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Sample records for industrial activities principles

  1. The Factors and Transversal Reorganizations Principles of Romanian Textile Industry Enterprises using Activity-Based Costing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the factors and the principles of transversal reorganization of the enterprises from the Romanian textile industry by adapting the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC to its specific. There are presented and analyzed the real possibilities of reorganization of the enterprises in Romania by elaboration of methodological phases that will be covered until the implementation of their transversal organization. Are we ready to adapt the Activity-Based Costing method to the specific of the Romanian textile industry and not only? Here is the question whose response we will find in this article.

  2. Environmental Activity of Mining Industry Leaders in Poland in Line with the Principles of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Woźniak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As mining companies reveal more and more public information about themselves, the behaviour fosters a better image. This article aims to present two industry leaders in the context of environmental requirements they have met (status at the end of 2015, acting in compliance with the general principles of a socially responsible business. The choice of KGHM (Kombinat Gorniczo-Hutniczy Miedzi companies (copper ores and other accompanying elements CG PGE (Capital Group Polska Grupa Energetyczna S.A. (lignite was dictated by their significant share in the mining industry in Poland. The environmental aspects of the integrated monthly reports were listed and grouped in detail in accordance with the applicable Global Reporting Initiative (GRI and GRI G4 Mining and Metals guidelines. The values of environmental indicators have been analysed over the years, including inter alia data concerning gas emissions, that is, CO2, SOx, NOx, PM or generated waste and sewage. Also, with regard to the environmental aspect of the work, energy consumption in companies is presented together with the characteristics of the fuel balance. The final part of the article compares the value of the revenues to the budgets of local government units (communes from the operating fee paid by entrepreneurs and expenditures of these municipalities on environmental protection, as additional support by these entities (2013–2015.

  3. Contextual Mobile Learning Strongly Related to Industrial Activities: Principles and Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    David, Bertrand; Yin, Chuantao; Chalon, René

    2010-01-01

    M-learning (mobile learning) can take various forms. We are interested in contextualized M-learning, i.e. the training related to the situation physically or logically localized. Contextualization and pervasivity are important aspects of our approach. We propose in particular MOCOCO principles (Mobility - COntextualisation - COoperation) using IMERA platform (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment) covering our university campus in which we prototype and test our approach. We ar...

  4. Principles of development of the industry of technogenic waste processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bayeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify and substantiate the principles of development of the industry of technogenic waste processing. Methods systemic analysis and synthesis method of analogy. Results basing on the analysis of the Russian and foreign experience in the field of waste management and environmental protection the basic principles of development activities on technogenic waste processing are formulated the principle of legal regulation the principle of efficiency technologies the principle of ecological safety the principle of economic support. The importance of each principle is substantiated by the description of the situation in this area identifying the main problems and ways of their solution. Scientific novelty the fundamental principles of development of the industry of the industrial wastes processing are revealed the measures of state support are proposed. Practical value the presented theoretical conclusions and proposals are aimed primarily on theoretical and methodological substantiation and practical solutions to modern problems in the sphere of development of the industry of technogenic waste processing.

  5. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R

    2000-01-01

    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  6. Basic principles of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestbier, P.

    1983-01-01

    X-ray radiography and gamma radiography are used in industrial radiography. X-rays and gamma rays have the ability to penetrate materials and be absorbed by different densities. This characteristic makes them useful tools in industrial and medical radiography. The sources used for the generation of x-rays, gamma rays and radioisotopes are discussed. Films are one of the recording methods of x-radiography. The article also deals with advantages and disadvantages of radiography. Factors governing radiation exposure includes: the type of radiation source, material to be radiographed, distance, film, and the method for development. International specifications are also responsible for strict control over the standard of workmanship in industrial radiography

  7. Industrial metabolism : roots and basic principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, A.J.D.; Gupta, S.M.; Lambert, A.J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Terms such as "life cyele management," "industrial ecology," "industrial metabolism," and "industrial symbiosis" are common in the literature on enviwnmentally conscious production, but the precise definition of these concepts and the distinction between them varies with authors. For clarity on

  8. The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    I.M. Rjabchenko; V.V. Bozhkova

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprisesTheoretical and methodological aspects of marketing pricing formation are investigated in the article. The aim of this research is systematization of marketing pricing principles and formation of corresponding offers concerning perfection of a domestic industrial enterprises pricing policy.The results of the analysis. The authors note that pricing principles are important element of pricing methodology which form basic posit...

  9. Using the Music Industry To Teach Economic Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, K. Brad

    The key purpose of this paper is to provide economics and business professors, particularly those teaching principles courses, with concrete examples of economic theory applied to the music industry. A second objective is to further the interest in economic theory among business majors and expose non-majors to economic principles via real world…

  10. PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION AND REALIZATION OF REGIONAL INDUSTRIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Chenenova

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available It is analysed existing norm-legal base of realization of regional industrial policy from a position of conformity of principles of its formation and realization to problems of development of the industry in conditions of an openness to the world market. Opportunities of their evolution in the directions promoting becoming of competitive structure of an industrial complex of region are shown.

  11. Industrial Activity at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalik, G

    2000-01-01

    The decrease in the number of CERN staff creates the need for optimization of the non-core, infrastructure-related activities. An industrial, service-orientated approach has long been considered as an appropriate way to cope with the problem of diminishing resources. This paper presents industrial and service activity issues at CERN based on the experience of the exploitation of the power network. The most important problems linked to the application of the industrial approach to the exploitation of equipment in the CERN research environment are covered. These include the interface between accelerators and electrical exploitation services, external and internal regulations, sharing of responsibility between CERN staff and external contractors, continuous modification of clients' requirements, the balance between the cost of accelerator downtime versus the cost of infrastructure upgrade. A benchmarking through a comparison with a big industrial manufacturer is followed by recommendations for possible improveme...

  12. Basic principles for regulating nuclear activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The AECB has developed as its mission statement: `To ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment`. This report proposes eleven qualitative principles for regulating nuclear activities whose achievement would satisfy the broad policy enunciated in the statement. They would further provide a basis for the specific regulatory requirements expressed by the AECB in its Regulations and other documents. They would thus represent a connecting link between the policy enunciated in the mission statement and the requirements. The proposed principles are largely concerned with how the allowable risk should be set for members of the public, for industry workers, for society as a whole, and for the environment. In making these recommendations the risks from normal operation of the licensed facility and those from a possible serious accident are considered separately. The distribution of risk between geographic communities and between generations is also addressed in the proposed principles. These are listed in the final section of the report. 23 refs.

  13. Basic principles for regulating nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The AECB has developed as its mission statement: 'To ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment'. This report proposes eleven qualitative principles for regulating nuclear activities whose achievement would satisfy the broad policy enunciated in the statement. They would further provide a basis for the specific regulatory requirements expressed by the AECB in its Regulations and other documents. They would thus represent a connecting link between the policy enunciated in the mission statement and the requirements. The proposed principles are largely concerned with how the allowable risk should be set for members of the public, for industry workers, for society as a whole, and for the environment. In making these recommendations the risks from normal operation of the licensed facility and those from a possible serious accident are considered separately. The distribution of risk between geographic communities and between generations is also addressed in the proposed principles. These are listed in the final section of the report. 23 refs

  14. Assessment Of Co60 Industrial Irradiators According To Basic Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed Mohamed El Refaie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring safe and easy operation providing relative uniform dose in the product and maximizing radiation utilization are the basic design principles for each Co60 industrial irradiator to maintain radiation safety. The study shows an assessment for four industrial irradiators to determine which active results were been maintained by using basic design principles. Different designs elements of the chosen irradiators have been illustrated and studied. The study shows that IRASM and ROBO industrial irradiators satisfy all basic design principles. IAEA-NR3772 irradiator maintains only two of the three basic design principles due to rotating door. Brevion irradiator satisfies only the principle of relative uniform radiation dose in product. Without affecting radiation safety this study proposes a new design of the irradiator to maximize energy utilization by adding a new track for low density products and also a static irradiation for cultural heritage beside the main track of high density products.

  15. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  16. Arctic industrial activities compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Most industrial activities in the Beaufort Sea region are directly or indirectly associated with the search for oil and gas. Activities in marine areas include dredging, drilling, seismic and sounding surveys, island/camp maintenance, vessel movements, helicoptor and fixed-wind flights, and ice-breaking. This inventory contains a summary of chemical usage at 119 offshore drilling locations in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Islands and Davis Straight of the Canadian Arctic between 1973 and 1987. Data are graphically displayed for evaluating patterns of drill waste discharge in the three offshore drilling areas. These displays include a comparison of data obtained from tour sheets and well history records, summaries of drilling mud chemicals used by year, well and oil company, frequency of wells drilled as a function of water depth, and offshore drilling activity by year, company, and platform. 21 refs., 104 figs., 2 tabs

  17. General principles of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostal, J.; Elson, C.

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the principles of atomic and nuclear structure and the processes of radioactivity, nuclear transformation, and the interaction of radiations with matter which are of direct relevance to neutron activation analysis and its application to geologic materials are discussed. (L.L.)

  18. THOSE ISSUES AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES IN THE ORGANIZATION ENTITIES MILK INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA-MIHAELA ZAHARIA (CRIVAC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the features of the entities in the dairy industry. At first, a brief description of the dairy industry in Romania, giving priority factors that contribute to the development of this market. As in any economic unit, organization of management accounting and cost calculation is particularly important activity managers are required to study all factors and exercise influence principles, their implications, and then, taking account of them to choose the most appropriate form of organization of management accounting and cost calculation. Were analyzed and described in the study, factors and principles that characterize the entities in the dairy industry and have an influence in the organization of management accounting, but also in determining costs.

  19. Control: Why, when and how? Some general principles of state control presented on the example of disqualification from performing commercial activities pursuant to § 35 of the German Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pürner Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues relating to state control and state reaction to breaches of the rules discovered, using the example of Section 35 of the German Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act (§ 35 Gewerbeordnung, GewO. This provision is the central norm in German law, on the basis of which entrepreneurial activities can be prohibited. In the introduction, the author provides an overview of different forms of control and discusses the role of the courts in general, but also in the context of reviewing the control measures taken by the state. The author agrees that jurisprudence (case law is not a source of law in the countries of the European-Continental legal system. However, this should not lead to the wrong conclusion that the courts are neither qualified nor obliged to develop the law. After the introductory remarks, the author discusses the provisions contained in § 35 of the German Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act (Gewerbeordnung. This example is of particular interest as it demonstrates various general principles of state control over private activities. While the provision originally contained a casuistic enumeration of individual cases, it nowadays uses a blanket clause. Accordingly, the concept of Unzuverlässigkeit ('unreliability ', which is not defined in more detail is the definitional element for a disqualification from the practice of commercial activities. Hence, the courts' task in dealing with the respective cases has significantly changed, as the control process involves consideration of both public and private interests, as well as striking a fair balance between the opposing public and private interests. The author points out that this is also justified as the legislator can hardly foresee all cases to which the provision might appear in practice. In particular, the author points out that the German legislator, unlike the legislators in some transformation states, has opted for having as few

  20. Radiation protection principles applied to conventional industries producing deleterious environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1980-01-01

    Comparison of the radiation protection standards, for the population at large, with the conventional pollutants ambient standards, reveals differences in basic principles which result in more relaxed ambient standards for conventional pollutants and consequently, the penalization of the nuclear industry, due to the increased cost of its safety measures. It is proposed that radiation protection principles should be used as a prototype for pollutants having harmful environmental effects and that radiation health physicists should be active in the application of these principles of population protection. A case study of atmospheric release of SO 2 , under different conditions, is analyzed, to emphasize the importance of consideration of the size of the exposed population. (H.K.)

  1. In vitro activity of commercial formulation and active principle of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro trypanocidal activities of 4 commercial formulations Ornidyl®, Pentamidine isethionate®, Germanin® and Lampit® and their corresponding active principles (Dl-difluoromethylornithine, pentamidine isethionate, suramine and 5-nitrofuran) were compared against Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Differences of ...

  2. Neutron activation analysis: principle and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.

    2006-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a powerful isotope specific nuclear analytical technique for simultaneous determination of elemental composition of major, minor and trace elements in diverse matrices. The technique is capable of yielding high analytical sensitivity and low detection limits (ppm to ppb). Due to high penetration power of neutrons and gamma rays, NAA experiences negligible matrix effects in the samples of different origins. Depending on the sample matrix and element of interest NAA technique is used non-destructively, known as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), or through chemical NAA methods. The present article describes principle of NAA, different methods and gives a overview some applications in the fields like environment, biology, geology, material sciences, nuclear technology and forensic sciences. (author)

  3. Justification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernysh Iryna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is the study and justification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis policy of the state in the tourist industry. The article justifies and proves expediency of the use of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry. The article marks out the scientific problem of identification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry by scientists, provides the composition and specifies the characteristics of principles of the anti-crisis state policy, and justifies functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry; proves the necessity of identification of principles and functions when developing conceptual grounds of the anti-crisis state policy and establishes their interrelation and interdependence during realisation of the relevant concept.

  4. Principle of coincidence method and application in activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mou; Dai Yihua; Ni Jianzhong

    2008-01-01

    The basic principle of coincidence method was discussed. The basic principle was generalized by analysing the actual example, and the condition in theory of coincidence method was brought forward. The cause of variation of efficiency curve and the effect of dead-time in activity measurement were explained using the above principle and condition. This principle of coincidence method provides the foundation in theory for activity measurement. (authors)

  5. Handbook of industrial refractories technology principles, types, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Caniglia, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Encompasses the entire range of industrial refractory materials and forms: properties and their measurement, applications, manufacturing, installation and maintenance techniques, quality assurance, and statistical process control.

  6. Activation analysis in gold industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kist, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear techniques and methods were, are, and will be very important for many fields of science, agriculture, industry, etc. Among other examples one can remember role of the nuclear medicine (radiotherapy and radiodiagnostic methods) or semiconductors (communication, computing, information, etc.) which industrial production has been on initial stage based on activation analysis. One of very illustrative examples is application of nuclear methods in gold industry. This is given by favorable nuclear properties of gold. Uzbekistan is one of the main producers of gold. Open-cast mining and hydro metallurgic extraction (using leaching by cyanide and sorption by ion-exchange resin) is the mostly used technology. The typical gold ores are sulfide and contain elevated concentration of As and Sb. That needs special technology of gold extraction. Importance of gold for Uzbekistan economy is a reason why for many years there are carried out studies concerning to gold production. These studies include also nuclear methods and their results are successfully used in gold industry. The present paper gives a brief overview for period of 25 years. For many reasons most of these studies were not published before completely. Despite some results are obtained decades ago we decided to present the overview as an example how nuclear methods can cover requirements of the whole process. We are trying to sort these studies according to methods and applications

  7. THE APPLICABILITY OF THE PRINCIPLES THAT GOVERN THE BUDGETARY ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Bobes Florina

    2013-01-01

    When applying the financial and budgetary rules, or in other words, when applying the budgetary process (the preparation, approval, execution and completion procedure of the public budget) certain principles that consistently and accurately conduct activities that this procedure involves need to be considered. These principles are the following: the universality principle, the unity principle, annuality of the public budget, the monetary unit, publicity and budgetary specialization. Through t...

