction of unproductive periods. Detection of oestrous behaviour in cyclic females, synchronization of conceptions and increase of the potency of diffusion of sires are three common objectives among species. The various situations of reproductive systems, which are reviewed here, are very different among the various livestock systems in the world, because of intrinsic properties of species, but also because of the various degrees of intensification of the livestock systems themselves. A clear tendency appears to continue increasing productivity by improving reproductive efficiency, developing new and sustainable techniques without hormones, and continuing to develop AI and reproductive biotechnologies. Future areas of investment in research could be, first, the physiological and ethological bases of the socio-sexual inter-relationships between animals, second the genetic control of reproductive traits, third increasing the efficiency of classical and new reproductive biotechnologies and fourth engineering new and innovative reproductive techniques to be used in farm conditions. These reproductive techniques should be developed respecting the three pillars of sustainability: environment, economy and society. Thus, they should be included within the livestock systems in which they are supposed to be applied and which should be assessed for sustainability.

  2. Commoditizing Nonhuman Animals and Their Consumers: Industrial Livestock Production, Animal Welfare, and Ecological Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod-Kilmurray, Heather

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing research on the effects of industrial livestock production on the environment and human health, but less on the effects this has on animal welfare and ecological justice. The concept of ecological justice as a tool for achieving sustainability is gaining traction in the legal world. Klaus Bosselman defines ecological justice as…

  3. Farm inputs under pressure from the European food industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levidow, L.; Bijman, J.

    2002-01-01

    The rise of own-brand labels has made retailers more vulnerable and responsive to consumer concerns. In response to widespread protest, the European food industry has sought to exclude GM ingredients and to minimize pesticide usage from their supplies. In particular, retailers have developed common

  4. [Eco-economic thinking for developing carbon sink industry in the de-farming regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji Jun; Wang, Zheng Shu; Cheng, Si Min; Gu, Wen; Li, Yue; Li, Mao Sen

    2017-12-01

    Based on the potential and the law that plants absorb carbon dioxide, carbon sink industry means certain appropriate artificial intervention to obtain clean air, and to meet people's production and life demand for ecological environment industry. Carbon sink industry is considered as a breakthrough point and a new growth point for optimizing and upgrading of the original relatively balanced or stable agricultural industry-resources system. Among the ecosystem services in the de-farming regions, the rapid increase of the economic manifestation of carbon fixation and oxygen release function and the carbon sink potential, as well as the rise of carbon trading and carbon market both in domestic and international, have established a theoretical and practical basis for the deve-lopment of carbon industry. With the development of the carbon sink industry, improving the carbon sequestration output will become the core of the carbon sink industry. The producers or marketers will form the controlling of the carbon source, the development of the path for carbon storage increasing and re-layout of agricultural industry-resources structure, and thus bring new vitality to regional sustainable development in the de-farming regions. This indicates the emphasis for the future research and development, that is, allocating the agricultural industry-resources structure and their benign coupling mechanism after integrating the carbon sink industry.

  5. The role of the pharmaceutical animal health industry in post-marketing surveillance of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, S

    1993-06-01

    The pharmaceutical animal health industry must be committed to the total life cycle of products, i.e. during both the pre- and post-marketing period. Support of antibacterial agents during the postmarketing period is not restricted to maintaining a well-established distribution and promotion system. Care has to be taken continuously to maintain and/or improve the quality, safety (for user, target animal and environment) and clinical efficacy. The pharmaceutical industry contributes to this by: 1. Introducing antibacterials in different animal species for the most effective disease condition only and by ensuring the veterinary profession is informed about relevant findings on: a. the mechanism of action; b. pharmacodynamic properties; c. pharmacokinetic properties (plasma, target tissue); d. clinical efficacy data and in vitro sensitivity data; e. valid species-specific MIC breakpoints; f. precise dose and treatment regime. 2. Updating on a regular basis on: a. new findings on the mechanism of action (in vitro and in vivo); b. the optimal use program in the light of changes in animal husbandry, farm management and epidemiology on national and international level; c. adjustment of species-specific MIC breakpoints when necessary. 3. Providing continuous information in collaboration with animal health laboratories about: a. clinical field surveillance for efficacy (national, international); b. in vitro sensitivity/resistance surveillance (national, international); c. use of in vitro data to support prediction of in vivo efficacy. Surveillance of resistance, in vitro, is therefore part of a package of information needed on a routine basis by the pharmaceutical industry to allow the best possible use of antibacterials and to minimize induction of resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Epigenetics and developmental programming of welfare and production traits in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, K D; Rutherford, K M D; Wallace, J M; Brameld, J M; Stöger, R; Alberio, R; Sweetman, D; Gardner, D S; Perry, V E A; Adam, C L; Ashworth, C J; Robinson, J E; Dwyer, C M

    2016-07-21

    The concept that postnatal health and development can be influenced by events that occur in utero originated from epidemiological studies in humans supported by numerous mechanistic (including epigenetic) studies in a variety of model species. Referred to as the 'developmental origins of health and disease' or 'DOHaD' hypothesis, the primary focus of large-animal studies until quite recently had been biomedical. Attention has since turned towards traits of commercial importance in farm animals. Herein we review the evidence that prenatal risk factors, including suboptimal parental nutrition, gestational stress, exposure to environmental chemicals and advanced breeding technologies, can determine traits such as postnatal growth, feed efficiency, milk yield, carcass composition, animal welfare and reproductive potential. We consider the role of epigenetic and cytoplasmic mechanisms of inheritance, and discuss implications for livestock production and future research endeavours. We conclude that although the concept is proven for several traits, issues relating to effect size, and hence commercial importance, remain. Studies have also invariably been conducted under controlled experimental conditions, frequently assessing single risk factors, thereby limiting their translational value for livestock production. We propose concerted international research efforts that consider multiple, concurrent stressors to better represent effects of contemporary animal production systems.

  7. Green Care: A Review of the Benefits and Potential of Animal-Assisted Care Farming Globally and in Rural America

    OpenAIRE

    Artz, Brianna; Bitler Davis, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The term Green Care encompasses a number of therapeutic strategies that can include farm-animal-assisted therapy, horticultural therapy, and general, farm-based therapy. This review article provides an overview of how Green Care has been used as part of the therapeutic plan for a variety of psychological disorders and related physical disabilities in children, adolescents and adults. While many countries have embraced Green Care, and research-based evidence supports its efficac...

  8. Dairy cattle; Farming system; Animal feeding; Milk; Productivity; Work organization; Role of women; India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Alary

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To satisfy Indian consumers’ rising demand for milk products, Indian breeders will have to boost their production rapidly, especially through improved feeding practices. Many experts point out that currently used crop by-products will not be sufficient to meet increasing feed requirements from cow and buffalo herds and that it will be necessary to turn to grains such as wheat and maize. But other experts think that grain will not be enough and that the increasing animal consumption of grain will affect human consumption, unless India decides on massive grain imports, putting pressure on the world grain market. The present survey carried out in two districts of Haryana showed that grain was not an essential feed for cattle and buffaloes, and that improving cotton and mustard by-products, and green fodder had great potential. A second finding was that wealthier farmers tended to underuse the genetic potential of milk cows and buffaloes. Moreover, biotechnical management of the herd, in particular the feeding system, was closely related to the socioeconomic management of the family farming system; family strategies aimed at ensuring sufficient milk production for the family in larger farms and to provide a regular income in smaller ones. This paper also stressed out the need to design, implement, and monitor development programs that integrate sociocultural and, especially, gender issues, to facilitate technological innovation with respect to forage storage.

  9. Cool roofs with high solar reflectance for the welfare of dairy farming animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santunione, G; Libbra, A; Muscio, A

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring livestock welfare in dairy farming promotes the production capacity of the animals in terms of both quantity and quality. In welfare conditions, the animals can produce at their full potential. For the dairy cattle the most debilitating period of the year is summer, when the stress arising from overheating induces physiological alterations that compromise the animals’ productivity. In this study, the summer discomfort of dairy animals is primarily quantified and the production loss is quantified versus the Temperature Humidity Index (THI), which correlates the values of temperature and relative humidity to the thermal stress. In order to reduce or eliminate such thermal stress, it is then proposed to coat the roof of the stables with a paint having high solar reflectance and thermal emittance, that is a cool roof product. This type of roofing solution can considerably limit the overheating of stables caused by solar radiation, thus providing a positive impact on the animals’ welfare and improving significantly their productivity in summer. (paper)

  10. Mineral imbalances in farm animals and their study and diagnosis with isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-two mineral elements are known to be essential for animal life. These are calcium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, iron, iodine, copper, manganese, zinc, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, tin, vanadium, fluorine, silicon, nickel and arsenic. Naturally occurring and man-made dietary imbalances of many of these elements and their interactions with other minerals are described and their functions and requirements by farm animals are outlined. The nature and importance of metabolic interactions among the mineral elements are discussed and the important concept stressed that there is no single minimum requirement or safe tolerance of a particular mineral, but a series of such minimum requirements and safe tolerances depending on the extent to which other minerals with which it interacts is present or absent from the diet. Radioactive tracer elements are shown to be of great value in the determination of mineral nutrient availability to the animal and for following mineral metabolic movements in the body. They are also shown to have considerable potential for the diagnosis of mineral imbalances. Various in vivo and in vitro techniques involving both radioactive and stable tracers developed for the early diagnosis of mineral deficiencies are described and the strengths and weaknesses of such techniques, in comparison with standard biochemical tests, are discussed. The need for further critical studies with isotopic tracers in the detection and diagnosis of mineral imbalances is emphasized. The main types of biochemical criteria used in the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies and excesses are given, with appropriate examples of their use. (author)

  11. Actual problems of protecting highly productive animals farms in the Lipetsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ushkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to more efficient use of feed, many farms, ensuring high productivity, has reached the profitability of milk production 40 % or more. No wonder milk has recently been called "white gold" because it provides the highest profitability among livestock products. However, higher producing cows have higher requirements for balanced feeding. Such cows are more intense metabolism: compared to cows of average productivity, the gas exchange is increased in 1,5-2 times, also increases blood pressure, pulse rate and respiration. This means that the wear and tear of the body is faster. And the consequences of inadequate feeding due to unbalanced diets on nutritional and biological active substances lead to profound metabolic disorders, which leads to disruption of the function of reproduction, diseases, shortening productive use of animals to one or two lactations. Without a system of introduction of achievements of zoo technical and veterinary Sciences, the proper organization of feeding, housing and care, application of progressive forms of work organization - cannot be opened, laid in the animals genetic potential. The main direction in the development of dairy cattle breeding is its intensification. The effectiveness of intensification is the implementation of the following development paths: full implementation and improvement of the genetic potential of dairy cattle; rich, biologically full feeding of animals; preparation of sufficient high-quality feed; implementation of efficient technologies.

  12. Complex Etiology, Prophylaxis and Hygiene Control in Mycotoxic Nephropathies in Farm Animals and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoycho D. Stoev

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Various etiological factors contributing to the development of mycotoxic nephropathy in farm animals and humans are reviewed. The possible synergistic effect between ochratoxin A (OTA and other mycotoxins, as penicillic acid (PA and fumonisin B1 (FB1, contributing to this nephropathy is also considered and discussed. The most convenient ways of prophylaxis and various preventive measures against OTA contamination of feeds or foods are reviewed. A reference is made concerning the most successful methods of veterinary hygiene control in the slaughterhouses in order to prevent the entering of OTA in commercial channels with a view to human health. The economic efficacy of these prophylactic procedures is also considered. An evaluation of human exposure to OTA is made.

  13. Radioactive contamination of game and farm animals after the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author shows how, by using a network covering a certain area and based on the examination of the meat of roedeer, a survey of the contamination situation in meat and venison, using radioisotopes, was available very soon after the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. During the first few months after the disaster the radioactive contamination of meat decreased rapidly. In the autumn of 1986 again rise was observed, due to the use of contaminated feed, although this rise was smaller than had been feared. At the end of 1986 the meat of farm animals had relatively low radiocaesium contents (pork x tilde ≅ 70, beef x tilde ≅ 32 Bq/kg). (orig./ECB) [de

  14. Green Care: A Review of the Benefits and Potential of Animal-Assisted Care Farming Globally and in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Brianna; Bitler Davis, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The term Green Care encompasses a number of therapeutic strategies that can include farm-animal-assisted therapy, horticultural therapy, and general, farm-based therapy. This review article provides an overview of how Green Care has been used as part of the therapeutic plan for a variety of psychological disorders and related physical disabilities in children, adolescents and adults. While many countries have embraced Green Care, and research-based evidence supports its efficacy in a variety of therapeutic models, it has not yet gained widespread popularity in the United States. We suggest that Green Care could prove to be an effective approach to providing mental health care in the U.S., particularly in rural areas that are typically underserved by more traditional mental health facilities, but have an abundance of farms, livestock, and green spaces where care might be effectively provided. Abstract The term Green Care includes therapeutic, social or educational interventions involving farming; farm animals; gardening or general contact with nature. Although Green Care can occur in any setting in which there is interaction with plants or animals, this review focuses on therapeutic practices occurring on farms. The efficacy of care farming is discussed and the broad utilization of care farming and farm care communities in Europe is reviewed. Though evidence from care farms in the United States is included in this review, the empirical evidence which could determine its efficacy is lacking. For example, the empirical evidence supporting or refuting the efficacy of therapeutic horseback riding in adults is minimal, while there is little non-equine care farming literature with children. The health care systems in Europe are also much different than those in the United States. In order for insurance companies to cover Green Care techniques in the United States, extensive research is necessary. This paper proposes community-based ways that Green Care

  15. A key performance measures for evaluating cold supply chain performance in farm industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Shashi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop a set of measures, evaluate their importance and effect in cold supply chain performance. This investigation reviewed previous research works on all the stages of the farm product supply chain. Based on farm product supply chain, 4 measures with 31 metrics were identified and developed to measure the cold supply chain performance. A survey was organized to establish the importance and the effect of identified measures. The 5 point Likert scale questionnaire was distributed among SC academics and practitioners. The observed finding infers that the measurement instrument was substantiating for evaluating cold supply chain performance in farm industry. The new developed metrics will help firms improve the visibility of supply among partners and in better decision making. The investigation was enfolded up through the plan of direction intended for future study.

  16. Animal Health Challenges and Veterinary Aspects of Organic Livestock Farming Identified Through a 3 Year EU Network Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Padel, Susanne; Younie, David

    2008-01-01

    From 2003-2006, an EU network project ‘Sustaining Animal Health and Food Safety in Organic Farming‘ (SAFO), was carried out with 26 partners from 20 EU-countries and 4 related partners from 4 candidate or new member states. The focus was the integration of animal health and welfare issues...... in organic farming with food safety aspects. Four very consistent conclusions became apparent: 1) The climatic, physical and socio-economic conditions vary considerably throughout Europe, leading to different livestock farming systems. This limits the possibility for technology transfer between regions...

  17. Using biochar in animal farming to recycle nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Wilson, Kelpie; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal has been used to treat digestive disorder in animals since several thousand years. But only since about 2010 biochar has increasingly been used as regular feed additive in animal farming usually mixed with standard feed at approximately 1% of the daily feed intake. The use of biochar as feed additive has the potential to improve animal health, feed efficiency and the animal-stable environment; to reduce nutrient losses and GHG emissions; and to increase soil organic mater and thus soil fertility. The evaluation of more than 150 scientific papers on feeding (activated) biochar showed in most of the studies and for all investigated livestock species positive effects on parameters like toxin adsorption, digestion, blood values, feed use efficiency and livestock weight gain, meat quality and GHG emissions. The facilitation of direct electron transfers between different species of bacteria or microbial consortia via the biochar mediator in the animal digestion tract is hypothesized to be the main reason for a more energy efficient digestion and thus higher feed efficiency, for its selective probiotic effect, for reduced N-losses and eventually for less GHG emissions. While chicken, pigs, fish and other omnivore animals provoke GHG-emissions (mainly NH3, CH4, N2O) when their liquid and solid excretions decompose anaerobically, ruminants cause direct methane emissions through flatulence and burps (eructation). Preliminary studies demonstrated that feeding high temperature biochars might reduce ruminant CH4 emissions though more systematic research is needed. It is likely that microbial decomposition of manure containing digested biochar produces less ammonia, less methane and thus retain more nitrogen, as seen when manure was composted with and without biochar or when biochar is used as bedding or manure treatment additive. Laboratory adsorption trials estimated that using biochar for liquid manure treatment could safe 57,000 t NH4 and 4,600 t P2O5 fertilizer per

  18. Minimising pain in farm animals: the 3S approach - 'Suppress, Substitute, Soothe'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guatteo, R; Levionnois, O; Fournier, D; Guémené, D; Latouche, K; Leterrier, C; Mormède, P; Prunier, A; Servière, J; Terlouw, C; Le Neindre, P

    2012-08-01

    Recently, the French National Institute for Agricultural Research appointed an expert committee to review the issue of pain in food-producing farm animals. To minimise pain, the authors developed a '3S' approach accounting for 'Suppress, Substitute and Soothe' by analogy with the '3Rs' approach of 'Reduction, Refinement and Replacement' applied in the context of animal experimentation. Thus, when addressing the matter of pain, the following steps and solutions could be assessed, in the light of their feasibility (technical constraints, logistics and regulations), acceptability (societal and financial aspects) and availability. The first solution is to suppress any source of pain that brings no obvious advantage to the animals or the producers, as well as sources of pain for which potential benefits are largely exceeded by the negative effects. For instance, tail docking of cattle has recently been eliminated. Genetic selection on the basis of resistance criteria (as e.g. for lameness in cattle and poultry) or reduction of undesirable traits (e.g. boar taint in pigs) may also reduce painful conditions or procedures. The second solution is to substitute a technique causing pain by another less-painful method. For example, if dehorning cattle is unavoidable, it is preferable to perform it at a very young age, cauterising the horn bud. Animal management and constraint systems should be designed to reduce the risk for injury and bruising. Lastly, in situations where pain is known to be present, because of animal management procedures such as dehorning or castration, or because of pathology, for example lameness, systemic or local pharmacological treatments should be used to soothe pain. These treatments should take into account the duration of pain, which, in the case of some management procedures or diseases, may persist for longer periods. The administration of pain medication may require the intervention of veterinarians, but exemptions exist where breeders are

  19. From Farm to Pharma: An Overview of Industrial Heparin Manufacturing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Kellenbach, Edwin; van den Bos, Leendert J

    2017-06-21

    The purification of heparin from offal is an old industrial process for which commercial recipes date back to 1922. Although chemical, chemoenzymatic, and biotechnological alternatives for this production method have been published in the academic literature, animal-tissue is still the sole source for commercial heparin production in industry. Heparin purification methods are closely guarded industrial secrets which are not available to the general (scientific) public. However by reviewing the academic and patent literature, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the general methods used in industry for the extraction of heparin from animal tissue.

  20. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects...... to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation...

  1. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruford, Michael W.; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J.; Amaral, Andreia J.; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F.; Hall, Stephen J. G.; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L.; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that “…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.” However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  2. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruford, Michael W; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Amaral, Andreia J; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F; Hall, Stephen J G; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that "…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity." However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  3. Economic efficiency in fish farming: hope for agro-allied industries in Niagara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, R. O.; Dipeolu, A. O.; Aromolaran, A. B.; Williams, S. B.

    2008-02-01

    The challenge to increase the efficiency in food production level in Nigeria appears to be more urgent now than it has ever been in the history of the country. This is in view of the rapidly increasing population, the imminent decline in international economic and food aid and the need to conserve foreign exchange earnings through the production of raw materials to feed the growing industrial sector calls for urgent attention. The study was carried out in Ogun State. The descriptive statistics was used to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents. The stochastic frontiers production analysis was applied to estimate the technical, allocative efficiency and economic efficiency among the fish farmers in the state. The results of economic efficiency revealed that fish farming is economically efficient with a range of between 55% and 84% efficiency level suggesting a favourable hope for the agro-allied industry such as poultry and cottage industries etc in the state. The result of hypothesis of inefficiency sources models showed that years of experience of fish farmers is significant at 1% probability level indicating the factor contributing to the fish farming experience in the state. Thus, the efficiency is due to the fact that farmers are experienced and fairly educated. On the basis of findings, policy is suggested to be directed towards the encouragement of entrepreneurs in fish farming in the state by providing enabling environment like credit facilities, public enlightenment programme and provision of social amenities like feeder roads, pipe-born water etc and given the fact that an increase in the level of formal education variable leads to less inefficiency, government policy should be focused on adopting the best technology (e.g. fast growing species and equipment) so as to improve the level of efficiency and investment which shall eventually lead to growth in output of fish farming and a lead to the establishment of agro

  4. Farm scale electrical power production from animal waste. Volume I. Final report, 30 June 1981-30 December 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, P.A.

    1984-01-31

    A 1 1/2 (dry) tons per day biodigester cogeneration plant has been designed and constructed. This project is part of a federal program to promote energy conservation and the use of non-conventional energy resources. The main purpose of the project is to demonstrate that a dairy farm can generate its own power and supply excess power to a local utility. Such a facility can produce significant energy savings to livestock farms and small communities by allowing them to get energy from raw animal and human waste. Also, an odorless by-product is produced that is nearly pathogenically free and has the possibility of several end uses such as: fertilizer and soil conditioner, protein-rich animal refeed, livestock bedding material, and aquatic food for fish farming. 53 references, 18 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Animal prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infive Danish mink (Neovison vison) farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Pedersen, Karl; Hansen, Julie Elvekjær

    /50) of screened healthy Danish mink farms were found positive. LA-MRSA in mink is believed to originate from contaminated slaughter-offal in the mink feed. Objective. The objective of the present study was to identify the animal-prevalence of LA-MRSA in five Danish minkfarms. Materials and Methods. We collected 1......,500 mink carcasses from five Danish mink farms. Farmers were asked to collect 100 mink for each of the three consecutive months following the whelping period (May-July 2017). From each carcass, the right forepaw and a pharyngeal-swab was collected for investigation of MRSA by enrichment, followed...... may be explained by an overall low animal-prevalence in the farm. Another explanation could be the high proportion of young mink kits (15/20) tested. All mink kits were

  6. Nurturing Diversified Farming Systems in Industrialized Countries: How Public Policy Can Contribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Iles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If diversified farming systems (DFS are to thrive again in the United States, policies and preferences must evolve to reward the environmental and social benefits of sustainable farming and landscape management. Compared with conventional agricultural policies, policies aiding ecological diversification are underdeveloped and fragmented. We consider several examples of obstacles to the adoption and spread of diversified farming practices in the U.S. industrialized agricultural system. These include the broader political economic context of industrialized agriculture, the erosion of farmer knowledge and capacity, and supply chain and marketing conditions that limit the ability of farmers to adopt sustainable practices. To overcome these obstacles and nurture DFS, policy makers, researchers, industry, farmers, consumers, and local communities can play pivotal roles to transform agricultural research, develop peer-to-peer learning processes, support the recruitment and retention of new farmers through access to credit and land, invest in improved agricultural conservation programs, provide compensation for provision of ecological services in working landscapes, and develop links to consumer and institutional markets.

  7. What Difference Does a Visit Make? Changes in Animal Welfare Perceptions after Interested Citizens Tour a Dairy Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Beth Ann; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Wittman, Hannah; Weary, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Citizens' concerns about farm animal welfare are often dismissed on the assumption that they are not well informed about farming practices. We conducted exploratory surveys of interested citizens (n = 50) before and after a self-guided tour of a 500-head dairy farm. 'Before' survey questions explored perceptions, concerns, and values about dairy cattle farming and welfare, in addition to a short knowledge-based quiz on dairy cattle husbandry. An 'after' survey explored the extent to which these constructs shifted after the tour. Before, most participants correctly answered quiz questions about general feeding and housing practices, but scores were low on questions about specific practices such as cow-calf separation. Participants considered several elements as necessary for a 'good' life for dairy cattle: fresh food and water, pasture access, gentle handling, space, shelter, hygiene, fresh air and sunshine, social companions, absence of stress, health, and safety from predators. These elements reflect a diverse conception of animal welfare that incorporates values for physical and mental well-being, natural living, and humane care. The visit had a mixed effect on perceptions of whether dairy cows had a 'good' life, improving perceptions for a quarter of participants, worsening perceptions in a third, with no shift in the remaining participants. The visit appeared to mitigate some concerns (e.g., provision of adequate food and water, gentle humane care) while reinforcing or eliciting others (e.g., lack of pasture access, early cow-calf separation). Moreover, animal welfare-relevant values held by participants (e.g., natural living, care) appeared to play an important role in influencing perceptions of farm practices. These results suggest that education and exposure to livestock farming may resolve certain concerns, but other concerns will likely persist, especially when practices conflict with deeply held values around animal care.

  8. What Difference Does a Visit Make? Changes in Animal Welfare Perceptions after Interested Citizens Tour a Dairy Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.; Wittman, Hannah; Weary, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Citizens’ concerns about farm animal welfare are often dismissed on the assumption that they are not well informed about farming practices. We conducted exploratory surveys of interested citizens (n = 50) before and after a self-guided tour of a 500-head dairy farm. ‘Before’ survey questions explored perceptions, concerns, and values about dairy cattle farming and welfare, in addition to a short knowledge-based quiz on dairy cattle husbandry. An ‘after’ survey explored the extent to which these constructs shifted after the tour. Before, most participants correctly answered quiz questions about general feeding and housing practices, but scores were low on questions about specific practices such as cow-calf separation. Participants considered several elements as necessary for a ‘good’ life for dairy cattle: fresh food and water, pasture access, gentle handling, space, shelter, hygiene, fresh air and sunshine, social companions, absence of stress, health, and safety from predators. These elements reflect a diverse conception of animal welfare that incorporates values for physical and mental well-being, natural living, and humane care. The visit had a mixed effect on perceptions of whether dairy cows had a ‘good’ life, improving perceptions for a quarter of participants, worsening perceptions in a third, with no shift in the remaining participants. The visit appeared to mitigate some concerns (e.g., provision of adequate food and water, gentle humane care) while reinforcing or eliciting others (e.g., lack of pasture access, early cow-calf separation). Moreover, animal welfare-relevant values held by participants (e.g., natural living, care) appeared to play an important role in influencing perceptions of farm practices. These results suggest that education and exposure to livestock farming may resolve certain concerns, but other concerns will likely persist, especially when practices conflict with deeply held values around animal care. PMID:27243965

  9. Perfluoroalkylated substances in edible livers of farm animals, including depuration behaviour in young sheep fed with contaminated grass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Leondiadis, Leondios; Schafft, Helmut A.; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.; Leeuwen, van Stefan P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) present a potential health risk for consumers. In animals these compounds are known to accumulate in livers. In order to determine potential PFASs contamination in commercially available livers, samples from farmed sheep, horses, cows, pigs and chicken were

  10. Attitudes and perceptions of Dutch veterinarians on their role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, David C.; Jaarsma, Debbie A.C.; Verheij, Theo J.M.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about attitudes of veterinarians towards antibiotic use and reduction opportunities, and their interaction with farmers herein. Therefore, a questionnaire was developed and sent out to Dutch farm animal veterinarians. The response rate was 40%. Categorical Principal Component

  11. Applying animal-based welfare assessments on New Zealand dairy farms: feasibility and a comparison with United Kingdom data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laven, R A; Fabian, J

    2016-07-01

    To assess the feasibility of applying animal-based welfare assessments developed for use in Europe on New Zealand dairy farms; in particular, to identify measures which could be evaluated during a single visit at milking time alongside whole herd locomotion scoring. A protocol for animal welfare assessment, developed in the United Kingdom (UK), was evaluated. Measures that were suitable for use on pasture-based dairy farms in New Zealand were then assessed for practicability on 59 farms across New Zealand, during and immediately after milking, alongside whole herd locomotion scoring. Where data were collected the results were compared to those from a UK study of 53 dairy farms. Thirteen observations of the physical condition of cows were considered suitable for measurement, excluding observations related to hock lesions as they are rarely observed on pasture-based farms. Five of these measures were not assessed as there was not time to do so during milking alongside whole herd locomotion scoring. Thus, the prevalence of dirty flanks, hind limbs and udders, dull coat, thick hairy coat, significant hair loss, very fat cows (body condition score (BCS) ≥7 on 1-10 scale) and very thin cows (BCS≤3), were recorded. Three measures of behaviour were considered suitable for measurement on-farm, but only locomotion score was practicable and was measured. Farmer-estimates for the incidence of mastitis, lameness, sudden death, milk fever and other diseases were also obtained.Overall, dirty flanks, dirty udders and estimated milk fever incidence were more prevalent in this study than in the UK. The prevalence of thin and fat cows, lame cows and estimated mastitis incidence were much lower in the present study than on UK farms. Animal-based assessments can be used on dairy farms in New Zealand, but need to be modified from those developed for housed cows.Welfare on these farms was generally good compared to those in the UK, but these results need to be confirmed on more farms

  12. Quantifying the transfer of radionuclides to food products from domestic farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L.; Fesenko, S.

    2009-01-01

    Databases have been compiled to derive parameter values relevant to the transfer of radionuclides from feedstuffs to domestic animal products to provide a revision to the IAEA Handbook on transfer parameters TRS 364. Significant new data inputs have been incorporated into the databases from an extensive review of Russian language information and inclusion of data published since the early 1990s. Fractional gastrointestinal absorption in adult ruminants presented in the revised handbook are generally similar to those recommended for adult humans by the ICRP. Transfer coefficient values are presented in the handbook for a range of radionuclides to farm animal products. For most animal products, transfer coefficient values for elements additional to those in TRS 364 are provided although many data gaps remain. Transfer coefficients generally vary between species with larger species having lower values than smaller species. It has been suggested that the difference is partly due to the inclusion of dietary dry matter intake in the estimation of transfer coefficient and that whilst dietary intake increases with size nutrient concentrations do not. An alternative approach to quantifying transfer by using concentration ratios (CR), which do not consider dietary intake, has been evaluated. CR values compiled for the handbook vary considerably less between species than transfer coefficient values. The advantage of the CR approach is that values derived for one species could be applied to species for which there are no data. However, transfer coefficients will continue to be used as few studies currently report CR values or give data from which they can be estimated.

  13. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal-waste-impacted Farm Soil: From Molecular Mechanisms to Microbial Evolution and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Ward, M. J.; Hilpert, M.

    2012-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem worldwide and the routine use of antibiotics in industrial animal production has sparked debate on whether this practice might constitute an environmental and public health concern. At a broiler farm, electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveying assisted soil sampling from a chicken-waste-impacted site and a marginally affected site. Consistent with the EMI survey, disparity existed between the two sites with regard to soil pH, tetracycline resistance (TcR) levels among heterotrophic culturable soil bacteria, and the incidence/prevalence of a number of tet and erm genes in the soils. No significant difference was observed in these aspects between the marginally affected site and several sites in a regional state forest that has not been in agricultural use for decades. Shortly after our sampling, the farm closed down and all the waste was removed. This unique change in situation offered us an unusual opportunity to examine the reversibility of any impact of the chicken waste on the soil microbial community. Two years after the event, several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were still detected in the waste-impacted soil, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) data showed that their relative abundance remained at substantial levels. A mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pSU1, was identified in several chicken-waste-exposed soil bacteria of three different genera. Quantification of the plasmid's mobilization gene suggested that pSU1 had contributed to the prevalence and persistence of tet(L) in the waste-impacted soil. A second mobilizable tet(L)-carrying plasmid, pBSDMV9, isolated from the same soil, contained a region with 98.8% nucleotide identity to pSU1. The mosaic structure of the plasmids and the highly conserved nature of the tet(L) genes suggested that plasmid rearrangement favoring the acquisition of tet(L) may have occurred in the soil relatively recently. Additionally, in one chicken

  14. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha eKantanen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources.There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment.Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4 emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection.Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programmes for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species.

  15. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Li, Meng-Hua; Kettunen-Præbel, Anne; Berg, Peer; Meuwissen, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources. There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection. Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programs for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species. PMID:25767477

  16. Animals on drugs: understanding the role of pharmaceutical companies in the animal-industrial complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, Richard

    2013-12-01

    In this paper I revisit previous critiques that I have made of much, though by no means all, bioethical discourse. These pertain to faithfulness to dualistic ontology, a taken-for-granted normative anthropocentrism, and the exclusion of a consideration of how political economy shapes the conditions for bioethical discourse (Twine Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8(3):285-295, 2005; International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food 16(3):1-18, 2007, 2010). Part of my argument around bioethical dualist ontology is to critique the assumption of a division between the "medical" (human) and "agricultural" (nonhuman) and to show various ways in which they are interrelated. I deepen this analysis with a focus on transnational pharmaceutical companies, with specific attention to their role in enhancing agricultural production through animal drug administration. I employ the topical case of antibiotics in order to speak to current debates in not only the interdisciplinary field of bioethics but also that of animal studies. More generally, the animal-industrial complex (Twine Journal for Critical Animal Studies 10(1):12-39, 2012) is underlined as a highly relevant bioethical object that deserves more conceptual and empirical attention.

