WorldWideScience

Sample records for industrial fabrication routes

  1. Theoretical comparative study of the industrial fabrication routes for UO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzaga, Reinaldo; Goncalves, Joao da Silva

    2008-01-01

    UO 2 powder is produced in an industrial scale by different fabrication routes, divided into dry and wet routes, or a combination of both. The wet processes most often used industrially are the ADU and AUC processes, whose names originate in the intermediate precipitate obtained during powder fabrication, Ammonium Diuranate and Ammonium Uranil Carbonate. Considering the dry processes, the most widely used ones are the DC (Dry Conversion) and IDR (Integrate Dry Route) process. As to the differences and peculiarities among the fabrication routes, each has marked advantages and disadvantages that are of extreme importance when it comes to selecting and establishing a UO 2 powder production plant based on a particular fabrication route. Among the important factors of comparison to be considered are the product quality characteristics, production capability, quantity of waste, operating costs of each process with raw material, labor, etc. This paper is intended to make a theoretical comparison between wet and dry processes for UO 2 powder fabrication, taking as the basis the previously mentioned factors of comparison. (author)

  2. The Danish fabricated metal industry:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the knowledge on innovation processes in low- and medium-low-tech industries. Today, industries characterised as high-tech are perceived to be central to economic development, as the research intensity shields them from competition from low-wage countries....... This is less the case for low-tech industries, but their economic importance continues to be large, however. It is thus interesting to analyse how they manage to remain competitive. The analysis focuses on a case study of the fabricated metal industry by identifying the innovation strategies followed by firms...... located in a part of Jutland, where this industry has experienced growth. It is found that the ability to create tailor-made solutions is central to the competitiveness of these medium-low-tech firms. Knowledge is thus highly important, yet in different ways than for high-tech industries. This illustrates...

  3. Zircaloy 4 ingots' industrial fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyt, A.

    1987-01-01

    The technology developed for the industrial fabrication of Zircaloy-4 ingots is presented. According to the results obtained: a) the homogeneity of the ingots is analyzed, regarding the distribution of components (tin, iron, chromium, oxygen) and Brinell hardness as a function of different types of charge: zirconium sponge-recycling alloy material, sponge of zirconium-alloy; b) the distribution of the same parameters as a function of production is also analyzed. (Author)

  4. Preliminary studies on fabrication routes for SYNROC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.P.; Paige, E.L.

    1980-12-01

    The use of Synroc as a disposal medium for magnox waste has been evaluated and three possible methods of fabrication have been investigated. Hot pressing in graphite dies has produced the highest densities - further work is proceeding on sintering and hot isostatic pressing. The leach test results have indicated that the lowest density samples have adequate leach resistance while the higher density samples are an order of magnitude better. (author)

  5. Industrial routes for lithium zirconate elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, B.; Roux, N.

    1991-01-01

    Lithium metazirconate Li 2 ZrO 3 is one of the leading ceramics contemplated in solid blanket concepts. Among its merits are fair physical properties, satisfactory compatibility with structural materials and beryllium, satisfactory mechanical strength, excellent irradiation behavior as shown by a comparative irradiation of ceramics in EBR 2 reactor, and very good tritium release performance as evidence in the MOZART, and EXOTIC neutron irradiation. Pechiney and the CEA are jointly involved in developing industrial fabrication of Li 2 ZrO 3 elements to the microstructural, geometrical (pellets, rings, spheres) specifications required for their use in solid blanket conceived in the European Program

  6. Trends in the global aluminum fabrication industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subodh; Yin, Weimin

    2007-02-01

    The aluminum fabrication industry has become more vital to the global economy as international aluminum consumption has grown steadily in the past decades. Using innovation, value, and sustainability, the aluminum industry is strengthening its position not only in traditional packaging and construction applications but also in the automotive and aerospace markets to become more competitive and to face challenges from other industries and higher industrial standards. The aluminum fabrication industry has experienced a significant geographical shift caused by rapid growth in emerging markets in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Market growth and distribution will vary with different patterns of geography and social development; the aluminum industry must be part of the transformation and keep pace with market developments to benefit.

  7. Fabrication routes for Thorium and Uranium233 based AHWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danny, K.M.; Saraswat, Anupam; Chakraborty, S.; Somayajulu, P.S.; Kumar, Arun

    2011-01-01

    India's economic growth is on a fast growth track. The growth in population and economy is creating huge demand for energy which has to be met with environmentally benign technologies. Nuclear Energy is best suited to meet this demand without causing undue environmental impact. Considering the large thorium reserves in India, the future nuclear power program will be based on Thorium- Uranium 233 fuel cycle. The major characteristic of thorium as the fuel of future comes from its superior fuel utilization. 233 U produced in a reactor is always contaminated with 232 U. This 232 U undergoes a decay to produce 228 Th and it is followed by decay chain including 212 Bi and 208 Tl. Both 212 Bi and 208 Tl are hard gamma emitters ranging from 0.6 MeV-1.6 MeV and 2.6 MeV respectively, which necessitates its handling in hot cell. The average concentration of 232 U is expected to exceed 1000 ppm after a burn-up of 24,000 MWD/t. Work related to developing the fuel fabrication technology including automation and remotization needed for 233 U based fuels is in progress. Various process for fuel fabrication have been developed i.e. Coated Agglomerate Pelletisation (CAP), impregnation technique (Pellet/Gel), Sol Gel Micro-sphere Pelletisation (SGMP) apart from Powder to Pellet (POP) route. This paper describes each process with respect to its advantages, disadvantages and its amenability to automation and remotisation. (author)

  8. Fabrication of functional superhydrophobic engineering materials via an extremely rapid and simple route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Yu, Shen; Li, Jing; Guo, Zhiguang

    2015-04-18

    As important and irreplaceable engineering materials, metals are widely used in our daily life. Therefore, fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on metal materials is of great significance, and applicable methods for industrial production are in urgent need. In this work, we provide a rapid and easy route for fabricating superhydrophobic films on metal materials through simple displacement deposition. This method includes two simple steps with each step being as short as one second. The obtained superhydrophobic surfaces are homogeneous and easy to repair. A miniature boat and a miniature box were used to test the buoyancy-increasing and oil absorption properties, respectively. This method is feasible for massive production of superhydrophobic metal materials applied to water transportation and oil spill clean-up areas.

  9. The design, fabrication and installation of cable routing mockups in support of Spacelab 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    From flight and mockup drawings of Spacelab 2 (SL 2) experiments and hardware, shop ready mockup drawings were produced. Floor panels were the first items considered for fabrication. Cold plate and orthogrid mockups were designed and fabricated. Experiment and other hardware mockups were fabricated of aluminum or plywood, depending on size and configuration. Eighty-three cable routing bracket mockups were fabricated of aluminum and delivered for painting.

  10. MOX fuel fabrication: Technical and industrial developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebastard, G.; Bairiot, H.

    1990-01-01

    The plutonium available in the near future is generally estimated rather precisely on the basis of the reprocessing contracts and the performance of the reprocessing plants. A few years ago, decision makers were convinced that a significant share of this fissile material would be used as the feed material for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) or other advanced reactors. The facts today are that large reprocessing plants are coming into commercial operations: UP3 and soon UP2-800 and THORP, but that FBR deployment is delayed worldwide. As a consequence, large quantities of plutonium will be recycled in light water reactors as mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. MOX fuel technology has been properly demonstrated in the past 25 years. All specific problems have been addressed, efficient fabrication processes and engineering background have been implemented to a level of maturity which makes MOX fuel behaving as well as Uranium fuel. The paper concentrates on todays MOX fabrication expertise and presents the technical and industrial developments prepared by the MOX fuel fabrication industry for this last decade of the century

  11. Trade routes and plague transmission in pre-industrial Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ricci P H; Lee, Harry F; Wu, Connor Y H

    2017-10-11

    Numerous historical works have mentioned that trade routes were to blame for the spread of plague in European history, yet this relationship has never been tested by quantitative evidence. Here, we resolve the hypothetical role of trade routes through statistical analysis on the geo-referenced major trade routes in the early modern period and the 6,656 geo-referenced plague outbreak records in AD1347-1760. Ordinary Least Square (OLS) estimation results show that major trade routes played a dominant role in spreading plague in pre-industrial Europe. Furthermore, the negative correlation between plague outbreaks and their distance from major trade ports indicates the absence of a permanent plague focus in the inland areas of Europe. Major trade routes decided the major plague outbreak hotspots, while navigable rivers determined the geographic pattern of sporadic plague cases. A case study in Germany indicates that plague penetrated further into Europe through the local trade route network. Based on our findings, we propose the mechanism of plague transmission in historical Europe, which is imperative in demonstrating how pandemics were spread in recent human history.

  12. Optimization of the Fabrication Route of Ferritic/Martensitic ODS Cladding Tubes: Metallurgical Approach and Pilgering Numerical Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logé, R.E.; Vanegas-Marques, E.; Mocellin, K.; Toualbi, L.; Carlan, Y. de

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: • Fabrication route of 9Cr-ODS (martensitic) alloys is well controlled. • Fabrication route of 14Cr-ODS (ferritic) should be further optimized. • The choice between a ferritic or a martensitic grade is not already done, it will depend also on the behaviour under irradiation, the corrosion resistance … • Part of the optimization can rely on numerical simulation of pilgering: • The constitutive behaviour is an essential ingredient for process optimization: appropriate cyclic laws must be used. • The numerical analysis can look at cracking risks, final yield stress, and even residual stress state or surface roughness. • HPTR laboratory approaches can be translated to the (industrial) VMR process provided some additional adjustments in the numerical code

  13. New route to the fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Deepak; Morell, Gerardo; Palomino, Javier; Resto, Oscar; Gil, Jennifer; Weiner, Brad R.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films offer applications in various fields, but the existing synthetic approaches are cumbersome and destructive. A major breakthrough has been achieved by our group in the direction of a non-destructive, scalable, and economic process of NCD thin-film fabrication. Here, we report a cheap precursor for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond in the form of paraffin wax. We show that NCD thin films can be fabricated on a copper support by using simple, commonplace paraffin wax under reaction conditions of Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD). Surprisingly, even the presence of any catalyst or seeding that has been conventionally used in the state-of-the-art is not required. The structure of the obtained films was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy recorded at the carbon K-edge region confirm the presence of nanocrystalline diamond. The process is a significant step towards cost-effective and non-cumbersome fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond thin films for commercial production

  14. Life Cycle Design - a Route to the Sustainable Industrial Culture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    1999-01-01

    In the attempt to reorient Society's development in a more sustainable direction attention is focused on the environmental impact of products and systems over their entire life cycle, but how can the environmental life cycle perspective be introduced into the design of new solutions and how much...... can be optained through life cycle design? The authors' experience with integration of environmental considerations in product development is presented, ranging from the detailed interactive approach to the EDIP-method through various simplified approaches. The potential for environmental improvements...... is reviewed and the overall question of to what extent life cycle design is a route to the sustainable industrial culture is discussed....

  15. Study of positron lifetime spectrum for Zn O varistor ceramics fabricated by Sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xigui; Wei Shutao; Zhang Ruiying; Cheng Guosheng; Dai Xianqi; Zhang Jincang; Xing Huaimin

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of positron lifetime spectrum for ZnO varistor ceramics fabricated by Sol-gel route was carried out. The relationship between lifetime parameters and the densification and nonlinear coefficient α was given. The dependence of electrical properties on sintering temperature and duration was discussed

  16. Robust and durable superhydrophobic fabrics fabricated via simple Cu nanoparticles deposition route and its application in oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jintao; Wang, Hongfei

    2017-06-15

    The exploitation of separation materials with high selectivity for oil pollutants is of great importance due to severe environmental damage from oil spillages and industrial discharge of oils. A facile in situ growth process for creating superhydrophobic-superoleophilic fabrics for oil-water separation is developed. This proposed method is based mainly on the deposition Cu nanoparticles and subsequent hydrophobic modification. Compared with the hydrophilicity of original fabric, the water contact angle of the modified fabric rises to 154.5°, suggesting its superhydrophobicity. The as-prepared fabrics also exhibit wonderful oil-water selectivity, excellent recyclability, and high separation efficiency (>94.5%). Especially, via pumping the fabric rolled into a multilayered tube, various types of oils on water surface can be continuously separated in situ without any water uptake. Furthermore, the superhydrophobic fabrics show excellent superhydrophobic stability, and can resist different chemicals, such as salty, acidic, and alkaline solutions, oils, and hot water. After the abrasion of 400cycles, the broken fabric still possesses highly hydrophobicity with water contact angle of 145°. Therefore, due to simple fabrication steps, low cost, and scalable process, the as-prepared fabrics can be applied in the separation of oils and other organic solvents from water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Y3Fe5O12 nanoparticulate garnet ferrites: Comprehensive study on the synthesis and characterization fabricated by various routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz Akhtar, Majid; Azhar Khan, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Murtaza, G.; Raza, Rizwan; Shaukat, S. F.; Asif, M. H.; Nasir, Nadeem; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Nazir, M. S.; Raza, M. R.

    2014-11-01

    The effects of synthesis methods such as sol-gel (SG), self combustion (SC) and modified conventional mixed oxide (MCMO) on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the (Y3Fe5O12) garnet ferrites have been studied in the present work. The samples of Y3Fe5O12 were sintered at 950 °C and 1150 °C (by SG and SC methods). For MCMO route the sintering was done at 1350 °C for 6 h. Synthesized samples prepared by various routes were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Impedance network analyzer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structural analysis reveals that the samples are of single phase structure and shows variations in the particle sizes and cells volumes, prepared by various routes. FESEM and TEM images depict that grain size increases with the increase of sintering temperature from 40 nm to 100 nm.Magnetic measurements reveal that garnet ferrite synthesized by sol gel method has high initial permeability (60.22) and low magnetic loss (0.0004) as compared to other garnet ferrite samples, which were synthesized by self combustion and MCMO methods. The M-H loops exhibit very low coercivity which enables the use of these materials in relays and switching devices fabrications. Thus, the garnet nanoferrites with low magnetic loss prepared by different methods may open new horizon for electronic industry for their use in high frequency applications.

  18. Fabrication of seamless calandria tubes by cold pilgering route using 3-pass and 2-pass schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibaba, N.

    2008-12-01

    Calandria tube is a large diameter, extremely thin walled zirconium alloy tube which has diameter to wall thickness ratio as high as 90-95. Such tubes are conventionally produced by the 'welded route', which involves extrusion of slabs followed by a series of hot and cold rolling passes, intermediate anneals, press forming of sheets into circular shape and closing the gap by TIG welding. Though pilgering is a well established process for the fabrication of seamless tubes, production of extremely thin walled tubes offers several challenges during pilgering. Nuclear fuel complex (NFC), Hyderabad, has successfully developed a process for the production of Zircaloy-4 calandria tubes by adopting the 'seamless route' which involves hot extrusion of mother blanks followed by three-pass pilgering or two-pass pilgering schedules. This paper deals with standardization of the seamless route processes for fabrication of calandria tubes, comparison between the tubes produced by 2-pass and 3-pass pilgering schedules, role of ultrasonic test charts for control of process parameters, development of new testing methods for burst testing and other properties.

  19. Fabrication of seamless calandria tubes by cold pilgering route using 3-pass and 2-pass schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.

    2008-01-01

    Calandria tube is a large diameter, extremely thin walled zirconium alloy tube which has diameter to wall thickness ratio as high as 90-95. Such tubes are conventionally produced by the 'welded route', which involves extrusion of slabs followed by a series of hot and cold rolling passes, intermediate anneals, press forming of sheets into circular shape and closing the gap by TIG welding. Though pilgering is a well established process for the fabrication of seamless tubes, production of extremely thin walled tubes offers several challenges during pilgering. Nuclear fuel complex (NFC), Hyderabad, has successfully developed a process for the production of Zircaloy-4 calandria tubes by adopting the 'seamless route' which involves hot extrusion of mother blanks followed by three-pass pilgering or two-pass pilgering schedules. This paper deals with standardization of the seamless route processes for fabrication of calandria tubes, comparison between the tubes produced by 2-pass and 3-pass pilgering schedules, role of ultrasonic test charts for control of process parameters, development of new testing methods for burst testing and other properties

  20. Pre-series and testing route for the serial fabrication of W7-X target elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscary, J.; Greuner, H.; Friedrich, T.; Traxler, H.; Mendelevitch, B.; Boeswirth, B.; Schlosser, J.; Smirnow, M.; Stadler, R.

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication of the actively cooled high-heat flux divertor of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X stellarator (W7-X) requires the delivery of 890 target elements, which are designed to withstand a stationary heat flux of 10 MW/m 2 . The organization of the manufacturing and testing route for the serial fabrication is the result of the pre-series activities. Flat CFC Sepcarb NB31 tiles are bonded to CuCrZr copper alloy cooling structure in consecutive steps. A copper layer is active metal cast to CFC tiles, and then an OF-copper layer is added by hot isostatic pressing to produce bi-layer tiles. These tiles are bonded by electron beam welding onto the cooling structure, which was manufactured independently. The introduction of the bi-layer technology proved to be a significant improvement of the bond reliability under thermal cycling loading. This result is also the consequence of the improved bond inspections throughout the manufacturing route performed in the ARGUS pulsed thermography facility of PLANSEE. The repairing process by electron beam welding of the bonding was also qualified. The extended pre-series activities related to the qualification of fabrication processes with the relevant non-destructive examinations aim to minimize the risks for the serial manufacturing and to guarantee the steady-state operation of the W7-X divertor.

  1. Fabrication, characteristics, and in-pile performance of UO2 pellets prepared from dry route powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chotard, A.; Ledac, A.; Bernardin, M.

    1991-01-01

    The dry route conversion process of UF 6 to sinterable UO 2 powder has been used in France on a large scale for more than 10 years for the fabrication of PWR fuels. Thus, our fabrication and irradiation experience relates to more than 10,000 tons of fuel. As everyone knows, the dry route conversion process only involves gas-gas and gas-solid reactions which present the advantage of producing very little contaminated wastes and no liquid effluents. Powders obtained by this process are characterized by: - a very high purity, - a low specific surface area (around 2 m 2 /g), therefore a high resistance to spontaneous oxidation, - a good compressibility, - a very high sinterability (.98% T.D.), - a very high reproducibility. This powder also shows a high fineness which leads to very homogeneous blends with additives like pore former, U 3 O 8 or Gd 2 O 3 . On the other hand this fineness requires a granulation step which is actually not a disadvantage since it allows to adjust the granulate size to optimize the filling of press dies and so as to guarantee a good stability of the pellet dimensions and density. This pelletizing process leads to pellets characterized by: - a good thermal stability (0.5% T.D. after 34 hours at 1700degC), - no open porosity, - low H 2 content (0,3 ppm), - an homogeneous microstructure (grain size and porosity). Such characteristics mean that the UO 2 pellets from dry route conversion present an excellent in pile behaviour for high burnup up to 58,000 MWd/MtU in commercial plant, with: - low fission gas release, - good dimensional stability (densification, swelling), of which examples and results of PIE are described in the paper. The qualities of the dry route conversion powder and its flexibility of use make it possible to consider adjustment of the pellet characteristics, mainly: density, grain size and pore size distribution for specific uses or performance upgrade. (orig.)

  2. Development of modified route for fabrication of Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.; Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Phani Babu, C.; Jha, S.K.; Ganesha, G.N.; Ramana Rao, S.V.; Kumar Vaibhaw; Dey, G.K.; Srivastava, D.; Neogy, S.; Mani Krishna, K.V.

    2013-01-01

    Different fabrication trials involving the variation in three important manufacturing stages of Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tube were partially undetaken. The variations were with respect of mode of breaking the cast structure of the ingot (forging vs extrution), ratio of hot extrusion and number of stages of subsequent cold work to produce the finished tube. It was observed that forging process resulted in superior performance in breaking the cast structure. Higher extrusion ratios resulted in more favorable texture and microstrucutre. Continuity of the beta phase in the final microstructure was observed to be more in case of route involving single cold work subsequent to hot extrusion. (author)

  3. Solution-processable precursor route for fabricating ultrathin silica film for high performance and low voltage organic transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujing Guo; Liqiang Li; Zhongwu Wang; Zeyang Xu; Shuguang Wang; Kunjie Wu; Shufeng Chen; Zongbo Zhang; Caihong Xu; Wenfeng Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Silica is one of the most commonly used materials for dielectric layer in organic thin-film transistors due to its excellent stability,excellent electrical properties,mature preparation process,and good compatibility with organic semiconductors.However,most of conventional preparation methods for silica film are generally performed at high temperature and/or high vacuum.In this paper,we introduce a simple solution spin-coating method to fabricate silica thin film from precursor route,which possesses a low leakage current,high capacitance,and low surface roughness.The silica thin film can be produced in the condition of low temperature and atmospheric environment.To meet various demands,the thickness of film can be adjusted by means of preparation conditions such as the speed of spin-coating and the concentration of solution.The p-type and n-type organic field effect transistors fabricated by using this film as gate electrodes exhibit excellent electrical performance including low voltage and high performance.This method shows great potential for industrialization owing to its characteristic of low consumption and energy saving,time-saving and easy to operate.

  4. Design and Fabrication of an Industrial Poultry Feed Tumble Mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osokam Shadrach ONYEGU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and fabrication of a poultry feed industrial tumble mixer. The design computations to handle a 50Kg mass of feed was done in the MS Excel environment for proper machine design approach. The machine was designed using AUTOCAD 2D/3D design software and proper material selection was done before the assembling and fabrication of parts. The efficiency of the machine, its associated cost of production and the product obtained after few minutes of mixing were outstanding, thereby, making the design acceptable and cost effective.

  5. Functionalization of fabrics with PANI/CuO nanoparticles by precipitation route for anti-bacterial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thampi, V. V. Anusha; Thanka Rajan, S.; Anupriya, K.; Subramanian, B., E-mail: subramanianb3@gmail.com, E-mail: bsmanian@cecri.res.in [CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute (India)

    2015-01-15

    The present work aims at developing copper oxide nanocrystals immobilized onto the fabrics for the improvement of antimicrobial activity. The CuO nanocrytstals were deposited onto woven fabrics and non-woven fabrics through chemical precipitation route. The samples were characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FE-SEM, and TEM. The presence of CuO on the surface of the fabrics was confirmed by EDAX. The CuO nanoparticles were found to have grown to a size of 50 nm with a monoclinic structure. The antibacterial activities were assessed for the coated CuO samples by the agar diffusion plate method followed by FE-SEM. To promote the slow release of Cu ions into the medium from the fabric matrix, the synthesized nanoparticles were immobilized in polyaniline polymer matrix before being coated onto the fabric samples, and the results are discussed.Graphical Abstract.

  6. Functionalization of fabrics with PANI/CuO nanoparticles by precipitation route for anti-bacterial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thampi, V. V. Anusha; Thanka Rajan, S.; Anupriya, K.; Subramanian, B.

    2015-01-01

    The present work aims at developing copper oxide nanocrystals immobilized onto the fabrics for the improvement of antimicrobial activity. The CuO nanocrytstals were deposited onto woven fabrics and non-woven fabrics through chemical precipitation route. The samples were characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FE-SEM, and TEM. The presence of CuO on the surface of the fabrics was confirmed by EDAX. The CuO nanoparticles were found to have grown to a size of 50 nm with a monoclinic structure. The antibacterial activities were assessed for the coated CuO samples by the agar diffusion plate method followed by FE-SEM. To promote the slow release of Cu ions into the medium from the fabric matrix, the synthesized nanoparticles were immobilized in polyaniline polymer matrix before being coated onto the fabric samples, and the results are discussed.Graphical Abstract

  7. Comparative study of the different industrial manufacturing routes for UO2 pellet specifications through the wet process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palheiros, Franklin; Gonzaga, Reinaldo; Soares, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    In the fuel cycle, converting UF 6 to UO 2 powder is an intermediate step for fabrication of pellets for fuel assemblies to be used in nuclear power plants. The basic proposal common to the different powder fabrication processes is to provide raw material capable of being processed into the form of pellets. The wet processes is the most often used industrially and are divided in two categories: the ADU (Ammonium Diuranate) and AUC (Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate) processes, whose names originate in the precipitate obtained in aqueous solution during the intermediate steps of UO 2 powder fabrication. It has known that the powder characteristics have a considerable influence in the UO 2 pellet manufacturing and quality characteristics. INB has used the AUC process to produce UO 2 pellets and supply fuel to Angra 1 and 2 Nuclear Power Plants. Despite of this process is characterized by the precipitation of a different intermediate precipitate compared to the ADU route (i.e., (NH 4 ) 4 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 , in the AUC process, and (NH 4 ) 2 U 2 O 7 in ADU process) leading to some slight differences in the final pellet microstructure, it has been considered that the models that predict the pellet behavior during irradiation in a nuclear reactor are basically the same compared to those used to predict the pellets form the ADU process. In order to evaluate how different the pellets originated from these two industrial routes are, this paper aims to compare the INB production historical data (Angra 1, Cycles 14 and 15) with the key parameters of a common product specification from the ADU process. (author)

  8. Lithium zirconate elements fabricated by industrial scale processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, N.

    1991-01-01

    Lithium metazirconate Li 2 ZrO 3 is one of the leading tritium breeding ceramics contemplated in solid blanket concepts for fusion reactors. Among its merits are fair physical properties, satisfactory compatibility with structural materials and beryllium, satisfactory mechanical strength, excellent irradiation behaviour as shown by a comparative irradiation of ceramics in the EBR II reactor, and very good tritium release performance as evidenced in the MOZART and EXOTIC neutron irradiations. Pechiney and the CEA are jointly involved in developing industrial fabrication of Li 2 ZrO 3 elements to the microstructural and geometrical specifications required for their use in the solid blankets as conceived in the European Program

  9. Alternative routes for the chemical industry regarding US shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneissel, B. [Stratley AG, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Cracking ethane from wet shale gas in North America sets a bench mark to global ethylene production costs. Regarding very attractive ethane prices from extraction of low cost wet shale gas we suggest in North America ethylene production costs will roughly vary between 400 and 600 $/ t. As in other parts of the world, except Middle East, the availability of ethane seems to be more limited other sources for ethylene, such as methane, coal and biomass are investigated. Oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) has its limits and may only lead to competitive production costs for large scale operations. Coal converted to ethylene via calcium carbide and subsequent hydrogenation may hardly be a viable answer. Ethylene derived by dehydration of ethanol from fermentation of corn sugar may be an answer for very low crop prices. Further research on the conversion of methane with emphasis on its industrial implementation as a major carbon resource is recommended. (orig.)

  10. Green Route Fabrication of Graphene Oxide Reinforced Polymer Composites with Enhanced Mechanical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahendran, R.; Sridharan, D.; Santhakumar, K.; Gnanasekaran, G.

    2016-01-01

    A facile and “Green” route has been applied to fabricate graphene oxide (GO) reinforced polymer composites utilizing “deionized water” as solvent. The GO was reinforced into water soluble poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (PAMPS) matrix by ultrasonication followed by mechanical stirring. The incorporation and dispersion of the GO in the polymer matrix were analyzed by XRD, FE-SEM, AFM, FT-IR, and TGA. Further, the FE-SEM and AFM images revealed that the surface roughness and agglomeration of the GO in the polymer matrix increased by increasing its concentration. Ionic exchange capacity, proton conductivity, and tensile texture results showed that the reinforcement of GO in the polymer matrix enhances the physicochemical properties of the host polymer. These PVA/PAMPS/GO nano composites showed improved mechanical stability compared to the pristine polymer, because of strong interfacial interactions within the components and homogeneous dispersion of the GO sheets in the PVA/PAMPS matrix.

  11. Fabrication of Surface Level Cu/Si Cp Nano composites by Friction Stir Processing Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, R. C.; Karunanithi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) technique has been successfully employed as low energy consumption route to prepare copper based surface level nano composites reinforced with nano sized silicon carbide particles (Si Cp). The effect of FSP parameters such as tool rotational speed, processing speed, and tool tilt angle on microstructure and microhardness was investigated. Single pass FSP was performed based on Box-Behnken design at three factors in three levels. A cluster of blind holes 2 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth was used as particulate deposition technique in order to reduce the agglomeration problem during composite fabrication. K-type thermocouples were used to measure temperature histories during FSP. The results suggest that the heat generation during FSP plays a significant role in deciding the microstructure and microhardness of the surface composites. Microstructural observations revealed a uniform dispersion of nano sized Si Cp without any agglomeration problem and well bonded with copper matrix at different process parameter combinations. X-ray diffraction study shows that no intermetallic compound was produced after processing. The microhardness of nano composites was remarkably enhanced and about 95% more than that of copper matrix

  12. Fabrication of Surface Level Cu/SiCp Nanocomposites by Friction Stir Processing Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartigueyen Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir processing (FSP technique has been successfully employed as low energy consumption route to prepare copper based surface level nanocomposites reinforced with nanosized silicon carbide particles (SiCp. The effect of FSP parameters such as tool rotational speed, processing speed, and tool tilt angle on microstructure and microhardness was investigated. Single pass FSP was performed based on Box-Behnken design at three factors in three levels. A cluster of blind holes 2 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth was used as particulate deposition technique in order to reduce the agglomeration problem during composite fabrication. K-type thermocouples were used to measure temperature histories during FSP. The results suggest that the heat generation during FSP plays a significant role in deciding the microstructure and microhardness of the surface composites. Microstructural observations revealed a uniform dispersion of nanosized SiCp without any agglomeration problem and well bonded with copper matrix at different process parameter combinations. X-ray diffraction study shows that no intermetallic compound was produced after processing. The microhardness of nanocomposites was remarkably enhanced and about 95% more than that of copper matrix.

  13. Structural fabrication quality as a factor of industrial facilities safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishkov, E. V.; Kardaev, E. M.; Stolbova, S. Yu; Shishova, O. S.

    2018-04-01

    In the conditions of industrial facilities high wear degree, it is very important to ensure the possibility of their safe operation in order to avoid various kinds of accidents and catastrophes. As practice shows, industrial plant collapses can occur suddenly under normal operating conditions. Usually, such accidents can take place at different stages of structures life cycle. One of the reasons for this is the initially low quality of reinforced concrete structures fabrication. The article considers the factors contributing to the collapse of reinforced concrete structures of water purification tanks located on the territory of the Omsk Region. The main surveys results on tank structures after collapse with the use of ultrasonic and physical methods of investigation are presented. On the basis of the obtained data analysis, it was found that the main cause of the accidents was the insufficient load-bearing capacity of typical reinforced concrete structures, caused by defects in their fabrication in the factory conditions because of exceeding the standard displacement from the design position of the working reinforcement. Recommendations are given on the identification of defective structures and the prevention of similar accidents when operating similar tanks at manufacturing plants constructed from standard designs.

  14. Complex deformation routes for direct recycling aluminium alloy scrap via industrial hot extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, Dimos; Kellens, Karel; Kampen, Carlos; Mohammadi, Amirahmad; Duflou, Joost R.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the final results of an industrial project, aiming for direct hot extrusion of wrought aluminium alloy scrap at an industrial scale. Two types of complex deformation/extrusion routes were tested for the production of the same profile, starting from AA6060 scrap in form of machining chips. More specifically scrap-based billets were extruded through: a 2-porthole and a 4-porthole die-set, modified for enhanced scrap consolidation and grain refinement. For comparison reasons, cast billets of the same alloy were extruded through the modified 2-porthole die set. The tensile testing results as well as microstructural investigations show that the 4-porthole extrusion route further improves scrap consolidation compared to the 2-porthole die output. The successful implementation of solid state recycling, directly at industrial level, indicates the technological readiness level of this research.

  15. Helium-cooled pebble bed test blanket module alternative design and fabrication routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, M.

    2007-01-01

    According to first results of the recently started European DEMO study, a new blanket integration philosophy was developed applying so-called multi-module segments. These consist of a number of blanket modules flexibly mounted onto a common vertical manifold structure that can be used for replacing all modules in one segment at one time through vertical remote-handling ports. This principle gives new freedom in the design choices applied to the blanket modules itself. Based on the alternative design options considered for DEMO also the ITER test blanket module was newly analyzed. As a result of these activities it was decided to keep the major principles of the reference design like stiffening grid, breeder unit concept and perpendicular arrangement of pebble beds related to the First Wall because of the very positive results of thermo-mechanical and neutronics studies. The present paper gives an overview on possible further design optimization and alternative fabrication routes. One of the most significant improvements in terms of the hydraulic performance of the Helium cooled reactor can be reached with a new First Wall concept. That concept is based on an internal heat transfer enhancement technique and allows drastically reducing the flow velocity in the FW cooling channels. Small ribs perpendicular to the flow direction (transverse-rib roughness) are arranged on the inner surface of the First Wall cooling channels at the plasma side. In the breeder units cooling plates which are mostly parallel but bent into U-shape at the plasma-side are considered. In this design all flow channels are parallel and straight with the flow entering on one side of the parallel plate sections and exiting on the other side. The ceramic pebble beds are embedded between two pairs of such type of cooling plates. Different modifications could possibly be combined, whereby the most relevant discussed in this paper are (i) rib-cooled First Wall channels, (ii) U-bent cooling plates for

  16. A Mathematical Model for the Industrial Hazardous Waste Location-Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Boyer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology progress is a cause of industrial hazardous wastes increasing in the whole world . Management of hazardous waste is a significant issue due to the imposed risk on environment and human life. This risk can be a result of location of undesirable facilities and also routing hazardous waste. In this paper a biobjective mixed integer programing model for location-routing industrial hazardous waste with two objectives is developed. First objective is total cost minimization including transportation cost, operation cost, initial investment cost, and cost saving from selling recycled waste. Second objective is minimization of transportation risk. Risk of population exposure within bandwidth along route is used to measure transportation risk. This model can help decision makers to locate treatment, recycling, and disposal centers simultaneously and also to route waste between these facilities considering risk and cost criteria. The results of the solved problem prove conflict between two objectives. Hence, it is possible to decrease the cost value by marginally increasing the transportation risk value and vice versa. A weighted sum method is utilized to combine two objectives function into one objective function. To solve the problem GAMS software with CPLEX solver is used. The problem is applied in Markazi province in Iran.

  17. Design, Modeling, Fabrication & Characterization of Industrial Si Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ahrar Ahmed

    Photovoltaic is a viable solution towards meeting the energy demand in an ecofriendly environment. To ensure the mass access in photovoltaic electricity, cost effective approach needs to be adapted. This thesis aims towards substrate independent fabrication process in order to achieve high efficiency cost effective industrial Silicon (Si) solar cells. Most cost-effective structures, such as, Al-BSF (Aluminum Back Surface Field), FSF (Front Surface Field) and bifacial cells are investigated in detail to exploit the efficiency potentials. First off, we introduced two-dimensional simulation model to design and modeling of most commonly used Si solar cells in today's PV arena. Best modelled results of high efficiency Al-BSF, FSF and bifacial cells are 20.50%, 22% and 21.68% respectively. Special attentions are given on the metallization design on all the structures in order to reduce the Ag cost. Furthermore, detail design and modeling were performed on FSF and bifacial cells. The FSF cells has potentials to gain 0.42%abs efficiency by combining the emitter design and front surface passivation. The prospects of bifacial cells can be revealed with the optimization of gridline widths and gridline numbers. Since, bifacial cells have metallization on both sides, a double fold cost saving is possible via innovative metallization design. Following modeling an effort is undertaken to reach the modelled result in fabrication the process. We proposed substrate independent fabrication process aiming towards establishing simultaneous processing sequences for both monofacial and bifacial cells. Subsequently, for the contact formation cost effective screen-printed technology is utilized throughout this thesis. The best Al-BSF cell attained efficiency ˜19.40%. Detail characterization was carried out to find a roadmap of achieving >20.50% efficiency Al-BSF cell. Since, n-type cell is free from Light Induced degradation (LID), recently there is a growing interest on FSF cell. Our

  18. Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} nanoparticulate garnet ferrites: Comprehensive study on the synthesis and characterization fabricated by various routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niaz Akhtar, Majid, E-mail: majidniazakhtar@ciitlahore.edu.pk [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi,Selangor (Malaysia); Azhar Khan, Muhammad [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 63100 (Pakistan); Ahmad, Mukhtar [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, G.C. University, Lahore (Pakistan); Raza, Rizwan; Shaukat, S.F.; Asif, M.H. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Nasir, Nadeem [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, National Textile University, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Abbas, Ghazanfar [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Nazir, M.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Raza, M.R. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi,Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-11-15

    The effects of synthesis methods such as sol–gel (SG), self combustion (SC) and modified conventional mixed oxide (MCMO) on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}) garnet ferrites have been studied in the present work. The samples of Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} were sintered at 950 °C and 1150 °C (by SG and SC methods). For MCMO route the sintering was done at 1350 °C for 6 h. Synthesized samples prepared by various routes were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Impedance network analyzer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structural analysis reveals that the samples are of single phase structure and shows variations in the particle sizes and cells volumes, prepared by various routes. FESEM and TEM images depict that grain size increases with the increase of sintering temperature from 40 nm to 100 nm.Magnetic measurements reveal that garnet ferrite synthesized by sol gel method has high initial permeability (60.22) and low magnetic loss (0.0004) as compared to other garnet ferrite samples, which were synthesized by self combustion and MCMO methods. The M–H loops exhibit very low coercivity which enables the use of these materials in relays and switching devices fabrications. Thus, the garnet nanoferrites with low magnetic loss prepared by different methods may open new horizon for electronic industry for their use in high frequency applications. - Highlights: • Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} garnet ferrites nanoparticles were synthesized by three different routes. • Impact of sintering temperature on the particle size of Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was evaluated. • The magnetic studies suggest the applications in relays and switching devices.

  19. A facile route for graded conversion of carbon fabric to silicon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    70

    The XRD, SEM and EDS analysis confirm the formation of. SiC fibers with .... be obtained by a linear regression of the least-squares method. ..... The SiC fabric was prepared from carbon fabric using facile and simple HAPC method. The.

  20. Novel and simple route to fabricate fully biocompatible plasmonic mushroom arrays adhered on silk biopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonhan; Choi, Yunkyoung; Lee, Myungjae; Jeon, Heonsu; Kim, Sunghwan

    2014-12-01

    A fully biocompatible plasmonic quasi-3D nanostructure is demonstrated by a simple and reliable fabrication method using strong adhesion between gold and silk fibroin. The quasi-3D nature gives rise to complex photonic responses in reflectance that are prospectively useful in bio/chemical sensing applications. Laser interference lithography is utilized to fabricate large-area plasmonic nanostructures.A fully biocompatible plasmonic quasi-3D nanostructure is demonstrated by a simple and reliable fabrication method using strong adhesion between gold and silk fibroin. The quasi-3D nature gives rise to complex photonic responses in reflectance that are prospectively useful in bio/chemical sensing applications. Laser interference lithography is utilized to fabricate large-area plasmonic nanostructures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The incident angle dependence of reflectance spectra and the atomic force microscopy image of the Au nanoparticle array on a silk film after 1 hour of ultrasonication. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05172f

  1. A solvent evaporation route towards fabrication of hierarchically porous ZSM-11 with highly accessible mesopores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Wen; Liu, Zhiting; Liu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    A route to generate hierarchically porous zeolite ZSM-11 has been paved via solvent evaporation induced self-assembly assisted by hexadecyltrimethoxysilane to produce a preformed dry gel, followed by its subsequent transformation into zeolite via steam-assisted-crystallization. The crystallization...

  2. Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton textiles for water-oil separation based on drop-coating route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chengyu; Wang, Shuliang; Li, Jian

    2013-08-14

    In the present study, we are so excited to report a simple drop-coating method for fabricating the superhydrophobic cotton textiles which can remove the water in oil (or the oil in water). It is confirmed that the superhydrophobic composite thin film containing modified-ZnO nanoparticles and polystyren (PS) has been successfully fabricated on the cotton textiles surface by a single-step procedure, and the superhydrophobic cotton textiles displays an excellent property in water-oil separation which is rarely put forward and studied. The static water contact angle on the superhydrophobic cotton sample surface arranges from 153° to 155°, and stays almost the same after exposure to ambient air or immersion in the corrosive liquids and oil, indicating the considerable range of potential applications for the superhydrophobic cotton textiles fabricated by this simple method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Route to one-step microstructure mold fabrication for PDMS microfluidic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoqing; Geng, Zhaoxin; Fan, Zhiyuan; Wang, Shicai; Su, Yue; Fang, Weihao; Pei, Weihua; Chen, Hongda

    2018-04-01

    The microstructure mold fabrication for PDMS microfluidic chip remains complex and time-consuming process requiring special equipment and protocols: photolithography and etching. Thus, a rapid and cost-effective method is highly needed. Comparing with the traditional microfluidic chip fabricating process based on the micro-electromechanical system (MEMS), this method is simple and easy to implement, and the whole fabrication process only requires 1-2 h. Different size of microstructure from 100 to 1000 μm was fabricated, and used to culture four kinds of breast cancer cell lines. Cell viability and morphology was assessed when they were cultured in the micro straight channels, micro square holes and the bonding PDMS-glass microfluidic chip. The experimental results indicate that the microfluidic chip is good and meet the experimental requirements. This method can greatly reduce the process time and cost of the microfluidic chip, and provide a simple and effective way for the structure design and in the field of biological microfabrications and microfluidic chips.

  4. LWR fuel fabrication: a mature and competitive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    The pressures on fuel fabricators - to avoid losing existing clients as well as to win any new business that is put up to tender in this overly supplied market - is driving them to reduce costs and to improve designs and performance. (author)

  5. A capacitated vehicle routing problem with order available time in e-commerce industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Li, Kunpeng; Liu, Zhixue

    2017-03-01

    In this article, a variant of the well-known capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) called the capacitated vehicle routing problem with order available time (CVRPOAT) is considered, which is observed in the operations of the current e-commerce industry. In this problem, the orders are not available for delivery at the beginning of the planning period. CVRPOAT takes all the assumptions of CVRP, except the order available time, which is determined by the precedent order picking and packing stage in the warehouse of the online grocer. The objective is to minimize the sum of vehicle completion times. An efficient tabu search algorithm is presented to tackle the problem. Moreover, a Lagrangian relaxation algorithm is developed to obtain the lower bounds of reasonably sized problems. Based on the test instances derived from benchmark data, the proposed tabu search algorithm is compared with a published related genetic algorithm, as well as the derived lower bounds. Also, the tabu search algorithm is compared with the current operation strategy of the online grocer. Computational results indicate that the gap between the lower bounds and the results of the tabu search algorithm is small and the tabu search algorithm is superior to the genetic algorithm. Moreover, the CVRPOAT formulation together with the tabu search algorithm performs much better than the current operation strategy of the online grocer.

  6. Electrohydrodynamic bubbling: an alternative route to fabricate porous structures of silk fibroin based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekemen, Zeynep; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Stride, Eleanor; Kaplan, David; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-05-13

    Conventional fabrication techniques and structures employed in the design of silk fibroin (SF) based porous materials provide only limited control over pore size and require several processing stages. In this study, it is shown that, by utilizing electrohydrodynamic bubbling, not only can new hollow spherical structures of SF be formed in a single step by means of bubbles, but the resulting bubbles can serve as pore generators when dehydrated. The bubble characteristics can be controlled through simple adjustments to the processing parameters. Bubbles with diameters in the range of 240-1000 μm were fabricated in controlled fashion. FT-IR characterization confirmed that the rate of air infused during processing enhanced β-sheet packing in SF at higher flow rates. Dynamic mechanical analysis also demonstrated a correlation between air flow rate and film tensile strength. Results indicate that electrohydrodynamically generated SF and their composite bubbles can be employed as new tools to generate porous structures in a controlled manner with a range of potential applications in biocoatings and tissue engineering scaffolds.

  7. L1{sub 0}-FePt films fabricated by wet-chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Xiaoliang; Xiao, Wen; Bao, Nina; Li, Weimin; Chichvarina, Olga, E-mail: A0077107@nus.edu.sg; Ding, Jun, E-mail: msedingj@nus.edu.sg

    2015-08-31

    In this work, we have developed a method to fabricate FePt films by a combination of chemical deposition and post-annealing. Pt-doped Fe films were deposited on Pt(100 nm)/Ti(50 nm)/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate using thermal deposition and the as-deposited films were subsequently annealed from 300 °C to 800 °C under 5% H{sub 2}/95% N{sub 2}. FePt films were achieved through diffusion and rearrangement of Fe and Pt atoms in post-annealing process. From X-ray diffraction results, the face-centered cubic (fcc) FePt phase appeared at 300 °C and the transformation from fcc to L1{sub 0} phase started at 400 °C. The L1{sub 0}-FePt film possessed an out-of-plane anisotropy and a coercivity of 729 kA/m after annealing at 600 °C. A further increase in annealing temperature led to lower value of coercivity, probably because of grain growth. In addition, the thickness of Pt-doped Fe films could be controlled from 150 nm to 700 nm by adjusting the amount of surfactant used. Our superconducting quantum interference device analysis showed that Pt dopant could significantly improve the chemical stability of Fe films in air. - Highlights: • We fabricated FePt film by a combination of chemical deposition and post-annealing. • L1{sub 0} FePt film was formed by Fe/Pt diffusion in annealing of Pt-doped Fe film. • L1{sub 0}-phase FePt with high coercivity and small out-of-plane anisotropy • Relatively small amount of Pt dopant can enhance chemical stability greatly. • We studied structure and magnetic property of as-deposited and annealed FePt film.

  8. DLTS Analysis and Interface Engineering of Solution Route Fabricated Zirconia Based MIS Devices Using Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we have fabricated low-temperature sol-gel spin-coated and oxygen (O2) plasma treated ZrO2 thin film-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices. To understand the impact of plasma treatment on the Si/ZrO2 interface, deep level transient spectroscopy measurements were performed. It is reported that the interface state density ( D it) comes down to 7.1 × 1010 eV-1 cm-2 from 4 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2, after plasma treatment. The reduction in D it is around five times and can be attributed to the passivation of oxygen vacancies near the Si/ZrO2 interface, as they try to relocate near the interface. The energy level position ( E T) of interfacial traps is estimated to be 0.36 eV below the conduction band edge. The untreated ZrO2 film displayed poor leakage behavior due to the presence of several traps within the film and at the interface; O2 plasma treated films show improved leakage current density as they have been reduced from 5.4 × 10-8 A/cm2 to 1.98 × 10-9 A/cm2 for gate injection mode and 6.4 × 10-8 A/cm2 to 6.3 × 10-10 A/cm2 for substrate injection mode at 1 V. Hence, we suggest that plasma treatment might be useful in future device fabrication technology.