  8. Design principles of a nuclear and industrial HVAC of IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruneri, Giuseppe; Ibarra, A.; Heidinger, R.; Knaster, J.; Sugimoto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Parameter of Derivate air Contamination (DAC) allows to associate the type of air ventilation. • The construction and operation of IFMIF will be subjected to the regulations of the country in which it will be sited. • Structures, systems and components are assigned a particular safety important components (SIC, 1–2 and Non-SIC) clarification that is based on the consequences of their failure. • Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) analysis has given a great contribution of the facility to optimize the configuration, particularly for the HVAC system. - Abstract: In 2013, the IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase, framed by the Broader Approach Agreement between Japan and EURATOM, accomplished in 2013 its mandate to provide the engineering design of the plant on schedule [1]. The IFMIF aims to qualify and characterize materials that are capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux originated in D-T reactions of future fusion reactors due to a neutron flux with a broad peak at 14 MeV, which is able to provide >20 dpa/fpy on small specimens in this EVEDA phase. The successful operation of such a challenging plant demands a careful assessment of the Conventional Facilities (CF), which have adequate redundancies to allow for the target plant availability [2]. The present paper addresses the design proposed in the IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report regarding the CF, particularly the IFMIF's Nuclear and Industrial HVAC design. A preliminary feasibility study, including the initial configuration, calculations and reliability/availability analysis, were performed. The nuclear HVAC design was developed progressively; first, by establishing a conceptual design, starting from the system functional description, followed by the identification of the corresponding interfacing systems and their

  9. Design principles of a nuclear and industrial HVAC of IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneri, Giuseppe [IFMIF/EVEDA, Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Ibarra, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Heidinger, R. [F4E, Garching (Germany); Knaster, J. [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Sugimoto, M. [JAEA, Rokkasho (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Parameter of Derivate air Contamination (DAC) allows to associate the type of air ventilation. • The construction and operation of IFMIF will be subjected to the regulations of the country in which it will be sited. • Structures, systems and components are assigned a particular safety important components (SIC, 1–2 and Non-SIC) clarification that is based on the consequences of their failure. • Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) analysis has given a great contribution of the facility to optimize the configuration, particularly for the HVAC system. - Abstract: In 2013, the IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase, framed by the Broader Approach Agreement between Japan and EURATOM, accomplished in 2013 its mandate to provide the engineering design of the plant on schedule [1]. The IFMIF aims to qualify and characterize materials that are capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux originated in D-T reactions of future fusion reactors due to a neutron flux with a broad peak at 14 MeV, which is able to provide >20 dpa/fpy on small specimens in this EVEDA phase. The successful operation of such a challenging plant demands a careful assessment of the Conventional Facilities (CF), which have adequate redundancies to allow for the target plant availability [2]. The present paper addresses the design proposed in the IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report regarding the CF, particularly the IFMIF's Nuclear and Industrial HVAC design. A preliminary feasibility study, including the initial configuration, calculations and reliability/availability analysis, were performed. The nuclear HVAC design was developed progressively; first, by establishing a conceptual design, starting from the system functional description, followed by the identification of the corresponding interfacing systems and their

  10. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  11. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-02-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human-computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity.

  12. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Ashley A.; Howie, Erin K.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Gray, Cindy M.; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian “Floyd”; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human–computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity. PMID:26181680

  13. Principles of Security Vulnerability Analysis of stationary industrial installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, M.

    2006-01-01

    Security and safety have been key priorities at facilities that manufacture, store, use, or handle hazardous chemicals, after the terrorist attacks on the United States of September 11, 2001. Security improvements may be needed, especially at sites that pose a more attractive target to terrorists due to their economic importance, perceived level of consequences, and other factors. The first step in the process of managing security risks is to identify and analyze the threats and the vulnerabilities facing a facility by conducting a Security Vulnerability Analysis (SVA). The SVA is a systematic process that evaluates the likelihood that a threat against a facility will be successful. It considers the potential severity of consequences to the facility itself, to the surrounding community and on the energy supply chain. The objective of conducting a SVA is to identify security hazards, threats, and vulnerabilities facing a facility, and to evaluate the countermeasures to provide for the protection of the public, workers, national interests, the environment, and the company. With this information security risks can be assessed and strategies can be formed to reduce vulnerabilities as required. SVA is a tool to assist management in making decisions on the need for countermeasures to address the threats and vulnerabilities. The paper provides an overview of fundamental steps of SVA for stationary industrial installations. (author)

  14. Active Plasmonics: Principles, Structures, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nina; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Wang, Jianfang

    2018-03-28

    Active plasmonics is a burgeoning and challenging subfield of plasmonics. It exploits the active control of surface plasmon resonance. In this review, a first-ever in-depth description of the theoretical relationship between surface plasmon resonance and its affecting factors, which forms the basis for active plasmon control, will be presented. Three categories of active plasmonic structures, consisting of plasmonic structures in tunable dielectric surroundings, plasmonic structures with tunable gap distances, and self-tunable plasmonic structures, will be proposed in terms of the modulation mechanism. The recent advances and current challenges for these three categories of active plasmonic structures will be discussed in detail. The flourishing development of active plasmonic structures opens access to new application fields. A significant part of this review will be devoted to the applications of active plasmonic structures in plasmonic sensing, tunable surface-enhanced Raman scattering, active plasmonic components, and electrochromic smart windows. This review will be concluded with a section on the future challenges and prospects for active plasmonics.

  15. Environmental management in the Australian minerals and energy industries: principles and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, D.R. [ed.] [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Dept. of Agriculture

    1996-12-31

    This is a comprehensive reference text on the principles and practices of environmental management being developed and implemented in Australia`s mining and energy industries. It also present a set of case histories focused on individual minerals (coal, sand, aluminium, iron ore, base metals, uranium, mineral sands, construction materials and petroleum). The 5 of the 20 chapters of particular relevance to the coal industry have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM. 800 refs.

  16. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline

  17. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straker, L.M.; Fenner, A.A.; Howie, E.K.; Feltz, D.L.; Gray, C.M.; Lu, A.S.; Mueller, F.F.; Simons, M.; Barnett, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline

  18. An Industry-Equilibrium Analysis of the LeChatelier Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    By considering firms operating in a perfectly- or monopolisticallycompetitive industry with free entry, we show that well-established results on the celebrated LeChatelier principle (LCP) do not extend into an endogenous competitive environment. For instance, labour demand may be more elastic...

  19. 76 FR 4360 - Guidance for Industry on Process Validation: General Principles and Practices; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... and Development (HFM-40), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), Food and Drug...] Guidance for Industry on Process Validation: General Principles and Practices; Availability AGENCY: Food... of Drug Information, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New...

  20. Managerial Accounting Principles and Cost Calculation Used by Economic Entities in the Coal Mining Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Boca (Rakos) Ileana – Sorina; Vatasoiu Cristian Ionel

    2011-01-01

    Considering the specialized work in managerial accounting, this paper aims to show which cost calculation principles are actually applied in the coal mining industry today. The methodology used in this scientific approach is of qualitative nature, using the following methods: direct observation and interview.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from industrial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyanjui, L.N.

    1998-01-01

    This study considers greenhouse gas emissions stemming from industrial activities such as cement production; limestone use and lime production. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1995a) methodology for industrial sector was applied for the three components selected. Limitations hindering the handling of other industrial process are listed as budgetary and time. Data sources and recommendations are listed

  2. Online Graphing Activity for Principles of Economics Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Oskar R. Harmon; James Lambrinos

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how an online drawing program and bulletin board are used to create active learning activities for a principles of economics class. In the activity the student downloads an initial diagram that sets up a textbook principles scenario. The student uses an image-editing program to complete the diagram, so that it represents the outcome predicted in the textbook and posts it to a bulletin board. The tools for the activity: SumoPaint.com, and WikiSpaces.com; are free and avail...

  3. Vibrational optical activity principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nafie, Laurence A

    2011-01-01

    This unique book stands as the only comprehensive introduction to vibrational optical activity (VOA) and is the first single book that serves as a complete reference for this relatively new, but increasingly important area of molecular spectroscopy. Key features:A single-source reference on this topic that introduces, describes the background and foundation of this area of spectroscopy.Serves as a guide on how to use it to carry out applications with relevant problem solving.Depth and breadth of the subject is presented in a logical, complete and progressive fashion. A

  4. Research on the Enhancement Effects of Using Ecological Principles in Managing the Lifecycle of Industrial Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin Guo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a performance level concept for industrial land use. The performance level concept uses ecological principles to evaluate index systems for industrial land. We used this concept to integrate local economics, land use, development potential, environmental health and ecosystem management with innovation, harmony, floral preservation, and shared land use. The concept helps promote the efficient use of industrial land and the sustainable use of land resources. We used the chemical medicine manufacturing industry in Chongqing Changshou Economic and Technological Development Zone as a case study. We selected eight companies for analysis and calculated an industrial land performance level for each company. We created three industrial land performance levels: growth potential type, positive development type, and inefficient recession type. To determine economic development and land sustainability, we applied administrative, economic, legal and technical measures to evaluate the entire lifecycle of industrial land. This lifecycle included preliminary project audit access, mid-period dynamic supervision and post land exit management. We conclude by proposing measures to mitigate environmental harm occurring from the intensive use of land for industrial use.

  5. The Strategic Principles of Formation and Development of the Biofuel Industry in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Oleksandr V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at highlighting the strategic principles of formation and development of the biofuel production in Ukraine at a competitive level. The carried out comprehensive analysis of scientific publications indicates the relevance of the pace of development in the biofuel industry as in the world, so in Ukraine. However, the low level of consumption and production of biofuels in our country requires further research of strategic nature. It has been found that formation of the competitive production of biofuels in Ukraine would ensure the positive developments in the economic, energy, agro-industrial, and environmental directions. On the basis of the carried out SWOT-analysis, the author has evaluated internal forces and the system of internal shortages, as well as the resource potential of the agro-industrial complex towards the implementation of existing external opportunities and confronting various threats, emerging in the market conditions during the process of development and rise of the biofuel industry.

  6. Industry as a metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, B

    1992-02-01

    The concept of "industrial economic metabolism" can provide a bridge to better understanding between environmentalists and industry. In nature each individual or species reacts to natural stimuli, competing with others for resources, extending its domain until it loses comparative advantage and comes to equilibrium with an adjacent competitor. Those species that succeed over time flourish; those that do not, diminish or disappear. Nature's rule book has no moral or ethical ingredient beyond self-interest. Corporate metabolisms are remarkably similar to those of nature. They too react to stimuli, collect and use resources, and grow or perish based on how effectively they compete. Corporate management recognizes and responds naturally and efficiently to cost and price signals. Through them it selects resources and converts them into useful products. The efficiency with which this is done is measured by profit, the lifeblood of the corporation and its means of growth. Profit thus provides a discipline on corporate behavior, encouraging efficient performers, and, by its absence, weeding out others. Unfettered by influences other than economics, the path to corporate success is unlikely to be a compassionate one. The dilemma of the manager is that to do what is socially "right" often conflicts with what must be done to survive and prosper. Fortunately, corporations' behavior can be altered by society when their purely economic role comes into conflict with other human values. The environment and the economy are not separate systems but intertwined to form a complex natural and social setting. The human-designed economic system depends on natural resource inputs, and in turn its metabolic wastes can overload the ecological system, threatening the long-term survivability of both. Increasing concern for the environment now gives the farsighted manager new latitude. There are competitive benefits in some pollution prevention. But there are not sufficiently strong forces to

  7. A case study analysis of the application of design for manufacture principles by industrial design students

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, R; Page, T

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a case study evaluation of a module that engages students on product and industrial design programmes with the principles of Design for Manufacturing (DFM). The primary element of the module is to expose students to the constraints of a full design to manufacture process. The module explores the design of a small polymer promotional item, together with the means of mass producing that item. This is done through the process of injection moulding and students design an inje...

  8. Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves effective against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves effective against two leukemias and a hepatocarcinoma. Mutasim M. Khalafalla, Eltayb Abdellatef, Hussain Mohammed Dafalla, Amr A. Nassrallah, Khalid M. Aboul-Enein, David A. Lightfoot, Fadl E. El-Deeb, Hany A. El-Shemy ...

  9. The Didactic Principles and Their Applications in the Didactic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius-Costel, Esi

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation and reevaluation of the fundamental didactic principles suppose the acceptance at the level of an instructive-educative activity of a new educational paradigm. Thus, its understanding implies an assumption at a conceptual-theoretical level of some approaches where the didactic aspects find their usefulness by relating to value…

  10. Analytical Characterization of Volatile Active Principles from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the extraction of volatile active principles in water, analytical separation and quantitative determination using a GC/MS technique was performed. The compounds detected, are belonging to the following classes: aldehydes, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. South African Journal of Chemistry Vol.55 2002: ...

  11. Industry activities to resolve utility procurement issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, F.

    1993-01-01

    There are several industry organizations which are active in assisting the utilities in their equipment procurement enhancement. They include the Nuclear Management Resources Council (NUMARC), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Nuclear Procurement Issues Committee (NUPIC). The products include the NUMARC Procurement Initiatives, EPRI procurement related guidelines and databases, and NUPIC joint audits and commercial grade surveys. The industry procurement activities and products are reviewed, and their use by utilities to enhance their procurement process is related. 1 fig

  12. The MIND method: A decision support for optimization of industrial energy systems - Principles and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Changes in complex industrial energy systems require adequate tools to be evaluated satisfactorily. The MIND method (Method for analysis of INDustrial energy systems) is a flexible method constructed as decision support for different types of analyses of industrial energy systems. It is based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and developed at Linkoeping University in Sweden. Several industries, ranging from the food industry to the pulp and paper industry, have hitherto been modelled and analyzed using the MIND method. In this paper the principles regarding the use of the method and the creation of constraints of the modelled system are presented. Two case studies are also included, a dairy and a pulp and paper mill, that focus some measures that can be evaluated using the MIND method, e.g. load shaping, fuel conversion and introduction of energy efficiency measures. The case studies illustrate the use of the method and its strengths and weaknesses. The results from the case studies are related to the main issues stated by the European Commission, such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, improvements regarding security of supply and increased use of renewable energy, and show great potential as regards both cost reductions and possible load shifting.