  17. Living on a farm, contact with farm animals and pets, and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: pooled and meta-analyses from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Laurent; Magnani, Corrado; Petridou, Eleni T; Dockerty, John D; Metayer, Catherine; Milne, Elizabeth; Bailey, Helen D; Dessypris, Nick; Kang, Alice Y; Wesseling, Catharina; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Mora, Ana M; Spector, Logan G; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2018-04-16

    The associations between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and several factors related to early stimulation of the immune system, that is, farm residence and regular contacts with farm animals (livestock, poultry) or pets in early childhood, were investigated using data from 13 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. The sample included 7847 ALL cases and 11,667 controls aged 1-14 years. In all studies, the data were obtained from case and control parents using standardized questionnaires. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, study, maternal education, and maternal age. Contact with livestock in the first year of life was inversely associated with ALL (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.85). Inverse associations were also observed for contact with dogs (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99) and cats (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94) in the first year of life. There was no evidence of a significant association with farm residence in the first year of life. The findings of these large pooled and meta-analyses add additional evidence to the hypothesis that regular contact with animals in early childhood is inversely associated with childhood ALL occurrence which is consistent with Greaves' delayed infection hypothesis. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  19. Microbial and nutritional aspects on the production of live feeds in a fish farming industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donno, A; Lugoli, F; Bagordo, F; Vilella, S; Campa, A; Grassi, T; Guido, M

    2010-03-01

    Aquaculture is an enterprise in constant development, in particular relating to its effect on the environment and also the quality of its products. It represents a valid alternative to traditional fishing, facing the increasing demand for fish products. To guarantee to the consumer a product of high nutritional, organoleptic and hygienic quality, it is fundamental to monitor every phase of the fish farming industry, isolating the potential risk points. For this reason there has been a rapid evolution of productive technique, particularly in the technology, artificial reproduction and feed sectors. The aim of this research has been the monitoring of the evolution of certain microbial and nutritional quality indexes (total microbial counts and lipid analysis on suspensions of Rotifers and Artemia, used as live feed) in the larval phase of the productive cycle of the farm raised fish, in an intensive system. The study has shown an increment in the total microbial counts in the fish farming industry within the production of Rotifers and Artemia, more evident in the suspensions of Rotifers. In addition the study has demonstrated that the maintenance phase, in the enrichment protocol, can reduce the EPA and DHA content. The results confirm the importance of microbial and nutritional control of the live feeds before they get supplied to fish larvae.

  20. Building "Cowshed Cultures": A Cultural Perspective on the Promotion of Stockmanship and Animal Welfare on Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Rob J. F.; Peoples, Sue; Cooper, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Improving animal welfare is an important part of the development of the agricultural industry, particularly at a time when intensification and the encroachment of factory-style production systems is making the maintenance of human-animal relations increasingly difficult. Animal science deals with the issue of improving stockmanship by focusing on…

  1. Climbing Mount Efficiency--small steps, not giant leaps towards higher cloning success in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oback, Björn

    2008-07-01

    Despite more than a decade of research efforts, farm animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still frustratingly inefficient. Inefficiency manifests itself at different levels, which are currently not well integrated. At the molecular level, it leads to widespread genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional aberrations in cloned embryos. At the organismal level, these genome-wide abnormalities compromise development of cloned foetuses and offspring. Specific molecular defects need to be causally linked to specific cloned phenotypes, in order to design specific treatments to correct them. Cloning efficiency depends on the ability of the nuclear donor cell to be fully reprogrammed into an embryonic state and the ability of the enucleated recipient cell to carry out the reprogramming reactions. It has been postulated that reprogrammability of the somatic donor cell epigenome is influenced by its differentiation status. However, direct comparisons between cells of divergent differentiation status within several somatic lineages have found no conclusive evidence for this. Choosing somatic stem cells as donors has not improved cloning efficiency, indicating that donor cell type may be less critical for cloning success. Different recipient cells, on the other hand, vary in their reprogramming ability. In bovine, using zygotes instead of oocytes has increased cloning success. Other improvements in livestock cloning efficiency include better coordinating donor cell type with cell cycle stage and aggregating cloned embryos. In the future, it will be important to demonstrate if these small increases at every step are cumulative, adding up to an integrated cloning protocol with greatly improved efficiency.

  2. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental....... Adjusting for these model-estimated side-effects resulted in wheat grain yields gains from manure application of 0.7-1.1 Mg DM ha-1. The apparent recovery efficiency of N in grains (N use efficiency, NUE) from NH4-N in applied manure varied from 23% to 44%. The NUE in the winter cereals of N accumulated......-estimated benefit of increasing N input in grass-clover from 100 to 500 kg N ha-1 varied from 0.8 to 2.0 Mg DM ha-1 between locations. This is a considerably smaller yield increase than obtained for manure application, and it suggests that the productivity in this system may be improved by removing the cuttings...

  3. Prospects and Challenges for the Conservation of Farm Animal Genomic Resources, 2015-2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael William Bruford

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy, climate change and market demands. The last decade saw a step change in technological and analytical approaches to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR. These changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and the methodologies needed to exploit new, multidimensional data. The ESF Genomic Resources program final conference addressed these problems attempting to contribute to the development of the research and policy agenda for the next decade. We broadly identified four areas related to methodological and analytical challenges, data management and conservation. The overall conclusion is that there is a need for the use of current state-of-the-art tools to characterise the state of genomic resources in non-commercial and local breeds. The livestock genomic sector, which has been relatively well-organised in applying such methodologies so far, needs to make a concerted effort in the coming decade to enable to the democratisation of the powerful tools that are now at its disposal, and to ensure that they are applied in the context of breed conservation as well as development.

  4. Early animal farming and zoonotic disease dynamics: modelling brucellosis transmission in Neolithic goat populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournié, Guillaume; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Bendrey, Robin

    2017-02-01

    Zoonotic pathogens are frequently hypothesized as emerging with the origins of farming, but evidence of this is elusive in the archaeological records. To explore the potential impact of animal domestication on zoonotic disease dynamics and human infection risk, we developed a model simulating the transmission of Brucella melitensis within early domestic goat populations. The model was informed by archaeological data describing goat populations in Neolithic settlements in the Fertile Crescent, and used to assess the potential of these populations to sustain the circulation of Brucella . Results show that the pathogen could have been sustained even at low levels of transmission within these domestic goat populations. This resulted from the creation of dense populations and major changes in demographic characteristics. The selective harvesting of young male goats, likely aimed at improving the efficiency of food production, modified the age and sex structure of these populations, increasing the transmission potential of the pathogen within these populations. Probable interactions between Neolithic settlements would have further promoted pathogen maintenance. By fostering conditions suitable for allowing domestic goats to become reservoirs of Brucella melitensis , the early stages of agricultural development were likely to promote the exposure of humans to this pathogen.

  5. Industry-Wide Surveillance of Marek's Disease Virus on Commercial Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David A; Cairns, Christopher; Jones, Matthew J; Bell, Andrew S; Salathé, Rahel M; Baigent, Susan J; Nair, Venugopal K; Dunn, Patricia A; Read, Andrew F

    2017-06-01

    Marek's disease virus is a herpesvirus of chickens that costs the worldwide poultry industry more than US$1 billion annually. Two generations of Marek's disease vaccines have shown reduced efficacy over the last half century due to evolution of the virus. Understanding where the virus is present may give insight into whether continued reductions in efficacy are likely. We conducted a 3-yr surveillance study to assess the prevalence of Marek's disease virus on commercial poultry farms, determine the effect of various factors on virus prevalence, and document virus dynamics in broiler chicken houses over short (weeks) and long (years) timescales. We extracted DNA from dust samples collected from commercial chicken and egg production facilities in Pennsylvania, USA. Quantitative PCR was used to assess wild-type virus detectability and concentration. Using data from 1018 dust samples with Bayesian generalized linear mixed effects models, we determined the factors that correlated with virus prevalence across farms. Maximum likelihood and autocorrelation function estimation on 3727 additional dust samples were used to document and characterize virus concentrations within houses over time. Overall, wild-type virus was detectable at least once on 36 of 104 farms at rates that varied substantially between farms. Virus was detected in one of three broiler-breeder operations (companies), four of five broiler operations, and three of five egg layer operations. Marek's disease virus detectability differed by production type, bird age, day of the year, operation (company), farm, house, flock, and sample. Operation (company) was the most important factor, accounting for between 12% and 63.4% of the variation in virus detectability. Within individual houses, virus concentration often dropped below detectable levels and reemerged later. These data characterize Marek's disease virus dynamics, which are potentially important to the evolution of the virus.

  6. The Biofunctions of Phytochemicals and Their Applications in Farm Animals: The Nrf2/Keap1 System as a Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Qin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS can be caused by mechanical, thermal, infectious, and chemical stimuli, and their negative effects on the health of humans and other animals are of considerable concern. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Nrf2/Keap1 system plays a major role in maintaining the balance between the production and elimination of ROS via the regulation of a series of detoxifying and antioxidant enzyme gene expressions by means of the antioxidant response element (ARE. Dietary phytochemicals, which are generally found in vegetables, fruits, grains, and herbs, have been reported to have health benefits and to improve the growth performance and meat quality of farm animals through the regulation of Nrf2-mediated phase II enzymes in a variety of ways. However, the enormous quantity of somewhat chaotic data that is available on the effects of phytochemicals needs to be properly classified according to the functions or mechanisms of phytochemicals. In this review, we first introduce the antioxidant properties of phytochemicals and their relation to the Nrf2/Keap1 system. We then summarize the effects of phytochemicals on the growth performance, meat quality, and intestinal microbiota of farm animals via targeting the Nrf2/Keap1 system. These exhaustive data contribute to better illuminate the underlying biofunctional properties of phytochemicals in farm animals.

  7. Effect of structural animal health planning on antimicrobial use and animal health variables in conventional dairy farming in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, David C; Graveland, Haitske; Eijck, Ineke A J M; Schepers, René W M; Heederik, Dick J J; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    Widespread veterinary use of antimicrobials might contribute to the increasing burden of antimicrobial resistance. Despite many successful efforts to reduce veterinary antimicrobial use in the Netherlands, antimicrobial use on a substantial number of farms has remained relatively high over the past

  8. Effect of structural animal health planning on antimicrobial use and animal health variables in conventional dairy farming in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, David C.; Graveland, Haitske; Eijck, Ineke A.J.M.; Schepers, René W.M.; Heederik, Dick J J; Verheij, Theo J.M.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2017-01-01

    Widespread veterinary use of antimicrobials might contribute to the increasing burden of antimicrobial resistance. Despite many successful efforts to reduce veterinary antimicrobial use in the Netherlands, antimicrobial use on a substantial number of farms has remained relatively high over the past

  9. Effect of structural animal health planning on antimicrobial use and animal health variables in conventional dairy farming in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, David C.; Graveland, Haitske; Eijck, Ineke A.J.M.; Schepers, René W.M.; Heederik, Dick J.J.; Verheij, Theo J.M.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2017-01-01

    Widespread veterinary use of antimicrobials might contribute to the increasing burden of antimicrobial resistance. Despite many successful efforts to reduce veterinary antimicrobial use in the Netherlands, antimicrobial use on a substantial number of farms has remained relatively high over the

  10. Validation of key indicators in cattle farms at high risk of animal welfare problems: a qualitative case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P C; More, S J; Blake, M; Higgins, I; Clegg, T; Hanlon, A

    2013-03-23

    The objective of this study was to validate four key farmer performance indicators (KFPI), identified in a previous study, as indicators of on-farm cattle welfare incidents in Ireland, through comparison of the distribution of these KPFIs in the national herd (n=109,925) and in case herds (n=18), where welfare incidents were previously studied. The KFPIs identified were late registrations, and exits from the herd by on-farm burial, by moves to knackeries and by moves to 'herd unknown'. Data were extracted from two Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine databases for the national herd and the case herds. All four KFPIs differed significantly between the case herds and the national herd, and one further KFPI was identified, namely moves to factories. The data for these KFPIs are routinely stored on national databases, which were established in order to comply with Regulation (EC) 1760/2000. Based on the results obtained in this study, it may be possible in the future to use routine data capture to improve strategy towards on-farm animal welfare. At this point, however, based on calculated specificities and sensitivities, none of these five KFPIs, at the cut-offs investigated and using several combinations, are able to distinguish herds with and without on-farm animal welfare problems at an accuracy suitable for routine national use in Ireland.

  11. Th, U, Ra and rare earth element distributions in farm animal tissues from an elevated natural radiation background environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, Paul; Morse, Robert; Ford, Helen; Eisenbud, Merril; Franca, E.P.; de Castro, M.B.; Lobao, Nazyo; Sachett, Ivanor; Carlos, Marcia

    1991-01-01

    A field study was conducted in an area of elevated natural background radioactivity (the Pocos de Caldas plateau, Brazil) to assess tissue concentrations and the comparative bioavailability of isotopic Th (IV), U (IV, VI), Ra (II) and light rare earth elements (REE), i.e. La (III) and Ce (III, IV) in adult steers, pigs and chickens. The assessment of comparative bioavailability was aided by normalizing tissue concentrations to local soil concentrations, i.e. by calculating soil-to-tissue concentration ratios (CRs). Mean CRs (for muscle/soil) in these animals were very similar for U, La and Th which, as a group, decreased among the farm animals sampled as (all x 10 -4 ): chicken (1) ≥ steer (0.7) ≥ pig (0.4). For 226 Ra, CRs in muscle decreased in the same order among animals although mean values were 3-5 times greater than those quoted. Much greater values and greater differences among the elements are noted for bone/soil CRs, which for all animals decreased as: Ra >> U > La=Th, indicating the order of elemental bioavailability (assuming bone to be the major retention compartment). Isotopic ratios in farm animal tissue are shown to resemble closely those in soils over which the animals forage, with few exceptions, indicating the importance of the soil component in the transfer of these elements to tissues. (author)

  12. Economic contribution of draught animals to Mazahua smallholder Campesino farming systems in the highlands of Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-Jordán, C M; Pedraza-Fuentes, A M; Velázquez-Beltrán, L G; Nava-Bernal, E G; Chávez-Mejía, M C

    2005-10-01

    The economic contribution of draught animals to smallholder Mazahua campesino systems in two mountain villages of San Felipe del Progreso, in the central highlands of Mexico, was assessed. Campesinos rely on draught animals for cultivation tasks, as pack animals, and as transport for agricultural and domestic activities. The villages were San Pablo Tlalchichilpa (SPT) and La Concepción Mayorazgo (LCM). Twelve households that possessed draught animals were monitored from July 1999 to June 2000, nine in SPT and three in LCM, in terms of animal inventories and income from their draught animals, in cash and opportunity values. Equines in SPT have substituted bulls, and are recognized for their multipurpose contribution, while in LCM bulls are still used for ploughing the land. Overall total mean gross income was US dollar 490.78 per farm per year, plus US dollar 56 as opportunity value of the fertilizer value of manure for both villages. Deducting estimated costs, owning draught animals leaves a mean net margin of US dollar 412.50/year in SPT and of US dollar 285.64/year in LCM. There is a significant correlation (p draught animals and incomes, with a regression coefficient of US dollar 279.16 per year per draught animal. Besides positive economic returns, having work animals alleviates drudgery for the campesino families.

  13. An industry-scale mass marking technique for tracing farmed fish escapees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fletcher Warren-Myers

    Full Text Available Farmed fish escape and enter the environment with subsequent effects on wild populations. Reducing escapes requires the ability to trace individuals back to the point of escape, so that escape causes can be identified and technical standards improved. Here, we tested if stable isotope otolith fingerprint marks delivered during routine vaccination could be an accurate, feasible and cost effective marking method, suitable for industrial-scale application. We tested seven stable isotopes, (134Ba, (135Ba, (136Ba, (137Ba, (86Sr, (87Sr and (26Mg, on farmed Atlantic salmon reared in freshwater, in experimental conditions designed to reflect commercial practice. Marking was 100% successful with individual Ba isotopes at concentrations as low as 0.001 µg. g-1 fish and for Sr isotopes at 1 µg. g-1 fish. Our results suggest that 63 unique fingerprint marks can be made at low cost using Ba (0.0002 - 0.02 $US per mark and Sr (0.46 - 0.82 $US per mark isotopes. Stable isotope fingerprinting during vaccination is feasible for commercial application if applied at a company level within the world's largest salmon producing nations. Introducing a mass marking scheme would enable tracing of escapees back to point of origin, which could drive greater compliance, better farm design and improved management practices to reduce escapes.

  14. Novel approaches in andrology examination and follicular fluid biochemical characterization in the optimization of reproductive technologies in farm animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vencato, Juri

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the studies reported in this Thesis was to increase our understanding of two aspects of the reproductive system in farm animals: the andrological evaluation and the follicular fluid composition. The final aim was to give some tools that can be helpful in optimizing the application of assisted reproductive technologies. Studies were conducted in bulls, rams, alpacas, lamas and dairy buffalo cows. The first study was designed to investigate the efficacy of scrotal thermograp...

  15. Identification of key performance indicators for on-farm animal welfare incidents: possible tools for early warning and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Patricia C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to describe aspects of case study herds investigated by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (DAFF in which animal welfare incidents occurred and to identify key performance indicators (KPIs that can be monitored to enhance the Early Warning System (EWS. Despite an EWS being in place for a number of years, animal welfare incidents continue to occur. Questionnaires regarding welfare incidents were sent to Superintending Veterinary Inspectors (SVIs, resulting in 18 herds being chosen as case study herds, 12 of which had a clearly defined welfare incident date. For each study herd, data on six potential KPIs were extracted from DAFF databases. The KPIs for those herds with a clearly defined welfare incident date were studied for a consecutive four year window, with the fourth year being the 'incident year', when the welfare incident was disclosed. For study herds without a clearly defined welfare incident date, the KPIs were determined on a yearly basis between 2001 and 2009. Results We found that the late registration of calves, the use of on-farm burial as a method of carcase disposal, an increasing number of moves to knackeries over time and records of animals moved to 'herd unknown' were notable on the case farms. Conclusion Four KPIs were prominent on the case study farms and warrant further investigation in control herds to determine their potential to provide a framework for refining current systems of early warning and prevention.

  16. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, S; Smolders, G; Brinkmann, J

    2012-01-01

    medicine use through animal health and welfare planning (AHWP). Medicine use (excluding complementary treatments such as homeopathic remedies) was assessed as the total number of treatments and as the number of treatments of various disease categories (udder, fertility, metabolism, locomotion and others...... acidosis and imbalanced energy supply, respectively. Calving interval was used as an indicator for fertility. Milk recording data and treatment data were retrospectively collected for a one year period before and after the first farm visit. Focus areas of animal health and welfare plans were either...

  17. Studying the Efficiency of Industrial Dairy Farms of Saqqez and Divandarreh Cities: Using Super-Efficiency Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Mohammadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the developed world, particularly in developing countries, livestock is the most important agricultural sub-sector.Livestock of primary and secondary industries has an especial place in the national economybecause of their greatvalue of products, creating job opportunities, providing health products for consumers, increasing export income of the economy throughaccessing global markets of livestock products and finally their undeniable role in acquiring food security.The demand for milk in Iran increased due to an increase in population and the amount of milk production was also increased. The great share of increased produced milk goes to the industrial dairy farms. One of the major methods to increase the amount of milk production continually is to make its production efficient and improve economic conditions. The current study attempts to determine the efficiency and ranking of industrial dairy farms in Saqqez and Divandarreh cities using super-efficiency model. Materials and Methods: The statistical populations of the study are all active industrial dairy farms of Saqqez and Divandarreh cities which are about 19 farms. The required data for calculating the efficiency were gathered by surveying and completing questionnaires for the year 2013. In this study first, for each farm Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method and GAMS software package were used to estimate super efficiency. Super efficiency is a form of modified DEA model in which each farm can get an efficiency greater than one. Then in order to make sure about being unbiased the obtained super-efficiency scores, the modified model of Banker and Gifford, was re-estimated and the conventional efficiency scores of farms were compared by normalizing and removing some of the scores of outlier farm based on pre-selected screens. The model has suggested conditions for which some of the estimates for dairy farms might have been contaminated with error.As a t result, it has been

  18. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  19. Changes in the Canadian diesel industry and their impact on trucking and farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperber, M.; Vail, S.; Clavet, F.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the workings of the diesel industry and provides a perspective on several issues that influence the industry, particularly retail pricing and how it affects truckers and farmers. These important users of diesel fuel have expressed concerns regarding the relationships between diesel prices and external factors. The five regions that were examined in depth were Moncton, New Brunswick, Saint-Hyacinthe,Quebec, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Regina, Saskatchewan and Guelph, Ontario. The diesel industry follows the economic rules of supply and demand. The study found that diesel fuel prices at the wholesale level are influenced by world crude oil prices as well as by continental and world conditions. The paper examined the structure, conduct and performance of the wholesale diesel industry as well as its competition. The components that make up the final cost of diesel fuel (such as taxes) were described along with the influence of continental factors that affect the diesel industry. Trucking companies have the flexibility to consider supply options in different regions in North America, depending on the routes they travel. In addition, carriers using large volumes of diesel also pay better prices for fuel than smaller carriers. Farmers use less fuel than truckers and must rely on fuel delivery to their farms. The price of diesel for farmers generally depends on the volume purchased. Grain farmers are affected by diesel fuel costs more than other types of farmers, particularly since they receive very low world prices for their harvest. 7 tabs., 11 figs

  20. 78 FR 75570 - Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products Administered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... Guidance for Industry (GFI) 209, ``The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food... of certain antimicrobial new animal drug products who are interested in revising conditions of use... Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals,'' and to set timelines for stakeholders...

  1. Fumonisin exposure in women linked to inhibition of an enzyme that is a key event in farm and laboratory animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a toxic chemical produced by molds. The molds that produce fumonisin are common in corn. Consumption of contaminated corn by farm animals has been shown to be the cause of animal disease. The proximate cause (key event) in the induction of diseases in animals is inhibition of t...

  2. Challenging Barriers to the Evolution of the Saudi Animation Industry Life-Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Alharbi, O.; Baines, E.

    2015-01-01

    Conference proceedings were published with the paper available on https://www.waset.org/abstracts/industrial-and-manufacturing-engineering/27685 The animation industry is one of the creative industries that have attracted recent historiographical attention. However, there has been very limited research on Saudi Arabian and wider Arabian animation industries, while there are a large number of studies that have covered this issue for North America, Europe and East Asia. The existing studies ...

  3. Changes in karyotype in domestic animals discovered on the farms in Vojvodina and their influence on reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košarčić Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available New directions in animal husbandry demand raising of animal kinds that are adjusted to intensive way of breeding. In order to accomplish these demands, beside known methods in selection, Cytogenetic control of existing genotypes is needed that has been carried through ten year examination on pig, cattle and stud farms in Vojvodina. Chromosome aberration of numeric polyploidy and aneuploidy but also structural translocation, deletion, duplication, inversion, ring, break and other segregations were discovered. Numeric and structural changes on animal karyotype influenced on reproduction disturbance, phenotype expression, as well as selection program and stability of genofond. Different aspects of reproductive disturbance were noted like for example: small litter, embryo mortality, frequent repeated breeding, abortion, stillbirth and mummified embryo, offspring with anomalities, different kinds of sterility, Analyses of the results obtained from monitoring the herd book and making genealogy show on existence of chromosomepathy on our farms. The aim of this work is to inform scientists and experts with the fact that these changes are spreading, especially through among the breeding animals. Therefore genetic control and timely exclusion of chromosome aberration is necessary.

  4. Dairy farms typology and management of animal genetic resources in the peri-urban zone of Bamako (Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Toure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali, this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118 and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha. Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to different levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %, Maure Zebu (9.2 %, Holstein (3.0 %, Azawak Zebu (1.3 %, Mere Zebu (0.5% and Kuri taurine (0.1 %. Holstein crossbred represented 30.5% of the total number of animals (19.0% Fulani-Holstein, 11.2% Maure-Holstein and 0.3% Kuri-Holstein. Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7% and 0.3 %, respectively. A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management practices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.

  5. The Power of Story in an Animation Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Satria Adidharma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After the founding of the Walt Disney Company, animation becomes something necessary in our everyday life. The real power why the animation bigger is the storytelling. Story is the main key why animation is loveable by audiences. This writing will be focusing on the behind reason why the story is important in animation and will be giving some examples the success story of some animation which have a great story to tell. The design methodology focuses on data research, market research and literature book. This writing is a preliminary research because from the author concern, there are not many writings debating whether which part in the development will be focused on to developing some animation projects. This writing hopefully will help people who want to build some animation projects and will guide them to make decision because in order to build some animation project there will be a massive effort to be conducted. Hopefully, in the future, there will be more animation produced from Indonesian. To be an unforgettable work, it must have a great story.

  6. Uptake of radionuclides by farm animals close to a major nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumerling, T.J.; Green, N.; Dodd, N.J.

    1984-01-01

    A field investigation of the transfer of artificially produced radionuclides in the pasture-cow-milk pathway has been made at a farm close to the nuclear fuel reprocessing installation at Sellafield. The routine discharges from the plant have resulted in enhanced levels of several artificial radionuclides in the local environment. The annual depositions of 90 Sr and 137 Cs at the farm were a factor of about five higher than the average deposition of these radionuclides in the UK. Even if extremely cautious assumptions concerning local eating habits are made, the consumption of meat and dairy products from this farm would give rise to an annual activity intake of less than one percent of the limit for adult members of the public. (orig./HP)

  7. Economic principles for resource allocation decisions at national level to mitigate the effects of disease in farm animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, K S; Häsler, B; Stärk, K D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper originated in a project to develop a practical, generic tool for the economic evaluation of surveillance for farm animal diseases at national level by a state veterinary service. Fundamental to that process is integration of epidemiological and economic perspectives. Using a generalized example of epidemic disease, we show that an epidemic curve maps into its economic equivalent, a disease mitigation function, that traces the relationship between value losses avoided and mitigation resources expended. Crucially, elementary economic principles show that mitigation, defined as loss reduction achieved by surveillance and intervention, must be explicitly conceptualized as a three-variable process, and the relative contributions of surveillance and intervention resources investigated with regard to the substitution possibilities between them. Modelling the resultant mitigation surfaces for different diseases should become a standard approach to animal health policy analysis for economic efficiency, a contribution to the evolving agenda for animal health economics research.

  8. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håstein, T.; Binde, M.; Hine, M.

    2008-01-01

    The rapid increase in aquaculture production and trade, and increased attention to the negative effects of disease, are becoming stimuli for developing national biosecurity strategies for farmed fisheries, for which the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code...... and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals serve as an excellent framework. Using examples from a few countries and selected diseases, this paper provides a general overview of the development of approaches to implementing biosecurity strategies, including those emerging in the national legislation...... and eradication are also discussed. Important to the effectiveness of such strategies are provision of financial, personnel and other resources to implement them, including incentives such as indemnification or compensation in eradication programmes, and practical linkage to regulatory or government policy...

  9. Early Determination of Animals with Favorable Genes in Milk Production for Profitable Private Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela E. Ilie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of dairy industry has been to identify an efficient and economical way of increasing milk production and its constituents without increasing the size of the dairy herd. The use of milk protein polymorphisms as detectable molecular markers has been studied intensively because of their effect on the yield and processing properties of milk and its products. Thus, molecular markers are promising alternative to the current methods of trait selection once these genes are proven to be associated with traits of interest in animals. Kappa-casein (CSN3 and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG are two of the most important proteins in the milk of mammals that play a crucial role in the milk quality and coagulation, an essential process for cheese and butter. The A and B variant of k-casein and β-lactoglobulin were distinguished by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in 108 Romanian Simmental and 60 Holstein Friesian cattle.

  10. Limited Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and Plasmid-Encoded AmpC-Producing Escherichia coli from Food and Farm Animals, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börjesson, Stefan; Ny, Sofia; Egervärn, Maria; Bergström, Jakob; Rosengren, Åsa; Englund, Stina; Löfmark, Sonja; Byfors, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid-encoded ampC (pAmpC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae might spread from farm animals to humans through food. However, most studies have been limited in number of isolates tested and areas studied. We examined genetic relatedness of 716 isolates from 4,854 samples collected from humans, farm animals, and foods in Sweden to determine whether foods and farm animals might act as reservoirs and dissemination routes for ESBL/pAmpC-producing Escherichia coli. Results showed that clonal spread to humans appears unlikely. However, we found limited dissemination of genes encoding ESBL/pAmpC and plasmids carrying these genes from foods and farm animals to healthy humans and patients. Poultry and chicken meat might be a reservoir and dissemination route to humans. Although we found no evidence of clonal spread of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli from farm animals or foods to humans, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli with identical genes and plasmids were present in farm animals, foods, and humans.

  11. The advancement of probiotics research and its application in fish farming industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Goutam; Ray, Arun Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Fish are always susceptible to a variety of lethal diseases caused by different types of bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic agents. The unscientific management practises such as, over feeding, high stock densities and destructive fishing techniques increase the probability of disease symptoms in aquaculture industries. According to Food and Agriculture Association (FAO), each and every year several countries such as China, India, Norway, Indonesia, etc. face a huge loss in aquaculture production due to mainly bacterial and viral diseases. The use of antibiotics is a common practise in fish farming sectors to control the disease outbreak. However, the antibiotics are not long term friend because it creates selective pressure for emergence of drug resistant bacteria. Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer several beneficial effects to host (enhances immunity, helps in digestion, protects from pathogens, improves water quality, promotes growth and reproduction) and can be used as an alternative of antibiotics. In recent year, a wide range of bacteria have reported as potential probiotics candidates in fish farming sectors, however, Lactobacillus sp. and Bacillus sp. gain special attention due to their high antagonistic activities, extracellular enzyme production and availability. In this present review, we have summarized the recent advancement in aquaculture probiotics research and its impact on fish health, nutrition, immunity, reproduction and water quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 78 FR 55727 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0928] Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food Additive... guidance for industry (GFI 221) entitled ``Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

  13. 78 FR 74154 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0928] Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food Additive... for industry (GFI 221) entitled ``Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

  14. Teaching Science Down on the Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the United Kingdom's (UK's) primary science curriculum, there are numerous opportunities for teachers to use the farming industry as a rich and engaging real-world context for science learning. Teachers can focus on the animals and plants on the farm as subjects for children to learn about life processes. They can turn attention…

  15. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Interaction between coping style/personality, stress, and welfare: Relevance for domestic farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, J M; Van Reenen, C G

    2016-06-01

    This paper will argue that understanding animal welfare and the individual vulnerability to stress-related disease requires a fundamental understanding of functional individual variation as it occurs in nature as well as the underlying neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. Ecological studies in feral populations of mice, fish, and birds start to recognize the functional significance of phenotypes that individually differ in their behavioral and neuroendocrine response to environmental challenge. Recent studies indicate that the individual variation within a species may buffer the species for strong fluctuations in the natural habitat. Similarly, evolutionary ancient behavioral trait characteristics have now been identified in a range of domestic farm animals including cattle, pigs, and horses. Individual variation in behavior can be summarized in a 3-dimensional model with coping style, emotionality, and sociality as independent dimensions. These dimensions can be considered trait characteristics that are stable over time and across situations within the individual. This conceptual model has several consequences. First, the coping style dimension is strongly associated with differential stress vulnerability. Social stress studies show that proactive individuals are resilient under stable environmental conditions but vulnerable when outcome expectancies are violated. Reactive individuals are, in fact, rather flexible and seem to adapt more easily to a changing environment. A second consequence relates to genetics and breeding. Genetic selection for one trait usually implies selection for other traits as well. It is discussed that a more balanced breeding program that takes into account biologically functional temperamental traits will lead to more robust domestic farm animals. Finally, the relationship between temperamental traits, animal production, fitness, and welfare is discussed.

  16. Harmful influence of industrial dusts upon plants and animal organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziubek, T

    1967-01-01

    Contamination of the atmosphere near aluminum and copper foundries and phosphate fertilizer plants is caused mainly by fluorine compounds. The contamination damages plants, meadows, and pastures adjacent to factories or situated in the vicinity and has an indirect effect on domestic animals fed with fodder from such grasslands. Grassland vegetation 100-3000 m from the factories were investigated by measuring the quality and quantity of dust; 0-30 mg% fluorine compounds were found. Changes in cattle tissue (teeth and bones), a decrease in lactation, and a stunting of young animal growth were noted. A considerable decrease in the hemoglobin in the animals investigated also occurred.

  17. Antibiotic use in farm animals : supporting behavioural change of veterinarians and farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D.C.

    2017-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in animals selects for resistant bacteria with a (not-quantified) transfer of antimicrobial resistance from animals to humans. Therefore, restrictive use of antibiotics in animals is of utmost importance to protect public health. In this thesis, we identified factors that

  18. A global assessment of the Water Footprint of Farm Animal Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the consumption of animal products is likely to put further pressure on the world’s freshwater resources. This paper provides a comprehensive account of the water footprint of animal products, considering different production systems and feed composition per animal type and country.

  19. Industry and Consumers Awareness for Effective Management of Functional Animal-based Foods in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Wi, Seo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Min; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jae-Woo; Kim, Jin-Man

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers of animal-based foods with health claims have encountered difficulties in the labeling of their products because of a lack of regulation on defining the functionality of animal-based foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish the basic requirements for the development of a definition for functional animal-based foods by investigating consumer and industry awareness. Survey data were collected from 114 industry representatives and 1,100 consumers. Th...