  9. Sustainable bio kerosene: Process routes and industrial demonstration activities in aviation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonti, David; Prussi, Matteo; Buffi, Marco; Tacconi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Routes to aviation biofuels are examined, focusing on drop-in biofuels, capable of high blend levels with fossil kerosene. • Industrial demonstration activities are reported. • Used cooking oil is considered as alternative sustainable biomass feedstock for paraffinic fuel production. - Abstract: Alternative fuels are expected to play a major role in EU in the coming years due European Directives on the promotion of renewable energies and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in transports. However, while in road transports a variety of possible renewable fuels (mainly biofuels, but also electricity) can be considered, in aviation only high quality paraffinic biofuels can be adopted. This means that biomass must be converted through advanced processes into pure hydrocarbon fuels, fully compatible with the existing systems. The aviation sector is responsible for the 2% of the world anthropogenic CO 2 emissions and the 10% of the fuel consumption: airlines’ costs for fuel reach 30% of operating costs. In addition, the aviation traffic is expected to double within 15 years from 2012, while fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions should double in 25 years. Thus, more than 2 billion people and 40 Mt of good/cargo will have to be moved every year. In this context, the EU Flightpath set a target of 2 Mt per year for aviation alternative fuel by 2020 (i.e. 4% of annual fuel consumption). New processes towards bio-hydrocarbons are being developed, demonstrated and soon industrialized. The present work explores the possible routes from biomass feedstock to sustainable paraffinic fuels, either through bio or thermo-chemical processes, as well as discusses those more mature, focusing on industrial demonstration initiatives. In fact, while the number of possible options towards paraffinic biofuel production is very large, and covers both thermochemical and biochemical routes, as well as hybrid one, only two pathways are today ready for testing a significant

  10. Manufacturing processes in the textile industry. Expert Systems for fabrics production

    OpenAIRE

    Bullon, Juan; González Arrieta, Angélica; Hernández Encinas, Ascensión; Queiruga Dios, Araceli

    2017-01-01

    The textile industry is characterized by the economic activity whose objective is the production of fibres, yarns, fabrics, clothing and textile goods for home and decoration,as well as technical and industrial purposes. Within manufacturing, the Textile is one of the oldest and most complex sectors which includes a large number of sub-sectors covering the entire production cycle, from raw materials and intermediate products, to the production of final products. Textile industry activities pr...

  11. Soft plasma processing of organic nanowires: a route for the fabrication of 1D organic heterostructures and the template synthesis of inorganic 1D nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaire, Maria; Sanchez-Valencia, Juan R; Aparicio, Francisco J; Saghi, Zineb; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Juan C; Barranco, Angel; Zian, Youssef Oulad; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R; Midgley, Paul; Espinos, Juan P; Groening, Pierangelo; Borras, Ana

    2011-11-01

    Hierarchical (branched) and hybrid metal-NPs/organic supported NWs are fabricated through controlled plasma processing of metalloporphyrin, metallophthalocyanine and perylene nanowires. The procedure is also applied for the development of a general template route for the synthesis of supported metal and metal oxide nanowires.

  12. The fabrication and hydrophobic property of micro-nano patterned surface on magnesium alloy using combined sparking sculpture and etching route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yunfeng [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Yaming, E-mail: wangyaming@hit.edu.cn [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Hao [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Yan [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Guo, Lixin; Jia, Dechang; Ouyang, Jiahu; Zhou, Yu [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A hydrophobic micro-nano roughness surface on magnesium was fabricated. • Micro-nano structure derives from duplicating ‘over growth’ regions by MAO. • 7–9 μm micro-scale big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores were fabricated. • Hydrophobicity of micro-nano surface was improved by chemical decoration and stearic treatment. - Abstract: Magnesium alloy with micro-nano structure roughness surface, can serve as the loading reservoirs of medicine capsule and industrial lubricating oil, or mimic ‘lotus leaf’ hydrophobic surface, having the potential applications in medical implants, automobile, aerospace and electronic products, etc. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to design a micro-nano structure roughness surface on magnesium alloy using combined microarc sparking sculpture and etching in CrO{sub 3} aqueous solution. A hydrophobic surface (as an applied example) was further fabricated by chemical decorating on the obtained patterned magnesium alloy surface to enhance the corrosion resistance. The results show that the combined micro-nano structure of 7–9 μm diameter big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores was duplicated after etched the sparking sculptured ‘over growth’ oxide regions towards the magnesium substrate. The micro-nano structure surface was chemically decorated using AgNO{sub 3} and stearic acid, which enables the contact angle increased from 60° to 146.8°. The increasing contact angle is mainly attributed to the micro-nano structure and the chemical composition. The hydrophobic surface of magnesium alloy improved the corrosion potential from −1.521 V of the bare magnesium to −1.274 V. Generally, the sparking sculpture and then etching route demonstrates a low-cost, high-efficacy method to fabricate a micro-nano structure hydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy. Furthermore, our research on the creating of micro-nano structure roughness surface and the hydrophobic treatment can be easily

  13. The fabrication and hydrophobic property of micro-nano patterned surface on magnesium alloy using combined sparking sculpture and etching route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yunfeng; Wang, Yaming; Liu, Hao; Liu, Yan; Guo, Lixin; Jia, Dechang; Ouyang, Jiahu; Zhou, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hydrophobic micro-nano roughness surface on magnesium was fabricated. • Micro-nano structure derives from duplicating ‘over growth’ regions by MAO. • 7–9 μm micro-scale big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores were fabricated. • Hydrophobicity of micro-nano surface was improved by chemical decoration and stearic treatment. - Abstract: Magnesium alloy with micro-nano structure roughness surface, can serve as the loading reservoirs of medicine capsule and industrial lubricating oil, or mimic ‘lotus leaf’ hydrophobic surface, having the potential applications in medical implants, automobile, aerospace and electronic products, etc. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to design a micro-nano structure roughness surface on magnesium alloy using combined microarc sparking sculpture and etching in CrO_3 aqueous solution. A hydrophobic surface (as an applied example) was further fabricated by chemical decorating on the obtained patterned magnesium alloy surface to enhance the corrosion resistance. The results show that the combined micro-nano structure of 7–9 μm diameter big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores was duplicated after etched the sparking sculptured ‘over growth’ oxide regions towards the magnesium substrate. The micro-nano structure surface was chemically decorated using AgNO_3 and stearic acid, which enables the contact angle increased from 60° to 146.8°. The increasing contact angle is mainly attributed to the micro-nano structure and the chemical composition. The hydrophobic surface of magnesium alloy improved the corrosion potential from −1.521 V of the bare magnesium to −1.274 V. Generally, the sparking sculpture and then etching route demonstrates a low-cost, high-efficacy method to fabricate a micro-nano structure hydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy. Furthermore, our research on the creating of micro-nano structure roughness surface and the hydrophobic treatment can be easily extended to the

  14. The fabrication and hydrophobic property of micro-nano patterned surface on magnesium alloy using combined sparking sculpture and etching route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunfeng; Wang, Yaming; Liu, Hao; Liu, Yan; Guo, Lixin; Jia, Dechang; Ouyang, Jiahu; Zhou, Yu

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium alloy with micro-nano structure roughness surface, can serve as the loading reservoirs of medicine capsule and industrial lubricating oil, or mimic 'lotus leaf' hydrophobic surface, having the potential applications in medical implants, automobile, aerospace and electronic products, etc. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to design a micro-nano structure roughness surface on magnesium alloy using combined microarc sparking sculpture and etching in CrO3 aqueous solution. A hydrophobic surface (as an applied example) was further fabricated by chemical decorating on the obtained patterned magnesium alloy surface to enhance the corrosion resistance. The results show that the combined micro-nano structure of 7-9 μm diameter big pores insetting with nano-scale fine pores was duplicated after etched the sparking sculptured 'over growth' oxide regions towards the magnesium substrate. The micro-nano structure surface was chemically decorated using AgNO3 and stearic acid, which enables the contact angle increased from 60° to 146.8°. The increasing contact angle is mainly attributed to the micro-nano structure and the chemical composition. The hydrophobic surface of magnesium alloy improved the corrosion potential from -1.521 V of the bare magnesium to -1.274 V. Generally, the sparking sculpture and then etching route demonstrates a low-cost, high-efficacy method to fabricate a micro-nano structure hydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy. Furthermore, our research on the creating of micro-nano structure roughness surface and the hydrophobic treatment can be easily extended to the other metal materials.

  15. Nanocrystalline La1-xSrxCo1-yFe yO3 perovskites fabricated by the micro-emulsion route for high frequency response devices fabrications

    KAUST Repository

    Azhar Khan, Muhammad; Khan, Kamran; Mahmood, Azhar; Murtaza, Gulam; Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Ali, Irshad M.; Shahid, Muhammad; Shakir, Imran; Farooq Warsi, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline La1-xSrxCo1-yFe yO3 (x=0.00-0.60) perovskites were fabricated by a cheap economic route (i.e. micro-emulsion method) and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR

  16. Structure, conduct, and sustainability of the international low-enriched fuel fabrication industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the cost structures of fabricating Low-Enriched Uranium fuel (LEU, enriched to 5% enrichment) light water reactor fuels. The LEU industry is decades old, and (except for high entry cost, i.e., the cost of designing and licensing a fuel fabrication facility and its fuel), labor and additional fabrication lines can be added by industry incumbents at Nth-of-a-Kind cost to the maximum capacity allowed by the license. On the other hand, new entrants face higher First-of-a-Kind costs and high new-facility licensing costs, increasing the scale required for entry thus discouraging small scale entry by countries with only a few nuclear power plants. Therefore, the industry appears to be competitive with sustainable investment in fuel-cycle states, and structural barriers-to-entry increase its proliferation resistance. (author)

  17. Microcontact printing of monodiamond nanoparticles: an effective route to patterned diamond structure fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hao; Song, Bo; Staedler, Thorsten; Jiang, Xin

    2011-10-04

    By combining microcontact printing with a nanodiamond seeding technique, a precise micrometer-sized chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond pattern have been obtained. On the basis of the guidance of basic theoretical calculations, monodisperse detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) were chosen as an "ink" material and oxidized poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was selected to serve as a stamp because it features a higher interaction energy with the DNDs compared to that of the original PDMS. The adsorption kinetics shows an approximately exponential law with a maximum surface DND density of 3.4 × 10(10) cm(-2) after 20 min. To achieve a high transfer ratio of DNDs from the PDMS stamp to a silicon surface, a thin layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was spin coated onto the substrates. A microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the CVD diamond on the seeded substrate areas. Precise diamond patterns with a low expansion ratio (3.6%) were successfully prepared after 1.5 h of deposition. Further increases in the deposition time typically lead to a high expansion rate (∼0.8 μm/h). The general pattern shape, however, did not show any significant change. Compared with conventional diamond pattern deposition methods, the technique described here offers the advantages of being simple, inexpensive, damage-free, and highly compatible, rendering it attractive for a broad variety of industrial applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Evaluation of potential hazards presented by the nearby industrial environment and transportation routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to define methods for determining risks created by potential hazards represented by the industrial environment and transportation routes in the vicinity of a PWR, in order to verify design criteria acceptability with regard to such hazards

  19. Assessment of air quality in and around a steel industry with direct reduction iron route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Pradip K; Behera, Dillip K; Mishra, C S K; Mohanty, Saswat K

    2011-10-01

    The coal based Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) route for secondary steel production is now a preferred choice in India. Steel making is invariably associated with emission of air pollutants into the environment. Air quality monitoring was carried out in Winter, Summer and Rainy seasons of 2008 in eight monitoring stations in the work zone and five stations in the residential zone of an Integrated Steel Industry located in Orissa state, India. Four air quality parameters i.e. SPM, RSPM, SO2 and NO2 were monitored. Mean SPM and RSPM values were found to be significantly high (p < 0.01) at stations nearer to source in both work zone and residential zone .The highest average SPM and RSPM values in the work zone recorded were 4869 microg/m3 and 1420 microg/m3 and in the residential zone 294 microg/m3 and 198 microg/m3 respectively. No significant difference in the SO2 and NO2 levels was observed between the work and residential zones. In general, the values of air pollutants were highest in Winter followed by Summer and Rainy season. SPM and RSPM values exceeded the National Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in both the residential and work zones.

  20. A Facile and Eco-friendly Route to Fabricate Poly(Lactic Acid) Scaffolds with Graded Pore Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffaro, Roberto; Lopresti, Francesco; Botta, Luigi; Maio, Andrea; Sutera, Fiorenza; Mistretta, Maria Chiara; La Mantia, Francesco Paolo

    2016-10-17

    Over the recent years, functionally graded scaffolds (FGS) gaineda crucial role for manufacturing of devices for tissue engineering. The importance of this new field of biomaterials research is due to the necessity to develop implants capable of mimicking the complex functionality of the various tissues, including a continuous change from one structure or composition to another. In this latter context, one topic of main interest concerns the design of appropriate scaffolds for bone-cartilage interface tissue. In this study, three-layered scaffolds with graded pore size were achieved by melt mixing poly(lactic acid) (PLA), sodium chloride (NaCl) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Pore size distributions were controlled by NaCl granulometry and PEG solvation. Scaffolds were characterized from a morphological and mechanical point of view. A correlation between the preparation method, the pore architecture and compressive mechanical behavior was found. The interface adhesion strength was quantitatively evaluated by using a custom-designed interfacial strength test. Furthermore, in order to imitate the human physiology, mechanical tests were also performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution at 37 °C. The method herein presented provides a high control of porosity, pore size distribution and mechanical performance, thus offering the possibility to fabricate three-layered scaffolds with tailored properties by following a simple and eco-friendly route.

  1. Route planning of raw materials transportation in the industrial hub of Mariupol city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Вікторівна Булгакова

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The multi-modal freight transportation routes planning problem is viewed in this paper. The case study of iron ore deliveries to the metallurgical enterprises of Mariupol from Kryvyi Rih is presented. Based on the analysis of Ukrainian railroads and sea ports infrastructures six possible routes of multi-modal iron ore transportation are built. The paper presents a short review of route planning problem in multi-modal freight transportations, which are use sea and land parts together, regarding decision support methods of routes evaluation and selection. The lack of studies dedicated to fuzzy logic theory application for solving the stated problems is identified. The relevance of fuzzy set application to the route planning problem is proved. Taking into account the peculiarities of iron ore transportations technology, the following criterions of routes evaluation are chosen: «transportation costs», «delivery times», «transportation risks». The model of multicriterion decision-making of routes evaluation and the optimal route selection, based on fuzzy logic theory, is developed. Criteria of routes evaluation are set by three terms Gaussian and sigmoidal membership functions. The approach to each function construction is practice-based and executed together with iron ore supply chain manager. The model is created in MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Tool Box environment using Mamdani’s fuzzy inference

  2. The development of nonwoven fabric and agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber for industrial usages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Seung Sik

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project is the development of nonwoven fabric using natural kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for industrial usages and the development of manufacturing techniques for nursery bed soil using kapok fiber. Research scopes include the development of agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber and nonwoven fabric using kapok fiber. Main results are as follow; the physico-chemical characterization of kapok fiber (water holding capacity, bulk density, water retention curve, viscoelastic measurement, oil adsorption capacity, analysis of essential elements, measurement of anion and cation); the physico-chemical characterization of kapok bed soil; the evidence experiment of kapok bed soil; the optimum content of kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for nonwoven fabric; establishment of the optimum radiation dose for manufacturing kapok nonwoven fabric

  3. Magnetic properties of pure and Fe doped HoCrO{sub 3} thin films fabricated via a solution route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Shiqi; Sauyet, Theodore [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Guild, Curt [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Suib, S.L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Jain, Menka, E-mail: menka.jain@uconn.edu [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Multiferroic properties of orthorhombically distorted perovskite rare-earth chromites, such as HoCrO{sub 3}, are being investigated extensively in recent years. In the present work, we report on the effect of Fe substitution on the magnetic properties of HoCrO{sub 3} thin films. Thin films of HoCrO{sub 3} and HoCr{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.3}O{sub 3} were fabricated via a solution route on platinized silicon substrates. Structural properties of the films were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The surface morphology and cross-sections of the films were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Optical band gaps of pure and Fe doped HoCrO{sub 3} films are found to be 3.45 eV and 3.39 eV, respectively. The magnetization measurements show that the Néel temperatures (where Cr{sup 3+} orders) for the HoCrO{sub 3} and HoCr{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.3}O{sub 3} films are 134 and 148 K, respectively. In a magnetic field of 2 T, the maximum entropy change and relative cooling power, two parameters to evaluate the magnetocaloric properties of a material, were 0.813 J/kg K at 11 K and 21.1 J/kg for HoCrO{sub 3} film, in comparison with 0.748 J/kg K at 15 K and 26.8 J/kg for HoCr{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.3}O{sub 3} film. To our knowledge, this is the first work exploring the band gap and magnetocaloric properties of rare-earth chromite thin films. These findings should inspire the development of rare-earth chromite thin films for temperature control of nanoscale electronic devices and sensors in the low temperature region (< 30 K). - Highlights: • Phase-pure HoCrO{sub 3} and HoCr{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.3}O{sub 3}films were fabricated on platinized Sivia a solution route. • This is the first work on the exploration of band gap and magnetocaloric properties of rare-earth chromitefilms. • From 0-2 T, maximum entropy change for the HoCrO{sub 3} film was 0.813 J/kg K at 11 K.From 0-2 T, maximum entropy change for HoCr{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.3}O{sub 3} film was 0.748 J/kg K at 15

  4. Industrial scale salt-free reactive dyeing of cationized cotton fabric with different reactive dye chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallathambi, Arivithamani; Venkateshwarapuram Rengaswami, Giri Dev

    2017-10-15

    Dyeing of knitted cotton goods in the industry has been mostly with reactive dyes. Handling of salt laden coloured effluent arising out of dyeing process is one of the prime concerns of the industry. Cationization of cotton is one of the effective alternative to overcome the above problem. But for cationization to be successful at industrial scale it has to be carried out by exhaust process and should be adoptable for the various dye chemistries currently practiced in the industry. Hence, in the present work, industrial level exhaust method of cationization process was carried out with concentration of 40g/L and 80g/L. The fabrics were dyed with dyes of three different dye chemistry and assessed for its dyeing performance without the addition of salt. Dye shades ranging from medium to extra dark shades were produced without the addition of salt. This study will provide industries the recipe that can be adopted for cationized cotton fabric for the widely used reactive dyes at industrial level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Industrial Washing and Cyclic Fatigue on Slippage of Linen Fabric Threads along the Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina KORUNČAK

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All seams of garments shall withstand the established force effect in the longitudinal and transverse directions. Resistance to thread slippage along the seam is a major property of fabrics that is regulated by strict guidelines. In many research works, lining fabrics are chosen as the object of research as thread slippage is the most typical of them. What concerns the reports exploring slippage of linen fabric threads along the seam, just very few papers are available. Studies dealing with the influence made by industrial washing and cyclic load on the defect under investigation, thereby taking into account operational properties of garments are not readily available at all. The objective of the paper is to define the influence of industrial washing and cyclic tensile on slippage of linen fabric threads along the seam. For the research, five 100 % linen fabrics of plain weave have been selected. Control test specimens, unwashed and processed with different washing methods, have been analysed. Cyclic tensile of the test specimens has been carried out by a tensile machine “Tinius Olsen” at tensile force P = 20 N, tensile speed of 12.55 mm/s, number of cycles of 100. The carried-out testing has demonstrated that industrial washing decreased resistance of linen fabrics to thread slippage along the seam in the most cases. Analysis of the results obtained has shown that cyclic tensile led to particularly significant increase in the seam gap. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.2486

  6. Basic tendencies of restructured UO2 nuclear fuels fabrication industry for water-moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhova, V.A.; Bokshitskij, V.I.; Blinova, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    Processes of reformation and consolidation of firms and frontier nuclear fuels fabrication industry associated with processes of globalization and deregulation of electric power market are analyzed. Current state of nuclear fuel market and basic factors influenced on the market are presented. The role of nuclear fuel in increasing competition of NPP and fundamental directions of innovation action on the creation of perspective kinds of fuel were considered [ru

  7. Plasmonic nanoholes as SERS devices for biosensing applications: An easy route for nanostructures fabrication on glass substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Candeloro, Patrizio; Iuele, Ernesto; Perozziello, Gerardo; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Gentile, Francesco; Malara, Natalia; Mollace, Vincenzo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2016-01-01

    , such as reproducibility, quantitative analysis and signal background interference. In this work we propose an easy and cheap route, based on a template stripping technique, for producing plasmonic nanostructured films with SERS capabilities. We focus our attention

  8. The MELOX MOX fabrication facility: history of an industrial success and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, M.; Jacquet, R.; Krellmann, J.

    2005-01-01

    Along with the La Hague reprocessing plant, MELOX is part of the two industrial facilities that ensure the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle in France. Since started up in 1995, MELOX has specialized into recycling separated plutonium recovered from reprocessing operations performed at La Hague on spent UO 2 fuel. Capitalizing on the unique know-how acquired through thirty years of plutonium-based fuel fabrication at the Cadarache plant, this subsidiary of AREVA group has quickly become a worldwide expert in the industrial process of fabricating MOX: a fuel blend comprised of both uranium and plutonium oxides that allows at safely exploiting the energetic potential of plutonium. In order to address the various factors responsible for this industrial breakthrough, we will first present an overview of MELOX's history in regards of the emergence of a global MOX market. The added-value provided through treatment and recycling operations on spent fuel will be further described in terms of waste volume and radiotoxicity reduction. The emphasis will then be put on the total quality management policy that is at the core of MELOX's corporate strategy. Because MELOX has succeeded in meeting both productivity requirements and stringent quality constraints, it has won confidence from its European and Japanese clients. With increased production capacity of diversified MOX designs, MELOX is demonstrating the industrial efficiency of a new concept of MOX plants that is inspiring large construction projects in Japan, the US, and Russia. (authors)

  9. Manufacturing processes in the textile industry. Expert Systems for fabrics production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan BULLON

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is characterized by the economic activity whose objective is the production of fibres, yarns, fabrics, clothing and textile goods for home and decoration,as well as technical and industrial purposes. Within manufacturing, the Textile is one of the oldest and most complex sectors which includes a large number of sub-sectors covering the entire production cycle, from raw materials and intermediate products, to the production of final products. Textile industry activities present different subdivisions, each with its own traits. The length of the textile process and the variety of its technical processes lead to the coexistence of different sub-sectors in regards to their business structure and integration. The textile industry is developing expert systems applications to increase production, improve quality and reduce costs. The analysis of textile designs or structures includes the use of mathematical models to simulate the behavior of the textile structures (yarns, fabrics and knitting. The Finite Element Method (FEM has largely facilitated the prediction of the behavior of that textile structure under mechanical loads. For classification problems Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs haveproved to be a very effective tool as a quick and accurate solution. The Case-Based Reasoning (CBR method proposed in this study complements the results of the finite element simulation, mathematical modeling and neural networks methods.

  10. The Northern Sea Routes and Korea's Trade with Europe: Implications for Korea's Shipping Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Seok Ha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melting Arctic waters have brought about global opportunities and challenges. One distinctive opportunity presented by the increasingly ice-free Arctic Ocean is its availability for shipping cargos between Europe and Asia. In adopting highly simplified assumptions of the Northern Sea Route (NSR being navigable and economical enough for shipping and NSR completely substituting for the incumbent Suez Canal route, this paper analyzes the maximum number of voyages possible for the transshipment of container cargo throughput for Korea's trade with Europe, particularly with Europe-17 and Europe-7. Our analysis shows the number of voyages range from over 2,900 to as little as 237 for Europe-17, depending on vessel sizes, when NSR is available for the whole year. With NSR opening for three months, the corresponding figures vary between 727 and 60 for Europe-17, and the figures for Europe-7 are between 2,725 and 222 and 682 and 56 voyages, respectively.

  11. The industrial production of fuel elements; La fabrication en france des elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussard, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Nadal, J [Societe Industrielle de Combustible Nucleaire (SICN), 75 - Paris (France); Pellen, A [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques (CERCA), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    -pool type reactors. The authors show how the problem of the industrial production of rolled fuel elements has been solved in France, and give the three steps involved: 1 - Assembly of the plates made in the U.S.A., 2 - Rolling of the cores made in the U.S.A. to obtain the plates, 3 - Fabrication of the U-Al alloy and production of the cores. They then recall briefly the characteristics of the different fuel elements now in production. A description is given of the various stages of the production including information about the equipment; stress is laid on the extent of the controls carried out at each stage. In conclusion the authors consider the future development of this type of production taking into account the improvements planned and those which are possible. (authors) [French] Les auteurs traitent successivement de la fabrication industrielle des elements combustibles pour reacteurs de puissance de la filiere U naturel graphite-gaz et plus particulierement pour les centrales energetiques d'E.D.F. et de celle des elements combustibles a base d'U enrichi destines aux reacteurs experimentaux du type 'piscine'. 1ere Partie - LES ELEMENTS COMBUSTIBLES AVANCES POUR LES REACTEURS E.D.F.: Apres un bref rappel des caracteristiques des elements combustibles actuellement fabriques industriellement pour les reacteurs de MARCOULE et de CHINON, les auteurs indiquent les differentes etapes suivies pour aboutir au stade de la fabrication industrielle d'un element combustible nouveau, tant en ce qui concerne la gaine et eventuellement la chemise de graphite que le combustible lui-meme. Pour ce qui est de l'elaboration du combustible, ils decrivent les differentes operations en insistant sur les points originaux de la fabrication et de l'appareillage tels que: - coulees en moules chauds, - traitement thermique des alliages U.Mo 1 p. 100, - soudure des pastilles de fermeture des tubes, - gainage - controle aux differents stades. En ce qui concerne la fabrication des gaines, ils

  12. Delay-Aware Energy-Efficient Routing towards a Path-Fixed Mobile Sink in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaobo; Chou, Wusheng; Niu, Jianwei; Guizani, Mohsen

    2018-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) involve more mobile elements with their widespread development in industries. Exploiting mobility present in WSNs for data collection can effectively improve the network performance. However, when the sink (i.e., data collector) path is fixed and the movement is uncontrollable, existing schemes fail to guarantee delay requirements while achieving high energy efficiency. This paper proposes a delay-aware energy-efficient routing algorithm for WSNs with a path-fixed mobile sink, named DERM, which can strike a desirable balance between the delivery latency and energy conservation. We characterize the object of DERM as realizing the energy-optimal anycast to time-varying destination regions, and introduce a location-based forwarding technique tailored for this problem. To reduce the control overhead, a lightweight sink location calibration method is devised, which cooperates with the rough estimation based on the mobility pattern to determine the sink location. We also design a fault-tolerant mechanism called track routing to tackle location errors for ensuring reliable and on-time data delivery. We comprehensively evaluate DERM by comparing it with two canonical routing schemes and a baseline solution presented in this work. Extensive evaluation results demonstrate that DERM can provide considerable energy savings while meeting the delay constraint and maintaining a high delivery ratio. PMID:29562628

  13. Delay-Aware Energy-Efficient Routing towards a Path-Fixed Mobile Sink in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaobo; Chou, Wusheng; Niu, Jianwei; Guizani, Mohsen

    2018-03-18

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) involve more mobile elements with their widespread development in industries. Exploiting mobility present in WSNs for data collection can effectively improve the network performance. However, when the sink (i.e., data collector) path is fixed and the movement is uncontrollable, existing schemes fail to guarantee delay requirements while achieving high energy efficiency. This paper proposes a delay-aware energy-efficient routing algorithm for WSNs with a path-fixed mobile sink, named DERM, which can strike a desirable balance between the delivery latency and energy conservation. We characterize the object of DERM as realizing the energy-optimal anycast to time-varying destination regions, and introduce a location-based forwarding technique tailored for this problem. To reduce the control overhead, a lightweight sink location calibration method is devised, which cooperates with the rough estimation based on the mobility pattern to determine the sink location. We also design a fault-tolerant mechanism called track routing to tackle location errors for ensuring reliable and on-time data delivery. We comprehensively evaluate DERM by comparing it with two canonical routing schemes and a baseline solution presented in this work. Extensive evaluation results demonstrate that DERM can provide considerable energy savings while meeting the delay constraint and maintaining a high delivery ratio.

  14. Delay-Aware Energy-Efficient Routing towards a Path-Fixed Mobile Sink in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs involve more mobile elements with their widespread development in industries. Exploiting mobility present in WSNs for data collection can effectively improve the network performance. However, when the sink (i.e., data collector path is fixed and the movement is uncontrollable, existing schemes fail to guarantee delay requirements while achieving high energy efficiency. This paper proposes a delay-aware energy-efficient routing algorithm for WSNs with a path-fixed mobile sink, named DERM, which can strike a desirable balance between the delivery latency and energy conservation. We characterize the object of DERM as realizing the energy-optimal anycast to time-varying destination regions, and introduce a location-based forwarding technique tailored for this problem. To reduce the control overhead, a lightweight sink location calibration method is devised, which cooperates with the rough estimation based on the mobility pattern to determine the sink location. We also design a fault-tolerant mechanism called track routing to tackle location errors for ensuring reliable and on-time data delivery. We comprehensively evaluate DERM by comparing it with two canonical routing schemes and a baseline solution presented in this work. Extensive evaluation results demonstrate that DERM can provide considerable energy savings while meeting the delay constraint and maintaining a high delivery ratio.

  15. Best practices in energy management: Experience with IAC assessments in the metals fabrication industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.J.; Birkmire, L.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of the University City Science Center played a managerial role in founding and establishing the Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) program, now known as the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program. ITEM is responsible for the field management of 15 IACs in the western US. This DOE funded program utilizes teams of engineering faculty and students to conduct assessments of small to medium-size plants to identify cost savings by conserving energy, minimizing waste, and improving productivity. These assessments are provided at no direct cost to participating manufacturers, who are under no obligation to act on any recommendations. Centers managed by ITEM have conducted assessments in more than 700 plants in the metals fabrication industry (SIC 34). Recommendations made have the potential to reduce energy costs by about 10% on average. The average metals fabrication plant served achieved a 5.7% reduction in annual energy costs. These cost savings are accompanied by a reduction in energy usage of about 1.2 x 10 12 Btu/yr. Another benefit of the program is that it provides hands-on industrial experience and energy efficiency training for engineering students who will take these skills into industry. Since the program began more than 20 years ago, IACs have served less than 2% of the plants in this industry. To provide an effective means for plant managers to access and utilize the knowledge gained over the years ITEM has summarized recommendations that identify specific actions that plant management can take to save money

  16. Study of microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of Zr–2.5Nb alloy pressure tubes fabricated with different processing routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.; Vaibhaw, Kumar; Neogy, S.; Mani Krishna, K.V.; Jha, S.K.; Phani Babu, C.; Ramana Rao, S.V.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    Different fabrication trials involving the variation in three important stages of Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube were undertaken. The variations were with respect to the mode of breaking the cast structure of the ingot (forging vs extrusion), the hot extrusion ratio and the number of subsequent cold work stages to produce the finished tube. It was observed that the forging process resulted in superior performance in breaking the cast structure. Higher extrusion ratios resulted in more favorable texture and microstructure. More continuity of the beta phase was observed in the final microstructure for the route involving the single cold work step subsequent to hot extrusion

  17. A WEB-BASED FRAMEWORK FOR VISUALIZING INDUSTRIAL SPATIOTEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION USING STANDARD DEVIATIONAL ELLIPSE AND SHIFTING ROUTES OF GRAVITY CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysing spatiotemporal distribution patterns and its dynamics of different industries can help us learn the macro-level developing trends of those industries, and in turn provides references for industrial spatial planning. However, the analysis process is challenging task which requires an easy-to-understand information presentation mechanism and a powerful computational technology to support the visual analytics of big data on the fly. Due to this reason, this research proposes a web-based framework to enable such a visual analytics requirement. The framework uses standard deviational ellipse (SDE and shifting route of gravity centers to show the spatial distribution and yearly developing trends of different enterprise types according to their industry categories. The calculation of gravity centers and ellipses is paralleled using Apache Spark to accelerate the processing. In the experiments, we use the enterprise registration dataset in Mainland China from year 1960 to 2015 that contains fine-grain location information (i.e., coordinates of each individual enterprise to demonstrate the feasibility of this framework. The experiment result shows that the developed visual analytics method is helpful to understand the multi-level patterns and developing trends of different industries in China. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to analyse any nature and social spatiotemporal point process with large data volume, such as crime and disease.

  18. a Web-Based Framework for Visualizing Industrial Spatiotemporal Distribution Using Standard Deviational Ellipse and Shifting Routes of Gravity Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Gui, Z.; Wu, H.; Wei, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Analysing spatiotemporal distribution patterns and its dynamics of different industries can help us learn the macro-level developing trends of those industries, and in turn provides references for industrial spatial planning. However, the analysis process is challenging task which requires an easy-to-understand information presentation mechanism and a powerful computational technology to support the visual analytics of big data on the fly. Due to this reason, this research proposes a web-based framework to enable such a visual analytics requirement. The framework uses standard deviational ellipse (SDE) and shifting route of gravity centers to show the spatial distribution and yearly developing trends of different enterprise types according to their industry categories. The calculation of gravity centers and ellipses is paralleled using Apache Spark to accelerate the processing. In the experiments, we use the enterprise registration dataset in Mainland China from year 1960 to 2015 that contains fine-grain location information (i.e., coordinates of each individual enterprise) to demonstrate the feasibility of this framework. The experiment result shows that the developed visual analytics method is helpful to understand the multi-level patterns and developing trends of different industries in China. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to analyse any nature and social spatiotemporal point process with large data volume, such as crime and disease.

  19. One-step fabrication of biocompatible chitosan-coated ZnS and ZnS:Mn2+ quantum dots via a γ-radiation route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Quan; Kang, Bin; Dai, Yao-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Xu; Chen, Da

    2011-11-01

    Biocompatible chitosan-coated ZnS quantum dots [CS-ZnS QDs] and chitosan-coated ZnS:Mn2+ quantum dots [CS-ZnS:Mn2+ QDs] were successfully fabricated via a convenient one-step γ-radiation route. The as-obtained QDs were around 5 nm in diameter with excellent water-solubility. These QDs emitting strong visible blue or orange light under UV excitation were successfully used as labels for PANC-1 cells. The cell experiments revealed that CS-ZnS and CS-ZnS:Mn2+ QDs showed low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility, which offered possibilities for further biomedical applications. Moreover, this convenient synthesis strategy could be extended to fabricate other nanoparticles coated with chitosan. PACS: 81.07.Ta; 78.67.Hc; 82.35.Np; 87.85.Rs.

  20. Deciphering the route to cyclic monoterpenes in Chrysomelina leaf beetles: source of new biocatalysts for industrial application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burse, Antje; Boland, Wilhelm

    2017-09-26

    The drastic growth of the population on our planet requires the efficient and sustainable use of our natural resources. Enzymes are indispensable tools for a wide range of industries producing food, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, or biofuels. Because insects constitute one of the most species-rich classes of organisms colonizing almost every ecological niche on earth, they have developed extraordinary metabolic abilities to survive in various and sometimes extreme habitats. Despite this metabolic diversity, insect enzymes have only recently generated interest in industrial applications because only a few metabolic pathways have been sufficiently characterized. Here, we address the biosynthetic route to iridoids (cyclic monoterpenes), a group of secondary metabolites used by some members of the leaf beetle subtribe Chrysomelina as defensive compounds against their enemies. The ability to produce iridoids de novo has also convergently evolved in plants. From plant sources, numerous pharmacologically relevant structures have already been described. In addition, in plants, iridoids serve as building blocks for monoterpenoid indole alkaloids with broad therapeutic applications. As the commercial synthesis of iridoid-based drugs often relies on a semisynthetic approach involving biocatalysts, the discovery of enzymes from the insect iridoid route can account for a valuable resource and economic alternative to the previously used enzymes from the metabolism of plants. Hence, this review illustrates the recent discoveries made on the steps of the iridoid pathway in Chrysomelina leaf beetles. The findings are also placed in the context of the studied counterparts in plants and are further discussed regarding their use in technological approaches.

  1. Extended FMEA for Sustainable Manufacturing: An Empirical Study in the Non-Woven Fabrics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Lam Nguyen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Failure modes and effects analysis ( F M E A substantially facilitates the efforts of industrial manufacturers in prioritizing failures that require corrective actions to continuously improve product quality. However, the conventional approach fails to provide satisfactory explanation of the aggregate effects of a failure from different perspectives such as technical severity, economic severity, and production capacity in some practical applications. To fulfill the existing gap in the F M E A literature, this paper proposes an extension by considering associated quality cost and the capability of failure detection system as additional determinants to signify the priority level for each failure mode. The quality cost and capacity are considered as key factors for sustainable survival and development of an industrial manufacturer in the fierce competition market these days. The performance of the extended scheme was tested in an empirical case at a non-woven fabrics manufacturer. Analytical results indicate that the proposed approach outperforms the traditional one and remarkably reduces the percentage of defective fabrics from about 2.41% before the trial period to 1.13%,thus significantly reducing wastes and increasing operation efficiency, thereby providing valuable advantages to improve organizational competition power for their sustainable growth.

  2. From 1D to 3D: A new route to fabricate tridimensional structures via photo-generation of silver networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Zhanhua; Shen, Huaizhong; Wu, Yuxin; Fang, Liping; Ye, Shunsheng; Wang, Zhaoyi; Liu, Wendong; Cheng, Zhongkai; Zhang, Junhu; Yang, Bai

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and cost effective method has been developed to fabricate 3 dimensional (3D) ordered structures by photo-generating silver networks inside a 1D layered heterogeneous laminate composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). By designing the photo-mask meticulously,

  3. High-performance polymers from nature: catalytic routes and processes for industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Guido

    2014-08-01

    It is difficult to imagine life today without polymers. However, most chemicals are almost exclusively synthesized from petroleum. With diminishing oil reserves, establishing an industrial process to transform renewables into high-value chemicals may be more challenging than running a car without gasoline. This is due to the difficulty in setting up processes that are novel, profitable, and environmentally benign at the same time. Additionally, the quest for sustainability of renewable resources should be based on incorporating ethical considerations in the development of plans that utilize feedstocks intended for human nutrition and health. Thus, it is important to use bio-energy containing renewable resources in the most efficient way. This Concept goes beyond the synthesis of monomers and provides insights for establishing an industrial process that transforms renewable resources into high-value chemicals, and it describes careful investigations that are of paramount importance, including evaluations from an economical and an ecological perspective. The synthesis of monomers suitable for polymer production from renewable resources would ideally be accompanied by a reduction in CO2 emission and waste, through the complete molecular utilization of the feedstock. This Concept advocates the drop-in strategy, and is guided by the example of catalytically synthesized dimethyl 1,19-nonadecanedioate and its α,ω-functionalized derivatives. With respect to the Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry, this Concept describes a technological leap forward for a sustainable green chemical industry. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Fabrication of Self-Standing Silver Nanoplate Arrays by Seed-Decorated Electrochemical Route and Their Structure-Induced Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an electrochemical route to synthesize silver nanoplates on seed-decorated Indium tin oxide (ITO glass substrate. The nanoplates are several tens of to several hundred nanometers in dimension. The density of nanoplates covered on the substrate can be controlled well by adjusting the amounts of seed. All the nanoplates are standing on the substrate uniformly even at very high density. Silver nanoplate arrays displayed an extraordinary superhydrophobicity after chemical modification and can serve as highly active surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS substrates for microdetection. The arrays can also be used as electrodes for electrochemical capacitor with high power density.

  5. A New Route toward Systematic Control of Electronic Structures of Graphene and Fabrication of Graphene Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-31

    such processes. To advance a facile process technique for nanopatterned graphene (NPG), we have specifically utilized an anodic aluminum oxide ( AAO ...to this success was the thinness and uniformity of the AAO membrane that we fabricated. After the oxide template was placed on top of graphene, O 2...a) AAO template (top view), b) tilted view AAO membrane with  nm thickness. c) Histogram of the AAO pore size with average pore size of 77.2 nm

  6. Examination of the ion-implantation route to fabrication of the Kane quantum computer using advanced imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakes, C.; Millar, V.; Peng, J.; Cimmino, A.; Prawer, S.; Jamieson, D.; Yang, C.; McKinnon, R.; Stanley, F.; Clark, R.; University of New South Wales, NSW; Dzurak, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Kane solid-state quantum computer employs as qubits an array of 31 P atoms embedded with nanoscale precision in a silicon matrix. One proposal for the fabrication of such an array is by phosphorous-ion implantation. We present an overview of a program of research aiming to develop advanced imaging techniques to address key issues relating to the fabrication of the Kane device by ion implantation, focusing particularly on the development of surface-resist technology to allow the registration of single implanted ions and an examination of the extent of damage imposed on the silicon matrix. Our surface resists take the form of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin-films, which have been exposed both to MeV and keV ions. Registration of ion implantation is based on the development of localised chemical modification arising from latent damage caused within the PMMA layer by the passage of an implanted ion. On development of the resist, atomic force microscopy imaging demonstrates the formation of clearly defined etched holes, of typical diameter 30 nm, which are ascribed to single-ion impacts. The use of novel scanning probes, such as carbon nanotubes, for imaging complex PMMA resist structures will be illustrated. Potential applications to the fabrication of self-aligned gate structures will be discussed

  7. Dynamic Risk Identification Using Fuzzy Failure Mode Effect Analysis in Fabric Process Industries: A Research Article as Management Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sivakumar; S. S. Darun Prakash; P. Navaneethakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    In and around Erode District, it is estimated that more than 1250 chemical and allied textile processing fabric industries are affected, partially closed and shut off for various reasons such as poor management, poor supplier performance, lack of planning for productivity, fluctuation of output, poor investment, waste analysis, labor problems, capital/labor ratio, accumulation of stocks, poor maintenance of resources, deficiencies in the quality of fabric, low capacity ut...

  8. A new fabrication route for SFR fuel using (U, Pu)O{sub 2} powder obtained by oxalic co-conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaudez, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.vaudez@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DEC, SPUA, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Belin, Renaud C.; Aufore, Laurence; Sornay, Philippe [CEA, DEN, DEC, SPUA, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Grandjean, Stéphane [CEA, DEN, DRCP, DIR, Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France)

    2013-11-15

    The standard powder metallurgy preparation of SFR (Sodium Fast Reactor) oxide fuel involves UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} co-milling. An alternative route, using a solid-solution of mixed oxide obtained by oxalic co-conversion as the starting material, is presented. It was used to manufacture nuclear fuels for the “COPIX” irradiation conducted in the Phenix SFR. Two processes using co-converted powders were tested to elaborate fuel pellets: (1) the Direct Process that consists in pressing and sintering the mixed oxide with the final Pu content and (2) the Dilution Process, which involves the dilution of a high Pu content mixed oxide with UO{sub 2}. After studying the structural and microstructural evolution with temperature of these innovative raw materials, the elaboration parameters were adjusted to obtain final pellets in accordance with the Phenix fuel specifications. This study demonstrates the feasibility of such new fabrication route at laboratory scale and, from a more fundamental prospect, allows a better understanding of the underlying phenomena involved during sintering.

  9. Informal presentations by fuel fabricators and others [contributed by A. Nishiyama, Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper contains a brief summary of activities in the field of research reactor fuel fabrication in Nuclear Fuel Industries Sumitomo and Furukawa Industries. Since 1956 2 million dollars were spent for development of nuclear fuels and plant facilities including complete manufacturing and testing capabilities. Now this company is the only fuel supplier for the research reactors in Japan. The fabrication process starts with the melting, alloying, and casting of U-Al. The uranium billets are prepared by foreign fabricators. The uranium content varies from 13 to 22 wt % according to the purchaser's specifications. In making fuel plates, the picture frame method is applied. In this case, the original procedure is sufficiently effective in avoiding dogboning. The plates are finished by hot and cold roll milling and inspected dimensionally, metallurgically, and mechanically, and at the same time the blister test and X-ray radiographic tests are performed. Fuel elements are assembled by rolling flat or curved plates into side plate grooves and end-fit welding. Finished elements are tested dimensionally and hydraulically. Nominal losses during operation are less than 1% of the uranium metal. Our present capacity licensed by the Japanese Government is approximately 950 fuel elements a year. About 35 employees including engineers are engaged in development and manufacturing of fuels. Owing to the small limited demand of the research reactor fuels in Japan during the past 20 years (mostly in last 10 years), we processed only about 350 kg of highly enriched uranium and supplied approximately 1000 fuel elements to JAERI, Kyoto University, and others, and we have been suffering red-ink balance of budget every year. Some of trials in development are briefly discussed. In case of UO 2 -Al metal fuel plates, the vibratory compacting method was very popular among many researchers about 10 years ago. A lot of time and money was spent to study the economic fabrication process of

  10. Hydroxyapatite-armored poly(ε-caprolactone) microspheres and hydroxyapatite microcapsules fabricated via a Pickering emulsion route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Syuji; Okada, Masahiro; Nishimura, Taiki; Maeda, Hayata; Sugimoto, Tatsuya; Hamasaki, Hiroyuki; Furuzono, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Yoshinobu

    2012-05-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticle-armored poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) microspheres were fabricated via a "Pickering-type" emulsion solvent evaporation method in the absence of any molecular surfactants. It was clarified that the interaction between carbonyl/carboxylic acid groups of PCL and the HAp nanoparticles at an oil-water interface played a crucial role in the preparation of the stable Pickering-type emulsions and the HAp nanoparticle-armored microspheres. The HAp nanoparticle-armored PCL microspheres were characterized in terms of size, size distribution, morphology, and chemical compositions using scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The presence of HAp nanoparticles at the surface of the microspheres was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Pyrolysis of the PCL cores led to the formation of the corresponding HAp hollow microcapsules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Polycrystalline diamond on self-assembled detonation nanodiamond: a viable route for fabrication of all-diamond preformed microcomponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terranova, M L; Orlanducci, S; Tamburri, E; Guglielmotti, V; Toschi, F; Hampai, D; Rossi, M

    2008-01-01

    Surface assisted self-assembly of detonation nanodiamond particles (with typical sizes in the range 4-10 nm) has been obtained using different fractions of colloidal aqueous dispersions as starting material. The relationship between dispersion properties and structure/geometry of the aggregates deposited on Si or glass plates has been investigated. A series of differently shaped free-standing nanodiamond structures has been prepared, analysed and used as templates for the growth of polycrystalline diamond layers by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. The possibility of obtaining textured coating with a relatively strong preferred orientation (within a solid angle of about 0.6 srad) is also reported. Overall, the coupling of nanodiamond self-assembling to the CVD diamond growth enables one to produce specimens with complex 3D architectures. The proposed microfabrication methodology could represent a viable route for the production of free-standing all-diamond microcomponents, with tailored shapes and predefined crystalline features, to be used for advanced electronic applications

  12. Polycrystalline diamond on self-assembled detonation nanodiamond: a viable route for fabrication of all-diamond preformed microcomponents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, M L; Orlanducci, S; Tamburri, E; Guglielmotti, V; Toschi, F [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, MINASlab, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Hampai, D [INFN-LNF Via E Fermi 40, Frascati (Italy); Rossi, M [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Roma ' Sapienza' , Via Antonio Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    Surface assisted self-assembly of detonation nanodiamond particles (with typical sizes in the range 4-10 nm) has been obtained using different fractions of colloidal aqueous dispersions as starting material. The relationship between dispersion properties and structure/geometry of the aggregates deposited on Si or glass plates has been investigated. A series of differently shaped free-standing nanodiamond structures has been prepared, analysed and used as templates for the growth of polycrystalline diamond layers by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. The possibility of obtaining textured coating with a relatively strong <110> preferred orientation (within a solid angle of about 0.6 srad) is also reported. Overall, the coupling of nanodiamond self-assembling to the CVD diamond growth enables one to produce specimens with complex 3D architectures. The proposed microfabrication methodology could represent a viable route for the production of free-standing all-diamond microcomponents, with tailored shapes and predefined crystalline features, to be used for advanced electronic applications.