  13. Regional tourist industry in context of principles of regional socioeconomic systems self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennadyevich Shelomentsev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with basic principles of self-regulation of tourist complexes as regional socio-economic systems on the example of Sverdlovsk region. These include the principles of goal setting and the necessary diversity of economic entropy: in this case, these are important for the tourism industry and the human and natural resource and ecological potential. Is it shown how a tourist complex influences the socio-economic development of regional economic systems. In particular, tourism influences some of migration processes. Tourism development strategy in the Russian Federation at the tourist center level is analyzed. The need to develop such a strategy is due to the transition to market relations and, as a consequence, complexity of governmental regulation. It is substantiated that Sverdlovsk region is a subject to following strategy and might be successful in various sectors of tourism: business and congress and exhibition, urban entertainment, family and shopping tourism, sports, medical and recreational tourism.

  14. Applications of neutron activation analysis in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis technique is discussed in brief. This technique is used for quality control of raw materials, process materials and finished products, as well as activities in research and development for the improvement of the products and new products. The uses of this technique in several experienced industries are mentioned (author)

  15. Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge

  16. Application of Pilates principles increases paraspinal muscle activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Letícia Souza; Mochizuki, Luís; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; da Silva, Renato André Sousa; Mota, Yomara Lima

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effect of Pilates principles on the EMG activity of abdominal and paraspinal muscles on stable and unstable surfaces. Surface EMG data about the rectus abdominis (RA), iliocostalis (IL) and lumbar multifidus (MU) of 19 participants were collected while performing three repetitions of a crunch exercise in the following conditions: 1) with no Pilates technique and stable surface (nP + S); 2) with no Pilates technique and unstable surface (nP + U); 3) with Pilates technique and stable surface (P + S); 4) with Pilates and unstable surface (P + U). The EMG Fanalysis was conducted using a custom-made Matlab(®) 10. There was no condition effect in the RA iEMG with stable and unstable surfaces (F(1,290) = 0 p = 0.98) and with and without principles (F(1,290) = 1.2 p = 0.27). IL iEMG was higher for the stable surface condition (F(1,290) = 32.3 p Pilates principles (F(1,290) = 21.9 p Pilates principles (F(1,290) = 84.9 p < 0.001). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Applying object technology principles to business reengineering in the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The oil, gas, and petrochemical industries face a dilemma, to be financially competitive while complying with strict and expanding environmental, safety, and health regulation. Companies need new tools and techniques, indeed a completely new paradigm for organizing and performing work. They must build efficient and flexible business processes, ones that rely on advanced information systems for improved decision making and productivity. And they must adopt a culture of change and improvement to permit the business to change as the business climate changes. Fortunately, two industry developments are changing the traditional business paradigm in a dramatic way; business reengineering and object technology. Applying principles of object technology in the performance of business reengineering makes available a new form of business modeling that transforms the technique of modeling a business while directly supported the development of its enabling information systems. This modeling technique is called Object Modeling and is becoming an important force in improving business competitiveness

  18. Principles and applications of knowledge management in the BC industry (with examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Bizjak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many definitions define Knowledge Management as capturing, organizing and storing knowledge by different methods from various sources and transforming it into enduring value. The knowledge management is one of the most important principles that companies must explore and use to gain the competitive advantage, even in buildings and construction industry. There are various projects of knowledge management for the BC industry. One such project is e-COGNOS. Its key issues are knowledge management in the construction domain and documents interdependencies and consistency across projects and between enterprises. At the Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of Slovenia we are using very crude methods of knowledge management or we even can not call it a knowledge management. It is more or less information services or document management. With new technologies like Microsoft SharePoint services, we are hoping that we will be able to advance these old methods and use accumulated knowledge in a more sophisticated way.

  19. Analysis by neutronic activation of the active principles of MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Hernandez Rivero, A.T.; Moreno Bermudez, J.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Molina Insfran, J.; Perez Zayas, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the present job the obtained results are shown through the application of an analysis by neutronic activation, in their instrumental variant, for the determination of the elementary composition of three Cuban radiopharmaceuticals. (author) [es

  20. Principles, effects and problems of differential power pricing policy for energy intensive industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Liu, Jianghua

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese government canceled the preferential power pricing policies for energy intensive industries and imposed a reverse differential pricing policy in order to promote energy efficiency and the adjustment and upgrading of the industrial structure. This article analyzes the principles of China's differential power pricing policy, the externalities of energy and the modified Ramsey pricing rule, and also points out the policy implications of China's differential power pricing policy. In our samples, we investigate eight power intensive products in the Henan province with respect to their power consumption per unit (power intensity), electricity cost, total cost, the electricity tariff and profit, in order to test the effects of the differential power pricing policy. The results show that the primary effect of the differential power pricing policy is that enterprises decrease their total costs and improve their productive efficiencies in advance, in anticipating a higher electricity tariff. -- Research highlights: → The article suggests a modified Ramsey pricing model where demand elasticity is replaced by elasticity of energy consumption and polluting elasticity to internalize the negative externality of high energy intensive industry. → The article assesses the effects of differential pricing policy through on-site survey of high energy intensive industries in Henan province and analyzes the reasons behind those effects. → The article presents the lessons and policy implications of implementing differential pricing policy aimed at energy conservation and emission reduction.

  1. Active solar heating industry development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Despite the fact that solar water heating systems are technologically viable and commercially available, this Energy Technology Support Unit report shows that there is no established market in the United Kingdom. The Solar Trade Association (STA) has undertaken an Active Solar Heating Industry Development Study which is reported here. The data is derived from a questionnaire survey completed by companies, organizations and individuals operating within the industry. Information was also gathered from utility companies, and STAs elsewhere in Europe. Barriers which need to be overcome include lack of public awareness, especially in the construction industry, lack of capital investment and other financial disincentives, little or no government support, and lack of organization and quality monitoring and assurance within the industry itself. (UK)

  2. Further activities of safety culture toward nuclear transportation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Y.; Shimakura, D.

    2004-01-01

    On September 30, 1999, a criticality accident occurred at the uranium processing facility of the JCO Co. Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as ''JCO'') Tokai plant, located in Tokaimura, Ibaraki Prefecture. This was an unprecedented accident in Japan's history of peaceful use of nuclear power, resulting in three workers exposed to severe radiation, two of whom died, and the evacuation and enforced indoor confinement of local residents. Nuclear power suppliers must take personal responsibility for ensuring safety. In this connection, the electric power industry, heavy electric machinery manufacturers, fuel fabricators, and nuclear power research organizations gathered together to establish the Nuclear Safety Network (NSnet) in December 1999, based on the resolve to share and improve the level of the safety culture across the entire nuclear power industry and to assure that such an accident never occurs again. NSnet serves as a link between nuclear power enterprises, research organizations, and other bodies, based on the principles of equality and reciprocity. A variety of activities are pursued, such as diffusing a safety culture, implementing mutual evaluation among members, and exchanging safety-related information. Aiming to share and improve the safety culture throughout the entire nuclear power industry, NSnet thoroughly implements the principle of safety first, while at the same time making efforts to restore trust in nuclear power

  3. Further activities of safety culture toward nuclear transportation industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, Y.; Shimakura, D. [NSnet, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    On September 30, 1999, a criticality accident occurred at the uranium processing facility of the JCO Co. Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as ''JCO'') Tokai plant, located in Tokaimura, Ibaraki Prefecture. This was an unprecedented accident in Japan's history of peaceful use of nuclear power, resulting in three workers exposed to severe radiation, two of whom died, and the evacuation and enforced indoor confinement of local residents. Nuclear power suppliers must take personal responsibility for ensuring safety. In this connection, the electric power industry, heavy electric machinery manufacturers, fuel fabricators, and nuclear power research organizations gathered together to establish the Nuclear Safety Network (NSnet) in December 1999, based on the resolve to share and improve the level of the safety culture across the entire nuclear power industry and to assure that such an accident never occurs again. NSnet serves as a link between nuclear power enterprises, research organizations, and other bodies, based on the principles of equality and reciprocity. A variety of activities are pursued, such as diffusing a safety culture, implementing mutual evaluation among members, and exchanging safety-related information. Aiming to share and improve the safety culture throughout the entire nuclear power industry, NSnet thoroughly implements the principle of safety first, while at the same time making efforts to restore trust in nuclear power.

  4. Industrial applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, T.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been widely used in the industry and over the years played a key role in the development of manufacturing process as well as monitoring of the process flow. In this context NAA has been utilized both in R and D, and in the factory as a flexible analytical tool. It has been used successfully in numerous industries including broad categories such as Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Mining, Photographic, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Defense, Semiconductor and Electronic industries. Dow Chemical owns and operates a research reactor for analytical measurements of samples generated in both R and D, and manufacturing area in its plant in Midland, Michigan. Although most industries do not have reactors on their campus but use an off site reactor regularly, and often have in-house neutron sources such as a 252 Cf used primarily for NAA. In most industrial materials analysis laboratory NAA is part of a number of analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, AA, SIMS, FTIR, XRF, TXRF etc. Analysis of complex industrial samples may require data from each of these methods to provide a clear picture of the materials issues involved. With the improvement of classical analytical techniques, and the introduction of new techniques, e.g. TXRF, the role of NAA continues to be a key bench mark technique that provides accurate and reliable data. The strength of the NAA in bulk analysis is balanced by its weakness in providing surface sensitive or spatially resolved analysis as is required by many applications. (author)

  5. Engineering microbial cell factories for the production of plant natural products: from design principles to industrial-scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Ding, Wentao; Jiang, Huifeng

    2017-07-19

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are widely used as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, seasonings, pigments, etc., with a huge commercial value on the global market. However, most of these PNPs are still being extracted from plants. A resource-conserving and environment-friendly synthesis route for PNPs that utilizes microbial cell factories has attracted increasing attention since the 1940s. However, at the present only a handful of PNPs are being produced by microbial cell factories at an industrial scale, and there are still many challenges in their large-scale application. One of the challenges is that most biosynthetic pathways of PNPs are still unknown, which largely limits the number of candidate PNPs for heterologous microbial production. Another challenge is that the metabolic fluxes toward the target products in microbial hosts are often hindered by poor precursor supply, low catalytic activity of enzymes and obstructed product transport. Consequently, despite intensive studies on the metabolic engineering of microbial hosts, the fermentation costs of most heterologously produced PNPs are still too high for industrial-scale production. In this paper, we review several aspects of PNP production in microbial cell factories, including important design principles and recent progress in pathway mining and metabolic engineering. In addition, implemented cases of industrial-scale production of PNPs in microbial cell factories are also highlighted.

  6. Economic regulation of Canada's natural gas delivery industry : policy and regulatory principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormley, B.

    2006-03-01

    This policy paper demonstrated how restoring balance and clarity to Canada's regulatory environment will ensure the continued strength of the economy, environment, and communities. It was noted that regulatory outcomes that reflect the broad public interest can be achieved if 4 basic principles for economic regulation are pursued. These principles include strength, balance, efficiency, and clarity. In particular, this paper addressed the challenge facing Canada's natural gas delivery industry in terms of increased energy demand, tight supply, ageing infrastructure and increasing cost pressures on the energy system. It emphasized that transparent, efficient energy policy developed through informed debate can provide the foundation for a reliable, environmentally acceptable and sustainable energy future. It was suggested that immediate attention be given to rebalancing the regulatory processes that have placed short term considerations above the longer term strength of the natural gas system; improving the support for new natural gas supply development; reconsidering pricing in some energy markets where information has been distorted; and revisiting the regulatory processes that have become inefficient

  7. Diagnostics of Procurement Activity of Industrial Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Veretennikova Anna B.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of procurement activity of industrial enterprise is substantiated in the article. The results of the critical analysis of the existing approaches to procurement effectiveness evaluating are presented. The main directions of diagnostics of procurement activity of industrial enterprise such as the quality of the organization and the resources, the effectiveness and efficiency, security of logistics operations.В статье обоснована актуальность диагностирования закупочной деятельнос...

  8. Reactor neutron activation analysis of industrial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niese, S.

    1983-01-01

    The specific application of neutron activation analysis (n.a.a.) for industrial materials is demonstrated by the determination of impurities in BeO, Al, Si, Cu, Ge, GaP, GaAs, steel, and irradiated uranium. A group scheme gives an orientation about the possibilities of n.a.a. The use of different standards, methods for the measurement of low radioactivities and errors caused by recoil reaction and radiation stimulated diffusion are discussed. (author)

  9. Switzerland; Financial Sector Assessment Program: Technical Note: An Assessment of Insurance Core Principles for the Reinsurance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This technical note discusses key findings of the assessment of Insurance Core Principles (ICP) for the reinsurance industry for Switzerland. It reveals that the Swiss reinsurance market is dominated by three large players with a strong international presence. The reinsurance industry comprises 20 professional reinsurers and 50 reinsurance captives with gross premiums written totaling SwF 37.4 billion for 2005. Swiss Re, European Re, and Converium have consistently maintained more than 75 per...

  10. Eco-marketing in industrial enterprise activities

    OpenAIRE

    N.M. Chupryna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is determination of the areas of industrial enterprise’s development and detection of the specificity of their activity in terms of environmental priorities. The results of the analysis. The analysis of the research and publications of the leading scholars on the eco-marketing’s problem was conducted. The main factors of eco-marketing’s mechanism use were considered. Eco-marketing was determined as an important tool of the enterprises’ modern ...

  11. The Working Principle and Use of High Pressures in the Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlović, S.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available High pressure in the food industry, as a new non-thermal method, is applied in many phases of food processing. This new non-thermal technology was developed in the 1990s. The main advantages of high-pressure processing are in the short time of processing which is between a few seconds and 30 minutes. Processing of solid or liquid food products with or without packaginghappens in the temperature interval 5 – 90 °C, and pressures 50 – 1000 MPa. The driving pressure is distributed uniformly through the whole product independently of its quantity and shape. These processing characteristics combined with improved food microbiological safety, less energy expenditure, low concentration of waste products and longer shelf life make high-pressure processing a very promising novel food technology. Combined with lower cost of treatment (but unfortunately higher initial cost of equipment compared to traditional processing technologies, it is also economically profitable. The main purpose of such treated food products are in preservation of sensory, nutritive and textural properties. As the temperature increase is very low, there are no significant changes in sensory properties, in contrast to conventional thermal processing (sterilization, pasteurization. However, with the combination of heating or cooling and high pressure, modification of existing and creation of new food products is possible. Today, high pressure is used for the treatment of meat products (inactivation of microorganisms, freezing and defrosting of foodstuffs, production of fruit juices (pasteurization, processing of oysters, modificationof milk characteristics (foaming etc. The main purpose of this work is to present the working principle and application of high pressure in the food industry.