  20. Sustainable innovation in intensive animal husbandry; policy and public protests towards a mega-farm in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lummina G. HORLINGS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the planning and implementation of a specific mega-farm in the Netherlands is discussed, the so called ‘New Mixed Business’ (NMB. The central question is: how did communication, contestation and controversies play a role in the implementation of this innovative concept for sustainable animal production in the Netherlands? Theoretically, a qualitative discourse analysis was used by analyzing the views, opinions and images of the relevant private and public actors. The paper shows how communication strategies and contested discourses created obstacles and led to institutional blockages and a lock-in situation.

  1. The welfare of farmed mink should be easy to assess in a correct way and lead to animal welfare improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt

    2015-01-01

    A three year PhD-study in assessment of mink welfare has contributed with methods and knowledge on how to get the welfare assessments as efficient and correct as possible and how to use the assessments in order to increase the welfare of the animals. The study found, that it might be possible...... periods have the same effect of date of assessment. The study also found that mink farmers are generally positive towards the structural way of working in stable schools and that including a discussion of the WelFur results related to the different farms in a stable school will make the feedback...

  2. Consultancy to dairy farmers relating to animal health and herd health management on small- and medium-sized farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, H; Nechanitzky, K; Sturmlechner, F; Drillich, M

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain information about animal health challenges for dairy farmers of small- and medium-sized herds and about the fields in which consultancy services should be improved. The hyperlink to an internet-based survey was sent to 9,021 farmers in Austria. The survey included questions about the participants and their farms, about who is consulting with the farmers with regard to animal health, feeding, sire selection, construction of barns and animal husbandry, about animal health issues farmers find most challenging, and about their demands for improved consultancy services. The questionnaire was completed anonymously. Analyses were stratified by milk yield (categorized) and whether farmers worked full-time or part-time. The overall response rate was 11.3% (n=1,018). The majority of farms kept less than 20 cows (54.0%) or 20 to 50 cows (40.1%). With regard to animal health, the veterinarian was the most important consultant for the majority of farmers (84.6%). On issues related to feeding, sire selection, and stable construction, the veterinarian was seen as a less important consultant than specialists in these fields (20.4, 11.6, and 7.9% suggested the veterinarian as an important consultant in these areas). The survey indicated that reproductive disorders, udder disease, poor conception rate, lameness, and calf diarrhea represent the most important challenges to farmers. Of these, concerns about calf diarrhea were affected by milk yield of the herds and management. More high- than low-yielding farms (11.7 vs. 6.4%) and more full-time than part-time managed herds (9.6 vs.4.3%) regarded calf diarrhea as an important problem. Farmers would welcome improved consultancy with regard to fertility, feeding, and sire selection. The results indicated which animal health issues farmers find particularly challenging and displayed which areas farmers require improved consultancy services. Veterinarians and organizations offering consultancy

  3. Peptidomic Approach to Developing ELISAs for the Determination of Bovine and Porcine Processed Animal Proteins in Feed for Farmed Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Anne-Catherine; Charlier, Caroline; Deckers, Elise; Marbaix, Hélène; Raes, Martine; Mauro, Sergio; Delahaut, Philippe; Gillard, Nathalie

    2016-11-30

    The European Commission (EC) wants to reintroduce nonruminant processed animal proteins (PAPs) safely into the feed chain. This would involve replacing the current ban in feed with a species-to-species ban which, in the case of nonruminants, would only prohibit feeding them with proteins from the same species. To enforce such a provision, there is an urgent need for species-specific methods for detecting PAPs from several species in animal feed and in PAPs from other species. Currently, optical microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction are the officially accepted methods, but they have limitations, and alternative methods are needed. We have developed immunoassays using antibodies raised against targets which are not influenced by high temperature and pressure. These targets were identified in a previous study based on an experimental approach. One optimized competitive ELISA detects bovine PAPs at 2% in plant-derived feed. The detection capability demonstrated on blind samples shows a good correlation with mass spectrometry results.

  4. Electrical stunning of farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L.: a comparison of an industrial and experimental method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Digre, H.; Erikson, U.; Misimi, E.; Lambooij, E.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2010-01-01

    An industrial and experimental electrical method for stunning farmed Atlantic cod in air and seawater (SW), respectively, were compared. The impacts of sedation with AQUI-S™ and exercise to exhaustion before electrical stunning were also assessed to monitor the possible depletion of rested muscle

  5. Livestock-associated risk factors for pneumonia in an area of intensive animal farming in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidl, Gudrun S.; Spruijt, Ineke T.; Borlée, Floor; Smit, Lidwien A. M.; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B.; Heederik, Dick J. J.; Yzermans, Joris; van Dijk, Christel E.; Maassen, Catharina B. M.; van der Hoek, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Previous research conducted in 2009 found a significant positive association between pneumonia in humans and living close to goat and poultry farms. However, as this result might have been affected by a large goat-related Q fever epidemic, the aim of the current study was to re-evaluate this association, now that the Q-fever epidemic had ended. In 2014/15, 2,494 adults (aged 20–72 years) living in a livestock-dense area in the Netherlands participated in a medical examination and completed a questionnaire on respiratory health, lifestyle and other items. We retrieved additional information for 2,426/2,494 (97%) participants from electronic medical records (EMR) from general practitioners. The outcome was self-reported, physician-diagnosed pneumonia or pneumonia recorded in the EMR in the previous three years. Livestock license data was used to determine exposure to livestock. We quantified associations between livestock exposures and pneumonia using odds ratios adjusted for participant characteristics and comorbidities (aOR). The three-year cumulative frequency of pneumonia was 186/2,426 (7.7%). Residents within 2,000m of a farm with at least 50 goats had an increased risk of pneumonia, which increased the closer they lived to the farm (2,000m aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4–2.6; 500m aOR 4.4, 95% CI 2.0–9.8). We found no significant associations between exposure to other farm animals and pneumonia. However, when conducting sensitivity analyses using pneumonia outcome based on EMR only, we found a weak but statistically significant association with presence of a poultry farm within 1,000m (aOR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.7). Living close to goat and poultry farms still constitute risk factors for pneumonia. Individuals with pneumonia were not more often seropositive for Coxiella burnetii, indicating that results are not explained by Q fever. We strongly recommend identification of pneumonia causes by the use of molecular diagnostics and investigating the role of non

  6. Livestock-associated risk factors for pneumonia in an area of intensive animal farming in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun S Freidl

    Full Text Available Previous research conducted in 2009 found a significant positive association between pneumonia in humans and living close to goat and poultry farms. However, as this result might have been affected by a large goat-related Q fever epidemic, the aim of the current study was to re-evaluate this association, now that the Q-fever epidemic had ended. In 2014/15, 2,494 adults (aged 20-72 years living in a livestock-dense area in the Netherlands participated in a medical examination and completed a questionnaire on respiratory health, lifestyle and other items. We retrieved additional information for 2,426/2,494 (97% participants from electronic medical records (EMR from general practitioners. The outcome was self-reported, physician-diagnosed pneumonia or pneumonia recorded in the EMR in the previous three years. Livestock license data was used to determine exposure to livestock. We quantified associations between livestock exposures and pneumonia using odds ratios adjusted for participant characteristics and comorbidities (aOR. The three-year cumulative frequency of pneumonia was 186/2,426 (7.7%. Residents within 2,000m of a farm with at least 50 goats had an increased risk of pneumonia, which increased the closer they lived to the farm (2,000m aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.6; 500m aOR 4.4, 95% CI 2.0-9.8. We found no significant associations between exposure to other farm animals and pneumonia. However, when conducting sensitivity analyses using pneumonia outcome based on EMR only, we found a weak but statistically significant association with presence of a poultry farm within 1,000m (aOR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.7. Living close to goat and poultry farms still constitute risk factors for pneumonia. Individuals with pneumonia were not more often seropositive for Coxiella burnetii, indicating that results are not explained by Q fever. We strongly recommend identification of pneumonia causes by the use of molecular diagnostics and investigating the role of non

  7. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  8. How Farm Animals React and Perceive Stressful Situations Such As Handling, Restraint, and Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple Grandin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An animal that has been carefully acclimated to handling may willingly re-enter a restrainer. Another animal may have an intense agitated behavioral reaction or refuse to re-enter the handling facility. Physiological measures of stress such as cortisol may be very low in the animal that re-enters willingly and higher in animals that actively resist restraint. Carefully acclimating young animals to handling and restraint can help improve both productivity and welfare by reducing fear stress. Some of the topics covered in this review are: How an animal perceives handling and restraint, the detrimental effects of a sudden novel event, descriptions of temperament and aversion tests and the importance of good stockmanship.

  9. Production Losses From an Endemic Animal Disease: Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS in Selected Midwest US Sow Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Valdes-Donoso

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is an endemic disease causing important economic losses to the US swine industry. The complex epidemiology of the disease, along with the diverse clinical outputs observed in different types of infected farms, have hampered efforts to quantify PRRS’ impact on production over time. We measured the impact of PRRS on the production of weaned pigs using a log-linear fixed effects model to evaluate longitudinal data collected from 16 sow farms belonging to a specific firm. We measured seven additional indicators of farm performance to gain insight into disease dynamics. We used pre-outbreak longitudinal data to establish a baseline that was then used to estimate the decrease in production. A significant rise of abortions in the week before the outbreak was reported was the strongest signal of PRRSV activity. In addition, production declined slightly one week before the outbreak and then fell markedly until weeks 5 and 6 post-outbreak. Recovery was not monotonic, cycling gently around a rising trend. At the end of the study period (35 weeks post-outbreak, neither the production of weaned pigs nor any of the performance indicators had fully recovered to baseline levels. This result suggests PRSS outbreaks may last longer than has been found in most other studies. We assessed PRRS’ effect on farm efficiency as measured by changes in sow production of weaned pigs per year. We translated production losses into revenue losses assuming an average market price of $45.2/weaned pig. We estimate that the average PRSS outbreak reduced production by approximately 7.4%, relative to annual output in the absence of an outbreak. PRRS reduced production by 1.92 weaned pigs per sow when adjusted to an annual basis. This decrease is substantially larger than the 1.44 decrease of weaned pigs per sow/year reported elsewhere.

  10. "Quality Handling" a training program to reduce fear and stress in farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boivin, X.; Ruis, M.A.W.

    2011-01-01

    Research programs such as the European Welfare Quality® program, have attempted to improve animal welfare by developing training programs for improving stockperson behaviour towards the animals. The authors will illustrate different approches in this paper, with a special focus on the Quality

  11. Elements of societal perception of farm animal welfare: A quantitative study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, B.K.; Oosting, S.J.; Bock, B.B.

    2006-01-01

    To study societal perception of animal welfare in The Netherlands and to search for intervention possibilities to influence this perception, 1074 randomly selected Dutch respondents completed a questionnaire on animal welfare. We analysed 15 propositions (4-point Likert scale) and through factor

  12. BYPRODUCTS OF THE SUGAR INDUSTRY AS ANIMAL FEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion of the feeding value of molasses, bagasse and sugar cane tops with special .... complete cattle feeds it is being used by the industry at rates of 10 to 1J90, the ... used molasses at levels of up to 59o (creep, starter ra- tions), 1g9o (grower ...

  13. Assessment of Animal Waste Treatment by Means of Biodigesters on Pig Farms in the Red River

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Van Duy; Vu Dinh, Ton; Lai Thi, Cuc

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out at 12 pig farms in three provinces of Hai Duong, Hung Yen and Bac Ninh. Results showed that the daily amounts of solid and liquid wastes were rather large (50 - 260 kg of solid wastes and 3 - 20 m3 of liquid wastes). The liquid waste treatment with biodigesters decreased the BOD5 and COD concentrations (BOD5 decreased by 75.0 - 80.8% at the sow houses and 75.89 – 80.36% at the growing–finishing pig houses; COD decreased by 66.85% and 64.94 - 69.73% at the sow...

  14. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonela Zifikile Njisane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals’ wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals’ hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses.

  15. Policing Farm Animal Welfare in Federated Nations: The Problem of Dual Federalism in Canada and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Terry L

    2013-12-02

    In recent European animal welfare statutes, human actions injurious to animals are new "offences" articulated as an injury to societal norms in addition to property damage. A crime is foremost a violation of a community moral standard. Violating a societal norm puts society out of balance and justice is served when that balance is returned. Criminal law normally requires the presence of mens rea, or evil intent, a particular state of mind; however, dereliction of duties towards animals (or children) is usually described as being of varying levels of negligence but, rarely can be so egregious that it constitutes criminal societal injury. In instrumental justice, the "public goods" delivered by criminal law are commonly classified as retribution, incapacitation and general deterrence. Prevention is a small, if present, outcome of criminal justice. Quazi-criminal law intends to establish certain expected (moral) standards of human behavior where by statute, the obligations of one party to another are clearly articulated as strict liability. Although largely moral in nature, this class of laws focuses on achieving compliance, thereby resulting in prevention. For example, protecting the environment from degradation is a benefit to society; punishing non-compliance, as is the application of criminal law, will not prevent the injury. This paper will provide evidence that the integrated meat complex of Canada and the USA is not in a good position to make changes to implement a credible farm animal protection system.

  16. Policing Farm Animal Welfare in Federated Nations: The Problem of Dual Federalism in Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L. Whiting

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent European animal welfare statutes, human actions injurious to animals are new “offences” articulated as an injury to societal norms in addition to property damage. A crime is foremost a violation of a community moral standard. Violating a societal norm puts society out of balance and justice is served when that balance is returned. Criminal law normally requires the presence of mens rea, or evil intent, a particular state of mind; however, dereliction of duties towards animals (or children is usually described as being of varying levels of negligence but, rarely can be so egregious that it constitutes criminal societal injury. In instrumental justice, the “public goods” delivered by criminal law are commonly classified as retribution, incapacitation and general deterrence. Prevention is a small, if present, outcome of criminal justice. Quazi-criminal law intends to establish certain expected (moral standards of human behavior where by statute, the obligations of one party to another are clearly articulated as strict liability. Although largely moral in nature, this class of laws focuses on achieving compliance, thereby resulting in prevention. For example, protecting the environment from degradation is a benefit to society; punishing non-compliance, as is the application of criminal law, will not prevent the injury. This paper will provide evidence that the integrated meat complex of Canada and the USA is not in a good position to make changes to implement a credible farm animal protection system.

  17. Application of Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration as a Proxy for Estimating the Energy Expenditure of Grazing Farm Animals: Relationship with Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Masafumi; Oishi, Kazato; Nakagawa, Yasuhiro; Maeno, Hiromichi; Anzai, Hiroki; Kumagai, Hajime; Okano, Kanji; Tobioka, Hisaya; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the energy expenditure of farm animals at pasture is important for efficient animal management. In recent years, an alternative technique for estimating energy expenditure by measuring body acceleration has been widely performed in wildlife and human studies, but the availability of the technique in farm animals has not yet been examined. In the present study, we tested the potential use of an acceleration index, overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), as a new proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals (cattle, goats and sheep) at pasture with the simultaneous evaluation of a conventional proxy, heart rate. Body accelerations in three axes and heart rate for cows (n = 8, two breeds), goats (n = 6) and sheep (n = 5) were recorded, and the effect of ODBA calculated from the body accelerations on heart rate was analyzed. In addition, the effects of the two other activity indices, the number of steps and vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA), on heart rate were also investigated. The results of the comparison among three activity indices indicated that ODBA was the best predictor for heart rate. Although the relationship between ODBA and heart rate was different between the groups of species and breeds and between individuals (Panimals, and the results indicated that ODBA is a good proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals across species and breeds. The utility and simplicity of the procedure with acceleration loggers could make the accelerometry technique a worthwhile option in field research and commercial farm use. PMID:26030931

  18. Animal vaccines key to poor farm families' health and prosperity in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-10-29

    Oct 29, 2013 ... ... change, the grim reality is that today “about a billion people go to bed hungry every night. ... How new animal vaccines could keep more African farmers in business ... Building lasting solutions to reduce global hunger.

  19. The use of isotopes to detect moderate mineral imbalances in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The publication comprises 12 articles of which 10 have been selected for inclusion in INIS. Their topic is the use of tracer techniques in studying the metabolism of trace amounts of mineral elements in domestic animals

  20. The effect of steps to promote higher levels of farm animal welfare across the EU. Societal versus animal scientists’ perceptions of animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Averós, X.; Aparicio, M.A.; Ferrari, P.; Guy, J.H.; Hubbard, C.; Schmid, O.; Ilieski, V.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific

  1. From the lab to the farm: an industrial perspective of plant beneficial microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jacob Parnell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Any successful strategy aimed at enhancing crop productivity with microbial products ultimately relies on the ability to scale at regional to global levels. Microorganisms that show promise in the lab may lack key characteristics for widespread adoption in sustainable and productive agricultural systems. This paper provides an overview of critical considerations involved with taking a strain from discovery to the farmer’s field. This paper will review some of the most effective microbial products on the market today, explore the reasons for their success and outline some of the major challenges involved in industrial production and commercialization of beneficial strains for widespread agricultural application. General processes associated with commercializing viable microbial products are discussed in two broad categories, biofertility inoculants and biocontrol products. Specifically, we will address what farmers desire in potential microbial products, how mode of action informs decisions on product applications, variation in laboratory and field study data, challenges with scaling for mass production, and the importance of consistent efficacy, product stability and quality. In order to make a significant impact on global sustainable agriculture, the implementation of plant beneficial microorganisms will require a more seamless transition between laboratory and farm application. Early attention to the challenges presented here will improve the likelihood of developing effective microbial products that will improve crop yields, decrease disease severity, and help to feed an increasingly hungry planet.

  2. Anaerobic codigestion of municipal, farm, and industrial organic wastes: a survey of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Samar, Parviz; Cox, Huub H J; Ahring, Birgitte K; Iranpour, Reza

    2006-06-01

    Codigestion of organic wastes is a technology that is increasingly being applied for simultaneous treatment of several solid and liquid organic wastes. The main advantages of this technology are improved methane yield because of the supply of additional nutrients from the codigestates and more efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. Many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in industrialized countries currently process wastewater sludge in large digesters. Codigestion of organic wastes with municipal wastewater sludge can increase digester gas production and provide savings in the overall energy costs of plant operations. Methane recovery also helps to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The goal of this literature survey was to summarize the research conducted in the last four years on anaerobic codigestion to identify applications of codigestion at WWTPs. Because the solids content in municipal wastewater sludge is low, this survey only focuses on codigestion processes operated at relative low solids content (slurry mode). Semi-solid or solid codigestion processes were not included. Municipal wastewater sludge, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, and cattle manure (CAM) are the main wastes most often used in codigestion processes. Wastes that are codigested with these main wastes are wood wastes, industrial organic wastes, and farm wastes. These are referred to in this survey as codigestates. The literature provides many laboratory studies (batch assays and bench-scale digesters) that assess the digestibility of codigestates and evaluate the performance and monitoring of codigestion, inhibition of digestion by codigestates, the design of the process (e.g., single-stage or two-stage processes), and the operation temperature (e.g., mesophilic or thermophilic). Only a few reports on pilot- and full-scale studies were found. These evaluate general process

  3. Regulation of lipid deposition in farm animals: Parallels between agriculture and human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Werner G; Brandebourg, Terry D

    2016-06-01

    For many years, clinically oriented scientists and animal scientists have focused on lipid metabolism and fat deposition in various fat depots. While dealing with a common biology across species, the goals of biomedical and food animals lipid metabolism research differ in emphasis. In humans, mechanisms and regulation of fat synthesis, accumulation of fat in regional fat depots, lipid metabolism and dysmetabolism in adipose, liver and cardiac tissues have been investigated. Further, energy balance and weight control have also been extensively explored in humans. Finally, obesity and associated maladies including high cholesterol and atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and health outcomes have been widely studied. In food animals, the emphasis has been on regulation of fatty acid synthesis and lipid deposition in fat depots and deposition of intramuscular fat. For humans, understanding the regulation of energy balance and body weight and of prevention or treatment of obesity and associated maladies have been important clinical outcomes. In production of food animals lowering fat content in muscle foods while enhancing intramuscular fat (marbling) have been major targets. In this review, we summarize how our laboratories have addressed the goal of providing lean but yet tasty and juicy muscle food products to consumers. In addition, we here describe efforts in the development of a new porcine model to study regulation of fat metabolism and obesity. Commonalities and differences in regulation of lipid metabolism between humans, rodents and food animals are emphasized throughout this review. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  4. Behaviour of model particles of local precipitations of surface nuclear explosion in food chain and digestive tract of farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koz'min, G.V.; Epimakhov, V.G.; Sanzharova, N.I.

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour regularities of radioactive particles - simulators of nuclear surface explosion local fall outs in food chain and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of farm animals are analyzed. The results show that there is a large difference in transport regularities of radioactive silicate particles and radioactive solutions in GIT. At intake of young fission products high concentrations of radionuclides in GIT content deal with sorption and concentrating of radionuclides on food particles and observe in third stomach, blind gut, terminals of middle and bung guts. Transport regularities of fused radioactive particles depend on digestive apparatus mobility, content consistency and morphological peculiarities of mucosa, which work towards transport slowing and storage of such particles in the part of sheep GIT with minimal dry substance content - abomasum [ru

  5. First description of Cryptosporidium ubiquitum XIIa subtype family in farmed fur animals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kellnerová, K.; Holubová, Nikola; Jandova, Anna; Vejcik, A.; McEvoy, J.; Sak, Bohumil; Kváč, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 59, JUN (2017), s. 108-113 ISSN 0932-4739 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01090S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Chinchillas * Cryptosporidium * gp60 * Foxes * Mink * Nutrias Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 2.581, year: 2016

  6. Perception of the importance of human-animal interactions on cattle flow and worker safety on Minnesota dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, U S; Cherry, C; Bender, J B

    2014-07-01

    Proper cattle-handling techniques (stockmanship) are important to ensure calm animals and a safe work environment for dairy workers on farm. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess Minnesota dairy herd owners' attitudes toward stockmanship, its perceived importance for cow comfort and worker health, and the establishment of calm cattle movement; and (2) identify current resources and methods of stockmanship training on Minnesota dairy farms. A stratified-random sample of Minnesota dairy farmers were contacted via mail to participate in a 28-question survey. One hundred eight bovine dairy producers participated. Most commonly, respondents learned their cattle handling skills from family members (42.6%) and 29.9% of producers had participated in previous stockmanship training. Producers thought that the skill of the human handler was the most important factor in establishing good cattle flow. Cattle-handling techniques was the third most common topic for new-employee orientation after training in milking parlor protocols and milking parlor disinfection. Time limitations and language barrier were considered serious challenges for worker training. Work-related injuries were responsible for lost work days in the previous year in 13.3% of dairy herds and 73.3% of those injuries occurred while working with cattle. Producers perceived that cattle-related injuries were predominantly the handler's fault: either because of not paying enough attention to the animal or due to poor cattle handling skills. Facility design was considered the least important for the occurrence of worker injuries. Although no causal inference can be made, herds that had workers who had previously participated in stockmanship training had a 810 ± 378 kg (mean ± standard error of the mean) higher rolling herd average than those that did not, even after adjusting for herd size and bulk tank somatic cell count. However, 50% of respondents were not interested in attending future stockmanship

  7. INFLUENCE OF PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS ON ANIMAL OVARIAN CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Sirotkin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our studies was to examine (1 the effect of environmental contaminants (benzene, toluene and xylen on basic ovarian cell functions (proliferation, apoptosis, secretory activity in different animal species (rabbit, pig, cow, and (2 whether gonadotropic hormone (FSH and plant molecules (quercetin, resveratrol or extract of yucca can affect these functions and modify effect of environmental contaminants. It was observed, that the culture of either porcine or bovine ovarian cells with benzene, toluene or xylen promote apoptosis (accumulation of apoptosis markers bax and p53 and proliferation (accumulation of PCNA. Furthermore, additions of these contaminants were able either up- or down-regulate the release of progesterone, oxytocin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and prostaglandin F by cultured porcine, rabbit and bovine ovarian cells and their response to addition of FSH. FSH additions promoted proliferation, apoptosis and release of molecules listed above by porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, FSH was able to modify and to prevent. Some effects of BTEX on these cells. The effects of either quercetin or resveratrol on basic porcine ovarian cell functions were observed, but these plant molecules were not able to prevent BTEX effect. Feeding of rabbits with yucca extract caused changes in release of progesterone, IGF-I and prostaglandin F by their ovarian cells, as well as to modify and prevent the influence of benzene on ovarian hormone release. The obtained data suggest that (1 the negative effect of BTEX on reproduction can be due to their influence on ovarian cell apoptosis, proliferation, turnover and release of peptide and steroid hormones and growth factors, and that (2 FSH and plant molecules can regulate ovarian cell functions and prevent some effects of BTEX on these cells.

  8. Fate of cesium, strontium, iodine and some transuranium elements in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Brunecker, G.

    1982-11-01

    Domestic animals may take up Cs, I, Sr and the most important transuranium elements by contaminated food, inhalation and cutaneous resorption. The resorption takes place (with differing percentage distribution) via gastrointestinal tract, lungs, skin and with wounds via injured skin areas. With chronical exposure and after resorption of radionuclides a distribution balance develops in the blood; with a single incorporation the activity concentration in the blood one increases and decreases again. According to the affinity of the radionuclide its major part is transported to one particular organ or tissue system, where depending on the degree of specific activity the most different damages may be provoked. Considerable amounts of the radionuclide quantities are discharged with urine, feces or milk. The amount discharged into the milk is of particular radioecologic interest. The portion of the radionuclides, which is discharged into the muscles and the milk of animals for slaughter is indicated by transmission factors, which have to be subjected to revision. The transmission factors given in literature are classified according to the animal species and discussed in the corresponding chapters. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Parasitology and urban livestock farming in Nigeria : prevalence of ova in faecal and soil samples and animal ectoparasites in Makurdi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Omudu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Domestic environmental pollution resulting from urban livestock farming was investigated in Makurdi using parasitological techniques. The test tube flotation technique was used for the parasitological analysis of animal faecal matter and soil samples collected from residential premises. Ectoparasitic fauna of dogs, goats, sheep and cattle cohabiting with humans within the same residential compound were also collected and identified. The hand-picking and body brushing methods were employed to search for ticks, fleas, lice and mites. Of the 150 soil samples examined, 55 (36.7 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. There was no significant difference in the distribution of eggs in the soil samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=0.046, df=2, P>0.05. Ascaris species were the dominant parasite eggs found. Of the 180 faecal samples examined, 107 (59.4 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. Chi-square analysis showed no significant difference in the level of infection of different animal faeces sampled (c2=5.74, df=4, P>0.05. Ascaris species were again the dominating helminth parasite eggs found. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of helminth eggs in the animal faecal samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=5.99, df=4, P>0.05. A total of 1908 ectoparasites was recovered (ticks: 32.80 %; lice: 22.43 %; fleas: 22.06% and mite: 22.69 %. There was no significant difference in infestation animals between sexes (c2=0.10, df=4, P>0.05. The predominant genus encountered for ticks were Amblyomma, while Linognathus (43.90%, Ctenocephalides (97.38% and Sarcoptes (58.89 % were most predominant for lice, fleas and mites respectively. The public health implications of the findings, especially as these relate to the increasing incidence and prevalence of zoonotic infections, are discussed.

  10. Palm Oil in Myanmar: A Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Effects of Industrial Farming on Biodiversity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Khristopher; Fanzo, Jessica; MacManus, Kytt

    2018-03-21

    Palm oil consumption is potentially deleterious to human health, and its production has resulted in 11 million hectares of deforestation globally. Importing roughly 394,000 metric tons of palm oil in 2012 alone, the Burmese government has recently pushed for intensive oil palm development to sate domestic demand for consumption and become international market players. Given well-studied linkages between biodiversity loss and ecosystem instability, this study aims to characterize the nature of deforestation for oil palm production in Myanmar, its relationship to increased biodiversity loss, and contextualize the potential impacts of this loss on diets and human health in rural Myanmar. First, a GIS land suitability analysis overlaying spatial data on rainfall, elevation, and slope was conducted in order to identify areas of Myanmar best suited to oil palm tree growth. Second, after narrowing the geographic range, vegetation indices using varying spectral band models in ENVI (Environment for Visualizing Images) allowed a more granular examination of changes in vegetation phenology from 1975 to 2015. Lastly, ground truthing permitted an in-person verification of GIS and ENVI results and provided contextual understanding of oil palm development in Myanmar. GIS analysis revealed that the Tanintharyi Region, one of the most biodiverse regions in Myanmar, is highly suitable for oil palm growth. Next, vegetation indices revealed a progressive shift from smallholder farming, with little observable deforestation between 1975 and 1990, to industrial oil palm plantations all throughout Tanintharyi starting around 2000-a shift concomitant with biodiversity loss of primary forestland. Ground truthing indicated that plantation development has advanced rapidly, though not without barriers to growth. If these trends of Burmese oil palm intensification continue, 4 key outcomes may follow: (1) even higher levels of biodiversity loss, (2) increased access and affordability of edible

  11. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies

  12. Consequences of genetic change in farm animals on food intake and feeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmans, G; Kyriazakis, I

    2001-02-01

    Selection in commercial populations on aspects of output, such as for growth rate in poultry. against fatness and for growth rate in pigs, and for milk yield in cows, has had very barge effects on such outputs over the past 50 years. Partly because of the cost of recording intake, there has been little or no selection for food intake or feeding behaviour. In order to predict the effects of such past, and future, selection on intake it is necessary to have some suitable theoretical framework. Intake needs to be predicted in order to make rational feeding and environmental decisions. The idea that an animal will eat 'to meet its requirements' has proved useful and continues to be fruitful. An important part of the idea is that the animal (genotype) can be described in a way that is sufficient for the accurate prediction of its outputs over time. Such descriptions can be combined with a set of nutritional constants to calculate requirements. There appears to have been no change in the nutritional constants under selection for output. Under such selection it is simplest to assume that changes in intake follow from the changes in output rates, so that intake changes become entirely predictable. It is suggested that other ways that have been proposed for predicting intake cannot be successful in predicting the effects of selection. Feeding behaviour is seen as being the means that the animal uses to attain its intake rather than being the means by which that intake can be predicted. Thus, the organisation of feeding behaviour can be used to predict neither intake nor the effects of selection on it.

  13. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena, E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Komakech, Allan John [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Agricultural & Bio-systems Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, Björn [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  14. After Dolly - ethical limits to the use of biotechnology on farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Gjerris, Mickey; Sandøe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The cloning of Dolly the sheep gave rise to a widespread call for limits on interference with life. Until recently, the main limits were technical: what it is possible to do. Now scientists are faced with ethical limits as well: what it is acceptable to do. In this context, we take ethics...... to involve systematic and rational reflection on moral issues raised in the public sphere. The concerns of the general public are not necessarily valid, but they are the best point of departure if the discussion is to lead to a socially robust framework for setting limits to the use of animal technology...

  15. Application of overall dynamic body acceleration as a proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals: relationship with heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Masafumi; Oishi, Kazato; Nakagawa, Yasuhiro; Maeno, Hiromichi; Anzai, Hiroki; Kumagai, Hajime; Okano, Kanji; Tobioka, Hisaya; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the energy expenditure of farm animals at pasture is important for efficient animal management. In recent years, an alternative technique for estimating energy expenditure by measuring body acceleration has been widely performed in wildlife and human studies, but the availability of the technique in farm animals has not yet been examined. In the present study, we tested the potential use of an acceleration index, overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), as a new proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals (cattle, goats and sheep) at pasture with the simultaneous evaluation of a conventional proxy, heart rate. Body accelerations in three axes and heart rate for cows (n = 8, two breeds), goats (n = 6) and sheep (n = 5) were recorded, and the effect of ODBA calculated from the body accelerations on heart rate was analyzed. In addition, the effects of the two other activity indices, the number of steps and vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA), on heart rate were also investigated. The results of the comparison among three activity indices indicated that ODBA was the best predictor for heart rate. Although the relationship between ODBA and heart rate was different between the groups of species and breeds and between individuals (Pheart rate (beats/min) = 147.263∙M-0.141 + 889.640∙M-0.179∙ODBA (g). Combining this equation with the previously reported energy expenditure per heartbeat, we estimated the energy expenditure of the tested animals, and the results indicated that ODBA is a good proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals across species and breeds. The utility and simplicity of the procedure with acceleration loggers could make the accelerometry technique a worthwhile option in field research and commercial farm use.

  16. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijskens, E G W; Smit, L A M; Rossen, J W A; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)

  17. Use of a benefit function to assess the relative investment potential of alternative farm animal disease prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, A W; Gunn, G J

    2008-05-15

    Using the example of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in Scottish suckler (cow-calf) beef herds, this paper demonstrated a method to establish the maximum average net benefit of disease control under specific epidemiological and farm business circumstances. Data were generated for the method using a stochastic epidemiological model set to estimate the mean and variance of control costs and output losses from BVD for 50-cow or 120-cow herds, either free of BVD at the outset or of unknown BVD status. Control of disease was by increased investment in a variety of ('biosecurity') measures aimed at reducing the probability of virus entering the closed herd in any 1 year of a 10-year period of simulated exposure to risk from BVD virus introduction either with or without vaccination. Herds free of BVD at the outset enjoyed much greater maximum average net benefits than herds of unknown BVD status. Best allocations of hypothetical incentives to encourage farmers to establish their freedom from BVD were therefore outlined. Vaccination and biosecurity were generally found to be complementary rather than substitutes for one another. The advantages of the maximum net benefit measure over the more usual average total cost of endemic disease were demonstrated and discussed. The maximum net benefit method focuses on the relationship between costs and benefits, which often exhibits diminishing marginal returns meaning that profit maximisation and disease minimisation are incompatible. The method can also allow for constraints on and competition for limited farm resources. It was argued that these attributes are important to persuade farmers to invest in animal health.