  13. Large-Scale Fabrication of Boron Nitride Nanotubes via a Facile Chemical Vapor Reaction Route and Their Cathodoluminescence Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Bo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cylinder- and bamboo-shaped boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs have been synthesized in large scale via a facile chemical vapor reaction route using ammonia borane as a precursor. The structure and chemical composition of the as-synthesized BNNTs are extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and selected-area electron diffraction. The cylinder-shaped BNNTs have an average diameter of about 100 nm and length of hundreds of microns, while the bamboo-shaped BNNTs are 100–500 nm in diameter with length up to tens of microns. The formation mechanism of the BNNTs has been explored on the basis of our experimental observations and a growth model has been proposed accordingly. Ultraviolet–visible and cathodoluminescence spectroscopic analyses are performed on the BNNTs. Strong ultraviolet emissions are detected on both morphologies of BNNTs. The band gap of the BNNTs are around 5.82 eV and nearly unaffected by tube morphology. There exist two intermediate bands in the band gap of BNNTs, which could be distinguishably assigned to structural defects and chemical impurities. Additional file 1 Click here for file

  14. Plasmonic nanoholes as SERS devices for biosensing applications: An easy route for nanostructures fabrication on glass substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Candeloro, Patrizio

    2016-12-26

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been largely exploited in the last decade for biochemical and biomedical research. But some issues still require attention before transferring SERS to bioclinical routinely practices, such as reproducibility, quantitative analysis and signal background interference. In this work we propose an easy and cheap route, based on a template stripping technique, for producing plasmonic nanostructured films with SERS capabilities. We focus our attention to nanoholes in a continuous gold film, conversely to the majority of the literature which is dealing with individual nanostructures. Plasmon resonances occur at the holes edges, thus enabling the possibility of SERS signals from biomolecules and the potential application as biosensors. One advantage of the nanoholes patterned film is the optical-subdiffraction pitch, which prevents any Raman and/or fluorescence signal arising from the bottom slide. This effect paves the way to standard glass slides, much cheaper than CaF2 ones, as suitable substrates for SERS devices, without any interfering signal coming from the glass itself.

  15. A benign route to fabricate nanoporous gold through electrochemical dealloying of Al-Au alloys in a neutral solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Qian; Wang Xiaoguang; Qi Zhen [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Wang Yan [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jiwei Road 106, Jinan 250022 (China); Zhang Zhonghua [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: zh_zhang@sdu.edu.cn

    2009-11-01

    Nanoporous gold (NPG) ribbons have been fabricated through electrochemical dealloying of melt-spun Al-Au alloys with 20-50 at.% Au in a 10 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution under potential control at room temperature. The microstructures of NPG were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The microstructures of the NPG ribbons strongly depend upon the phase constitutions of the starting Al-Au alloys. The single-phase Al{sub 2}Au or AlAu intermetallic compound can be fully dealloyed, resulting in the formation of NPG with a homogeneous porous structure. The separate dealloying of Al{sub 2}Au and AlAu in the two-phase Al-45 Au alloy leads to the formation of NPG composites (NPGCs). In addition, the dealloying of the Al-20 Au alloy comprising {alpha}-Al and Al{sub 2}Au leads to the formation of NPG with bimodal channel size distributions. According to the ligament size, the surface diffusivity of Au adatoms along the alloy/electrolyte interface has been evaluated and increases with increasing applied potential. The dealloying mechanism in the neutral NaCl solution has been explained based upon pourbaix diagram and chloride ion effect.

  16. Fabrication of Cu{sub 2}S nanoneedles by self-assembly of nanoparticles via simple wet chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumarakuru, Haridas, E-mail: haridas.kumarakuru@nmmu.ac.za; Coombes, Matthew J.; Neethling, Johannes H.; Westraadt, Johan E.

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • An inexpensive wet chemical method was used at room temperature to grow Cu{sub 2}S. • Growth of Cu{sub 2}S nanostructures influences by the Cl{sup −} ion concentration. • Thioglycerol and Cl{sup −} ions are used as a blend capping agents. • Cu{sub 2}S nanoneedles were formed via self-assembly of nanoparticles. • We can propose a growth model for Cu{sub 2}S nanoneedles based on our observations. -- Abstract: Cu{sub 2}S nanoneedles, fabricated by self-assembly of Cu{sub 2}S nanoparticles via wet chemical method are investigated. Crystallinity and surface morphologies of the as-grown needles are examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It is observed that the nanoparticle formation is controlled by the blend concentration of capping agents, thioglycerol, added during the synthesis and the Cl{sup −} ions delivered by the CuCl source. The likely reasons for the elongated structure of the nanoparticle self-assembly are also discussed.

  17. A universal route for the simultaneous extraction and functionalization of cellulose nanocrystals from industrial and agricultural celluloses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guo-Yin; Yu, Hou-Yong; Zhang, Cai-Hong; Zhou, Ying; Yao, Ju-Ming

    2016-01-01

    A simple route was designed to extract the cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with formate groups from industrial and agricultural celluloses like microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), viscose fiber, ginger fiber, and bamboo fiber. The effect of reaction time on the microstructure and properties of the CNCs was investigated in detail, while microstructure and properties of different CNCs were compared. The rod-like CNCs (MCC) with hundreds of nanometers in length and about 10 nm in width, nanofibrillated CNCs (ginger fiber bamboo fiber) with average width of 30 nm and the length of 1 μm, and spherical CNCs (viscose fiber) with the width of 56 nm were obtained by one-step HCOOH/HCl hydrolysis. The CNCs with improved thermal stability showed the maximum degradation temperature (T max ) of 368.9–388.2 °C due to the introduction of formate groups (reducibility) and the increased crystallinity. Such CNCs may be used as an effective template for the synthesis of nanohybrids or reinforcing material for high-performance nanocomposites

  18. A universal route for the simultaneous extraction and functionalization of cellulose nanocrystals from industrial and agricultural celluloses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guo-Yin; Yu, Hou-Yong, E-mail: phdyu@zstu.edu.cn; Zhang, Cai-Hong [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textiles (China); Zhou, Ying; Yao, Ju-Ming, E-mail: yaoj@zstu.edu.cn [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, National Engineering Lab for Textile Fiber Materials & Processing Technology (China)

    2016-02-15

    A simple route was designed to extract the cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with formate groups from industrial and agricultural celluloses like microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), viscose fiber, ginger fiber, and bamboo fiber. The effect of reaction time on the microstructure and properties of the CNCs was investigated in detail, while microstructure and properties of different CNCs were compared. The rod-like CNCs (MCC) with hundreds of nanometers in length and about 10 nm in width, nanofibrillated CNCs (ginger fiber bamboo fiber) with average width of 30 nm and the length of 1 μm, and spherical CNCs (viscose fiber) with the width of 56 nm were obtained by one-step HCOOH/HCl hydrolysis. The CNCs with improved thermal stability showed the maximum degradation temperature (T{sub max}) of 368.9–388.2 °C due to the introduction of formate groups (reducibility) and the increased crystallinity. Such CNCs may be used as an effective template for the synthesis of nanohybrids or reinforcing material for high-performance nanocomposites.

  19. Microstructure and textural characterization of hot extruded Zr-2.5Nb alloy PHWR pressure tube fabricated by various ingot processing route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaibhaw, Kumar; Jha, S.K.; Saibaba, N.; Neogy, S.; Mani Krishna, K.V.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.

    2011-01-01

    Zr-2.5 Nb alloys finds its applications as a pressure tube component in pressure tube type thermal reactors such as PHWRs and RBMK due to properties attributed such as low neutron absorption cross section, high temperature strength and corrosion resistance etc. Manufacturing of this life time components involves series of thermo-mechanical processes of hot working and cold working with intermediate annealing. The life time of Pressure tube are limited due to their diametral creep properties which is governed by metallurgical characteristics such as texture, microstructure dislocation density etc. The primary breakdown of cast structure in Vacuum Arc Melted ingot can be effected by either hot extrusion or forging in single or multiple stages before final hot extrusion step into the blank for manufacturing of seamless pressure tube. Elevated temperature deformation carried out in hot working above the recrystallization temperature would enable impositions of large strains in single step. This deformation causes a significant change in the microstructure of the material and depends on process parameters such as extrusion ratio, temperature and strain rate. Basic microstructure developed at this deformation stage has significant bearing on the final properties of the material fabricated with subsequent cold working steps. The major texture in α+β Zr-2.5 Nb alloy is established during final extrusion to blank which does not change significantly during subsequent cold pilgering. However, microstructure is modified significantly in subsequent cold working which can be effected by cold pilgering or cold drawing in single or multiple steps. Present paper brings out the various ingot processing routes using forging and or extrusion followed for fabrication of pressure tubes. The development of texture and microstructures has been discussed at the blank stage from these processing routes and also with respect to varying extrusion variable such as extrusion ratio

  20. Plutonium-containing aerosols found within containment enclosures in industrial mixed-oxide reactor fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Yeh, H.C.; Stanley, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Mixed oxide (PuO 2 and UO 2 ) nuclear reactor fuel pellets are fabricated within safety enclosures at Babcock and Wilcox's Park Township site near Apollo, PA. Forty-two sample runs of plutonium-containing aerosols were taken from within glove boxes during routine industrial operations. A small, seven-stage cascade impactor and the Lovelace Aerosol Particle Separator (LAPS) were used to determine aerodynamic size distribution and gross alpha aerosol concentration. Powder comminution and blending produced aerosols with lognormal size distributions characterized by activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMAD) of 1.89 +- 0.33 μm, sigma/sub g/ = 1.62 +- 0.09 and a gross alpha aerosol concentration range of 0.1 to 150 nCi/l. Slug pressing and grinding produced aerosols of AMAD = 3.08 +- 0.1 μm, sigma/sub g/ = 1.53 +- 0.01 and AMAD = 2.26 +- 0.16 μm, sigma/sub g/ = 1.68 +- 0.20, respectively. Gross alpha aerosol concentrations ranged from 3.4 to 450 nCi/l. Centerless grinding produced similar-sized aerosols but the gross alpha concentration ranged from 220 to 1690 nCi/l. In vitro solubility studies on selected LAPS samples in a lung fluid simulant indicate that plutonium mixed-oxide aerosols are more soluble than laboratory-produced plutonium aerosols

  1. Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Foam Fabricated from Die Castings without Using Blowing Agent by Friction Stir Processing Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangai, Yoshihiko; Kamada, Hiroto; Utsunomiya, Takao; Kitahara, Soichiro; Kuwazuru, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiro

    2014-03-21

    Al foam has been used in a wide range of applications owing to its light weight, high energy absorption and high sound insulation. One of the promising processes for fabricating Al foam involves the use of a foamable precursor. In this study, ADC12 Al foams with porosities of 67%-78% were fabricated from Al alloy die castings without using a blowing agent by the friction stir processing route. The pore structure and tensile properties of the ADC12 foams were investigated and compared with those of commercially available ALPORAS. From X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) observations of the pore structure of ADC12 foams, it was found that they have smaller pores with a narrower distribution than those in ALPORAS. Tensile tests on the ADC12 foams indicated that as their porosity increased, the tensile strength and tensile strain decreased, with strong relation between the porosity, tensile strength, and tensile strain. ADC12 foams exhibited brittle fracture, whereas ALPORAS exhibited ductile fracture, which is due to the nature of the Al alloy used as the base material of the foams. By image-based finite element (FE) analysis using X-ray CT images corresponding to the tensile tests on ADC12 foams, it was shown that the fracture path of ADC12 foams observed in tensile tests and the regions of high stress obtained from FE analysis correspond to each other. Therefore, it is considered that the fracture behavior of ADC12 foams in relation to their pore structure distribution can be investigated by image-based FE analysis.

  2. Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Foam Fabricated from Die Castings without Using Blowing Agent by Friction Stir Processing Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Hangai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Al foam has been used in a wide range of applications owing to its light weight, high energy absorption and high sound insulation. One of the promising processes for fabricating Al foam involves the use of a foamable precursor. In this study, ADC12 Al foams with porosities of 67%–78% were fabricated from Al alloy die castings without using a blowing agent by the friction stir processing route. The pore structure and tensile properties of the ADC12 foams were investigated and compared with those of commercially available ALPORAS. From X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT observations of the pore structure of ADC12 foams, it was found that they have smaller pores with a narrower distribution than those in ALPORAS. Tensile tests on the ADC12 foams indicated that as their porosity increased, the tensile strength and tensile strain decreased, with strong relation between the porosity, tensile strength, and tensile strain. ADC12 foams exhibited brittle fracture, whereas ALPORAS exhibited ductile fracture, which is due to the nature of the Al alloy used as the base material of the foams. By image-based finite element (FE analysis using X-ray CT images corresponding to the tensile tests on ADC12 foams, it was shown that the fracture path of ADC12 foams observed in tensile tests and the regions of high stress obtained from FE analysis correspond to each other. Therefore, it is considered that the fracture behavior of ADC12 foams in relation to their pore structure distribution can be investigated by image-based FE analysis.

  3. Comparison of Reactive and Non-Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering Routes for the Fabrication of Monolithic and Composite Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Orrù

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A wider utilization of ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC materials strongly depends on the availability of efficient techniques for their fabrication as dense bodies. Based on recent results reported in the literature, it is possible to state that Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS technology offers a useful contribution in this direction. Along these lines, the use of two different SPS-based processing routes for the preparation of massive UHTCs is examined in this work. One method, the so-called reactive SPS (R-SPS, consists of the synthesis and densification of the material in a single step. Alternatively, the ceramic powders are first synthesized by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS and then sintered by SPS. The obtained results evidenced that R-SPS method is preferable for the preparation of dense monolithic products, while the sintering of SHS powders requires relatively milder conditions when considering binary composites. The different kinetic mechanisms involved during R-SPS of the monolithic and composite systems, i.e., combustion-like or gradual solid-diffusion, respectively, provides a possible explanation. An important role is also played by the SHS process, particularly for the preparation of composite powders, since stronger interfaces are established between the ceramic constituents formed in situ, thus favoring diffusion processes during the subsequent SPS step.

  4. Fabrication of dense (Th0.96U0.04)O2 pellets by Sol Gel Microsphere Pelletisation (SGMP) route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutty, P.S.; Mishra, Sudhir; Ghoshal, Kaushik; Pillai, S.N.; Nandi, C.; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, N.; Pai, Rajesh V.; Dehadraya, J.V.; Mukerjee, S.K.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2013-02-01

    Mixed thoria-urania microspheres were prepared by internal gelation process using a sol-gel set up in Fuel Chemistry Division, BARC. The calcined mixed oxide microspheres were heat treated under Ar + 8% H 2 gas mixture and air at different temperatures, ranging from 600 to 800 °C, to obtain feed material ideal for direct compaction. The microspheres were characterised with regards to surface area, crush strength, tap density and size. Green pellets were prepared using different compaction pressures and were sintered to obtain high density (Th 0.96 U 0.04 )O 2 pellets. The sintered pellets were characterised for phase purity, O/M ratio and microstructure. The results indicate that (Th 0.96 U 0.04 )O 2 sintered pellets of densities ranging from 92-96% TD with desired microstructure and O/M ratio could be successfully fabricated by Sol Gel Microsphere Pelletisation (SGMP) route from soft mixed oxide microspheres prepared by Internal gelation process. (author)

  5. Nanocrystalline La1-xSrxCo1-yFe yO3 perovskites fabricated by the micro-emulsion route for high frequency response devices fabrications

    KAUST Repository

    Azhar Khan, Muhammad

    2014-09-01

    Nanocrystalline La1-xSrxCo1-yFe yO3 (x=0.00-0.60) perovskites were fabricated by a cheap economic route (i.e. micro-emulsion method) and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). TGA analysis showed ~35% weight loss. The crystallite size determined by XRD and SEM ranged from 30 to 80 nm and ~30 to 50 nm, respectively. The dielectric behavior was evaluated in the range of 1.0×106 Hz to 3.0×10 9 Hz at 298 K, the dielectric parameters resulting appreciably enhanced by co-doping with Sr and Fe. The maximum dielectric parameters (ε′=103.35, ε″=58.92 and tan δ=0.57) were observed for La0.4Sr0.6Co0.4Fe0.6O 3 at 15×106 Hz. Results suggest the potential use of these nanocrystalline perovskites in GHz-operated microwave devices. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l.

  6. TiNi shape memory alloys: effects of the fabrication route, the oxygen content and the zirconium or hafnium additions on the metallurgical characteristics and the thermomechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olier, P.

    1996-01-01

    In order to promote the development of Ti-Ni shape memory alloys, we have studied the correlation between the fabrication route, the chemical composition (O 2 content, Zr or Hf additions), the metallurgical characteristics and the thermomechanical properties. A conventional sintering does not allow to obtain a homogeneous compound of pure Ti 50 Ni 50 alloy because of the occurrence of Kirkendall porosities which act as a diffusion barrier. An original process including combustion synthesis and hot-extrusion was successfully developed. Resulting products exhibit a smaller grain size (15-20μm) and an enhanced workability in comparison with products obtained by arc-melting and subsequent hot rolling. The presence of oxygen in equiatomic Ti-Ni alloy induces the oxide precipitation of Ti 4 Ni 2 O x type (with x ≤ 1). The precipitated particle fraction is proportional to the oxygen nominal content of the alloy. We show that the decrease of the transformation temperatures is correlated with the decrease of Ti in solid solution due to Ti 4 Ni 2 O precipitation. Moreover, we find that a fine and homogenous oxide dispersion is suitable to decrease the grain size during hot rolling and to enhance to the one way shape memory properties. An increase of the typical transformation temperatures is obtained through of Zr or Hf (in substitution to Ti). But, an increase of the hardness is measured, and consequently the workability of the ternary alloys becomes reduced. However, it is worthwhile to point out that a Ti 38 Ni 50 Hf 12 product obtained by arc melting and hot extrusion is able to fully recover an apparent plastic strain of more than 4% during tensile tests performed under special loading conditions. Such as behaviour is of great interest with respect to potential applications in a temperature range higher that 100 deg. C. (author)

  7. Ingenious route for ultraviolet-induced graft polymerization achieved on inorganic particle: Fabricating magnetic poly(acrylic acid) densely grafted nanocomposites for Cu{sup 2+} removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qi, E-mail: roundzking@163.com [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 333 Nanchen Road, Shanghai, 200444 (China); Luo, Wenjun [Faculty of Material and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Zhang, Xing [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 333 Nanchen Road, Shanghai, 200444 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • A novel PAA brushes-decorated magnetic adsorbent was prepared successfully. • The preparation approach was simple, rapid, and efficient. • Densely polymer grafting can be achieved on inorganic substrate by the method. • The g-MNPs exhibits an outstanding adsorption performance for Cu{sup 2+}. • The Cu{sup 2+}-saturated adsorbent can be separated and regenerated easily. - Abstract: In this study, ultraviolet (UV)-induced graft technology is improved to be successfully applied on inorganic substrate for fabricating a novel poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes-decorated magnetic nano-composite particles (g-MNPs) as a potential adsorbent toward Cu{sup 2+} ion. The most fascinating features of the resultant g-MNPs are the abundant and highly accessible carboxyl groups present in PAA brushes and the rapid separation from the medium by magnetic field after adsorption. Through the new and high-efficiency surface-initiated polymerization route, the densely PAA brushes was successfully immobilized on the MNPs surface with a high grafting yield of 88.3%. Excitingly, the g-MNPs exhibited an exceptional performance for Cu{sup 2+} adsorption, e.g., ultrahigh adsorption capacity (up to 152.1 mg g{sup −1}), rapid adsorption rate (within 30 min) and low residual concentration (below 1.3 ppm). Full kinetic and isotherm analysis as well as thermodynamic study were also undertaken, the results showed that Cu{sup 2+} adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, the adsorption rate was controlled by two sequential periods of external and intraparticle diffusion. According to the calculated value of thermodynamic parameters, the Cu{sup 2+} adsorption onto g-MNPs was a spontaneous endothermic process. Furthermore, the excellent reusability of the resultant adsorbent was also confirmed, which can keep above 95% adsorption capacity and desorption rate in 8 consecutive cycles.

  8. Quantitative Exposure Assessment of Various Chemical Substances in a Wafer Fabrication Industry Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunhee Park

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: Benzene, a known human carcinogen for leukemia, and arsine, a hematologic toxin, were not detected in wafer fabrication sites in this study. Among reproductive toxic substances, n-butyl acetate was not detected, but fluorides and PGMEA existed in small amounts in the air. This investigation was focused on the air-borne chemical concentrations only in regular working conditions. Unconditional exposures during spills and/or maintenance tasks and by-product chemicals were not included. Supplementary studies might be required.

  9. Development of parametric material, energy, and emission inventories for wafer fabrication in the semiconductor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cynthia F; Kenig, George A; Allen, David T; Laurent, Jean-Philippe; Dyer, David E

    2003-12-01

    Currently available data suggest that most of the energy and material consumption related to the production of an integrated circuit is due to the wafer fabrication process. The complexity of wafer manufacturing, requiring hundreds of steps that vary from product to product and from facility to facility and which change every few years, has discouraged the development of material, energy, and emission inventory modules for the purpose of insertion into life cycle assessments. To address this difficulty, a flexible, process-based system for estimating material requirements, energy requirements, and emissions in wafer fabrication has been developed. The method accounts for mass and energy use atthe unit operation level. Parametric unit operation modules have been developed that can be used to predict changes in inventory as the result of changes in product design, equipment selection, or process flow. A case study of the application of the modules is given for energy consumption, but a similar methodology can be used for materials, individually or aggregated.

  10. Characterization of aerosols from industrial fabrication of mixed-oxide nuclear reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recycling plutonium into mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel for nuclear reactors is being given serious consideration as a safe and environmentally sound method of managing plutonium from weapons programs. Planning for the proper design and safe operation of the MOX fuel fabrication facilities can take advantage of studies done in the 1970s, when recycling of plutonium from nuclear fuel was under serious consideration. At that time, it was recognized that the recycle of plutonium and uranium in irradiated fuel could provide a significant energy source and that the use of 239 Pu in light water reactor fuel would reduce the requirements for enriched 235 U as a reactor fuel. It was also recognized that the fabrication of uranium and plutonium reactor fuels would not be risk-free. Despite engineered safety precautions such as the handling of uranium and plutonium in glove-box enclosures, accidental releases of radioactive aerosols from normal containment might occur. Workers might then be exposed to the released materials by inhalation

  11. Fabrication of a mini multi-fixed-point cell for the calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragay-Enot, Monalisa; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Yong-Gyoo

    2017-07-01

    A mini multi-fixed-point cell (length 118 mm, diameter 33 mm) containing three materials (In-Zn eutectic (mass fraction 3.8% Zn), Sn and Pb) in a single crucible was designed and fabricated for the easy and economical fixed-point calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers (IPRTs) for use in industrial temperature measurements. The melting and freezing behaviors of the metals were investigated and the phase transition temperatures were determined using a commercial dry-block calibrator. Results showed that the melting plateaus are generally easy to realize and are reproducible, flatter and of longer duration. On the other hand, the freezing process is generally difficult, especially for Sn, due to the high supercooling required to initiate freezing. The observed melting temperatures at optimum set conditions were 143.11 °C (In-Zn), 231.70 °C (Sn) and 327.15 °C (Pb) with expanded uncertainties (k  = 2) of 0.12 °C, 0.10 °C and 0.13 °C, respectively. This multi-fixed-point cell can be treated as a sole reference temperature-generating system. Based on the results, the realization of melting points of the mini multi-fixed-point cell can be recommended for the direct calibration of IPRTs in industrial applications without the need for a reference thermometer.

  12. Nuclear materials accountancy in an industrial MOX fuel fabrication plant safeguards versus commercial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canck, H. de; Ingels, R.; Lefevre, R.

    1991-01-01

    In a modern MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant, with a large throughput of nuclear materials, computerized real-time accountancy systems are applied. Following regulations and prescriptions imposed by the Inspectorates EURATOM-IAEA, the State and also by internal plant safety rules, the accountancy is kept in plutonium element, uranium element and 235 U for enriched uranium. In practice, Safeguards Authorities are concerned with quantities of the element (U tot , Pu tot ) and to some extent with its fissile content. Custom Authorities are for historical reasons, interested in fissile quantities (U fiss , Pu fiss ) whereas owners wish to recover the energetic value of their material (Pu equivalent). Balancing the accountancy simultaneously in all these related but not proportional units is a new problem in a MOX-plant where pool accountancy is applied. This paper indicates possible ways to solve the balancing problem created by these different units used for expressing nuclear material quantities

  13. Approaches to raw sugar quality improvement as a route to sustaining a reliable supply of purified industrial sugar feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy costs in the sugar industry are outstripping costs of manufacture, particularly in refineries. This, as well as increasing transportation costs and the need to meet manufacturers’ tight specifications, has increased the demand for a sustainable supply of purified, raw sugar. Agricultural com...

  14. Contact structures in the poultry industry in Great Britain: Exploring transmission routes for a potential avian influenza virus epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyder Kieran

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The commercial poultry industry in United Kingdom (UK is worth an estimated £3.4 billion at retail value, producing over 174 million birds for consumption per year. An epidemic of any poultry disease with high mortality or which is zoonotic, such as avian influenza virus (AIV, would result in the culling of significant numbers of birds, as seen in the Netherlands in 2003 and Italy in 2000. Such an epidemic would cost the UK government millions of pounds in compensation costs, with further economic losses through reduction of international and UK consumption of British poultry. In order to better inform policy advisers and makers on the potential for a large epidemic in GB, we investigate the role that interactions amongst premises within the British commercial poultry industry could play in promoting an AIV epidemic, given an introduction of the virus in a specific part of poultry industry in Great Britain (GB. Results Poultry premises using multiple slaughterhouses lead to a large number of premises being potentially connected, with the resultant potential for large and sometimes widespread epidemics. Catching companies can also potentially link a large proportion of the poultry population. Critical to this is the maximum distance traveled by catching companies between premises and whether or not between-species transmission could occur within individual premises. Premises closely linked by proximity may result in connections being formed between different species and or sectors within the industry. Conclusion Even quite well-contained epidemics have the potential for geographically widespread dissemination, potentially resulting in severe logistical problems for epidemic control, and with economic impact on a large part of the country. Premises sending birds to multiple slaughterhouses or housing multiple species may act as a bridge between otherwise separate sectors of the industry, resulting in the potential for large

  15. Use of ornamental rock waste to fabricate rustic ceramic tile: industrial test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.T.; Monteiro, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This work has as its objective to produce rustic wall tiles with the use of a waste from the sawing of gnaisse rock mixed with kaolinitic replacing sand. Compositions were prepared using clay, sand and waste, The wall tiles were fire in a industrial dome type furnace at 850 deg C.The physical and mechanical properties determined were water absorption and flexural rupture strength. The results indicated that the waste did not improve the evaluated properties by replacing sand. This is mainly due to the low temperature used in the experiment. (author)

  16. Stainless steel fabrication for high quality requirements in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wareing, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the author explains the welding procedures and practices adopted within the nuclear industry to achieve the high quality and standards of welds required. The changeover to mechanised welding, orbital TIG welding and synergic MIG welding, has resulted in consistent achievement of high quality standards as well as optimising the productivity. However, the use of mechanised welding machines does require the welder operating them to be fully trained and qualified. The formally organised training courses are described and the cost savings and production rates achieved by utilising the mechanised method are discussed. (author)

  17. Fabrication of nano porous with heavy ions in plastics for the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Tavera, L.; Mendoza, D.; Mut, A.

    2003-01-01

    The natural gas has undesirable concentrations of other gases like the nitrogen that reduces the heat capacity of the gas. It is required to develop separation technology to increase the caloric value of the gas. Among the technology in development for the separation of these gases there are the nano membranes; these are polymeric material that when synthesizing them form nano pores that allow the selective separation of the gas. Another form of creating these nano pores with uniform and controlled pore size, is irradiating a polymeric material with heavy ions. The energy loss of the heavy ion produces cylindrical damages around its trajectory in a diameter among 30 x 10 -10 m and 100 x 10 -10 m. This damage breaks the chains of the polymer making it susceptible to the corrosion of appropriate chemical agents that allow to create a pore of the size of some nanometers in the polymer. The basic mechanisms of the interaction of the ions with the polymer are important for the controlled creation, the observation and analysis of these nano pores. One of the more appropriate techniques for the visualization and analysis of the geometry of the produced damages, it is the scanning electron and of the atomic force microscopies. The present work has as objective to define the basic parameters of the interaction of the ion with the polymer that intervene in the fabrication of this nano pores. The conditions of the chemical corrosion process are presented for the creation of micro pores in two polymers CR39 and Makrofol produced by fission fragments and alpha particles. A characterization of the diameters and of the damages profile is make. The obtained results are related with the mechanisms of loss of energy of the ions in the matter and the particles identification in function of the damage geometry. (Author)

  18. Fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface with fungus-cleaning properties on brazed aluminum for industrial application in heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Won; Hwang, Woonbong

    2018-06-01

    Extensive research has been carried out concerning the application of superhydrophobic coating in heat exchangers, but little is known about the application of this technique to brazed aluminum heat exchangers (BAHEs). In this work, we describe a new superhydrophobic coating method, which is suitable for BAHE use on an industrial scale. We first render the BAHE superhydrophobic by fabricating micro/nanostructures using solution dipping followed by fluorination. After the complete removal of the silicon residue, we verify using surface analysis that the BAHE surface is perfectly superhydrophobic. We also studied the fungus-cleaning properties of the superhydrophobic surface by growing fungus for 4 weeks in a moist environment on BAHE fins with and without superhydrophobic coating. We observed that, whereas the fungus grown on the untreated fins is extremely difficult to remove, the fungus on the fins with the superhydrophobic coating can be removed easily with only a modest amount of water. We also found that the coated BAHE fins exhibit excellent resistance to moisture. The superhydrophobic coating method that we propose is therefore expected to have a major impact in the heating, ventilating and air conditioning industry market.

  19. Low-cost fabrication of ternary CuInSe{sub 2} nanocrystals by colloidal route using a novel combination of volatile and non-volatile capping agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, Parul; Narain Sharma, Shailesh, E-mail: shailesh@nplindia.org; Singh, Son

    2014-11-15

    Wet-route synthesis of CuInSe{sub 2} (CISe) nanocrystals has been envisaged with the utilization of the unique combination of coordinating ligand and non coordinating solvent. Our work demonstrates the formation of a single-phase, nearly stoichiometric and monodispersive, stable and well-passivated colloidal ternary CISe nanocrystals (band gap (E{sub g})∼1.16 eV) using a novel combination of ligands; viz. volatile arylamine aniline and non-volatile solvent 1-octadecene. The synthesis and growth conditions have been manoeuvred using the colligative properties of the mixture and thus higher growth temperature (∼250 °C) could be attained that promoted larger grain growth. The beneficial influence of the capping agents (aniline and 1-octadecene) on the properties of chalcopyrite nanocrystals has enabled us to pictorally model the structural, morphological and optoelectronic aspects of CISe nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Without resorting to any post-selenization process and using the colligative properties of the mixture comprising of volatile aniline and non-volatile 1-octadecene to manoeuvre the growth conditions to promote Ostwald ripening, a single phase, monodispersive and nearly stoichiometric ternary CISe nanocrystals are formed by wet-synthesis route. - Highlights: • Wet-route synthesis of CISe nanocrystals reported without post-selenization process. • Single-phase, stable and well-passivated colloidal ternary CISe nanocrystals formed. • Novel combination of capping agents: volatile aniline and non-volatile 1-octadecene. • Higher growth temperature attained using the colligative properties of the mixture. • Metallic salts presence explains exp. and theoretical boiling point difference.

  20. 2,3-Butanediol Production by Acetogenic Bacteria, an Alternative Route to Chemical Synthesis, Using Industrial Waste Gas ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köpke, Michael; Mihalcea, Christophe; Liew, FungMin; Tizard, Joseph H.; Ali, Mohammed S.; Conolly, Joshua J.; Al-Sinawi, Bakir; Simpson, Séan D.

    2011-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol (23BD) is a high-value chemical usually produced petrochemically but which can also be synthesized by some bacteria. To date, the best microbial 23BD production rates have been observed using pathogenic bacteria in fermentation systems that depend on sugars as the carbon and energy sources for product synthesis. Here we present evidence of 23BD production by three nonpathogenic acetogenic Clostridium species—Clostridium autoethanogenum, C. ljungdahlii, and C. ragsdalei—using carbon monoxide-containing industrial waste gases or syngas as the sole source of carbon and energy. Through an analysis of the C. ljungdahlii genome, the complete pathway from carbon monoxide to 23BD has been proposed. Homologues of the genes involved in this pathway were also confirmed for the other two species investigated. A gene expression study demonstrates a correlation between mRNA accumulation from 23BD biosynthetic genes and the onset of 23BD production, while a broader expression study of Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes provides a transcription-level view of one of the oldest existing biochemical pathways. PMID:21685168

  1. A facile strategy for the fabrication of uniform CdS nanowires with high yield and its controlled morphological growth with the assistance of PEG in hydrothermal route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Kaushik; Maiti, Uday Narayan; Majumder, Tapas Pal; Debnath, Subhas Chandra

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel wurtzite cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanowires with uniform diameter were synthesized by using a rapid and simple solvothermal route. CdS nano structures with certain morphology could be selectively produced by only varying the concentration of poly ethylene glycol (PEG) as a surfactant in the reaction system with cadmium acetate, sulphur powder and ethelynediamine (EDA). We extensively studied UV-vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence spectra after confirming CdS nanowires with diameter 24-25 nm and length ranging up to several nano meters by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Therefore we may definitely propose a new formation mechanism of CdS nanowires assisted by PEG with its illustrating optical properties.

  2. Industry to Education Technical Transfer Program & Composite Materials. Composite Materials Course. Fabrication I Course. Fabrication II Course. Composite Materials Testing Course. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuda, Rachel

    These four reports provide details of projects to design and implement courses to be offered as requirements for the associate degree program in composites and reinforced plastics technology. The reports describe project activities that led to development of curricula for four courses: composite materials, composite materials fabrication I,…

  3. Indium oxide co-doped with tin and zinc: A simple route to highly conducting high density targets for TCO thin-film fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeddin, I.; Hilal, H. S.; Decourt, R.; Campet, G.; Pecquenard, B.

    2012-07-01

    Indium oxide co-doped with tin and zinc (ITZO) ceramics have been successfully prepared by direct sintering of the powders mixture at 1300 °C. This allowed us to easily fabricate large highly dense target suitable for sputtering transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films, without using any cold or hot pressing techniques. Hence, the optimized ITZO ceramic reaches a high relative bulk density (˜ 92% of In2O3 theoretical density) and higher than the well-known indium oxide doped with tin (ITO) prepared under similar conditions. All X-ray diagrams obtained for ITZO ceramics confirms a bixbyte structure typical for In2O3 only. This indicates a higher solubility limit of Sn and Zn when they are co-doped into In2O3 forming a solid-solution. A very low value of electrical resistivity is obtained for [In2O3:Sn0.10]:Zn0.10 (1.7 × 10-3 Ω cm, lower than ITO counterpart) which could be fabricated to high dense ceramic target suing pressure-less sintering.

  4. A comparative study of nitride purity and Am fabrication losses in PuN materials by the powder and internal gelation production routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedberg, Marcus, E-mail: marhed@chalmers.se; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-12-15

    Fabrication of plutonium containing fuels through the internal gelation method has mostly been studied in mixed metal systems such as U, Pu or Zr,Pu. In this work production of undiluted PuN has been performed by carbothermal reduction on both oxide powder and Pu microspheres produced by the internal gelation method. Nitride purities reached using the different methods have been studied together with final densities achieved during pellet fabrication as well as losses of ingrown Am during the different production steps. Formation of Pu microspheres was successfully performed using the internal gelation method, although extensive microsphere fracturing occurred during thermal treatment. Final densities of PuN pellets produced by cold pressing and sintering reached 70–80% of theoretical density. Am losses during the carbothermal reduction step was on average about 3.7%. After sintering about 11% of Am was lost in total through the entire production process if sintering in N{sub 2} + 5% H{sub 2} atmosphere while about 50% of the Am in total was lost when using Ar as sintering atmosphere. - Highlights: • Internal gelation Pu based sols was performed. • Nitride formation by carbothermal reduction on Pu microspheres and powders was performed. • Pelletization and sintering of pellets was performed. • Am losses were measured throughout the production steps.

  5. Fabrication and luminescence properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} microspheres via a microwave solvothermal route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Zhenfeng, E-mail: zhuzf@sust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Liu Dianguang; Liu Hui; Li Guangjun; Du Juan; He Zuoli [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} green phosphors were synthesized via a microwave solvothermal and thermal decomposition route, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and decay curves. XRD results indicate that Tb{sup 3+} doped samples are {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} after being calcined at 773 K. SEM results show that the particles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} are hierarchically nanostructured microspheres assembled from nanosheets. The PL spectra indicate that the {sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 5} (545 nm) electric dipole transition is the most intensive when excited at 235 nm. It is shown that 0.7 mol% of doping concentration of Tb{sup 3+} ions in {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} is optimum. According to Dexter's theory, the critical distance between Tb{sup 3+} ions for energy transfer was determined to be 18.4 A. It is found that the curve followed the single-exponential decay. The excellent chromaticity coordinates of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphors, as defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE), indicate that it is a good candidate for use in light display systems and optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphors prepared via a microwave solvothermal route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The particles were hierarchically nanostructured microspheres packaged by nanosheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 5} electric dipole transition is the most intensive when excited at 235 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 0.7 mol% of doping concentration of Tb{sup 3+} ions in {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} is optimum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical distance between Tb{sup 3+} ions for energy transfer is 18.4 A.

  6. Electron-beam-induced reactivation of Si dopants in hydrogenated two-dimensional AlGaAs heterostructures: a possible new route for III-V nanostructure fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurowski, Ludovic; Bernard, Dorothee; Constant, Eugene; Decoster, Didier

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen incorporation in n-type Si-doped GaAs epilayers is a well-known process which leads to the neutralization of the active Si impurities with the formation of SiH complexes. Recently, we have shown that SiH complex dissociation and, consequently, Si-dopant reactivation could occur when the epilayers are exposed to an electron beam. Two epilayers have been studied: the first is a 0.35 μm thick hydrogenated Si-doped GaAs epilayer and the second is Si planar-doped AlGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs heterostructures. Firstly, Hall effect measurements have been carried out on the epilayers exposed, after RF hydrogen plasma exposition, to increasing electron doses with different injection energies. For the 2D heterostructures, we have observed that the free carrier density N s does not vary significantly for weak electron densities. This reactivation presents a threshold value, contrary to the 0.35 μm epilayer in which N s varies quite linearly. It will be shown that such phenomena might be attributed to the filling of surface states as the dopants are progressively reactivated. Then, using a high spatial resolution electron beam lithography system, nanometric conductive patterns have been fabricated starting from hydrogenated epilayers. Electric measurements have been performed and the results obtained show that about 15 nm spatial resolution could be expected. In conclusion, taking into account this spatial resolution, the high spatial contrast of conductivity which could be expected due to the existence of an electron dose threshold, and the high mobility of the AlGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs heterostructure, the effects described in this paper could open a new way for the fabrication of III-V 1D or 2D mesoscopic structures for electronic or optoelectronic applications

  7. New approach towards the polyol route to fabricate MFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles: The use of MCl2 and Fe(acac)3 as chemical precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Eduardo; Yáñez, Ramón; Ricart, Susagna; Ros, Josep

    2015-05-01

    A new more efficient approach of the polyol route to generate MFe2O4 (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) nanoparticles in triethylene glycol (TREG) is presented. The selected thermal procedure is based on the Fe metalorganic precursor (iron(III) acetylacetonate) decomposition in presence of an inorganic transition metal chloride salt (MCl2, M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) to produce high quality polar dispersible nanoparticles with lower production cost. In addition, the nanoparticles are stabilized by ionic (from the Cl-) and steric (TREG as capping ligand) effects inducing into the nanoparticles an extraordinary stability in different polar solvents. As result of this optimized methodology, the colloidal polar dispersible nanoparticles present a size around 10 nm with an adequate size dispersion demonstrated by analyzing transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) results corroborate the absence of secondary phases and the high crystalline degree obtained for the spinel structure, fact proved by using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The high magnetic performance at low and room temperature of the nanoparticles studied by magnetometry proves the high internal crystal order of the spinel. Parallel to this, the influence of the heating ramp and annealing time in the thermal procedure were also investigated for the CuFe2O4 case, where a relationship between these two parameters and the final size and their associated diameter distribution was found, allowing a possible size control of the final ferrite magnetic nanoparticles synthesized.

  8. Humidity sensing performance of in-situ fabricated Cu/Cu2O/Cu2S-polymer nanocomposite via polyphenylene sulphide cyclisation route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar, Dattatraya; Hake, Abhay; Jadkar, Sandesh; Adhyapak, Parag; Mulik, Uttamrao; Amalnerkar, Dinesh

    2011-08-01

    We herein report the feasibility of novel polymer-inorganic solid state reaction route for simultaneous in situ generation of Cu2S and Cu nanostructures in polymer network. Polyphenylene Sulphide (PPS) which is engineering thermoplastic acts as chalcogen source as well as stabilizing matrix for the resultant nano products. Typical solid state reaction was accomplished by simply heating the physical admixtures of the two reactants i.e., copper acetate and PPS by varying molar ratios mainly 1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20 at the crystalline melting temperature (285 degrees C) of PPS. The synthesized products were characterized using various physicochemical characterization techniques like X-ray Diffractometry, Field emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The prima facie observations suggest occurrence of nanocrystalline Cu2S in case of product obtained with equimolar ratio, whereas remaining samples show mixture of Cu and Cu2O. The TEM analysis reveals nanoscale polydispersity (5-60 nm) and prevalence of mainly spherical morphological features in all the cases with occasional indications of plate like and cubical morphological features depending upon the molar ratio of the reactants. The humidity sensing characterization of these nanocomposites was also performed. The resistivity response with the level of humidity (20 to 70% RH) was compared for these nanocomposites. The linear response is obtained for all the samples. The sensitivity of 1:1 molar ratio sample was found to be maximum among all the samples.

  9. New approach towards the polyol route to fabricate MFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles: The use of MCl2 and Fe(acac)3 as chemical precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Eduardo; Yáñez, Ramón; Ricart, Susagna; Ros, Josep

    2015-01-01

    A new more efficient approach of the polyol route to generate MFe 2 O 4 (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) nanoparticles in triethylene glycol (TREG) is presented. The selected thermal procedure is based on the Fe metalorganic precursor (iron(III) acetylacetonate) decomposition in presence of an inorganic transition metal chloride salt (MCl 2 , M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) to produce high quality polar dispersible nanoparticles with lower production cost. In addition, the nanoparticles are stabilized by ionic (from the Cl − ) and steric (TREG as capping ligand) effects inducing into the nanoparticles an extraordinary stability in different polar solvents. As result of this optimized methodology, the colloidal polar dispersible nanoparticles present a size around 10 nm with an adequate size dispersion demonstrated by analyzing transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) results corroborate the absence of secondary phases and the high crystalline degree obtained for the spinel structure, fact proved by using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The high magnetic performance at low and room temperature of the nanoparticles studied by magnetometry proves the high internal crystal order of the spinel. Parallel to this, the influence of the heating ramp and annealing time in the thermal procedure were also investigated for the CuFe 2 O 4 case, where a relationship between these two parameters and the final size and their associated diameter distribution was found, allowing a possible size control of the final ferrite magnetic nanoparticles synthesized. - Highlights: • An optimized one-pot methodology is presented to produce pure MFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles. • MCl 2 and Fe(acac) 3 precursors in TREG are used for a more efficient process. • Polar dispersible nanoparticles are obtained with high physicochemical properties. • The influence of the temperature ramp and rate on the final size is studied

  10. Role of powder preparation route on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-TiB2 composites fabricated by accumulative roll bonding (ARB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarpour, M.; Sadeghian, Z.; Reihanian, M.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulative roll bonding (ARB) was conducted up to seven cycles to fabricate Al-TiB 2 particulate metal matrix composites. The reinforcing particles were prepared and used in three different processing conditions: as-received TiB 2 , mixed TiB 2 -Al and in-situ synthesized TiB 2 -Al. The mixed TiB 2 -Al powder was produced by milling of TiB 2 with Al powder and in-situ synthesized TiB 2 -Al powder was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) through inducing TiB 2 particles in the Al with various composition of 10, 20 and 30 wt% Al. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to evaluate the microstructure of the produced composites. The composite obtained from the in-situ TiB 2 -Al powder showed the most uniform distribution of particles and exhibited the highest tensile strength of about 177 MPa in comparison with the composites reinforced with the as-received TiB 2 (156 MPa) and mixed TiB 2 -Al powder (160 MPa). After seven ARB cycles, an ultra-fine grained structure with the average size of about 300 nm was obtained in the composite reinforced with in-situ TiB 2 -Al powder. The appearance of dimples in tensile fracture surfaces revealed a ductile-type fracture in the produced composites.

  11. Role of powder preparation route on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-TiB{sub 2} composites fabricated by accumulative roll bonding (ARB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askarpour, M.; Sadeghian, Z., E-mail: z.sadeghian@scu.ac.ir; Reihanian, M.