  12. SITO, Environmental Impact of Major Industrial Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, M.; Oriolo, F.

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SITO evaluates the impact of major industrial activities on the environment. The method applied accounts for the alterations of ecological, physico-chemical, aesthetical and social values caused by the development of the considered activity. Such values are usually considered as not quantifiable but very important for the quality of the environment. 2 - Method of solution: The territory affected by the industrial project is described in a one-dimensional (for example a coast development) or two-dimensional representation as a lattice of square meshes of equal size. A major feature of the model is that the impact factors are considered with reference to each single mesh. The following vectors and matrices are evaluated: a) Matrix of environmental quality characteristics. It is the product of the environmental quality index matrix and the vector of weighting factors. b) Vector of the initial environmental values. It is the sum of the columns of matrix (a). c) Matrix obtained when the environmental quality characteristics matrix is multiplied by the vector of project action factors, taking into account distance effects. d) Vector of the final environmental values. This is the sum of columns of matrix (c)

  13. Principles of managed intellectual activity in training psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Zakharova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the possibility of using the principles of gradual development of intellectual activity in the training experts of developmental psychology. The issue of the managed development of professional work components is being raised. A possible way of working is discussed analysing the features of child actual development aimed at discovering the reasons for the learning difficulties, which served as an excuse for the parents to seek psychological assistance. The method of analysis becomes an important competence of a consulting psychologist against the background of a high variety of forms of mental development. Development of readymade algorithms for solving a problem situation, covering all their diversity seems next to impossible. In this regard, there is a need to prepare students for an independent analysis of a specific life situation. It is the ability to this kind of analysis that ensures the expert’s preparedness to develop recommendations that contribute to harmonizing the child’s development. Elaboration of this competence implies the integration of knowledge and skills acquired in various training courses. This possibility is provided by shaping the student’s orientation in the learned action taking into account its level structure. Semantically speaking, orientation allows one to recover the logic of the child’s examination and child development according to the goal set. The orientation is based on the mechanisms and conditions of mental development. The choice of adequate diagnostic tools becomes an independent task of the analysis that requires understanding of the available techniques and diagnostic tools. Summing up, the operational level of orientation provides competent use of the means chosen during diagnostic examination. Taking into account the orientation level of the developed activity makes it possible to integrate the knowledge and skills gained in the process of training into psychologist expert

  14. A New "Principal Principle" (#14) of Physical Activity Education Is Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Earle F.

    2011-01-01

    There is every reason to believe that a new "principal principle" of physical activity education is emerging. In this article, the author talks about the new "principal principle"(#14) of physical education. Revisiting a historical milestone in the field's history to explain the origin of the term "principal principle," Dr. Arthur H. Steinhaus,…

  15. Quality Management Principles as Illustrated by the Organization of Romanian Inter-War Factories. A Century of Romanian Industrial Tradition in Aeronautics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela RUSU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Inter-war Romania developed 6 aircraft factories, the first starting its activity in 1916. Four of these, with three located in Bucharest, produced over 2000 aircraft, maily for the military use as Romania entered the Second World War. The activity of these factories was undertaken in times when nobody thought about formulating the principles of quality management and the research of the first scientists in quality, Deming, Shewhart and Juran had not yet been accepted or published. The work aims to present the inter-war Romanian aeronautical industry developments regarding the quality management.

  16. Toxic industrial deposit remediation by ant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilkova, Veronika; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Toxic industrial deposits are often contaminated by heavy metals and the substrates have low pH values. In such systems, soil development is thus slowed down by high toxicity and acidic conditions which are unfavourable to soil fauna. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) are considered tolerant to heavy metal pollution and are known to increase organic matter content and microbial activity in their nests. Here, we focused on soil remediation caused by three ant species (Formica sanguinea, Lasius niger, and Tetramorium sp.) in an ore-washery sedimentation basin near Chvaletice (Czech Republic). Soil samples were taken from the centre of ant nests and from the nest surroundings (>3 m from nests). Samples were then analyzed for microbial activity and biomass and contents of organic matter and nutrients. As a result, ant species that most influenced soil properties was F. sanguinea as there were higher microbial activity and total nitrogen and ammonia contents in ant nests than in the surrounding soil. We expected such a result because F. sanguinea builds conspicuous large nests and is a carnivorous species that brings substantial amounts of nitrogen in insect prey to their nests. Effects of the other two ant species might be lower because of smaller nests and different feeding habits as they rely mainly on honeydew from aphids or on plant seeds that do not contain much nutrients.

  17. Fundamental principles of the cultural-activity approach in the psychology of giftedness

    OpenAIRE

    Babaeva, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the cultural-activity approach to the study of giftedness, which is based on the ideas of L. S. Vygotsky, A. N. Leontiev, and O. K. Tikhomirov. Three basic principles of this approach are described: the principle of polymorphism, the dynamic principle, and the principle of the holistic analysis of the giftedness phenomenon. The article introduces the results of empirical research (including a 10-year longitudinal study), which verifies the efficacy of the cultural-activi...

  18. The politics and strategy of industry self-regulation: the pharmaceutical industry's principles for ethical direct-to-consumer advertising as a deceptive blocking strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Denis G; Oakley, James L

    2013-06-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry lobbies European regulators to permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the European Union, we found that five leading companies violated industry-developed and -promulgated standards for ethical advertising in the United States. Utilizing multiple data sources and methods, we demonstrate a consistent failure by companies that market erectile dysfunction drugs to comply with the industry's guiding principles for ethical DTCA over a four-year period despite pledges of compliance by company leaders. Noncompliance resulted in children being exposed to sexually themed promotional messages more than 100 billion times. We argue that the guidelines are a coordinated effort by the industry to prevent unwanted federal regulation, and we introduce the concept of a blocking strategy to explain company behavior and to advance theoretical understanding of firms' public affairs strategies. We recommend policy responses to prevent deceptive practices, protect children from adult content, and promote genuine health care education.

  19. Polish scenery of coking industry activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, H.

    1994-01-01

    The cooking industry in Poland and the world depends on conditions of iron and steel industry. Nowadays it is observed depression of this industry. On the other hand it is occurred a strong public pressure to reduce pollution by coking works. It is known that modernizing enterprises need a great deal of funds, but they are necessary, in order to keep coking industry on market. (author). 2 tabs

  20. Principles of designing cyber-physical system of producing mechanical assembly components at Industry 4.0 enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjanov, A. V.; Zakoldaev, D. A.; Shukalov, A. V.; Zharinov, I. O.

    2018-03-01

    The task of developing principles of cyber-physical system constitution at the Industry 4.0 company of the item designing components of mechanical assembly production is being studied. The task has been solved by analyzing the components and technologies, which have some practical application in the digital production organization. The list of components has been defined and the authors proposed the scheme of the components and technologies interconnection in the Industry 4.0 of mechanical assembly production to make an uninterrupted manufacturing route of the item designing components with application of some cyber-physical systems.

  1. Exploring the Linkages Between Deming’s Principle, World-Class Company, Operational Excellence, and Company Performance in an Oil and Gas Industry Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakhid Slamet Ciptono

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the linkages between Deming’s Principle, World-Class Company, Operational Excellence, and Company Performance in the Indonesia’s oil and gas industry. The aim of this study is to examine the causal relationships model between the Deming’s Principle (DP, World-Class Company (WCC, Operational Excellence (OE, and Company Performance (Monetary Gain Performance or MGP and Value Gain Performance or VGP. The author used 140 strategic business units (SBUs in 49 oil and gas companies in Indonesia. The survey was administered to every level of management at each SBU (Top, Middle, and Low Level Management. A multiple informant sampling unit is used to ensure a balanced view of the relationships between the research constructs, and to collect data from the most informed respondents on different levels of management. A total of 1,332 individual usable questionnaires were returned thus qualified for analysis, representing an effective response rate of 50.19 percent. Path analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM are used to analyze the effect of Deming’s principle on company performance and to investigate the interrelationships between Deming’s principle, world-class company, operational excellence, and company performance. The results show that Deming’s Principle has significant positive and indirect effect on company performance (monetary gain performance and value gain performance. Although the Deming’s Principle has no significant direct effects on company performance, the Deming’s Principle has significant positive effects on the intervening variables (world-class company and operational excellence. The result also shows that a complete model fit and the acceptable parameter level that indicate the overall parameter are good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. By concentrating on a single industry (oil and gas, SEM specification of the causal relationship model between five constructs can be

  2. Applying Adaptive Agricultural Management & Industrial Ecology Principles to Produce Lower- Carbon Ethanol from California Energy Beets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiades, Anthy Maria

    The life cycle assessment of a proposed beet-to-ethanol pathway demonstrates how agricultural management and industrial ecology principles can be applied to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, minimize agrochemical inputs and waste, provide ecosystem services and yield a lower-carbon fuel from a highly land-use efficient, first-generation feedstock cultivated in California. Beets grown in California have unique potential as a biofuel feedstock. A mature agricultural product with well-developed supply chains, beet-sugar production in California has contracted over recent decades, leaving idle production capacity and forcing growers to seek other crops for use in rotation or find a new market for beets. California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) faces risk of steeply-rising compliance costs, as greenhouse gas reduction targets in the transportation sector were established assuming commercial volumes of lower-carbon fuels from second-generation feedstocks -- such as residues, waste, algae and cellulosic crops -- would be available by 2020. The expected shortfall of cellulosic ethanol has created an immediate need to develop lower-carbon fuels from readily available feedstocks using conventional conversion technologies. The life cycle carbon intensity of this ethanol pathway is less than 28 gCO2e/MJEthanol: a 72% reduction compared to gasoline and 19% lower than the most efficient corn ethanol pathway (34 gCO2e/MJ not including indirect land use change) approved under LCFS. The system relies primarily on waste-to-energy resources; nearly 18 gCO2e/MJ are avoided by using renewable heat and power generated from anaerobic digestion of fermentation stillage and gasification of orchard residues to meet 88% of the facility's steam demand. Co-products displace 2 gCO2e/MJ. Beet cultivation is the largest source of emissions, contributing 15 gCO 2e/MJ. The goal of the study is to explore opportunities to minimize carbon intensity of beet-ethanol and investigate the potential

  3. Industry activities to improve valve performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, C.

    1996-12-01

    Motor-operated valve issues refuse to go away. For over a decade the industry and the NRC have been focusing extraordinary resources on assuring these special components operate when called upon. Now that industry has fixed the design deficiencies, it is focusing on assuring that they perform their safety function within the current licensing basis for the remainder of plant life. NEI supported the efforts by ASME to develop OMN-1 and was encouraged that the industry and the NRC worked together to develop risk and performance based approaches to maintain MOV performance.

  4. Selected industrial and environmental applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the applications of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in the industrial and environmental fields is given. Detection limits for different applications are also given. (author)

  5. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore. ...

  6. The Key Principles of Process Manager Motivation in Production and Administration Processes in an Industrial Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chromjakova Felicita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic premise of sustainable development is that companies should completely re-evaluate their enterprise work logic and process organization. Most of the necessary changes concern employee stimulation and motivation. If we are truly interested in improving business results and the effectiveness of business processes – there would be no progress otherwise – we have to strive to break down the barriers between company management (leadership and employees in order to establish effective relationships between firms and customers. This paper presents research results of process manager activities in modern industrial enterprises, connected with a methodology proposal for the systematically-oriented process manager motivation of employees in accordance with the increased competitiveness of production and administration processes. It also presents an effective methodology of how to increase the positive effects of welldefined employee motivations from the process manager´s perspective. The core benefit of this methodology lies in the design of a systematic approach to the motivation process from the process manager side, allowing for radical performance improvement via production and administrative processes and the increased competitiveness of enterprise processes.

  7. The Canadian petroleum industry: An activity study. 1987 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report provides financial aspects of activity in the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry. Data are given in graphic and tabular form on revenues, sources and destinations of funds (including financing, incentives, dividend payments, capital and operational expenditures); on comparisons with other industries; on how revenues are shared between the industry and various levels of government; and on principal trends observed. Data are broken down by various industry sectors where applicable. 10 figs., 15 tabs

  8. Prediction of solid oxide fuel cell cathode activity with first-principles descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Kleis, Jesper; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate that the experimentally measured area specific resistance and oxygen surface exchange of solid oxide fuel cell cathode perovskites are strongly correlated with the first-principles calculated oxygen p-band center and vacancy formation energy. These quantities...... are therefore descriptors of catalytic activity that can be used in the first-principles design of new SOFC cathodes....

  9. Broadband terahertz spectroscopy: principles, fundamental research and potential for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouaghi, W; Thomson, M D; Rabia, K; Hahn, R; Blank, V; Roskos, H G

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz radiation (also called T-rays) can be employed for spectroscopy and imaging, from the laboratory to industrial applications. In this paper we give an overview of how broadband optoelectronic THz techniques (i.e. using optical lasers to achieve THz generation and detection) can be implemented, and give examples of their unique use in solid-state physics, and in biological and industrial applications. (paper)

  10. Basic principles of knowledge management and its application to the industrial company in tactical operations of maintenance and operational exploitation: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cárcel Carrasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Although knowledge and its management is, and has been, studied in depth, particularly since the 90’s decade of the past century, especially for the strategic management, innovation, trade, or business administration, there are still many questions on how it articulates or transfers and the barriers to its management, especially when we talk about internal tactical activities that affect staff that we could call "offices", such as maintenance and industrial assembly or exploitation and conduction of the facilities. Because of the peculiarities normally seen in this kind of activity in the industrial companies, the knowledge of these people is strongly based on their experience (strong tacit component, difficult to measure and articulate, and on many occasions, however, this rupture of information-knowledge, can represent a high cost for the company (often assumed to be something inevitable due to the increase in production and service downtime, loss of efficiency, or tuning time of new staff to these areas.Design/methodology/approach: After a description of the State of the art and the basic principles of knowledge management, a qualitative study in an industrial company has been carried out, within the areas of operation and maintenance, in order to know the barriers and facilitators that such involved personnel finds in order to achieve an adequate transmission and use of that knowledge.Findings and Originality/value: Learn about barriers, facilitators and impact that offers the knowledge management in the areas of industrial maintenance, especially among professionals in offices which operate with a high degree of tacit knowledge and with a heavy dependence on the company on these professionals.Research limitations/implications: Those characteristics of a qualitative study in a particular area and within a geographical area, although it can be extrapolated to other types of companies and regional areas.Practical implications: Learn

  11. Basic Principles of Industrial Electric Power Network Computer Aided Design and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fursanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model for a computer aided design and engineering system has been developed in the paper. The paper presents basic automation process principles including a graphical representation   network and calculation results, convenient user interface, automatic mode calculation, selection of transformer rated power and cross-section area of wires. The developed algorithm and program make it possible to save time and improve quality of project implementation.

  12. Global nuclear industry views: challenges arising from the evolution of the optimisation principle in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2012-01-01

    pursuing further improvements in the international RP system, it should be clearly borne in mind that the system is generally based on protection against the risk of cancer and hereditary diseases. The system also protects against deterministic non-cancer effects on tissues and organs. In seeking refinements of such protective notions, ICRP is invited to pay increased attention to the fact that a continued balance must be struck between beneficial activities that cause exposures and protection. The global nuclear industry is committed to help overcome these key RP issues as part of the RP community’s upcoming international deliberations towards a more efficient international RP system.