  18. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal and Environmental Samples Associated with Small-Scale Poultry Farming in Northwestern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braykov, Nikolay P; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Grossman, Marissa; Zhang, Lixin; Vasco, Karla; Cevallos, William; Muñoz, Diana; Acevedo, Andrés; Moser, Kara A; Marrs, Carl F; Foxman, Betsy; Trostle, James; Trueba, Gabriel; Levy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The effects of animal agriculture on the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) are cross-cutting and thus require a multidisciplinary perspective. Here we use ecological, epidemiological, and ethnographic methods to examine populations of Escherichia coli circulating in the production poultry farming environment versus the domestic environment in rural Ecuador, where small-scale poultry production employing nontherapeutic antibiotics is increasingly common. We sampled 262 "production birds" (commercially raised broiler chickens and laying hens) and 455 "household birds" (raised for domestic use) and household and coop environmental samples from 17 villages between 2010 and 2013. We analyzed data on zones of inhibition from Kirby-Bauer tests, rather than established clinical breakpoints for AR, to distinguish between populations of organisms. We saw significantly higher levels of AR in bacteria from production versus household birds; resistance to either amoxicillin-clavulanate, cephalothin, cefotaxime, and gentamicin was found in 52.8% of production bird isolates and 16% of household ones. A strain jointly resistant to the 4 drugs was exclusive to a subset of isolates from production birds (7.6%) and coop surfaces (6.5%) and was associated with a particular purchase site. The prevalence of AR in production birds declined with bird age (P resistance (AR) in E. coli isolates from small-scale poultry production environments versus domestic environments in rural Ecuador, where such backyard poultry operations have become established over the past decade. Our previous research in the region suggests that introduction of AR bacteria through travel and commerce may be an important source of AR in villages of this region. This report extends the prior analysis by examining small-scale production chicken farming as a potential source of resistant strains. Our results suggest that AR strains associated with poultry production likely originate from sources outside the study

  19. Veterinarian challenges to providing a multi-agency response to farm animal welfare problems in Ireland: responding to the human factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, C; Kelly, P; Blake, M; Hanlon, A; More, S J

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, the authors undertook a study of the challenges facing government and private veterinarians in responding to the human element of farm animal welfare incidents (i.e. the personal problems and difficulties of farmers that can result in farm animal neglect). This paper reports their findings and examines the role of veterinarians in responding to the difficulties of farmers. It also looks at their experiences of attempting to build a multi-agency approach involving veterinary and human support services. This paper builds on a study whereby the authors considered how social, health and attitudinal factors, as well as mental health problems, contribute to farm animal welfare incidents in Ireland. An early warning system involving relevant agencies is in place to identify and prevent farm animal welfare problems before they become critical. The literature provides examples of private veterinarians combining with support services where there are indicators of animal and human abuse. Yet there are no research examples of government or private veterinarians linking with support services to resolve farm animal welfare cases where there are social, health, and/or mental health difficulties with the herd owner. Four focus groups were conducted with government veterinarians (n = 18) and three with private veterinarians (n = 12). Government veterinarians made contact with support services to seek advice on how best to respond to the human element of farm animal welfare incidents, and/or to seek support for the herd owner. Contact between government and private veterinarians was driven by the former. Communication between agencies was influenced by individual efforts and personal contacts. Formal structures and guidelines, perceived professional capabilities in determining herd owner needs, and client confidentiality concerns among support services and private veterinarians were less influential. The fear of losing clients and the financial implications of this were

  20. Safety in Serbian animal source food industry and the impact of hazard analysis and critical control points: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašević, I.; Đekić, I.

    2017-09-01

    There is a significant lack of HACCP-educated and/or HACCP-highly trained personnel within the Serbian animal source food workforces and veterinary inspectors, and this can present problems, particularly in hazard identification and assessment activities. However, despite obvious difficulties, HACCP benefits to the Serbian dairy industry are widespread and significant. Improving prerequisite programmes on the farms, mainly through infrastructural investments in milk collectors and transportation vehicles on one hand, and increasing hygiene awareness of farmers through training on the other hand has improved the safety of milk. The decline in bacterial numbers on meat contact surfaces, meat handlers’ hands and cooling facilities presents strong evidence of improved process hygiene and justifies the adoption of HACCP in Serbian meat establishments. Apart from the absence of national food poisoning statistics or national foodborne disease databases, the main obstacle to fully recognising the impact of HACCP on the safety of animal source food in Serbia is the lack of research regarding the occurrence of chemical and/or physical hazards interrelated with its production.

  1. An Agenda for Growth and Metabolism Research in Farm Animals: Healthy Food for a Healthy Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, R. S. A.; Manalo, D. D.; Garcia, J. N. M.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a paradigm shift from meat demand to health driven understanding of the effects of livestock production and meat consumption in human. Included are comments on animal nutrition research with the purpose of getting more relevant health information. The growth and metabolism research covers the principles from feed intake regulation, nutrient digestion, absorption and growth. Meat preservation provides enough food for the urban population, and its major ingredient includes the combination of salt, sugar and fats, suspected to cause food addiction in man. The reported effect of processed red meat causing systemic inflammation is a major consideration in food preparation, diet selection and reasonable control for meat consumption. In livestock “Pharming” the danger of heavy metal contamination of commercial feed poses threat to human health aside from drug residues. It is proposed that the 50% of global greenhouse gas is due to the lifestyle of the rich and epidemic of obesity-related diseases are the effect of livestock “Pharming” and addiction to fast food and or processed meat.

  2. Changing values of farm animal genomic resources. from historical breeds to the Nagoya Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of Animal genetic resources (AnGRs) and claims that over the course of history they have been conceptually transformed from economic, ecologic and scientific life forms into political objects, reflecting in the way in which any valuation of AnGRs is today inherently imbued with national politics and its values enacted by legally binding global conventions. Historically, the first calls to conservation were based on the economic, ecological and scientific values of the AnGR. While the historical arguments are valid and still commonly proposed values for conservation, the AnGR have become highly politicized since the adoption of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), the subsequent Interlaken Declaration, the Global Plan for Action (GPA) and the Nagoya Protocol. The scientific and political definitions of the AnGRs were creatively reshuffled within these documents and the key criteria by which they are now identified and valued today were essentially redefined. The criteria of "in situ condition" has become the necessary starting point for all valuation efforts of AnGRs, effectively transforming their previous nature as natural property and global genetic commons into objects of national concern pertaining to territorially discrete national genetic landscapes, regulated by the sovereign powers of the parties to the global conventions.

  3. Isotope techniques in studies of selenium deficiency and toxicity syndromes in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    In a brief review of the Se deficiency syndrome in ruminants, studies using non-isotopic methods are applied to an introductory description of the disease. They include methods currently applied for determining Se deficiency status in feed and in ruminant animals. Detection of potential white muscle disease in lambs and calves is discussed. The application of 75 Se in studies on absorption, tissue distribution and excretion under feeding regimes with different Se levels and partly with addition of SO 4 ions or vitamin E is reviewed. In vitro studies with 75 Se include a description of the 75 Se uptake test with red blood cells, the metabolism of selenite, selenate and selenomethionine in rumen microorganisms, and the distribution of 75 Se in cow's and goat's milk. Methods of Se supplementation in Se-deficient areas are summarized and tests with 75 Se-labelled ruminal pellets in sheep and cattle are described. The Se toxicity syndrome is surveyed with respect to causative agents, symptomatology and gross pathology. Special reference is made to the blind staggers and the alkali disease types of selenosis. Isotope techniques are found to be less frequently applied in studies on Se toxicity than in Se deficiency studies. (author)

  4. Traceability of sulfonamide antibiotic treatment by immunochemical analysis of farm animal hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Javier; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Sánchez-Baeza, Francisco; Garcia Regueiro, Jose-Antonio; Castellari, Massimo; Marco, M-Pilar

    2009-10-01

    The use of hair to trace use of unauthorized substances, therapeutic agents, or their misuse is becoming very attractive since residues can be detected for a long time after treatment. For this purpose, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been evaluated for its capability to trace sulfonamide antibiotic treatment by analyzing cattle and pig hair samples. Pigmented and nonpigmented hair samples from control and sulfamethazine (SMZ)-treated pigs and calves were collected, extracted under different alkaline conditions, and analyzed by ELISA after just diluting the extracts with the assay buffer. Data analysis following the European recommendations for screening methods demonstrates that the ELISA can detect SMZ in hair samples with a limit of detection (90% of the zero dose (IC(90))) between 30 and 75 ng g(-1). The same samples have been analyzed by HPLC after a dual solid-phase extraction. The ELISA results matched very well those obtained by the chromatographic method, demonstrating that the immunochemical method can be used as a screening tool to trace animal treatments. Between the benefits of this method are the possibility to directly analyze hair extracts with sufficient detectability and its high-throughput capability. Preliminary validation data are reported using an experimental approach inspired on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria for screening methods.

  5. SHORT, MEDIUM AND LONG-TERM OPPORTUNITIES AND NEEDS FOR RESEARCH FOR SUSTAINABLE FARM ANIMAL BREEDING AND REPRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kompan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The European landscape is characterised by a range of diverse farming systems. These relate not only to varied geographical environments, but also to different social and cultural environments for farming and food production. This diversity is unique to Europe and underlines the importance of European agriculture. Animal breeding is a knowledge intensive sector, and for the future competitiveness of animal breeding and animal production, high level European research is indispensable. The preparation of Strategic Research Agenda were in a full process: opportunities and problems, gaps, short, medium and long term opportunities and needs for research. Each country experts from different group have opportunity to help define his country dimension of animal breeding in its regional and country context, and also in relation to European and global developments. The Farm Animal Breeding and Reproduction European Technology Platform, brings together a wide range of interested parties to produce a vision of how livestock breeding might develop in the next 20 years, and constitutes the first step in achieving that vision.

  6. Measures for sustainable energy in the livestock farming industry; Maatregelen duurzame energie veehouderijsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellekens, J. [DLV Bouw Milieu en Techniek, Uden (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    The sectors of pig farming, poultry farming and veal farming have been examined for sustainable energy deployment options in agricultural businesses. These are systems are ready for practice and to be used by individual businesses. Background information is provided on energy saving, deployment of photovoltaic energy, solar collectors, biomass incineration, heat pumps, air conditioning with ground water, and practical experiences in the deployment of sustainable energy systems. Moreover, an overview is given of subsidies and fiscal opportunities for sustainable energy deployment by agricultural businesses [Dutch] Voor de sectoren varkenshouderij, pluimveehouderij en vleeskalverhouderij is onderzocht wat de toepassingsmogelijkheden zijn van duurzame energie (DE) op agrarische bedrijven. Het betreft systemen welke praktijkrijp zijn en te gebruiken op individuele bedrijven. Er wordt achtergrondinformatie gegeven over energiebesparing, toepassen van photovoltaische energie, zonnecollectoren, verbranden van biomassa, warmtepompen, luchtconditionering met grondwater, praktijkervaringen in de toepassing van duurzame energiesystemen. Ook wordt een overzicht geven van subsidies en fiscale mogelijkheden voor toepassen van DE-systemen op agrarische bedrijven.

  7. Psychoanalitical Outlook for Orwell’s Coming Up for Air, Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zennure KÖSEMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights a psychoanalytical approach while assessing how world wars cause mental and psychological disorders in human beings in respect to George Orwell’s Coming up for Air (1939, Animal Farm (1945 and Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949. Rising global risks result in different forms of tension in financial, economic, and social respects. The atmosphere of perpetual crisis is influential on human psychology and personal values in worsening socio-economic circumstances. The role of psychoanalysis in literary criticism cannot be disregarded because of the rising global risks’ influence on human beings. The chaos of World Wars is the reason for Orwell to portray an apocalyptic analysis in his fictional works. Orwell’s aforementioned three novels in question here reveal a dark undertone of war and conflicts and manifest Orwell’s tendency to portray individuals having anxiety, uncertainty, meaninglessness, alienation, and isolation in the modern world. Moreover, Orwell indirectly depicts that such psychological tensions end up rebellious activities of human beings in his novels

  8. WRN conditioned media is sufficient for in vitro propagation of intestinal organoids from large farm and small companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robin H; Behnke, Michael S

    2017-05-15

    Recent years have seen significant developments in the ability to continuously propagate organoids derived from intestinal crypts. These advancements have been applied to mouse and human samples providing models for gastrointestinal tissue development and disease. We adapt these methods for the propagation of intestinal organoids (enteroids) from various large farm and small companion (LF/SC) animals, including cat, dog, cow, horse, pig, sheep and chicken. We show that LF/SC enteroids propagate and expand in L-WRN conditioned media containing signaling factors Wnt3a, R-spondin-3, and Noggin (WRN). Multiple successful isolations were achieved for each species, and the growth of LF/SC enteroids was maintained to high passage number. LF/SC enteroids expressed crypt stem cell marker LGR5 and low levels of mesenchymal marker VIM. Labeling with EdU also showed distinct regions of cell proliferation within the enteroids marking crypt-like regions. The ability to grow and maintain LF/SC enteroid cell lines provides additional models for the study of gastrointestinal developmental biology as well as platforms for the study of host-pathogen interactions between intestinal cells and zoonotic enteric pathogens of medical importance. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. WRN conditioned media is sufficient for in vitro propagation of intestinal organoids from large farm and small companion animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin H. Powell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen significant developments in the ability to continuously propagate organoids derived from intestinal crypts. These advancements have been applied to mouse and human samples providing models for gastrointestinal tissue development and disease. We adapt these methods for the propagation of intestinal organoids (enteroids from various large farm and small companion (LF/SC animals, including cat, dog, cow, horse, pig, sheep and chicken. We show that LF/SC enteroids propagate and expand in L-WRN conditioned media containing signaling factors Wnt3a, R-spondin-3, and Noggin (WRN. Multiple successful isolations were achieved for each species, and the growth of LF/SC enteroids was maintained to high passage number. LF/SC enteroids expressed crypt stem cell marker LGR5 and low levels of mesenchymal marker VIM. Labeling with EdU also showed distinct regions of cell proliferation within the enteroids marking crypt-like regions. The ability to grow and maintain LF/SC enteroid cell lines provides additional models for the study of gastrointestinal developmental biology as well as platforms for the study of host-pathogen interactions between intestinal cells and zoonotic enteric pathogens of medical importance.

  10. Bird Killer, Industrial Intruder or Clean Energy? Perceiving Risks to Ecosystem Services Due to an Offshore Wind Farm

    KAUST Repository

    Klain, Sarah C.; Satterfield, Terre; Sinner, Jim; Ellis, Joanne; Chan, Kai M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Proposals to develop renewable energy technologies may threaten local values, which can generate opposition. Efforts to explain this opposition have focused on perceived negative aesthetic and environmental impact. Less attention has been paid to a fuller suite of the perceived risks and benefits associated with new energy technologies. This paper thus investigates impacts of an offshore wind farm pertaining to individual perceptions and judgments, and why risks to some ecosystem services might be cause for greater public concern than others. We find that this difference can be attributed to the affective and intuitive ways in which people perceive risk. Our mixed-methods design used interviews (n=27) that involved risk-benefit weighting tasks and an animated visualization to help people imagine an offshore wind farm in a familiar place. We found that affectively-loaded impacts (harm to charismatic wildlife and visual intrusion) were assigned greater weight than more easily quantifiable impacts (displacement of fishing, impact to tourism, cost of compliance with regulations). Interviewees identified increased regional energy self-sufficiency as the most valued potential benefit of an offshore wind farm. These results have implications for ecosystem service assessments generally and, more specifically, for our understanding of ‘affective’ dimensions of development proposals.

  11. Bird Killer, Industrial Intruder or Clean Energy? Perceiving Risks to Ecosystem Services Due to an Offshore Wind Farm

    KAUST Repository

    Klain, Sarah C.

    2017-07-19

    Proposals to develop renewable energy technologies may threaten local values, which can generate opposition. Efforts to explain this opposition have focused on perceived negative aesthetic and environmental impact. Less attention has been paid to a fuller suite of the perceived risks and benefits associated with new energy technologies. This paper thus investigates impacts of an offshore wind farm pertaining to individual perceptions and judgments, and why risks to some ecosystem services might be cause for greater public concern than others. We find that this difference can be attributed to the affective and intuitive ways in which people perceive risk. Our mixed-methods design used interviews (n=27) that involved risk-benefit weighting tasks and an animated visualization to help people imagine an offshore wind farm in a familiar place. We found that affectively-loaded impacts (harm to charismatic wildlife and visual intrusion) were assigned greater weight than more easily quantifiable impacts (displacement of fishing, impact to tourism, cost of compliance with regulations). Interviewees identified increased regional energy self-sufficiency as the most valued potential benefit of an offshore wind farm. These results have implications for ecosystem service assessments generally and, more specifically, for our understanding of ‘affective’ dimensions of development proposals.

  12. Aligning strategy and performance management systems : the case of the wind-farm industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, R.; O'Dwyer, B.; Schneider, R.

    This article presents a case study examining the problems and possibilities of performance management in a wind-farm company. Drawing on Ferreira and Otley’s recently developed performance management systems (PMSs) framework, the study demonstrates how the framework facilitates in-depth, holistic,

  13. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines..., blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; requirements for unrestricted entry. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal materials intended for use in...

  14. 9 CFR 95.16 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal...

  15. On-farm animal welfare assessment in beef bulls: consistency over time of single measures and aggregated Welfare Quality(®) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, M K; Schulze Westerath, H; Knierim, U; Tessitore, E; Cozzi, G; Winckler, C

    2014-03-01

    Consistency over time of (on-farm) animal welfare assessment systems forms part of reliability, meaning that results of the assessment should be representative of the longer-term welfare state of the farm as long as the housing and management conditions have not changed considerably. This is especially important if assessments are to be used for certification purposes. It was the aim of the present study to investigate consistency over time of the Welfare Quality(®) (WQ(®)) assessment system for fattening cattle at single measure level, aggregated criterion and principle scores, and overall classification across short-term (1 month) and longer-term periods (6 months). We hypothesized that consistency over time of aggregated criterion and principle scores is higher than that of single measures. Consistency was also expected to be lower with longer intervals between assessments. Data were obtained using the WQ(®) protocol for fattening cattle during three visits (months 0, 1 and 7) on 63 beef farms in Austria, Germany and Italy. Only data from farms where no major changes in housing and management had taken place were considered for analysis. At the single measure level, Spearman rank correlations between visits were >0.7 and variance was lower within farms than between farms for six and two of 19 measures after 1 month and 6 months, respectively. After aggregation of single measures into criterion and principle scores, five and two of 10 criteria and three and one of four principles were found reliable after 1 and 6 months, respectively. At the WQ(®) principle level, this was the case for three and one of four principles. Seventy-nine per cent and 75% of the farms were allocated to the same overall welfare category after 1 month and 6 months. Possible reasons for a lack of consistency are seasonal effects or short-term fluctuations that occur under normal farm conditions, low prevalence of clinical measures and probably insufficient sample size, whereas poor

  16. Esterilização de farinha de subprodutos animais em esterilizador industrial Industrial sterilization of animal meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Antônio Mazutti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As farinhas de subprodutos animais se apresentam como uma fonte praticamente completa da maioria dos aminoácidos requeridos para uma alimentação equilibrada. Estas farinhas são amplamente usadas para corrigir as deficiências nutricionais, que ocorrem em outras matérias-primas para rações, como os farelos de origem vegetal. No entanto, constituem um ambiente favorável à proliferação de microrganismos, tanto durante o processamento quanto na estocagem. A Portaria SARC 002 de 13/02/2003 no Anexo I da Instrução Normativa Número 15 do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento propõe que a etapa de esterilização das farinhas poderá ser realizada antes do processo de cocção dos subprodutos ou na própria farinha, contanto que seja empregado vapor saturado direto a uma temperatura mínima de 133 °C por um tempo mínimo de 20 minutos. Industrialmente, o que se deseja é obter um produto final com padrões higiênicos sanitários aceitáveis, com teor proteico o mais alto possível. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar diferentes estratégias de processamento da farinha de subprodutos de indústria de aves, observando aquela mais eficiente para a esterilização: se no subproduto antes da digestão ou se na própria farinha. Foram realizados testes em escala piloto com capacidade para 150 kg e em escala industrial com capacidade de 3.000 kg. O processo de esterilização em escala industrial apresentou um melhor desempenho comparado com o processo piloto. O teor de proteína aumentou em todos os testes e a digestibilidade final da farinha foi de aproximadamente 92%, o que eleva seu valor de mercado. Com relação à eliminação de microrganismos, o processo industrial foi eficiente, uma vez que não foi verificada contagem em nenhum dos três testes realizados.Animal meal obtained from animal offal offers a fairly complete source of most of the aminoacids required for a balanced animal diet. These

  17. Review: importance of establishing and running a breeding program in the developing fish farming industry

    OpenAIRE

    Agim Rexhepi; Kurtesh Sherifi; Hysen Bytyqi; Behlul Behluli

    2013-01-01

    Fish farming in developing countries including the Republic of Kosova is largely based on unimproved fish strains. In aquaculture research the main focus has been on increasing productivity through improvements in management, technology, disease control etc. Anyhow, is accepted worldwide that the full benefits can be obtained thorough genetically improved fish. In many countries are given evidence indicating the potential of genetic improvement programs and a range of selection methods may be...

  18. Comprehensive Analysis of Tiamulin Metabolites in Various Species of Farm Animals Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Yang, Shupeng; Zhang, Huiyan; Zhou, Jinhui; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jinzhen; Jin, Yue; Wang, Zhanhui; Li, Yanshen; Shen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Suxia; Cao, Xingyuan

    2017-01-11

    Tiamulin is an antimicrobial widely used in veterinary practice to treat dysentery and pneumonia in pigs and poultry. However, knowledge about the metabolism of tiamulin is very limited in farm animals. To better understand the biotransformation of tiamulin, in the present study, in vitro and in vivo metabolites of tiamulin in rats, chickens, swine, goats, and cows were identified and elucidated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole/time-of-flight. As a result, a total of 26 metabolites of tiamulin, identified in vitro and in vivo, and majority of metabolites were revealed for the first time. In all farm animals, tiamulin undergoes phase I metabolic routes of hydroxylation in the mutilin part (the ring system), S-oxidation and N-deethylation on side chain, and no phase II metabolite was detected. Among these, 2β- and 8α-hydroxylation and N-deethylation were the main metabolic pathways of tiamulin in farm animals. In addition, we have put forward that 8a-hydroxy-tiamulin and 8a-hydroxy-N-deethyl-tiamulin could be hydroxylated into 8a-hydroxy-mutilin, the marker residue of tiamulin in swine. Furthermore, a significant interspecies difference was observed on the metabolism of tiamulin among various farm animals. The possible marker residues for tiamulin in swine were 8α-hydroxy-tiamulin, N-deethyl-tiamulin, and 8α-hydroxy-N-deethyl-tiamulin, which were consistent with the hypothesis proposed by the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. However, results in present study indicated that three metabolites (2β-hydroxy-tiamulin, N-deethyl-tiamulin, and 2β-hydroxy-N-deethyl-tiamulin) of tiamulin in chickens had larger yields, which implied that 2β-hydroxy-mutilin or N-deethyl-tiamulin was more likely to be regarded as the potential marker residue of tiamulin in chickens.

  19. Microbial Indicators, Pathogens, and Antibiotic Resistance in Groundwater Impacted by Animal Farming: Field Scale to Basin Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Li, X.; Atwill, E. R.; Packman, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Several surveys of microbial indicators and pathogens were conducted to determine the impact of confined animal farming operations (CAFOs) on shallow, local, and regional groundwater quality in the Central Valley aquifer system, California. The aquifer system consists of highly heterogeneous, alluvial, unconsolidated coarse- to fine-grained sediments and is among the largest aquifers in the U.S.. Overlying landuse includes 3 million ha of irrigated agriculture and 1.7 million mature dairy cows in nearly 1,500 CAFOs. A multi-scale survey of water-borne indicator pathogens (Enterococcus spp. and generic E. coli) and of three water-borne pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7) was conducted at five different spatial scales, increasing with distance from animal sources of these enteric microbial organisms: moist surfaces within individual CAFO sub-systems (calf-hutches, heifer corrals, mature cow stalls, hospital barn etc.), first encountered (shallow) groundwater immediately below these sub-systems, production aquifer below CAFOs, production aquifer near CAFOs, and production aquifer away from CAFOs. Where found, indicator pathogens were tested for antibiotic resistance. Hundreds of samples were collected at each scale: continuously during irrigation events and seasonally over a multi-year period at the three smaller site-scales; and in a one-time survey at the two larger, regional scales. All three pathogens were frequently detected in moist surface samples across CAFO sub-systems, albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude lower than enteric indicators. Two of the three pathogens (but not Campylobacter) were also detected in first encountered groundwater, at 3-9 m below ground surface, in 1% of samples. No pathogens were found at the production aquifer scales. Generic E. coli was detected in ¼ of first encountered groundwater samples, and in 4% of production aquifer samples, while Enterococcus spp. was ubiquitously present across the

  20. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijskens, E G W; Smit, L A M; Rossen, J W A; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    2016-03-01

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with known and unknown aetiology in an area with a high livestock density and a potential association with animal farms in the proximity. Between 2008 and 2009, a period coinciding with a large Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands, patients with CAP were tested for the presence of possible respiratory pathogens. The presence and number of farm animals within 1 km of the patients' home address were assessed using geographic information system (GIS) and were compared between cases and age-matched control subjects. Of 408 patients with CAP, pathogens were detected in 275 (67.4%) patients. The presence of sheep and the number of goats were associated with CAP caused by Coxiella burnetii in a multiple logistic regression model (P 0.10). The use of GIS in combination with aetiology of CAP could be potentially used to target diagnostics and to identify outbreaks of rare zoonotic disease. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. A Prototype Tool to Enable Farmers to Measure and Improve the Welfare Performance of the Farm Animal Enterprise: The Unified Field Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Colditz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Schemes for the assessment of farm animal welfare and assurance of welfare standards have proliferated in recent years. An acknowledged short-coming has been the lack of impact of these schemes on the welfare standards achieved on farm due in part to sociological factors concerning their implementation. Here we propose the concept of welfare performance based on a broad set of performance attributes of an enterprise and describe a tool based on risk assessment and benchmarking methods for measuring and managing welfare performance. The tool termed the Unified Field Index is presented in a general form comprising three modules addressing animal, resource, and management factors. Domains within these modules accommodate the principle conceptual perspectives for welfare assessment: biological functioning; emotional states; and naturalness. Pan-enterprise analysis in any livestock sector could be used to benchmark welfare performance of individual enterprises and also provide statistics of welfare performance for the livestock sector. An advantage of this concept of welfare performance is its use of continuous scales of measurement rather than traditional pass/fail measures. Through the feedback provided via benchmarking, the tool should help farmers better engage in on-going improvement of farm practices that affect animal welfare.

  2. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in veal calf farming: Human MRSA carriage related with animal antimicrobial usage and farm hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841838; Wagenaar, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Heesterbeek, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073321427; Mevius, D.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/079677347; van Duijkeren, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/135063841; Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently a specific MRSA sequence type, ST398, emerged in food production animals and farmers. Risk factors for carrying MRSA ST398 in both animals and humans have not been fully evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal

  3. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in veal calf farming: human MRSA carriage related with animal antimicrobial usage and farm hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, H.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Heesterbeek, H.; Mevius, D.J.; Duijkeren, van E.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recently a specific MRSA sequence type, ST398, emerged in food production animals and farmers. Risk factors for carrying MRSA ST398 in both animals and humans have not been fully evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal

  4. Farm Management: rethinking directions?

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, David R.; Girdwood, John; Parton, Kevin A.; Charry, Al A.

    2004-01-01

    Farms and farming are major contributors to the world economy, directly responsible for a large part of GDP. These achievements are not trivial and imply that farms are being managed in reasonably effective ways, else agricultural industries would not be sustained. However has the study of Farm Management within Australia made significant contributions to agriculture or lagged in the background. Is it contributing to better Farm Management or merely cataloguing what has happened? Is it leadin...

  5. Partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals with an industrial X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas; Grohmann, Carsten; Schumacher, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Dedicated precise small laboratory animal irradiation sources are needed for basic cancer research and to meet this need expensive high precision radiation devices have been developed. To avoid such expenses a cost efficient way is presented to construct a device for partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals by adding specific components to an industrial X-ray tube. A custom made radiation field tube was added to an industrial 200 kV X-ray tube. A light field display as well as a monitor ionization chamber were implemented. The field size can rapidly be changed by individual inserts of MCP96 that are used for secondary collimation of the beam. Depth dose curves and cross sectional profiles were determined with the use of a custom made water phantom. More components like positioning lasers, a custom made treatment couch, and a commercial isoflurane anesthesia unit were added to complete the system. With the accessories described secondary small field sizes down to 10 by 10 mm 2 (secondary collimator size) could be achieved. The dosimetry of the beam was constructed like those for conventional stereotactical clinical linear accelerators. The water phantom created showed an accuracy of 1 mm and was well suited for all measurements. With the anesthesia unit attached to the custom made treatment couch the system is ideal for the radiation treatment of small laboratory animals like mice. It was feasible to shrink the field size of an industrial X-ray tube from whole animal irradiation to precise partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals. Even smaller secondary collimator sizes than 10 by 10 mm 2 are feasible with adequate secondary collimator inserts. Our custom made water phantom was well suited for the basic dosimetry of the X-ray tube.

  6. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashton, R.; Wever, B. de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Hill, E.; Krul, C.A.M.; Poth, A.; Roggen, E.L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15–16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of

  7. Tumores em animais de produção: aspectos comparativos Tumors in farm animals: comparative aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Tony Ramos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de realizar um estudo retrospectivo de tumores em animais de produção (bovinos, ovinos, eqüinos e suínos, foi realizada uma revisão nos casos suspeitos de neoplasmas recebidos pelo Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas num período de 24 anos (1978-2002. Os aspectos epidemiológicos dos neoplasmas nessas espécies foram relatados, e uma classificação concisa para padronizar a nomenclatura, seguindo padrões internacionais de classificação histológica de tumores, foi realizada. O estudo baseou-se em um universo de 6.267 materiais. Obtiveram-se 175 casos de tumores distribuídos entre as espécies bovina (98/4407, ovina (9/636, eqüina (65/774 e suína (3/450. Esses tumores foram então avaliados e reclassificados. Os dados referentes foram analisados quanto a sua prevalência por raça, sexo, idade e localização anatômica (origem do tumor. Os tumores com maior casuística foram os linfomas nos bovinos, os carcinomas de células escamosas nos bovinos e ovinos e os sarcóides nos eqüinos.Aiming at a complete study on all neoplastic lesions in farm animals (cattle, sheep, horses and swine, a retrospective review was performed covering a 24 years period (1978-2002 at the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory of the Veterinary School in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. The analysis included the review of epidemiological data and the standardization of classification parameters considering current rules of international classification of tumors. Six thousand two hundred and sixty seven samples were analyzed. The distribution among the species was: 98 in cattle, 9 in sheep, 65 in horses and 3 in pigs, over 175 cases detected. Prevalence studies as for the breed, sex, age and anatomical distribution of the tumors were analyzed. Lymphoma in cattle, squamous cell carcinoma in cattle and sheep, and sarcoids in horses were the tumors with higher incidence.

  8. Coping with Power Interruptions in Tanzania: An Industrial Perspective A Case Study of One Small Scale Animal Food Processing Industry in Moshi Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Kavishe, Theodora Ephrem

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in Moshi-Tanzania. The research topic is Coping with Power Interruptions in Tanzania.An Industrial Perspesctive:A Case Study of one Small Scale Animal Food Processing Industry in Moshi Municipality.The objectives are (1) to explore perceptions of staff in the industry and among TANESCO towards interruptions in power supply (2) to describe the coping strategies developed by the industry under study. The study was guided by Resource Dependence Theory (RDT) by Pfeffer an...

  9. Status of industrial fluoride pollution and its diverse adverse health effects in man and domestic animals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal; Choubisa, Darshana

    2016-04-01

    Hydrofluorosis in humans and domestic animals is a worldwide health problem and caused by a prolonged period of fluoride exposure through drinking of fluoride contaminated water. But in recent years, due to rapid industrialization in India, diverse serious health problems among industrial workers and residents and domestic animals living in the industrial areas due to fluoride pollution are on the rise. A number of coal-burning and industrial activities such as power-generating stations, welding operations and the manufacturing or production of steel, iron, aluminum, zinc, phosphorus, chemical fertilizers, bricks, glass, plastic, cement, and hydrofluoric acid are generally discharging fluoride in both gaseous and particulate/dust forms into surrounding environments which create a industrial fluoride pollution and are an important cause of occupational exposure to fluoride in several countries including India. An industrial emitted fluoride contaminates not only surrounding soil, air, and water but also vegetation, crops and many other biotic communities on which man and animals are generally dependants for food. Long- time of inhalation or ingestion of industrial fluoride also causes serious health problems in the forms of industrial and neighborhood fluorosis. In India, whatever research works conducted so far on the chronic industrial fluoride intoxication or poisoning (industrial and neighborhood fluorosis) in man and various species of domestic animals due to a prolonged period of industrial fluoride exposure or pollution (contamination) are critically reviewed in the present communication. Simultaneously, we are also focused the various bio-indicators and bio-markers for chronic industrial fluoride intoxication or pollution.