    2016-11-20

    Accumulative roll bonding (ARB) was conducted up to seven cycles to fabricate Al-TiB{sub 2} particulate metal matrix composites. The reinforcing particles were prepared and used in three different processing conditions: as-received TiB{sub 2}, mixed TiB{sub 2}-Al and in-situ synthesized TiB{sub 2}-Al. The mixed TiB{sub 2}-Al powder was produced by milling of TiB{sub 2} with Al powder and in-situ synthesized TiB{sub 2}-Al powder was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) through inducing TiB{sub 2} particles in the Al with various composition of 10, 20 and 30 wt% Al. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to evaluate the microstructure of the produced composites. The composite obtained from the in-situ TiB{sub 2}-Al powder showed the most uniform distribution of particles and exhibited the highest tensile strength of about 177 MPa in comparison with the composites reinforced with the as-received TiB{sub 2} (156 MPa) and mixed TiB{sub 2}-Al powder (160 MPa). After seven ARB cycles, an ultra-fine grained structure with the average size of about 300 nm was obtained in the composite reinforced with in-situ TiB{sub 2}-Al powder. The appearance of dimples in tensile fracture surfaces revealed a ductile-type fracture in the produced composites.

  12. Non-woven PET fabric reinforced and enhanced the performance of ultrafiltration membranes composed of PVDF blended with PVDF-g-PEGMA for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Li, Tong; Chen, Chen; Chen, Sheng; Liu, Baicang; Crittenden, John

    2018-03-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PVDF-g-PEGMA) can present high flux and excellent foulant removal efficiencies under suitable preparation conditions. However, these PVDF/PVDF-g-PEGMA blended membranes cannot be applied industrially because of the insufficient mechanical strength (strength-to-break value of 8.4 ± 0.6 MPa). We incorporated two types of non-woven polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics (thin hydrophobic and thick hydrophilic fabrics) as support layers to improve the mechanical properties of the blended membranes. The thin and thick PET fabrics were able to significantly improve the tensile strength to 23.3 ± 3.7 MPa and 30.1 ± 1.4 MPa, respectively. The PET fabrics had a limited impact on the separation-related membrane performance such as hydrophilicity, foulant rejection, whereas the mechanical strength and pure water flux was improved several folds. The enhanced flux was attributed to the higher surface porosity and wider finger-like voids in the cross-section. The thin PET fabric with larger porosity was able to maintain a consistent toughness simultaneously; thus it is recommended as a support material for this blended membrane.

  13. Controlled sp(2) Functionalization of Boron Doped Diamond as a Route for the Fabrication of Robust and Nernstian pH Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Zoë J; Borrill, Alexandra J; Newland, Jonathan C; Newton, Mark E; Macpherson, Julie V

    2016-01-05

    The development of a voltammetric boron doped diamond (BDD) pH sensor is described. To obtain pH sensitivity, laser micromachining (ablation) is utilized to introduce controlled regions of sp(2) carbon into a high quality polycrystalline BDD electrode. The resulting sp(2) carbon is activated to produce electrochemically reducible quinone groups using a high temperature acid treatment, followed by anodic polarization. Once activated, no further treatment is required. The quinone groups show a linear (R(2) = 0.999) and Nernstian (59 mV/(pH unit)) pH-dependent reductive current-voltage response over a large analyzable pH range, from pH 2 to pH 12. Using the laser approach, it is possible to optimize sp(2) coverage on the BDD surface, such that a measurable pH response is recorded, while minimizing background currents arising from oxygen reduction reactions on sp(2) carbon in the potential region of interest. This enables the sensor to be used in aerated solutions, boding well for in situ analysis. The voltammetric response of the electrode is not compromised by the presence of excess metal ions such as Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+). Furthermore, the pH sensor is stable over a 3 month period (the current time period of testing), can be stored in air between measurements, requires no reactivation of the surface between measurements, and can be reproducibly fabricated using the proposed approach. The efficacy of this pH sensor in a real-world sample is demonstrated with pH measurements in U.K. seawater.

  14. Directory of the manufacturers and suppliers for the French wind power industry; Annuaire des fabricants et fournisseurs de l'industrie eolienne 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    With over 5, 660 MW installed in end-2010, France ranks fourth in Europe, behind Germany, Spain and Italy. The wind power industry currently employs almost 11, 000 people in France throughout the value chain. In 2009, the first edition of this directory listed over one hundred companies working in around twenty different areas. Encouraged by these initial positive results, and with the help of ADEME, the French syndicate for renewable energies (SER) asked Capgemini Consulting to undertake a study to identify and raise awareness among French industrials likely to enter into the wind energy market. The French Ministry for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea, along with the Ministry for the Economy, Finance and Employment, were involved in the work. 400 companies were questioned as part of the study. Over 150 replies testified to the dynamic character of the wind power market in France and overseas, and the opportunities for diversification that it represents for traditional industries like metallurgy, aeronautics, defence and shipyards, etc. The study led to the creation of the initiative Windustry France, which currently groups over 300 companies either active in the French wind power market or set to enter it. Windustry France is a showcase of the industrial know-how that can be used in the wind power industry both onshore and offshore. It includes local set-ups developed around major fields of activity (e.g. car industry, aeronautics, mechanics, etc.) and industrial port zones (Dunkerque, Rouen/Le Havre, Brest, Nantes Saint-Nazaire, Bordeaux, etc.). Several ministries, regional stakeholders and authorities are also involved (local authorities, Regional directorates for industry, research and the environment (DReal) networks and chambers of commerce and industry), all of which contribute to making Windustry France a collective approach to industrial policy. The 2010-2011 edition of the directory of manufacturers and suppliers for the wind power

  15. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  16. Role of non-destructive examinations in leak testing of glove boxes for industrial scale plutonium handling at nuclear fuel fabrication facility along with case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aher, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Non Destructive Examinations has the prominent role at Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facilities. Specifically NDE has contributed at utmost stratum in Leak Testing of Glove Boxes and qualifying them as a Class-I confinement for safe Plutonium handling at industrial scale. Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, BARC, Tarapur is engaged in fabrication of Plutonium based MOX (PuO 2 , DDUO 2 ) fuel with different enrichments for first core of PFBR reactor. Alpha- Leak Tight Glove Boxes along with HEPA Filters and dynamic ventilation form the promising engineering system for safe and reliable handling of plutonium bearing materials considering the radiotoxicity and risk associated with handling of plutonium. Leak Testing of Glove Boxes which involves the leak detection, leak rectification and leak quantifications is major challenging task. To accomplish this challenge, various Non Destructive Testing methods have assisted in promising way to achieve the stringent leak rate criterion for commissioning of Glove Box facilities for plutonium handling. This paper highlights the Role of various NDE techniques like Soap Solution Test, Argon Sniffer Test, Pressure Drop/Rise Test etc. in Glove Box Leak Testing along with procedure and methodology for effective rectification of leakage points. A Flow Chart consisting of Glove Box leak testing procedure starting from preliminary stage up to qualification stage along with a case study and observations are discussed in this paper. (author)

  17. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  18. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  19. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  20. Fabrication and Performance Test of Aluminium Alloy-Rice Husk Ash Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite as Industrial and Construction Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahat Hossain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs used extensively in various engineering fields due to their exceptional mechanical properties. In this present study, aluminium matrix composites (AMCs such as aluminium alloy (A356 reinforced with rice husk ash particles (RHA are made to explore the possibilities of reinforcing aluminium alloy. The stir casting method was applied to produce aluminium alloy (A356 reinforced with various amounts of (2%, 4%, and 6% rice husk ash (RHA particles. Physical treatment was carried out before the rice husk ash manufacturing process. The effect of mechanical strength of the fabricated hybrid composite was investigated. Therefore, impact test, tensile stress, compressive stress, and some other tests were carried out to analyse the mechanical properties. From the experimental results, it was found that maximum tensile, and compressive stress were found at 6% rice husk ash (RHA and aluminium matrix composites (AMCs. In future, the optimum percentages of rice husk ash (RHA to fabricate the hybrid composites will be determined. Also, simulation by finite element method (FEM will be applied for further investigation.

  1. Hurricane Evacuation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Hurricane Evacuation Routes in the United States A hurricane evacuation route is a designated route used to direct traffic inland in case of a hurricane threat. This...

  2. Silicon-based photonic crystals fabricated using proton beam writing combined with electrochemical etching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Zhiya; Breese, Mark Bh; Recio-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Azimi, Sara; Song, Jiao; Liang, Haidong; Banas, Agnieszka; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Martín-Palma, Raúl José

    2012-07-23

    A method for fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) silicon nanostructures based on selective formation of porous silicon using ion beam irradiation of bulk p-type silicon followed by electrochemical etching is shown. It opens a route towards the fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) and 3D silicon-based photonic crystals with high flexibility and industrial compatibility. In this work, we present the fabrication of 2D photonic lattice and photonic slab structures and propose a process for the fabrication of 3D woodpile photonic crystals based on this approach. Simulated results of photonic band structures for the fabricated 2D photonic crystals show the presence of TE or TM gap in mid-infrared range.

  3. New mathematical modeling for a location-routing-inventory problem in a multi-period closed-loop supply chain in a car industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzanfar, F.; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.; Bashiri, M.; Baboli, A.; Hadji Molana, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    This paper studies a location-routing-inventory problem in a multi-period closed-loop supply chain with multiple suppliers, producers, distribution centers, customers, collection centers, recovery, and recycling centers. In this supply chain, centers are multiple levels, a price increase factor is considered for operational costs at centers, inventory and shortage (including lost sales and backlog) are allowed at production centers, arrival time of vehicles of each plant to its dedicated distribution centers and also departure from them are considered, in such a way that the sum of system costs and the sum of maximum time at each level should be minimized. The aforementioned problem is formulated in the form of a bi-objective nonlinear integer programming model. Due to the NP-hard nature of the problem, two meta-heuristics, namely, non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO), are used in large sizes. In addition, a Taguchi method is used to set the parameters of these algorithms to enhance their performance. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed algorithms, the results for small-sized problems are compared with the results of the ɛ-constraint method. Finally, four measuring metrics, namely, the number of Pareto solutions, mean ideal distance, spacing metric, and quality metric, are used to compare NSGA-II and MOPSO.

  4. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) plasma torch gasification as a feasible route to produce low environmental impact syngas for the cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sabirón, Ana M; Fleiger, Kristina; Schäfer, Stefan; Antoñanzas, Javier; Irazustabarrena, Ane; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán A

    2015-08-01

    Plasma torch gasification (PTG) is currently researched as a technology for solid waste recovery. However, scientific studies based on evaluating its environmental implications considering the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology are lacking. Therefore, this work is focused on comparing the environmental effect of the emissions of syngas combustion produced by refuse derived fuel (RDF) and PTG as alternative fuels, with that related to fossil fuel combustion in the cement industry. To obtain real data, a semi-industrial scale pilot plant was used to perform experimental trials on RDF-PTG.The results highlight that PTG for waste to energy recovery in the cement industry is environmentally feasible considering its current state of development. A reduction in every impact category was found when a total or partial substitution of alternative fuel for conventional fuel in the calciner firing (60 % of total thermal energy input) was performed. Furthermore, the results revealed that electrical energy consumption in PTG is also an important parameter from the LCA approach. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. VINE ROUTES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyuben Hristov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a scheme for the modern vine route in Bulgaria. Five basic vine routes and one international, between Bulgaria, Macedonia and Greece are defined. All routes consider characteristic varieties of grapes and kinds of vine products. Vine tourist products combined with visits of important natural and anthropological object are in the bases of the defined routes. The described routes are an important contribution to development of alternative tourist products in the country.

  6. Routing in opportunistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dhurandher, Sanjay; Anpalagan, Alagan; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to selected topics, both ongoing and emerging, in routing in OppNets. The book is edited by worldwide technical leaders, prolific researchers and outstanding academics, Dr. Isaac Woungang and co-editors, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher, Prof. Alagan Anpalagan and Prof. Athanasios Vasilakos. Consisting of contributions from well known and high profile researchers and scientists in their respective specialties, the main topics that are covered in this book include mobility and routing, social-aware routing, context-based routing, energy-aware routing, incentive-aware routing, stochastic routing, modeling of intermittent connectivity, in both infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Key Features: Discusses existing and emerging techniques for routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Provides a unified covering of otherwise disperse selected topics on routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets.  Includes a set of PowerPoint slides and g...

  7. Boron nitride nanoparticle enhanced prepregs: A novel route for manufacturing aerospace structural composite laminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, Ajit D., E-mail: kelkar@ncat.edu [Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC, 27401 (United States); Tian, Qiong [Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC, 27401 (United States); School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Yu, Demei [School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Zhang, Lifeng, E-mail: lzhang@ncat.edu [Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC, 27401 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Boron nitride nanoparticles (BNNPs) were surface functionalized and subsequently applied to surface of fiberglass prepregs to fabricate hybrid BNNPs/fiberglass/epoxy composite laminate. A systematic and comparative study on BNNPs functionalization routes and their effects on morphology, mechanical property and thermal conductivity of final BNNPs enhanced composite laminates was performed. The functionalized BNNPs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composite laminates with surface functionalized BNNPs demonstrated improvement in tensile and flexural strength and modulus as well as in thermal conductivity compared to the composite laminate with pristine BNNPs while physically functionalized BNNPs outperformed chemically functionalized BNNPs in all cases. SEM images indicated better compatibility and dispersion of BNNPs in epoxy matrix following either of functionalization route. BNNPs bear great radiation-shielding capability. This investigation revealed a novel and industrially feasible route to incorporate BNNPs in aerospace structural materials. - Highlights: • BNNPs were surface functionalized and applied onto fiberglass prepreg. • The BNNPs enhanced prepreg was employed to make hybrid BNNPs/fiberglass/epoxy composite laminate. • The hybrid laminate presented significant improvement in mechanical strength and thermal conductivity. • This investigation revealed a novel and industrially feasible route to incorporate BNNPs in aerospace structural materials.

  8. Boron nitride nanoparticle enhanced prepregs: A novel route for manufacturing aerospace structural composite laminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, Ajit D.; Tian, Qiong; Yu, Demei; Zhang, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    Boron nitride nanoparticles (BNNPs) were surface functionalized and subsequently applied to surface of fiberglass prepregs to fabricate hybrid BNNPs/fiberglass/epoxy composite laminate. A systematic and comparative study on BNNPs functionalization routes and their effects on morphology, mechanical property and thermal conductivity of final BNNPs enhanced composite laminates was performed. The functionalized BNNPs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composite laminates with surface functionalized BNNPs demonstrated improvement in tensile and flexural strength and modulus as well as in thermal conductivity compared to the composite laminate with pristine BNNPs while physically functionalized BNNPs outperformed chemically functionalized BNNPs in all cases. SEM images indicated better compatibility and dispersion of BNNPs in epoxy matrix following either of functionalization route. BNNPs bear great radiation-shielding capability. This investigation revealed a novel and industrially feasible route to incorporate BNNPs in aerospace structural materials. - Highlights: • BNNPs were surface functionalized and applied onto fiberglass prepreg. • The BNNPs enhanced prepreg was employed to make hybrid BNNPs/fiberglass/epoxy composite laminate. • The hybrid laminate presented significant improvement in mechanical strength and thermal conductivity. • This investigation revealed a novel and industrially feasible route to incorporate BNNPs in aerospace structural materials.

  9. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown....

  10. Hazmat Routes (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes (NTAD) were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  11. Fabrication progress of the ITER vacuum vessel sector in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.C., E-mail: bckim@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahangno 113, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y.J.; Hong, K.H.; Sa, J.W.; Kim, H.S.; Park, C.K.; Ahn, H.J.; Bak, J.S.; Jung, K.J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahangno 113, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, K.H.; Roh, B.R.; Kim, T.S.; Lee, J.S.; Jung, Y.H.; Sung, H.J.; Choi, S.Y.; Kim, H.G.; Kwon, I.K.; Kwon, T.H. [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Dong-gu, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Fabrication of ITER vacuum vessel sector full scale mock-up to develop fabrication procedures. ► The welding and nondestructive examination techniques conform to RCC-MR. ► The preparation of real manufacturing of ITER vacuum vessel sector. -- Abstract: As a participant of ITER project, ITER Korea has to supply two ITER vacuum vessel sectors (Sector no. 6, no. 1) of total nine ITER VV sectors. After the procurement arrangement with ITER Organization, ITER Korea made the contract with Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) for fabrication of two sectors. Then the start of the manufacturing design was initiated from January 2010. HHI made three real scale R and D mock-ups to verify the critical fabrication feasibility issues on electron beam welding, 3D forming, welding distortion and achievable tolerances. The documentation according to IO and the French nuclear safety regulation requirement, the qualification of welding and nondestructive examination procedures conform to RCC-MR 2007 were proceed in parallel. The mass production of raw material was done after receiving ANB (agreed notified body) verification of product/parts and shop qualification. The manufacturing drawing, manufacturing and inspection plan of VV sector with supporting fabrication procedures are also verified by ANB, accordingly the first cutting and forming of plates for VV sector fabrication started from February 2012. This paper reports the latest fabrication progress of ITER vacuum vessel Sector no. 6 that will be assembled as the first sector in the ITER pit. The overall fabrication route, R and D mock-up fabrication results with forming and welding distortion analysis, qualification status of welding and nondestructive examination (NDE) are also presented.

  12. User habits and multimodal route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Katona

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of route planning researches are monitored by logistic and automotive industries. The economic aspects of the cost saving are in the focus of the attention. An optimal route could cause time or fuel savings. An effective driving or an optimal route is a good basis to achieve an economical aim. Moreover the spread of new automotive solutions especially in case of electric cars the optimisation has particular significance regarding the limited battery storage. Additionally the autonomous car development could not be neglected. As a result the society could expect safer roads, better space usage and effective resource management. Nevertheless the requirements of users are extremely diverse, which is not negligible. Supporting these aims, in this paper the connection between the multimodal route planning and the user requirements are investigated. The examination is focused to a sensitivity analysis and a survey to evaluate the data and support the settings of a user habit effect to the final route.

  13. The development and application of a fabric objective measurement data system in the South African apparel industry: Hygral expansion and formability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available and formability has been investigated, using ANOVA, the results being presented in tabular and graphical form. It was found that the hygral expansion of the wool fabrics was, on average, higher than that of the wool blend fabrics, while the heavier and thicker...

  14. Challenges in Enzymatic Route of Mannitol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Sheelendra Mangal; Mohan, Anand; Srivastava, Suresh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Mannitol is an important biochemical often used as medicine and in food sector, yet its biotechnological is not preffered in Industry for large scale production, which may be due to the multistep mechanism involved in hydrogenation and reduction. This paper is a comparative preview covering present chemical and biotechnological approaches existing today for mannitol production at industrial scale. Biotechnological routes are suitable for adaptation at industrial level for mannitol production,...

  15. State alternative route designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ''state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective

  16. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 topological insulators on GaAs (111 substrates: a potential route to fabricate topological insulator p-n junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoquan Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available High quality Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 topological insulators films were epitaxially grown on GaAs (111 substrate using solid source molecular beam epitaxy. Their growth and behavior on both vicinal and non-vicinal GaAs (111 substrates were investigated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is found that non-vicinal GaAs (111 substrate is better than a vicinal substrate to provide high quality Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 films. Hall and magnetoresistance measurements indicate that p type Sb2Te3 and n type Bi2Te3 topological insulator films can be directly grown on a GaAs (111 substrate, which may pave a way to fabricate topological insulator p-n junction on the same substrate, compatible with the fabrication process of present semiconductor optoelectronic devices.

  17. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  18. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  19. Porcelain tiles by the dry route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchiades, F. G.; Daros, M. T.; Boschi, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil, the second largest tile producer of the world, at present, 70% of the tiles are produced by the dry route. One of the main reasons that lead to this development is the fact that the dry route uses approximately 30% less thermal energy them the traditional wet route. The increasing world concern with the environment and the recognition of the central role played by the water also has pointed towards privileging dry processes. In this context the objective of the present work is to study the feasibility of producing high quality porcelain tiles by the dry route. A brief comparison of the dry and wet route, in standard conditions industrially used today to produce tiles that are not porcelain tiles, shows that there are two major differences: the particle sizes obtained by the wet route are usually considerably finer and the capability of mixing the different minerals, the intimacy of the mixture, is also usually better in the wet route. The present work studied the relative importance of these differences and looked for raw materials and operational conditions that would result in better performance and glazed porcelain tiles of good quality. (Author) 7 refs.

  20. Determination of an Optimal Trunk Sewer-line Route for Kikuyu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proposed route utilises the existing road reserves, which help in minimising the costs ... and industries and conveys it using sewer pipes to a treatment works where it is treated and ..... Automating Utility Route Design and Planning through.

  1. New approach towards the polyol route to fabricate MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles: The use of MCl{sub 2} and Fe(acac){sub 3} as chemical precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.solano@ugent.be [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Yáñez, Ramón [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Ricart, Susagna [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Ros, Josep [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    A new more efficient approach of the polyol route to generate MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) nanoparticles in triethylene glycol (TREG) is presented. The selected thermal procedure is based on the Fe metalorganic precursor (iron(III) acetylacetonate) decomposition in presence of an inorganic transition metal chloride salt (MCl{sub 2}, M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) to produce high quality polar dispersible nanoparticles with lower production cost. In addition, the nanoparticles are stabilized by ionic (from the Cl{sup −}) and steric (TREG as capping ligand) effects inducing into the nanoparticles an extraordinary stability in different polar solvents. As result of this optimized methodology, the colloidal polar dispersible nanoparticles present a size around 10 nm with an adequate size dispersion demonstrated by analyzing transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) results corroborate the absence of secondary phases and the high crystalline degree obtained for the spinel structure, fact proved by using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The high magnetic performance at low and room temperature of the nanoparticles studied by magnetometry proves the high internal crystal order of the spinel. Parallel to this, the influence of the heating ramp and annealing time in the thermal procedure were also investigated for the CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} case, where a relationship between these two parameters and the final size and their associated diameter distribution was found, allowing a possible size control of the final ferrite magnetic nanoparticles synthesized. - Highlights: • An optimized one-pot methodology is presented to produce pure MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • MCl{sub 2} and Fe(acac){sub 3} precursors in TREG are used for a more efficient process. • Polar dispersible nanoparticles are obtained with high physicochemical properties. • The influence of the temperature ramp and rate on the final size is studied.

  2. Research on the optimization of vehicle distribution routes in logistics enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhigou; Ma, Mengkun

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern logistics, the vehicle routing problem has become one of the urgent problems in the logistics industry. The rationality of distribution route planning directly affects the efficiency and quality of logistics distribution. This paper first introduces the definition of logistics distribution and the three methods of optimizing the distribution routes, and then analyzes the current vehicle distribution route by using a representative example, finally puts forward the optimization schemes of logistics distribution route.

  3. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    couple of decades. To deliver competitive service and price, transportation today needs to be cost effective. A company requiring for things to be shipped will aim at having the freight shipped as cheaply as possible while often satisfying certain time constraints. For the transportation company......, the effectiveness of the network is of importance aiming at satisfying as many costumer demands as possible at a low cost. Routing represent a path between locations such as an origin and destination for the object routed. Sometimes routing has a time dimension as well as the physical paths. This may...... set cost making the cost of the individual vehicle routes inter-dependant. Depending on the problem type, the size of the problems and time available for solving, different solution methods can be applicable. In this thesis both heuristic methods and several exact methods are investigated depending...

  5. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  6. Proxies for Anonymous Routing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Michael G; Syverson, Paul F; Goldschlag, David M

    1996-01-01

    ...), and file transfers (FTP) have been implemented. Onion routing provides application independent, real-time, and bi-directional anonymous connections that are resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis...

  7. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  8. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing: Route to High Structural Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivel, S.; Sidhar, H.; Mishra, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    Aerospace and automotive industries provide the next big opportunities for additive manufacturing. Currently, the additive industry is confronted with four major challenges that have been identified in this article. These challenges need to be addressed for the additive technologies to march into new frontiers and create additional markets. Specific potential success in the transportation sectors is dependent on the ability to manufacture complicated structures with high performance. Most of the techniques used for metal-based additive manufacturing are fusion based because of their ability to fulfill the computer-aided design to component vision. Although these techniques aid in fabrication of complex shapes, achieving high structural performance is a key problem due to the liquid-solid phase transformation. In this article, friction stir additive manufacturing (FSAM) is shown as a potential solid-state process for attaining high-performance lightweight alloys for simpler geometrical applications. To illustrate FSAM as a high-performance route, manufactured builds of Mg-4Y-3Nd and AA5083 are shown as examples. In the Mg-based alloy, an average hardness of 120 HV was achieved in the built structure and was significantly higher than that of the base material (97 HV). Similarly for the Al-based alloy, compared with the base hardness of 88 HV, the average built hardness was 104 HV. A potential application of FSAM is illustrated by taking an example of a simple stiffener assembly.

  9. Routed planar networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Aldous

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling a road network as a planar graph seems very natural. However, in studying continuum limits of such networks it is useful to take {\\em routes} rather than {\\em edges} as primitives. This article is intended to introduce the relevant (discrete setting notion of {\\em routed network} to graph theorists. We give a naive classification of all 71 topologically different such networks on 4 leaves, and pose a variety of challenging research questions.

  10. An inventory location routing model with environmental considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerhlaly Sanaa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider an integrated Inventory Location Routing problem ILRP. The objective is to select depots to open, the routes to perform distribution from the capacitated depots to the clients by a homogeneous fleet of vehicles and over a multi-period planning horizon. To solve the problem, an exact model is designed in order to minimize the total cost (location, routing and inventory and the routing CO2 emissions, while respecting transport and storage constraints for a hazardous material. We have also studied an industrial real case to illustrate the problem.

  11. mizuRoute version 1: A river network routing tool for a continental domain water resources applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn P.; Sampson, Kevin; Nijssen, Bart; Mao, Yixin; McMillan, Hilary; Viger, Roland; Markstrom, Steven; Hay, Lauren E.; Woods, Ross; Arnold, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, Levi D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the first version of a stand-alone runoff routing tool, mizuRoute. The mizuRoute tool post-processes runoff outputs from any distributed hydrologic model or land surface model to produce spatially distributed streamflow at various spatial scales from headwater basins to continental-wide river systems. The tool can utilize both traditional grid-based river network and vector-based river network data. Both types of river network include river segment lines and the associated drainage basin polygons, but the vector-based river network can represent finer-scale river lines than the grid-based network. Streamflow estimates at any desired location in the river network can be easily extracted from the output of mizuRoute. The routing process is simulated as two separate steps. First, hillslope routing is performed with a gamma-distribution-based unit-hydrograph to transport runoff from a hillslope to a catchment outlet. The second step is river channel routing, which is performed with one of two routing scheme options: (1) a kinematic wave tracking (KWT) routing procedure; and (2) an impulse response function – unit-hydrograph (IRF-UH) routing procedure. The mizuRoute tool also includes scripts (python, NetCDF operators) to pre-process spatial river network data. This paper demonstrates mizuRoute's capabilities to produce spatially distributed streamflow simulations based on river networks from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) data set in which over 54 000 river segments and their contributing areas are mapped across the contiguous United States (CONUS). A brief analysis of model parameter sensitivity is also provided. The mizuRoute tool can assist model-based water resources assessments including studies of the impacts of climate change on streamflow.

  12. Agribusiness Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    sheer enormity of this ultra modernized industry. Hybridized or biotech corn seeds are now nearly impervious to pesticides and herbicides. From...efficient routes of commerce of many thousands of miles - a fresh head of broccoli and lettuce lands in the chilled and computer controlled misting...cumulatively, seemingly minor and insignificant changes in food production methods (i.e. packaged precut lettuce ), society (desire for convenience foods

  13. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D E

    2011-01-01

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years 1 fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1 2 . A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  14. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  15. Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Han

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation is an issue which has caused wide public concern in modern societies, not only for the quantitative rise of the amount of waste generated, but also for the increasing complexity of some products and components. Waste collection is a highly relevant activity in the reverse logistics system and how to collect waste in an efficient way is an area that needs to be improved. This paper analyzes the major contribution about Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem (WCVRP in literature. Based on a classification of waste collection (residential, commercial and industrial, firstly the key findings for these three types of waste collection are presented. Therefore, according to the model (Node Routing Problems and Arc Routing problems used to represent WCVRP, different methods and techniques are analyzed in this paper to solve WCVRP. This paper attempts to serve as a roadmap of research literature produced in the field of WCVRP.

  16. Collective network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  17. Optimizing well intervention routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Ronaldo O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis J.; Bordalo, Sergio N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO)]. E-mail: denis@dep.fem.unicamp.br; bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a method for optimizing the itinerary of work over rigs, i.e., the search for the route of minimum total cost, and demonstrates the importance of the dynamics of reservoir behaviour. The total cost of a route includes the rig expenses (transport, assembly and operation), which are functions of time and distances, plus the losses of revenue in wells waiting for the rig, which are also dependent of time. A reservoir simulator is used to evaluate the monetary influence of the well shutdown on the present value of the production curve. Finally, search algorithms are employed to determine the route of minimal cost. The Simulated Annealing algorithm was also successful in optimizing the distribution of a list of wells among different work over rigs. The rational approach presented here is recommended for management teams as a standard procedure to define the priority of wells scheduled for work over. (author)

  18. Multihop Wireless Networks Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Kai; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to opportunistic routing an emerging technology designed to improve the packet forwarding reliability, network capacity and energy efficiency of multihop wireless networks This book presents a comprehensive background to the technological challenges lying behind opportunistic routing. The authors cover many fundamental research issues for this new concept, including the basic principles, performance limit and performance improvement of opportunistic routing compared to traditional routing, energy efficiency and distributed opportunistic routing protocol desig

  19. Advanced fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the fabrication of advanced fuels, such as mixed oxides for Pressurized Water Reactors or mixed nitrides for Fast Breeder Reactors. Although an extensive production experience exists for the mixed oxides used in the FBR, important work is still needed to improve the theoretical and technical knowledge of the production route which will be introduced in the future European facility, named Melox, at Marcoule. Recently, the feasibility of nitride fuel fabrication in existing commercial oxide facilities was demonstrated in France. The process, based on carbothermic reduction of oxides with subsequent comminution of the reaction product, cold pressing and sintering provides (U, Pu)N pellets with characteristics suitable for irradiation testing. Two experiments named NIMPHE 1 and 2 fabricated in collaboration with ITU, Karlsruhe, involve 16 nitride and 2 carbide pins, operating at a linear power of 45 and 73 kW/m with a smear density of 75-80% TD and a high burn-up target of 15 at%. These experiments are currently being irradiated in Phenix, at Marcoule. (orig.)

  20. Computational modelling of buckling of woven fabrics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anandjiwala, RD

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available for reducing unit production cost is critically important if garment industries in developed countries are keen to improve their competitiveness vis-à-vis low labour cost countries. The mechanics of the buckling behaviour of woven fabric started... of woven fabric. INTRODUCTION The buckling, bending and drape behaviours of a woven fabric influence its performance during actual use and during the process of making-up into the end product. These properties are important, particularly when the fabric...

  1. Alternative routes to olefins. Chances and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiswinkel, A.; Delhomme, C.; Ponceau, M. [Linde AG, Pullach (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    In the future, conventional raw materials which are used for the production of olefins will get shorter and more expensive and alternative raw materials and production routes will gain importance. Natural gas, coal, shale oil or bio-mass are potential sources for the production of olefins, especially ethylene and propylene, as major base chemicals. Several potential production routes were already developed in the past, but cost, energy and environmental considerations might make these unattractive or unfeasible in comparison to traditional processes (e.g. steam cracking). Other processes such as methanol to olefins processes were successfully developed and first commercial units are running. In addition, combination of traditional processes (e.g. coal/biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch and steam cracking) might enable new pathways. Besides, dehydration of ethanol is opening direct routes from biomass to 'green' ethylene. However, for these 'bio-routes', feedstock availability and potential land use conflict with food production (sugar cane, wheat,..) still need to be evaluated. finally, new oxidative routes, including processes such as oxidative coupling of methane or oxidative dehydrogenation, are still at an early development stage but present potential for future industrial applications. (orig.) (Published in summary form only)

  2. Whirlpool routing for mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Woo

    2010-01-01

    We present the Whirlpool Routing Protocol (WARP), which efficiently routes data to a node moving within a static mesh. The key insight in WARP\\'s design is that data traffic can use an existing routing gradient to efficiently probe the topology, repair the routing gradient, and communicate these repairs to nearby nodes. Using simulation, controlled testbeds, and real mobility experiments, we find that using the data plane for topology maintenance is highly effective due to the incremental nature of mobility updates. WARP leverages the fact that converging flows at a destination make the destination have the region of highest traffic. We provide a theoretical basis for WARP\\'s behavior, defining an "update area" in which the topology must adjust when a destination moves. As long as packets arrive at a destination before it moves outside of the update area, WARP can repair the topology using the data plane. Compared to existing protocols, such as DYMO and HYPER, WARP\\'s packet drop rate is up to 90% lower while sending up to 90% fewer packets.

  3. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  4. Silver Nanowire Arrays : Fabrication and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yuyi

    2016-01-01

    Nanowire arrays have increasingly received attention for their use in a variety of applications such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), plasmonic sensing, and electrodes for photoelectric devices. However, until now, large scale fabrication of device-suitable metallic nanowire arrays on supporting substrates has seen very limited success. This thesis describes my work rst on the development of a novel successful processing route for the fabrication of uniform noble metallic (e.g. A...

  5. Catalytic routes from biomass to fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders

    2014-01-01

    chain unaffected. This presentation will survey the status of biofuels production from different sources, and discuss the sustainability of making transportation fuels from biomass. Furthermore, recently developed chemocatalytic technologies that allow efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass...... the chemical industry to find new feasible chemocatalytic routes to convert the components of lignocellulosic plant biomass (green biomass) as well as aquatic biomass (blue biomass) into potential platform chemicals that can replace the fossil based chemicals in order to leave the chemical supply and value...

  6. Potential Valuation of Route Prague – Trutnov after D11 Completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hašek Jakub

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech Republic, there are many regions with unbalanced competition between bus and rail transport on main transport routes. This is due to differences in the quality of transport infrastructure, the attractiveness of the region, routing traffic routes or economic attractiveness for new investors and industry. The aim of this article is to evaluate the potential for bus operators on the route from Prague to Trutnov after completion of D11 highway project.

  7. TiNi shape memory alloys: effects of the fabrication route, the oxygen content and the zirconium or hafnium additions on the metallurgical characteristics and the thermomechanical properties; Alliages a memoires de forme de base TiNi: influence du mode de fabrication de la teneur en oxygene et de l`ajout de Zr ou Hf sur les caracteristiques metallurgiques et les proprietes mecaniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olier, P.

    1996-12-31

    In order to promote the development of Ti-Ni shape memory alloys, we have studied the correlation between the fabrication route, the chemical composition (O{sub 2} content, Zr or Hf additions), the metallurgical characteristics and the thermomechanical properties. A conventional sintering does not allow to obtain a homogeneous compound of pure Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} alloy because of the occurrence of Kirkendall porosities which act as a diffusion barrier. An original process including combustion synthesis and hot-extrusion was successfully developed. Resulting products exhibit a smaller grain size (15-20{mu}m) and an enhanced workability in comparison with products obtained by arc-melting and subsequent hot rolling. The presence of oxygen in equiatomic Ti-Ni alloy induces the oxide precipitation of Ti{sub 4}Ni{sub 2}O{sub x} type (with x {<=} 1). The precipitated particle fraction is proportional to the oxygen nominal content of the alloy. We show that the decrease of the transformation temperatures is correlated with the decrease of Ti in solid solution due to Ti{sub 4}Ni{sub 2}O precipitation. Moreover, we find that a fine and homogenous oxide dispersion is suitable to decrease the grain size during hot rolling and to enhance to the one way shape memory properties. An increase of the typical transformation temperatures is obtained through of Zr or Hf (in substitution to Ti). But, an increase of the hardness is measured, and consequently the workability of the ternary alloys becomes reduced. However, it is worthwhile to point out that a Ti{sub 38}Ni{sub 50}Hf{sub 12} product obtained by arc melting and hot extrusion is able to fully recover an apparent plastic strain of more than 4% during tensile tests performed under special loading conditions. Such as behaviour is of great interest with respect to potential applications in a temperature range higher that 100 deg. C. (author). 105 refs.

  8. SiC/SiC composites through transient eutectic-phase route for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Y.; Kohyama, A.; Nozawa, T.; Sato, M.

    2004-01-01

    Factors that may limit attractiveness of silicon-carbide-based ceramic composites to fusion applications include thermal conductivity, applicable design stress, chemical compatibility, hermeticity, radiation stability and fabrication cost. A novel SiC/SiC composite, which has recently been developed through nano-infiltration and transient eutectic-phase (NITE) processing route, surpasses conventional materials in many of these properties. In this paper, the latest development, property evaluation and prospect of the NITE SiC/SiC composites are briefly reviewed. The topics range from fundamental aspects of process development to industrial process development. Elevated temperature strength, fracture behavior, and thermo-physical properties in various environments are summarized. Future directions of materials and application technology development are also discussed

  9. Microneedle-based drug delivery systems for transdermal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma; Rossetti, Fabia Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Transdermal delivery offers an attractive, noninvasive administration route but it is limited by the skin's barrier to penetration. Minimally invasive techniques, such as the use of microneedles (MNs), bypass the stratum corneum (SC) barrier to permit the drug's direct access to the viable epidermis. These novel micro devices have been developed to puncture the skin for the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules, including peptides, DNA and other molecules, that would otherwise have difficulty passing the outermost layer of the skin, the SC. Using the tools of the microelectronics industry, MNs have been fabricated with a range of sizes, shapes and materials. MNs have been shown to be robust enough to penetrate the skin and dramatically increase the skin permeability of several drugs. Moreover, MNs have reduced needle insertion pain and tissue trauma and provided controlled delivery across the skin. This review focuses on the current state of the art in the transdermal delivery of drugs using various types of MNs and developments in the field of microscale devices, as well as examples of their uses and clinical safety.

  10. Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: Taxonomy, Research Challenges, Routing Strategies and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar; Ali, Ihsan; Ghani, Abdullah; Khan, Nawsher; Alsaqer, Mohammed; Rahman, Atiq Ur; Mahmood, Hasan

    2018-05-18

    Recent research in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has gained the attention of researchers in academia and industry for a number of applications. They include disaster and earthquake prediction, water quality and environment monitoring, leakage and mine detection, military surveillance and underwater navigation. However, the aquatic medium is associated with a number of limitations and challenges: long multipath delay, high interference and noise, harsh environment, low bandwidth and limited battery life of the sensor nodes. These challenges demand research techniques and strategies to be overcome in an efficient and effective fashion. The design of routing protocols for UWSNs is one of the promising solutions to cope with these challenges. This paper presents a survey of the routing protocols for UWSNs. For the ease of description, the addressed routing protocols are classified into two groups: localization-based and localization-free protocols. These groups are further subdivided according to the problems they address or the major parameters they consider during routing. Unlike the existing surveys, this survey considers only the latest and state-of-the-art routing protocols. In addition, every protocol is described in terms of its routing strategy and the problem it addresses and solves. The merit(s) of each protocol is (are) highlighted along with the cost. A description of the protocols in this fashion has a number of advantages for researchers, as compared to the existing surveys. Firstly, the description of the routing strategy of each protocol makes its routing operation easily understandable. Secondly, the demerit(s) of a protocol provides (provide) insight into overcoming its flaw(s) in future investigation. This, in turn, leads to the foundation of new protocols that are more intelligent, robust and efficient with respect to the desired parameters. Thirdly, a protocol can be selected for the appropriate application based on its described

  11. British Dance: Black Routes

    OpenAIRE

    Adair, C.; Burt, Ramsay, 1953-

    2016-01-01

    British Dance: Black Routes re-examines the distinctive contributions made to British dance by dancers who are Black. Covering the period 1946 to the present, it presents a radical re-reading of dancers and their companies, placing their achievements within a broader historical, cultural and artistic context. The result of a two year research project, British Dance and the African Diaspora, led by editors Christy Adair and Ramsay Burt, the collection looks at artists working with contempor...

  12. Fabrication of nano porous with heavy ions in plastics for the oil industry; Fabricacion de nano poros con iones pesados en plasticos para la industria petrolera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, M.; Tavera, L.; Mendoza, D.; Mut, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mbg@nuclear.inin.mx

    2003-07-01

    The natural gas has undesirable concentrations of other gases like the nitrogen that reduces the heat capacity of the gas. It is required to develop separation technology to increase the caloric value of the gas. Among the technology in development for the separation of these gases there are the nano membranes; these are polymeric material that when synthesizing them form nano pores that allow the selective separation of the gas. Another form of creating these nano pores with uniform and controlled pore size, is irradiating a polymeric material with heavy ions. The energy loss of the heavy ion produces cylindrical damages around its trajectory in a diameter among 30 x 10{sup -10} m and 100 x 10{sup -10} m. This damage breaks the chains of the polymer making it susceptible to the corrosion of appropriate chemical agents that allow to create a pore of the size of some nanometers in the polymer. The basic mechanisms of the interaction of the ions with the polymer are important for the controlled creation, the observation and analysis of these nano pores. One of the more appropriate techniques for the visualization and analysis of the geometry of the produced damages, it is the scanning electron and of the atomic force microscopies. The present work has as objective to define the basic parameters of the interaction of the ion with the polymer that intervene in the fabrication of this nano pores. The conditions of the chemical corrosion process are presented for the creation of micro pores in two polymers CR39 and Makrofol produced by fission fragments and alpha particles. A characterization of the diameters and of the damages profile is make. The obtained results are related with the mechanisms of loss of energy of the ions in the matter and the particles identification in function of the damage geometry. (Author)

  13. Fabrication and studies of microstructure and mechanical properties of Ba2MgNbO5,5 ceramics for application in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.C. da S.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Yadava, Y.P.

    2011-01-01

    The present work aims at the elaboration of a ceramic complex perovskite ceramic components for temperature sensors for oil wells, as well as the study of microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of ceramics Ba 2 MgNbO 5,5 . The manufacture of pottery Ba 2 MgNbO 5,5 was performed using a thermo-mechanical and solid-state sintering. The pellets of compressed green were calcined for 24 hours at a temperature of 1200°C and then crushed with the help of a set pistil / agate mortar. The resulting powder was compacted and new pellets were sintered at a temperature of 1250°C. Basic studies of stability of ceramics sintered in the environment of crude oil, from onshore wells and the sea, the state of Sergipe in northeastern Brazil. The test results showed that the ceramic is inert to crude oil and can be used to produce ceramic components for the oil industry. (author)

  14. Industrial fabrication of an optical security device for document protection using plasmon resonant transmission through a thin corrugated metallic film embedded on a plastic foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage-Vincent, Jean; Jourlin, Yves; Tonchev, Svetlen; Veillas, Colette; Claude, Pedri; Parriaux, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Known since a long time in polymer banknotes and presented in the few years in paper banknotes, the principle of windowed documents has been currently extended to ID documents. We present an innovative solution which combines resonant transmission and Zero Order Device technologies and which is dedicated to improve windows in terms of the overt security level. With this R&D program, Hologram Industries targeted to obtain an overt visual security device that should be readily checked in transmission in the same manner as the established paper watermark. The proposed solution is based on the propagation of resonant modes in a thin continuous corrugated metallic layer embedded (encapsulated) between two dielectric layers of near equal refractive index. The mode of most interest is the Long Range Plasmon Mode. The coupling condition to the Long Range Mode is principally related to the corrugation, the metal layer thickness and the index of the two dielectric layers. If the condition of the mode excitation through the grating is fulfilled, a predetermined wavelength will be coupled to the Long Range Plasmon Mode. This mode will propagate at each metal/dielectric interface with a low loss and will concentrate the electric field inside the metal layer. This effect of coupling enables the transmission of a peak at this wavelength through the metallic layer. It defines the so called "extraordinary resonant transmission".

  15. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  16. Innovative Application of Fabric Recycling in Fashion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous development of the socialist market economy, human aesthetic standards are constantly changing, the occurrence of this situation to the development of the garment industry challenges, that is a single fabric has long been unable to meet people's aesthetic needs, And then the art of fabric reengineering will be born. This paper elaborates the meaning of fabric reworking art. This paper systematically describes the meaning of fabric reengineering to garment designer and garment itself, and comprehensively summarizes the fabric recycling technique and its characteristics.

  17. OPO fabric decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Bar, J.; Grujbar, V.

    1978-01-01

    Samples of five polypropylene-based man-made fabrics were studied with regard to the degree of contamination and possibilities of decontamination in order to assess their suitability as material for protective clothing in the nuclear industry. The contamination degree of the fabrics in an aqueous solution of a fission product mixture was found to be low. Soaking in a mixture of the Sapon detergent and sodium hexametaphosphate at a concentration of both materials of 1 g/l with subsequent washing in a solution of the Zenit detergent at a concentration of 3 g/l was suggested as the most suitable decontamination procedure. It reduces the initial contamination by almost 99%. (Z.M.)

  18. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  19. Development and characterization of ceramic composites alumina-titania based reinforced with lanthanum oxide for fabrication of inert coatings for metallic tanks of the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, J.M.; Yadava, Y.P.; Silva, N.D.G.; Ferreira, R.A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Crude petroleum is highly corrosive causing superficial degradation in metallic tanks used for storage and transportation of this material, which causes a serious problem in the oil industry. An alternative to solve this problem is to use some kind of coating that is inert to this kind of corrosion. Alumina and titania are interesting materials for several engineering applications because, when compared with other ceramic materials, they present superior mechanical properties, e.g. high mechanical strength, good chemical stability and high fracture toughness combined with good wear resistance and a coefficient of thermal expansion close to the iron's, which makes them fit to use in ceramic hardening process and coating. In this paper, alumina-titania ceramic composites with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of titania (TiO2) and reinforced with 2% of lanthanum oxide of were produced by thermo-mechanical processing and sintering techniques at 1350 deg C. In these composites, microstructure and mechanical properties were analyzed using X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers hardness in order to evaluate their applicability. X-ray spectroscopy showed the formation of composite without the presence of other phases. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed a homogeneous microstructure in terms of particle size and distribution. Vickers hardness test showed a gradual decrease in hardness with the addition of titania. The composite with 5% of titania and 2% of lanthanum oxide is the best choice for structural applications. The composites were submerged in crude petroleum for 30 days to study their stability in such environment. Through the analysis of X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy and Vickers hardness before and after the submersion in crude petroleum, it was not observed structural or microstructural degradation nether alterations in mechanical properties. This way, it was concluded that these composites have good

  20. Elisabeth Badinter, Fausse route

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Juchat, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Elisabeth Badinter, philosophe de formation, est l’auteure de nombreux ouvrages sur la condition féminine et les rapports hommes/femmes dans la société. Avec Fausse route, elle signe une vision polémique du féminisme occidental. Son ouvrage a suscité de nombreuses critiques de femmes dans diverses revues destinées au grand public. Hélène Strohl, recenseur de la revue Culture en mouvement, conclut que cet ouvrage est peu scientifique, sujet à caution : « Argument contre argument, amalgame cont...