  13. Global nuclear industry views: challenges arising from the evolution of the optimisation principle in radiological protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Pierre, S

    2012-01-01

    further improvements in the international RP system, it should be clearly borne in mind that the system is generally based on protection against the risk of cancer and hereditary diseases. The system also protects against deterministic non-cancer effects on tissues and organs. In seeking refinements of such protective notions, ICRP is invited to pay increased attention to the fact that a continued balance must be struck between beneficial activities that cause exposures and protection. The global nuclear industry is committed to help overcome these key RP issues as part of the RP community's upcoming international deliberations towards a more efficient international RP system. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Petroleum production: guiding principles of the development activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    The starting idea to develop a project may be knowledge of an original process, a modification of an existing process which is original or an improvement in a known and existing process. In all cases, a preliminary economic and market study is indicated, and also of the patent situation. The decision to proceed is then based on laboratory evaluation, perhaps making of samples, and a study of the expected operating conditions, especially extrapolation to industrial dimensions. This is illustrated by the example of epoxy polymers. The decision to proceed is contingent on pilot plant results which may be rather expensive, depending on the process. This aspect of development is discussed in detail. Mechanical and long term use testing of the proposed product follow. Correct interpretation of the results is paramount at this stage. If everything is favorable, the process can be expanded to industrial scale; further improvements may be found at this stage, which often involves dimensional analysis and is illustrated by the example of a catalytic process.

  15. The Organisation of Innovative Activities Across Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Leiponen, Aija

    2003-01-01

    finds that not only are innovation modes very similar across manufacturing and service sectors, the same main modes are also identified in the two countries analysed. Furthermore, the innovation modes identified are very similar to the modes expressed in the well-known Pavitt Taxonomy. Second......, the relation between innovation modes and innovation outcome are investigated through regression analysis. The analysis confirms that the way innovation is organised matters for outcome, in terms of type of innovation, as well as in terms of share of sales stemming from innovation. Finally, we explore whether...... innovation modes are aligned with industry classifications, as it is assumed in the original work on technological regimes. Contrary to these assumptions we find that industries by no means are uniform in terms of organisation of innovation; in most cases two or three regimes are represented in a single...

  16. Radiological protection principles concerning the release for industrial use of areas contaminated from uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    With regard to uses of contaminated grounds as industrial sites, generally all exposure pathways relevant during stays outdoors have to be evaluated. Assuming conditions as realistic as possible, but sufficiently conservative, the dose estimates reveal that radiation exposure from inhalation of both contaminated dust particles and Rn-decay products is lower by almost one order of magnitude than external radiation exposure. The gamma dose rate above the contaminated areas and the potential input of radioactivity into the ground water therefore are relevant exposure pathways during the use of contaminated grounds as mere industrial sites. (orig./DG) [de

  17. Five Principles of Industrialized Transformation for Successfully Building an Operational Backbone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till J.; Kettunen, Petteri

    2018-01-01

    approach that is underpinned by five principles—template-based, business-driven, matrix-organized, tight supplier steering and cascaded planning. The UPM case provides important lessons for transformation leaders seeking to build, expand or develop a value-adding operational backbone.......To move into the digital age, a globally operating company needs to have in place an operational backbone, but many struggle with achieving this and the associated transformation program. Based on the experience of UPM, a Finnish forest industry company, we describe an industrialized transformation...

  18. Implementing the principle of precaution in the nuclear industry - the place of probabilistic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear safety systems derive from implementation of the principle of precaution and seek to protect workers, the public and the environment against the effects of ionizing radiation. Basically, a nuclear safety system involves risk identification, radioprotection, a thorough understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation, an independent safety authority responsible for inspection and regulation, and a technical approach based on comprehensive defence. Probabilistic studies conducted over the last thirty years or so have generated descriptions of just about every imaginable scenario liable to cause dysfunction. And as our nuclear plants age, we also need to allow for the additional attendant risks. (author)

  19. First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, Braden, E-mail: goddard.braden@gmail.com [Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Charlton, William [Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Peerani, Paolo [European Commission, EC-JRC-ITU, Ispra (Italy)

    2014-03-01

    Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (∼0.2 wt% {sup 235}U) to high enriched (>20 wt% {sup 235}U); compositions consisting of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, UO{sub 2}, UF{sub 6}, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since {sup 235}U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the {sup 235}U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the “known standard” method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact {sup 235}U sample masses.

  20. Modeling & imaging of bioelectrical activity principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of electrical activity in biological tissues and systems, and for developing non-invasive functional imaging technologies to aid clinical diagnosis of dysfunction in the human body. The book will provide full basic coverage of the fundamentals of modeling of electrical activity in various human organs, such as heart and brain. It will include details of bioelectromagnetic measurements and source imaging technologies, as well as biomedical applications. The book will review the latest trends in

  1. Active-involvement principle in dental health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L

    1985-01-01

    A basic problem in dental health education (DHE) is that the effect usually disappears shortly after the termination of a program. The purpose of the present study was to obtain long-term effect of a DHE-program by emphasizing the active involvement of the participants. The sample comprised...... an experimental and a control group, each of 68 unskilled workers, aged 18-64. Active participation was obtained by various means: Teaching was carried out in pre-existing peer groups, the participants' own goals and needs were included, the traditional dentist-patient barriers were excluded, the traditional...

  2. Principles of accounting in the information space of foreign economic activity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Yu. Gordopolov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents scientific results confirming the influence of the external environment on the need for revision of accounting principles in accordance with the characteristics of economic activity. A model of the relationship between the management system and the subsystem of accounting of the subject of foreign economic activity was developed. The study substantiates the approach to the formation of information in accounting, which indirectly depends on how the system of management of foreign economic activity at the enterprise is constructed. The influence of accounting information support on creation of the communication space of the system of management of foreign economic activity is determined. The directions of transformation of accounting principles of foreign economic operations in the context of the influence of the management system of foreign economic activity of the enterprise are presented. The article presents the proposed changes in the part of the transformation of accounting principles of foreign economic activity.

  3. First-principles mechanistic studies of ammonia-related industrial processes

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Díaz, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, the mechanisms that govern four essential industrial processes have been studied by means of Density Functional Theory (DFT). The processes are the following: Ostwald (HNO3 production), Degussa and Andrussow (HCN production) and MacArthurForrest (gold recovery). In these processes, ammonia is the main raw material or a precursor of it.The KohnSham equations that describe the model systems have been solved by means of VASP and GPAW using the RPBE functional. These package...

  4. Impurity diffusion activation energies in Al from first principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonovic, D.; Sluiter, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Activation energies for vacancy-mediated impurity diffusion in face-centered-cubic aluminum have been computed ab initio for all technologically important alloying elements, as well as for most of the lanthanides. The so-called five-frequency rate model is used to establish the limiting vacancy

  5. An active principle of Nigella sativa L., thymoquinone, showing significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Mohammad Akram; Alenazy, Awwad Khalaf; Alrowaili, Majed Gorayan; Basha, Jamith

    2017-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major active principle of Nigella sativa seed (black seed) and is known to control many fungi, bacteria, and some viruses. However, the activity of TQ against anaerobic bacteria is not well demonstrated. Anaerobic bacteria can cause severe infections, including diarrhea, aspiration pneumonia, and brain abscess, particularly in immunodeficient individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of TQ against some anaerobic pathogens in comparison to metronidazole. Standard, ATCC, strains of four anaerobic bacteria ( Clostridium difficile , Clostridium perfringens , Bacteroides fragilis , and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ), were initially isolated on special Brucella agar base (with hemin and vitamin K). Then, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TQ and metronidazole were determined against these anaerobes when grown in Brucella agar, using serial agar dilution method according to the recommended guidelines for anaerobic organisms instructed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. TQ showed a significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria although much weaker than metronidazole. MICs of TQ and metronidazole against various anaerobic human pathogens tested were found to be between 10-160 mg/L and 0.19-6.25 mg/L, respectively. TQ controlled the anaerobic human pathogenic bacteria, which supports the use of N. sativa in the treatment of diarrhea in folk medicine. Further investigations are in need for determination of the synergistic effect of TQ in combination with metronidazole and the activity of derivatives of TQ against anaerobic infections.

  6. Antifungal activity of Andrographis paniculata extracts and active principles against skin pathogenic fungal strains in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Abubakar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Latip, Jalifah; Samah, Othman Abd; Omar, Muhammad Nor; Umar, Abdulrashid; Dogarai, Bashar Bello S

    2012-07-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Acanthaceae) is an annual herbaceous plant widely cultivated in southern Asia, China, and Europe. It is used in the treatment of skin infections in India, China, and Malaysia by folk medicine practitioners. Antifungal activity of the whole plant extracts and isolation of active principles from A. paniculata were investigated. Dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MEOH) extracts of A. paniculata whole plant were screened for their antifungal potential using broth microdilution method in vitro against seven pathogenic fungal species responsible for skin infections. Active principles were detected through bioguided assays and isolated using chromatography techniques. Structures of compounds were elucidated through spectroscopy techniques and comparisons were made with previously reported data for similar compounds. DCM extract revealed lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (100 μg/mL) against Microsporum canis, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis, whereas MEOH extract revealed lowest MIC (150 µg/mL) against C. tropicalis and Aspergillus niger. DCM extract showed lowest minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) value (250 µg/mL) against M. canis, C. albicans, C. tropicalis and A. niger, whereas MEOH extract showed lowest MFC (250 µg/mL) against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, M. canis, C. albicans, C. tropicalis and A. niger. Bioassay guided isolation from DCM and MEOH extract afforded 3-O-β-d-glucosyl-14-deoxyandrographiside, 14-deoxyandrographolide, and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide as antifungal compounds. The lowest MIC (50 µg/mL) and MFC (50 µg/mL) was exerted by 14-deoxyandrographolide on M. canis. This is first report on the isolation of antifungal substances through bioassay-guided assay from A. paniculata. Our finding justifies the use of A. paniculata in folk medicines for the treatment of fungal skin infections.

  7. Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mesnage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3. Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300–600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone.

  8. Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3). Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300–600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone. PMID:24719846

  9. Ethical principles for project collaboration between academic professionals or institutions and the biomedical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riis P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Povl Riis Age Forum, State Board for Research and Age Policies, Odense, DenmarkAbstract: Ethics in biomedical research cannot be defined by etymology, and need a semantic definition based on national and contemporary values. In a Nordic cultural and historic context, key values are solidarity with one's fellow man, equality, truth, justice, responsibility, freedom, and professionalism. In contemporary medical research, such ethics are further subgrouped into research ethics, researcher ethics, societal ethics, and distributive ethics. Lately, public and academic debates have addressed the necessary strengthening of the ethical concerns and interests of patients and society. Despite considerable progress, common ethical definitions and control systems still lack uniformity or indeed do not exist. Among the cooperative partners involved, the pharmaceutical industry have preserved an important role. The same is true for the overall judgments reflected by the European Forum for Good Clinical Practice, leading peer-reviewed journals, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics for developing nations, and the latest global initiative, the Singapore Statement on Research Integrity. To help both institutions and countries, it will be valuable to include the following information in academia–industry protocols before starting a project: international authorship names; fixed agendas and time schedules for project meetings; chairperson shifts, meeting reports, and project plan changes; future author memberships; equal blinding and data distribution from disciplinary groups; an equal plan for exchange of project manuscripts at the proofing stage; contractual descriptions of all procedures, disagreements, publishing rights, prevention, and controls for suspected dishonesty; and a detailed description of who is doing what in the working process.Keywords: ethics, collaboration, academia, biomedical industry

  10. Improving the Reverse Logistics Respecting Principles of Sustainable Development in an Industrial Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidlerová, Helena; Mĺkva, Miroslava

    2016-06-01

    Reverse logistics, the movement of materials back up the supply chain, is recognised by many organisations as an opportunity for adding value. The paper considers the theoretical framework and the conception of reverse logistics in literature and practice. The objective of the article is to propose tangible solutions which eliminate the imbalances in reverse logistics and improve the waste management in the company. The case study focuses on the improvement in the process of waste packaging in the context of sustainable development as a part of reverse logistics in the surveyed industrial company in Slovakia.

  11. The Working Principle and Use of High Pressures in the Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Karlović, S.; Brnčić, M.; Ježek, D.; Tripalo, B.; Bosiljkov, T.

    2010-01-01

    High pressure in the food industry, as a new non-thermal method, is applied in many phases of food processing. This new non-thermal technology was developed in the 1990s. The main advantages of high-pressure processing are in the short time of processing which is between a few seconds and 30 minutes. Processing of solid or liquid food products with or without packaginghappens in the temperature interval 5 – 90 °C, and pressures 50 – 1000 MPa. The driving pressure is distributed uniformly thro...

  12. Interaction of microtubules with active principles of Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, G S; Kuchroo, K; Dasgupta, D

    2001-01-01

    Indigenous variety of Xanthium strumarium (X. strumarium) was screened for its antimitotic activity using the microtubule-tubulin system isolated from mammalian tissue. A preliminary phytochemical screening of the whole extracts of the plant was carried out followed by partial purification of the whole extract of X.strumarium. The separated fractions obtained were identified and used for in vitro polymerization studies. The whole as well as partially separated chemical constituents of X. strumarium showed effective inhibition of tubulin polymerization. The results thus suggest that X. strumarium may possess antimitotic components.

  13. Applications of neutrons for laboratory and industrial activation analysis problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Elek; Bakos, Laszlo

    1986-01-01

    This chapter presents some particular applications and case studies of neutrons in activation analysis for research and industrial development purposes. The reactor neutrons have been applied in Hungarian laboratories for semiconductor research, for analysis of geological (lunar) samples, and for a special comparator measurement of samples. Some industrial applications of neutron generator and sealed sources for analytical problems are presented. Finally, prompt neutron activation analysis is outlined briefly. (R.P.)

  14. Ozone in the food industry: Principles of ozone treatment, mechanisms of action, and applications: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodowska, Agnieszka Joanna; Nowak, Agnieszka; Śmigielski, Krzysztof

    2017-04-10

    The food contamination issue requires continuous control of food at each step of the production process. High quality and safety of products are equally important factors in the food industry. They may be achieved with several, more or less technologically advanced methodologies. In this work, we review the role, contribution, importance, and impact of ozone as a decontaminating agent used to control and eliminate the presence of microorganisms in food products as well as to extend their shelf-life and remove undesirable odors. Several researchers have been focusing on the ozone's properties and applications, proving that ozone treatment technology can be applied to all types of foods, from fruits, vegetables, spices, meat, and seafood products to beverages. A compilation of those works, presented in this review, can be a useful tool for establishing appropriate ozone treatment conditions, and factors affecting the improved quality and safety of food products. A critical evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of ozone in the context of its application in the food industry is presented as well.