  10. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex( CC) 1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected...... in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized...... by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (>= 90% to 100%) similarity with human...

  11. Absorption of Mercury from Polluted Soil by Rice Plant(Case Study: Farms of Amol Industrial Suburban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ahmadipour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury has recognized as one of the most toxic heavy metals, which many industries generate and dispose to the environment. Few studies are done about mercury accumulation in soil and bioconcentration and transfer factor of mercury in rice plant cultivated in industrial areas. In this study samples were taken randomly from 10 farms in vicinity of Amol industrial suburban area with three replications. Samples were measured by the LECO AMA 254 Advanced Mercury Analyzer according to ASTM D-6733method. Also the parameters related to the quality of the soil were measured. The mean of mercury concentration in soil, root, stem and grain were found 0.031 ±0.012 mg/kg, 0.074 ±0.0163 mg/kg, 0.058 ±0.008 mg/kg and 0.051 ±0.0083 mg/kg respectively. The calculated transfer factor of mercury to various organs and bioconcentration factor were < 1 and 2.46 respectively. Pearson correlation test showed a positive correlation between mercury concentration in soil with mercury concentration in grain and also a negative correlation between pH with mercury concentration in root and soil. It is concluded that rice plant have high potential for phytoremediation of mercury from soil.

  12. Studies of transport pathways of Th, U, REE's, Ra-228, and Ra-226 from soil to farm animals. Progress report, April 1-December 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenbud, M.; Franca, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    This is a report on the Transport Pathways of Thorium, Uranium, Rare Earths Elements, Radium-228 and Radium-226 from Soil to Farm Animals. The investigation is taking place in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where an ore body (Morro de Ferro) exists that contains about 30,000 metric tons of thorium and more than 50,000 metric tons of rare earth elements. The ore body, which is believed to be about 60 million years old, has eroded to the surface and has been inundated by ground water. Nearby farmers are cooperating in the study. The analytical procedures have been modified to adapt them to the large volumes of biological material. The soils from the farm plots have been sampled, analyzed and characterized by standard pedological methods. Analyses for most of the substances of interest have been completed in pilot samples of vegetables and cow bone

  13. Diergezondheid en management op biologische boerderijen die geen antibiotica gebruiken = Animal health and farm management on organic farms with no antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, E.A.A.

    2007-01-01

    On nine milk cattle companies with cows, two with goats and one with sheep, which none of them do not or hardly uses antibiotics, animal health and management have been examined. Reasons not to use antibiotics have to do with resistance, residues, healthier livestock, less stress and economic

  14. Effect of culinary and technological treatment of the farm animal products on the fission products content in them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshalkin, G.S.

    1973-01-01

    The application of various procedures aimed at reducing the content of artificial radionuclides at the stage of technological and culinary processing of agricultural produce is considered. During the processing of milk and meat, which are basic farming produce, much of the contained fission products can be removed with low-value wastes. One of the more readily accessible methods of milk purification is recognized to be that of ion ixchange. A large role in reducing the radionuclide content of farming products is played by the time factor, i.e. the time spent for the manufacture and marketing of the products

  15. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  16. Clinical testing of combined vaccine against enzootic pneumonia in industrial pig farming in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pepovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the pig farm with signs of a respiratory disease complex and laboratory confirmed enzootic pneumonia, the prophylactic efficacy of the combination vaccine (M. hyo+PCV2, a single injection administered intramuscularly 21 days after birth, at a dose of 2 ml was tested. The clinical condition, pathological changes in the lungs and some epidemiological and economic results were reported. It was found that vaccinated pigs are in a better clinical condition in comparison with the control group. Morbidity in the rearing period was reduced from 16.3% in the control group to 6.0% in vaccinated pigs, and in the fattening period, respectively, from 30.6% in the control group to 10.0% in the vaccinated group. Pathological features in the lung characteristic for the enzootic pneumonia in the vaccinated pigs were reduced from 25.5%±7.24 to 4.0%±2.44, and PCVI - from 13.0%±4.66 to 0%. Vaccination of pigs has been received and a higher average daily gain in groups for rearing (0.624 kg and for fattening (0.723 kg was recorded.

  17. 77 FR 22327 - Draft Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... resistance in human and animal bacterial pathogens when medically important antimicrobial drugs are used in... Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals'' and to set timelines... Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals'' (GFI 209) and (2) the...

  18. Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana

    2016-02-01

    This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral ( P farm feasibility of both indicators: No constraint was found and time required was less than 10 min. Our results show that cold and heat stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.

  19. Livestock-associated risk factors for pneumonia in an area of intensive animal farming in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freidl, G.S.; Spruijt, I.T.; Borlée, F.; Smit, L.A.M.; Gageldonk-Lafeber, A.B. van; Heederik, D.; Yzermans, J.; Dijk, C.E. van; Maassen, C.B.M.; Hoek, W. van der

    2017-01-01

    Previous research conducted in 2009 found a significant positive association between pneumonia in humans and living close to goat and poultry farms. However, as this result might have been affected by a large goat-related Q fever epidemic, the aim of the current study was to re-evaluate this

  20. Sustainable innovation in intensive animal husbandry; policy and public protests towards a mega-farm in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, L.G.; Hinssen, J.P.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the planning and implementation of a specific mega-farm in the Netherlands is discussed, the so called ‘New Mixed Business’ (NMB). The central question is: how did communication, contestation and controversies play a role in the implementation of this innovative concept for sustainable

  1. Industry Through Reinforcement of Institution and Human Power Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nur

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The failure of small scale animal farm industry development was indicated by the decreasing of animal farm number and the high price of their product. This failure has an effect into increasing of unemployment, decreasing of animal protein available and animal population because of the high rate of animal slaughtering and the high cost need to buy animal from other countries. This report was aimed to know the strategy on developing of stand alone small scale animal farm. This study based on literature study, panel discussion and interview. The result showed that the development of human power resource was the factor to decide the first priority in developing stand alone small scale animal farm. In the past the government policy always stussed in provision of capital for animal husbandry bussines developing, so it has never been the main priority. (Animal Production 2(2: 60-68 (2000   Key words : developing and reinforcement

  2. Impacts of Small-Scale Industrialized Swine Farming on Local Soil, Water and Crop Qualities in a Hilly Red Soil Region of Subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrialized small-scale pig farming has been rapidly developed in developing regions such as China and Southeast Asia, but the environmental problems accompanying pig farming have not been fully recognized. This study investigated 168 small-scale pig farms and 29 example pig farms in Yujiang County of China to examine current and potential impacts of pig wastes on soil, water and crop qualities in the hilly red soil region, China. The results indicated that the small-scale pig farms produced considerable annual yields of wastes, with medians of 216, 333 and 773 ton yr−1 per pig farm for manure, urine and washing wastewater, respectively, which has had significant impact on surface water quality. Taking NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN or total phosphorus (TP as a criterion to judge water quality, the proportions of Class III and below Class III waters in the local surface waters were 66.2%, 78.7% and 72.5%. The well water (shallow groundwater quality near these pig farms met the water quality standards by a wide margin. The annual output of pollutants from pig farms was the most important factor correlated with the nutrients and heavy metals in soils, and the relationship can be described by a linear equation. The impact on croplands was marked by the excessive accumulation of available phosphorus and heavy metals such as Cu and Zn. For crop safety, the over-limit ratio of Zn in vegetable samples reached 60%, other heavy metals in vegetable and rice samples tested met the food safety standard at present.

  3. Impacts of Small-Scale Industrialized Swine Farming on Local Soil, Water and Crop Qualities in a Hilly Red Soil Region of Subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Wang, Xingxiang; Zhou, Zhigao

    2017-12-06

    Industrialized small-scale pig farming has been rapidly developed in developing regions such as China and Southeast Asia, but the environmental problems accompanying pig farming have not been fully recognized. This study investigated 168 small-scale pig farms and 29 example pig farms in Yujiang County of China to examine current and potential impacts of pig wastes on soil, water and crop qualities in the hilly red soil region, China. The results indicated that the small-scale pig farms produced considerable annual yields of wastes, with medians of 216, 333 and 773 ton yr -1 per pig farm for manure, urine and washing wastewater, respectively, which has had significant impact on surface water quality. Taking NH₄⁺-N, total nitrogen (TN) or total phosphorus (TP) as a criterion to judge water quality, the proportions of Class III and below Class III waters in the local surface waters were 66.2%, 78.7% and 72.5%. The well water (shallow groundwater) quality near these pig farms met the water quality standards by a wide margin. The annual output of pollutants from pig farms was the most important factor correlated with the nutrients and heavy metals in soils, and the relationship can be described by a linear equation. The impact on croplands was marked by the excessive accumulation of available phosphorus and heavy metals such as Cu and Zn. For crop safety, the over-limit ratio of Zn in vegetable samples reached 60%, other heavy metals in vegetable and rice samples tested met the food safety standard at present.

  4. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  5. Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana

    2016-02-01

    This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral (P stress were recorded only in the hot season (P stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.

  6. 75 FR 75482 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers... Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers.'' The draft questions and answers (Q&A) guidance addresses the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) General Chapter Residual Solvents that applies to both human...

  7. uFarm: a smart farm management system based on RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungsuk; Lee, Moonsup; Jung, Jonghyuk; Lee, Hyunwook; Kim, Taehyoun

    2007-12-01

    Recently, the livestock industry in Korea has been threatened by many challenges such as low productivity due to labor intensiveness, global competition compelled by the Free Trade Agreement (FTA), and emerging animal disease issues such as BSE or foot-and-mouth. In this paper, we propose a smart farm management system, called uFarm, which would come up with such challenges by automating farm management. First, we automate labor-intensive jobs using equipments based on sensors and actuators. The automation subsystem can be controlled by remote user through wireless network. Second, we provide real-time traceability of information on farm animals using the radio-frequency identification (RFID) method and embedded data server with network connectivity.

  8. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Fazel Nabavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided.

  9. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided. PMID:26378575

  10. Exploring the Framing of Animal Farming and Meat Consumption: On the Diversity of Topics Used and Qualitative Patterns in Selected Demographic Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijland, Hanneke J; Aarts, Noelle; van Woerkum, Cees M J

    2018-01-24

    In various contexts, people talk about animal farming and meat consumption using different arguments to construct and justify their (non-)acceptability. This article presents the results of an in-depth qualitative inquiry into the content of and contextual patterns in the everyday-life framing regarding this issue, performed among consumers in various settings in two extremes in the European sphere: the Netherlands and Turkey. We describe the methodological steps of collecting, coding, and organizing the variety of encountered framing topics, as well as our search for symbolic convergence in groups of consumers from different selected demographic contexts (country, urban-rural areas, gender, age, and education level). The framing of animal farming and meat consumption in everyday-life is not a simple one-issue rational display of facts; people referred to a vast range of topics in the categories knowledge, convictions, pronounced behaviour, values, norms, interests, and feelings. Looking at framing in relation to the researched demographic contexts, most patterns were found on the level of topics; symbolic convergence in lines of reasoning and composite framing was less prominent in groups based on single demographic contexts than anticipated. An explanation for this lies in the complexity of frame construction, happening in relation with multiple interdependent contextual features.

  11. 78 FR 59624 - Guidance for Industry #223: Small Entity Compliance Guide-Declaring Color Additives in Animal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 501 [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-1088] Guidance for Industry 223: Small Entity Compliance Guide--Declaring Color Additives... industry 223 entitled ``Small Entity Compliance Guide--Declaring Color Additives in Animal Foods.'' This...

  12. Animal Science Experts' Opinions on the Non-Technical Skills Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates Need for Employment in the Animal Science Industry: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Non-technical, employability skills are in high demand for entry-level job-seekers. As such, this study sought to describe the perceptions of Oklahoma's animal science industry leaders as it related to the employability skills needed for entry-level employment of high school graduates who had completed coursework in Oklahoma's Agricultural, Food…

  13. Modelling 3H and 14C transfer to farm animals and their products under steady state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Melintescu, A.; Beresford, N.A.; Crout, N.M.J.; Peterson, R.; Takeda, H.

    2007-01-01

    The radionuclides 14 C and 3 H may both be released from nuclear facilities. These radionuclides are unusual, in that they are isotopes of macro-elements which form the basis of animal tissues, feed and, in the case of 3 H, water. There are few published values describing the transfer of 3 H and 14 C from feed to animal derived food products under steady state conditions. Approaches are described which enable the prediction of 14 C and 3 H transfer parameter values from readily available information on the stable H or C concentration of animal feeds, tissues and milk, water turnover rates, and feed intakes and digestibilities. We recommend that the concentration ratio between feed and animal product activity concentrations be used as it is less variable than the transfer coefficient (ratio between radionuclide activity concentration in animal milk or tissue to the daily intake of a radionuclide)

  14. Ethylene vinyl acetate polymer as a tool for passive sampling monitoring of hydrophobic chemicals in the salmon farm industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucca, Felipe; Moya, Heriberto; Barra, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The samplers allow the detection of hydrophobic chemicals in the marine environment. • The samplers reach equilibrium quickly, with days of deployment in the field. • The samplers have low costs and easy manipulation for monitoring programs. • A way to collect chemicals in the aquatic environment without human effort. - Abstract: Current monitoring programs are focused on hydrophobic chemicals detection in aquatic systems, which require the collection of high volumes of water samples at a given time. The present study documents the preliminary use of the polymer ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as a passive sampler for the detection of a hydrophobic chemical used by salmon industries such as cypermethrin. Initially, an experimental calibration in laboratory was performed to determine the cypermethrin equilibrium between sampler and aquatic medium, which was reached after seven days of exposure. A logarithm of partitioning coefficient EVA–water (log K EVA–W ) of 5.6 was reported. Field deployment of EVA samplers demonstrated average concentrations of cypermethrin in water to be 2.07 ± 0.7 ng L −1 close to salmon cages, while near-shore was 4.39 ± 0.8 ng L −1 . This was a first approach for assessing EVA samplers design as a tool of monitoring in water for areas with salmon farming activity

  15. Guide to carry out photovoltaic projects in self-consumption in the tertiary, industrial and farm sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinette, Jean-Yves; Lacirignola, Martino; Morlot, Rodolphe

    2017-07-01

    For the tertiary, industrial and farm sectors, photovoltaic energy production is often synchronous with its consumption, and self-consumption therefore makes sense. This guide is aimed at giving guidelines for the development of a self-consumption project for these sectors. It details the different stages (design, financing, development, exploitation) for projects located in metropolitan France or French overseas territories, and notably takes the case on non-interconnected areas into account. After a presentation of the concept of self-consumption of electricity and more particularly solar photovoltaic electricity, the guide describes how to initiate a project: chronology, possible configurations; peculiarities of concerned sectors and applicable configurations, orders of magnitude, possible financial supports. It gives a detailed overview of the legal framework for the various aspects of the project: actors, urban planning laws, land management, taxes, connection to the grid, equipment, insurance. It analyses the project technical content, addresses financing aspects (data to be collected, assessment tools, financing modes, business plans). For these various themes which are as many chapters, the case of non-interconnected areas (islands, areas non connected to the grid) is specifically addressed

  16. Industrial fluorosis: a study of the hazard to man and animals near Fort William, Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agate, J N; Bell, G H; Boddie, G F; Bowler, R G; Buckell, M; Cheeseman, E A; Douglas, T H.J.; Druett, H A; Garrad, J; Hunter, D

    1949-01-01

    From the mass of data collected in the course of the investigation, certain general conclusions emerge. It is clear that, especially in the older type of furnace room, workers inhale considerable quantities of fluorine. Their excretion of fluorine in the urine runs roughly parallel to the intensity of their exposure. Some of the older workers, exposed for a large number of years to conditions prevailing in the old furnace rooms, show bone changes of the type now generally recognized to be produced by fluorosis. Despite these bone changes none of the workers examined was found to suffer clinical disability. It does not follow that the risk to health of workers in the older type of furnace room is negligible, for it is well known that the progressive course of fluorosis is slow. Examination of samples of air, soil, etc., establishes beyond doubt that the amount of fluorine liberated from the factory is considerable. Because of the configuration of the country, the direction of the prevailing winds, and the heavy rainfall, fluorine compounds in the atmosphere tend to be deposited, mainly along a tract of country which can be defined in the light of the analytical results. While critical examination of a small number of residents in the neighborhood of the factory has shown no sign of injury to health, it is only prudent to site new developments in such a way that, so far as possible, residents are kept out of the zone known to be most liable to contamination. The effects on animal husbandry of fluorine contamination of herbage have been described in detail. They obviously constitute a serious impediment to economic methods of sheep and cattle farming in the area. It is important that everything practicable should be done to reduce the amount of fluorine discharged from the factory.

  17. Integrating animal manure-based bioenergy production with invasive species control: A case study at Tongren Pig Farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Zhu, Lei [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hu, Guoliang [Rural Energy Section, Agricultural Bureau of Haining City, Zhejiang Province 314400 (China); Wu, Jianguo [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Life Sciences and Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Integrated approach and bioresource engineering are often required to deal with multiple and interactive environmental problems for sustainable development at local and regional scales. Pig farming has flourished with fast growing economy and increasing human demands for meat in China. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a noxious invasive species, has encroached into most of the local rivers and lakes. Both the wastes from the booming pig farms as well as the massive plant materials of water hyacinth have caused a range of serious ecological and environmental problems. Here we present an integrated sustainable, ecological and experimental study that was designed to deal with these two problems simultaneously. Our experimental results showed that the mixtures of water hyacinth with pig manure consistently had much higher biogas production than pig manure alone, and that the highest biogas production was achieved when 15% of the fermentation substrates were water hyacinth. Our analysis further revealed that the changing C/N ratio and the lignin content in the fermentation feedstock due to the addition of water hyacinth might be two important factors affecting the biogas production. We also found that the solar-powered water-heating unit significantly increased the biogas production (especially in winter time). Overall, the project proved to be successful ecologically and socially. Through such an integrated approach and bioresource engineering, wastes are treated, energy is harvested, and the environment is protected. (author)

  18. In-vitro use of radiominerals to determine mineral imbalances in farm animals. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of isotopes to diagnose moderate mineral imbalances in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goksoy, K.

    1981-01-01

    This research programme involved the use of in vitro radioisotopic procedures as well as stable element analysis and enzyme determinations to evaluate selenium, copper and zinc deficiency states in sheep in Turkey. Uptake of radioactive selenium by red blood cells was effective in determining the selenium status of sheep. Animals on a selenium deficient diet had red cell selenium uptakes significantly greater than those of sheep fed normal levels of selenium. When sheep on a selenium deficient diet were tested and then supplemented with selenium for several weeks, the red cell uptakes of radioselenium after supplementation were significantly less than before supplementation. A similar technique was used to study the zinc status of sheep. Uptake of radioactive zinc by red cells was greater in deficient sheep than in zinc-supplemented animals. Zinc deficient sheep also had lower serum zinc levels than in supplemented animals, and alkaline phosphatase activity levels. Assays of erythrocyte uptake, using a scintillation counter may be useful in the absence of equipment for total mineral analysis or enzyme assays. In another study the serum copper levels of sheep of different genetic types were compared to serum ceruloplasmin levels and to the incidence of enzootic ataxia in offspring of these animals. A definite correlation was found between haemoglobulin type, serum copper level and ceruloplasmin level. Comparisons of these parameters in sheep with copper and molybdenum levels in forage samples indicated that copper deficiency in sheep in Turkey is apparently a secondary copper deficiency due to high levels of molybdenum in forage

  19. Studies of transport pathways of Th, rare earths, Ra-228, and Ra-226 from soil to plants and farm animals. Progress report, April 1, 1985-February 28, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.

    1986-02-01

    The field study is to assess the soil-to-plant and soil-to-animal concentration factors of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 232 Th, 230 Th, and 228 Th, as well as of the light rare earth elements (REE), La, Ce and Nd. Farms situated near the center of a deeply weathered alkalic intrusive known as the Pocos de Caldas (PC) plateau were selected for study because of their proximity (i.e., within a few kilometers) to what may be the largest single near-surface deposit of Th (approx.30,000 tonnes) and REE's (>100,000 tonnes) situated near the summit of a hill (the Morro do Ferro (MF)). An ancillary field study is being conducted in Orange County, New York, where a local cattleman has permitted sampling members of the herd as well as soil and feeds which are all grown on the premises. Vegetable samples and soil have also been analyzed from five additional farms in Orange County, NY. 64 refs., 25 figs., 45 tabs

  20. To inspect, to motivate - or to do both? A dilemma for on-farm inspection of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Vaarst, Mette; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    offenders should be treated equally. On the other hand, it may be argued that an important component of inspections is to enter into dialogue with farmers. This may be based on a more forward-looking view aimed at motivating farmers to look after the welfare of the animals in their care. In European...... countries, authorities try to enforce animal welfare legislation through inspections followed up by penalties in instances where a lack of compliance is found. However, the fairness and efficiency, and ultimately the public acceptance of the system, critically depend on the performance of the individual...

  1. The use of radioisotopes in the investigation of the iodine status and thyroid function in farm animals in the Sudan. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of isotopes to diagnose moderate mineral imbalances in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid Eltom Ali

    1980-10-01

    The thyroid weight of 2000 grazing animals (sheep, goats, cattle and camels), together with an estimate of thyroid activity and the iodine content of milk, using 131 I, suggest that iodine deficiency prevails in extensive areas of the Sudan. Iodine supplementation for humans and animals in the Sudan appears justified. Results are based on radioassays carried out to determine the blood serum levels of thyroxine and triiodothyronine, and the thyroid uptake of 131 I under conditions of adequate I-uptake. The I-content of milk (and blood serum, pasture, water and soil, where possible) was determined, in order to correlate the levels of the thyroid hormones and of 131 I-uptake with I-supply. Experiments were also carried out on the effects of administering balanced and unbalanced mineral rations on I-metabolism and thyroid hormone production

  2. Radio-iodine in thyroid glands of swans, farm animals and humans, also in algae and river water from the Thames Valley, England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, J.R.; Lloyd, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    A highly sensitive counting system has been used to measure radio-iodine in environmental samples from the Thames Valley. Iodine-125 and occasionally iodine-131 have been found in the thyroid glands of most of the swans that have died on the River Thames, the River Wey and the Grand Union Canal, and in algae and water samples from the Thames and many of its tributaries. The presence of this activity is ascribed to the waste discarded into the drainage system by hospitals and research laboratories, reaching the rivers via the effluent from sewage treatment works. The Thames is used as a source of drinking water, particularly in London and its western approaches. Weed and water samples collected from river water abstraction points, reservoirs, tap water supplies, and animal water troughs fed from this supply all contained low levels of iodine-125. The drinking water route can account for the iodine-125 found in the thyroids of farm animals from west Surrey and in a few people living in London. The amounts found constitute a trivial radiation dose to man and animals as they are far below the acceptable limit of exposure for man.

  3. Swine and rabbits are the main reservoirs of hepatitis E virus in China: detection of HEV RNA in feces of farmed and wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junke; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yulin; Liu, Peng; Geng, Jiabao; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is recognized as a zoonosis. The prevalence of HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies in many animal species has been reported, but the host range of HEV is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate HEV infection in various animal species and to determine the reservoirs of HEV. Eight hundred twenty-two fecal samples from 17 mammal species and 67 fecal samples from 24 avian species were collected in China and tested for HEV RNA by RT-nPCR. The products of PCR were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. The positive rates of HEV RNA isolated from pigs in Beijing, Shandong, and Henan were 33%, 30%, and 92%, respectively, and that from rabbits in Beijing was 5%. HEV RNA was not detectable in farmed foxes, sheep or sika deer, or in wild animals in zoos, including wild boars, yaks, camels, Asiatic black bears, African lions, red pandas, civets, wolves, jackals and primates. Sequence analysis revealed that swine isolates had 97.8%-98.4% nucleotide sequence identity to genotype 4d isolates from patients in Shandong and Jiangsu of China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that swine HEV isolates belong to genotype 4, including subgenotype 4h in Henan and 4d in Beijing and Shandong. The rabbit HEV strains shared 93%-99% nucleotide sequence identity with rabbit strains isolated from Inner Mongolia. In conclusion, swine and rabbits have been confirmed to be the main reservoirs of HEV in China.

  4. THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

  5. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rachel; De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15-16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry and regulatory bodies should not wait for complete suites of alternative tests to become available, but should begin working with methods available right now (e.g., mining of existing animal data to direct future studies, implementation of alternative tests wherever scientifically valid rather than continuing to rely on animal tests) in non-animal and animal integrated strategies to reduce the numbers of animals tested. Sharing of information (communication), harmonization and standardization (coordination), commitment and collaboration are all required to improve the quality and speed of validation, acceptance, and implementation of tests. Finally, we consider how alternative methods can be used in research and development before formal implementation in regulations. Here we present the conclusions on what can be done already and suggest some solutions and strategies for the future.

  6. The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli populations isolated from farm animals with different exposure to antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Justyna; Pusz, Paweł; Bok, Ewa; Stosik, Michał; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the presence or the absence of antibiotic input on the emergence and maintenance of resistance in commensal bacteria from food producing animals. The research material constituted E. coli isolates from two animal species: swine at different age from one conventional pig farm with antibiotic input in young pigs and from beef and dairy cattle originated from organic breeding farm. The sensitivity to 16 antimicrobial agents was tested, and the presence of 15 resistance genes was examined. In E. coli from swine, the most prevalent resistance was resistance to streptomycin (88.3%), co-trimoxazole (78.8%), tetracycline (57.3%) ampicillin (49.3%) and doxycycline (44.9%) with multiple resistance in the majority. The most commonly observed resistance genes were: bla(TEM) (45.2%), tetA (35.8%), aadA1 (35.0%), sul3 (29.5%), dfrA1 (20.4%). Differences in phenotypes and genotypes of E. coli between young swine undergoing prevention program and the older ones without the antibiotic pressure occurred. A disparate resistance was found in E. coli from cattle: cephalothin (36.9%), cefuroxime (18.9%), doxycycline (8.2%), nitrofurantoin (7.7%), and concerned mainly dairy cows. Among isolates from cattle, multidrug resistance was outnumbered by resistance to one or two antibiotics and the only found gene markers were: bla(SHV), (3.4%), tetA (1.29%), bla(TEM) (0.43%) and tetC (0.43%). The presented outcomes provide evidence that antimicrobial pressure contributes to resistance development, and enteric microflora constitutes an essential reservoir of resistance genes.

  7. Contaminants in Foods of Animal Origin in Cameroon: A One Health Vision for Risk Management "from Farm to Fork".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouokam, Guy B; Foudjo, B U Saha; Samuel, Chi; Yamgai, Philomina Fankam; Silapeux, A Kamda; Sando, Joel Taguemkam; Atonde, G Fankam; Frazzoli, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Foods of animal origin represent an important share in the diet of Cameroonian populations. Cameroon is known to be a food basket in the west and central Africa sub-region, and an important supplier of foods on the international markets. In the meantime, food importation is continuously increasing to meet the high demand of a more westernized segment of the population. Cereals, fish, sea products, eggs, honey, shrimps, chicken, and feed ingredients are important share in the international trade of agricultural products. Few controls are made on the quality and safety of these products. Certain safety standards do exist but are still yet to be enforced. Inspections done so far by regulatory authorities are partial and do not cover important hazards that require laboratory analysis. The increasing awareness of population, the burden of new types of disease, as well as the recurrence of food scandals have recently launched a scientific and population debate on the contribution of foods items, especially those of animal origin, to the toxic exposure of food producing animals and humans. This paper critically reviews the occurrence of toxicants in most consumed foods of animal origin in Cameroon. This study included the most consumed food of animal origin, identified during the national household budget survey and contributing to 8.1% of the total diet of an individual. Data evaluated suggest an important contamination by toxic metals, mycotoxins, veterinary drugs' residues, and pesticides. The current national legal framework is briefly analyzed to explore possible intervention measures in the frame of the One Health approach.

  8. Promoting Profit Model Innovation in Animation Project in Northeast Asia: Case Study on Chinese Cultural and Creative Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Jiao; Yupei Wang; Hongjun Xiao; Jianghua Zhou; Wensi Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Building on a case study of three animation companies in the Chinese cultural and creative industry, this study aims to understand how profit model innovation is promoted. Due to the rapidly changing environments and resource scarcity, cultural and creative companies need to select the appropriate profit model according to their own key resources. The study uncovers two critical factors that promote profit model innovation in animation projects: the quantity of consumers and their consumption...

  9. Studies of transport pathways of Th, U, rare earths, Ra-228, and Ra-226 from soil to plants and farm animals: Final progress report, 1983-1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsalata, P

    1988-07-01

    This report consists of three parts. Part 1 discusses a field study conducted in an area of enhanced, natural radioactivity to assess the soil to edible vegetable concentration ratios (CR = concentration in dry vegetable/concentration in dry soil) of Th-232, Th-230, Ra-226, Ra-228, and the light rare earth elements (REE's), La, Ce, and Nd. Twenty-eight soil, and approximately 42 vegetable samples consisting of relatively equal numbers of seven varieties, were obtained from 11 farms on the Pocos de Caldas Plateau in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This region is the site of a major natural analogue study to assess the mobilization and retardation processes affecting thorium and the REE's at the Morro do Ferro ore body, and uranium series radionuclides at the Osamu Utsumi open pit uranium mine. Thorium (IV) serves as a chemical analogue for quadrivalent plutonium, the light REE's (III) as chemical analogues for trivalent americium and curium, and uranium (VI) as an analogue for transuranics with stable oxidation states above IV, e.g., Pu(VI). Part 2 includes our final measurement results for naturally occurring light rare earth elements (REE's include La, Ce, Nd, and SM), U-series and Th-series radionuclides in adult farm animal tissues, feeds and soils. Our findings on soil-to-tissue concentration ratios (CR's) and the comparative behavior of these elements in farm animals raised under natural conditions by local farmers are presented. Part 3 summarizes our findings to date on the distribution and mobilization of Th-232, light rare earth elements (LREE), U-238 and Ra-228 in the MF basin. Estimates of first order, present day, mobilization rate constants resulting from ground water solubilization and seepage/stream transport are calculated using revised inventory estimates for the occurrence of these elements in the ore body and annual flux estimates for the transport of these elements away from the ore body. 151 refs., 20 figs., 40 tabs.

  10. Identifying the impacts of climate change on key pests and diseases of plant and animal industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, Jo; Aurambout, Jean-Philippe; Finlay, Kyla; Azuloas, Joe; Constable, Fiona; Rijswijk, Bonny Rowles-Van

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Climate change is increasingly recognised as a major threat to natural and agricultural systems. Understanding these threats will enable government and primary industries to better prepare and adapt to climate change. While observations of climate change are well documented, the potential effects on pests, pathogens and their hosts are not clearly understood. To address this, a review of the potential impacts on plant biosecurity was undertaken to determine the effects of climate change on the behaviour and distribution of emergent plant pests and pathogens. The review identified increasing C02 and temperature, decreasing frost events, heavy and unseasonal rains, increased humidity, drought, cyclones and hurricanes, and warmer winter temperatures as influencing the behaviour of plant pests and pathogens. To study the effects of these changes in detail, three key plant biosecurity threats were analysed in case studies; wheat stripe rust, silver leaf whitefly and citrus canker. The predicted distribution of citrus canker was examined with increasing temperature scenarios using the bioclimatic model CLIMEX. The model predicted a southerly shift in the geographic range of the causal organism which would threaten the major southern citrus growing regions in future climates. A similar study on Bluetongue disease of sheep, spread by the Culicoides midge, also predicted a southerly shift in the vector's geographic range. Significant limitations were identified with bioclimatic modelling when examining the effects of climate change on pests and diseases. The model was unable to assess the plant and animal response to increasing temperature in conjunction with the pest. Also the influence of temperature on the life cycle of the organism, pathogenicity of strains, competition with other species, host coverage and the general effect on the biology of the organism could not be assessed. To begin to address this, a dynamic model was constructed using daily

  11. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alba

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Sequence Type (ST1, Clonal Complex(CC1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA- lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100% similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  12. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  13. Where is Farm Management Going?

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, David R.; Girdwood, John; Parton, Kevin A.; Charry, Al A.

    2003-01-01

    Farms and farming are major contributors to the world economy, directly responsible for a large part of GDP. These achievements are not trivial and imply that farms are being managed in reasonably effective ways, else agricultural industries would not be sustained. However the study of Farm Management within Australia has been limited over recent decades. Is it contributing to better farm management or merely cataloguing what has happened? Is it leading or following? During that time there ha...