  1. Energy Reduction Multipath Routing Protocol for MANET Using Recoil Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Sahu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANET, power conservation and utilization is an acute problem and has received significant attention from academics and industry in recent years. Nodes in MANET function on battery power, which is a rare and limited energy resource. Hence, its conservation and utilization should be done judiciously for the effective functioning of the network. In this paper, a novel protocol namely Energy Reduction Multipath Routing Protocol for MANET using Recoil Technique (AOMDV-ER is proposed, which conserves the energy along with optimal network lifetime, routing overhead, packet delivery ratio and throughput. It performs better than any other AODV based algorithms, as in AOMDV-ER the nodes transmit packets to their destination smartly by using a varying recoil off time technique based on their geographical location. This concept reduces the number of transmissions, which results in the improvement of network lifetime. In addition, the local level route maintenance reduces the additional routing overhead. Lastly, the prediction based link lifetime of each node is estimated which helps in reducing the packet loss in the network. This protocol has three subparts: an optimal route discovery algorithm amalgamation with the residual energy and distance mechanism; a coordinated recoiled nodes algorithm which eliminates the number of transmissions in order to reduces the data redundancy, traffic redundant, routing overhead, end to end delay and enhance the network lifetime; and a last link reckoning and route maintenance algorithm to improve the packet delivery ratio and link stability in the network. The experimental results show that the AOMDV-ER protocol save at least 16% energy consumption, 12% reduction in routing overhead, significant achievement in network lifetime and packet delivery ratio than Ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector routing protocol (AOMDV, Ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector routing protocol life

  2. Routing Service Quality—Local Driver Behavior Versus Routing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    of the quality of one kind of location-based service, namely routing services. Specifically, the paper presents a framework that enables the comparison of the routes provided by routing services with the actual driving behaviors of local drivers. Comparisons include route length, travel time, and also route...... popularity, which are enabled by common driving behaviors found in available trajectory data. The ability to evaluate the quality of routing services enables service providers to improve the quality of their services and enables users to identify the services that best serve their needs. The paper covers......Mobile location-based services is a very successful class of services that are being used frequently by users with GPS-enabled mobile devices such as smartphones. This paper presents a study of how to exploit GPS trajectory data, which is available in increasing volumes, for the assessment...

  3. Fabrication of cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chengyu

    2013-07-25

    A simple and facile method for fabricating the cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy is described in the present work. The cotton fabric with the maximal WCA of 160° has been prepared by the covalent deposition of amino-silica nanospheres and the further graft with (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The geometric microstructure of silica spheres was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, diverse performances of superhydrophobic cotton textiles have been evaluated as well. The results exhibited the outstanding superhydrophobicity, excellent waterproofing durability and flame retardancy of the cotton fabric after treatment, offering a good opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Challenges in enzymatic route of mannitol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Sheelendra Mangal; Mohan, Anand; Srivastava, Suresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Mannitol is an important biochemical often used as medicine and in food sector, yet its biotechnological is not preffered in Industry for large scale production, which may be due to the multistep mechanism involved in hydrogenation and reduction. This paper is a comparative preview covering present chemical and biotechnological approaches existing today for mannitol production at industrial scale. Biotechnological routes are suitable for adaptation at industrial level for mannitol production, and whatever concerns are there had been discussed in detail, namely, raw materials, broad range of enzymes with high activity at elevated temperature suitable for use in reactor, cofactor limitation, reduced by-product formation, end product inhibition, and reduced utilization of mannitol for enhancing the yield with maximum volumetric productivity.

  5. An overview of smart grid routing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; OU, Qinghai; Shen, Haijuan

    2017-08-01

    This paper summarizes the typical routing algorithm in smart grid by analyzing the communication business and communication requirements of intelligent grid. Mainly from the two kinds of routing algorithm is analyzed, namely clustering routing algorithm and routing algorithm, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of typical routing algorithm in routing algorithm and applicability.

  6. A facile fabrication of multifunctional knit polyester fabric based on chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiaoning [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Tian, Mingwei [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Qu, Lijun, E-mail: lijunqu@126.com [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Zhu, Shifeng [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Guo, Xiaoqing [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Han, Guangting [Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); and others

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • Multifunctional knit polyester fabric was facile fabricated by the combination of pad-dry-cure process and in situ chemical polymerization route. • High electrical conductivity and efficient water-repellent properties were endowed to the polymer nanocomposite coated fabric. • The polymer nanocomposite coated fabric also performed efficient and durable photocatalytic activities under the illumination of ultraviolet light. - Abstract: Knit polyester fabric was successively modified and decorated with chitosan layer and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer in this paper. The fabric was firstly treated with chitosan to form a stable layer through the pad-dry-cure process, and then the polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer was established on the outer layer by in situ chemical polymerization method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant and chlorhydric acid as dopant. The surface morphology of coated fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the co-existence of chitosan layer and granular polyaniline polymer nanocomposite was confirmed and well dispersed on the fabric surface. The resultant fabric was endowed with remarkable electrical conductivity properties and efficient water-repellent capability, which also have been found stable after water laundering. In addition, the photocatalytic decomposition activity for reactive red dye was observed when the multifunctional knit polyester fabric was exposed to the illumination of ultraviolet lamp. These results indicated that chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite could form ideal multifunctional coatings on the surface of knit polyester fabric.

  7. A facile fabrication of multifunctional knit polyester fabric based on chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiaoning; Tian, Mingwei; Qu, Lijun; Zhu, Shifeng; Guo, Xiaoqing; Han, Guangting

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multifunctional knit polyester fabric was facile fabricated by the combination of pad-dry-cure process and in situ chemical polymerization route. • High electrical conductivity and efficient water-repellent properties were endowed to the polymer nanocomposite coated fabric. • The polymer nanocomposite coated fabric also performed efficient and durable photocatalytic activities under the illumination of ultraviolet light. - Abstract: Knit polyester fabric was successively modified and decorated with chitosan layer and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer in this paper. The fabric was firstly treated with chitosan to form a stable layer through the pad-dry-cure process, and then the polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer was established on the outer layer by in situ chemical polymerization method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant and chlorhydric acid as dopant. The surface morphology of coated fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the co-existence of chitosan layer and granular polyaniline polymer nanocomposite was confirmed and well dispersed on the fabric surface. The resultant fabric was endowed with remarkable electrical conductivity properties and efficient water-repellent capability, which also have been found stable after water laundering. In addition, the photocatalytic decomposition activity for reactive red dye was observed when the multifunctional knit polyester fabric was exposed to the illumination of ultraviolet lamp. These results indicated that chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite could form ideal multifunctional coatings on the surface of knit polyester fabric

  8. Pilling Resistance of Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita BUSILIENĖ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Knitted fabrics with different quantity of elastane, conspicuous by high viscosity and elasticity, having one of the most important performance properties - resistance to pilling are often used in the production of high quality sportswear. During technological process imitating operating conditions, the behaviour of knitted fabrics may be changed by different industrial softeners from 12 % to 20 % of active substance, for example fatty acid condensate (Tubingal 5051 or silicone micro emulsion (Tubingal SMF. The aim of this investigation is to define the influence of fibrous composition and chemical softeners to the propensity of fuzzing and pilling of plain and plated jersey pattern knitted fabrics. The results of investigations showed that fibrous composition and thickness of materials (up to 6 % and washing as well as softening (from 33 % to 67 % change the resistance of knitted fabrics to pilling.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.597

  9. Fabricated Elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Giselle C; Aghaei-Ghareh-Bolagh, Behnaz; Brackenreg, Edwin P; Hiob, Matti A; Lee, Pearl; Weiss, Anthony S

    2015-11-18

    The mechanical stability, elasticity, inherent bioactivity, and self-assembly properties of elastin make it a highly attractive candidate for the fabrication of versatile biomaterials. The ability to engineer specific peptide sequences derived from elastin allows the precise control of these physicochemical and organizational characteristics, and further broadens the diversity of elastin-based applications. Elastin and elastin-like peptides can also be modified or blended with other natural or synthetic moieties, including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides, and polymers, to augment existing capabilities or confer additional architectural and biofunctional features to compositionally pure materials. Elastin and elastin-based composites have been subjected to diverse fabrication processes, including heating, electrospinning, wet spinning, solvent casting, freeze-drying, and cross-linking, for the manufacture of particles, fibers, gels, tubes, sheets and films. The resulting materials can be tailored to possess specific strength, elasticity, morphology, topography, porosity, wettability, surface charge, and bioactivity. This extraordinary tunability of elastin-based constructs enables their use in a range of biomedical and tissue engineering applications such as targeted drug delivery, cell encapsulation, vascular repair, nerve regeneration, wound healing, and dermal, cartilage, bone, and dental replacement. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Influence of interface reactions on the YBCO films grown by fluorine-free solution route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yue; Wu, Wei; Tang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Fabrication of full-stacked coated conductors by all-chemical-solution routes exhibit a great potential in view of further reducing the cost and increasing the throughput for industrialization. Growth of YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO) superconducting films by fluorine-free metal organic deposition routes (FF......-MOD) which are environmental friendly has attracted more attentions recently. In this work, comparison study was performed on the YBCO-Ag superconducting thin films deposited on two types of single crystal substrates, LaAlO3 and Ce0.9La0.9O2−y/YSZ. The structural characterization and superconducting...... properties studies reveal that the interface reactions between the YBCO-Ag film and the CLO cap layer play an essential role on the nucleation and growth of YBCO-Ag films from the FF solution. Weak texture caused by serious interface reactions at high growth temperature is the main explanations for the poor...

  11. Porcelain tiles by the dry route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschi, A. O.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the second largest tile producer of the world, at present, 70% of the tiles are produced by the dry route. One of the main reasons that lead to this development is the fact that the dry route uses approximately 30% less thermal energy them the traditional wet route. The increasing world concern with the environment and the recognition of the central role played by the water also has pointed towards privileging dry processes. In this context the objective of the present work is to study the feasibility of producing high quality porcelain tiles by the dry route. A brief comparison of the dry and wet route, in standard conditions industrially used today to produce tiles that are not porcelain tiles, shows that there are two major differences: the particle sizes obtained by the wet route are usually considerably finer and the capability of mixing the different minerals, the intimacy of the mixture, is also usually better in the wet route. The present work studied the relative importance of these differences and looked for raw materials and operational conditions that would result in better performance and glazed porcelain tiles of good quality.

    En Brasil, en este momento segundo productor mundial, el 70% de los pavimentos cerámicos se obtiene por vía seca. Una de las razones fundamentales se debe a que esta vía supone un consumo energético inferior, en un 30%, a la via húmeda tradicional. La creciente preocupación mundial sobre los problemas medioambientales y el reconocimiento del papel central que juega el agua en este proceso han favorecido el desarrollo de la vía seca. En este contexto, el objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar la viabilidad de la producción de pavimentos porcelánicos de alta calidad por vía seca. Una breve comparación entre ambas vías, en las condiciones standard de producción vigentes para producciones que no son de porcelánico, indican que existen dos diferencias substanciales; el tamaño de

  12. Fabrication of long-term stable superoleophobic surface based on copper oxide/cobalt oxide with micro-nanoscale hierarchical roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthwal, Sumit; Lim, Si-Hyung

    2015-02-01

    We have demonstrated a simple and cost-effective technique for the large-area fabrication of a superoleophobic surface using copper as a substrate. The whole process included three simple steps: First, the copper substrate was oxidized under hot alkaline conditions to fabricate flower-like copper oxide microspheres by heating at a particular temperature for an interval of time. Second, the copper-oxide-covered copper substrate was further heated in a solution of cobalt nitrate and ammonium nitrate in the presence of an ammonia solution to fabricate cobalt oxide nanostructures. We applied this second step to increase the surface roughness because it is an important criterion for improved superoleophobicity. Finally, to reduce the surface energy of the fabricated structures, the surfaces were chemically modified with perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane. Contact-angle measurements indicate that the micro-nano binary (MNB) hierarchical structures fabricated on the copper substrate became super-repellent toward a broad range of liquids with surface tension in the range of 21.5-72 mN/m. In an attempt to significantly improve the superoleophobic property of the surface, we also examined and compared the role of nanostructures in MNB hierarchical structures with only micro-fabricated surfaces. The fabricated MNB hierarchical structures also displays thermal stability and excellent long-term stability after exposure in air for more than 9 months. Our method might provide a general route toward the preparation of novel hierarchical films on metal substrates for various industrial applications.

  13. Vertex routing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, D; Gros, C

    2009-01-01

    A class of models describing the flow of information within networks via routing processes is proposed and investigated, concentrating on the effects of memory traces on the global properties. The long-term flow of information is governed by cyclic attractors, allowing to define a measure for the information centrality of a vertex given by the number of attractors passing through this vertex. We find the number of vertices having a nonzero information centrality to be extensive/subextensive for models with/without a memory trace in the thermodynamic limit. We evaluate the distribution of the number of cycles, of the cycle length and of the maximal basins of attraction, finding a complete scaling collapse in the thermodynamic limit for the latter. Possible implications of our results for the information flow in social networks are discussed.

  14. Stainless steel fabrications: past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, R.

    1986-01-01

    The paper deals with stainless steel fabrications of Fairey Engineering Company for the nuclear industry. The manufacture of stainless steel containers for Magnox and Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors, flexible fabrication facility, and welding development, are all briefly described. (U.K.)

  15. Southern states' routing agency report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The Southern states' routing agency report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs relative to the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source ad scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed

  16. Southern States' Routing Agency Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed

  17. ZERO: Probabilistic Routing for Deploy and Forget Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Pacho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As Wireless Sensor Networks are being adopted by industry and agriculture for large-scale and unattended deployments, the need for reliable and energy-conservative protocols become critical. Physical and Link layer efforts for energy conservation are not mostly considered by routing protocols that put their efforts on maintaining reliability and throughput. Gradient-based routing protocols route data through most reliable links aiming to ensure 99% packet delivery. However, they suffer from the so-called ”hot spot” problem. Most reliable routes waste their energy fast, thus partitioning the network and reducing the area monitored. To cope with this ”hot spot” problem we propose ZERO a combined approach at Network and Link layers to increase network lifespan while conserving reliability levels by means of probabilistic load balancing techniques.

  18. Stochastic vehicle routing with recourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Saket, Rishi

    2012-01-01

    instantiations, a recourse route is computed - but costs here become more expensive by a factor λ. We present an O(log2n ·log(nλ))-approximation algorithm for this stochastic routing problem, under arbitrary distributions. The main idea in this result is relating StochVRP to a special case of submodular...

  19. Route-external and route-internal landmarks in route descriptions : Effects of route length and map design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, Hans; Maes, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Landmarks are basic ingredients in route descriptions. They often mark choice points: locations where travellers choose from different options how to continue the route. This study focuses on one of the loose ends in the taxonomy of landmarks. In a memory-based production experiment in which

  20. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against

  1. A new route to process diamond wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Filgueira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original route to process diamond wires, denominated In Situ Technology, whose fabrication involves mechanical conformation processes, such as rotary forging, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments, such as sintering and recrystallisation of a bronze 4 wt.% diamond composite. Tensile tests were performed, reaching an ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 230 MPa for the diameter of Æ = 1.84 mm. Scanning electron microscopy showed the diamond crystals distribution along the composite rope during its manufacture, as well as the diamond adhesion to the bronze matrix. Cutting tests were carried out with the processed wire, showing a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond sawing discs, however its probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires (pearl system due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix, and low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond due to the use of not metallised diamond single crystals.

  2. Manufacturing routes for stainless steel first wall panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucci, Ph.; Federzoni, L.; Le Marois, G.; Lorenzetto, P.

    2001-01-01

    Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques are being considered in the European Home Team as one of the fabrication routes to produce ITER-FEAT primary first wall panels (PFWP). To demonstrate the potential and the availability of such techniques, material development, innovative mock-up fabrications and numerical modeling for the production of near-net shape components are currently been studied by CEA/CEREM in collaboration with the EFDA-CSU Garching. The aim of this work is to investigate the manufacturing feasibility of advanced PFWP concepts, with reduced pitch between FW cooling channels and reduced material thickness between the FW cooling channels and the front surface, in order to improve the thermal fatigue performance of these concepts. In order to select the best fabrication route, two different manufacturing methods based on the HIP process are being considered. The first one consists in manufacturing of the first wall panel by a HIP forming technique. Mock-ups are made of a serpentine tube expanded into a proper matrix. 2-D computer modeling has been performed to estimate the serpentine deformation. The second manufacturing route is based on the powder HIP technique. Mock-ups have been made of a serpentine embedded into SS powder. In both cases, the objective was to obtain the minimum pitch between the stainless steel (SS) tubes and between the SS tubes and the front face

  3. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2014-01-01

    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  4. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics...

  5. A facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Shuliang; Wang, Chengyu; Li, Jian

    2012-11-01

    A facile and novel method for fabricating superhydrophobic cotton fabrics is described in the present work. The superhydrophobic surface has been prepared by utilizing cationic poly (dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) and silica particles together with subsequent modification of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The size distribution of silica particles was measured by Particle Size Analyzer. The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, the superhydrophobic durability of coated cotton textiles has been evaluated by exposure, immersion and washing tests. The results show that the treated cotton fabrics exhibited excellent chemical stability and outstanding non-wettability with the WCA of 155 ± 2°, which offers an opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications.

  6. Road Routes for Waste Disposal - MDC_RecyclingRoute

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — This CURBSIDE RECYCLING ROUTES BOUNDARIES LAYER IS A polygon feature class created for the Miami-Dade Department of Solid Waste Management (DSWM). It contains the...

  7. Capacity Constrained Routing Algorithms for Evacuation Route Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Qingsong; George, Betsy; Shekhar, Shashi

    2006-01-01

    .... In this paper, we propose a new approach, namely a capacity constrained routing planner which models capacity as a time series and generalizes shortest path algorithms to incorporate capacity constraints...

  8. Fabrication, characterization and applications of iron selenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Raja Azadar, E-mail: hussainazadar@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Badshah, Amin [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Lal, Bhajan [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Sukkur Institute of Business Administration (Pakistan)

    2016-11-15

    This review article presents fabrication of FeSe by solid state reactions, solution chemistry routes, chemical vapor deposition, spray pyrolysis and chemical vapor transport. Different properties and applications such as crystal structure and phase transition, band structure, spectroscopy, superconductivity, photocatalytic activity, electrochemical sensing, and fuel cell activity of FeSe have been discussed. - Graphical abstract: Iron selenide can be synthesized by solid state reactions, chemical vapor deposition, solution chemistry routes, chemical vapor transport and spray pyrolysis. - Highlights: • Different fabrication methods of iron selenide (FeSe) have been reviewed. • Crystal structure, band structure and spectroscopy of FeSe have been discussed. • Superconducting, catalytic and fuel cell application of FeSe have been presented.

  9. Pheromone based alternative route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangbing Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an improved alternative route calculation based on alternative figures, which is suitable for practical environments. The improvement is based on the fact that the main traffic route is the road network skeleton in a city. Our approach using nodes may generate a higher possibility of overlapping. We employ a bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm to search the route. To measure the quality of an Alternative Figures (AG, three quotas are proposed. The experiment results indicate that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is more effective than others.

  10. Route planning algorithms: Planific@ Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Martín Ortega

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Planific@ is a route planning project for the city of Madrid (Spain. Its main aim is to develop an intelligence system capable of routing people from one place in the city to any other using the public transport. In order to do this, it is necessary to take into account such things as: time, traffic, user preferences, etc. Before beginning to design the project is necessary to make a comprehensive study of the variety of main known route planning algorithms suitable to be used in this project.

  11. Port Authority of Allegheny County Transit Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shapefile of Transit Routes - Please refer to each resource for active dates of the route information. Routes change over time,

  12. Fabrication of seamless calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.; Phanibabu, C.; Bhaskara Rao, C.V.; Kalidas, R.; Ganguly, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Calandria tube is a large diameter, thin walled zircaloy-4 tube and is an important structural component of PHWR type of reactors. These tubes are lifetime components and remain during the full life of the reactor. Calandria tubes are classified as extremely thin walled tubes with a diameter to wall thickness ratio of around 96. Such thin walled tubes are conventionally produced by seam welded route comprising of extrusion of slabs followed by a series of hot and rolling passes, shaping into O-shape and eventual welding. An alternative and superior method of fabricating the calandria tubes, the seamless route, has been developed, which involves hot extrusion of mother blanks followed by three successive cold pilger reductions. Eccentricity correction of the extruded blanks is carried out on a special purpose grinding equipment to bring the wall thickness variation within permissible limits. Predominant wall thickness reductions are given during cold pilgering to ensure high Q-factor values. The texture in the finished tubes could be closely, controlled with an average f r value of 0.65. Pilgering parameters and tube guiding system have been specially designed to facilities rolling of thin walled tubes. Seamless calandria tubes have distinct advantages over welded tubes. In addition to the absence of weld, they are dimensionally more stable, lighter in weight and possess uniform grains with superior grain size. The cycle time from billet to finished product is substantially reduced and the product is amenable to high level of quality assurance. The most significant feature of the seamless route is its material recovery over welded route. Residual stresses measured in the tubes indicate that these are negligible and uniform along the length of the tube. In view of their superior quality, the first charge of seamless calandria tubes will be rolled into the first 500 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor at Tarapur

  13. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  14. VT Route Log Points 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data layer is used with VTrans' Integrated Route Log System (IRA). It is also used to calibrate the linear referencing systems, including the End-to-End and...

  15. Predicting Catastrophic BGP Routing Instabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Lien

    2004-01-01

    .... Currently, this critical function is performed by the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) version 4 RF01771. Like all routing protocols, BGP is vulnerable to instabilities that reduce its effectiveness...

  16. The management routes for materials produced by the dismantling of the BR3-PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Demeulemeester, Y.; Ponnet, M.; Emond, M.; Emond, O.; Dadoumont, J.; Massaut, V.

    2000-01-01

    The dismantling of the BR3 reactor produces quite large masses of contaminated materials, mainly metals or concrete. The main management routes are: conditioning of the radioactive wastes and disposal, recycling of radioactive materials in the nuclear sector and the recycling of free released materials in the industrial sector or their evacuation as industrial waste. The conditioning of the radioactive wastes is essentially performed in the installations of Belgoprocess and must follow the specifications imposed by the national radwaste management agency ONDRAF/NIRAS. The conditioning of the pieces produced during the cutting of the reactor pressure vessel is given as example. The recycling of radioactive materials in the nuclear sector is possible for metals and for concrete. For metals, SCK.CEN has an agreement with a nuclear foundry which reuses these materials for the fabrication of shieldings. For concrete, an R and D programme is going on with the objective to demonstrate the possible reuse of baryte concrete as raw materials for the production of mortar used in the conditioning of radioactive wastes. The free release of radioactive materials and their reuse or evacuation as radioactive wastes requires the strict respect of procedures and the use of low level measurement techniques. Various decontamination techniques are used at SCK.CEN to reach this objective. For the metals, we use mainly simple washing, abrasive decontamination and hard chemical decontamination. For concrete, we use mainly scabbling or shaving techniques. (authors)

  17. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  18. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  19. Route around real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrier, Francois

    1996-01-01

    The greater and greater autonomy and complexity asked to the control and command systems lead to work on introducing techniques such as Artificial Intelligence or concurrent object programming in industrial applications. However, while the critical feature of these systems impose to control the dynamics of the proposed solutions, their complexity often imposes a high adaptability to a partially modelled environment. The studies presented start from low level control and command systems to more complex applications at higher levels, such as 'supervision systems'. Techniques such as temporal reasoning and uncertainty management are proposed for the first studies, while the second are tackled with programming techniques based on the real time object paradigm. The outcomes of this itinerary crystallize on the ACCORD project which targets to manage - on the whole life cycle of a real time application - these two problematics, sometimes antagonistic: control of the dynamics and adaptivity. (author) [fr

  20. Fabrication of pressure vessels for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, M.S.P. de

    1982-01-01

    The status of the technology used in the fabrication of pressure vessel for nuclear power plants and the performance of the Brazilian industry in this area are presented. The followng aspects are discussed: qualification of the industries for the supplying equipment in its requirement categories; the calculation of the components; the choice of the materials; the fabrication process; and, the destructive and nondestructive tests associated to the fabrication. (E.G.) [pt

  1. Fatigue mitigation effects of en-route napping on commercial airline pilots flying international routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jarret Taylor

    The introduction of ultra-long range commercial aircraft and the evolution of the commercial airline industry has provided new opportunities for air carriers to fly longer range international route segments while deregulation, industry consolidation, and the constant drive to reduce costs wherever possible has pressured airline managements to seek more productivity from their pilots. At the same time, advancements in the understanding of human physiology have begun to make their way into flight and duty time regulations and airline scheduling practices. In this complex and ever changing operating environment, there remains an essential need to better understand how these developments, and other daily realities facing commercial airline pilots, are affecting their fatigue management strategies as they go about their rituals of getting to and from their homes to work and performing their flight assignments. Indeed, the need for commercial airline pilots to have access to better and more effective fatigue mitigation tools to combat fatigue and insure that they are well rested and at the top of their game when flying long-range international route segments has never been greater. This study examined to what extent the maximum fatigue states prior to napping, as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments, were affected by a number of other common flight assignment related factors. The study also examined to what extent the availability of scheduled en-route rest opportunities, in an onboard crew rest facility, affected the usage of en-route napping as a fatigue mitigation strategy, and to what extent the duration of such naps affected the perceived benefits of such naps as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments. The study utilized an online survey tool to collect data on crew position, prior flight segments flown in the same duty period, augmentation, commuting, pre-flight rest obtained in the

  2. Fabrication of zein nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecha, Jarupat

    resins. The soft lithography technique was mainly used to fabricate micro and nanostructures on zein films. Zein material well-replicated small structures with the smallest size at sub micrometer scale that resulted in interesting photonic properties. The bonding method was also developed for assembling portable zein microfluidic devices with small shape distortion. Zein-zein and zein-glass microfluidic devices demonstrated sufficient strength to facilitate fluid flow in a complex microfluidic design with no leakage. Aside from the fabrication technique development, several potential applications of this environmentally friendly microfluidic device were investigated. The concentration gradient manipulation of Rhodamine B solution in zein-glass microfluidic devices was demonstrated. The diffusion of small molecules such as fluorescent dye into the wall of the zein microfluidic channels was observed. However, with this formulation, zein microfluidic devices were not suitable for cell culture applications. This pioneer study covered a wide spectrum of the implementation of the two nanotechnology approaches to advance zein biomaterial which provided proof of fundamental concepts as well as presenting some limitations. The findings in this study can lead to several innovative research opportunities of advanced zein biomaterials with broad applications. The information from the study of zein nanocomposite structure allows the packaging industry to develop the low cost biodegradable materials with physical property improvement. The information from the study of the zein microfluidic devices allows agro-industry to develop the nanotechnology-enabled microfluidic sensors fabricated entirely from biodegradable polymer for on-site disease or contaminant detection in the fields of food and agriculture.

  3. Polymorphous computing fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw [Los Alamos, NM; Gokhale, Maya B [Los Alamos, NM; McCabe, Kevin Peter [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  4. Vehicle Routing With User Generated Trajectory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    Rapidly increasing volumes of GPS data collected from vehicles provide new and increasingly comprehensive insight into the routes that drivers prefer. While routing services generally compute shortest or fastest routes, recent studies suggest that local drivers often prefer routes that are neithe...

  5. Direct CVD Graphene Growth on Semiconductors and Dielectrics for Transfer-Free Device Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaping; Yu, Gui

    2016-07-01

    Graphene is the most broadly discussed and studied two-dimensional material because of its preeminent physical, mechanical, optical, and thermal properties. Until now, metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been widely employed for the scalable production of high-quality graphene. However, in order to incorporate the graphene into electronic devices, a transfer process from metal substrates to targeted substrates is inevitable. This process usually results in contamination, wrinkling, and breakage of graphene samples - undesirable in graphene-based technology and not compatible with industrial production. Therefore, direct graphene growth on desired semiconductor and dielectric substrates is considered as an effective alternative. Over the past years, there have been intensive investigations to realize direct graphene growth using CVD methods without the catalytic role of metals. Owing to the low catalytic activity of non-metal substrates for carbon precursor decomposition and graphene growth, several strategies have been designed to facilitate and engineer graphene fabrication on semiconductors and insulators. Here, those developed strategies for direct CVD graphene growth on semiconductors and dielectrics for transfer-free fabrication of electronic devices are reviewed. By employing these methods, various graphene-related structures can be directly prepared on desired substrates and exhibit excellent performance, providing versatile routes for varied graphene-based materials fabrication. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Printing Fabrication of Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells and In Situ Morphology Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Ferdous, Sunzida; Wan, Xianjian; Zhu, Chenhui; Schaible, Eric; Hexemer, Alexander; Wang, Cheng; Russell, Thomas P

    2017-01-29

    Polymer-based materials hold promise as low-cost, flexible efficient photovoltaic devices. Most laboratory efforts to achieve high performance devices have used devices prepared by spin coating, a process that is not amenable to large-scale fabrication. This mismatch in device fabrication makes it difficult to translate quantitative results obtained in the laboratory to the commercial level, making optimization difficult. Using a mini-slot die coater, this mismatch can be resolved by translating the commercial process to the laboratory and characterizing the structure formation in the active layer of the device in real time and in situ as films are coated onto a substrate. The evolution of the morphology was characterized under different conditions, allowing us to propose a mechanism by which the structures form and grow. This mini-slot die coater offers a simple, convenient, material efficient route by which the morphology in the active layer can be optimized under industrially relevant conditions. The goal of this protocol is to show experimental details of how a solar cell device is fabricated using a mini-slot die coater and technical details of running in situ structure characterization using the mini-slot die coater.

  7. Overview of MOX fuel fabrication achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairiot, H.; Vliet, J. van; Chiarelli, G.; Edwards, J.; Nagai, S.H.; Reshetnikov, F.

    2000-01-01

    Such overview having been adequately covered in an OECD/NEA publication providing the situation as of end 1994, this paper is mainly devoted to an update as of end 1998. The Belgian plant, Belgonucleaire/Dessel, is now dedicated exclusively to the fabrication of MOX fuel and has operated consistently around its nameplate capacity (35tHM/a) through the 1990s involving a large variety of PWR and BWR fuels. The two French plants have also achieved routine operation during the 1990s. CFCa, historically the largest FBR MOX fuel manufacturer, is utilizing the genuine COCA process for that type of fuel and the MIMAS process for LWR fuel: a nominal capacity (40 tHM/a) has been gradually approached. MELOX has operated at 100 tHM/a, as defined in the operating licence granted originally. The British plant, MDF/Sellafield with 8tHM/a nameplate capacity is devoted to fuel and has manufactured several small fabrication campaigns. In Japan, JNC operates three facilities located at Tokai: PFDF, devoted to basic research and fabrication of test fuels, PFFF/ATR line, for the fabrication of Fugen fuel and of corresponding fuel for the critical facility DCA, and PFPF for the fabrication of FBR fuel. In Russia, fabrication techniques have been developed to fuel four BN-800 FBRs contemplated to be constructed and be fuelled with the civilian Pu stockpile. Two demonstration facilities Paket (Mayak) and RIAR (Dimitrovgrad) fabricated respectively pellet and vipac type FBR MOX fuel for BR-5, BOR-60, BN-350 and BN-600. The paper includes a brief description of each of the fabrication routes mentioned, as well as the production of respectively LWR and FBR MOX fuel in each fabrication facility, since the start-up of the plant, since 1 January 1993 and since 1 January 1998 up to 31 December 1998. (author)

  8. Scanning probe lithography for nanoimprinting mould fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Gang; Xie Guoyong; Zhang Yongyi; Zhang Guoming; Zhang Yingying; Carlberg, Patrick; Zhu Tao; Liu Zhongfan

    2006-01-01

    We propose a rational fabrication method for nanoimprinting moulds by scanning probe lithography. By wet chemical etching, different kinds of moulds are realized on Si(110) and Si(100) surfaces according to the Si crystalline orientation. The structures have line widths of about 200 nm with a high aspect ratio. By reactive ion etching, moulds with patterns free from the limitation of Si crystalline orientation are also obtained. With closed-loop scan control of a scanning probe microscope, the length of patterned lines is more than 100 μm by integrating several steps of patterning. The fabrication process is optimized in order to produce a mould pattern with a line width about 10 nm. The structures on the mould are further duplicated into PMMA resists through the nanoimprinting process. The method of combining scanning probe lithography with wet chemical etching or reactive ion etching (RIE) provides a resistless route for the fabrication of nanoimprinting moulds

  9. Facile Fabrication of Durable Copper-Based Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R; Pitchumani, R

    2018-03-13

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have myriad industrial applications, yet their practical utilization has been limited by their poor mechanical durability and longevity. We present a low-cost, facile process to develop superhydrophobic copper-based coatings via an electrodeposition route, that addresses this limitation. Through electrodeposition, a stable, multiscale, cauliflower shaped fractal morphology was obtained and upon modification by stearic acid, the prepared coatings show extreme water repellency with contact angle of 162 ± 2° and roll-off angle of about 3°. Systematic studies are presented on coatings fabricated under different processing conditions to demonstrate good durability, mechanical and underwater stability, corrosion resistance, and self-cleaning effect. The study also presents an approach for rejuvenation of slippery superhydrophobic nature (roll-off angle <10°) on the surfaces after long-term water immersion. The presented process can be scaled to larger, durable coatings with controllable wettability for diverse applications.

  10. Using Seasonal Forecasting Data for Vessel Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ray; Kirtman, Ben

    2017-04-01

    We present an assessment of seasonal forecasting of surface wind speed, significant wave height and ocean surface current speed in the North Pacific for potential use of vessel routing from Singapore to San Diego. WaveWatchIII is forced with surface winds and ocean surface currents from the Community Climate System Model 4 (CCSM4) retrospective forecasts for the period of 1982-2015. Several lead time forecasts are used from zero months to six months resulting in 2,720 model years, ensuring the findings from this study are robust. July surface wind speed and significant wave height can be skillfully forecast with a one month lead time, with the western North Pacific being the most predictable region. Beyond May initial conditions (lead time of two months) the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Spring predictability barrier limits skill of significant wave height but there is skill for surface wind speed with January initial conditions (lead time of six months). In a separate study of vessel routing between Norfolk, Virginia and Gibraltar we demonstrate the benefit of a multimodel approach using the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME). In collaboration with Charles River Analytics an all-encompassing forecast is presented by using machine learning on the various ensembles which can be using used for industry applications.

  11. Route Flap Damping Made Usable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelsser, Cristel; Maennel, Olaf; Mohapatra, Pradosh; Bush, Randy; Patel, Keyur

    The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), the de facto inter-domain routing protocol of the Internet, is known to be noisy. The protocol has two main mechanisms to ameliorate this, MinRouteAdvertisementInterval (MRAI), and Route Flap Damping (RFD). MRAI deals with very short bursts on the order of a few to 30 seconds. RFD deals with longer bursts, minutes to hours. Unfortunately, RFD was found to severely penalize sites for being well-connected because topological richness amplifies the number of update messages exchanged. So most operators have disabled it. Through measurement, this paper explores the avenue of absolutely minimal change to code, and shows that a few RFD algorithmic constants and limits can be trivially modified, with the result being damping a non-trivial amount of long term churn without penalizing well-behaved prefixes' normal convergence process.

  12. Reinforcing copper matrix composites through molecular-level mixing of functionalized nanodiamond by co-deposition route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jie; Zhao Naiqin; Shi Chunsheng; Du Xiwen; Li Jiajun; Nash, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This work reports a chemical method called 'co-deposition route' for fabricating ND (nanodiamond)/Cu composite at a molecular-level mixing. The main procedure of 'co-deposition route' includes four steps. ND particles have been functionalized by HF acid before co-deposition. SEM, HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), EDS (energy-dispersive spectrum analysis) and optical microscope were carried out to characterize the as-prepared composite powders and bulk composites. Results indicated that copper matrix composite with a homogeneous dispersion of functionalized ND particles can be prepared. The modification of ND particles was performed by HF (30 vol%) acid at 70 deg. C, and C-F bond was successfully detected by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectrum) and IR (Infrared spectroscopy). The properties of relative density, microhardness and electric conductivity of ND/Cu composites have been measured. With the comparison of conventional methods, it showed that the as-prepared ND/Cu composites with good combined performances have a promising future for industry application

  13. Reinforcing copper matrix composites through molecular-level mixing of functionalized nanodiamond by co-deposition route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China); Zhao Naiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials (China)], E-mail: nqzhao@tju.edu.cn; Shi Chunsheng; Du Xiwen; Li Jiajun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China); Nash, Philip [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2008-08-25

    This work reports a chemical method called 'co-deposition route' for fabricating ND (nanodiamond)/Cu composite at a molecular-level mixing. The main procedure of 'co-deposition route' includes four steps. ND particles have been functionalized by HF acid before co-deposition. SEM, HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), EDS (energy-dispersive spectrum analysis) and optical microscope were carried out to characterize the as-prepared composite powders and bulk composites. Results indicated that copper matrix composite with a homogeneous dispersion of functionalized ND particles can be prepared. The modification of ND particles was performed by HF (30 vol%) acid at 70 deg. C, and C-F bond was successfully detected by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectrum) and IR (Infrared spectroscopy). The properties of relative density, microhardness and electric conductivity of ND/Cu composites have been measured. With the comparison of conventional methods, it showed that the as-prepared ND/Cu composites with good combined performances have a promising future for industry application.

  14. Ion sources for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakudo, Noriyuki

    1994-01-01

    Industrial applications of ion beams began in the 1970's with their application in fabrication of semiconductor devices. Since then, various improvements have been carried out for source lifetimes, current levels and diversification of ion species. Nowadays, ion beams are expected to be used for surface modification of materials as well as semiconductor fabrication. In this report, some of the typical ion sources are reviewed from the viewpoint of future industrial use. (author)

  15. Influence of the chemical composition and the fabrication process on the behaviour of high temperature oxidation of Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemendot, F.; Arnoldi, F.; Cerede, J.B.; Dionnet, B.; Nardou, F.; Duysen, J.C. van

    1993-01-01

    The oxidation behaviour of four industrial Fe-Cr-Al alloys was studied. Two of them were Fe-Cr-Al alloys fabricated either by melting or by powder metallurgy. The two other ones were Fe-Cr-Al-Y alloys either produced by melting or by mechanical alloying. On these alloys, we determined oxidation kinetics and observed the morphology of the oxide layer after isothermal and cyclic exposures from 1000 C up to 1300 C. The beneficial effect of yttrium on the adherence of oxide layers was confirmed. The powder metallurgy fabrication route does not improve the oxidation resistance of yttrium-free alloys. On the other hand, the association of the powder metallurgy and the addition of yttrium allow the manufacturing of alloys which present an excellent behaviour to high temperature oxidation. (orig.)

  16. Cost and risk tradeoff for routing nuclear spent fuel movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    In the transportation industry, much effort has been devoted to finding the least cost routes for shipping goods from their production sites to the market areas. In addition to cost, the decision maker must take the risk of an incident into consideration for transportation routing involving hazardous materials. The transportation of spent nuclear fuel from reactor sites to repositories is an example. Given suitable network information, existing routing methods can readily determine least cost or least risk routes for any shipment. These two solutions, however, represent the extremes of a large number of alternatives with different combinations of risk and cost. In the selection of routes and also in the evaluation of alternative storage sites it is not enough to know which is the lease cost or lowest risk. Intelligent decision-marking requires knowledge of how much it will cost to lower risk by a certain amount. The objective of this study is to develop an automated system to evaluate the tradeoff between transportation cost and potential population at risk under different nuclear spent fuel transportation strategies

  17. Capacitated arc routing problem and its extensions in waste collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadzli, Mohammad; Najwa, Nurul; Luis, Martino

    2015-01-01

    Capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) is the youngest generation of graph theory that focuses on solving the edge/arc routing for optimality. Since many years, operational research devoted to CARP counterpart, known as vehicle routing problem (VRP), which does not fit to several real cases such like waste collection problem and road maintenance. In this paper, we highlighted several extensions of capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) that represents the real-life problem of vehicle operation in waste collection. By purpose, CARP is designed to find a set of routes for vehicles that satisfies all pre-setting constraints in such that all vehicles must start and end at a depot, service a set of demands on edges (or arcs) exactly once without exceeding the capacity, thus the total fleet cost is minimized. We also addressed the differentiation between CARP and VRP in waste collection. Several issues have been discussed including stochastic demands and time window problems in order to show the complexity and importance of CARP in the related industry. A mathematical model of CARP and its new version is presented by considering several factors such like delivery cost, lateness penalty and delivery time

  18. Capacitated arc routing problem and its extensions in waste collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadzli, Mohammad; Najwa, Nurul [Institut Matematik Kejuruteraan, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Luis, Martino [Othman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) is the youngest generation of graph theory that focuses on solving the edge/arc routing for optimality. Since many years, operational research devoted to CARP counterpart, known as vehicle routing problem (VRP), which does not fit to several real cases such like waste collection problem and road maintenance. In this paper, we highlighted several extensions of capacitated arc routing problem (CARP) that represents the real-life problem of vehicle operation in waste collection. By purpose, CARP is designed to find a set of routes for vehicles that satisfies all pre-setting constraints in such that all vehicles must start and end at a depot, service a set of demands on edges (or arcs) exactly once without exceeding the capacity, thus the total fleet cost is minimized. We also addressed the differentiation between CARP and VRP in waste collection. Several issues have been discussed including stochastic demands and time window problems in order to show the complexity and importance of CARP in the related industry. A mathematical model of CARP and its new version is presented by considering several factors such like delivery cost, lateness penalty and delivery time.

  19. Dynamic Routing during Disaster Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitrianie, S.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in mobile technology allow people to request route information on their smartphone to reach safe areas during emergency and disaster evacuations. In return, the affected people in the field can send their observation reports, e.g. using a dedicated icon-based disaster language. However,

  20. Overview: Routes to Open Access

    OpenAIRE

    Tullney, Marco; van Wezenbeek, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Slides of an overview presentation given at a CESAER workshop on Open Access, February 2nd, 2017, in Brussels Cover major routes to more open access as discussed in the Task Force Open Science of CESAER: (national) open access strategies open access mandates open access incentives open access awareness open access publishing open access infrastructure

  1. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  2. Emissions allocation in transportation routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, B.P.J.; Velázquez Martínez, J.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the allocation of CO2 emissions to a specific shipment in routing transportation. The authors show that this problem differs from a cost allocation problem specifically because the concavity condition does not hold necessarily in the CO2 allocation problem. This implies that a

  3. Roots/Routes: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative and poetic rendering acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. It is a storying of critical research issues and events as performances of lived experience. It is a metissage of hybrid, but interrelated, themes that find cohesion through fragmentation and coalescence, severance, and regrowth. These themes are invoked by…

  4. Roots/Routes: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  5. Direct Integration of Dynamic Emissive Displays into Knitted Fabric Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingham, Alyssa

    Smart textiles are revolutionizing the textile industry by combining technology into fabric to give clothing new abilities including communication, transformation, and energy conduction. The advent of electroluminescent fibers, which emit light in response to an applied electric field, has opened the door for fabric-integrated emissive displays in textiles. This thesis focuses on the development of a flexible and scalable emissive fabric display with individually addressable pixels disposed within a fabric matrix. The pixels are formed in areas where a fiber supporting the dielectric and phosphor layers of an electroluminescent structure contacts a conductive surface. This conductive surface can be an external conductive fiber, yarn or wire, or a translucent conductive material layer deposited at set points along the electroluminescent fibers. Different contacting methods are introduced and the different ways the EL yarns can be incorporated into the knitted fabric are discussed. EL fibers were fabricated using a single yarn coating system with a custom, adjustable 3D printed slot die coater for even distribution of material onto the supporting fiber substrates. These fibers are mechanically characterized inside of and outside of a knitted fabric matrix to determine their potential for various applications, including wearables. A 4-pixel dynamic emissive display prototype is fabricated and characterized. This is the first demonstration of an all-knit emissive display with individually controllable pixels. The prototype is composed of a grid of fibers supporting the dielectric and phosphor layers of an electroluminescent (EL) device structure, called EL fibers, and conductive fibers acting as the top electrode. This grid is integrated into a biaxial weft knit structure where the EL fibers make up the rows and conductive fibers make up the columns of the reinforcement yarns inside the supporting weft knit. The pixels exist as individual segments of

  6. A novel method for the fabrication of freestanding PZT features on substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, Joost G.; van Bennekom, J.G.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Nijdam, W.; Wessling, Matthias; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2009-01-01

    A simple and cheap micromoulding fabrication route was developed to prepare freestanding piezo active features. Dimensions as small as 200 μm by 200 μm and 40 μm high were successfully fabricated via a replication technique. The lead zirconate titanate features were thoroughly characterized using

  7. The Time Window Vehicle Routing Problem Considering Closed Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsa Syahputri, Nenna; Mawengkang, Herman

    2017-12-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) determines the optimal set of routes used by a fleet of vehicles to serve a given set of customers on a predefined graph; the objective is to minimize the total travel cost (related to the travel times or distances) and operational cost (related to the number of vehicles used). In this paper we study a variant of the predefined graph: given a weighted graph G and vertices a and b, and given a set X of closed paths in G, find the minimum total travel cost of a-b path P such that no path in X is a subpath of P. Path P is allowed to repeat vertices and edges. We use integer programming model to describe the problem. A feasible neighbourhood approach is proposed to solve the model

  8. Analysis of mechanical fabrication experience with CEBAF's production SRF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammosser, J.; Kneisel, P.; Benesch, J.

    1993-06-01

    CEBAF has received a total of 360 five-cell niobium cavities, the largest group of industrially fabricated superconducting cavities so far. An extensive data base exists on the fabrication, surface treatment, assembly and cavity performance parameters. Analysis of the mechanical features of the cavities includes the following: the spread in fabrication tolerances of the cells derived from field profiles of the ''as fabricated'' cavities and the ''as fabricated'' external Q-values of the fundamental power coupler compared to dimensional deviations. A comparison is made of the pressure sensitivity of cavities made of materials from different manufacturers between 760 torr (4.2 K) and 23 torr (2 K)

  9. Technical Report: Sleep-Route - Routing through Sleeping Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Chayan; Rao, Vijay S.; Prasad, R. Venkatesha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an energy-efficient data gathering scheme for wireless sensor network called Sleep-Route, which splits the sensor nodes into two sets - active and dormant (low-power sleep). Only the active set of sensor nodes participate in data collection. The sensing values of the dormant sensor nodes are predicted with the help of an active sensor node. Virtual Sensing Framework (VSF) provides the mechanism to predict the sensing values by exploiting the data correlation among ...