  15. Ethical principles for project collaboration between academic professionals or institutions and the biomedical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Povl

    2012-01-01

    Ethics in biomedical research cannot be defined by etymology, and need a semantic definition based on national and contemporary values. In a Nordic cultural and historic context, key values are solidarity with one's fellow man, equality, truth, justice, responsibility, freedom, and professionalism. In contemporary medical research, such ethics are further subgrouped into research ethics, researcher ethics, societal ethics, and distributive ethics. Lately, public and academic debates have addressed the necessary strengthening of the ethical concerns and interests of patients and society. Despite considerable progress, common ethical definitions and control systems still lack uniformity or indeed do not exist. Among the cooperative partners involved, the pharmaceutical industry have preserved an important role. The same is true for the overall judgments reflected by the European Forum for Good Clinical Practice, leading peer-reviewed journals, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics for developing nations, and the latest global initiative, the Singapore Statement on Research Integrity. To help both institutions and countries, it will be valuable to include the following information in academia-industry protocols before starting a project: international authorship names; fixed agendas and time schedules for project meetings; chairperson shifts, meeting reports, and project plan changes; future author memberships; equal blinding and data distribution from disciplinary groups; an equal plan for exchange of project manuscripts at the proofing stage; contractual descriptions of all procedures, disagreements, publishing rights, prevention, and controls for suspected dishonesty; and a detailed description of who is doing what in the working process.

  16. Smart grid overview and current industry activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dignard-Bailey, L. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Renewable Energy Integration Div.

    2009-07-01

    Electricity demand continues to increase among growing concerns about security, power quality, and grid reliability. This presentation discussed reviewed programs and strategies developed to merge grid applications with existing utility infrastructure in Canada. Smart grid applications include real-time simulation and contingency analysis; distributed generation and alternative energy sources; self-healing wide-area protection and islanding; asset management and on-line equipment monitoring; demand response and dynamic pricing; and participation in energy markets. Distributed automation and advanced metering programs are currently underway in various provinces throughout Canada, and many utilities are exploring methods of improving the integration of renewable energy sources. Canadian utilities are now involved in large data transfers to ensure that rural networks receive spectrum with good propagation. WiFi meshed installations have also been installed throughout the country, and various advanced distribution automation technologies are being implemented. A smart grid working group has been formed to identify technology gaps, and programs have been developed to educate industry leaders on smart grid drivers, technologies, and opportunities. Various pilot and research programs were outlined, legislation related to utility regulation was discussed. tabs., figs.

  17. Outsourcing of Logistics Activities in Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Ogorelc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The external supply of logistics se1vices is part of a trend towardoutsourcing non-core logistics activities. The scope ofthird-party logistics may range from a relatively limited combinationof activities (e.g. transportation and warehousing to acomprehensive set of logistics se1vices.The authors first discuss the characteristics of business logisticsin manufacturing indusfly, to be taken into account inlogistics outsourcing. They particularly point out the motimtionsfor logistics outsourcing, the possibilities of outsourcing,as well as supplier selection. Finally they analyze the outsourcingin the reverse logistics.

  18. In-vivo neutron activation analysis: principles and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress. It seems likely that by the end of this century there will have been significant progress with this research tool, and exciting insights obtained into the nature and dynamics of human body composition

  19. Industrial applications using BASF eco-efficiency analysis: perspectives on green engineering principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonnard, David R; Kicherer, Andreas; Saling, Peter

    2003-12-01

    Life without chemicals would be inconceivable, but the potential risks and impacts to the environment associated with chemical production and chemical products are viewed critically. Eco-efficiency analysis considers the economic and life cycle environmental effects of a product or process, giving these equal weighting. The major elements of the environmental assessment include primary energy use, raw materials utilization, emissions to all media, toxicity, safety risk, and land use. The relevance of each environmental category and also for the economic versus the environmental impacts is evaluated using national emissions and economic data. The eco-efficiency analysis method of BASF is briefly presented, and results from three applications to chemical processes and products are summarized. Through these applications, the eco-efficiency analyses mostly confirm the 12 Principles listed in Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37(5), 94A), with the exception that, in one application, production systems based on bio-based feedstocks were not the most eco-efficient as compared to those based on fossil resources. Over 180 eco-efficiency analyses have been conducted at BASF, and their results have been used to support strategic decision-making, marketing, research and development, and communication with external parties. Eco-efficiency analysis, as one important strategy and success factor in sustainable development, will continue to be a very strong operational tool at BASF.

  20. Workspace Design: A case study applying participatory design principles of healthy workplaces in an industrial setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2010-01-01

    The Danish Workspace Design (WSD) research program is aimed to develop and trial a potential new concept for ergonomists and other workplace consultants who are to engage in socio-technical design processes. The objective of this paper is to report on the trial of the workspace design concept...... in a case involving the design and implementation of a new mixing technology in an industrial plant. The case showed how the WSD concept can contribute to an engineering design process. The WSD team took the role as workspace designer and by the participatory workshops achieved an impact on the technology...... project. In the role as workspace designer it was important for the WSD team to make sure that the achievements in the workshops were “transmitted” to and sustained in the ordinary engineering design process. In this case, it turned out that the artefacts such as a layout game board and documents...

  1. ENSURING THE ERGONOMIC PRINCIPLES OF SAFETY OF MACHINISTS’ ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuskaeva Zalina Ruslanovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of increasing the efficiency of the use of road construction machinery and the creation of the conditions for safe operation of machinists requires a comprehensive assessment of the production environment, taking into account the requirements of ergonomics. the results of scientific research in the field of mechanical engineering do not provide a general solution to the problem in the system “machine operator-machine-environment”, although the works of many scientists and scientists-operatives are devoted to the assessment of road-building machinery. unfortunately, the results of many authors are not still enough to comprehensively assess the working environment of operators. and in terms of construction, which supposes complex production and technical facilities, this problem becomes more acute. the main goal of ergonomics is to provide scientific management of labor, and the main task is the development of a productive, comfortable and effective human activity in the conditions of modern production. as a part of the entire national economy it can provide tangible economic benefits.

  2. Antitumor properties and modulation of antioxidant enzymes' activity by Aloe vera leaf active principles isolated via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shemy, H A; Aboul-Soud, M A M; Nassr-Allah, A A; Aboul-Enein, K M; Kabash, A; Yagi, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer properties and modulatory effect of selected Aloe vera (A. vera) active principles on antioxidant enzyme activities. Thus, three anthraquinones (Namely: aloesin, aloe-emodin and barbaloin) were extracted from A. vera leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and subsequently purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the N-terminal octapeptide derived from verectin, a biologically active 14 kDa glycoprotein present in A. vera, was also tested. In vivo, active principles exhibited significant prolongation of the life span of tumor-transplanted animals in the following order: barbaloin> octapeptide> aloesin > aloe-emodin. A. vera active principles exhibited significant inhibition on Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cell (EACC) number, when compared to positive control group, in the following order: barbaloin> aloe-emodin > octapeptide > aloesin. Moreover, in trypan blue cell viability assay, active principles showed a significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytes leukemia (ALL) cancerous cells. Furthermore, in MTT cell viability test, aloe-emodin was found to be active against two human colon cancer cell lines (i.e. DLD-1 and HT2), with IC(50) values of 8.94 and 10.78 microM, respectively. Treatments of human AML leukemic cells with active principles (100 microg ml(-1)) resulted in varying intensities of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis, in the following order: aloe-emodin> aloesin> barbaloin> octapeptide. Intererstingly, treatment of EACC tumors with active principles resulted in a significant elevation activity of key antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GST, tGPx, and LDH). Our data suggest that the tested A. vera compounds may exert their chemo-preventive effect through modulating antioxidant and detoxification enzyme activity levels, as they are one of the indicators of tumorigenesis. These

  3. Principles of education and training of industrial engineers for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, G.; Meyer, K.; Brune, W.

    1977-01-01

    The report gives a short account of the development and experience of the education and advanced professional training system for engineers for the nuclear power stations of the GDR. The basic education for engineers is carried out at universities and colleges. Graduate engineers who have been working in industrial establishments outside nuclear power stations for a longer time get their basic education in nuclear engineering through postgraduate studies. Graduate engineers with a basic knowledge of nuclear engineering are trained at the Nuclear Power Plant School of the nuclear power station Rheinsberg and at the nuclear power stations of the GDR under practical conditions relating to their future job. In addition to basic theoretical knowledge, training at a nuclear power plant simulator plays an important role. This permits the training of the staff under regular operating conditions including transient processes and under unusual conditions. Further particular modes of advanced professional training such as courses in radiation protection and further postgraduate studies are described. This system of education has proved successful. It will be developed further to meet the growing demands. (author)

  4. EPRI expert system activities for nuclear utility industry application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on expert systems which have reached a level of maturity where they offer considerable benefits for the nuclear utility industry. The ability of expert systems to enhance expertise makes them an important tool for the nuclear utility industry in the areas of engineering, operations and maintenance. Benefits of expert system applications include comprehensive and consistent reasoning, reduction of time required for activities, retention of human expertise and ability to utilize multiple experts knowledge for an activity. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been performing four basic activities to help the nuclear industry take advantage of this expert system technology. The first is the development of expert system building tools which are tailored to nuclear utility industry applications. The second is the development of expert system applications. The third is work in developing a methodology for verification and validation of expert systems. The last is technology transfer activities to help the nuclear utility industry benefit from expert systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe the EPRI activities

  5. The participation of Industry in the ITER engineering design activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, E.

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginning of the ITER Engineering Design Activities in 1992 the participation of industry in the European contribution to the ITER project has increased continuously. A major boost resulted from a framework contract between the European Commission acting through EFDA and the European industry grouping EFET EWIV regarding the industry contribution for the ITER engineering design. The members of EFET include Ansaldo (Italy), Belgatom (Belgium), Fortum (Finland), the AREVA companies Framatome ANP GmbH (Germany) and Framatome ANP SAS (France), IBERTEF (Spain) and NNC (United Kingdom). Together with other special European engineering companies and manufacturers EFET contributed significantly to ITER Engineering Design Activities. In 1996 a list of qualified competitive companies was established which could bid for the manufacturing of prototype components in initially 15, later 17 Technologies considered essential for ITER construction preparation. In total, contracts of about 70 Mio Euro have been awarded to industry during the period 1993 to 2004. In addition to engineering design and prototype manufacturing, industry participated in various assessments of the ITER project and ITER siting investigations. Furthermore, industry has been invited by the European Commission to introduce its proposals for the promotion of the ITER project in Europe and abroad and later for the organization and management of ITER construction. (orig.)

  6. Petroleum industry. 1997 activity report; L`industrie Petroliere. Rapport d`activite 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This activity report from the direction of hydrocarbons of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (ministry of economy, finances and industry) presents an economic analysis of the activities of the French petroleum industry for 1997. After a recall of the missions of the direction of hydrocarbons, the report analyses successively: 1- the evolution of the petroleum market: the international petroleum market in 1997, the hydrocarbon supplies and external trade (natural gas, crude oil, condensates), the French petroleum market (primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, French petroleum consumption, the petroleum logistics in overseas departments and territories), the prices, margins and fiscal policy in France and Europe (crude oil and refined product prices in the international market, retail prices in France and Europe, the French petroleum fiscal policy, statistics of petroleum prices in France and Europe; 2- the petroleum industry activities: exploration and production in France and worldwide, the maritime and domestic transports and the storage (French commercial fleet, domestic transports, storage facilities, strategic stocks), the refining activity and the quality of products and fuel substitutes (refining, automotive fuels quality, bio-fuels), the distribution of petroleum products (automotive and diesel fuels, LPG, aircraft fuels, lubricants); 3- the environmental and safety aspects of refining, transportation (pipelines, tanker-ships) and exploration-production; 4- the economic situation of the companies: petroleum groups, French para-petroleum industry, scientific and technical research. (J.S.)

  7. Principles of the neutron activation analysis and its application on ceramics characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.

    1991-01-01

    The basic principles of the neutron activation analysis, its utilization in a nuclear reactor, the qualities of the technique, and the processes which appears in an analysis are described. Discussion of the method to characterize shards from the determination of the trace elements is also given. (author). 15 refs., 1 tab

  8. Detection of enzyme activity in decontaminated spices of industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, R.; Theobald, R.

    1995-01-01

    A range of decontaminated spices of industrial use have been examinated for their enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, amylase, lipase activity). The genuine enzymes remain fully active in irradiated spices, whereas the microbial load is clearly reduced. In contrast steam treated spices no longer demonstrate enzyme activities. Steam treatment offers e.g. black pepper without lipase activity, which can no longer cause fat deterioration. Low microbial load in combination with clearly detectable enzyme activity in spices is an indication for irradiation, whereas, reduced microbial contamination combined with enzyme inactivation indicate steam treatment of raw material [de

  9. Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

    2009-06-01

    African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date.

  10. The thin layer activation method and its applications in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The thin layer activation (TLA) method is one of the most effective and precise methods for the measurement and monitoring of corrosion (erosion) and wear in industry and is used for on-line remote measurement of wear and corrosion rate of central parts in machines or processing vessels under real operating conditions. This document is a comprehensive manual on TLA method in its applications for monitoring wear and corrosion in industry. It describes the theory and presents case studies on TLA method applications in industry. In addition, in annexes are given tables of nuclear data relating to TLA (decay characteristics, depth distribution of reaction products, activation data for charged-particle nuclear reactions), references from INIS database on TLA and a detailed production of the application of TLA for wear measurement of superhard turning tools

  11. The thin layer activation method and its applications in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The thin layer activation (TLA) method is one of the most effective and precise methods for the measurement and monitoring of corrosion (erosion) and wear in industry and is used for on-line remote measurement of wear and corrosion rate of central parts in machines or processing vessels under real operating conditions. This document is a comprehensive manual on TLA method in its applications for monitoring wear and corrosion in industry. It describes the theory and presents case studies on TLA method applications in industry. In addition, in annexes are given tables of nuclear data relating to TLA (decay characteristics, depth distribution of reaction products, activation data for charged-particle nuclear reactions), references from INIS database on TLA and a detailed production of the application of TLA for wear measurement of superhard turning tools.

  12. Activity report 2006 - INB - Brazilian Nuclear Industries Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document reports the activities of Brazilian Nuclear Industry company during 2006 as follows: uranium isotope enrichment; production of nuclear fuel; mineral resources; finance and administration; planning and sales; quality, safety and environment, communication and social action; economic and financial management

  13. Thin layer activation techniques in research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    The following key application of thin layer activation technique (TLA) are discussed: ion-erosion in fusion tokamaks, bio-engineering technology, automobile industry. Future developments of the techniques, such as fission fragment TLA, multi-layer TLA and recoil implantation are discussed as well. 7 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  14. Principles of adoption of the successful environmental practices used in developed countries into mining industry in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    presence of the audit and monitoring that do not address the local conditions of the mining operations. Based on the above the following concepts were thought of to improve the environmental conditions in mining sector: 1. Was developed the Regional Environmental Management principle based on the local conditions such as physiographic region, local population, and socioeconomic conditions of the area; 2. Devised were criteria for the risk assessment for developing countries. Where the fundamental principals were public health, both near and far from the operation, environmental and biodiversity impact, waste management, long- and short- term rehabilitation plans, compliance with international standards and norms. 3. Developed was the mechanism of the economic motivation to make mining operations "environmentally friendly" that includes defrayal of expenses from both direct and indirect damages. 4. Identified were spheres of possible cooperation between mining companies, government organizations, and the NGOs. These include development of international standards for Good Neighbor Agreement, exchange of environmental information, exchange of successful environmental, health, and safety practices between mining operations from developed and developing countries. The study showed the dire necessity for the mining industry that operates in developing countries to adopt the successful environmental practices used in developed countries. To achieve this goal the Regional Environmental Management principle, the risk assessment criteria, the mechanism of the economic motivation and the principles for international cooperation can play an extremely important role.