  14. Novel Antibiotic Resistance Determinants from Agricultural Soil Exposed to Antibiotics Widely Used in Human Medicine and Animal Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Calvin Ho-Fung; van Engelen, Kalene; Gordon, Stephen; Renaud, Justin; Topp, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has emerged globally as one of the biggest threats to human and animal health. Although the excessive use of antibiotics is recognized as accelerating the selection for resistance, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that natural environments are “hot spots” for the development of both ancient and contemporary resistance mechanisms. Given that pharmaceuticals can be entrained onto agricultural land through anthropogenic activities, this could be a potential dr...

  15. Proximity to Industrial Food Animal Production and Asthma Exacerbations in Pennsylvania, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sara G; Casey, Joan A; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Schwartz, Brian S

    2017-03-31

    The research on industrial food animal production (IFAP) and asthma exacerbations in the United States has relied on small sample sizes and/or self-reported outcomes. We assessed associations of proximity to large-scale and densely stocked swine and dairy/veal IFAP with three types of asthma exacerbations: hospitalizations, emergency encounters, and oral corticosteroid (OCS) medication orders from Geisinger Clinic in Pennsylvania. We used a diagnosis code ( International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification code 493.x) and medication orders from electronic health records to identify these exacerbations among asthma patients ( n = 35,269) from 2005-2012. We compared residential proximity to swine or dairy/veal IFAP (dichotomized as <3 miles (4.8 km) or ≥3 miles) among asthma patients with and without exacerbations and estimated odds ratios using multilevel logistic regression. In adjusted models, proximity to IFAP was associated (odds ratio (95% confidence interval)) with OCS orders (1.11 (1.04-1.19)) and hospitalizations (1.29 (1.15-1.46)), but not emergency encounters (1.12 (0.91-1.37)). This study contributes to growing evidence that IFAP may impact health, in this case clinically-documented asthma exacerbations. No prior study has evaluated the association of IFAP and clinically-documented asthma exacerbations in the United States.

  16. News in livestock research - use of Omics-technologies to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusch, Simon; Tilocca, Bruno; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Seifert, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Technical progress in the field of next-generation sequencing, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics facilitates the study of highly complex biological samples such as taxonomic and functional characterization of microbial communities that virtually colonize all present ecological niches. Compared to the structural information obtained by metagenomic analyses, metaproteomic approaches provide, in addition, functional data about the investigated microbiota. In general, integration of the main Omics-technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in live science promises highly detailed information about the specific research object and helps to understand molecular changes in response to internal and external environmental factors. The microbial communities settled in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract are essential for the host metabolism and have a major impact on its physiology and health. The microbiotas of livestock like chicken, pig and ruminants are becoming a focus of interest for veterinaries, animal nutritionists and microbiologists. While pig is more often used as an animal model for human-related studies, the rumen microbiota harbors a diversity of enzymes converting complex carbohydrates into monomers which bears high potential for biotechnological applications. This review will provide a general overview about the recent Omics-based research of the microbiota in livestock including its major findings. Differences concerning the results of pre-Omics-approaches in livestock as well as the perspectives of this relatively new Omics-platform will be highlighted.

  17. Calculation of transfer factors for the transfer of caesium-137 from feedingstuffs to the meat of farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirna, A.

    1979-01-01

    To calculate the radiation exposure of the population in the surroundings of nuclear technical plants, the knowledge of the transfer of emitted radionuclides to plants, animals, and food is an essential precondition. Recent data from the literature about transfer factors (food/meat) of cesium-137 (Cs-137) for calves, cattle, and pigs have revealed considerable differences between the species mentioned and the value in the 'general calculation fundaments for the determination of radiation exposure by emission of radioactive substances with waste air' (12). In the FR of Germany mainly pork is eaten, therefore, it is interesting to know if the transfer of Cs-137 in the individual animal species is so far the same that it is justified to only use the exposure path grass-cattle for calculation. The values presented here have suggested for the transfer of fall-out Cs-137 from the food into the meat a value, on an average, six times as high as had been assumed up to day. In pork meat, there was even an increase by 2 tenth powers. (orig.) [de

  18. Extent of Mycobacterium bovis transmission among animals of dairy and beef cattle and deer farms in South Korea determined by variable-number tandem repeats typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Sungmo; Ku, Bok Kyung; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae-Myoung; Jung, Suk-Chan; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2015-04-17

    Identifying sources of Mycobacterium bovis transmission would be essential for establishing effective control programs of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a major zoonosis threatening human health worldwide. As an effort to determine the extent of M. bovis transmission among dairy and beef cattle and deer populations, a mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU)-variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) typing method was employed for analysis of 131 M. bovis isolates from 59 Holstein dairy cattle, 39 Korean beef cattle, and 33 deer. Of 31 MIRU-VNTR markers, 15 showed allelic diversity. The most discriminatory locus for M. bovis isolates was VNTR 3336 (h=0.59) followed by QUB 26, MIRU 31, VNTR 2401, and VNTR 3171 which showed high discriminatory power (h=0.43). The combined VNTR loci had an allelic diversity of 0.83. On the basis of the VNTR profiles of 30 VNTR loci, 24 genotypes were identified, and two genotypes were highly prevalent among all M. bovis isolates (33.6% and 19.1%, respectively), thus indicating that more than 50% of the isolates shared common molecular characteristics. Six additional genotypes were common in 2 of the 3 animal species, suggesting a wide interspecies transmission of M. bovis. This study thus demonstrates that MIRU-VNTR typing is useful in differentiation of M. bovis isolates and that M. bovis transmission occurs frequently among farmed animal species, highlighting the importance of bovine TB control programs in different animal species which are often raised in the same villages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. NOVEL ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE DETERMINANTS FROM AGRICULTURAL SOIL EXPOSED TO ANTIBIOTICS WIDELY USED IN HUMAN MEDICINE AND ANIMAL FARMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Calvin Ho-Fung; van Engelen, Kalene; Gordon, Stephen; Renaud, Justin; Topp, Edward

    2017-06-16

    Antibiotic resistance has emerged globally as one of the biggest threats to human and animal health. Although the excessive use of antibiotics is recognized for accelerating the selection for resistance, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that natural environments are "hotspots" for the development of both ancient and contemporary resistance mechanisms. Given that pharmaceuticals can be entrained onto agricultural land through anthropogenic activities, this could be a potential driver for the emergence and dissemination of resistance in soil bacteria. Using functional metagenomics, we interrogated the "resistome" of bacterial communities found in a collection of Canadian agricultural soil, some of which had been receiving antibiotics widely used in human medicine (macrolides) or food animal production (sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline and tylosin) for up to 16 years. Of the 34 new antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) recovered, the majority were predicted to encode for (multi)drug efflux systems, while a few share little to no homology with established resistance determinants. We characterized several novel gene products, including putative enzymes that can confer high-level resistance against aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, and broad range of beta-lactams, with respect to their resistance mechanisms and clinical significance. By coupling high-resolution proteomics analysis with functional metagenomics, we discovered an unusual peptide, PPP AZI 4 , encoded within an alternative open-reading frame not predicted by bioinformatics tools. Expression of the proline-rich PPP AZI 4 can promote resistance against different macrolides but not other ribosomal-targeting antibiotics, implicating a new macrolide-specific resistance mechanism that could be fundamentally linked to the evolutionary design of this peptide. IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance is a clinical phenomenon with an evolutionary link to the microbial pangenome. Genes and protogenes encoding for

  20. Promoting Profit Model Innovation in Animation Project in Northeast Asia: Case Study on Chinese Cultural and Creative Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Building on a case study of three animation companies in the Chinese cultural and creative industry, this study aims to understand how profit model innovation is promoted. Due to the rapidly changing environments and resource scarcity, cultural and creative companies need to select the appropriate profit model according to their own key resources. The study uncovers two critical factors that promote profit model innovation in animation projects: the quantity of consumers and their consumption intention. According to these two dimensions, the authors’ analysis shows profit model innovation in animation projects can be divided into Fans mode, Popular mode, Placement mode, and Failure mode, respectively. This study provides an empirical basis for advocating profit model innovation and discusses the resource requirements of Fan mode, Popular model, and Placement mode in China’s cultural and creative industry. The authors’ research also has managerial implications that might help firms promote profit model innovation. Finally, learning and promoting the profit model of China’s animation industry in the Northeast Asia area will be conducive to Northeast Asia’s cooperation and sustainable development.

  1. Assessment of herd management on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglbauer, K E; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Richert, R; Schukken, Y H; Ruegg, P L; Gamroth, M

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate management characteristics on organic and similarly sized conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from 192 organic farms (ORG), 64 conventional nongrazing farms (CON-NG), and 36 conventional grazing farms (CON-GR) were collected during farm visits and were size-matched and analyzed. The average lactation number of animals on ORG and CON-GR farms was 2.6 lactations, which was greater than that on CON-NG farms (2.3 lactations). A greater percentage of first-lactation heifers were found on conventional farms than on ORG farms. Facilities used by adult animals, including housing and milking facilities, did not differ among the grazing systems. Cattle on conventional farms were fed approximately twice as much grain as cattle on ORG farms and had greater milk production. Little difference was found for the average reported somatic cell count and standard plate count, suggesting that milk quality is not dependent on grazing system. Milking procedures were similar across all 3 grazing systems, indicating that an industry standard now exists for milking and that milk quality problems will need to be addressed with other management problems in mind. Although some disease prevention measures were commonly utilized on ORG farms, such as keeping a closed herd and having a written record of treatments administered to the animals, the use of outside support and vaccinations were found to be less prevalent on organic farms than on conventional farms. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Invited review: Pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development in farm animals: from stem cells to adipocyte physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, I; Perruchot, M-H; Bonnet, M; Gondret, F

    2016-11-01

    Both white and brown adipose tissues are recognized to be differently involved in energy metabolism and are also able to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Brown adipose tissue is predominant around birth, except in pigs. Irrespective of species, white adipose tissue has a large capacity to expand postnatally and is able to adapt to a variety of factors. The aim of this review is to update the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development with a special focus on pigs and ruminants. In contrast to other tissues, the embryonic origin of adipose cells remains the subject of debate. Adipose cells arise from the recruitment of specific multipotent stem cells/progenitors named adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Recent studies have highlighted the existence of a variety of those cells being able to differentiate into white, brown or brown-like/beige adipocytes. After commitment to the adipocyte lineage, progenitors undergo large changes in the expression of many genes involved in cell cycle arrest, lipid accumulation and secretory functions. Early nutrition can affect these processes during fetal and perinatal periods and can also influence or pre-determinate later growth of adipose tissue. How these changes may be related to adipose tissue functional maturity around birth and can influence newborn survival is discussed. Altogether, a better knowledge of fetal and postnatal adipose tissue development is important for various aspects of animal production, including neonatal survival, postnatal growth efficiency and health.

  3. Dose imprecision and resistance: free-choice medicated feeds in industrial food animal production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David C; Davis, Meghan F; Bassett, Anna; Gunther, Andrew; Nachman, Keeve E

    2011-03-01

    Industrial food animal production employs many of the same antibiotics or classes of antibiotics that are used in human medicine. These drugs can be administered to food animals in the form of free-choice medicated feeds (FCMF), where animals choose how much feed to consume. Routine administration of these drugs to livestock selects for microorganisms that are resistant to medications critical to the treatment of clinical infections in humans. In this commentary, we discuss the history of medicated feeds, the nature of FCMF use with regard to dose delivery, and U.S. policies that address antimicrobial drug use in food animals. FCMF makes delivering a predictable, accurate, and intended dose difficult. Overdosing can lead to animal toxicity; underdosing or inconsistent dosing can result in a failure to resolve animal diseases and in the development of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. The delivery of antibiotics to food animals for reasons other than the treatment of clinically diagnosed disease, especially via free-choice feeding methods, should be reconsidered.

  4. Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Mortensen, Alicja; Broesboel-Jensen, B.

    2012-01-01

    By-products are secondary or discarded products from manufacturing. Contamination of by-products used for feed may result in carryover to animal food products and hence have impact on either animal health or food safety. Feed by-products from bioethanol production include, for example, 'dried...... distillers grain' (DDG) and 'dried distillers grain with solubles' (DDGS) from generation bioethanol production, C5-molasses from generation bioethanol production and glycerol from biodiesel production. By-products from food industry may comprise discarded or downgraded food and food surplus or secondary...... products such as peels, pulpettes, molasses, whey, mask, oil cakes, etc. Contamination of by-products and possible impacts are presented....

  5. First international seminar on farming of invertebrates and other minillvestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicogna, M.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available At this Seminar, held in the Philippines, minilivestock was defined as small-animal species, used as food, feed or source of revenue in given parts of the world, usually ignored by scientists trainedin industrialized countries, but very suitable and promising for small producers. The biology and use of tropical land and water snails and of manureworms, as well as different aspects of insect farming and use of insects for sericulture, food, feed or for collectors, were discussed. Sociological and extension problems connected with rural development were considered. Recent experiences of butterfly farming, tropical snail farming, use of termites and the raising of cricetoma orguinea pig for meat production were also reported. Conclusions and recommendations were drafted concerning terminology, sociological aspects, animal requirements and research, education and training needs. Minilivestock appears as a challenging new branch of animal production that offers a considerable potential for rural development, but calls for further experimental work for the optimization of production systems.

  6. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REPLACEMENT-BROOD STOCK OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS (WALBAUM, 1792 REARED IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE INDUSTRIAL FISH FARM "SLOBODA-BANYLIV”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mendrishora

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of morphometric measurements and dates of aquaculture-biological characteristics of the young-of-the-year and age-1+ rainbow trout reared under industrial technology at instable conditions of the fish farm “Sloboda-Banyliv”. Methodology. The study has been performed at the industrial fish farm “Sloboda-Banyliv”, Chernivtsi region. The materials for the study were young-of-the-year and age-1+ rainbow trout obtained from the eggs of autumn-spawning form rainbow trout. The young-of-the-year were reared in a 216 m2 tank with stocking density of 255 ind./m2, age-1+ fish were reared in 108 m2 tank with a stocking density of 33 ind./m2 according to generally accepted methods in trout culture. Morphometric measurements of fish were performed according to I.F. Pravdin. Statistical processing of data was carried out in Microsoft Office Excel (2003. The analysis of values was done in the system of absolute values. The analyzed criteria of the measured parameters were their mean values and standard errors (M±m, deviation (σ, variability coefficient (Cv. Fish were fed with the artificial feed with high protein content manufactured by “Biomar” (Denmark. Findings. The studies on rainbow trout rearing under industrial conditions showed that fish body proportions did not change with age, however, the length of their fins decreased. The slenderness coefficient in age-1+ fish decreased insignificantly that is typical with increasing body depth. Despite instable rearing conditions, both young-of-the-year and age-1+ fish were characterized by moderate growth rate and high feed-conversion efficiency. Originality. For the first time, in conditions of Ukraine, a study on the formation of rainbow trout brood stocks in a fish farm with instable rearing conditions was performed with the use of the analysis of phenotypical and productive features. Practical value. The results of the performed work will provide an opportunity to

  7. Characterisation of InlA truncation in Listeria monocytogenes isolates from farm animals and human cases in the province of Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fravalo, Philippe; Cherifi, Tamazight; Neira Feliciano, Kersti Dina; Letellier, Ann; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Bekal, Sadjia

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of Listeria monocytogenes into the food production chain is a concern, with numerous grouped cases of listeriosis associated with milk-derived or pork-derived products have been documented. Management of this zoonotic pathogen considers all strains as an equal risk. Recently, a new perspective for characterisation of strain virulence was introduced with the discovery of the unaltered sequence of InlA as a determinant of strain virulence; this has also been reported as an infrequent finding among so-called environmental strains, that is, strains isolated from food or from surfaces in food industries. The aim of this study was to differentiate L monocytogenes strains isolated from animal cases versus those from human cases and to differentiate clinical strains from environmental ones using a Caenorhabditis elegans virulence testing model. In Quebec in 2013/2014, the surveillance of L monocytogenes clinical isolates registered a total of 20 strains of animal origin and 16 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types isolated from human cases. The mixed PCR multiplex agglutination protocol used for geno-serotyping clearly discriminated genogroup IVB strains from bovine and human origins. The presence of a premature stop codon single nucleotide polymorphism in the inlA gene sequence in clinical strains and the identical behaviour of particular strains in the C elegans model are discussed in this paper from the perspective of industrial management of L monocytogenes risk. PMID:28761668

  8. Favored use of anti-predator netting (APN) applied for the farming of clams leads to little benefits to industry while increasing nearshore impacts and plastics pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2015-02-15

    An overview of the efficacy of anti-predator netting (APN) used by the shellfish industry is presented. There is little support that the currently favored APN effectively protects farmed clams from predators. Evidence does suggest that APN leads to impacts and pollution. APN is an attractant for predators, e.g., crabs, by providing a refuge within Ulva sp. which attaches onto the surface of APN. APN entrains silt and organic matter and increases sediment temperatures degrading habitat underneath the APN. APN present hazards to fish and wildlife and is a source of plastics to the marine environment. The continued use of ineffective APN does not serve either the environment or industry well, and many of these issues could be addressed through the alternate use of "ancient" technology used by aboriginal people to maintain clam gardens; building of rock walls optimizing the amount of clam habitat thereby increasing numbers without the use of APN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Engineering to support wellbeing of dairy animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caja, Gerardo; Castro-Costa, Andreia; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2016-01-01

    Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often...... directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact. For larger farms, this may...... need to be done with a much lower ratio of husbandry staff to animals. Recent engineering advances and the decreasing cost of electronic technologies has allowed the development of 'sensing solutions' that automatically collect data, such as physiological parameters, production measures and behavioural...

  10. The Hidden Costs of Sexier Lipstick: Animal Testing in the Cosmetic Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, William L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper does not argue, as the opening paragraphs of this section may seem to suggest, that animals should be seen as devoid of rights. On the contrary, it is filled with strong arguments pointing the other way. Its final assertion, however, is that those seeking to secure protection for animals in cosmetic laboratories should not allow themselves to become entangled in the emotional side of this old and ongoing debate. To do so invites an ultimately inconclusory, and perhaps violent, disc...

  11. Rationalization of motive power use in animal feed industry; Racionalizacao do uso de forca motriz em fabrica de racao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Carlos A.; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Lacerda Filho, Adilio F. de; Martins, Jose H. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola]. E-mails: carlos, delly, alacerda, jmartins@vicosa.ufv.br

    2005-05-15

    The lack of investment in the energy sector, allied to the seasoning of natural resources necessity for the generation of hydroelectric energy, makes the rationalization of the use of electric energy an indispensable tool for country growth in an harmonic manner. The animal feed can represent around 70 to 80% of the total cost for running an animal feed production facility. So, it is important to study the energy management in processes that mainly use motive power, such as the animal feed factories. In the animal feed factory studied, the electric motors are used mainly for milling and mixture granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pif Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%). To achieve this goal it is also necessary: to adjust relays and to choose fuses, to schedule operation and to build storage facilities. (author)

  12. Fluorine emissions of industrial origin. Effect of fluorine on plants and animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiani, H

    1927-05-01

    Shrinkage and drooping of cress plants and grass, and lesions in dandelion leaves, caused by a 1-hr exposure to fluorine vapors in a test chamber are described. In the vicinity of an aluminum plant, where the electrolyte bath is composed of cryolite, a sodium aluminum fluoride, vegetables and the leaves of fruit trees show signs of burning and great damage can be observed on forest trees. Animals are affected by fluoride through their fodder. Guinea pigs fed plant food exposed to hydrofluoric acid gases develop fluorosis, but with very small concentrations, death may occur only after a year or more. Cows afflicted with this disease due to fodder harvested in fluorine-infested areas show initial symptoms of lameness of one or more legs, stamping by the animal, resting on one leg and then the other, inability to rise, and spontaneous sprains and bone fractures occurring in the stable. After several months, the animal gradually grows thin with a dry, hard hide and eventually dies. Experiments with corpses of animals who died of fluorosis have shown that their bones are more brittle than those of normal healthy animals.

  13. In silico study of protein to protein interaction analysis of AMP-activated protein kinase and mitochondrial activity in three different farm animal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastowo, S.; Widyas, N.

    2018-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is cellular energy censor which works based on ATP and AMP concentration. This protein interacts with mitochondria in determine its activity to generate energy for cell metabolism purposes. For that, this paper aims to compare the protein to protein interaction of AMPK and mitochondrial activity genes in the metabolism of known animal farm (domesticated) that are cattle (Bos taurus), pig (Sus scrofa) and chicken (Gallus gallus). In silico study was done using STRING V.10 as prominent protein interaction database, followed with biological function comparison in KEGG PATHWAY database. Set of genes (12 in total) were used as input analysis that are PRKAA1, PRKAA2, PRKAB1, PRKAB2, PRKAG1, PRKAG2, PRKAG3, PPARGC1, ACC, CPT1B, NRF2 and SOD. The first 7 genes belong to gene in AMPK family, while the last 5 belong to mitochondrial activity genes. The protein interaction result shows 11, 8 and 5 metabolism pathways in Bos taurus, Sus scrofa and Gallus gallus, respectively. The top pathway in Bos taurus is AMPK signaling pathway (10 genes), Sus scrofa is Adipocytokine signaling pathway (8 genes) and Gallus gallus is FoxO signaling pathway (5 genes). Moreover, the common pathways found in those 3 species are Adipocytokine signaling pathway, Insulin signaling pathway and FoxO signaling pathway. Genes clustered in Adipocytokine and Insulin signaling pathway are PRKAA2, PPARGC1A, PRKAB1 and PRKAG2. While, in FoxO signaling pathway are PRKAA2, PRKAB1, PRKAG2. According to that, we found PRKAA2, PRKAB1 and PRKAG2 are the common genes. Based on the bioinformatics analysis, we can demonstrate that protein to protein interaction shows distinct different of metabolism in different species. However, further validation is needed to give a clear explanation.

  14. Recycling technology of sugar industry by-products for animal feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Yadira Suárez Rodríguez; Arael Martínez Teruel; Luis B. Ramos Sánchez; María Caridad Julián

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de una tecnología de reciclaje y enriquecimiento proteico mediante fermentación en estado sólido de los subproductos de la industria azucarera para su posterior utilización como alimento animal. A partir de un estudio bibliográfico sobre los aspectos más importantes de las tecnologías actuales de fabricación de alimentos para el consumo animal y las herramientas para el desarrollo de tecnologías de fermentaci ón en medios sólidos se ha desarrollado un...

  15. Interfacial behaviour between oil/water systems using ionic surfactants from regional vegetable industry and animal pet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Francisco Klebson G.; Alves, Juan V.A.; Dantas, Tereza N. Castro; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio V.; Barros Neto, Eduardo L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Interfacial tension (IFT) is one of the most important physical properties in the study of fluid-fluid interfaces. In this research the surfactants - saponified coconut oil, saponified castor oil, saponified soybean oil, saponified sunflower oil and basis soap - were synthesized in laboratory, using carboxylic acids from regional industry and animal fat (bovine fat). This study focuses on the search of a high-efficient, low-cost, and safe for the environment flooding system to be applied in enhanced oil recovery. The principal aim of this work is the obtaining of interfacial tensions between oil/water systems, using the developed ionic surfactants. Results showed that the studied surfactants are able to reduce the IFT between oil and brine. The surfactant that was more effective in reducing the IFT value was the one from animal fat. The composition, as well as the kind of the bond, as saturated or unsaturated, of the surfactants has influence in the IFT value. The ionic surfactants from regional industry and animal fat besides presenting low cost propitiate very low interfacial tensions between oil and brine, favoring the interactions with residual oil and thus increasing oil recovery. (author)

  16. 76 FR 60503 - Guidance for Industry on Target Animal Safety and Effectiveness Protocol Development and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Safety and Effectiveness Protocol Development and Submission.'' The purpose of this document is to provide sponsors guidance in preparation of study protocols for review by the Center for Veterinary Medicine, Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation. The recommendations included in this guidance are intended...

  17. WelFur-mink: on-farm welfare assessment of mink (Neovision vision) - effect of sample size on animal based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur project" in 2009 which is aiming at developing an applicable on farm welfare assessment protocol for mink based on the Welfare Quality® principles. Such a welfare assessment system should possess the following qualities: It should be "high...... measures such as "stereotypy", "tremperament" and "body condition". These measures were in each fo 9 Danish mink farms on approximately 250 adult mink on each farm collected during the nursing season 2011 by a total of 8 observers working in pairs. Descriptive result showed a large between herd variations...

  18. Bovine abide and industrial network: a study on the introduction and rational and economic management of animal emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Perrota

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2016v15n33p68 This article aims to discuss the new requirements imposed on the meat market, which relate to ethical concerns about the conditions of life and death of animals. These requirements, as reflected in animal welfare standards and humane slaughter, lead markets to adopt new strategies in order to adapt their ways of working in practical and moral aspects. From this general question, this article will analyze the activities performed at the slaughterhouse, and therefore the new procedures to be adopted in these places so that the suffering of animals is minimized. For the purposes of discussion, it will be used survey data obtained during a technical visit to the slaughterhouse Açailândia (MA and interviews with employees and former workers of the local and state actors linked to production and inspection of the meat. In this case, we will discuss how the adoption of new techniques to the animal welfare and humane slaughter emerge as a requirement that seeks the good standards of industrial production. Thus, by external pressure and moral, these new requirements are appropriate and take on a new meaning, becoming an internal management policy, involved with the production logic.

  19. American Citizens’ Views of an Ideal Pig Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Patrycia; Hötzel, Maria J.; von Keyserlingk, Marina A.G.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The public, who also make up the largest proportion of consumers of animal products, often criticize farm animal industries in regards to their care and handling of farm animals. The U.S. swine industry has not been exempt from such criticisms. The aim of this study was to explore the views of the people not affiliated with the swine industry on what they perceived to be the ideal pig/pork farm, and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: “What do you consider to be an ideal pig/pork farm and why are these characteristics important to you?”. Respondents considered animal care, profitability, farm size, compliance with sanitary, environmental rules and regulations, farm cleanliness and sanitary standards, and workers’ rights and welfare important, but also raised concerns relating to pigs’ quality of life including space to move, feeding, contact with outdoors or nature, absence of pain, suffering and mistreatment. Perspectives were also raised regarding the ideal farm as a profitable business operation, clean, and with optimal sanitary conditions. Respondents also emphasized naturalness, frequently stating that pigs should have access to the outdoors, and rejected the use of hormones, antibiotics, and other chemicals for the purposes of increasing production. Abstract Food animal production practices are often cited as having negative animal welfare consequences. The U.S. swine industry has not been exempt from such criticisms. Little is known, however, about how lay citizens who are not actively engaged in agricultural discussions, think about swine production. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the views of people not affiliated with the swine industry on what they perceived to be the ideal pig/pork farm, and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: “What do

  20. The potential impact of current animal research on the meat industry and consumer attitudes towards meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Klont, Ronald; Plastow, Graham

    2003-01-01

    Progress in animal nutrition, reproduction, quantitative genetics, and the development of molecular genetics, proteomics, and functional genomics open new perspectives for the meat sector. The most promising developments include a wider utilisation of molecular markers, the possibilities of semen sexing and the targeted use of nutrition to modify the composition of meat. The increased use of biotechnology will have a considerable impact on the economics of production of meat and further processed products. New technologies will increase the possibilities for product differentiation and improve homogeneity of live animals. The consumer and society in general will influence the direction of these developments. This review will focus on the long-term impact of new technologies for the meat production chain.

  1. Fluorine from the viewpoint of industrial hygiene: action of fluorine on animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiani, H; Gautier, R

    1925-01-01

    Acute poisoning by sodium fluoride may be produced by intestinal absorption of 0.5 gr per kg of animal or by venous absorption of 0.1 to 0.15 gr per kg of animal. The toxicity of fluorsilicic acid seems due to its low dissociation power and high content of HF molecules. The relation between emanations from aluminum factories and the endemic sickness prevailing in the surrounding area, as described in the literature, is confirmed by the authors' experiments on a particular installation. Plants were damaged soon after the factory began operating; characteristic foliage lesions appeared on vine and fruit trees, and reduction of the crops coincided with the factory activity. Cattle showed stiffening of the legs, loss of weight, bone fracture, cachexy, and death. Tabulated data and maps support these observations. On humans, no positive conclusions are yet available. They are less affected than animals, since the latter are poisoned by feeding on damaged plants, whereas the former clean and prepare these plants before consuming them; and poisoning of humans through toxic gases is minimized by the conditions (temperature, distribution) existing within the factory. 47 references. 3 figures.

  2. Use of drum driers for processing various industrial wastes into high-grade animal feeding stuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritze, H

    1976-01-01

    Strict anti-pollution legislation governing admissible effluent concentrations and high charges are forcing certain industries (potato starch and dried potato flake factories, sugar factories and dairies) to install facilities for recovering valuable substances, which are used mainly as fodder. In this way the effluent charges can be reduced and a return is obtained on the investment and operating costs. Processes are described whereby such substances can be extracted efficiently when using Escher Wyss drum driers.

  3. Spatial Epidemiology and Risk Factor Analysis of White Spot Disease in the Shrimp Farming Industry of Sinaloa, Mexico, from 2005 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa, A; Mardones, F O; Chávez, M C; Montoya, L; Cabanillas, J A; de Blas, I; Martínez-López, B

    2017-10-01

    White spot disease (WSD), caused by the white spot syndrome virus, is currently one of the primary causes of mortality and economic losses in the shrimp farming industry worldwide. In Mexico, shrimp production is one of the most important primary activities generating an annual income of USD 711 million. However, WSD introduction in 1999 had a devastating impact for the Mexican shrimp industry. The aim of this study was to characterize the WSD spatio-temporal patterns and to identify the primary risk factors contributing to WSD occurrence from 2005 to 2011 in Sinaloa, Mexico. We used data collected by the 'Comité Estatal de Sanidad Acuícola de Sinaloa' from 2005 to 2011 regarding WSD outbreaks as well as environmental, production and husbandry factors at farm level. The spatio-temporal patterns of WSD were described using space-time scan statistics. The effect of 52 variables on the time to WSD outbreak occurrence was assessed using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Results reveal that WSD risk and survival time were not homogeneously distributed as suggested by the significant clusters obtained using the space-time permutation model and the space-time exponential model, respectively. The Cox model revealed that the first production cycle [hazard ratio (HR) = 11.31], changes from 1 to 1.4°C of temperature oscillation caused by 'El Niño'/'La Niña' events (HR = 1.44) and high average daily growths (HR = 1.26) were significantly associated with lower survival (i.e. shorter time to WSD outbreak) on farm. Conversely, shrimp weight at the moment of the outbreak (HR = 0.159), changes from -0.9 to -0.5°C of temperature oscillation caused by 'El Niño'/'La Niña' events (HR = 0.540), high superficial water temperature during the pound stocking (HR = 0.823) and high (>100) number of days of culture (HR = 0.830) were factors associated with higher survival. Results are expected to inform the design of risk-based, intervention strategies to

  4. Breeding against infectious diseases in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashidi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases in farm animals are of major concern because of animal welfare, production costs, and public health. Farms undergo huge economic losses due to infectious disease. The costs of infections in farm animals are mainly due to production losses, treatment of infected animals, and

  5. 78 FR 58268 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request approval of a new information collection for the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Cervid 2014 Study to support the farmed cervid industry in the United States.

  6. Contract farming and producer participation in the avocado industry in Michoacan: The case of Calavo de Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Jenny Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the extent to which contractual arrangements with Calavo have influenced participation of small-scale farmers in the avocado export market, as well as the Michoacán avocado industry in general. The case study makes extensive use of both primary and secondary sources. Qualitative information and data were collected through semi-structured interviews and informal conversations with avocado growers, Calavo’s personnel and representatives of local organizations. I find...

  7. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Hidayat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research were : 1 to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2 to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3 to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4 to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performed to conduct this research. Farming model chosen in this research was partial and average aggregate. Cobb-Douglas function were chosen to predict functional relationship. Result stated from this research were : 1 goat farming has a significant contribution in integrated farming system, 2 integrated farming (goat and paddy, goat and fish, and goat, fish and paddy in Banyumas district was economically efficient. 3 partially, factor affecting production level in goat farming was number of goat owned (P<0.01, factor affecting paddy production were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, TSP application (P<0.05 and man power (P<0.10. Furthermore, factor affecting fish farming were feed, breed and number of land owned (P<0.01; 4 aggregately, factor affecting integrated farming I were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, feed and number of land owned (P<0.01, number of goat owned (P<0.10 integrated farming II, where as in integrated farming III were number of paddy land area and breed (P<0.01 also number of goat owned (P<0.10; 5 integrated farming III (goat, paddy and fish farming gave the highest profit, which gave Rp 6.219.283,81 with relatively high efficiency. Therefore, goat farming could be an alternative solution to be developed in integrated farming and could be combined with other farming activities such as paddy and fish farming. (Animal Production 9(2: 105-110 (2007 Key Words : Goat, income, economic efficiency, survey, contribution

  8. Food metabolomics: from farm to human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooah; Kim, Jungyeon; Yun, Eun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-02-01

    Metabolomics, one of the latest components in the suite of systems biology, has been used to understand the metabolism and physiology of living systems, including microorganisms, plants, animals and humans. Food metabolomics can be defined as the application of metabolomics in food systems, including food resources, food processing and diet for humans. The study of food metabolomics has increased gradually in the recent years, because food systems are directly related to nutrition and human health. This review describes the recent trends and applications of metabolomics to food systems, from farm to human, including food resource production, industrial food processing and food intake by humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Words matter: implications of semantics and imagery in framing animal-welfare issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croney, Candace C

    2010-01-01

    As criticisms of contemporary farm-animal production escalate, scholars have begun to scrutinize the imagery and linguistic techniques used to frame animal issues and their implications. Pro-animal rights groups typically present animal use as unnecessary, oppressive, and exploitive and adopt themes of compassion and protection to engage the public. In contrast, anti-animal rights groups represent animal use as necessary for human benefit and often situate animal and human interests as being incompatible. Overly simplistic, polarized representations of animal issues therefore emerge. Several analyses, however, have indicated that the discourse on farm-animal production fails to either make a compelling ethical argument for animal agriculture or address the ethical concerns raised by animal-rights activists. Proponents of animal agriculture are argued to consistently misrepresent animal production practices and portray animals as inanimate objects, reflecting lack of genuine concern for animal suffering or welfare. Thus far, the veterinary community has escaped this level of scrutiny. However, veterinarians are often viewed as being connected to animal agriculture. As veterinarians strive to assume leadership in animal welfare, it is useful for the profession to recognize that, as is the case for members of the animal sciences and industries, some aspects of its discourse may contradict its professed values and beliefs about animal care and welfare. Analysis of this discourse affords the opportunity to more effectively engage with the public on animal-welfare issues and to develop a compelling narrative of the role of animals in an increasingly urban society.