  10. Route Scherrer and Route Einstein closed for construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that Route Scherrer will be inaccessible for two and a half months from the beginning of March and that part of Route Einstein will be closed for two weeks from the end of February.   Figure 1. The part of Route Scherrer between Building 510 and Building 53 (see Figure 1) will be closed from the beginning of March until mid-May for civil engineering works.   The superheated water pipes supplying the buildings in this area date back to 1959 and therefore present a significant risk of leakage. In order to ensure the reliable supply of superheated water, and, by extension, heating, to all premises near the Main Building (i.e. Buildings 500, 501, 503, 60, 62, 63 and 64), a new buried service duct will be installed between the basements of Buildings 53 and 61 to house a new superheated water pipe. Figure 2. The following car parks will, however, remain accessible for the duration of the works: the Cèdres car park, the car park for Buildings 4 and 5, and the ca...

  11. Highway route controlled quantity shipment routing reports - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Welles, B.W.; Welch, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations require a postnotification report from the shipper for all shipments of radioactive materials categorized as a Highway Route Controlled Quantity. These postnotification reports, filed in compliance with 49 CFR 172.203(d), have been compiled by the DOT in a database known as the Radioactive Materials Routing Report (RAMRT) since 1982. The data were sorted by each of its elements to establish historical records and trends of Highway Route Controlled Quantity shipments from 1982 through 1987. Approximately 1520 records in the RAMRT database were compiled for this analysis. Approximately half of the shipments reported for the study period were from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, with the others being commercial movements. Two DOE installations, EG and G Idaho and Oak Ridge, accounted for nearly half of the DOE activities. Similarly, almost half of the commercial movements were reported by two vendors, Nuclear Assurance Corporation and Transnuclear, Incorporated. Spent fuel from power and research reactors accounted for approximately half of all shipments

  12. Routes for GMR-Sensor Design in Non-Destructive Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schütze

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available GMR sensors are widely used in many industrial segments such as information technology, automotive, automation and production, and safety applications. Each area requires an adaption of the sensor arrangement in terms of size adaption and alignment with respect to the field source involved. This paper deals with an analysis of geometric sensor parameters and the arrangement of GMR sensors providing a design roadmap for non-destructive testing (NDT applications. For this purpose we use an analytical model simulating the magnetic flux leakage (MFL distribution of surface breaking defects and investigate the flux leakage signal as a function of various sensor parameters. Our calculations show both the influence of sensor length and height and that when detecting the magnetic flux leakage of µm sized defects a gradiometer base line of 250 µm leads to a signal strength loss of less than 10% in comparison with a magnetometer response. To validate the simulation results we finally performed measurements with a GMR magnetometer sensor on a test plate with artificial µm-range cracks. The differences between simulation and measurement are below 6%. We report on the routes for a GMR gradiometer design as a basis for the fabrication of NDT-adapted sensor arrays. The results are also helpful for the use of GMR in other application when it comes to measure positions, lengths, angles or electrical currents.

  13. Mechanical components: fabrication of major reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, S.

    1985-01-01

    The paper examines the validity of criticisms of quality assurance of mechanical plant and welded products within major reactor structures, taking into account experience gained on the AGR's. Various constructive recommendations are made aimed at furthering the objectives of quality assurance in the nuclear industry and making it more cost-effective. Current levels of quality related costs in the fabrication industry are provided as a basis for discussion. (U.K.)

  14. Study of transport properties of copper/zinc-oxide-nanorods-based Schottky diode fabricated on textile fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Azam; Hussain, Mushtaque; Abbasi, Mazhar Ali; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a copper/zinc-oxide (ZnO)-nanorods-based Schottky diode was fabricated on the textile fabric substrate. ZnO nanorods were grown on a silver-coated textile fabric substrate by using the hydrothermal route. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques were used for the structural study. The electrical characterization of copper/ZnO-nanorods-based Schottky diodes was investigated by using a semiconductor parameter analyzer and an impedance spectrometer. The current density–voltage (J–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements were used to estimate the electrical parameters. The threshold voltage (V th ), ideality factor (η), barrier height (ϕ b ), reverse saturation current density (J s ), carrier concentration (N D ) and built-in potential (V bi ) were determined by using experimental data and (simulated) curve fitting. This study describes the possible fabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices on textile fabric substrate with an acceptable performance. (paper)

  15. New routes of allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricigil, Mitat; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Sakarya, Engin Umut; Sakalar, Emine Güven; Senturk, Mehmet; Reisacher, William R; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-11-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is the only cure for immunoglobulin E mediated type I respiratory allergies. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are the most common treatments. In this article, we reviewed new routes of allergen immunotherapy. Data on alternative routes to allow intralymphatic immunotherapy (ILIT), epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT), local nasal immunotherapy (LNIT), oral immunotherapy (OIT), and oral mucosal immunotherapy (OMIT) were gathered from the literature and were discussed. ILIT features direct injection of allergens into lymph nodes. ILIT may be clinically effective after only a few injections and induces allergen-specific immunoglobulin G, similarly to SCIT. A limitation of ILIT is that intralymphatic injections are required. EPIT features allergen administration by using patches mounted on the skin. EPIT seeks to target epidermal antigen-presenting Langerhans cells rather than mast cells or the vasculature; this should reduce both local and systemic adverse effects. LNIT involves the spraying of allergen extracts into the nasal cavity. Natural or chemically modified allergens (the latter, termed allergoids, lack immunoglobulin E reactivity) are prepared in a soluble form. OIT involves the regular administration of small amounts of a food allergen by mouth and commences with low oral doses, which are then increased as tolerance develops. OMIT seeks to deliver allergenic proteins to an expanded population of Langerhans cells in the mucosa of the oral cavity. ILIT, EPIT, LNIT, OIT, and OMIT are new routes for allergen immunotherapy. They are safe and effective.

  16. Cultural Routes and Intangible Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Zabbini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical interpretation of thematic routes helps to predict the effects on the territories visited by cultured tourists who want to enrich their cultural and emotional baggage. After the analysis of some interpretations, this paper will examine how the practical implementation of an itinerary approved by the Council of Europe has evolved over the years. And it will also reflect on the practical results in the areas involved in that project. "The Hannibal Pathway ", the main overland walk on the "Phoenician Route - Cultural Route recognized by the Council of Europe" – represents a case of study that allows to reflect over the impact of cultural tourism based on immaterial heritage. In fact, in the areas where the battle of 21 June 217 BC took place, nothing tangible is left, except the landscape that has kept its conformation intact. In these areas, thanks to the foresight of the local governments in the last three decades, the landscape of the plain has been preserved. This makes possible today to propose an historical path precisely based on the landscape and on the new techniques for the valorization of the heritage. In the Tuoro plain it is possible to see the battlefields, thus retracing the various stages of the battle, supported by the Documentation Centre of the Capra Palace and virtual reconstructions of high technical quality.

  17. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Bijan; Ibrahim, Md.; Bikas, Md. Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol h...

  18. Routing Data Authentication in Wireless Networks; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TORGERSON, MARK D.; VAN LEEUWEN, BRIAN P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss several specific threats directed at the routing data of an ad hoc network. We address security issues that arise from wrapping authentication mechanisms around ad hoc routing data. We show that this bolt-on approach to security may make certain attacks more difficult, but still leaves the network routing data vulnerable. We also show that under a certain adversarial model, most existing routing protocols cannot be secured with the aid of digital signatures

  19. Developing an eco-routing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The study develops eco-routing algorithms and investigates and quantifies the system-wide impacts of implementing an eco-routing system. Two eco-routing algorithms are developed: one based on vehicle sub-populations (ECO-Subpopulation Feedback Assign...

  20. Is Entrepreneurship a Route Out of Deprivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankish, Julian S.; Roberts, Richard G.; Coad, Alexander Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Frankish J. S., Roberts R. G., Coad A. and Storey D. J. Is entrepreneurship a route out of deprivation?, Regional Studies. This paper investigates whether entrepreneurship constitutes a route out of deprivation for those living in deprived areas. The measure of income/wealth used is based...... the wealth distribution. Hence, entrepreneurship can be a route out of deprivation....

  1. The Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    This paper introduces the Pyramidal Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the Pyramidal Traveling Salesman Problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...

  2. The pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the pyramidal capacitated vehicle routing problem (PCVRP) as a restricted version of the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). In the PCVRP each route is required to be pyramidal in a sense generalized from the pyramidal traveling salesman problem (PTSP). A pyramidal...

  3. Overview of advanced techniques for fabrication and testing of ITER multilayer plasma facing walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavassoli, A.-A.F. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1998-09-01

    The design of the ITER primary first wall incorporates a multi-layered structure consisting of a layer of beryllium bonded to a layer of copper alloy with embedded stainless steel tubes which in turn is bonded to a stainless steel structure. In this configuration, the stainless steel provides structural support, the copper alloy improved resistance to high heat loads, and the beryllium layer a low Z metal interface with plasma. Fabrication, testing and control of this multi-layered structure, and indeed the entire blanket shield module, calls for advanced methods. Several associations in the four home teams and their industrial partners have been involved in various fabrication and joining tasks now grouped under L4 blanket project. In this paper, an overview of the work done so far for joining stainless steel to stainless steel, stainless steel to copper alloy, copper alloy to copper alloy, and copper alloy to beryllium is presented. Specialised papers dealing with most of the topics treated here are scheduled in this symposium. The fabrication and joining methods presented here, other than the conventional welding and brazing, follow four main routes. Two of them make extensive use of hot-isostatic pressing (HIP); (a) solid to solid; (b) solid or powder to powder, with or without a prior cold or hot isostatic pressing of one of the products. The third combines advantages of casting and HIPping for fabricating large and complex parts. The fourth investigates the possibility of using explosive welding for joining copper alloys to stainless steel. Other methods, including friction welding, are investigated for specific parts. (orig.) 34 refs.

  4. Review of qualifications for fuel assembly fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slabu, Dan; Zemek, Martin; Hellwig, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The required quality of nuclear fuel in industrial production can only be assured by applying processes in fabrication and inspection, which are well mastered and have been proven by an appropriate qualification. The present contribution shows the understanding and experiences of Axpo with respect to qualifications in the frame of nuclear fuel manufacturing and reflects some related expectations of the operator. (orig.)

  5. 2k micro moulding for MID fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Jørgensen, Martin Bondo

    2009-01-01

    Molded Interconnect Devices (MIDs) are plastic substrates with electrical infrastructure. The fabrication of MIDs is usually based on injection molding and different process chains may be identified from this starting point. The use of MIDs has been driven primarily by the automotive sector......, but recently the medical sector seems more and more interested. In particular, the possibility of miniaturization of 3D components with electrical infrastructure is attractive. The paper describes possible manufacturing routes and challenges of miniaturized MIDs based on two component injection molding...

  6. International light water nuclear fuel fabrication supply. Are fabrication services assured?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the cost structure of fabricating light water reactor (LWR) fuel with low-enriched uranium (LEU, with less than 5% enrichment). The LWR-LEU fuel industry is decades old, and (except for the high entry cost of designing and licensing a fuel fabrication facility and its fuel), labor and additional fabrication lines can be added at Nth-of-a-Kind cost to the maximum capacity allowed by a site license. The industry appears to be competitive: nuclear fuel fabrication capacity is assured with many competitors and reasonable prices. However, nuclear fuel assurance has become an important issue for nations now to considering new nuclear power plants. To provide this assurance many proposals equate 'nuclear fuel banks' (which would require fuel for specific reactors) with 'LEU banks' (where LEU could be blended into nuclear fuel with the proper enrichment) with local fuel fabrication. The policy issues (which are presented, but not answered in this paper) become (1) whether the construction of new nuclear fuel fabrication facilities in new nuclear power nations could lead to the proliferation of nuclear weapons, and (2) whether nuclear fuel quality can be guaranteed under current industry arrangements, given that fuel failure at one reactor can lead to forced shutdowns at many others. (author)

  7. Thermo-resistant filtration fabrics for hot gas extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzbowska, T.

    1992-01-01

    Types and technical and utilizing data of heat resistant filtrating fabrics initiated to production by 'Moratex' and provided for dust extraction of technical gas from various industrial processes have been discussed. (author). 8 refs, 2 tabs

  8. The Silk Route from Land to Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Weatherford

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Route reached its historic and economic apogee under the Mongol Empire (1207–1368, as a direct result of the policies of Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan and his successors. Because the land network proved inefficient for the amount of goods needing transport from one part of the empire to another, the Mongols expanded the Silk Route to ocean shipping and thus created the first Maritime Silk Route. The sea traffic initially expanded the land routes but soon strangled them. With the expansion of the Maritime Silk Route through the fourteenth century, the land connections reverted to local networks and lost their global importance.

  9. Design of Logistics Route Planning for Printing Enterprises Based on Baidu Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Zhong-Yue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As traditional printing industry is facing fierce competition in the market and logistics becomes a new sources of growth, the traditional printing enterprises want to build and improve their logistics system. So in this paper, the author has designed the logistics planning system based on the Baidu map development kit. It has the function of route planning and location tracking. This system meet the printing enterprise logistics route planning and tracking demand.

  10. Self-guided trails – a route to more responsible tourism?

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the tourism industry has faced criticism by turning its attention to the development of more responsible tourism. This is a form of tourism that is mindful of the diverse needs of host communities, local business and the visitor. This paper investigates the development of more responsible tourism from the perspective of a popular tourist product – the self-guided trail or route. The trail or route provides a themed and interpreted journey through the urban or rural landscape,...

  11. Inverted process for graphene integrated circuits fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongming; Wu, Huaqiang; Liu, Jinbiao; Huang, Can; Li, Junfeng; Yu, Jiahan; Niu, Jiebin; Xu, Qiuxia; Yu, Zhiping; Qian, He

    2014-06-07

    CMOS compatible 200 mm two-layer-routing technology is employed to fabricate graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) and monolithic graphene ICs. The process is inverse to traditional Si technology. Passive elements are fabricated in the first metal layer and GFETs are formed with buried gate/source/drain in the second metal layer. Gate dielectric of 3.1 nm in equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) is employed. 500 nm-gate-length GFETs feature a yield of 80% and fT/fmax = 17 GHz/15.2 GHz RF performance. A high-performance monolithic graphene frequency multiplier is demonstrated using the proposed process. Functionality was demonstrated up to 8 GHz input and 16 GHz output. The frequency multiplier features a 3 dB bandwidth of 4 GHz and conversion gain of -26 dB.

  12. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} topological insulators on GaAs (111) substrates: a potential route to fabricate topological insulator p-n junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Zhaoquan; Morgan, Timothy A.; Li, Chen; Hirono, Yusuke; Hu, Xian; Hawkridge, Michael E.; Benamara, Mourad; Salamo, Gregory J. [Arkansas Institute for Nanoscale Material Sciences and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Fan, Dongsheng; Yu, Shuiqing [Arkansas Institute for Nanoscale Material Sciences and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Zhao, Yanfei [International Center for Quantum Materials, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Lee, Joon Sue [The Center for Nanoscale Science and Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wang, Jian [International Center for Quantum Materials, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); The Center for Nanoscale Science and Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wang, Zhiming M. [Arkansas Institute for Nanoscale Material Sciences and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Engineering Research Center for Semiconductor Integrated Technology, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2013-07-15

    High quality Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} topological insulators films were epitaxially grown on GaAs (111) substrate using solid source molecular beam epitaxy. Their growth and behavior on both vicinal and non-vicinal GaAs (111) substrates were investigated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is found that non-vicinal GaAs (111) substrate is better than a vicinal substrate to provide high quality Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films. Hall and magnetoresistance measurements indicate that p type Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and n type Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} topological insulator films can be directly grown on a GaAs (111) substrate, which may pave a way to fabricate topological insulator p-n junction on the same substrate, compatible with the fabrication process of present semiconductor optoelectronic devices.

  13. Micro Machining Enhances Precision Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Advanced thermal systems developed for the Space Station Freedom project are now in use on the International Space Station. These thermal systems employ evaporative ammonia as their coolant, and though they employ the same series of chemical reactions as terrestrial refrigerators, the space-bound coolers are significantly smaller. Two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts between Creare Inc. of Hanover, NH and Johnson Space Center developed an ammonia evaporator for thermal management systems aboard Freedom. The principal investigator for Creare Inc., formed Mikros Technologies Inc. to commercialize the work. Mikros Technologies then developed an advanced form of micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) to make tiny holes in the ammonia evaporator. Mikros Technologies has had great success applying this method to the fabrication of micro-nozzle array systems for industrial ink jet printing systems. The company is currently the world leader in fabrication of stainless steel micro-nozzles for this market, and in 2001 the company was awarded two SBIR research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to advance micro-fabrication and high-performance thermal management technologies.

  14. What is the Potential for More Copper Fabrication in Zambia?

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The copper fabrication industry lies between: (1) the industry that produces copper (as a commodity metal from mined ores as well as from recycling), and (2) the users of copper in finished products such as electronic goods. Copper fabrication involves the manufacture of products such as copper wire, wire rod, low-voltage cable, and other copper based semi-manufactures. Copper is clearly a...

  15. A Genetic Algorithm on Inventory Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Aydın

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inventory routing problem can be defined as forming the routes to serve to the retailers from the manufacturer, deciding on the quantity of the shipment to the retailers and deciding on the timing of the replenishments. The difference of inventory routing problems from vehicle routing problems is the consideration of the inventory positions of retailers and supplier, and making the decision accordingly. Inventory routing problems are complex in nature and they can be solved either theoretically or using a heuristics method. Metaheuristics is an emerging class of heuristics that can be applied to combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we provide the relationship between vendor-managed inventory and inventory routing problem. The proposed genetic for solving vehicle routing problem is described in detail.

  16. Fabric based supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, S; Tudor, M J; Beeby, S P; Owen, J R

    2013-01-01

    Flexible supercapacitors with electrodes coated on inexpensive fabrics by the dipping technique. This paper present details of the design, fabrication and characterisation of fabric supercapacitor. The sandwich structured supercapacitors can achieve specific capacitances of 11.1F/g, area capacitance 105 mF.cm −2 and maintain 95% of the initial capacitance after cycling the device for more than 15000 times

  17. Laser deposition of coatings for aeronautical and industrials turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teleginski, V. [Instituto Federal de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil); Silva, S.A.; Riva, R.; Vasconcelos, G. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva Pita, G.R. [Universidade Braz Cubas, Mogi das Cruzes, SP (Brazil); Yamin, L.S. [Escola Tecnica Everardo Passos (ETEP), Sao Jose dos Campos, DP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Zirconium-based ceramic materials are widely employed as Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC), due to its excellent wear and corrosion resistance at high temperatures. The application of TBC includes aeronautical and industrials turbine blades. The working conditions include oxidizing environments and temperatures above 1000°C. The zirconium-based ceramics are developed in such a way that the microstructural control is possible through the control of chemical composition, fabrication route and, thermal treatment. The present paper proposes a laser route to deposit the TBC coating, where the microstructural control is a function of power density and interaction time between the laser beam and the material. The main objective of this work is to study the influence of the CO2 laser beam (Synrad Evolution 125) parameters: power density and interaction time, on the deposition process of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders on NiCrAlY/AISI 316L substrates. The resulting coating surface and interface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that is possible to match laser parameters of scanning speed and intensity to produce homogenous coatings. The X-Ray analyses show that the obtained ceramic coating has reduced number of phases, with prevalence of tetragonal phase.(author)

  18. Self-aligned photolithography for the fabrication of fully transparent high-voltage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghui; Mei, Zengxia; Huo, Wenxing; Wang, Tao; Liang, Huili; Du, Xiaolong

    2018-05-01

    High-voltage devices, working in the range of hundreds of volts, are indispensable elements in the driving or readout circuits for various kinds of displays, integrated microelectromechanical systems and x-ray imaging sensors. However, the device performances are found hardly uniform or repeatable due to the misalignment issue, which are extremely common for offset drain high-voltage devices. To resolve this issue, this article reports a set of self-aligned photolithography technology for the fabrication of high-voltage devices. High-performance fully-transparent high-voltage thin film transistors, diodes and logic inverters are successfully fabricated with this technology. Unlike other self-aligned routes, opaque masks are introduced on the backside of the transparent substrate to facilitate proximity exposure method. The photolithography process is simulated and analyzed with technology computer aided design simulation to explain the working principle of the proximity exposure method. The substrate thickness is found to be vital for the implementation of this technology based on both simulation and experimental results. The electrical performance of high-voltage devices is dependent on the offset length, which can be delicately modulated by changing the exposure dose. The presented self-aligned photolithography technology is proved to be feasible in high-voltage circuits, demonstrating its huge potential in practical industrial applications.

  19. The Use of Particulate Injection Moulding for Fabrication of Sports and Leisure Equipment from Titanium Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Ewart

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Advanced materials such as metal alloys, carbon fibre composites and engineered polymers have improved athlete performances in all sporting applications. Advances in manufacturing has enabled increases in design complexity and the ability to rapidly prototype bespoke products using additive manufacturing also known as 3D printing. Another recent fabrication method widely used by medical, electronics and armaments manufacturers is particulate injection moulding. This process uses exact quantities of the required material, in powder form, minimising resource and energy requirements in comparison to conventional manufacturing techniques. The process utilises injection moulding techniques and tooling methods developed and used in the plastics industry. It can produce highly complex component geometries with excellent repeatability and reduced cost where volume manufacturing is required. This is especially important when considering materials such as titanium that are not only expensive in comparison to other metals but are difficult to process by regular machining and fabrication methods. This work presents a review of titanium use in the sporting sector with a focus on sporting devices and equipment. It also proposes that the sports engineering sector could increase performance and enable improvements in safety by switching to design methods appropriate to processing via the particulate injection moulding route.

  20. Nanocarbon materials fabricated using plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery of fullerenes more than three decades ago, new kinds of nanoscale materials of carbon allotropes called "nanocarbons" have so far been discovered or synthesized at successive intervals as cases such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanohorns, graphene, carbon nanowalls, and a carbon nanobelt, while nanodiamonds were actually discovered before then. Their attractively excellent mechanical, physical, and chemical properties have driven researchers to continuously create one of the hottest frontiers in materials science and technology. While plasma states have often been involved in their discovery, on the other hand, plasma-based approaches to this exciting field originally hold promising and enormous potentials for advancing and expanding industrial/biomedical applications of nanocarbons of great diversity. This article provides an extensive overview on plasma-fabricated nanocarbon materials, where the term "fabrication" is defined as synthesis, functionalization, and assembly of devices to cover a wide range of issues associated with the step-by-step plasma processes. Specific attention has been paid to the comparative examination between plasma-based and non-plasma methods for fabricating the nanocarobons with an emphasis on the advantages of plasma processing, such as low-temperature/large-scale fabrication and diversity-carrying structure controllability. The review ends with current challenges and prospects including a ripple effect of the nanocarbon studies on the development of related novel nanomaterials such as transition metal dichalcogenides. It contains not only the latest progress in the field for cutting-edge scientists and engineers, but also the introductory guidance to non-specialists such as lower-class graduate students.

  1. Novel routes to nanodispersed semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Novel synthetic routes to nanodispersed compound semiconductors using organometallic precursors have been developed. The quantum dots have been studied by optical absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, infra red spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Polar Lewis base solvents such as tri-n-octylphosphine oxide and 4-ethylpyridine were utilized as both passivating agent and dispersing medium. In the the search for new solvent systems and passivating agents, and investigation was also made into the use of dimethyl sulfoxide as a reaction solvent and capping agent in the preparation of nanocrystalline CdS. Existing routes using metal alkyls and silylated precursors in hot TOPO were improved by substituting the metal alkyl with an metal alkyl adduct. Cadmium monothiocarbamate and a related precursor, cadmium thioacetate were investigated as possible single source precursors to nanometer sized CdS. The thermolysis of diorganophosphides in the Lewis bases coordinating solvent (4-ethylpridine) has been investigated, including studies of decompositon mechanisms, and quantum dots of Cd 3 P 2 , Zn 3 P 2 , Inp and GaP have been prepared. The synthesis of InAs using the metal chloride and an aminoarsenide precursor in 4-ethylpridine has also been developed. A simple method for the organization of III-V materials into glass like aggregates has been described. (author)

  2. Composite fabrication via resin transfer molding technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, G.M.; Domeier, L.A.

    1996-04-01

    The IMPReS (Integrated Modeling and Processing of Resin-based Structures) Program was funded in FY95 to consolidate, evaluate and enhance Sandia`s capabilities in the design and fabrication of composite structures. A key driver of this and related programs was the need for more agile product development processes and for model based design and fabrication tools across all of Sandia`s material technologies. A team of polymer, composite and modeling personnel was assembled to benchmark Sandia`s existing expertise in this area relative to industrial and academic programs and to initiate the tasks required to meet Sandia`s future needs. RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) was selected as the focus composite fabrication technology due to its versatility and growing use in industry. Modeling efforts focused on the prediction of composite mechanical properties and failure/damage mechanisms and also on the uncured resin flow processes typical of RTM. Appropriate molds and test composites were fabricated and model validation studies begun. This report summarizes and archives the modeling and fabrication studies carried out under IMPReS and evaluates the status of composite technology within Sandia. It should provide a complete and convenient baseline for future composite technology efforts within Sandia.

  3. Load Balancing Routing with Bounded Stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Siyuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in wireless networks has been heavily studied in the last decade. Many routing protocols are based on classic shortest path algorithms. However, shortest path-based routing protocols suffer from uneven load distribution in the network, such as crowed center effect where the center nodes have more load than the nodes in the periphery. Aiming to balance the load, we propose a novel routing method, called Circular Sailing Routing (CSR, which can distribute the traffic more evenly in the network. The proposed method first maps the network onto a sphere via a simple stereographic projection, and then the route decision is made by a newly defined "circular distance" on the sphere instead of the Euclidean distance in the plane. We theoretically prove that for a network, the distance traveled by the packets using CSR is no more than a small constant factor of the minimum (the distance of the shortest path. We also extend CSR to a localized version, Localized CSR, by modifying greedy routing without any additional communication overhead. In addition, we investigate how to design CSR routing for 3D networks. For all proposed methods, we conduct extensive simulations to study their performances and compare them with global shortest path routing or greedy routing in 2D and 3D wireless networks.

  4. SME routes for innovation collaboration with larger enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2017-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) can contribute to industry competiveness through collaboration with larger enterprises. The research is based on a longitudinal qualitative case study starting in 2011 with 10 SME offshore wind farm suppliers...... and follow-up interviews in 2013. The research continued with a second approach in 2014 within operation and maintenance (O&M) through focus group interviews and subsequent individual interviews with 20 enterprises and a seminar in May 2015. The findings reveal opportunities and challenges for SMEs according...... to three different routes for cooperation and collaboration with larger enterprises: demand-driven cooperation, supplier-driven cooperation and partnerdriven collaboration. The SME contribution to innovation and competiveness is different within the three routes and ranges from providing specific knowledge...

  5. R&D Personnel Career Routes: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bigliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study, aiming at investigate the alternative modes of career development for personnel belonging to R&D staff, addresses the extent to which career anchors are applicable to R&D staff and to examine the relationship among career anchors, gender and age, with the final purpose to add elements of discussion to the long-lasting debate about this matter. With this purpose in mind, we developed a questionnaire survey among 309 R&D personnel employed at firms belonging to the food machinery industry in a Northern Italy district. The results obtained from the statistical analysis indicate that the R&D personnel’s career orientations is a predictor of their career routes preferences, confirming three possible career routes in R&D labs that were highlighted in previous studies.

  6. Fabrics in Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    sensing of fabrics in function. It is proposed that tactile and visual sensing of fabrics is a way to investigate and express emotional utility values. The further purpose is to use experiments with repertory grid models as part of the mapping of the entire research project and also as a basis...

  7. Fabricating architectural volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 edition of Fabricate inspired a number of collaborations, this article seeks to highlight three of these. There is a common thread amongst the projects presented: sharing the ambition to close the rift between design and fabrication while incorporating structural design aspects early on...

  8. Smart Fabrics Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cory; Potter, Elliott; Potter, Elliott; McCabe, Mary; Baggerman, Clint

    2010-01-01

    Advances in Smart Fabrics technology are enabling an exciting array of new applications for NASA exploration missions, the biomedical community, and consumer electronics. This report summarizes the findings of a brief investigation into the state of the art and potential applications of smart fabrics to address challenges in human spaceflight.

  9. Intelligent Shuttle Management and Routing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Toshen M.; Subashanthini, S.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, most of the big Universities and campuses have Shuttle cabs running in them to cater the transportational needs of the students and faculties. While some shuttle services ask for a meagre sum to be paid for the usage, no digital payment system is onboard these vehicles to go truly cashless. Even more troublesome is the fact that sometimes during the day, some of these cabs run with bare number of passengers, which can result in unwanted budget loss to the shuttle operator. The main purpose of this paper is to create a system with two types of applications: A web portal and an Android app, to digitize the Shuttle cab industry. This system can be used for digital cashless payment feature, tracking passengers, tracking cabs and more importantly, manage the number of shuttle cabs in every route to maximize profit. This project is built upon an ASP.NET website connected to a cloud service along with an Android app that tracks and reads the passengers ID using an attached barcode reader along with the current GPS coordinates, and sends these data to the cloud for processing using the phone’s internet connectivity.

  10. Technique for fabrication of gradual standards of radiographic image blachening density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovin, I.V.; Kondina, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of fabrication of gradual standards of blackening density for industrial radiography by contact printing from a negative is described. The technique is designed for possibilities of industrial laboratoriesof radiation defectoscopy possessing no special-purpose sensitometric equipment

  11. Optics fabrication technical challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabassier, G.; Ferriou, N.; Lavastre, E.; Maunier, C.; Neauport, J.; Taroux, D.; Balla, D.; Fornerod, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Before the production of all the LMJ (MEGAJOULE laser) optics, the CEA had to proceed with the fabrication of about 300 large optics for the LIL (laser integration line) laser. Thanks to a fruitful collaboration with high-tech optics companies in Europe, this challenge has been successfully hit. In order to achieve the very tight requirements for cleanliness, laser damage threshold and all the other high demanding fabrication specifications, it has been necessary to develop and to set completely new fabrication process going and to build special outsize fabrication equipment. Through a couple of examples, this paper gives an overview of the work which has been done and shows some of the results which have been obtained: continuous laser glass melting, fabrication of the laser slabs, rapid-growth KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) technology, large diffractive transmission gratings engraving and characterization. (authors)

  12. Adaptive Robotic Fabrication for Conditions of Material Inconsistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Clausen Nørgaard, Esben

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes research that addresses the variable behaviour of industrial quality metals and the extension of computational techniques into the fabrication process. It describes the context of robotic incremental sheet metal forming, a freeform method for imparting 3D form onto a 2D thin...... and the fabrication process? Here, two adaptive methods are presented that aim to increase forming accuracy with only a minimum increase in fabrication time, and that maintain ongoing input from the results of the fabrication process. The first method is an online sensor-based strategy and the second method...

  13. Antenna Fabrication using 3D printing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Elibiary, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses to explore the use of additive manufacturing (AM) techniques to fabricate various radio frequency (RF) devices. 3D printing, a term used for AM has evolved to the point where it is being introduced into various industries, one of these, discussed in this thesis is the fabrication of antennas for the aim to reduce manufacturing costs and time.\\ud The aim is to investigate the performance and reliability of a modified low-cost 3D printer to print plastic and metal simultaneo...

  14. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick A [Structure and Activity of Normal and Pathological Biomolecules-INSERM/UEVE U829, Universite d' Evry-Val d' Essonne, Batiment Maupertuis, Rue du pere Andre Jarlan, F-91025 Evry (France); Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf [3.Physikalisches Institut, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Aubert, Pascal [Nanometric Media Laboratory, Universite d' Evry-Val d' Essonne, Batiment Maupertuis, Rue du pere Andre Jarlan, F-91025 Evry (France); Sennour, Mohamed; Thorel, Alain [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, ParisTech, BP 87, F-91000 Evry (France); Gaffet, Eric [Nanomaterials Research Group-UMR 5060, CNRS, UTBM, Site de Sevenans, F-90010 Belfort (France)], E-mail: jpb.cnrs@free.fr, E-mail: pcurmi@univ-evry.fr, E-mail: f.jelezko@physik.uni-stuttgart.de

    2009-06-10

    A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties.

  15. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick A; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf; Aubert, Pascal; Sennour, Mohamed; Thorel, Alain; Gaffet, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties.

  16. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  17. Zone routing in a torus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer

    2013-01-29

    A system for routing data in a network comprising a network logic device at a sending node for determining a path between the sending node and a receiving node, wherein the network logic device sets one or more selection bits and one or more hint bits within the data packet, a control register for storing one or more masks, wherein the network logic device uses the one or more selection bits to select a mask from the control register and the network logic device applies the selected mask to the hint bits to restrict routing of the data packet to one or more routing directions for the data packet within the network and selects one of the restricted routing directions from the one or more routing directions and sends the data packet along a link in the selected routing direction toward the receiving node.

  18. Predicting transportation routes for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Clarke, D.B.; McGuire, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in transportation logistics of radioactive wastes as part of the overall waste transportation program. A Spent Fuel Logistics Model (SFLM), was developed to predict overall material balances representing the flow of spent fuel assemblies from reactors to away-from-reactor storage facilities and/or to federal repositories. The transportation requirements to make these shipments are also itemized. The next logical step in the overall transportation project was the development of a set of computer codes which would predict likely transportation routes for waste shipments. Two separate routing models are now operational at ORNL. Routes for truck transport can be estimated with the HIGHWAY program, and rail and barge routes can be predicted with the INTERLINE model. This paper discusses examples of the route estimates and applications of the routing models

  19. Risk assessment of alternative proliferation routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Multi-Attribute Decision Theory is applied to rank II alternative routes to nuclear proliferation in order of difficulty in acquiring nuclear weapons by nonnuclear countries. The method is based on reducing the various variables affecting the decision to a single function providing a measure for the proliferation route. The results indicate that the most difficult route to obtain atomic weapons is through nuclear power reactors, specifically the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor, heavy water Canada deuterium uranium reactor, and light water reactors such as boiling water and pressurized water reactors. The easiest routes are supercritical centrifuge isotope separation, laser isotope separation, and research reactor. However, nonnuclear routes available that result in substantial damage to life and property are easier than any nuclear route

  20. Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    COVERED (From- To) 09-05-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 5b . GRANT NUMBER . 5c...reliability of wireless sensor networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS wireless sensor networks, sinkhole attack, routing protocol 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 1 Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks MIDN 1/C

  1. A joint routing and speed optimization problem

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasawa, Ricardo; He, Qie; Santos, Fernando; Song, Yongjia

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cost contributes to a significant portion of operating cost in cargo transportation. Though classic routing models usually treat fuel cost as input data, fuel consumption heavily depends on the travel speed, which has led to the study of optimizing speeds over a given fixed route. In this paper, we propose a joint routing and speed optimization problem to minimize the total cost, which includes the fuel consumption cost. The only assumption made on the dependence between the fuel cost an...

  2. Aircraft route forecasting under adverse weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hauf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper storm nowcasts in the terminal manoeuvring area (TMA of Hong Kong International Airport are used to forecast deviation routes through a field of storms for arriving and departing aircraft. Storms were observed and nowcast by the nowcast system SWIRLS from the Hong Kong Observatory. Storms were considered as no-go zones for aircraft and deviation routes were determined with the DIVSIM software package. Two days (21 and 22 May 2011 with 22 actual flown routes were investigated. Flights were simulated with a nowcast issued at the time an aircraft entered the TMA or departed from the airport. These flights were compared with a posteriori simulations, in which all storm fields were known and circumnavigated. Both types of simulated routes were then compared with the actual flown routes. The qualitative comparison of the various routes revealed generally good agreement. Larger differences were found in more complex situations with many active storms in the TMA. Route differences resulted primarily from air traffic control measures imposed such as holdings, slow-downs and shortcuts, causing the largest differences between the estimated and actual landing time. Route differences could be enhanced as aircraft might be forced to circumnavigate a storm ahead in a different sense. The use of route forecasts to assist controllers coordinating flights in a complex moving storm field is discussed. The study emphasises the important application of storm nowcasts in aviation meteorology.

  3. A Machine Learning Concept for DTN Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovich, Rachel; Hylton, Alan; Papachristou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept and architecture of a machine learning based router for delay tolerant space networks. The techniques of reinforcement learning and Bayesian learning are used to supplement the routing decisions of the popular Contact Graph Routing algorithm. An introduction to the concepts of Contact Graph Routing, Q-routing and Naive Bayes classification are given. The development of an architecture for a cross-layer feedback framework for DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) protocols is discussed. Finally, initial simulation setup and results are given.

  4. New Hybrid Route to Biomimetic Synthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    To develop economical low-temperature routes to biomimetic synthesis of high-performance composite materials, with control of composition and structure based on the molecular mechanisms controlling...

  5. South Korea's nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    March 1990 marked a major milestone for South Korea's nuclear power program, as the country became self-sufficient in nuclear fuel fabrication. The reconversion line (UF 6 to UO 2 ) came into full operation at the Korea Nuclear Fuel Company's fabrication plant, as the last step in South Korea's program, initiated in the mid-1970s, to localize fuel fabrication. Thus, South Korea now has the capability to produce both CANDU and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. This article covers the nuclear fuel industry in South Korea-how it is structures, its current capabilities, and its outlook for the future

  6. New polymorphous computing fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolinski, Christophe; Gokhale, Maya; McCabe, Kevin P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new polymorphous computing Fabric well suited to DSP and Image Processing and describes its implementation on a Configurable System on a Chip (CSOC). The architecture is highly parameterized and enables customization of the synthesized Fabric to achieve high performance for a specific class of application. For this reason it can be considered to be a generic model for hardware accelerator synthesis from a high level specification. Another important innovation is the Fabric uses a global memory concept, which gives the host processor random access to all the variables and instructions on the Fabric. The Fabric supports different computing models including MIMD, SPMD and systolic flow and permits dynamic reconfiguration. We present a specific implementation of a bank of FIR filters on a Fabric composed of 52 cells on the Altera Excalibur ARM running at 33 MHz. The theoretical performance of this Fabric is 1.8 GMACh. For the FIR application we obtain 1.6 GMAC/s real performance. Some automatic tools have been developed like the tool to provide a host access utility and assembler.

  7. A Solder Based Self Assembly Project in an Introductory IC Fabrication Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Madhav; Lusth, John C.; Burkett, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated circuit (IC) fabrication principles is an elective course in a senior undergraduate and early graduate student's curriculum. Over the years, the semiconductor industry relies heavily on students with developed expertise in the area of fabrication techniques, learned in an IC fabrication theory and laboratory course. The theory course…

  8. Fabrication and characterisation of fabric supercapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Fabric supercapacitor is a flexible electrochemical device for energy storage application. It is designed to power up flexible electronic systems used for, for example, information sensing, data computation and communication. The development of a flexible supercapacitor is important for e-textiles since supercapacitor can achieve higher energy density than a standard parallel plate capacitor and a larger power density compared with a battery. This research area is currently facing barriers on...

  9. US Hazardous Materials Routes, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [hazardous_material_routes_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  10. Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System -- TRAGIS, progress on improving a routing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Lester, P.B.

    1998-05-01

    The Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) model provides a useful tool to calculate and analyze transportation routes for radioactive materials within the continental US. This paper outlines some of the features available in this model

  11. Environment Conscious Ceramics (Ecoceramics): An Eco-Friendly Route to Advanced Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2001-01-01

    Environment conscious ceramics (Ecoceramics) are a new class of materials, which can be produced with renewable natural resources (wood) or wood wastes (wood sawdust). This technology provides an eco-friendly route to advanced ceramic materials. Ecoceramics have tailorable properties and behave like ceramic materials manufactured by conventional approaches. Silicon carbide-based ecoceramics have been fabricated by reactive infiltration of carbonaceous preforms by molten silicon or silicon-refractory metal alloys. The fabrication approach, microstructure, and mechanical properties of SiC-based ecoceramics are presented.

  12. Instant Apache Camel message routing

    CERN Document Server

    Ibryam, Bilgin

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This short, instruction-based guide shows you how to perform application integration using the industry standard Enterprise Integration Patterns.This book is intended for Java developers who are new to Apache Camel and message- oriented applications.

  13. CMOS MEMS Fabrication Technologies and Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems fabrication technologies and enabled micro devices of various sensors and actuators. The technologies are classified based on the sequence of the fabrication of CMOS circuitry and MEMS elements, while SOI (silicon-on-insulator CMOS MEMS are introduced separately. Introduction of associated devices follows the description of the respective CMOS MEMS technologies. Due to the vast array of CMOS MEMS devices, this review focuses only on the most typical MEMS sensors and actuators including pressure sensors, inertial sensors, frequency reference devices and actuators utilizing different physics effects and the fabrication processes introduced. Moreover, the incorporation of MEMS and CMOS is limited to monolithic integration, meaning wafer-bonding-based stacking and other integration approaches, despite their advantages, are excluded from the discussion. Both competitive industrial products and state-of-the-art research results on CMOS MEMS are covered.

  14. Tube manufacturing trials by different routes in 9CrW-ODS martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, S.; Narita, T.; Alamo, A.; Parmentier, P.

    2004-01-01

    In the collaboration work between JNC and CEA-Saclay, JNC and CEA independently manufactured ODS martensitic cladding tubes by their own fabrication routes. Manufacturing started from the same hollow shape mother tubes with a composition of 9Cr-2W-0.1Ti-0.24Y 2 O 3 . The HPTR cold-rolling process was used by both JNC and CEA, but the applied fabrication routes included different cross-section reduction ratios, number of passes and intermediate heat treatments. The manufactured claddings exhibited an isotropic grain structure and equivalent tensile strength in the longitudinal and transverse directions. Even though different cross-section reduction ratios and intermediate annealing treatments were used, both cladding tubes manufactured by JNC and CEA showed similar levels of tensile and internal creep rupture strength

  15. Assessment of Novel Routes of Biomethane Utilization in a Life Cycle Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ahmadi Moghaddam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomethane, as a replacement for natural gas, reduces the use of fossil-based sources and supports the intended change from fossil to bio-based industry. The study assessed different biomethane utilization routes for production of methanol, dimethyl ether (DME, and ammonia, as fuel or platform chemicals, and combined heat and power (CHP. Energy efficiency and environmental impacts of the different pathways was studied in a life cycle perspective covering the technical system from biomass production to the end product. Among the routes studied, CHP had the highest energy balance and least environmental impact. DME and methanol performed competently in energy balance and environmental impacts in comparison with the ammonia route. DME had the highest total energy output, as fuel, heat, and steam, among the different routes studied. Substituting the bio-based routes for fossil-based alternatives would give a considerable reduction in environmental impacts such as global warming potential and acidification potential for all routes studied, especially CHP, DME, and methanol. Eutrophication potential was mainly a result of biomass and biomethane production, with marginal differences between the different routes.

  16. Junction and circuit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Great strides have been made in Josephson junction fabrication in the four years since the first IC SQUID meeting. Advances in lithography have allowed the production of devices with planar dimensions as small as a few hundred angstroms. Improved technology has provided ultra-high sensitivity SQUIDS, high-efficiency low-noise mixers, and complex integrated circuits. This review highlights some of the new fabrication procedures. The review consists of three parts. Part 1 is a short summary of the requirements on junctions for various applications. Part 2 reviews intergrated circuit fabrication, including tunnel junction logic circuits made at IBM and Bell Labs, and microbridge radiation sources made at SUNY at Stony Brook. Part 3 describes new junction fabrication techniques, the major emphasis of this review. This part includes a discussion of small oxide-barrier tunnel junctions, semiconductor barrier junctions, and microbridge junctions. Part 3 concludes by considering very fine lithography and limitations to miniaturization. (orig.)

  17. Construction, fabrication, and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This standard specifies the construction, fabrication, and installation requirements that apply to concrete containment structures of a containment system designated as class containment components, parts and appurtenances for nuclear power plants

  18. Experimental Fabrication Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides aviation fabrication support to special operations aircraft residing at Fort Eustis and other bases in the United States. Support is also provided to AATD...

  19. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  20. Route churn: an analysis of low-cost carrier route continuity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.G.; Zuidberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Discontinuity of air routes is a subject that has been analysed in various ways. For example, the complex network approach focuses on network robustness and resilience due to route interruptions during a relatively short period. Also seasonal interruptions of air routes are a well-documented

  1. Planning routes around the world: International evidence for southern route preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunyé, Tad T.; Andonova, Elena; Meneghetti, Chiara; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Wienemann, Rasmus; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Three studies test whether the southern route preference, which describes the tendency for route planners to disproportionately select south- rather than north-going routes, can be attributed to regional elevation patterns; specifically, we ask whether this effect replicates in three topographically

  2. A general melt-injection-decomposition route to oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dongqiang; Zhang, Xinwei; Hua, Zhenghe; Yang, Shaoguang, E-mail: sgyang@nju.edu.cn

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • A general melt-injection-decomposition (MID) route is proposed for the fabrication of oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. • Four kinds of metal oxide (CuO, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanowire arrays have been realized as examples through the developed MID route. • The mechanism of the developed MID route is discussed using Thermogravimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis technique. • The MID route is a versatile, simple, facile and effective way to prepare different kinds of oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays in the future. - Abstract: In this manuscript, a general melt-injection-decomposition (MID) route has been proposed and realized for the fabrication of oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. Nitrate was used as the starting materials, which was injected into the nanopores of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane through the capillarity action in its liquid state. At higher temperature, the nitrate decomposed into corresponding metal oxide within the nanopores of the AAO membrane. Oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays were formed within the AAO membrane as a result of the confinement of the nanopores. Four kinds of metal oxide (CuO, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanowire arrays are presented here as examples fabricated by this newly developed process. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies showed clear evidence of the formations of the oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. Formation mechanism of the metal oxide nanowire arrays is discussed based on the Thermogravimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis measurement results.

  3. A general melt-injection-decomposition route to oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dongqiang; Zhang, Xinwei; Hua, Zhenghe; Yang, Shaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A general melt-injection-decomposition (MID) route is proposed for the fabrication of oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. • Four kinds of metal oxide (CuO, Mn_2O_3, Co_3O_4 and Cr_2O_3) nanowire arrays have been realized as examples through the developed MID route. • The mechanism of the developed MID route is discussed using Thermogravimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis technique. • The MID route is a versatile, simple, facile and effective way to prepare different kinds of oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays in the future. - Abstract: In this manuscript, a general melt-injection-decomposition (MID) route has been proposed and realized for the fabrication of oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. Nitrate was used as the starting materials, which was injected into the nanopores of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane through the capillarity action in its liquid state. At higher temperature, the nitrate decomposed into corresponding metal oxide within the nanopores of the AAO membrane. Oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays were formed within the AAO membrane as a result of the confinement of the nanopores. Four kinds of metal oxide (CuO, Mn_2O_3, Co_3O_4 and Cr_2O_3) nanowire arrays are presented here as examples fabricated by this newly developed process. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies showed clear evidence of the formations of the oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. Formation mechanism of the metal oxide nanowire arrays is discussed based on the Thermogravimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis measurement results.