  15. Trends in innovation activities in manufacturing industries across development echelons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Khan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This empirical paper explores trends in innovation activities measured by a countries’ total patent application submission intensity relative to its population, and by analyzing U.S. granted patents data for cohorts of developed countries and developing countries. In addition to tabular and graphical analyses, I use a baseline regression model and a variant model thereof to assess the relative influence of a set of aggregate variables on innovation activities in eight manufacturing industries across two cohorts of countries (developed and developing where each cohort contains eight individual countries. Eight industries included in this study are: Chemical, Petroleum, electrical and electronics equipment, machinery, pharmaceutical, plastic, computer, and textile. The cohort of developed countries includes Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Italy, Poland, Switzerland, and the United States. The cohort of developing countries includes Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, and Turkey. Per regression results, ethnic diversity is a statistically significant positive determinant of innovation for all industry aggregate patent count for both high income and developing countries. Also, per capita electricity usage, R&D expenditure as percent of GDP, and percent of population with internet access are three positive factors of innovation irrespective of industrial subsectors and position of a country in the development echelon. Interestingly, impact of ICT-services export is statistically significant and innovation boosting in developing countries in the cohort relative to countries in the cohort of developed countries. It also appears that trade openness served as a stronger stimulant of innovation activities for developing countries’ but not as much for the cohort of developed or high-income countries. This paper attempts to extend the literature on cross-country comparison of innovation activities by using two

  16. Industry 4.0 implies lean manufacturing: Research activities in industry 4.0 function as enablers for lean manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sanders

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lean Manufacturing is widely regarded as a potential methodology to improve productivity and decrease costs in manufacturing organisations. The success of lean manufacturing demands consistent and conscious efforts from the organisation, and has to overcome several hindrances. Industry 4.0 makes a factory smart by applying advanced information and communication systems and future-oriented technologies. This paper analyses the incompletely perceived link between Industry 4.0 and lean manufacturing, and investigates whether Industry 4.0 is capable of implementing lean. Executing Industry 4.0 is a cost-intensive operation, and is met with reluctance from several manufacturers. This research also provides an important insight into manufacturers’ dilemma as to whether they can commit into Industry 4.0, considering the investment required and unperceived benefits. Design/methodology/approach: Lean manufacturing is first defined and different dimensions of lean are presented. Then Industry 4.0 is defined followed by representing its current status in Germany. The barriers for implementation of lean are analysed from the perspective of integration of resources. Literatures associated with Industry 4.0 are studied and suitable solution principles are identified to solve the abovementioned barriers of implementing lean. Findings: It is identified that researches and publications in the field of Industry 4.0 held answers to overcome the barriers of implementation of lean manufacturing. These potential solution principles prove the hypothesis that Industry 4.0 is indeed capable of implementing lean. It uncovers the fact that committing into Industry 4.0 makes a factory lean besides being smart. Originality/value: Individual researches have been done in various technologies allied with Industry 4.0, but the potential to execute lean manufacturing was not completely perceived. This paper bridges the gap between these two realms, and identifies

  17. Applying Standard Industrial Components for Active Magnetic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert-Uwe Koehler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of active magnetic bearing applications, satisfying additional requirements is becoming increasingly more important. As for every technology, moving away from being a niche product and achieving a higher level of maturity, these requirements relate to robustness, reliability, availability, safety, security, traceability, certification, handling, flexibility, reporting, costs, and delivery times. Employing standard industrial components, such as those from flexible modular motion control drive systems, is an approach that allows these requirements to be satisfied while achieving rapid technological innovation. In this article, we discuss technical and non-technical aspects of using standard industrial components in magnetic bearing applications.

  18. Activities of Japan Nuclear Technology Institute Japanese TSO of Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, T.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy is a superior form of energy in that it delivers stable power supplies and counters global warming, and it is important to promote nuclear power generation as the core power sources for a nation. However, the Japanese environment surrounding nuclear energy is changing drastically, following the liberalization of market and recent series of troubles or falsifications shaking public confidence in nuclear energy. In the above mentioned situation, nuclear industries and organizations must fulfill their individual roles, and amass its strength to work toward enhancing industry initiatives for safety activities, securing safe / stable plant operations, restoring public confidence and initiate revitalization of nuclear energy operations. The Japan Nuclear Technology Institute (JANTI) has been established as a new entity for supporting and leading the industry's further progress in March 2005. Members of JANTI are not only utilities but also component manufacturers and constructors. JANTI enhance the technological foundation of nuclear energy based on scientific and rational data, coordinates its use among a wide range of relevant organizations, and helps members enhance their voluntary safety activities. At the same time, it is independent of utilities, and exercises a function of checking industry at the objective, third-party standpoint. As for the activities of JANTI itself, information disclosure and the establishment of a council comprising external members will enhance administration transparency. (author)

  19. Organization and management activities in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.C.; Whitesel, R.N.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of organization and management development activities in the commercial nuclear power industry is to foster high levels of power plant performance and safety through improved human performance. The NRC has been working to develop assessment tools to assay the effects of organizational factors on plant safety. The utility industry has been working on initiatives targeting individual accountability, the improvement of plant performance and the elimination of the items identified through the NRC assessment process. Organization and management activities do not focus on industry organizational charts, but on the personnel processes and dimensions (factors) that affect safety and economic performance. As individual terms these activities are often combined and referred to as organizational factors. As an area of study, organizational factors has become more prominent as the industry emphasis has switched in recent years from hardware issues related to safety and economics, to personnel-related issues. Beyond the obvious safety objectives affected by improved human performance, plant performance improvements, in areas such as capacity factors, can be achieved through improved human performance. For example, it is estimated that as many as half of the unplanned reactor scrams are caused by personnel errors. The integrated effect of these scram-initiating errors is conservatively estimated to be 100 lost capacity days per year. The financial impact of these events is estimated to be $100M per year

  20. Mapping of Affordance and Activity as the Biophilic Design Principle of Blue Lagoon Tourism Area Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptorini Hastuti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bathing and playing in the river is not a new phenomenon for some people. But this experience creates a recreational spirit on the Tepusriver which is now better known as the Blue Lagoon. This area is a term for the settlement that is split a piece of the river in the dusun Ndalem Ngemplak Sleman. Its tributaries are clear and blue, surrounded by some springs with natural bamboo groves and old trees that invite local and around communities for recreation. The local community has anticipated it by responding to the communities’ demands as well as the recreation area. Appear sporadically “warungs” and recreational activities follow-up though not yet grown in conceptual. This paper aims to study the map of affordance and activity of previous research findings and could be used to the biophilic design to afford the health, productivity, and wellbeing in the tourism area. The method is by synthesizing the previous research findings in 2016, some relevant urban design theories, and biophilic design principle. The conclusion is paid attention to two main principles. The first principle is maximizing the utilization of existing natural properties and the existing cultural skills into its development to nourish visitors both physically and psychologically. The second principle is the Government, and Non-Government Organizations (i.e., expertise, academics, universities, investors support, both policy and financially, in many sectors: tourism, environment, and infrastructure.

  1. METHODOLOGY TO EVALUATE THE INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY OF THE MEAT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Bakaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the methods of estimation of innovative activity of the enterprise. Revealed advantages and disadvantages of the proposed techniques in various publications, devoted to the innovative development. Analysis of the works of domestic and foreign authors showed that the existing methods do not provide an adequate assessment of innovative activity of the enterprise. Asked to enter the integral indicator of innovative activity, which is the criterion of the dynamism of innovative activity of the enterprise, as measured by the speed and volume creation, promotion and use of innovations in economic activity of the enterprise. The proposed system of estimation of innovative activity of the enterprise is based on the following indicators: the ratio of personnel development, the growth rate of financial assets directed on conducting innovative activity of the enterprise, the coefficient for mastering new technologies, the growth rate of intellectual property. The assessment matrix integral indicator of innovative activity of the enterprise reflects the relationship of the indicators of innovative potential and innovative activity and includes a group of indicators, which allows the estimation of innovative activity of enterprises in various spheres of business: technological, organizational, marketing. The main advantages of the developed technique of estimation of level of innovative development of the enterprises of the meat industry is: an assessment of the level in dynamics; complex research of a level of innovation development; the possibility of comparison of actual values with the values of the indicators, assessments United experts. A feature of the proposed method is not only able to measure the level of innovation development in General, but diagnosis of individual factors. This allows you to determine which factors-the Torah must be activated to display the meat industry to a higher level of innovation development.

  2. Changes in external conditions and activity in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Tax reductions in the petroleum industry are conductive to increased activity and makes the respective provinces more attractive for investments compared with other regions. Changes in taxation in Great Britain and the Gulf of Mexico, which has been analyzed by ECON, show that reducing taxes on gross income has rendered marginal investments more profitable and that reducing the tax on profits may have advanced investments and cut the costs. The examples also show that it is possible to protect the public tax revenue under taxation rearrangements by essentially limiting the tax reductions to new activities

  3. Basic legal provisions concerning the activities of industrial security personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberstein, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The author confines himself to sabotage and espionage. Necessary counter-measures are determined by the respective type of activities. Sect. 618 of the German Civil Code and Sect. 120 a of the Industrial Code give basic legal provisions for the protection of industrial personnel. The legal position held by owner or occupant forms the legal basis for 'vulnerable point protection'. The owner's rights are assigned to the industrial police and are exercised in correspondence with the service or employment contract set up according to Sect. 611 and the following sections of the German Civil Code. Outside guards work according to the performance contract given int the Sections 675, 611, 631 of the German Civil Code. The security personnel has the common right of self-help: self-defence, civil rights concerning the state of national emergency and self-defence under criminal law, rights derived from ownership and property. The author critically argues views held by Mr. Hoffmann-Riem who thinks that police powers have been assigned to private persons. He definitely answers in the negative to the execution of, or encroachment on, sovereign (police) powers by industrial security personnel. A special legal regulation is not necessary, since private protection in form of professional selfdefence is admissible under the law in force. (HSCH) [de

  4. Evaluation of hazards from industrial activities near nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannoy, A.; Gobert, T.

    1980-01-01

    Among the potential hazards which could arise from industrial activity near nuclear power plants, fires and explosions of dangerous products are of particular concern. Indeed, thermal radiation from an adjacent fire could endanger the resistance of a plant's structures. Likewise, an accident explosion would induce an overpressure wave which could affect buildings' integrity. This paper presents the methodology developed by Electricite de France to evaluate the consequences of accidents affecting: - Industrial facilities: refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants, storage areas, pipelines of gaseous, liquid and liquefied materials. - Transportation routes (roads, railways, inland waterways) used to carry dangerous substances (solid explosives, liquid, gaseous or liquefied hydrocarbons). Probabilistic methods have been developed by analysis of actual accident statistics (e.g. risks induced by transportation routes) and realistic and representative accident scenarios have been set up. Five sequences have been identified: Formation of a fluid jet at a breach. Evaporation and possible formation of a liquid layer. Atmospheric dispersion and drift of a gaseous cloud. Heat radiation from fire. Unconfined explosion of a gaseous cloud. This paper gives an overview of the methods and the main assumptions used to deal with each sequence. Those methods, presently applied by Electricite de France, provide a coherent and realistic approach for the evaluation of the risks at nuclear power plants induced by industrial activity. (orig.)

  5. Innovative Activity in the Industry of Ukraine: Problems, Risks, Activization Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pidorycheva, I.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The general characteristic of a condition of innovative activity of the industrial enterprises in Ukraine and positive tendencies of the last years in this plane are shined. The key problems and demotivating factors of increase of interest of the industry in innovations are analyzed. Risks of preservation of available tendencies in the sphere of innovative and technological development of the industry, which can lead to preservation of outdated structure of national production are defined. Priorities and medium-term measures for overcoming of available restrictions in realization of new model of economic development, at the heart of which — investments into the innovative activity, new industrialization and industrial updating of the country are offered.

  6. Enova's industrial activities with results from 2006; Enovas industriaktiviteter med resultater fra 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    During 2006 Enova has been monitoring the energy consumption of the industries connected with Enova's group for industry. The industries activities, statistical numbers for energy consumption and bench-marketing number are included

  7. Application of thin layer activation method to industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masago; Hatakeyama, Noriko

    1996-01-01

    A thin layer activation method was reviewed for non-destructive, rapid, precise and real-time measurement of wear and corrosion. The review included wear measurement, the principle of the method, actual measurement, application, and laws and regulations. The method is to activate the material surface alone by accelerated ions like p, d and He ions produced by cyclotron, Van de Graaf apparatus or other accelerators and to utilize the yielded radioisotopes as a tracer, is widely used in the tribology field, and is more useful than the previous method with the reactor since it activated the whole material. Application of the method was reportedly resulted in saving the 80% cost and 90% time in the wear measurement of automobile parts such as engine and transmission. Actually, the activated material was combined into the part to be run and the radioactivity was to be measured externally or in the worn particles suitably collected. The activation thickness was generally in the range of 10-200 μm and the resultant radioactivity, 0.2-2 MBq. In most cases in Japan, the method would be under the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes, etc. (K.H.)

  8. U.S. Industry Activities on Inspection of CRDM Penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alley, Tom; Kietzman, Kim; Ammirato, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM) penetrations in U.S. and European plants prompted the U.S. nuclear industry to focus considerable effort on development and implementation of effective inspection methods. In particular, cracking was discovered in butt welds connecting reactor vessel nozzles to main coolant piping and in control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) head penetration base material and attachment welds. The EPRI Materials Reliability Program (EPRI-MRP) formed an Inspection Committee to address development of industry guidance for inspection of these components, development of effective non-destructive examination (NDE) methods, and demonstration of inspection processes. This paper discusses the MRP activities pertaining to inspection of CRDM penetrations. Results of demonstrations and field inspections conducted will also be summarized. (authors)

  9. INNOVATION LEAN PRINCIPLES IN AUTOMOTIVE GREEN MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Sabadka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, industries such as automotive and manufacturing industries deal with a lot of environmental regulations. Lean is a production strategy whose fundamental principles drive the industry towards a more effective production of goods and services. The eco-efficiency concept is primary to sustainable development and intends to provide more value with less environmental impact. The aim of this study is to identify and explore the contributions of Lean to reduce environmental impacts that naturally result from industrial activity.