  10. What We Know about the Public’s Level of Concern for Farm Animal Welfare in Food Production in Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Amelia; Raubenheimer, David; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The production of food from animals poses many ethical challenges. This review explores what we know about different levels of concern for animal welfare in food production by such stakeholders as veterinarians, farmers, and the general public. Despite the general public’s level of concern for animal welfare in food production being high, their understanding and knowledge is poor. Thus, it is suggested that through widespread consciousness raising we can encourage the public to accurately translate their concerns into market drivers, in turn improving the welfare of billions of animals. Abstract Population growth and rising consumption of meat, dairy, eggs and fish are forcing the world to face the intersecting challenges of how to sustainably feed a population expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, while also controlling the impact of food production on the planet, on people and on animals. This review acknowledges the absence of a globally accepted definition of animal welfare and then explores the literature regarding different levels of concern for animal welfare in food production by such stakeholders as veterinarians, farmers, and the general public. It focuses on the evidence that the general public’s level of concern for animal welfare is linked to various demographic and personal characteristics, such as age, gender, religion, location, meat eating, and knowledge of animal welfare. Certain animals have characteristics that influence concern for their welfare, with those species that are considered more intelligent being afforded more concern. There is compelling evidence that the general public’s understanding of animal welfare in food production is poor. Acknowledging that public concern can be a driving force to change current production methods, the authors suggest widespread consciousness raising to redefine socially acceptable methods of food production from animals and to ensure that it remains in step with societal concerns. PMID

  11. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The experience of animal welfare inspections as perceived by Danish livestock farmers:A qualitative research approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Vaarst, Mette; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-01-01

    Animal welfare control carriedout by the authorities by using unannounced on-farm nspection has been expanding in Denmark during the past 10 years.In the EU among others,third-party audit and inspection of animal welfare connected to private labels or as a requirement from the food industry is a ...

  13. What We Know about the Public’s Level of Concern for Farm Animal Welfare in Food Production in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Cornish

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and rising consumption of meat, dairy, eggs and fish are forcing the world to face the intersecting challenges of how to sustainably feed a population expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, while also controlling the impact of food production on the planet, on people and on animals. This review acknowledges the absence of a globally accepted definition of animal welfare and then explores the literature regarding different levels of concern for animal welfare in food production by such stakeholders as veterinarians, farmers, and the general public. It focuses on the evidence that the general public’s level of concern for animal welfare is linked to various demographic and personal characteristics, such as age, gender, religion, location, meat eating, and knowledge of animal welfare. Certain animals have characteristics that influence concern for their welfare, with those species that are considered more intelligent being afforded more concern. There is compelling evidence that the general public’s understanding of animal welfare in food production is poor. Acknowledging that public concern can be a driving force to change current production methods, the authors suggest widespread consciousness raising to redefine socially acceptable methods of food production from animals and to ensure that it remains in step with societal concerns.

  14. Engineering to support wellbeing of dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caja, Gerardo; Castro-Costa, Andreia; Knight, Christopher H

    2016-05-01

    Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact. For larger farms, this may need to be done with a much lower ratio of husbandry staff to animals. Recent engineering advances and the decreasing cost of electronic technologies has allowed the development of 'sensing solutions' that automatically collect data, such as physiological parameters, production measures and behavioural traits. Such data can potentially help the decision making process, enabling early detection of health or wellbeing problems in individual animals and hence the application of appropriate corrective husbandry practices. This review focuses on new knowledge and emerging developments in welfare biomarkers (e.g. stress and metabolic diseases), activity-based welfare assessment (e.g. oestrus and lameness detection) and sensors of temperature and pH (e.g. calving alert and rumen function) and their combination and integration into 'smart' husbandry support systems that will ensure optimum wellbeing for dairy animals and thereby maximise farm profitability. Use of novel sensors combined with new technologies for information handling and communication are expected to produce dramatic changes in traditional dairy farming systems.

  15. Geography and Dynamics of the Industries Processing Raw Materials of Animal Origin in the Villages of Kharkiv Region during the NEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lapchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background research related to the lack of researches in the given topic historiography. Territorial boundaries cover a large region — Kharkiv region, which until 1925 largely coincide with the boundaries of Kharkov province. And in 1925, it was divided into several provinces — Kharkov, Sumy, Kupiansk, Izyumskogo, Romney. The chronological boundaries article dated from 1921–1929’s, during which was implemented new economic polityka.Osnovnu attention paid to the article features geographically-sectoral design small-scale production of animal products in the region in 20 years of the twentieth century. On the basis of the detected and studied complex of sources the author analyzes the source base peasant industries in Kharkiv in this period. Found total number of farmers who were engaged in crafts processing animal products. Also revealed the specific industry Kharkov peasantry during nepu. Isnuvav number of factors that pushed the peasant engage in crafts: surplus agricultural products and raw materials; meet a wide range of numerous industrial, domestic and cultural needs; urgent need to replenish the family budget; surplus labor; free time from agricultural work (especially in winter and others. The development of rural industries processing animal products in the years 1921–1929 in the Kharkiv region characterized by strength and diversity. Village artisans representing an original way of small private commodity production. Basically crafts processing animal products involved in two socio-professional groups: lone artisan and peasant host of crafts. The social basis of industrial employment accounted malozemelni without sowing without Traction economy, which crafts were an important source of household income. The attention is focused on characteristic features of the state policy on «small business » peasants. Attention is paid to co-operation and effects of these industries on the further development rozvytok. Kooperatyvna form

  16. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  17. Contribution of company affiliation and social contacts to risk estimates of between-farm transmission of avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibler, Jessica H; Carone, Marco; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2010-03-25

    Models of between-farm transmission of pathogens have identified service vehicles and social groups as risk factors mediating the spread of infection. Because of high levels of economic organization in much of the poultry industry, we examined the importance of company affiliation, as distinct from social contacts, in a model of the potential spread of avian influenza among broiler poultry farms in a poultry-dense region in the United States. The contribution of company affiliation to risk of between-farm disease transmission has not been previously studied. We obtained data on the nature and frequency of business and social contacts through a national survey of broiler poultry growers in the United States. Daily rates of contact were estimated using Monte Carlo analysis. Stochastic modeling techniques were used to estimate the exposure risk posed by a single infectious farm to other farms in the region and relative risk of exposure for farms under different scenarios. The mean daily rate of vehicular contact was 0.82 vehicles/day. The magnitude of exposure risk ranged from company affiliation, with farms in the same company group as the index farm facing as much as a 5-fold increase in risk compared to farms contracted with different companies. Employment of part-time workers contributed to significant increases in risk in most scenarios, notably for farms who hired day-laborers. Social visits were significantly less important in determining risk. Biosecurity interventions should be based on information on industry structure and company affiliation, and include part-time workers as potentially unrecognized sources of viral transmission. Modeling efforts to understand pathogen transmission in the context of industrial food animal production should consider company affiliation in addition to geospatial factors and pathogen characteristics. Restriction of social contacts among farmers may be less useful in reducing between-farm transmission.

  18. Farm tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Just, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of one specific type of small tourism enterprises (i.e. farm tourism enterprises) and argues that these enterprises differ from other enterprises in relation to a series of issues other than merely size. The analysis shows that enterprises such as these are characterized......, our study suggests that it is problematic to threat farm tourism enterprises as if they have much in common with both larger corporations and other types of SMTEs. Farm tourism enterprises seem to differ significantly from other enterprises as the hosts are not in the tourism business because...

  19. American Citizens' Views of an Ideal Pig Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Patrycia; Hötzel, Maria J; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2017-08-22

    Food animal production practices are often cited as having negative animal welfare consequences. The U.S. swine industry has not been exempt from such criticisms. Little is known, however, about how lay citizens who are not actively engaged in agricultural discussions, think about swine production. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the views of people not affiliated with the swine industry on what they perceived to be the ideal pig/pork farm, and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal pig/pork farm and why are these characteristics important to you?". Generally respondents considered animal welfare (e.g., space, freedom to move, and humane treatment), respondents considered the business operation role important for pork production (e.g., profitability, compliance with sanitary, environmental rules and regulations, and workers' rights), and naturalness (e.g., natural feeding, behaviours and life) important for pork production. Concerns relating to pigs' quality of life included space to move, feeding, contact with outdoors or nature, absence of pain, suffering and mistreatment. Perspectives were also raised regarding the ideal farm as a profitable business operation, clean, and with optimal sanitary conditions. Respondents also emphasized naturalness, frequently stating that pigs should have access to the outdoors, and rejected the use of hormones, antibiotics, and other chemicals for the purposes of increasing production. In summary, the findings of this study suggest that the U.S. swine industry should strive to adopt animal management practices that resonate with societal values, such as ensuring humane treatment, and the failure to do so could risk the sustainability of the swine industry.

  20. Geotechnology applied in precision livestock farming | Geotecnologia aplicada na pecuária de precisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cézar Bezerra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state of animal production has faced several challenges, such as environmental, animal welfare and food safety. This has generated a new paradigm for the management and animal production. This article aims to review literature regarding livestock precision farming concepts, traceability and its history, traceability in Brazil, traceability of components, identification systems, geotechnology used in precision livestock. We can conclude that geotechnology can assist in herd management, animal performance in optimization of the use of pastures and preservation of natural and minimizing negative impacts resources. Thus, it contributes to the livestock industry can satisfy the food safety requirements, animal welfare and environmental sustainability.

  1. A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus in south-eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris P Vasilakis

    Full Text Available Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations' persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms. Four different vulture avoidance rates were considered in the CRM. Cumulative collision mortality was expected to be eight to ten times greater in the future (proposed and operating wind farms than currently (operating wind farms, equivalent to 44% of the current population (103 individuals if all proposals are authorized (2744 MW. Even under the most optimistic scenario whereby authorized proposals will not collectively exceed the national target for wind harnessing in the study area (960 MW, cumulative collision mortality would still be high (17% of current population and likely lead to population extinction. Under any wind farm proposal scenario, over 92% of expected deaths would occur in the core area of the population, further implying inadequate spatial planning and implementation of relevant European legislation with scant regard for governmental obligations to protect key species. On the basis of a sensitivity map we derive a spatially explicit solution that could meet the national target of wind harnessing with a minimum conservation cost of less than 1% population loss providing that the population mortality (5.2% caused by the operating wind farms in the core area would be totally mitigated. Under other scenarios, the vulture population would probably be at serious risk of extinction. Our 'win-win' approach is appropriate to other potential conflicts where wind farms may cumulatively threaten

  2. A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, D. Philip; Kati, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations’ persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms. Four different vulture avoidance rates were considered in the CRM. Cumulative collision mortality was expected to be eight to ten times greater in the future (proposed and operating wind farms) than currently (operating wind farms), equivalent to 44% of the current population (103 individuals) if all proposals are authorized (2744 MW). Even under the most optimistic scenario whereby authorized proposals will not collectively exceed the national target for wind harnessing in the study area (960 MW), cumulative collision mortality would still be high (17% of current population) and likely lead to population extinction. Under any wind farm proposal scenario, over 92% of expected deaths would occur in the core area of the population, further implying inadequate spatial planning and implementation of relevant European legislation with scant regard for governmental obligations to protect key species. On the basis of a sensitivity map we derive a spatially explicit solution that could meet the national target of wind harnessing with a minimum conservation cost of less than 1% population loss providing that the population mortality (5.2%) caused by the operating wind farms in the core area would be totally mitigated. Under other scenarios, the vulture population would probably be at serious risk of extinction. Our ‘win-win’ approach is appropriate to other potential conflicts where wind farms may cumulatively threaten wildlife

  3. Farming pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneja, V P [Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8208 (United States); Schlesinger, W H [Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York 12545 (United States); Erisman, J W [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    Modern farms produce particulate matter and gases that affect the environment and human health and add to rising atmospheric greenhouse-gas levels. European policymakers have made progress in controlling these emissions, but US regulations remain inadequate.

  4. Economic feasibility of animal welfare improvements in Dutch intensive livestock production: A comparison between broiler, laying hen, and fattening pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Voermans, G.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the economic feasibility of production systems with different levels of animal welfare (AW) in the broiler, laying hen, and fattening pig sectors. Economic feasibility over a five-year time horizon was assessed using stochastic bio-economic simulation models. The results suggest

  5. Contaminants in Foods of Animal Origin in Cameroon: A One Health Vision for Risk Management “from Farm to Fork”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy B. Pouokam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foods of animal origin represent an important share in the diet of Cameroonian populations. Cameroon is known to be a food basket in the west and central Africa sub-region, and an important supplier of foods on the international markets. In the meantime, food importation is continuously increasing to meet the high demand of a more westernized segment of the population. Cereals, fish, sea products, eggs, honey, shrimps, chicken, and feed ingredients are important share in the international trade of agricultural products. Few controls are made on the quality and safety of these products. Certain safety standards do exist but are still yet to be enforced. Inspections done so far by regulatory authorities are partial and do not cover important hazards that require laboratory analysis. The increasing awareness of population, the burden of new types of disease, as well as the recurrence of food scandals have recently launched a scientific and population debate on the contribution of foods items, especially those of animal origin, to the toxic exposure of food producing animals and humans. This paper critically reviews the occurrence of toxicants in most consumed foods of animal origin in Cameroon. This study included the most consumed food of animal origin, identified during the national household budget survey and contributing to 8.1% of the total diet of an individual. Data evaluated suggest an important contamination by toxic metals, mycotoxins, veterinary drugs’ residues, and pesticides. The current national legal framework is briefly analyzed to explore possible intervention measures in the frame of the One Health approach.

  6. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  7. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  8. Incidence of unintentional injuries in farming based on one year of weekly registration in Danish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, Ole; Lauritsen, J M

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, farming ranks as the industry with the highest incidence rate of fatal injuries. For nonfatal injuries, insufficient registration practices prevent valid comparisons between occupations. This study examines the occurrence of farm accidents and injuries, as well as work-specific factors......, via weekly registration in a representative sample of 393 farms in one county during 1 year....

  9. Calibration of an electronic nose for poultry farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Shukor, S. A.; Kamis, M. S.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Mamduh, S. M.; Kamarudin, K.; Saad, F. S. A.; Masnan, M. J.; Mustafa, H.

    2017-03-01

    Malodour from the poultry farms could cause air pollution and therefore potentially dangerous to humans' and animals' health. This issue also poses sustainability risk to the poultry industries due to objections from local community. The aim of this paper is to develop and calibrate a cost effective and efficient electronic nose for poultry farm air monitoring. The instrument main components include sensor chamber, array of specific sensors, microcontroller, signal conditioning circuits and wireless sensor networks. The instrument was calibrated to allow classification of different concentrations of main volatile compounds in the poultry farm malodour. The outcome of the process will also confirm the device's reliability prior to being used for poultry farm malodour assessment. The Multivariate Analysis (HCA and KNN) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) pattern recognition technique was used to process the acquired data. The results show that the instrument is able to calibrate the samples using ANN classification model with high accuracy. The finding verifies the instrument's performance to be used as an effective poultry farm malodour monitoring.

  10. Offshore wind farm repowering optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Hu, Weihao

    2017-01-01

    is focused on optimization of offshore wind farm repowering, which is one option for the wind farm owner at end of life for the offshore wind farm. The LCoE is used as the evaluation index to identify whether it is economical to invest in such a way. In an optimized repowering strategy, different types...... of wind turbines are selected to replace the original wind turbines to reconstruct the wind farm, which is demonstrated to be better than the refurbishment approach which replaces the old wind turbines with the same type. The simulations performed in this research reveal that the reconstructed wind farm......, which consists of multiple types of wind turbine, has a smaller LCoE (10.43%) than the refurbishment approach, which shows the superiority of the proposed method. This research contributes an optimization tool to the wind industry, which consequently drives down the cost of energy produced by offshore...

  11. GOAT MILK PRODUCTION UNDER ORGANIC FARMING STANDARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Hartmut Rahmann

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has emerged from its niche. This holds true for organic goat milk, yoghurt and cheese as well. Particularly in the EU many dairy goat farms have converted or want to convert towards organic farming to profit from the positive image and the good prices for milk (+100% in Western Europe and Alpine regions. High performance dairy goats demand excellent feedstuffs, a sound environment and top management. It was not clear how organic farming can fulfil these demands. The restrictive factors influencing the productivity of the animals in organic farming are as follows: limited concentrate feeding (

  12. Analysis of organic farming practices amongst crop farmers in Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. atoma & Family

    but not limited to sensitization of consumers on the benefit of organic foods, ... Organic farming is an agricultural technique of naturally producing quality crops, vegetables or animals ... This goal cannot be achieved by the conventional farming.

  13. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  14. APPLIED FARM FOOD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Ender, Judit; Mikaczo, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Recently there have been more and more foodborne illnesses being associated with fresh vegetable produce. In response to this, consumer confidence has been lowered with the safety of the vegetable industry. So, many retailers have recently announced programs requiring growers to have independent third-party inspections. The goal with this essay is to introduce a vegetable farm and reveal its food safety procedures from the seeding through shipping,. reviewing, evaluating, and strengthening cu...

  15. Serological Survey for RHD Antibodies in Rabbits from Two Types of Rabbit Breeding Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, A; Niedbalski, W

    2016-09-01

    Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay. The overall seroprevalence was 13.3%. In rabbits with unkown history of immunisation or RHD infection which came from small farms, RHDV antibodies were detected in 6.1% ranging between 1.0% to 17.2% of animals. In rabbits of the same group, but with a declared vaccination status, or confirmed exposure to an infectious virus, or coming from exposed females, the seroprevalence ranged from 83% to 100%. Among unvaccinated meat rabbits aged 71 to 90 days from industrial farms, low (1.85%, 4.17%, 11%), medium (34%, 54%) or high rates (98.7%) of seropositivity were detected. The seroconversion recorded in adult vaccinated females from industrial farms was 70% and 95%. Generally, the antibody levels examined by ELISAs and HI were comparable. However, a number of sera from the rabbits from small farms, as well as archival sera, showed clear differences. Several-fold differences in antibody titers, evidenced mainly in the postoutbreak sera, indictaed the contact of animals with RHDVa antigen. The overall results of the survey revealed a great proportion of seronegative rabbits potentially highly susceptible to RHD infection. In combination with the emergence of a novel pathogenic RHD virus type (RHDV2), it poses a severe risk of a next wave of fatal disease cases spreading in the native population of domestic rabbits, especially in farms with a traditional system of husbandry.

  16. Characterization of Cefotaxime- and Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Commensal Escherichia coli Originating from Belgian Farm Animals Indicates High Antibiotic Resistance Transfer Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Ellen; Van Meervenne, Eva; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom; Wattiau, Pierre; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; Van Coillie, Els

    2017-11-17

    Food-producing animals represent one of the sources of antibiotic resistant commensal bacteria. There is an increasing awareness that these bacteria might have the potential to transfer their resistance genes to other (pathogenic) bacteria. In this study, 50 commensal Escherichia coli strains originating from food-producing animals and resistant to the "highest priority, critically important antibiotics" cefotaxime and/or ciprofloxacin, were selected for further characterization. For each strain (i) an antibiogram, (ii) the phylogenetic group, (iii) plasmid replicon type, (iv) presence and identification of integrons, and (v) antibiotic resistance transfer ratios were determined. Forty-five of these strains were resistant to 5 or more antibiotics, and 6 strains were resistant to 10 or more antibiotics. Resistance was most common to ampicillin (100%), sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin (82%), trimethoprim, tetracycline (74%), cefotaxime, (70%) and ceftazidime (62%). Phylogenetic groups A (62%) and B1 (26%) were most common, followed by C (8%) and E (4%). In 43 strains, more than 1 replicon type was detected, with FII (88%), FIB (70%), and I1 (48%) being the most encountered types. Forty strains, positive for integrons, all harbored a class I integron and seven of them contained an additional class II integron. No class III integrons were detected. The antibiotic resistance transfer was assessed by liquid mating experiments. The transfer ratio, expressed as the number of transconjugants per recipient, was between 10 -5 and 10 0 for cefotaxime resistance and between 10 -7 and 10 -1 for ciprofloxacin resistance. The results of the current study prove that commensal E. coli in food-production animals can be a source of multiple resistance genes and that these bacteria can easily spread their ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime resistance.

  17. Effect of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans - A Quantitative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Wanders, A.J.; Katan, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower HDL cholesterol, raise LDL cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid

  18. An innovative approach to sampling complex industrial emissions for use in animal toxicity tests: application to iron casting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W G; Scholz, R C; Moorman, W J

    1983-03-01

    Sampling of complex mixtures of airborne contaminants for chronic animal toxicity tests often involves numerous sampling devices, requires extensive sampling time, and yields forms of collected materials unsuitable for administration to animals. A method is described which used a high volume, wet venturi scrubber for collection of respirable fractions of emissions from iron foundry casting operations. The construction and operation of the sampler are presented along with collection efficiency data and its application to the preparation of large quantities of samples to be administered to animals by intratracheal instillation.

  19. The impact of public R&D on Marketing and Supply Chains on Small Farms' Marketing-Sensing Capability: Evidence from the Australian Seafood Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; English, F.; Schwartz, D.

    2014-01-01

    Agri-food organizations that are capable of “sensing the market” – that is, capable of searching, processing and using market information, are usually also market oriented, innovative, entrepreneurial and successful. But how can a small farm with limited resources develop market sensing

  20. Chemical and biotechnological processing of collagen-containing raw materials into functional components of feed suitable for production of high-quality meat from farm animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburina, M. I.; Ivankin, A. N.; Stanovova, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    The process of chemical biotechnological processing of collagen-containing raw materials into functional components of feeds for effective pig rearing was studied. Protein components of feeds were obtained as a result of hydrolysis in the presence of lactic acid of the animal collagen from secondary raw materials, which comprised subcutaneous collagen (cuticle), skin and veined mass with tendons from cattle. For comparison, a method is described for preparing protein components of feeds by cultivating Lactobacillus plantarum. Analysis of the kinetic data of the conversion of a high-molecular collagen protein to an aminolyte polypeptide mixture showed the advantage of microbiological synthesis in obtaining a protein for feeds. Feed formulations have been developed to include the components obtained, and which result in high quality pork suitable for the production of quality meat products.

  1. Rapid diagnosis of virulent Pasteurella multocida isolated from farm animals with clinical manifestation of pneumonia respiratory infection using 16S rDNA and KMT1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Mohamedin Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize intra-isolates variation between clinical isolates of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida isolated from sheep, cattle and buffalo at molecular level to check the distribution of pneumonia and hemorrhagic septicemia in some regions of Fayoum, Egypt. Methods: These isolates were obtained from various locations in the Fayoum Governorate, Egypt and they were identified by amplifying 16S rDNA and KMT1 genes using their DNA as a template in PCR reaction. Results: The results demonstrated that the five selective isolates of P. multocida had similar size of PCR products that generated one band of 16S rDNA having 1 471 bp and KMT1 gene having 460 bp. The phylogenetic tree and similarity of the five selective isolates of P. multocida which were collected from GenBank database were calculated and analyzed for the nucleotide sequence of 16S rDNA and KMT1 genes. The sequencing result of 16S rRNA gene product (1 471 bp for the five selective isolates of P. multocida showed that the isolates of sheep (FUP2 shared 94.08%, 88.10% homology with the buffalo isolate (FUP8 and cattle isolate (FUP9 respectively, whereas, the buffalo isolate (FUP5 shared 98.18% and 94.40% homology with the cattle isolates (FUP12 and FUP9. Conclusions: The results indicated the relationships of P. multocida isolated from buffalo and cattle rather than the close relationships between P. multocida isolated from cattle and sheep. Diagnosis of P. multocida by 16S rDNA and KMT1 gene sequences was important to determine the antigen that is responsible for protective cover within the same group of animals and to help for the production of new vaccines for the control of microbial infection for domestic animals.

  2. Classification of slaughtered animals and estimation of body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... Multivariable ordered logistic regression analysis ... farm animals for strategic farm management practices ... records and information needed in modern abattoirs or slaughter .... employed in displaying the trend of daily animal.

  3. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the

  4. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...

  5. Dairy Tool Box Talks: A Comprehensive Worker Training in Dairy Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Maristela; Carroll, Heidi; Foos, Rebecca; Erickson, Tracey; Garcia, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Today's dairies are growing rapidly, with increasing dependence on Latino immigrant workers. This requires new educational strategies for improving milk quality and introduction to state-of-the-art dairy farming practices. It also creates knowledge gaps pertaining to the health of animals and workers, mainly due to the lack of time and language barriers. Owners, managers, and herdsmen assign training duties to more experienced employees, which may not promote "best practices" and may perpetuate bad habits. A comprehensive and periodic training program administered by qualified personnel is currently needed and will enhance the sustainability of the dairy industry. Strategic management and employee satisfaction will be achieved through proper training in the employee's language, typically Spanish. The training needs to address not only current industry standards but also social and cultural differences. An innovative training course was developed following the same structure used by the engineering and construction industries, giving farm workers basic understanding of animal care and handling, cow comfort, and personal safety. The "Dairy Tool Box Talks" program was conducted over a 10-week period with nine sessions according to farm's various employee work shifts. Bulk milk bacterial counts and somatic cell counts were used to evaluate milk quality on the three dairy farms participating in the program. "Dairy Tool Box Talks" resulted in a general sense of employee satisfaction, significant learning outcomes, and enthusiasm about the topics covered. We conclude this article by highlighting the importance of educational programs aimed at improving overall cross-cultural training.

  6. UVB exposure of farm animals: study on a food-based strategy to bridge the gap between current vitamin D intakes and dietary targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schutkowski

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV B radiation for improving vitamin D3 content of eggs and meat. In a two-factorial design hens that received diets with 0 (-D3 or 3,000 IU (+D3 vitamin D3/kg were non-exposed (-UVB or exposed to UVB radiation (+UVB for 3 h daily over 4 weeks. Data show that UVB radiation was very effective in raising the vitamin D3 content of egg yolk and meat. Egg yolk from +UVB/-D3 hens had a higher vitamin D3 content (17.5±7.2 µg/100 g dry matter (DM than those from the -UVB/+D3 group (5.2±2.4 µg/100 g DM, p<0.01. Vitamin D3 content in egg yolk of vitamin D3-supplemented hens could be further increased by UVB radiation (32.4±10.9 µg/100 g DM. The content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 in the egg yolk also increased in response to UVB, although less pronounced than vitamin D3. Meat revealed about 4-fold higher vitamin D3 contents in response to UVB than to dietary vitamin D3 (p<0.001. In conclusion, exposure of hens to UVB is an efficient approach to provide consumers with vitamin D3-enriched foods from animal sources.

  7. Parentage assignment with genomic markers: a major advance for understanding and exploiting genetic variation of quantitative traits in farmed aquatic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eVandeputte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the 1990s, parentage assignment using microsatellite markers has been introduced as a tool in aquaculture breeding. It now allows close to 100% assignment success, and offered new ways to develop aquaculture breeding using mixed family designs in industry conditions. Its main achievements are the knowledge and control of family representation and inbreeding, especially in mass spawning species, above all the capacity to estimate reliable genetic parameters in any species and rearing system with no prior investment in structures, and the development of new breeding programs in many species. Parentage assignment should not be seen as a way to replace physical tagging, but as a new way to conceive breeding programs, which have to be optimized with its specific constraints, one of the most important being to well define the number of individuals to genotype to limit costs, maximize genetic gain while minimizing inbreeding. The recent possible shift to (for the moment more costly SNP markers should benefit from future developments in genomics and MAS selection to combine parentage assignment and indirect prediction of breeding values.

  8. Steps towards food web management on farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeding, F.W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the report of four years of research on the functional group composition of the animal community in relation to farm and ecological infrastructure (E.I.) management on organic arable farms. The results are mainly based on abundance data of ground dwelling arthropods obtained

  9. Characterization of the animal by-product meal industry in Costa Rica: Manufacturing practices through the production chain and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, A; Granados-Chinchilla, F; Redondo-Solano, M; Arrieta-González, M; Pineda-Salazar, E; Molina, A

    2018-06-01

    Animal by-product rendering establishments are still relevant industries worldwide. Animal by-product meal safety is paramount to protect feed, animals, and the rest of the food chain from unwanted contamination. As microbiological contamination may arise from inadequate processing of slaughterhouse waste and deficiencies in good manufacturing practices within the rendering facilities, we conducted an overall establishment's inspection, including the product in several parts of the process.An evaluation of the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) was carried out, which included the location and access (i.e., admission) to the facilities, integrated pest management programs, physical condition of the facilities (e.g., infrastructure), equipments, vehicles and transportation, as well as critical control points (i.e., particle size and temperature set at 50 mm, 133°C at atmospheric pressure for 20 min, respectively) recommended by the OIE and the European Commission. The most sensitive points according to the evaluation are physical structure of the facilities (avg 42.2%), access to the facilities (avg 48.6%), and cleaning procedures (avg 51.4%).Also, indicator microorganisms (Salmonella spp., Clostridium spp., total coliforms, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7) were used to evaluate the safety in different parts of the animal meal production process. There was a prevalence of Salmonella spp. of 12.9, 14.3, and 33.3% in Meat and Bone Meal (MBM), poultry by-products, and fish meal, respectively. However, there were no significant differences (P = 0.73) in the prevalence between the different animal meals, according to the data collected.It was also observed that renderings associated with the poultry industry (i.e., 92.0%) obtained the best ratings overall, which reflects a satisfactory development of this sector and the integration of its production system as a whole.

  10. Intelligent control on wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    with the wind farm makes the grid more vulnerable. The communication technologies have been considered as a solution to solve the problems according to the IEC 61400-25 series protocols. This paper presents the significance of communication technologies in wind farm system by the simulations on some practical......Since the renewable energy is popularly applied in power industry, especially the smart grid is fast developing all over the world during these years, the reliable connection between a wind farm and the main grid has been focused on. Due to the difficult control on the wind energy, the connection...... scenarios. By delivering the signals among WTs (wind turbines) and control centers, they both are able to recognize another side’s operation situation and to adjust its own state to realize the optimization. A scenario is designed in this paper, in which a fault occurs in wind farm; then the protection...

  11. 76 FR 6143 - Draft Guidance for Industry on “Target Animal Safety and Effectiveness Protocol Development and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... this document is to provide sponsors guidance in preparation of study protocols for review by the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation (ONADE), to reduce the time to... Development and Submission.'' The purpose of this document is to provide sponsors guidance in preparation of...

  12. On-Farm Mitigation of Transmission of Tuberculosis from White-Tailed Deer to Cattle: Literature Review and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. David Walter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Animal Industry Division of the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD has been challenged with assisting farmers with modifying farm practices to reduce potential for exposure to Mycobacterium bovis from wildlife to cattle. The MDARD recommendations for on-farm risk mitigation practices were developed from experiences in the US, UK and Ireland and a review of the scientific literature. The objectives of our study were to review the present state of knowledge on M. bovis excretion, transmission, and survival in the environment and the interactions of wildlife and cattle with the intention of determining if the current recommendations by MDARD on farm practices are adequate and to identify additional changes to farm practices that may help to mitigate the risk of transmission. This review will provide agencies with a comprehensive summary of the scientific literature on mitigation of disease transmission between wildlife and cattle and to identify lacunae in published research.