  4. Fabricating nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Activities of the Nuclear Engineering Division of Vickers Ltd., particularly fabrication of long slim tubular components for power reactors and the construction of irradiation loops and rigs, are outlined. The processes include hydraulic forming for fabrication of various types of tubes and outer cases of fuel transfer buckets, various specialised welding operations including some applications of the TIG process, and induction brazing of specialised assemblies. (U.K.)

  5. Synthetic wastewaters treatment by electrocoagulation to remove silver nanoparticles produced by different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, M S; Melegari, S P; Vicentini, D S; Matias, W G; Ricordel, C; Hauchard, D

    2015-08-15

    Nanoscience is a field that has stood out in recent years. The accurate long-term health and environmental risks associated with these emerging materials are unknown. Therefore, this work investigated how to eliminate silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from synthetic effluents by electrocoagulation (EC) due to the widespread use of this type of nanoparticle (NP) in industry and its potential inhibition power over microorganisms responsible for biological treatment in effluent treatment plants. Synthesized AgNPs were studied via four different routes by chemical reduction in aqueous solutions to simulate the chemical variations of a hypothetical industrial effluent, and efficiency conditions of the EC treatment were determined. All routes used silver nitrate as the source of silver ions, and two synthesis routes were studied with sodium citrate as a stabilizer. In route I, sodium citrate functioned simultaneously as the reducing agent and stabilizing agent, whereas route II used sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. Route III used D-glucose as the reducing agent and sodium pyrophosphate as the stabilizer; route IV used sodium pyrophosphate as the stabilizing agent and sodium borohydride as the reducing agent. The efficiency of the EC process of the different synthesized solutions was studied. For route I, after 85 min of treatment, a significant decrease in the plasmon resonance peak of the sample was observed, which reflects the efficiency in the mass reduction of AgNPs in the solution by 98.6%. In route II, after 12 min of EC, the absorbance results reached the detection limit of the measurement instrument, which indicates a minimum reduction of 99.9% of AgNPs in the solution. During the 4 min of treatment in route III, the absorbance intensities again reached the detection limit, which indicates a minimum reduction of 99.8%. In route IV, after 10 min of treatment, a minimum AgNP reduction of 99.9% was observed. Based on these results, it was possible to verify that

  6. The QKD network: model and routing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Hongqi; Su, Jinhai

    2017-11-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) technology can establish unconditional secure keys between two communicating parties. Although this technology has some inherent constraints, such as the distance and point-to-point mode limits, building a QKD network with multiple point-to-point QKD devices can overcome these constraints. Considering the development level of current technology, the trust relaying QKD network is the first choice to build a practical QKD network. However, the previous research didn't address a routing method on the trust relaying QKD network in detail. This paper focuses on the routing issues, builds a model of the trust relaying QKD network for easily analysing and understanding this network, and proposes a dynamical routing scheme for this network. From the viewpoint of designing a dynamical routing scheme in classical network, the proposed scheme consists of three components: a Hello protocol helping share the network topology information, a routing algorithm to select a set of suitable paths and establish the routing table and a link state update mechanism helping keep the routing table newly. Experiments and evaluation demonstrates the validity and effectiveness of the proposed routing scheme.

  7. Routing in Optical and Stochastic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.

    2015-01-01

    In most types of networks (e.g., optical or transportation networks), finding one or more best paths from a source to a destination, is one of the biggest concerns of network users and providers. This process is known as routing. The routing problems differ accordingly depending on different

  8. Classification of Dynamic Vehicle Routing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, Marius M.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses important characteristics seen within dynamic vehicle routing problems. We discuss the differences between the traditional static vehicle routing problems and its dynamic counterparts. We give an in-depth introduction to the degree of dynamism measure which can be used to c...

  9. Environmental factors along the Northern Sea Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjeld, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Northern Sea Route runs ca 5,600 nautical miles across the top of Russia from Murmansk to Vladivostok, and includes half of the Arctic basin. An environmental impact assessment is needed for this route because of the potential for commercial shipping to disturb the vulnerable Arctic environment along the route. For example, Russian development of oil and gas resources in the area served by the route is expected to rise dramatically in the near future. Drilling in the route area offshore has already begun, and potential blowouts or tanker spills are of concern. A pilot study on the environment along this route was conducted in 1990/91, focusing on a study of the literature and communications with Russian scientists working on Arctic ecology. Existing data seem to be insufficient and generally only cover the westernmost and easternmost parts of the route. A five-year research plan is proposed to provide an inventory of Arctic species in the route area and levels of contaminants present, to assess the environmental sensitivity of the area, and analyze impacts that increased shipping might have on the environment. Protection measures will also be suggested. 1 fig

  10. Optimizing departure times in vehicle routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, Elias W.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Most solution methods for the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) develop routes from the earliest feasible departure time. However, in practice, temporal traffic congestions make that such solutions are not optimal with respect to minimizing the total duty time. Furthermore, VRPTW

  11. Routing in Wireless Multimedia Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hop, Laurens

    This paper describes an adapted version of the destination sequenced distance vector routing protocol (DSDV) which is suitable to calculate routes in a wireless real-time home network. The home network is based on a IEEE 802.11b ad hoc network and uses a scheduled token to enforce real-time

  12. Routing in Wireless Multimedia Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hop, Laurens

    This paper describes an adapted version of the destination sequenced distance vector routing protocol (DSDV) which is suitable to calculate routes in a wireless ¿real-time¿ home network. The home network is based on a IEEE 802.11b ad hoc network and uses a scheduled token to enforce real-time

  13. Perspectives on Illegal Routes in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    University of Kwazulu-Natal. Pietermaritzburg, South ... Key Words: Nigeria Immigration Service, Illegal Routes, Security Policing, Border,. State .... transported weapons across borders to sell them in exchange for food or other commodities. ... The study's respondents were of the opinion that illegal routes exist around the ...

  14. Optimizing Departure Times in Vehicle Routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.L.; Hans, Elias W.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Most solution methods for the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) develop routes from the earliest feasible departure time. In practice, however, temporary traffic congestion make such solutions non-optimal with respect to minimizing the total duty time. Furthermore, the VRPTW does not

  15. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...

  16. Joint route planning under varying market conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, Frans; Bräysy, Olli; Dullaert, Wout; Fleuren, Hein; Salomon, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - To provide empirical evidence on the level of savings that can be attained by joint route planning and how these savings depend on specific market characteristics. Design/methodology/approach - Joint route planning is a measure that companies can take to decrease the costs of their

  17. Time and timing in vehicle routing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabali, O.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of goods to a set of geographically dispersed customers is a common problem faced by carrier companies, well-known as the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). The VRP consists of finding an optimal set of routes that minimizes total travel times for a given number of vehicles with a fixed

  18. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  19. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  20. Entanglement-Gradient Routing for Quantum Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2017-10-27

    We define the entanglement-gradient routing scheme for quantum repeater networks. The routing framework fuses the fundamentals of swarm intelligence and quantum Shannon theory. Swarm intelligence provides nature-inspired solutions for problem solving. Motivated by models of social insect behavior, the routing is performed using parallel threads to determine the shortest path via the entanglement gradient coefficient, which describes the feasibility of the entangled links and paths of the network. The routing metrics are derived from the characteristics of entanglement transmission and relevant measures of entanglement distribution in quantum networks. The method allows a moderate complexity decentralized routing in quantum repeater networks. The results can be applied in experimental quantum networking, future quantum Internet, and long-distance quantum communications.

  1. Highway and interline transportation routing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important issues to shippers, carriers, and the general public. Since transportation routes are a central characteristic in most of these issues, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward the resolution of these issues. In addition, US Department of Transportation requirements (HM-164) mandate specific routes for shipments of highway controlled quantities of radioactive materials. In response to these needs, two routing models have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These models have been designated by DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Transportation Management Division (DOE/EM) as the official DOE routing models. Both models, HIGHWAY and INTERLINE, are described

  2. Antibacterial property of fabrics coated by magnesium-based brucites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Sha, Lin; Zhao, Jiao; Li, Qian; Zhu, Yimin, E-mail: ntp@dlmu.edu.cn; Wang, Ninghui

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Magnesium-based antibacterial agents composited by brucites with different particle sizes were proposed for the first time. • The coating process for making antibacterial fabrics was easy to operate and apply in industrial application. • The materials used in the antibacterial fabrics were environmental-friendly and cost-effective. • Reduction percentage of as-prepared antibacterial fabrics against E. coli and S. aureus reached to 96.6%, 100% respectively. • The antibacterial fabrics attained excellent washing durability. - Abstract: A kind of environmental-friendly magnesium-based antibacterial agent was reported for the first time, which was composited by brucites with different particle sizes. The antibacterial fabrics were produced by coating the magnesium-based antibacterial agents on the 260T polyester pongee fabrics with waterborne polyurethane. The coating process was simple, low-cost, and harmless to human health and environment. Characteristics of the antibacterial agents and fabrics were studied by particulate size distribution analyzer (PSDA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrated that the coating layer was covered tightly on the fabrics and compositing of different particles by a certain proportion made full filling of the coating layer. Meanwhile, compositing did not change the structure of brucites. The antibacterial fabrics presented strong antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), with the reduction percentage of 96.6% and 100%, respectively, and the antibacterial fabrics attained excellent washing durability.

  3. Critical Routes: Women Facing Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Critical Routes International Seminar – Women Facing Violence , which took place in Porto Alegre in 2008. The seminar was promoted by the Graduate Program on Collective Health at Unisinos and by the Public Health School/RS and was supported by outstanding researchers working in the fields of collective health, and social and human sciences. Initially, we discuss some conceptual aspects about gender violence, its dimensions and its consequences for the health and the life quality of the affected women. Our understanding is that violence is one of the most effective methods of controlling women in societies scarred with gender hierarchies. The structure of the seminar focused on three main discussion themes: breaking up with the violence, mechanisms for working with gender and hearing the services. These themes were chosen aiming at looking for ways to help the women and to explore efficient mechanisms to combat, reduce and, if possible, eliminate the violence perpetrated against women. At the end of the seminar, we reiterate the political commitment on the accomplishment of the public policies to face violence and the fight against all inequality, discrimination and violence forms based on gender.

  4. Route analysis for MHD equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Fumio; Aizawa, Tatsuhiko

    1982-01-01

    In Tokamak facilities which are promising in nuclear fusion reactor development, the plasma in the core is often described by MHD approximation. Specifically, since an axisymmetric torus is approximately assumed as the first wall (shell) shape in actual Tokamak facilities, the Grad-Shafranov equation to be satisfied by an axisymmetric equilibrium solution for ideal MHD fluid must be solved, and the characteristics of its solution must be clarified. This paper shows the outline of the numerical calculation which employs both the incremental method taking the particular incremental nodal point values as the control parameters and the interaction method in accordance with Newton method at the same time, the analysis objective being a non-linear eigenvalue problem dealing the boundary of plasma region with surrounding vacuum region as the free boundary. Next, the detailed route analysis of the equilibrium solution is performed, utilizing the above numerical calculation technique, to clarify the effect of shell shape on the behaviour of the equilibrium solution. As the shape of the shell, a rectangular section torus, which have a notch depression at a part of the shell inner boundary, is considered. In the paper, the fundamental MHD equation and its approximate solution by the finite element method, the behaviour of plasma equilibrium solution in a shell having a notch, and the effect of notch shapes on plasma behaviour are described. This analysis verifies the effectiveness of the calculation method. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Jockeying for position : how the proposed pipeline projects and route-on-route competition are shaping up in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, H.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation included a brief historical look at pipeline proposals submitted over the years to bring Alaska and Northwest Territories gas to market. The challenges facing the early proponents of a pipeline from Prudhoe Bay to the Mackenzie Delta, such as cost, environmental impact and socio-economic impact on Aboriginals living in the Mackenzie Valley, have now been removed. Lobbying efforts by politicians in Alaska nearly succeeded in forcing an Alaska Highway gas pipeline, instead of letting market economics dictate the route. The author indicated that an Alaska pipeline would not benefit the Canadian natural gas industry, rather it would force production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) to be slashed, resulting in reduced drilling and lower royalties to government. The author suggested that Canada should not grant any permit to construct a pipeline in Canada that is destined for markets in the contiguous United States if the pipeline was in any way subsidized to disadvantage Canadian producers. The author explained why the proposal to build a standalone pipeline in the Mackenzie Valley before the Alaska Highway pipeline is not a good idea. Gas prices and pipeline tolls are the most important economic elements. The author expressed the opinion that the over the top route combined with the Mackenzie Valley route would be beneficial to both Canada and the United States for a host of reasons. figs

  6. Fabrication of HTTR first loading fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, S.; Yoshimuta, S.; Hasumi, T.; Sato, K.; Sawa, K.; Suzuki, S.; Mogi, H.; Shiozawa, S.; Tanaka, T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the fabrication of the first loading fuel for HTTR, High Temperature engineering Test Reactor constructed by JAERI, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The fuel fabrication started at the HTR fuel facility of NFI, Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., June 1995. 4,770 fuel rods were fabricated through the fuel kernel, coated fuel particle and fuel compaction process, then 150 fuel elements were assembled in the reactor building December 1997. Fabrication technology for the fuel was established through a lot of R and D activities and fabrication experience of irradiation examination samples spread over about 30 years. Most of all, very high quality and production efficiency of fuel were achieved by the development of the fuel kernel process using the vibration dropping technology, the continuous 4-layer coating process and the automatic compaction process. As for the inspection technology, the development of the automatic measurement equipment for coated layer thickness of a coated fuel particle and uranium content of a fuel compact contributed to the higher reliability and rationalization of the inspection process. The data processing system for the fabrication and quality control, which was originally developed by NFI, made possible not only quick feedback of statistical quality data to the fabrication processes, but also automatic document preparation, such as inspection certificates and accountability control reports. The quality of the first loading fuel fully satisfied the design specifications for the fuel. In particular, average bare uranium fraction and SiC defective fraction of fuel compacts were 2x10 -6 and 8x10 -5 , respectively. According to the preceding irradiation examinations being performed at JMTR, Japan Materials Testing Reactor of JAERI, the specimen sampled from the first loading fuel shows good irradiation performance. (author)

  7. Fabrication of a zirconia MEMS-based microthruster by gel casting on PDMS soft molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheah, K H; Khiew, P S; Chin, J K

    2012-01-01

    A zirconia microelectromechanical-system-based microthruster was fabricated through a newly developed fabrication route. Gel casting of homogenously dispersed zirconia suspension on polydimethylsiloxane soft mold was utilized to replicate the geometries of microthruster design onto a ceramic layer of about 1.2 mm thick. Lamination of the patterned ceramic layer to another flat ceramic layer and subsequent sintering produced the microthruster. Characterizations on the fabricated prototype showed good shape retention on the replicated geometries and good quality of lamination. Shrinkage of about 10–15% was noted after sintering. The current fabrication route is particularly promising for the development of high-performance micropropulsion systems which require their structural material to survive in an extreme environment which is corrosive, of high temperature and highly oxidative. (paper)

  8. Evacuation route planning during nuclear emergency using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suman, Vitisha; Sarkar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    In nuclear industry the routing in case of any emergency is a cause of concern and of great importance. Even the smallest of time saved in the affected region saves a huge amount of otherwise received dose. Genetic algorithm an optimization technique has great ability to search for the optimal path from the affected region to a destination station in a spatially addressed problem. Usually heuristic algorithms are used to carry out these types of search strategy, but due to the lack of global sampling in the feasible solution space, these algorithms have considerable possibility of being trapped into local optima. Routing problems mainly are search problems for finding the shortest distance within a time limit to cover the required number of stations taking care of the traffics, road quality, population size etc. Lack of any formal mechanisms to help decision-makers explore the solution space of their problem and thereby challenges their assumptions about the number and range of options available. The Genetic Algorithm provides a way to optimize a multi-parameter constrained problem with an ease. Here use of Genetic Algorithm to generate a range of options available and to search a solution space and selectively focus on promising combinations of criteria makes them ideally suited to such complex spatial decision problems. The emergency response and routing can be made efficient, in accessing the closest facilities and determining the shortest route using genetic algorithm. The accuracy and care in creating database can be used to improve the result of the final output. The Genetic algorithm can be used to improve the accuracy of result on the basis of distance where other algorithm cannot be obtained. The search space can be utilized to its great extend

  9. Direct Photonic-Plasmonic Coupling and Routing in Single Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Rouxue; Pausauskie, Peter; Huang, Jiaxing; Yang, Piedong

    2009-10-20

    Metallic nanoscale structures are capable of supporting surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), propagating collective electron oscillations with tight spatial confinement at the metal surface. SPPs represent one of the most promising structures to beat the diffraction limit imposed by conventional dielectric optics. Ag nano wires have drawn increasing research attention due to 2D sub-100 nm mode confinement and lower losses as compared with fabricated metal structures. However, rational and versatile integration of Ag nanowires with other active and passive optical components, as well as Ag nanowire based optical routing networks, has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate that SPPs can be excited simply by contacting a silver nanowire with a SnO2 nanoribbon that serves both as an unpolarized light source and a dielectric waveguide. The efficient coupling makes it possible to measure the propagation-distance-dependent waveguide spectra and frequency-dependent propagation length on a single Ag nanowire. Furthermore, we have demonstrated prototypical photonic-plasmonic routing devices, which are essential for incorporating low-loss Ag nanowire waveguides as practical components into high-capacity photonic circuits.

  10. Water-Soluble Polymers with Strong Photoluminescence through an Eco-Friendly and Low-Cost Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaoyan; Ru, Yue; Song, Wenbo; Liu, Zhenjie; Zhang, Xiaohong; Qiao, Jinliang

    2017-07-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) of nonconjugated polymers brings a favorable opportunity for low-cost and nontoxic luminescent materials, while most of them still exhibit relatively weak emission. Strong PL from poly[(maleic anhydride)-alt-(vinyl acetate)] (PMV) from low-cost monomer has been found in organic solvents, yet the necessity of noxious solvents would hinder its practical applications. Herein, through a novel, eco-friendly, and one-step route, PMV-derived PL polymers can be fabricated with the highest quantum yield of 87% among water-soluble nonconjugated PL polymers ever reported. These PMV-derived polymers emit strong blue emission in both solutions and solids, and can be transformed into red-emission agents easily. These PL polymers exhibit application potentials in light-conversion agricultural films. It is assumed that this work not only puts forward a convenient preparation routine for nonconjugated polymers with high PL, but also provides an industrial application possibility for them. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology....... Additionally it is of utmost importance that the employed communication system is suitable integrated with the firm’s enterprise application system and business processes. On basis of a case study, we describe in this paper a system that is cheap and easy to implement due to the use of simple mobile phones...

  12. Cost analysis of hybrid adaptive routing protocol for heterogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NONITA SHARMA

    Event detection; wireless sensor networks; hybrid routing; cost benefit analysis; proactive routing; reactive routing. 1. ... additional energy, high processing power, etc. are deployed to extend the .... transmit to its parent node. (2) Reactive ...

  13. Nanoparticles with tunable shape and composition fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alayo, Nerea; Bausells, Joan; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; Conde-Rubio, Ana; Labarta, Amilcar; Batlle, Xavier; Borrisé, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Cone-like and empty cup-shaped nanoparticles of noble metals have been demonstrated to provide extraordinary optical properties for use as optical nanoanntenas or nanoresonators. However, their large-scale production is difficult via standard nanofabrication methods. We present a fabrication approach to achieve arrays of nanoparticles with tunable shape and composition by a combination of nanoimprint lithography, hard-mask definition and various forms of metal deposition. In particular, we have obtained arrays of empty cup-shaped Au nanoparticles showing an optical response with distinguishable features associated with the excitations of localized surface plasmons. Finally, this route avoids the most common drawbacks found in the fabrication of nanoparticles by conventional top-down methods, such as aspect ratio limitation, blurring, and low throughput, and it can be used to fabricate nanoparticles with heterogeneous composition. (paper)

  14. Nanoparticles with tunable shape and composition fabricated by nanoimprint lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayo, Nerea; Conde-Rubio, Ana; Bausells, Joan; Borrisé, Xavier; Labarta, Amilcar; Batlle, Xavier; Pérez-Murano, Francesc

    2015-11-06

    Cone-like and empty cup-shaped nanoparticles of noble metals have been demonstrated to provide extraordinary optical properties for use as optical nanoanntenas or nanoresonators. However, their large-scale production is difficult via standard nanofabrication methods. We present a fabrication approach to achieve arrays of nanoparticles with tunable shape and composition by a combination of nanoimprint lithography, hard-mask definition and various forms of metal deposition. In particular, we have obtained arrays of empty cup-shaped Au nanoparticles showing an optical response with distinguishable features associated with the excitations of localized surface plasmons. Finally, this route avoids the most common drawbacks found in the fabrication of nanoparticles by conventional top-down methods, such as aspect ratio limitation, blurring, and low throughput, and it can be used to fabricate nanoparticles with heterogeneous composition.

  15. Direct ink write fabrication of transparent ceramic gain media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ivy Krystal; Seeley, Zachary M.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Duoss, Eric B.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2018-01-01

    Solid-state laser gain media based on the garnet structure with two spatially distinct but optically contiguous regions have been fabricated. Transparent gain media comprised of a central core of Y2.97Nd0.03Al5.00O12.00 (Nd:YAG) and an undoped cladding region of Y3Al5O12 (YAG) were fabricated by direct ink write and transparent ceramic processing. Direct ink write (DIW) was employed to form the green body, offering a general route to preparing functionally structured solid-state laser gain media. Fully-dense transparent optical ceramics in a "top hat" geometry with YAG/Nd:YAG have been fabricated by DIW methods with optical scatter at 1064 nm of <3%/cm.

  16. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jasveer, E-mail: kaurjasveer89@gmail.com; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder [Department of Physics, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India); Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder, E-mail: raminder-k-saini@yahoo.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India)

    2016-05-06

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  17. MOX Fabrication Isolation Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric L. Shaber; Bradley J Schrader

    2005-08-01

    This document provides a technical position on the preferred level of isolation to fabricate demonstration quantities of mixed oxide transmutation fuels. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative should design and construct automated glovebox fabrication lines for this purpose. This level of isolation adequately protects the health and safety of workers and the general public for all mixed oxide (and other transmutation fuel) manufacturing efforts while retaining flexibility, allowing parallel development and setup, and minimizing capital expense. The basis regulations, issues, and advantages/disadvantages of five potential forms of isolation are summarized here as justification for selection of the preferred technical position.

  18. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jasveer; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  19. Fabrication and simulation of organic transistors and functional circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D. Martin, E-mail: d.m.taylor@bangor.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom); Patchett, Eifion R.; Williams, Aled [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom); Ding, Ziqian; Assender, Hazel E. [Department of Materials, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Morrison, John J.; Yeates, Stephen G. [School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-29

    Highlights: • Development of roll-to-roll fabrication protocol for organic TFTs and circuits. • Bottom-gate polystyrene/DNTT TFTs much better than top-gate TFTs. • High-yield and high mobility with polystyrene-buffered TPGDA. • Fabrication of functional circuits – ring oscillators and logic gates. • New baseline process allows TFT parameter extraction and circuit simulation. - Abstract: We report the development of a vacuum-evaporation route for the roll-to-roll fabrication of functioning organic circuits. A number of key findings and observations are highlighted which influenced the eventual fabrication protocol adopted. Initially, the role of interface roughness in determining carrier mobility in thin film transistors (TFTs) is investigated. Then it is shown that TFT yield is higher for devices fabricated on a flash-evaporated-plasma-polymerised tri(propyleneglycol) diacrylate (TPGDA) gate dielectric than for TFTs based on a spin-coated polystyrene (PS) dielectric. However, a degradation in mobility is observed which is attributed to the highly polar TPGDA surface. It is shown that high mobility, low gate-leakage currents and excellent stability are restored when the surface of TPGDA was buffered with a thin, spin-coated PS film. The resulting baseline process allowed arrays of functional circuits such as ring oscillators, NOR/NAND logic gates and S–R latches to be fabricated with high yield and their performance to be simulated.

  20. Clear Castable Polyurethane Elastomer for Fabrication of Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domansky, Karel; Leslie, Daniel C.; McKinney, James; Fraser, Jacob P.; Sliz, Josiah D.; Hamkins-Indik, Tiama; Hamilton, Geraldine A.; Bahinski, Anthony; Ingber, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has numerous desirable properties for fabricating microfluidic devices, including optical transparency, flexibility, biocompatibility, and fabrication by casting; however, partitioning of small hydrophobic molecules into the bulk of PDMS hinders industrial acceptance of PDMS microfluidic devices for chemical processing and drug development applications. Here we describe an attractive alternative material that is similar to PDMS in terms of optical transparency, flexibility and castability, but that is also resistant to absorption of small hydrophobic molecules. PMID:23954953

  1. Dams and Obstructions along Iowa's Canoe Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset represents obstruction to canoe and boat users of the canoe routes of Iowa. This may represent actual dams, rock dams (natural or man made), large...

  2. Integrating routing decisions in public transportation problems

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Marie E

    2014-01-01

    This book treats three planning problems arising in public railway transportation planning: line planning, timetabling, and delay management, with the objective to minimize passengers’ travel time. While many optimization approaches simplify these problems by assuming that passengers’ route choice is independent of the solution, this book focuses on models which take into account that passengers will adapt their travel route to the implemented planning solution. That is, a planning solution and passengers’ routes are determined and evaluated simultaneously. This work is technically deep, with insightful findings regarding complexity and algorithmic approaches to public transportation problems with integrated passenger routing. It is intended for researchers in the fields of mathematics, computer science, or operations research, working in the field of public transportation from an optimization standpoint. It is also ideal for students who want to gain intuition and experience in doing complexity proofs ...

  3. Commercial vehicle route tracking using video detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-31

    Interstate commercial vehicle traffic is a major factor in the life of any road surface. The ability to track : these vehicles and their routes through the state can provide valuable information to planning : activities. We propose a method using vid...

  4. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Kenji; Sumimoto, Michinori; Murafuji, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We have been investigating “quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development” using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF 3 as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings

  5. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...... depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0....

  6. Coordinated Platoon Routing in a Metropolitan Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Jeffrey; Munson, Todd; Sokolov, Vadim

    2016-10-10

    Platooning vehicles—connected and automated vehicles traveling with small intervehicle distances—use less fuel because of reduced aerodynamic drag. Given a network de- fined by vertex and edge sets and a set of vehicles with origin/destination nodes/times, we model and solve the combinatorial optimization problem of coordinated routing of vehicles in a manner that routes them to their destination on time while using the least amount of fuel. Common approaches decompose the platoon coordination and vehicle routing into separate problems. Our model addresses both problems simultaneously to obtain the best solution. We use modern modeling techniques and constraints implied from analyzing the platoon routing problem to address larger numbers of vehicles and larger networks than previously considered. While the numerical method used is unable to certify optimality for candidate solutions to all networks and parameters considered, we obtain excellent solutions in approximately one minute for much larger networks and vehicle sets than previously considered in the literature.

  7. Human BDCM Mulit-Route PBPK Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains the code for the BDCM human multi-route model written in the programming language acsl. The final published manuscript is provided since it...

  8. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0.......We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...

  9. Dynamic Escape Routes for Naval Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villalonga, Francisco J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of optimal evacuation of a naval ship. We propose the use of a dynamic escape-route system which employs a signaling system to adapt the emergency egress process to the instigating contingency...

  10. Pharmacokinetics of Alternative Administration Routes of Melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetner, D.; Andersen, L. P.H.; Rosenberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Melatonin is traditionally administered orally but has a poor and variable bioavailability. This study aims to present an overview of studies investigating the pharmacokinetics of alternative administration routes of melatonin. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed...... and included experimental or clinical studies, investigating pharmacokinetics of alternative administration routes of melatonin in vivo. Alternative administration routes were defined as all administration routes except oral and intravenous. Results: 10 studies were included in the review. Intranasal....... Subcutaneous injection of melatonin displayed a rapid absorption rate compared to oral administration. Conclusion: Intranasal administration of melatonin has a large potential, and more research in humans is warranted. Transdermal application of melatonin has a possible use in a local application, due to slow...

  11. LAMPF transition-region mechanical fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, E.D. Jr.; Gallegos, J.D.F.; Harrison, R.; Hart, V.E.; Hunter, W.T.; Rislove, S.E.; Sims, J.R.; Van Dyke, W.J.

    1984-07-01

    The primary purpose of the new Transition Region (TR-II) is to optimize the phase matching of the H + and H - beams during simultaneous transport. TR-II incorporates several design improvements that include larger aperture, a straight beam track, greater beam-path length adjustments, and utility lines integrated with the support system. The close pack density of magnets and beam-line hardware required innovative solutions to magnet design and mounting, vacuum manifolding, and utility routing. Critical magnet placement was accomplished using a new three-dimensional alignment system that does real-time vector calculations on a computer with input from two digital theodolites. All assembly and a large fraction of the mechanical fabrication were done by LAMPF personnel. The TR-II has been operational since September 1983 and routinely transports production beams up to 900-μA current with no major problems

  12. A Comparative Anatomy of Oil Price Routs: A Review of Four Price Routs between 1985 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Skinner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With layoffs and cutbacks in the oilpatch and the ripple effects spreading out through Canada’s economy, it may seem as though the latest drop in oil prices could stall the economic engine in Alberta for a long time. This paper argues, however, that the current rout is unlike the other three major ones (when the price of oil dropped 60 per cent or more experienced in the last 30 years. The factors affecting the oil price drop and its potential for rebound differ significantly. The routs of 2008 and 1997 were mostly demand-driven, triggered by credit crises in key markets. Both 2014 and 1985 started as demand-driven, too, but significantly, they changed to supply-driven crashes. There, however, the similarities end between today and 30 years ago. Fears that we may be in for a long-term rout, similar to that of 1985, which lasted more than a decade, may be allayed by examining the very different circumstances surrounding the contemporary situation. Given an uninspiring macroeconomic outlook, a supply-side solution will be imperative. A critical difference lies in the security of spare productive capacity. In 1985, OPEC’s spare capacity approached twenty per cent of world demand. Today, it is closer to two per cent. Moreover, today’s producer of the disruptive non-OPEC barrels in the shale oil industry in particular is far more reliant on external financing than were companies developing, for example, the North Sea 30 years ago. Then, with much higher prime rates, firms largely self-generated their financing. In addition, there was considerable room for cost-cutting, enabling increased production and therefore prolongation of the crash. If any silver lining can be found in the roiling storm clouds of the current rout, it is that the pendulum could swing sharply back by decade’s end. Natural production declines in old fields and investment cutbacks and cancellations around the world will eventually register in market balances once record

  13. Ising model for packet routing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Chiaki

    2004-01-01

    For packet routing control in computer networks, we propose an Ising model which is defined in order to express competition among a queue length and a distance from a node with a packet to its destination node. By introducing a dynamics for a mean-field value of an Ising spin, we show by computer simulations that effective control of packet routing through priority links is possible

  14. Efficient Networks Communication Routing Using Swarm Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Koushal Kumar

    2012-01-01

    As demonstrated by natural biological swarm’s collective intelligence has an abundance of desirable properties for problem-solving like in network routing. The focus of this paper is in the applications of swarm based intelligence in information routing for communication networks. As we know networks are growing and adopting new platforms as new technologies comes. Also according to new demands and requirements networks topologies and its complexity is increasing with time. Thus it is becomin...

  15. Learning Points and Routes to Recommend Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dawei; Ong, Cheng Soon; Xie, Lexing

    2016-01-01

    The problem of recommending tours to travellers is an important and broadly studied area. Suggested solutions include various approaches of points-of-interest (POI) recommendation and route planning. We consider the task of recommending a sequence of POIs, that simultaneously uses information about POIs and routes. Our approach unifies the treatment of various sources of information by representing them as features in machine learning algorithms, enabling us to learn from past behaviour. Info...

  16. Self-Interested Routing in Queueing Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ali K. Parlaktürk; Sunil Kumar

    2004-01-01

    We study self-interested routing in stochastic networks, taking into account the discrete stochastic dynamics of such networks. We analyze a two-station multiclass queueing network in which the system manager chooses the scheduling rule and individual customers choose routes in a self-interested manner. We show that this network can be unstable in Nash equilibrium under some scheduling rules. We also design a nontrivial scheduling rule that negates the performance degradation resulting from s...

  17. Dealing with the white death: avalanche risk management for traffic routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinberger, Christoph M; Bründl, Michael; Rhyner, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses mitigation strategies to protect traffic routes from snow avalanches. Up to now, mitigation of snow avalanches on many roads and railways in the Alps has relied on avalanche sheds, which require large initial investments resulting in high opportunity costs. Therefore, avalanche risk managers have increasingly adopted organizational mitigation measures such as warning systems and closure policies instead. The effectiveness of these measures is, however, greatly dependent on human decisions. In this article, we present a method for optimizing avalanche mitigation for traffic routes in terms of both their risk reduction impact and their net benefit to society. First, we introduce a generic framework for assessing avalanche risk and for quantifying the impact of mitigation. This allows for sound cost-benefit comparisons between alternative mitigation strategies. Second, we illustrate the framework with a case study from Switzerland. Our findings suggest that site-specific characteristics of avalanche paths, as well as the economic importance of a traffic route, are decisive for the choice of optimal mitigation strategies. On routes endangered by few avalanche paths with frequent avalanche occurrences, structural measures are most efficient, whereas reliance on organizational mitigation is often the most appropriate strategy on routes endangered by many paths with infrequent or fuzzy avalanche risk. Finally, keeping a traffic route open may be very important for tourism or the transport industry. Hence, local economic value may promote the use of a hybrid strategy that combines organizational and structural measures to optimize the resource allocation of avalanche risk mitigation.

  18. INTERLINE 5.0 -- An expanded railroad routing model: Program description, methodology, and revised user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Clarke, D.B.; Jacobi, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    A rail routine model, INTERLINE, has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate potential routes for transporting radioactive materials. In Version 5.0, the INTERLINE routing algorithms have been enhanced to include the ability to predict alternative routes, barge routes, and population statistics for any route. The INTERLINE railroad network is essentially a computerized rail atlas describing the US railroad system. All rail lines, with the exception of industrial spurs, are included in the network. Inland waterways and deep water routes along with their interchange points with the US railroadsystem are also included. The network contains over 15,000 rail and barge segments (links) and over 13,000 stations, interchange points, ports, and other locations (nodes). The INTERLINE model has been converted to operate on an IBM-compatible personal computer. At least a 286 computer with a hard disk containing approximately 6 MB of free space is recommended. Enhanced program performance will be obtained by using arandom-access memory drive on a 386 or 486 computer

  19. Application of industrial CT in reverse engineering technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Liyong; Li Hui; Bai Jinping; Li Bailin

    2013-01-01

    The basic principle and basic steps of reverse engineering technology based on industrial CT are described. The recent research progresses and situation at home and abroad of reverse engineering technology based on industrial CT image are respectively described, analyzed and summarized from two routes which are surface segmentation and volume segmentation. An example of conch is used to exhibit the results from the two routes in reverse engineering technology based on industrial CT image. Finally, some difficulties in application and the future developments of reverse engineering technology based on industrial CT are prospected. (authors)

  20. Route selection issues for NWPA shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.V.; Harrison, I.G.

    1993-01-01

    Questions surrounding the designation of routes for the movement of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) have broad implications. Federal regulations prescribe rules to be applied in the selection of highway routes. In most cases, these rules will lead to a clear selection of one route between an origin and destination point. However, in other cases, strict application of the regulations does not result in a clear choice of a preferred route. The regulations also provide discretion to State governments and carriers to select alternative routes to enhance the safety of the shipment. Railroad shipments of radioactive materials are not subject to Federal routing regulations. Since the railroads operate on private property, it has been assumed that they know the best way to move freight on their system. This discretion, while desirable for addressing unique local safety concerns or for responding to temporary safety concerns such as road problems, weather conditions, or construction areas, leads to significant opportunity for misunderstandings and uneasiness on the part of local residents

  1. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  2. Text-Fabric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Text-Fabric is a Python3 package for Text plus Annotations. It provides a data model, a text file format, and a binary format for (ancient) text plus (linguistic) annotations. The emphasis of this all is on: data processing; sharing data; and contributing modules. A defining characteristic is that

  3. PIGMI mechanical fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, V.E.

    1976-01-01

    A prime goal of the mechanical design effort associated with the PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) program is to investigate new materials and fabrication techniques in an effort to obtain increased machine efficiency and reliability at a reasonable cost. The following discussion deals with the modeling program that LASL is pursuing for 450-MHz and 1350-MHz PIGMI development. (author)

  4. Micromechanical Structures Fabrication; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajic, S

    2001-01-01

    Work in materials other than silicon for MEMS applications has typically been restricted to metals and metal oxides instead of more ''exotic'' semiconductors. However, group III-V and II-VI semiconductors form a very important and versatile collection of material and electronic parameters available to the MEMS and MOEMS designer. With these materials, not only are the traditional mechanical material variables (thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, Young's modulus, etc.) available, but also chemical constituents can be varied in ternary and quaternary materials. This flexibility can be extremely important for both friction and chemical compatibility issues for MEMS. In addition, the ability to continually vary the bandgap energy can be particularly useful for many electronics and infrared detection applications. However, there are two major obstacles associated with alternate semiconductor material MEMS. The first issue is the actual fabrication of non-silicon micro-devices and the second impediment is communicating with these novel devices. We have implemented an essentially material independent fabrication method that is amenable to most group III-V and II-VI semiconductors. This technique uses a combination of non-traditional direct write precision fabrication processes such as diamond turning, ion milling, laser ablation, etc. This type of deterministic fabrication approach lends itself to an almost trivial assembly process. We also implemented a mechanical, electrical, and optical self-aligning hybridization technique for these alternate-material MEMS substrates

  5. Fabrication activity for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Chung, Il-Sug; Carletti, Luca

    We present the fabrication and characterization of new structures and materials to be used in nanophotonics. The first structure presented is a fractal metallic metasurface designed to be used as a high-sensitivity sensor for 810nm wavelength. A second structure is a high index contrast grating...

  6. Alcatel-Lucent Service Routing Architect (SRA) self-study guide preparing for the BGP, VPRN and Multicast exams

    CERN Document Server

    Warnock, Glenn; Shaheen, Ghassan

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive resource for professionals preparing for Alcatel-Lucent Service Routing Architect (SRA) certification Networking professionals are taking note of Alcatel-Lucent and its quick ascent in the networking and telecom industries. IP networking professionals looking for a comprehensive guide to obtaining the Alcatel-Lucent Service Routing Architect (SRA) certification will be pleased to learn of this new publication, Alcatel-Lucent Service Routing Architect (SRA) Self-Study Guide: Preparing for the BGP, VPRN and Multicast Exams. The book comprises approximately 2,600 pages of print a

  7. Development Of Methodologies Using PhabrOmeter For Fabric Drape Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengwei

    Evaluation of fabric drape is important for textile industry as it reveals the aesthetic and functionality of the cloth and apparel. Although many fabric drape measuring methods have been developed for several decades, they are falling behind the need for fast product development by the industry. To meet the requirement of industries, it is necessary to develop an effective and reliable method to evaluate fabric drape. The purpose of the present study is to determine if PhabrOmeter can be applied to fabric drape evaluation. PhabrOmeter is a fabric sensory performance evaluating instrument which is developed to provide fast and reliable quality testing results. This study was sought to determine the relationship between fabric drape and other fabric attributes. In addition, a series of conventional methods including AATCC standards, ASTM standards and ISO standards were used to characterize the fabric samples. All the data were compared and analyzed with linear correlation method. The results indicate that PhabrOmeter is reliable and effective instrument for fabric drape evaluation. Besides, some effects including fabric structure, testing directions were considered to examine their impact on fabric drape.

  8. Pseudo-Cycle-Based Multicast Routing in Wormhole-Routed Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG JianPing (宋建平); HOU ZiFeng (侯紫峰); XU Ming (许铭)

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of fault-tolerant multicast routing in wormholerouted multicomputers. A new pseudo-cycle-based routing method is presented for constructing deadlock-free multicast routing algorithms. With at most two virtual channels this technique can be applied to any connected networks with arbitrary topologies. Simulation results show that this technique results in negligible performance degradation even in the presence of a large number of faulty nodes.

  9. SAFEBIKE: A Bike-sharing Route Recommender with Availability Prediction and Safe Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Weisheng; Chen, Fanglan; Fu, Kaiqun; Lu, Chang-Tien

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents SAFEBIKE, a novel route recommendation system for bike-sharing service that utilizes station information to infer the number of available bikes in dock and recommend bike routes according to multiple factors such as distance and safety level. The system consists of a station level availability predictor that predicts bikes and docks amount at each station, and an efficient route recommendation service that considers safety and bike/dock availability factors. It targets use...

  10. Transportation routing analysis geographic information system -- TRAGIS, a multimodal transportation routing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    Over 15 years ago, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed two transportation routing models: HIGHWAY, which predicts truck transportation routes, and INTERLINE, which predicts rail transportation routes. Subsequent modifications have been made to enhance each of these models. Some of these changes include population density information for routes, HM-164 routing regulations for highway route controlled quantities of radioactive materials (RAM) truck shipments, and inclusion of waterway routing into INTERLINE. The AIRPORT model, developed 2 years after the HIGHWAY and INTERLINE models, serves as an emergency response tool. This model identifies the nearest airports from a designated location. Currently, the AIRPORT model is inactive. The Transportation Management Division of the US Department of Energy held a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session on the HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, and AIRPORT models in April 1994 to bring together many users of these models and other experts in the transportation routing field to discuss these models and to decide on the capabilities that needed to be added. Of the many needs discussed, the primary one was to have the network databases within a geographic information system (GIS). As a result of the Baseline Requirements Session, the development of a new GIS model has been initiated. This paper will discuss the development of the new Transportation Routing Analysis GIS (TRAGIS) model at ORNL

  11. A nonaqueous sol-gel route to synthesize CdIn2O4 nanoparticles for the improvement of formaldehyde-sensing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yude; Chen, Ting; Mu, Qiuying; Wang, Guofeng

    2009-01-01

    CdIn 2 O 4 nanoparticles with crystallite sizes of about 10 nm were prepared by a nonaqueous sol-gel route involving the reaction of cadmium acetate and indium isopropoxide in benzyl alcohol. The as-fabricated sensor based on CdIn 2 O 4 nanoparticles showed a strong and fast response to and rapid recovery time from formaldehyde gas. Compared with the sensor fabricated with CdIn 2 O 4 powders prepared via a high-temperature solid-state route, the results show that CdIn 2 O 4 nanoparticles sensor has about a 26-fold increase in response and a good dynamic response.

  12. Bellman Ford algorithm - in Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krianto Sulaiman, Oris; Mahmud Siregar, Amir; Nasution, Khairuddin; Haramaini, Tasliyah

    2018-04-01

    In a large scale network need a routing that can handle a lot number of users, one of the solutions to cope with large scale network is by using a routing protocol, There are 2 types of routing protocol that is static and dynamic, Static routing is manually route input based on network admin, while dynamic routing is automatically route input formed based on existing network. Dynamic routing is efficient used to network extensively because of the input of route automatic formed, Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of dynamic routing that uses the bellman-ford algorithm where this algorithm will search for the best path that traversed the network by leveraging the value of each link, so with the bellman-ford algorithm owned by RIP can optimize existing networks.

  13. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  14. Farmaceutische industrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros JPM; van der Poel P; Etman EJ; Montfoort JA; LAE

    1995-01-01

    Dit rapport over de farmaceutische industrie is gepubliceerd binnen het Samenwerkingsproject Procesbeschrijvingen Industrie Nederland (SPIN). In het kader van dit project is informatie verzameld over industriele bedrijven of industriele processen ter ondersteuning van het overheidsbeleid op het

  15. Fabrication of starch-based microparticles by an emulsification-crosslinking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch-based microparticles (MPs) fabricated by a water-in-water (w/w) emulsification-crosslinking method could be used as a controlled-release delivery vehicle for food bioactives. Due to the processing route without the use of toxic organic solvents, it is expected that these microparticles can be...

  16. Status report, canister fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Emilsson, Goeran [CSM Materialteknik AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  17. Status report, canister fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika; Emilsson, Goeran

    2004-06-01

    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  18. Integrated porous-silicon light-emitting diodes: A fabrication process using graded doping profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillaro, G.; Diligenti, A.; Pieri, F.; Fuso, F.; Allegrini, M.

    2001-01-01

    A fabrication process, compatible with an industrial bipolar+complementary metal - oxide - semiconductor (MOS)+diffusion MOS technology, has been developed for the fabrication of efficient porous-silicon-based light-emitting diodes. The electrical contact is fabricated with a double n + /p doping, achieving a high current injection efficiency and thus lower biasing voltages. The anodization is performed as the last step of the process, thus reducing potential incompatibilities with industrial processes. The fabricated devices show yellow-orange electroluminescence, visible with the naked eye in room lighting. A spectral characterization of light emission is presented and briefly discussed. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  19. Adaptive Robotic Fabrication for Conditions of Material Inconsistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Clausen Nørgaard, Esben

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes research that addresses the variable behaviour of industrial quality metals and the extension of computational techniques into the fabrication process. It describes the context of robotic incremental sheet metal forming, a freeform method for imparting 3D form onto a 2D thin ...... is an offline predictive strategy based on machine learning. Rigidisation of thin metal skins......This paper describes research that addresses the variable behaviour of industrial quality metals and the extension of computational techniques into the fabrication process. It describes the context of robotic incremental sheet metal forming, a freeform method for imparting 3D form onto a 2D thin...

  20. Fabrication of Cerium Oxide and Uranium Oxide Microspheres for Space Nuclear Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey A. Katalenich; Michael R. Hartman; Robert C. O' Brien

    2013-02-01

    Cerium oxide and uranium oxide microspheres are being produced via an internal gelation sol-gel method to investigate alternative fabrication routes for space nuclear fuels. Depleted uranium and non-radioactive cerium are being utilized as surrogates for plutonium-238 (Pu-238) used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and for enriched uranium required by nuclear thermal rockets. While current methods used to produce Pu-238 fuels at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) involve the generation of fine powders that pose a respiratory hazard and have a propensity to contaminate glove boxes, the sol-gel route allows for the generation of oxide microsphere fuels through an aqueous route. The sol-gel method does not generate fine powders and may require fewer processing steps than the LANL method with less operator handling. High-quality cerium dioxide microspheres have been fabricated in the desired size range and equipment is being prepared to establish a uranium dioxide microsphere production capability.

  1. Using variable homography to measure emergent fibers on textile fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Cudel, Christophe; Kohler, Sophie; Fontaine, Stéphane; Haeberlé, Olivier; Klotz, Marie-Louise

    2011-07-01

    A fabric's smoothness is a key factor to determine the quality of textile finished products and has great influence on the functionality of industrial textiles and high-end textile products. With popularization of the 'zero defect' industrial concept, identifying and measuring defective material in the early stage of production is of great interest for the industry. In the current market, many systems are able to achieve automatic monitoring and control of fabric, paper, and nonwoven material during the entire production process, however online measurement of hairiness is still an open topic and highly desirable for industrial applications. In this paper we propose a computer vision approach, based on variable homography, which can be used to measure the emergent fiber's length on textile fabrics. The main challenges addressed in this paper are the application of variable homography to textile monitoring and measurement, as well as the accuracy of the estimated calculation. We propose that a fibrous structure can be considered as a two-layer structure and then show how variable homography can estimate the length of the fiber defects. Simulations are carried out to show the effectiveness of this method to measure the emergent fiber's length. The true lengths of selected fibers are measured precisely using a digital optical microscope, and then the same fibers are tested by our method. Our experimental results suggest that smoothness monitored by variable homography is an accurate and robust method for quality control of important industrially fabrics.

  2. Industrial electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1983-03-01

    The technical and economic scope for industrial process electrification in Canada is assessed in the light of increasing costs of combustion fuels relative to electricity. It is concluded that electricity is capable of providing an increasing share of industrial energy, eventually aproaching 100 percent. The relatively low cost of electricity in Canada offers industry the opportunity of a head start in process electrification with consequent advantages in world markets both for industrial products and for electrical process equipment and technology. A method is described to promote the necessary innovation by providing access to technology and financing. The potential growth of electricity demand due to industrial electrification is estimated

  3. Fabrication of cermet fuel for fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Sudhir; Kumar, Arun; Kutty, T.R.G.; Kamath, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed oxide (MOX) (U,Pu)O 2 , and metallic (U,Pu ,Zr) fuels are considered promising fuels for the fast reactor. The fuel cycle of MOX is well established. The advantages of the oxide fuel are its easy fabricability, good performance in the reactor and a well established reprocessing technology. However the problems lie in low thermal conductivity , low density of the fuel leading to low breeding ratio and consequently longer doubling time. The metallic fuel has the advantages of high thermal conductivity, higher metal density and higher coefficient of linear expansion. The higher coefficient of linear expansion is good from the safety consideration (negative reactivity factor). Because of higher metal density it offers highest breeding ratio and shortest doubling time. Metallic fuel disadvantages comprise large swelling at high burnup, fuel cladding interaction and lower margin between operating and melting temperature. The optimal solution may lie in cermet fuel (U, PuO 2 ), where PuO 2 is dispersed in U metal matrix and combines the favorable features of both the fuel types. The advantages of this fuel include high thermal conductivity, larger margin between melting and operating temperature, ability to retain fission product etc. The matrix being of high density metal the advantage of high breeding ratio is also maintained. In this report some results of fabrication of cermet pellet comprising of UO 2 /PuO 2 dispersed in U metal powder through classical powder metallurgy route and characterization are presented. (author)

  4. Automated breeder fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Frederickson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project is to develop remotely operated equipment for the processing and manufacturing of breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The fabrication and support systems of the SAF line are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. Remote and automated fuel fabriction operations will result in: reduced radiation exposure to workers; enhanced safeguards; improved product quality; near real-time accountability, and increased productivity. The present schedule calls for installation of SAF line equipment in the FMEF beginning in 1984, with qualifying runs starting in 1986 and production commencing in 1987. 5 figures

  5. Towards seasonal Arctic shipping route predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, K.; Melia, N.; Hawkins, E.; Day, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    In our previous work [1] we showed how trans-Arctic shipping routes would become more available through the 21st century as sea ice declines, using CMIP5 models with means and stds calibrated to PIOMAS sea ice observations. Sea ice will continue to close shipping routes to open water vessels through the winter months for the foreseeable future so the availability of open sea routes will vary greatly from year to year. Here [2] we look at whether the trans-Arctic shipping season period can be predicted in seasonal forecasts, again using several climate models, and testing both perfect and imperfect knowledge of the initial sea ice conditions. We find skilful predictions of the upcoming summer shipping season can be made from as early as January, although typically forecasts may show lower skill before a May `predictability barrier'. Focussing on the northern sea route (NSR) off Siberia, the date of opening of this sea route is twice as variable as the closing date, and this carries through to reduced predictability at the start of the season. Under climate change the later freeze-up date accounts for 60% of the lengthening season, Fig1 We find that predictive skill is state dependent with predictions for high or low ice years exhibiting greater skill than for average ice years. Forecasting the exact timing of route open periods is harder (more weather dependent) under average ice conditions while in high and low ice years the season is more controlled by the initial ice conditions from spring onwards. This could be very useful information for companies planning vessel routing for the coming season. We tested this dependence on the initial ice conditions by changing the initial ice state towards climatologically average conditions and show directly that early summer sea-ice thickness information is crucial to obtain skilful forecasts of the coming shipping season. Mechanisms for this are discussed. This strongly suggests that good sea ice thickness observations

  6. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, LV; Morrison, CM; Conway, MA

    2017-01-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation ti...

  7. Colored fused filament fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haichuan; Lefebvre, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Filament fused fabrication is the method of choice for printing 3D models at low cost, and is the de-facto standard for hobbyists, makers and schools. Unfortunately, filament printers cannot truly reproduce colored objects. The best current techniques rely on a form of dithering exploiting occlusion, that was only demonstrated for shades of two base colors and that behaves differently depending on surface slope. We explore a novel approach for 3D printing colored objects, capable of creating ...

  8. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  9. Routing algorithms in networks-on-chip

    CERN Document Server

    Daneshtalab, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip (NoCs), as well as in-depth discussions of advanced solutions applied to current and next generation, many core NoC-based Systems-on-Chip (SoCs). After a basic introduction to the NoC design paradigm and architectures, routing algorithms for NoC architectures are presented and discussed at all abstraction levels, from the algorithmic level to actual implementation.  Coverage emphasizes the role played by the routing algorithm and is organized around key problems affecting current and next generation, many-core SoCs. A selection of routing algorithms is included, specifically designed to address key issues faced by designers in the ultra-deep sub-micron (UDSM) era, including performance improvement, power, energy, and thermal issues, fault tolerance and reliability.   ·         Provides a comprehensive overview of routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip and NoC-based, manycore systems; ·         Describe...

  10. Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ta Fang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching’s ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic travel itinerary comprising a series of connected routes between tourist attractions that minimizes transit time. This study used a travel-route planning approach using geographic information systems to detect the shortest path, thereby solving the problems associated with time-consuming transport. Based on the results of road network analyses, optimal travel-route planning can be determined. These methods include simulated annealing (SA and genetic algorithms (GA. We applied two algorithms in our simulation research to detect which one is an appropriate algorithm for running carbon-routing algorithms at the regional scale. SA, which is superior to GA, is considered an excellent approach to search for the optimal path to reduce carbon dioxide and high gasoline fees, thereby controlling travel time by using the shortest travel routes.

  11. Sigma Routing Metric for RPL Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sanmartin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the adaptation of a specific metric for the RPL protocol in the objective function MRHOF. Among the functions standardized by IETF, we find OF0, which is based on the minimum hop count, as well as MRHOF, which is based on the Expected Transmission Count (ETX. However, when the network becomes denser or the number of nodes increases, both OF0 and MRHOF introduce long hops, which can generate a bottleneck that restricts the network. The adaptation is proposed to optimize both OFs through a new routing metric. To solve the above problem, the metrics of the minimum number of hops and the ETX are combined by designing a new routing metric called SIGMA-ETX, in which the best route is calculated using the standard deviation of ETX values between each node, as opposed to working with the ETX average along the route. This method ensures a better routing performance in dense sensor networks. The simulations are done through the Cooja simulator, based on the Contiki operating system. The simulations showed that the proposed optimization outperforms at a high margin in both OF0 and MRHOF, in terms of network latency, packet delivery ratio, lifetime, and power consumption.

  12. Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Models. Design and Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. P., Jr. (Compiler); Gloss, B. B. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The principal motivating factor was the National Transonic Facility (NTF). Since the NTF can achieve significantly higher Reynolds numbers at transonic speeds than other wind tunnels in the world, and will therefore occupy a unique position among ground test facilities, every effort is being made to ensure that model design and fabrication technology exists to allow researchers to take advantage of this high Reynolds number capability. Since a great deal of experience in designing and fabricating cryogenic wind tunnel models does not exist, and since the experience that does exist is scattered over a number of organizations, there is a need to bring existing experience in these areas together and share it among all interested parties. Representatives from government, the airframe industry, and universities are included.

  13. Routing strategies in traffic network and phase transition in network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of information traffic over scale-free networks has been investigated systematically. A series of routing strategies of data packets have been proposed, including the local routing strategy, the next-nearest-neighbour routing strategy, and the mixed routing strategy based on local static and dynamic information.

  14. Beyond Traditional DTN Routing: Social Networks for Opportunistic Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Schurgot, Mary R.; Comaniciu, Cristina; Jaffrès-Runser, Katia

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of routing protocols for intermittently connected ad hoc networks and discusses the trend toward social-based routing protocols. A survey of current routing solutions is presented, where routing protocols for opportunistic networks are classified based on the network graph employed. The need to capture performance tradeoffs from a multi-objective perspective is highlighted.

  15. Children's route choice during active transportation to school: Difference between shortest and actual route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessing, D.; Vries, S.I. de; Hegeman, G.; Verhagen, E.; Mechelen, W. van; Pierik, F.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to increase our understanding of environmental correlates that are associated with route choice during active transportation to school (ATS) by comparing characteristics of actual walking and cycling routes between home and school with the shortest possible

  16. Biobased industrial chemicals from glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In dit onderzoek is op zoek gegaan naar routes om van glutaminezuur vier producten te maken die van waarde zijn voor de industrie, die nu uit olie gemaakt worden. Dat zijn grondstoffen voor allerlei soorten kunststof, zoals nylon en rubbers. Het onderzoek laat zien dat alle vier die producten

  17. Guidelines for selecting preferred highway routes for highway-route-controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The document presents guidelines for use by State officials in selecting preferred routes for highway route controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials. A methodology for analyzing and comparing safety factors of alternative routes is described. Technical information on the impacts of radioactive material transportation needed to apply the methodology is also presented. Application of the methodology will identify the route (or set of routes) that minimizes the radiological impacts from shipments of these radioactive materials within a given State. Emphasis in the document is on practical application of the methodology. Some details of the derivation of the methods and data are presented in the appendices. All references in the body of the report can be found listed in the Bibliography (Appendix F)

  18. Robust against route failure using power proficient reliable routing in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malathi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to propose a novel routing protocol for Mobile Adhoc Network communication which reduces the route failure during transmission. The proposed routing protocol uses 3 salient parameters to discover the path which ensure the reliable communication. The quality of the channel, link quality and energy level of the node are the major reasons for unintentional node failure in mobile Adhoc network. So the proposed routing protocol considers these three parameters to select the best forwarder node in the path. The reliable data communication is achieved by transmitting data via path selected by the proposed routing scheme has been proven using network simulator (NS2. Keywords: Channel quality, Link quality, Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET, Residual energy

  19. A simple route to scalable fabrication of perfectly ordered ZnO nanorod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D F; Xiang, Y J; Liao, Q; Zhang, J P; Wu, X C; Zhang, Z X; Liu, L F; Ma, W J; Shen, J; Zhou, W Y; Xie, S S

    2007-01-01

    ZnO nanorod arrays with perfect order and uniformity were prepared using a simple, low-cost, commonly available and scalable nanosphere lithography for patterning gold catalyst particles and a successive bottom-up growth technique in a tube furnace chemical vapor deposition system. Each rod in the arrays had perfect surface facets, sharp edges and uniform size. For all of the rods, their sides were oriented the same. This bottom-up assembly method may accelerate the use of ZnO nanorods in real device applications

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel by a new fabrication route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lina; Jia Chengchang; Hu Benfu; Li Huiying

    2010-01-01

    A reduced activation oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with nominal composition of Fe-12Cr-2.5W-0.25Ti-0.2V-0.4Y 2 O 3 (designated 12Cr-ODS) was produced by using EDTA-citrate complex method to synthesize and add Y 2 O 3 particles to an argon atomized steel powder, followed by hot isostatic pressing at 1160 deg. C for 3 h under the pressure of 130 MPa, forging at 1150 deg. C, and heat treatment at 1050 deg. C for 2 h. The microstructure, tensile, and Charpy impact properties of the 12Cr-ODS steel were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy studies indicate that the 12Cr-ODS steel exhibits the characteristic ferritic structure containing few dislocations. Tensile characterization has shown that the 12Cr-ODS steel has superior tensile strength accompanied by good elongation at room temperature and 550 deg. C. The material exhibits very attractive Charpy impact properties with upper shelf energy of 22 J and a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of about -15 deg. C. The formation of small, equiaxed grains and fine dispersion of oxide particles are the main reasons for the good compromise between tensile strength and impact properties.

  1. Microstructure and mechanical properties of an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel by a new fabrication route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Lina, E-mail: guoln702@yahoo.com.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Jia Chengchang; Hu Benfu; Li Huiying [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-07-25

    A reduced activation oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with nominal composition of Fe-12Cr-2.5W-0.25Ti-0.2V-0.4Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (designated 12Cr-ODS) was produced by using EDTA-citrate complex method to synthesize and add Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles to an argon atomized steel powder, followed by hot isostatic pressing at 1160 deg. C for 3 h under the pressure of 130 MPa, forging at 1150 deg. C, and heat treatment at 1050 deg. C for 2 h. The microstructure, tensile, and Charpy impact properties of the 12Cr-ODS steel were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy studies indicate that the 12Cr-ODS steel exhibits the characteristic ferritic structure containing few dislocations. Tensile characterization has shown that the 12Cr-ODS steel has superior tensile strength accompanied by good elongation at room temperature and 550 deg. C. The material exhibits very attractive Charpy impact properties with upper shelf energy of 22 J and a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of about -15 deg. C. The formation of small, equiaxed grains and fine dispersion of oxide particles are the main reasons for the good compromise between tensile strength and impact properties.

  2. Selective Area Sublimation: A Simple Top-down Route for GaN-Based Nanowire Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damilano, B; Vézian, S; Brault, J; Alloing, B; Massies, J

    2016-03-09

    Post-growth in situ partial SiNx masking of GaN-based epitaxial layers grown in a molecular beam epitaxy reactor is used to get GaN selective area sublimation (SAS) by high temperature annealing. Using this top-down approach, nanowires (NWs) with nanometer scale diameter are obtained from GaN and InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum well epitaxial structures. After GaN regrowth on InxGa1-xN/GaN NWs resulting from SAS, InxGa1-xN quantum disks (QDisks) with nanometer sizes in the three dimensions are formed. Low temperature microphotoluminescence experiments demonstrate QDisk multilines photon emission around 3 eV with individual line widths of 1-2 meV.

  3. Effect of the Northern Sea Route Opening to the Shipping Activities at Malacca Straits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.F. Abdul Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The opening of the Northern Sea Route as an alternative route for transporting cargoes between the Far East and Europe seems highly acceptable by shipping companies due to the great saving in fuel consumption, bunker cost, operating cost, emissions and journey time. This situation will not only affect the maritime business activity in the Straits of Malacca but also, the Malaysian economy in different perspectives when the vessels sail via the Suez Canal and the Indian Ocean are expected to decrease. The objective of this study is to analyse the implication in the opening of the Northern Sea Route on Maritime Sector of the Malaysian economy by using PESTEL analysis. The main scope is focusing more on the Malacca Straits shipping activity by using a number of parameters that have been obtained from Port Klang and Port Klang Authority through a set of questionnaires and interview sessions with industrial experts.

  4. On the chemical synthesis route to bulk-scale skutterudite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafti, Mohsen Y.; Saleemi, Mohsin; Han, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this article an alternative high yield route for the synthesis of CoSb3-based unfilled skutterudites is presented. Using low-melting temperature salts of the constituents, melting and mixing them homogeneously in a hydrophobic liquid with postprocessing of the powders we achieve a more intimat......, compaction of the powders with SPS technique provided a safe route to maintaining the nanopowder size and achieving low thermal conductivity (3 W/mK). The proposed method can easily be scaled up and adopted by the industry.......In this article an alternative high yield route for the synthesis of CoSb3-based unfilled skutterudites is presented. Using low-melting temperature salts of the constituents, melting and mixing them homogeneously in a hydrophobic liquid with postprocessing of the powders we achieve a more...

  5. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Henry, Y. K. Lau; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We adopt the concept of using pheromones to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81 (2010) 016113]. The path generation method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded according to the global dynamic routing strategy. In the second stage, pheromone static paths are generated according to the pheromone density. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resources than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  6. Evolution Strategies in the Multipoint Connections Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krulikovska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Routing of multipoint connections plays an important role in final cost and quality of a found connection. New algorithms with better results are still searched. In this paper, a possibility of using the evolution strategies (ES for routing is presented. Quality of found connection is evaluated from the view of final cost and time spent on a searching procedure. First, parametrical analysis of results of the ES are discussed and compared with the Prim’s algorithm, which was chosen as a representative of the deterministic routing algorithms. Second, ways for improving the ES are suggested and implemented. The obtained results are reviewed. The main improvements are specified and discussed in conclusion.

  7. Hazardous materials routing - risk management of mismanagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickman, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Along with emergency planning and preparedness, the placement of restrictions on routing has become an increasingly popular device for managing the highway and rail risks of hazardous materials transportation. Federal studies conducted in 1985 indicate that at that time there were 513 different state and local restrictions on the routing of hazardous materials for these two modes of transportation, and that there were 136 state and local notification requirements, that is, restrictions that take the form of a statute or ordinance requiring advance warning or periodic reporting about hazardous materials shipments. Routing restrictions also take the form of prohibiting the use of road, a tunnel, or a bridge for a specified set of hazardous materials

  8. Generalized routing protocols for multihop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Performance of multihop cooperative networks depends on the routing protocols employed. In this paper we propose the last-n-hop selection protocol, the dual path protocol, the forward-backward last-n-hop selection protocol and the forward-backward dual path protocol for the routing of data through multihop relay networks. The average symbol error probability performance of the schemes is analysed by simulations. It is shown that close to optimal performance can be achieved by using the last-n-hop selection protocol and its forward-backward variant. Furthermore we also compute the complexity of the protocols in terms of number of channel state information required and the number of comparisons required for routing the signal through the network. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Next Generation Network Routing and Control Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong

    proved, the dominating Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) cannot address all the issues that in inter-domain QoS routing. Thus a new protocol or network architecture has to be developed to be able to carry the inter-domain traffic with the QoS and TE consideration. Moreover, the current network control also...... lacks the ability to cooperate between different domains and operators. The emergence of label switching transport technology such as of Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) or Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) supports the traffic transport in a finer granularity and more dedicated end-to-end Quality...... (RACF) provides the platform that enables cooperation and ubiquitous integration between networks. In this paper, we investigate in the network architecture, protocols and algorithms for inter-domain QoS routing and traffic engineering. The PCE based inter-domain routing architecture is enhanced...

  10. Characterization of high-purity niobium structures fabricated using the electron beam melting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas Najera, Cesar Adrian

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to the varied set of technologies utilized for the fabrication of complex 3D components from digital data in a layer-by-layer fashion. The use of these technologies promises to revolutionize the manufacturing industry. The electron beam melting (EBM) process has been utilized for the fabrication of fully dense near-net-shape components from various metallic materials. This process, catalogued as a powder bed fusion technology, consists of the deposition of thin layers (50 - 120microm) of metallic powder particles which are fused by the use of a high energy electron beam and has been commercialized by Swedish company Arcam AB. Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities are key components that are used in linear accelerators and other light sources for studies of elemental physics. Currently, cavity fabrication is done by employing different forming processes including deep-drawing and spinning. In both of the latter techniques, a feedstock high-purity niobium sheet with a thickness ranging from 3-4 mm is mechanically deformed and shaped into the desired geometry. In this manner, half cavities are formed that are later joined by electron beam welding (EBW). The welding step causes variability in the shape of the cavity and can also introduce impurities at the surface of the weld interface. The processing route and the purity of niobium are also of utmost importance since the presence of impurities such as inclusions or defects can be detrimental for the SRF properties of cavities. The focus of this research was the use of the EBM process in the manufacture of high purity niobium parts with potential SRF applications. Reactor grade niobium was plasma atomized and used as the precursor material for fabrication using EBM. An Arcam A2 system was utilized for the fabrication. The system had all internal components of the fabrication chamber replaced and was cleaned to prevent contamination of niobium powder. A mini-vat, developed at

  11. Large superconducting coil fabrication development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Allred, E.L.; Anderson, W.C.; Burn, P.B.; Deaderick, R.I.; Henderson, G.M.; Marguerat, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    Toroidal fields for some fusion devices will be produced by an array of large superconducting coils. Their size, space limitation, and field requirements dictate that they be high performance coils. Once installed, accessibility for maintenance and repairs is severely restricted; therefore, good reliability is an obvious necessity. Sufficient coil fabrication will be undertaken to develop and test methods that are reliable, fast, and economical. Industrial participation will be encouraged from the outset to insure smooth transition from development phases to production phases. Initially, practice equipment for three meter bore circular coils will be developed. Oval shape coil forms will be included in the practice facility later. Equipment that is more automated will be developed with the expectation of winding faster and obtaining good coil quality. Alternate types of coil construction, methods of winding and insulating, will be investigated. Handling and assembly problems will be studied. All technology developed must be feasible for scaling up when much larger coils are needed. Experimental power reactors may need coils having six meter or larger bores

  12. Eco-sustainable routing in optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricciardi, Sergio; Wang, Jiayuan; Palmieri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    infrastructures are now widely recognized to play a fundamental role in the emission of green-house gases (GHG) in the at- mosphere, signicantly aecting the environmental sustainability of new evolutions in network architectures as well as technological developments in communication devices. In this paper......, a novel eco-sustainable Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) algorithm, based on shortest-path routing with an adaptive link weighting function relying on an extension of the OSPF-TE protocol to convey carbon footprint information, has been proposed to decrease the network ecological impact while...

  13. Applied Multiprotocol Routing in IP Telephony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Voznak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project was to create a multi-protocol system using SIP, H.323 and MGCP standards, which would ensure routing to various types of VoIP networks. The priority was to provide multi-protocol support to SIP and H.323 signalling and the support of the routing using the ENUM standard which has recently passed from the trial phase into full operation in the Czech Republic. The document describes the system's architecture and the components used. It also briefly describes ENUM.

  14. PROPOSAL OF ALGORITHM FOR ROUTE OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ramon de Carvalho Sousa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uses “Six Sigma” methodology for the elaboration of an algorithm for routing problems which is able to obtain more efficient results than those from Clarke and Wright´s (CW algorithm (1964 in situations of random increase of product delivery demands, facing the incapability of service level increase . In some situations, the algorithm proposed obtained more efficient results than the CW algorithm. The key factor was a reduction in the number of mistakes (one way routes and in the level of result variation.

  15. Developing New Tourism routes in Coastal Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Flognfeldt, Thor

    2013-01-01

    For Norwegians the name of our country is based on a route - "the way to the North" - and this was not a built route but using of the coast-line itself. As long as the boats and ships were the main means of travel this coastal way - "Nor-way" - was the main communication basis for most people, and for transport of goods. But even in the interior of the country, water, namely rivers and lakes were the main structures for communication. The lakes were most efficient for transport during the col...

  16. Vessels Route Planning Problem with Uncertain Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Neumann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to find a solution for route planning in a transport networks, where the costs of tracks, factor of safety and travel time are ambiguous. This approach is based on the Dempster-Shafer theory and well known Dijkstra's algorithm. In this approach important are the influencing factors of the mentioned coefficients using uncertain possibilities presented by probability intervals. Based on these intervals the quality intervals of each route can be determined. Applied decision rules can be described by the end user.

  17. Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network (R3MOO N) provides advanced communications networking technologies suitable for the lunar surface environment and applications. The R3MOON techn ology is based on a detailed concept of operations tailored for luna r surface networks, and includes intelligent routing algorithms and wireless mesh network implementation on AGNC's Coremicro Robots. The product's features include an integrated communication solution inco rporating energy efficiency and disruption-tolerance in a mobile ad h oc network, and a real-time control module to provide researchers an d engineers a convenient tool for reconfiguration, investigation, an d management.

  18. Competitive energy markets. The effective route to improving the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinden, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Market forces, operating in an increasingly competitive energy market, are a preferred route to achieving environmental and energy efficiency benefits, than those which can be achieved through a managed approach adopted by many governments. It is shown, through examples, how electricity is a catalyst for change at several levels in business, the community and the general economy. Experience in the United Kingdom indicates that free market forces and inter-energy competition not only help improve the regional and therefore national economy, but they offer a very effective way of introducing improvements in energy efficiency and the environment. Governments should establish the framework for competition and regulation but not attempt to manage an industry, which is invariably done more effectively by those who run them. (author)

  19. Properties of magnetically diluted nanocrystals prepared by mechanochemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, P.; Skorvanek, I.; Fabian, M.; Kovac, J.; Steinbach, F.; Feldhoff, A.; Sepelak, V.; Jiang, J.; Satka, A.; Kovac, J.

    2010-01-01

    The bulk and surface properties of magnetically diluted Cd 0.6 Mn 0.4 S nanocrystals synthesized by solid state route in a planetary mill were studied. XRD, SEM, TEM (HRTEM), low-temperature N 2 sorption, nanoparticle size distribution as well as SQUID magnetometry methods have been applied. The measurements identified the aggregates of small nanocrystals, 5-10 nm in size. The homogeneity of produced particles with well developed specific surface area (15-66 m 2 g -1 ) was documented. The transition from the paramagnetic to the spin-glass-like phase has been observed below ∼40 K. The changes in the magnetic behaviour at low temperatures seem to be correlated with the formation of the new surface area as a consequence of milling. The magnetically diluted Cd 0.6 Mn 0.4 S nanocrystals are obtained in the simple synthesis step, making the process attractive for industrial applications.

  20. Airspace Technology Demonstration 3 (ATD-3): Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) Technology Transfer Document Summary Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Kapil; Wang, Easter Mayan Chan

    2016-01-01

    Airspace Technology Demonstration #3 (ATD-3) is part of NASA's Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) - specifically, its Airspace Technology Demonstrations (ATD) Project. ATD-3 is a multiyear research and development effort which proposes to develop and demonstrate automation technologies and operating concepts that enable air navigation service providers and airspace users to continuously assess weather, winds, traffic, and other information to identify, evaluate, and implement workable opportunities for flight plan route corrections that can result in significant flight time and fuel savings in en route airspace. In order to ensure that the products of this tech-transfer are relevant and useful, NASA has created strong partnerships with the FAA and key industry stakeholders. This summary document and accompanying technology artifacts satisfy the first of three Research Transition Products (RTPs) defined in the Applied Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) Research Transition Team (RTT) Plan. This transfer consists of NASA's legacy Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) work for efficient routing for en-route weather avoidance. DWR is a ground-based trajectory automation system that continuously and automatically analyzes active airborne aircraft in en route airspace to identify opportunities for simple corrections to flight plan routes that can save significant flying time, at least five minutes wind-corrected, while avoiding weather and considering traffic conflicts, airspace sector congestion, special use airspace, and FAA routing restrictions. The key benefit of the DWR concept is to let automation continuously and automatically analyze active flights to find those where simple route corrections can save significant time and fuel. Operators are busy during weather events. It is more effective to let automation find the opportunities for high-value route corrections.

  1. Automatic measurement for dimensional changes of woven fabrics based on texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihong; Jiang, Hongxia; Liu, X.; Chai, Zhilei

    2014-01-01

    Dimensional change or shrinkage is an important functional attribute of woven fabrics that affects their basic function and price in the market. This paper presents a machine vision system that evaluates the shrinkage of woven fabrics by analyzing the change of fabric construction. The proposed measurement method has three features. (i) There will be no stain of shrinkage markers on the fabric specimen compared to the existing measurement method. (ii) The system can be used on fabric with reduced area. (iii) The system can be installed and used as a laboratory or industrial application system. The method processed can process the image of the fabric and is divided into four steps: acquiring a relative image from the sample of the woven fabric, obtaining a gray image and then the segmentation of the warp and weft from the fabric based on fast Fourier transform and inverse fast Fourier transform, calculation of the distance of the warp or weft sets by gray projection method and character shrinkage of the woven fabric by the average distance, coefficient of variation of distance and so on. Experimental results on virtual and physical woven fabrics indicated that the method provided could obtain the shrinkage information of woven fabric in detail. The method was programmed by Matlab software, and a graphical user interface was built by Delphi. The program has potential for practical use in the textile industry.

  2. PEDOT pillar fabrication using DOD inkjet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Chang, Cheng-Ling; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present our preliminary results of high aspect ratio 3D PEDOT pillar study by drop-on demand (DOD) direct printing system. Design of the experimental setup and the fabrication of the DOD PEDOT pillar are introduced. Currently, the system can achieve a PEDOT pillar with a height of 300 μm and 80 μm in diameter. The proposed PEDOT 3D printing process has a wide range of potential applications in the eletronics and display industry.

  3. Process industry properties in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hualing

    2005-01-01

    In this article the writer has described the definition of process industry, expounded the fact classifying nuclear industry as process industry, compared the differences between process industry and discrete industry, analysed process industry properties in nuclear industry and their important impact, and proposed enhancing research work on regularity of process industry in nuclear industry. (authors)

  4. Dyeing of white and indigo dyed cotton fabrics with Mimosa tenuiflora extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Erkan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora extract has been used in food industry as an additive and in textile and leather industry as a colorant. Two types of fabrics, ready to be dyed white and indigo dyed fabrics, were dyed with M. tenuiflora extract. The fabrics were mordanted after dyeing with six different metal salts. Colorimetric evaluations of fabrics were carried out by spectrophotometer. Colour fastness to washing, rubbing and light were performed. Colour strength of fabrics was calculated from Kubelka–Munk formula. Highest vividness (C∗ values were obtained by Ni mordant. Moderate fastness values were observed. However poor wet rubbing fastness values were observed in the case of indigo dyed fabrics due to lack of good wet rubbing fastness of indigo itself.

  5. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Mike A. (Albuquerque, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made rom clear Teflon.TM., Mylar.TM., or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube.

  6. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  7. Mask fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Gregory F.

    2000-01-01

    A method for fabricating masks and reticles useful for projection lithography systems. An absorber layer is conventionally patterned using a pattern and etch process. Following the step of patterning, the entire surface of the remaining top patterning photoresist layer as well as that portion of an underlying protective photoresist layer where absorber material has been etched away is exposed to UV radiation. The UV-exposed regions of the protective photoresist layer and the top patterning photoresist layer are then removed by solution development, thereby eliminating the need for an oxygen plasma etch and strip and chances for damaging the surface of the substrate or coatings.

  8. Advanced fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Plant is a multipurpose nuclear facility located on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington state. The facility is part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Department of Energy. The Fuel Cycle Plant is currently being prepared to support the Liquid Metal Reactors Program with fuel fabrication services for the Fast Flux Test Facility and other LMR programs. This report describes the technical innovations to be utilized in the operation of this plant

  9. Performance of TESLA Cavities After Fabrication and Preparation in Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Pekeler, Michael; Bauer, Stefan; Knobloch, Jens; Vom Stein, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In order to demonstrate cw operation of TESLA cavities in linear accelerators driving FEL applications, two TESLA cavities were manufactured and prepared by ACCEL for BESSY. After production, both cavities were prepared for vertical test at ACCEL's premises using state of the art chemical polishing and high pressure water rinsing techniques. The cavities were tested in DESY's vertical RF test installation. Accelerating gradients close to 25 MV/m were reached. One cavity was completed with a helium vessel modified for cw operation and prepared with chemical polishing, high pressure water rinsing, and assembled with the required High Power Coupler at ACCEL. The fully dressed cavity was then shipped under vacuum to BESSY and tested in the horizontal cryostat HoBiCaT. Horizontal RF test results will be presented and compared with the vertical test results.

  10. Influence of the synthesis route and parameters on the thermoluminescence response of ZnO phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orante B, V.; Bernal, R.; Brown, F.; Castano, V.M.; Cruz V, C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: ZnO nano phosphors obtained by thermal annealing of chemically synthesized ZnS powder has been recently reported to exhibit striking properties to be used as thermoluminescence (TL) dosimeters for intermediate and high doses of ionizing radiation. Encouraged by these results, we began a research focused to improve the process of fabrication of ZnO phosphors, by varying the chemical route and parameters of synthesis in each route. We essayed three different chemical ways to obtain ZnO. In each case, different sintering processes were applied to the product obtained from the chemical reaction. TL is very sensitive to impurities traces, whose incorporation is influenced by the synthesis history, so that we obtain that general features of TL glow curves can be tuned by controlling the synthesis parameters. (Author)

  11. Advanced methods for fabrication of PHWR and LMFBR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, C.

    1988-01-01

    For self-reliance in nuclear power, the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), India is pursuing two specific reactor systems, namely the pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) and the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). The reference fuel for PHWR is zircaloy-4 clad high density (≤ 96 per cent T.D.) natural UO 2 pellet-pins. The advanced PHWR fuels are UO 2 -PuO 2 (≤ 2 per cent), ThO 2 -PuO 2 (≤ 4 per cent) and ThO 2 -U 233 O 2 (≤ 2 per cent). Similarly, low density (≤ 85 per cent T.D.) (UPu)O 2 pellets clad in SS 316 or D9 is the reference fuel for the first generation of prototype and commercial LMFBRs all over the world. However, (UPu)C and (UPu)N are considered as advanced fuels for LMFBRs mainly because of their shorter doubling time. The conventional method of fabrication of both high and low density oxide, carbide and nitride fuel pellets starting from UO 2 , PuO 2 and ThO 2 powders is 'powder metallurgy (P/M)'. The P/M route has, however, the disadvantage of generation and handling of fine powder particles of the fuel and the associated problem of 'radiotoxic dust hazard'. The present paper summarises the state-of-the-art of advanced methods of fabrication of oxide, carbide and nitride fuels and highlights the author's experience on sol-gel-microsphere-pelletisation (SGMP) route for preparation of these materials. The SGMP process uses sol gel derived, dust-free and free-flowing microspheres of oxides, carbide or nitride for direct pelletisation and sintering. Fuel pellets of both low and high density, excellent microhomogeneity and controlled 'open' or 'closed' porosity could be fabricated via the SGMP route. (author). 5 tables, 14 figs., 15 refs

  12. Fabrication and characterization of S. cilliare fibre reinforced

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the recent times, there has been an ever-increasing interest in green composite materials for its applications in the field of industries, aerospace, sports, household etc and in many other fields. In this paper, fabrication of Saccharum cilliare fibre reinforced green polymer composites using resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) as ...

  13. Energy efficiency improvement target for SIC 34 - fabricated metal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrer, T. G.; Billhardt, C. F.; Farkas, M. S.

    1977-03-15

    A March 15, 1977 revision of a February 15, 1977 document on the energy improvement target for the Fabricated Metal Products industry (SIC 34) is presented. A net energy savings in 1980 of 24% as compared with 1972 energy consumption in SIC 34 is considered a realistic goal. (ERA citation 04:045008)

  14. Obsidian trade routes in the mayan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, N

    1972-12-08

    Obsidian from two sources in highland Guatemala has been found at 23 sites of the Classic Mayan civilization, mainly in the nonvolcanic lowlands to the north. The distribution, together with trade routes suggested by topography and documentary sources, suggests efficient waterborne transport and competition between sources for the lowland market.

  15. Optimal solutions for routing problems with profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archetti, C.; Bianchessi, N.; Speranza, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a branch-and-price algorithm to solve two well-known vehicle routing problems with profits, the Capacitated Team Orienteering Problem and the Capacitated Profitable Tour Problem. A restricted master heuristic is applied at each node of the branch-and-bound tree in order to

  16. Routing in Networks with Random Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambos, Nicholas

    1997-01-01

    We examine the problems of routing and server assignment in networks with random connectivities. In such a network the basic topology is fixed, but during each time slot and for each of tis input queues, each server (node) is either connected to or disconnected from each of its queues with some probability.

  17. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  18. Graphical route information on variable message signs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkim, T.P.; Mede, P.H.J. van der; Janssen, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on experiments in the Netherlands on the use of graphical route information panels (GRIP) as part of variable message systems (VMS) providing information to drivers. GRIP appear to be as safe as regular VMS. Digestion of the information presented is initially quicker for regular VMS, but

  19. A Decentralized Approach to Formation Flight Routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.G.; Lopes dos Santos, Bruno F.; Verhagen, C.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an optimization-based cooperative planning system for the efficient routing and scheduling of flight formations. This study considers the use of formation flight as a means to reduce the overall fuel consumption of civil aviation in long-haul operations. It

  20. Variable-speed, portable routing skate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, W. A.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight, portable, variable-speed routing skate is used on heavy metal subassemblies which are impractical to move to a stationary machine. The assembly, consisting of the housing with rollers, router, and driving mechanism with transmission, weighs about forty pounds. Both speed and depth of cut are adjustable.

  1. Traffic disruption route Einstein near building 170

    CERN Multimedia

    A Lopez - TS/CE

    2005-01-01

    The TS/CE Group informs you that, for the duration of the work at Building 170, there may be some disruption to traffic on route Einstein in the vicinity of Building 170. The work is due to take place from the 14th to 18th February. For more information, please contact 165029. A. Lopez TS/CE

  2. Phone Routing using the Dynamic Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Claus Nicolaj; Krink, Thiemo

    2002-01-01

    In earlier studies a genetic algorithm (GA) extended with the dynamic memory model has shown remarkable performance on real-world-like problems. In this paper we experiment with routing in communication networks and show that the dynamic memory GA performs remarkable well compared to ant colony...

  3. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation). PMID:27669254

  4. Scenemash: multimodal route summarization for city exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J. van den; Rudinac, S.; Worring, M.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of mining tourist information from social multimedia data gives rise to new applications offering much richer impressions of the city. In this paper we propose Scenemash, a system that generates multimodal summaries of multiple alternative routes between locations in a city. To get

  5. ROUTE PLAN DESIGNER FOR TRACTOR GUIDANCE SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveistrup, Daniel; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Green, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Earlier works have shown field trial designs to be very labor extensive, even when combining autoguidancesystems with conventional machinery.Designing routes for semi-automated systems in a controlled manner is both resource demandingand complicated. Different types of auto-guidance systems vary ...

  6. Projected developments in the US and European LWR fabrication market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.K.; Varley, G.

    1996-01-01

    There are several important factors influencing change in the fuel fabrication supply industry in Western Europe today. The most important is the changing supply relationships resulting from lower costs in the USA. With US fabrication prices substantially lower than in Western Europe, a situation which is sustainable based on production costs, a major force for change prevails which will have significant implications for the commercial development of both markets over the next decade. The extent to which supply from the USA will drive the Western Europe market will depend, to some extent, on three other factors: the new US-Euratom agreement on nuclear trade; electricity market deregulation in the European Union (EU); near term MOX fuel fabrication capacity. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the current situation in the USA and Europe, and the manner in which this will lead to changing fuel fabrication supply dynamics in both markets. (author)

  7. Industrial Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  8. Industrial symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchi, Romain; Remmen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the development of industrial symbiosis through a practical model for physical, organizational, and social interactions in six different cases from around the world. The results provide a framework that can be used by industrial symbiosis practitioners to facilitate the creation...

  9. Two-component microinjection moulding for MID fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2010-01-01

    Moulded interconnect devices (MIDs) are plastic substrates with electrical infrastructure. The fabrication of MIDs is usually based on injection moulding, and different process chains may be identified from this starting point. The use of MIDs has been driven primarily by the automotive sector......, but recently, the medical sector seems more and more interested. In particular, the possibility of miniaturisation of three-dimensional components with electrical infrastructure is attractive. The present paper describes possible manufacturing routes and challenges of miniaturised MIDs based on two...

  10. Two component micro injection molding for MID fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2009-01-01

    Molded Interconnect Devices (MIDs) are plastic substrates with electrical infrastructure. The fabrication of MIDs is usually based on injection molding and different process chains may be identified from this starting point. The use of MIDs has been driven primarily by the automotive sector......, but recently the medical sector seems more and more interested. In particular the possibility of miniaturization of 3D components with electrical infrastructure is attractive. The paper describes possible manufacturing routes and challenges of miniaturized MIDs based on two component micro injection molding...

  11. 2001 Industry Studies: Services Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cervone, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... has maintained its economic strength in traditional services industries such as transportation, tourism, public utilities, finance and insurance, accounting, engineering, architecture, medical, legal...

  12. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  13. Industry honoured

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN has organised a day to thank industry for its exceptional contributions to the LHC project. Lucio Rossi addresses CERN’s industrial partners in the Main Auditorium.The LHC inauguration provided an opportunity for CERN to thank all those who have contributed to transforming this technological dream into reality. Industry has been a major player in this adventure. Over the last decade it has lent its support to CERN’s teams and participating institutes in developing, building and assembling the machine, its experiments and the computing infrastructure. CERN involved its industrial partners in the LHC inauguration by organising a special industry prize-giving day on 20 October. Over 70 firms accepted the invitation. The firms not only made fundamental contributions to the project, but some have also supported LHC events in 2008 and the inauguration ceremony through generous donations, which have been coordinated by Carmen Dell’Erba, who is responsible for secu...

  14. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...

  15. Solid freeform fabrication of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    1999-12-01

    The biological performance of porous Hydroxyapatite (HA) is closely related to the pore architecture in the implants. The study on the effect of architecture to the biological performance of porous HA requires new manufacturing methods that can fabricate implants with controlled pores channels. In this thesis, four highly loaded HA and alumina suspensions were formulated and three different processes involving Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) were developed. An aqueous HA suspension in acrylamides was first formulated and the UV-curing properties were evaluated. With a medical grade HA powder, two non-aqueous HA suspensions were formulated: a 40 vol.% HA suspension in Hexanediol Diacrylate (HDDA) and a 40 vol.% HA suspension in 1:1 mix of Propoxylated Neopentyl Glycol Diacrylate (PNPGDA) and Isobomyl Acrylate (EBA). A 50 vol.% Alumina suspension in PNPGDA/IBA was also formulated. The effect of dispersant to the viscosity of the suspensions was characterized. In the Stereolithography (SL) method, the curing parameters of HA/HDDA and HA/PNPGDA/IBA were determined. Prototype HA implants with 1,700 mum internal channels were built directly on an SL Apparatus (SLA). The designed internal channel patterns were preserved after sintering. In the Ink-jet printing method, the high temperature flow behaviors of the suspensions were characterized. The effects of solids loading to the viscosity of the suspensions were modeled with Krieger-Dougherty equation. Leveling theory developed in paint industry was employed to analyze the self-leveling capability of the suspensions. In the indirect SL method, the thermal curing behavior of HA and alumina suspensions were characterized. The total cure time was measured and the curing kinetics was modeled. Negative molds for the implants were designed and built on SLA with epoxy resin. HA/PNPGDA/IBA was cast into the mold and cured in an oven. The binders and the epoxy mold were pyrolyzed and the green bodies sintered. Internal channels

  16. Evaluation of the microstructure and microhardness of laser-fabricated titanium aluminate coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Titanium aluminide intermetallics are very brittle at room temperature, hence they are challenging to fabricate even by conventional manufacturing techniques such as casting and forging. The production of TiAl from elemental powders using industrial...

  17. High-performance zno transistors processed via an aqueous carbon-free metal oxide precursor route at temperatures between 80-180 °c

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Yenhung; Faber, Hendrik; Zhao, Kui; Wang, Qingxiao; Amassian, Aram; McLachlan, Martyn A.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    An aqueous and carbon-free metal-oxide precursor route is used in combination with a UV irradiation-assisted low-temperature conversion method to fabricate low-voltage ZnO transistors with electron mobilities exceeding 10 cm2/Vs at temperatures <

  18. Route assessment using comparative risk factors integrated through a GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, D.M.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The assessment of potential alternative routes for the shipment of spent nuclear fuel was simplified through the use of comparative risk factors evaluated using detailed route and environmental attributes. The route characteristics, integrated into risk measures, vary strongly with location and were developed from national, state, and local sources. The route data and evaluation were managed using a geographic information system (GIS). An assessment of four real North Florida routes was performed and an interstate highway route exhibited the lowest risk based on the application of the risk factors

  19. Intelligent routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-05-01

    A novel routing scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which combines hybrid and multi-inter-routing path properties with a distributed topology discovery route mechanism using control agents is proposed in this paper. In recent years, a variety of hybrid routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc wireless networks (MANETs) have been developed. Which is proactively maintains routing information for a local neighborhood, while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the global. The hybrid protocol reduces routing discovery latency and the end-to-end delay by providing high connectivity without requiring much of the scarce network capacity. On the other side the hybrid routing protocols in MANETs likes Zone Routing Protocol still need route "re-discover" time when a route between zones link break. Sine the topology update information needs to be broadcast routing request on local zone. Due to this delay, the routing protocol may not be applicable for real-time data and multimedia communication. We utilize the advantages of a clustering organization and multi-routing path in routing protocol to achieve several goals at the same time. Firstly, IRP efficiently saves network bandwidth and reduces route reconstruction time when a routing path fails. The IRP protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, local control agents will automatically monitor and repair broke links. Secondly, it efficiently reduces congestion and traffic "bottlenecks" for ClusterHeads in clustering network. Thirdly, it reduces significant overheads associated with maintaining clusters. Fourthly, it improves clusters stability due to dynamic topology changing frequently. In this paper, we present the Intelligent Routing Protocol. First, we discuss the problem of routing in ad hoc networks and the motivation of IRP. We describe the hierarchical architecture of IRP. We describe the routing process and illustrate it with an example. Further, we describe the control manage

  20. A Survey of Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Khan, Abdul Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) constitute a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) responsible for monitoring vital sign-related data of patients and accordingly route this data towards a sink. In routing sensed data towards sinks, WBSNs face some of the same routing challenges as general WSNs, but the unique requirements of WBSNs impose some more constraints that need to be addressed by the routing mechanisms. This paper identifies various issues and challenges in pursuit of effective routing in WBSNs. Furthermore, it provides a detailed literature review of the various existing routing protocols used in the WBSN domain by discussing their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:24419163