  13. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kenis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practices and research on the use of insects as animal feed in West Africa and the perspectives to further develop the techniques, in particular for smallholder farmers and fish farmers. The most promising insects are flies, especially the house fly (Musca domestica (Diptera Muscidae and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (Diptera Stratiomyiidae, which can be mass reared on-farm for domestic use, in small production units at the community or industrial level. Flies have the advantage over most other insects of developing on freely available waste material and could even contribute to rural sanitation. Termites are traditionally used by smallholder farmers to feed village poultry. While their mass production is problematic, methods to enhance populations on-farm and facilitate collection can be developed. In any case, new methods will need to demonstrate their economic profitability, social acceptability and environmental sustainability

  14. The Food Marketing Institute and the National Council of Chain Restaurants: animal welfare and the retail food industry in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K H; Hollingsworth, J

    2005-08-01

    In order to achieve real change, there must be a motivating force and all the stakeholders need to be involved. This is the premise of the animal welfare programme developed for the food retail, wholesale and chain restaurant industries in the United States of America (USA) by the Food Marketing Institute (FMI) and the National Council of Chain Restaurants (NCCR). This paper outlines a collaborative process that retailers and producers in the USA are using to enhance the care and welfare of animals in commercial food production. Although the efforts of the FMI and the NCCR are still underway, the process provides one example of how different parts of the food production system can work together to achieve positive change.

  15. The contributions of the European cosmetics industry to the development of alternatives to animal testing: dialogue with ECVAM and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Odile

    2002-12-01

    COLIPA (the European Federation of the Cosmetics Industry) represents 24 international companies and 2000 small and medium-sized enterprises. Together with ECVAM, COLIPA has been involved in the development and validation of alternative methods since the beginning of the validation efforts. The work of the Steering Committee on Alternatives to Animal Testing (SCAAT) is based on collaboration between companies, but also with academia, trade associations, the Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP), European Commission Directorates General, and ECVAM. Some success has been achieved, but some validation efforts have failed. One lesson is that the search for alternatives requires a lot of humility.

  16. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  17. [Chile's experience with developing abalone (Haliotis spp.) farming: opportunities and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, R; Villagrán, R

    2008-04-01

    Intensive abalone farming--specifically of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and the green (or Japanese) abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--has expanded rapidly in Chile since the late 1990s, and this article presents an overview of the challenges facing the industry and the factors which favour its development. At present, 100% of Chile's abalone enterprises farm the H. rufescens species, owing to its suitability for full-cycle culture. In the analysis of factors that facilitate the development of abalone farming in Chile, those that stand out include the characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem, existing entrepreneurial and professional skills, decisive government support in co-financing scientific and technological projects, infrastructure and associated services to support these development initiatives and a market where prices have remained stable and demand for abalone products has been steady. The greatest challenges facing intensive abalone farming in Chile are providing a constant supply of macroalgae for abalone feed and developing complementary feed, as well as updating current legislation on intensive abalone farming, strengthening producer associations and establishing health certification. The article discusses examples of the impact that native organisms can have on animals introduced into an aquatic ecosystem and the international transmission of agents such as withering syndrome and sabellid polychaete infestation disease, associated with the movement of abalone seeds and broodstock. The article also emphasises the importance of implementing the recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

  18. impacts of alternative farm policies on rural communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; James W. Richardson

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe an LP/IO model for evaluating the economic impacts of alternative farm policies on rural communities and demonstrate its capabilities by analyzing the impacts of three farm policies on a rural community in Texas. Results indicate that in the noncrop sector, two groups of industries are most affected by farm policy. The first...

  19. Challenges in regulating farm animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunning, Jennifer; Hartlev, Mette; Gamborg, Christian

    Report from the project Cloning in Public: A specific support action within the 6th framework programme, priority 5: Food quality and safety......Report from the project Cloning in Public: A specific support action within the 6th framework programme, priority 5: Food quality and safety...

  20. Water erosion and soil protection technology in the agro-industrial farms around the Wadi El Ouaar, Taroudant sedimentary fan, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafrani, Hassan; Hssaine, Ali Ait

    2013-04-01

    Soil erosion is a phenomenon of global order. Similarly, it affects the soils around the Mediterranean, by removing considerable amounts of arable land and reducing their fertility. Thus, it reduces their agricultural productivity. In the Maghrebian countries, the erosion continues to degrade soils despite the techniques adopted by farmers and state efforts initiated since the 1940s in the field of erosion control. The negative impacts of this phenomenon increase by the combination of natural (climate, topography, lithology and soils) and anthropogenic factors (forest clearance, overgrazing, inappropriate and artificial development). The sedimentary fan of Taroudant (in the south of the High Atlas) is in a morphological imbalance. Therefore, the recent morphological activity leads to a threat of the agricultural development. The resulting forms are leading to a large wadi. Around the Wadi El Ouaar, there are currently situated both types of oppositional farms, traditional and modern ones. Indeed, traditional agriculture is still practiced by the majority of the inhabitants of the 11 population groups (douars) installed in this area. Modern agriculture is installed there since 1960, but since the 1990s, the number of farms is exploding. Clearing for farming purposes and pastoralism, combined with climatic conditions and soil formation mainly of silt have accelerated the phenomenon of gullies formed by erosion in this area. Thus, in the occasion of each precipitation event, gully growth is triggered enormously. In addition, farmers and residents are feared to lose their land. In this context, farmers are fighting hard against the gullies to protect their property. A survey of farmers conducted in the region of Taroudant shows that gully growth requires them to spend a high portion of their profits to constantly fight against the erosion. Despite the diversity of the used resources (concrete, gabion, vegetation, etc.) to prevent the arable land from soil erosion

  1. RITA--Registry of Industrial Toxicology Animal data: the application of historical control data for Leydig cell tumors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Thomas; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Kellner, Rupert; Karbe, Eberhard; Kittel, Birgit; Rinke, Matthias; Deschl, Ulrich

    2011-11-01

    Historical data for Leydig cell tumors from untreated or vehicle treated rats from carcinogenicity studies collected in the RITA database are presented. Examples are given for analyses of these data for dependency on variables considered to be of possible influence on the spontaneous incidence of Leydig cell tumors. In the 7453 male rats available for analysis, only one case of a Leydig cell carcinoma was identified. The incidence of Leydig cell adenomas differed markedly between strains. High incidences of close to 100% have been found in F344 rats, while the mean incidence was 4.2% in Sprague-Dawley rats and 13.7% in Wistar rats. Incidences in Wistar rats were highly variable, primarily caused by different sources of animals. Mean incidences per breeder varied from 2.8 to 39.9%. Analyses for the dependency on further parameters have been performed in Wistar rats. In breeders G and I, the Leydig cell tumor incidence decreased over the observation period and with increasing mean terminal body weight. The incidence of Leydig cell tumors increased with mean age at necropsy and was higher in studies with dietary admixture compared to gavage studies. These parameters had no effect on Leydig cell tumor incidence in breeders A and B. Animals from almost all breeders had a considerably higher mean age at necropsy when bearing a Leydig cell adenoma than animals without a Leydig cell adenoma. Studies with longitudinal trimming of the testes had a higher incidence than studies with transverse trimming. The observed dependencies and breeder differences are discussed and explanations are given. Consequences for the use of historical control data are outlined. With the retrospective analyses presented here we were able to confirm the published features of Leydig cell adenomas and carcinomas. This indicates that the RITA database is a valuable tool for analyses of tumors for their biological features. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the RITA database is highly beneficial for

  2. Metrics and methods for characterizing dairy farm intensification using farm survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mejia, Alejandra; Styles, David; Wilson, Paul; Gibbons, James

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of agricultural intensification requires comprehensive analysis of trends in farm performance across physical and socio-economic aspects, which may diverge across farm types. Typical reporting of economic indicators at sectorial or the "average farm" level does not represent farm diversity and provides limited insight into the sustainability of specific intensification pathways. Using farm business data from a total of 7281 farm survey observations of English and Welsh dairy farms over a 14-year period we calculate a time series of 16 key performance indicators (KPIs) pertinent to farm structure, environmental and socio-economic aspects of sustainability. We then apply principle component analysis and model-based clustering analysis to identify statistically the number of distinct dairy farm typologies for each year of study, and link these clusters through time using multidimensional scaling. Between 2001 and 2014, dairy farms have largely consolidated and specialized into two distinct clusters: more extensive farms relying predominantly on grass, with lower milk yields but higher labour intensity, and more intensive farms producing more milk per cow with more concentrate and more maize, but lower labour intensity. There is some indication that these clusters are converging as the extensive cluster is intensifying slightly faster than the intensive cluster, in terms of milk yield per cow and use of concentrate feed. In 2014, annual milk yields were 6,835 and 7,500 l/cow for extensive and intensive farm types, respectively, whilst annual concentrate feed use was 1.3 and 1.5 tonnes per cow. For several KPIs such as milk yield the mean trend across all farms differed substantially from the extensive and intensive typologies mean. The indicators and analysis methodology developed allows identification of distinct farm types and industry trends using readily available survey data. The identified groups allow the accurate evaluation of the consequences of the

  3. Metrics and methods for characterizing dairy farm intensification using farm survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Gonzalez-Mejia

    Full Text Available Evaluation of agricultural intensification requires comprehensive analysis of trends in farm performance across physical and socio-economic aspects, which may diverge across farm types. Typical reporting of economic indicators at sectorial or the "average farm" level does not represent farm diversity and provides limited insight into the sustainability of specific intensification pathways. Using farm business data from a total of 7281 farm survey observations of English and Welsh dairy farms over a 14-year period we calculate a time series of 16 key performance indicators (KPIs pertinent to farm structure, environmental and socio-economic aspects of sustainability. We then apply principle component analysis and model-based clustering analysis to identify statistically the number of distinct dairy farm typologies for each year of study, and link these clusters through time using multidimensional scaling. Between 2001 and 2014, dairy farms have largely consolidated and specialized into two distinct clusters: more extensive farms relying predominantly on grass, with lower milk yields but higher labour intensity, and more intensive farms producing more milk per cow with more concentrate and more maize, but lower labour intensity. There is some indication that these clusters are converging as the extensive cluster is intensifying slightly faster than the intensive cluster, in terms of milk yield per cow and use of concentrate feed. In 2014, annual milk yields were 6,835 and 7,500 l/cow for extensive and intensive farm types, respectively, whilst annual concentrate feed use was 1.3 and 1.5 tonnes per cow. For several KPIs such as milk yield the mean trend across all farms differed substantially from the extensive and intensive typologies mean. The indicators and analysis methodology developed allows identification of distinct farm types and industry trends using readily available survey data. The identified groups allow the accurate evaluation of the

  4. 1999 BUSINESS ANALYSIS SUMMARY FOR CASH GRAIN FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Nott, Sherrill B.

    2000-01-01

    The sources of the 51 cash grain farms analyzed in this report were Telfarm/MicroTel at Michigan State University, plus the AgriSolutions offices in East Lansing, Adrian, Mt. Pleasant, and Alpena. Farm types were assigned using the 1992 Census of Agriculture's Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) definitions. Basically, any farm with 50 percent or more of value of farm sales from one item becomes a farm of that type. Cash grain farms have 50 percent or more of value of combined sales from...

  5. Matching breeding goals with farming systems to enhance the sustainability of fish farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Fish farming is growing but is also facing challenges regarding economic viability and environmental sustainability. Selective breeding could enhance the sustainability of fish farming by changing animal performances. Thus, our aim was to develop sustainable breeding goals by using economic (EV)

  6. Energy resource alternatives competition. Progress report for the period February 1, 1975--December 31, 1975. [Space heating and cooling, hot water, and electricity for homes, farms, and light industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzke, D.J.; Osowski, D.M.; Radtke, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    This progress report describes the objectives and results of the intercollegiate Energy Resource Alternatives competition. The one-year program concluded in August 1975, with a final testing program of forty student-built alternative energy projects at the Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The goal of the competition was to design and build prototype hardware which could provide space heating and cooling, hot water, and electricity at a level appropriate to the needs of homes, farms, and light industry. The hardware projects were powered by such nonconventional energy sources as solar energy, wind, biologically produced gas, coal, and ocean waves. The competition rules emphasized design innovation, economic feasibility, practicality, and marketability. (auth)

  7. Succession Planning in Australian Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.

  8. Farms could slash pesticide use without losses, research reveals

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Study shows almost all farms could significantly cut chemical use while producing as much food, in a major challenge to the billion-dollar pesticide industry. Virtually all farms could significantly cut their pesticide use while still producing as much food, according to a major new study. The research also shows chemical treatments could be cut without affecting farm profits on over three-quarters of farms. The scientists said that many farmers wanted to reduce pesticide use, partly due to c...

  9. Modeling the economic impact of welfare interventions in fish farming - a case study from the U.K. rainbow trout industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kankainen, M.; Berrill, I.K.; Noble, C.; Kole, A.P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Actions that aim to improve animal welfare are likely to involve costs for the producer, although at the same time such actions may improve the profitability of production. In this article we introduce a quantitative bio-economical approach for estimating the economic consequences for improving

  10. The potential of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Lundsager, P.

    1992-09-01

    Papers presented at the European wind energy conference on the potential of wind farms are presented. The aim of the conference was to bring into focus the problems, experiences and potential of the application of wind power in wind power farms as a contribution to the European and global energy supply. It was considered that the interchange of experience among representatives of science, utilities, industry, environment and energy planning, together with those who represent financial and insurance interests, would create a better understanding of all aspects of wind power for its future successful development. The subjects covered concern surveys of national planning and policies regarding wind energy utilization and national and global development of wind turbine arrays. The performance of some individual wind farms is described. Papers also deal with utility and project planning, wind prediction and certification, wind loads and fatigues, wakes, noise and control. (AB)

  11. The potential of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Lundsager, P.

    1992-09-01

    Papers presented at the European wind energy conference on the potential of wind farms are presented. The aim of the conference was to bring into focus the problems, experiences and potential of the application of wind power in wind power farms as a contribution to the European and global energy supply. It was considered that the interchange of experience among representatives of science, utilities, industry, environment and energy planning, together with those who represent financial and insurance interests, would create a better understanding of all aspects of wind power for its future successful development. The subjects covered concern surveys of national planning and policies regarding wind energy utilization and national and global development of wind turbine arrays. The performance of some individual wind farms is described. Papers also deal with utility and project planning, wind prediction and certification, wind loads and fatigus, wakes, noise and control. (AB)

  12. Animal Welfare: What's coming down the pipe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern for farm animal welfare is not a new concept. However, increased public pressure and an increasingly entangled global economy are effecting change across the world. The conversation about farm animal welfare is difficult because the world’s population has become disconnected from agricultur...

  13. Animal Welfare in organic framing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of farm animal welfare can, for practical purposes, be translated into the so-called Five Freedoms.[1] Organic farming aims to meet animal welfare needs and should therefore comply with these Freedoms. The first Freedom, from hunger and thirst, is met in any system properly managed to

  14. Sustainable shrimp farming in India - Prospects and challenges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Shrimp farming has grown into a multi-crore industry in India. It has vast potential for further expansion. However, this growing industry needs to develop appropriate indigenous technologies in specific areas to make it a sustainable and profitable...

  15. Spatial overlap of shark nursery areas and the salmon farming industry influences the trophic ecology of Squalus acanthias on the southern coast of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Gómez, Daniela; Hobday, Alistair J; Daley, Ross; Lamilla, Julio; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2017-06-01

    Potential interactions between marine predators and humans arise in the southern coast of Chile where predator feeding and reproduction sites overlap with fisheries and aquaculture. Here, we assess the potential effects of intensive salmon aquaculture on food habits, growth, and reproduction of a common predator, the spiny dogfish-identified as Squalus acanthias via genetic barcoding. A total of 102 (89 females and 13 males) individuals were collected during winter and summer of 2013-2014 from the Chiloé Sea where salmon aquaculture activities are concentrated. The low frequency of males in our study suggests spatial segregation of sex, while immature and mature females spatially overlapped in both seasons. Female spiny dogfish showed a functional specialist behavior as indicated by the small number of prey items and the relative high importance of the austral hake and salmon pellets in the diet. Immature sharks fed more on pellets and anchovies than the larger hake-preferring mature females. Our results also indicate that spiny dogfish switch prey (anchovy to hake) to take advantage of seasonal changes in prey availability. Despite differences in the trophic patterns of S. acanthias due to the spatial association with intensive salmon farming, in this region, there appears to be no difference in fecundity or size at maturity compared to other populations. Although no demographic effects were detected, we suggest that a range of additional factors should be considered before concluding that intensive aquaculture does not have any impact on these marine predators.

  16. ARIZONA FARM LABOR REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALTER, RICHARD H.

    THE ORGANIZATION OF THE FARM PLACEMENT PROGRAM IS DESCRIBED. INCLUDED ARE THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATIONS, THE LOCAL LEVELS, THE STATE FARM LABOR ADVISORY COMMITTEE, AND THE PLANNING AND OPERATING METHODS USED BY FARM PLACEMENT PERSONNEL IN MEETING FARM LABOR NEEDS. MAJOR CROP ACTIVITIES ARE RELATED TO COTTON AND VEGETABLES. THE LABOR FORCE IS…

  17. /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po in liver and kidneys of cattle. 1. Animals from an area with little traffic or industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunzl, K; Kracke, W [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Kreuzer, W

    1979-09-01

    The concentrations of /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po and stable lead were determined in liver and kidneys of 40 animals from a mainly agricultural region with little traffic or industry. Median liver concentrations of 18.0 pCi /sup 210/Pb and 33.3 pCi /sup 210/Po per wet tissue, and median kidney concentrations of 44.0 pCi /sup 210/Pb and 178.5 pCi /sup 210/Po/kg wet tissue were observed. The specific activity of /sup 210/Pb was 161 and 132 nCi /sup 210/Pb/g Pb in liver and kidneys, respectively. On the average, the kidneys contained 2.37 more /sup 210/Pb, 5.05 more /sup 210/Po and 2.89 more Pb than the livers. The ratio /sup 210/Po//sup 210/Pb was 2.18 in the liver and 3.95 in the kidneys. Correlation analysis revealed significant correlations between /sup 210/Po in liver and kidneys, Pb in liver and kidneys, /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb in kidneys, /sup 210/Pb and Pb in liver, /sup 210/Pb and Pb in kidneys, /sup 210/Po and Pb in liver, as well as /sup 210/Po and Pb in kidneys. No significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of either /sup 210/Po or /sup 210/Pb in liver or kidneys and the age of the animals.

  18. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...... is a welfare issue. Furthermore, we argue that AWIA is unlikely to prevent serious moral disagreements over how to weigh concerns about wild animals against priorities in human health, the health of domestic and farm animals, and biodiversity, but that it may nonetheless serve to limit harms imposed......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...

  19. Income Analysis in South American Domestic Camelid Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ansaloni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the production costs and income of eight groups of farms: five private farms and three belonging to the Andean rural community. These farms are located in Peru and Bolivia and breed alpacas and llama for both meat and fibre. The research is based on case studies. Each case study includes several farms, grouped according to similar characteristics: available resources; breeding techniques and geographical location. A farm economic data analysis was undertaken by determining economic budget income. Statistics and data from 2003 were analysed to determine farm resources and farm production costs, per animal head and net farm income per labour unit and livestock head. This paper is relevant as regards economic data for production systems which are more often analysed for sociological and cultural aspects and less often for economic data and identification of real productive economic data which are not generally market driven.

  20. Biogas and bioethanol production in organic farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, P

    2010-08-15

    The consumer demand for environmentally friendly, chemical free and healthy products, as well as concern regarding industrial agriculture's effect on the environment has led to a significant growth of organic farming. On the other hand, organic farmers are becoming interested in direct on-farm energy production which would lead them to independency from fossil fuels and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from the farm. In the presented work, the idea of biogas and bioenergy production at the organic farm is investigated. This thesis is devoted to evaluate such a possibility, starting from the characterization of raw materials, through optimizing new processes and solutions and finally evaluating the whole on-farm biorefinery concept with the help of a simulation software. (LN)

  1. Biogas and bioethanol production in organic farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, P.

    2010-08-15

    The consumer demand for environmentally friendly, chemical free and healthy products, as well as concern regarding industrial agriculture's effect on the environment has led to a significant growth of organic farming. On the other hand, organic farmers are becoming interested in direct on-farm energy production which would lead them to independency from fossil fuels and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from the farm. In the presented work, the idea of biogas and bioenergy production at the organic farm is investigated. This thesis is devoted to evaluate such a possibility, starting from the characterization of raw materials, through optimizing new processes and solutions and finally evaluating the whole on-farm biorefinery concept with the help of a simulation software. (LN)

  2. Motivations of farm tourism hosts and guests in the South West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    rich and varied landscape, long tradition of farming and ... of visitors who stay at your farm / establishment? 2 How would .... walks, and the children all loved the animals. .... During the short time .... Guests relive happy memories of past times.

  3. Serological investigation of Leptospira infection and its circulation in one intensive-type water buffalo farm in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Marvin A; Mingala, Claro N; Gloriani, Nina G; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Isoda, Norikazu; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Nobuo

    2016-02-01

    Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in the Philippines. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that can be fatal to humans and cause reproductive problems in livestock. Leptospirosis has been reported in some countries where water buffaloes are commercially raised, highlighting the Leptospira prevalence in this farming system, but information on leptospirosis in water buffalo farms in the Philippines is limited. In this study, we collected blood samples from rats (n = 21), and water buffaloes (n = 170) from different groups and locations in one intensive-type buffalo farm in the Philippines. Serum was analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Anti-Leptospira antibodies reacting with serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were found in sera of 30% tested rats, and 48% of water buffalo sera tested positive for at least one Leptospira strain, in which serogroups Mini, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Pyrogenes were predominantly agglutinated. The number of seropositive young water buffaloes (Leptospira strains with variable MAT titers. In addition, antibodies against serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were detected in both animals. Finally, Leptospira infection was found associated with age and animal grouping, highlighting the impact of management in the persistence of leptospirosis at intensive-type buffalo farm settings in the Philippines. Further investigation and appropriate control strategies are required to prevent leptospirosis from causing risks to public health and economic losses to the water buffalo farming industry.

  4. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  5. Analyzing Broadband Divide in the Farming Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    , upstream and downstream connection. The main constraint is that farms are naturally located in rural areas where the required access broadband data rates are not available. This paper studies the broadband divide in relation to the Danish agricultural sector. Results show how there is an important......Agriculture industry has been evolving for centuries. Currently, the technological development of Internet oriented farming tools allows to increase the productivity and efficiency of this sector. Many of the already available tools and applications require high bandwidth in both directions...... difference between the broadband availability for farms and the rest of the households/buildings the country. This divide may be slowing down the potential technological development of the farming industry, in order to keep their competitiveness in the market. Therefore, broadband development in rural areas...

  6. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years the wind turbine industry has focused on optimizing the cost of energy. One of the important factors in this is to increase reliability of the wind turbines. Advanced fault detection, isolation and accommodation are important tools in this process. Clearly most faults are deal...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....

  7. Consumer perception and communication on welfare in organic laying hen farming

    OpenAIRE

    Heerkens, Jasper; Tuyttens, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A major reason for increased societal popularity of organic production systems is the growing general discontent with intensive farming practices. However, urbanization leads to limited knowledge of farming and farm animal welfare. Consumers believe organic farming leads to better animal welfare, although most health and welfare issues seen in conventional systems are also found in organic poultry systems. The majority of consumers do not translate attitude and good intention into action, the...

  8. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  9. An assessment tool to help producers improve cow comfort on their farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, E; Gibbons, J; Rushen, J; Pellerin, D; Pajor, E; Lefebvre, D; de Passillé, A M

    2015-01-01

    Effective management and an appropriate environment are essential for dairy cattle health and welfare. Codes of practice provide dairy producers with best practice guidance for the care and handling of their cattle. New Canadian recommendations have been established for the dairy industry. The objectives of this study were to develop an on-farm assessment tool that helps producers assess how well they are meeting their code of practice and that identifies management and environment modifications that could improve dairy cow comfort on their farms. The assessment tool addressed critical areas of dairy cow comfort, including accommodation and housing (stall design, space allowance, stall management, pen management, milking parlor, and transfer alleys), feed and water (body condition scoring, nutrition), and health and welfare (lameness, claw health, and hoof-trimming). Targets of good practices were identified from the requirements and recommendations of the code of practice. Each farm received a score for each target, ranging from 0 (target not reached) to 100 (target reached). One hundred tiestall and 110 freestall farms were surveyed in 3 provinces of Canada (Quebec, Ontario, and Alberta). The duration of the assessment, in 2 visits lasting, on average, 8 and 9h (range between freestall and tiestall farms) and 4 and 4.1h, was beyond the targeted 3 to 4h due mainly to the animal-based measures; strategies to reduce the duration of the assessment were discussed. Standard operating procedures were developed to ensure consistency in measuring and recording data. Periodical checks were conducted by trainers to ensure all 15 assessors remained above target agreement of weighted kappa ≥0.6. Average scores for all critical areas ranged from 25 to 89% for freestall farms and from 48 to 95% for tiestall farms. These scores need to be considered with caution when comparing farms because scores could not always be calculated the same way between housing systems. An

  10. Modeling greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C Alan

    2017-11-15

    Dairy farms have been identified as an important source of greenhouse gas emissions. Within the farm, important emissions include enteric CH 4 from the animals, CH 4 and N 2 O from manure in housing facilities during long-term storage and during field application, and N 2 O from nitrification and denitrification processes in the soil used to produce feed crops and pasture. Models using a wide range in level of detail have been developed to represent or predict these emissions. They include constant emission factors, variable process-related emission factors, empirical or statistical models, mechanistic process simulations, and life cycle assessment. To fully represent farm emissions, models representing the various emission sources must be integrated to capture the combined effects and interactions of all important components. Farm models have been developed using relationships across the full scale of detail, from constant emission factors to detailed mechanistic simulations. Simpler models, based upon emission factors and empirical relationships, tend to provide better tools for decision support, whereas more complex farm simulations provide better tools for research and education. To look beyond the farm boundaries, life cycle assessment provides an environmental accounting tool for quantifying and evaluating emissions over the full cycle, from producing the resources used on the farm through processing, distribution, consumption, and waste handling of the milk and dairy products produced. Models are useful for improving our understanding of farm processes and their interacting effects on greenhouse gas emissions. Through better understanding, they assist in the development and evaluation of mitigation strategies for reducing emissions and improving overall sustainability of dairy farms. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article

  11. Dairy cattle management, health and welfare in smallholder farms: An organic farming perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare......Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic...... type, aspects of the housing system, farm characteristics, and management routines. The average herd size was 3.15 in Kiambu and 3.91 in Kajiado, with all the cows’ zero-grazed. Seventy five percent of the cubicles were small (less than 2.50m2). Many of the farmers sprayed their animals weekly (47...

  12. In memoriam. Stuart Kenneth Hargreaves, DVM, 1946-2012. The humanist veterinarian from Zimbabwe who was committed to the improvement of animal health in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Zimbabwe Society for Animal Production Gold Medal Award for outstanding contribution to the livestock industryJ F Kapnek Charitable Trust Award for exceptional managerial commitment to the Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal and contributions to the veterinary professionCommercial Farmers’ Union Farming Oscar for outstanding contribution to the livestock industry and in particular ensuring continued beef exportsResearch Council of Zimbabwe award for distinguished contribution to the agricultural sect...

  13. Legislation on treating animals in human care

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Petra

    2016-01-01

    1 Abstract This Master's thesis entitled Legislation on treating animals in human care compares Czech and Australian legislation in selected aspects of three categories of animals in human care - farm animals, companion animals and animals used for scientific and other research purposes. The thesis is composed of 5 main chapters. The first chapter describes sources of law regarding treating animals in human care from the perspectives of international law, European Union law, federal Czech law...

  14. A regional assessment of the cost and effectiveness of mitigation measures for reducing nutrient losses to water and greenhouse gas emissions to air from pastoral farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibart, Ronaldo; Vogeler, Iris; Dennis, Samuel; Kaye-Blake, William; Monaghan, Ross; Burggraaf, Vicki; Beautrais, Josef; Mackay, Alec

    2015-06-01

    Using a novel approach that links geospatial land resource information with individual farm-scale simulation, we conducted a regional assessment of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) losses to water and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to air from the predominant mix of pastoral industries in Southland, New Zealand. An evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of several nutrient loss mitigation strategies applied at the farm-scale, set primarily for reducing N and P losses and grouped by capital cost and potential ease of adoption, followed an initial baseline assessment. Grouped nutrient loss mitigation strategies were applied on an additive basis on the assumption of full adoption, and were broadly identified as 'improved nutrient management' (M1), 'improved animal productivity' (M2), and 'restricted grazing' (M3). Estimated annual nitrate-N leaching losses occurring under representative baseline sheep and beef (cattle) farms, and representative baseline dairy farms for the region were 10 ± 2 and 32 ± 6 kg N/ha (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. Both sheep and beef and dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss mitigation strategies in M1, at a low cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M2, at no additional cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Dairy farms were also responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M3, but this reduction came at a greater cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to P-loss mitigation strategies, in particular by adopting M1. Only dairy farms were responsive to GHG abatement; greater abatement was achieved by the most intensified dairy farm system simulated. Overall, M1 provided for high levels of regional scale N- and P-loss abatement at a low cost per farm without affecting overall farm production, M2 provided additional N-loss abatement but only marginal P-loss abatement, whereas M3 provided the greatest N-loss abatement, but

  15. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses......, which are described in other reports from Food and Resource Economic Institute (Jacobsen, 2005 and Andersen et al., 2005). This gives coherent results from the field to the macroeconomic level regarding changes in technology and legislation.......The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...

  16. Educated consumers don’t believe artificial meat is the solution to the problems with the meat industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hocquette , Aurélie; Lambert , Carla; Sinquin , Clémentine; Peterolff , Laure; Wagner , Zoé; ,; Lebert , André; Hocquette , Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    The production of in vitro meat by cell culture has been suggested by some scientists as one solution to address the major challenges facing our society. Firstly, consumers would like the meat industry to reduce potential discomfort of animals on modern farms, or even to avoid killing animals to eat them. Secondly, citizens would like meat producers to reduce potential environmental deterioration by livestock and finally, there is a need to reduce world hunger by increasing pro...

  17. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted by the ...

  18. From Invention to Innovation: Risk Analysis to Integrate One Health Technology in the Dairy Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Andrea; Boselli, Carlo; Amatiste, Simonetta; Ninci, Simone; Frazzoli, Chiara; Dragone, Roberto; De Rossi, Alberto; Grasso, Gerardo; Mantovani, Alberto; Brajon, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Current Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) approaches mainly fit for food industry, while their application in primary food production is still rudimentary. The European food safety framework calls for science-based support to the primary producers' mandate for legal, scientific, and ethical responsibility in food supply. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary project ALERT pivots on the development of the technological invention (BEST platform) and application of its measurable (bio)markers-as well as scientific advances in risk analysis-at strategic points of the milk chain for time and cost-effective early identification of unwanted and/or unexpected events of both microbiological and toxicological nature. Health-oriented innovation is complex and subject to multiple variables. Through field activities in a dairy farm in central Italy, we explored individual components of the dairy farm system to overcome concrete challenges for the application of translational science in real life and (veterinary) public health. Based on an HACCP-like approach in animal production, the farm characterization focused on points of particular attention (POPAs) and critical control points to draw a farm management decision tree under the One Health view (environment, animal health, food safety). The analysis was based on the integrated use of checklists (environment; agricultural and zootechnical practices; animal health and welfare) and laboratory analyses of well water, feed and silage, individual fecal samples, and bulk milk. The understanding of complex systems is a condition to accomplish true innovation through new technologies. BEST is a detection and monitoring system in support of production security, quality and safety: a grid of its (bio)markers can find direct application in critical points for early identification of potential hazards or anomalies. The HACCP-like self-monitoring in primary production is feasible, as well as the biomonitoring of live

  19. From Invention to Innovation: Risk Analysis to Integrate One Health Technology in the Dairy Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lombardo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP approaches mainly fit for food industry, while their application in primary food production is still rudimentary. The European food safety framework calls for science-based support to the primary producers’ mandate for legal, scientific, and ethical responsibility in food supply. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary project ALERT pivots on the development of the technological invention (BEST platform and application of its measurable (biomarkers—as well as scientific advances in risk analysis—at strategic points of the milk chain for time and cost-effective early identification of unwanted and/or unexpected events of both microbiological and toxicological nature. Health-oriented innovation is complex and subject to multiple variables. Through field activities in a dairy farm in central Italy, we explored individual components of the dairy farm system to overcome concrete challenges for the application of translational science in real life and (veterinary public health. Based on an HACCP-like approach in animal production, the farm characterization focused on points of particular attention (POPAs and critical control points to draw a farm management decision tree under the One Health view (environment, animal health, food safety. The analysis was based on the integrated use of checklists (environment; agricultural and zootechnical practices; animal health and welfare and laboratory analyses of well water, feed and silage, individual fecal samples, and bulk milk. The understanding of complex systems is a condition to accomplish true innovation through new technologies. BEST is a detection and monitoring system in support of production security, quality and safety: a grid of its (biomarkers can find direct application in critical points for early identification of potential hazards or anomalies. The HACCP-like self-monitoring in primary production is feasible, as well as the

  20. Evaluation of on-farm veal calves' responses to unfamiliar humans and potential influencing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leruste, H.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Heutinck, L.F.M.; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Brscic, M.; Cozzi, G.; Engel, B.; Reenen, van C.G.; Lensink, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    The human–animal relationship is an important component of the welfare of farm animals and for this reason animal responsiveness tests to humans are included in on-farm welfare assessment schemes that provide indicators for this. However, apart from the behaviour of stockpersons towards their