  10. Thermal activation of an industrial sludge for a possible valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamrani Sanae

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work fits within the framework of sustainable management of sludge generated from wastewater treatment in industrial network. The studied sludge comes from an industry manufacturing sanitary ware products.Physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization was performed to give an identity card to the sludge. We noted the absence of metal pollution.The industrial sludge has been subjected to thermal activation at various temperatures (650°C to 850°C. The pozzolanic activity was evaluated by physico- chemical and mechanical methods [1]. Pozzolanicity measurement was carried out based on Chapelle test and conductivity revealed the existence of pozzolanic properties of the calcined samples. The best pozzolanic reactivity was obtained for the sample calcined at 800°C. We noticed a decrease in the reactivity of the sample calcined at 850°C. In addition, analysis by means of X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that sludge recrystallization begins at a temperature of 850°C. Pozzolanicity index of the thermally treated samples was determined by measuring the mechanical resistance of mortar specimens previously kept in a saturated lime solution for 28 days (ASTM C618 [2]. The best pozzolanic activity index was obtained for the sample calcined at 800°C (109.1%.This work is a contribution to the research for new supplying sources of raw materials and additives in the field of construction. It presents a proposition of a promising solution for the valorization of waste material as an additive instead of being discharged into open air dumps causing a major environmental problem.

  11. Perspective of surface active agents in baking industry: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asif; Arshad, Nazish; Ahmed, Zaheer; Bhatti, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zahoor, Tahir; Anjum, Nomana; Ahmad, Hajra; Afreen, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Different researchers have previously used surfactants for improving bread qualities and revealed that these compounds result in improving the quality of dough and bread by influencing dough strength, tolerance, uniform crumb cell size, and improve slicing characteristics and gas retention. The objective of this review is to highlight the areas where surfactants are most widely used particularly in the bread industries, their role and mechanism of interaction and their contribution to the quality characteristics of the dough and bread. This review reveals some aspects of surface-active agents regarding its role physiochemical properties of dough that in turn affect the bread characteristics by improving its sensory quality and storage stability.

  12. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  13. The future of active and intelligent packaging industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Innovation in food and beverage packaging is mostly driven by consumer needs and demands influenced by changing global trends, such as increased life expectancy, fewer organizations investing in food production and distribution. Food industry has seen great advances in the packaging sector since its inception in the 18th century with most active and intelligent innovations occurring during the past century. These advances have led to improved food quality and safety. Active and intelligent packaging is new and exciting area of technology  which efficient contemporary consumer response. Materials and methods: On the basis of broad review of the current state of the art in world literature, the market active and intelligent packaging is discussed. Results: This paper shows present innovation in the market active and intelligent packaging. Conclusion: Research and development in the field of active and intelligent packaging materials is very dynamic and develops in relation with the search for environment friendly packaging solutions. Besides, active and intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. The future of this type of packaging system seems to be very interesting.

  14. Agrice 2005. bio-resources to industry. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    going beyond classical chemical practices, will involve bio-technologies dedicated to sustainable development. France has an important role to play in this domain. To do so, however, we must durably mobilise our research and industrial capacities. AGRICE has effectively pursued this mission for years. It is essential for our agriculture and our industry that France continue on this path in the future, by endowing AGRICE with means and resources proportionate to the stakes, so that France can perform as a major research platform for industrial bio-technology. The AGRICE 2005 activity report presents: - the AGRICE's Profile, statement, Scope of activity, Structure and operations and Project management, the Treatment of results; - AGRICE's sectors of activity: in energy (Liquid biofuels for vehicles, Non-vehicle biofuels), and in chemicals (Biomolecules, Biomaterials); - the year 2005: Financial statement and applications, Noteworthy achievements, Events, Working groups, Europe-wide activities and joint-undertakings. In appendix: the Financial statement 2005, the Projects initiated in 2005, the Projects completed in 2005, the Financial statement 1994-2005, the Breakdown of aid by sector (1994-2005), the Partners and members of the Group Council and The AGRICE team

  15. Climate change impact on economical and industrial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parey, Sylvie; Bernardara, Pietro; Donat, Markus G.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is underway and even if mitigation measures are successfully implemented, societies will have to adapt to new climatic conditions in the near future and further. This session had been proposed to gather different studies dedicated to the climate change impact on some human activities, and discuss the possible ways of adaptation. Climate change is often presented in terms of global mean temperature evolutions, but what is important for adaptation concerns the local evolutions, and rather of the variability and extremes than of the mean of the involved meteorological parameters. In the session, studies and applications will be presented, covering different economical and industrial activities, such as energy production, (re-) insurance and risk assessment, water management or tourism.

  16. INDUSTRIAL/MILITARY ACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENT SCREENING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Kalinich

    1999-09-27

    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  17. THE INNOVATION ACTIVITY OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN UKRAINE: STATE AND TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Miroshnychenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article includes analytical results of innovation activity of Ukrainian industrial enterprises. The enterprise innovation activity level, the level of innovations implementation into the Ukrainian industry has been researched. The dynamics of new innovation products and new technological products put into service, share of the innovation product sold in industrial output has been analysed. The level of the use of different types of innovation by industrial enterprises (marketing, organizational, process and product innovation has been determined. The main sources of finance for innovation activities have been considered. The dividing of innovation activity costs in industrial sector has been considered. The main problems of innovative development of the Ukrainian industry have been determined. The activity of industrial enterprises in Ukraine is characterized by a low level of innovation activity, an insufficient volume of realized innovative products, a low financing of innovation activity. The suggestions, which shall promote the effectiveness of innovation activity of Ukrainian industrial enterprises, have been put forward.

  18. 2015 Summary Report on Industrial and Regulatory Engagement Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    activities and future plans were made to Arizona Public Service, Exelon, Duke Energy, Pacific Gas & Electric, SCANA, Southern Nuclear, South Texas Project, STARS Alliance, Tennessee Valley Authority, and Xcel. Discussions were also held on the pathway goals and activities with major industry support organizations during FY 2102, including the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), the Nuclear Information Technology Strategic Leadership (NITSL), the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), and the Electric Power Research Institute. The Advanced II&C Pathway work was presented at five major industry conferences and Informal discussions were held with key NRC managers at industry conferences. In addition, discussions were held with NRC senior managers on digital regulatory issues through participation on the NEI Digital I&C Working Group. Meetings were held with major industry suppliers and consultants, to explore opportunities for collaboration and to provide a means of pilot project technology transfer. In the international area, discussions were held with Electricite’ de France (EdF) concerning possible collaboration in the area NPP configuration control using intelligent wireless devices.

  19. 2015 Summary Report on Industrial and Regulatory Engagement Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Kenneth David

    2015-01-01

    activities and future plans were made to Arizona Public Service, Exelon, Duke Energy, Pacific Gas & Electric, SCANA, Southern Nuclear, South Texas Project, STARS Alliance, Tennessee Valley Authority, and Xcel. Discussions were also held on the pathway goals and activities with major industry support organizations during FY 2102, including the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), the Nuclear Information Technology Strategic Leadership (NITSL), the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), and the Electric Power Research Institute. The Advanced II&C Pathway work was presented at five major industry conferences and Informal discussions were held with key NRC managers at industry conferences. In addition, discussions were held with NRC senior managers on digital regulatory issues through participation on the NEI Digital I&C Working Group. Meetings were held with major industry suppliers and consultants, to explore opportunities for collaboration and to provide a means of pilot project technology transfer. In the international area, discussions were held with Electricite de France (EdF) concerning possible collaboration in the area NPP configuration control using intelligent wireless devices.

  20. Antimicrobial effect of Calotropis procera active principles against aquatic microbial pathogens isolated from shrimp and fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanian Velmurugan; Vijayaragavan Thanga Viji; Mariavincent Michael Babu; Mary Josephine Punitha; Thavasimuthu Citarasu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of Calotropis procera (C. procera) active principles against aquatic microbial pathogens isolated from shrimp and fishes. Methods: C. procera leaf powder was serially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and screened by antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity against aquatic pathogens which isolated from shrimp/fish. After initial screening, the active extract was purified through column chromatography and again screened. Finally the active fractions were characterized by phytochemical analysis and GC-MS analysis. Results: In vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral screening revealed that, the ethyl acetate extracts were effectively suppressed the bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Vibrio harveyi (V. harveyi) and Aeromons hydrophila (A. hydrophila) of more than 20 mm zone of inhibition; the fungi Fusarium sp and the killer virus WSSV. The ethyl acetate extracts of C. procera incubated WSSV was failed to multiply its progeny in the in vivo system of shrimp P. monodon. The shrimp had 80% survival after WSSV challenge from the control group significantly (P<0.001) and also PCR detection confirmed that no WSSV transcription found in shrimp haemolymph. After purified the ethyl acetate extracts again antimicrobial screening performed and it concluded that the fraction namely F-II was effectively suppressed the bacterial growth and WSSV due to its enriched active principles such as cardiac glycosides, Phenols, alkaloids, Tannin and quinines. Surprisingly this fraction, F-II was effectively controlled the WSSV at 90% level at a highest significant level (P<0.001). Finally the structural characterization by GC-MS analysis revealed that, the F-II fraction contained Phenols including several other compounds such as 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, Methyl tetradecanoate, Bicyclo[3.1.1] heptane, 2,6,6-trimethyl-, (1α,2β,5α)-and Hexadecanoic acid etc. Conclusions: The present study revealed

  1. Principles of sustainable development of the territory and priorities of architectural and urban construction activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontsov, Dmitry; Yushkova, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    The paper is aimed at detecting conceptual conflicts within the architectural and urban construction activity (AUCA), defining their reasons and substantiating ways to decrease adverse effects they caused. Methods of causes and effects analyses are used, as well as evolutional and comparative analyses. They allow defining the laws to form activity model in modern environment, whose elements are ranked. Relevance of the paper is based on defining scientific and theoretical grounds of necessity to improve methodology of AUCA via its adaption to the imperatives of state management. System analyses enabled to prove practicability of considering factors of institution environment for reorganization of the model of AUCA, which provide the fullest implementation of sustainable development principles. It was proved that territorial planning is not only the leading type of AUCA, but also integrator for functioning structures of state management within planning of social and economic development. As main result of the paper consist in detection of the perspective ways for evolution of modern methodology due to increasing interdisciplinary aspect leading to the qualitative renewal of territorial management principles.

  2. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt

    2001-01-01

    European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments

  3. Principles of the economics and management of the coal industry. Osnovy ekonomiki i upravleniya ugol'nym proizvodstvom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkovoi, V.I.; Kletkin, A.G.; Kryzhko, I.D.; Kutuzov, B.A.; Semenov, B.V.

    1976-01-01

    The role of the coal industry in the economy of the USSR is described: Its economic base, production controls (with problems in certain areas indicated, and prospects for an increase in productivity). The book may be valuable for engineers and technologists in the coal industry. (LTN)

  4. Active learning in practice: Implementation of the principles of active learning in an engineering course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rützou, C.

    2017-01-01

    The most common form of teaching is still the form where a teacher presents the subject of the lecture to a listening audience. During teaching history this has proved to be an effective way of teaching, however the probability of students being inactive is high and the learning outcome may...... through the same curriculum as usual during a term? • Will Active Learning reduce failure rate? • Will Active Learning give a higher learning outcome than traditional teaching? This paper deals with the results of this experiment, answers the mentioned questions and presents a way to implement Active...

  5. Agrice 2004. Activity report - from bio-resources to industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    It has been ten years since AGRICE was founded to support technological research in the field of bio-products. Even if bio-products are indeed a commercial reality, and growing in diversity, they are still marginal in the marketplace. However, the amplification of the greenhouse effect, our increasing energy dependence, the inexorable rise in oil prices, international competition and the emergence of a genuine political awareness are all factors that converge in favour of bio-products, offering a promising future. Of course, the development of bio-products is dependent on a number of conditions: biomass resources, technological advances, mobilisation of actors through dynamic research programmes (conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for alternative fuels or hydrogen, bio-technology applied to chemicals), new agro-industrial supply chains, financial instruments to bridge the cost gap with fossil fuels, a national strategy supported by a public authority dedicated to non-food uses. In the immediate future, the recent decision to open up the biofuels market via implementation of the European biofuels directive (5.75% of the market in 2010) provides an opportunity to lay the groundwork for a veritable industry of plant-based products, opening the way to the bio-refineries of the future. There is considerable potential for the development of bio-products in France. An additional 25 to 30 million tonnes-oil-equivalent (toe) of agricultural and forestry biomass could be processed into energy and industrial bio-products in France. Accordingly we can set our sights on an overall objective of substituting plant feedstocks for petroleum used in fuels and chemicals, on the order of 10% in 2020, and 20 to 30% by 2030-2050. To achieve these goals many technological advances will be necessary, with constant attention to the requirements of sustainable development. In this respect AGRICE is an invaluable tool for guiding, catalysing and supporting research efforts in these fields

  6. Respecting the right to access to medicines: Implications of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights for the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Suerie

    2013-06-14

    What are the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies with regard to access to medicines? The state-based international human rights framework has long struggled with the issue of the human rights obligations of non-state actors, a question sharpened by economic globalization and the concomitant growing power of private for-profit actors ("business"). In 2011, after a six-year development process, the UN Human Rights Council unanimously endorsed the Guiding Principles advanced by the UN Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, John Ruggie. The Ruggie Principles sought to clarify and differentiate the responsibilities of states and non-state actors-in this case, "business" -with respect to human rights. The framework centered on "three core principles: the state duty to protect against human rights abuses by third parties, including business; the corporate responsibility to respect human rights; and the need for more effective access to remedies." The "Protect, Respect, and Remedy" Framework emerged from a review of many industrial sectors operating from local to global scales, in many regions of the world, and involving multiple stakeholder consultations. However, their implications for the pharmaceutical industry regarding access to medicines remain unclear. This article analyzes the 2008 Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines advanced by then-UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health, Paul Hunt, in light of the Ruggie Principles. It concludes that some guidelines relate directly to the industry's responsibility to respect the right to access to medicines, and form a normative baseline to which firms should be held accountable. It also finds that responsibility for other guidelines may better be ascribed to states than to private actors, based on conceptual and practical considerations. While not discouraging the pharmaceutical industry from making additional

  7. Determination of antioxidant activity of spices and their active principles by differential pulse voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Alberto; Ruiz Montoya, Mercedes; Arteaga, Jesús F; Rodríguez Mellado, Jose M

    2014-01-22

    The anodic oxidation of mercury in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to determine the antioxidant (AO) character of radical scavengers. Hydroperoxide radical is formed at the potentials of the oxidation peak on mercury electrodes, such radical reacting with the antioxidants in different extension. The parameter C10 (antioxidant concentration at which the peak area decreases by 10%) is used to measure the scavenging activity of the individual antioxidants. To establish the scavenging activity of antioxidant mixtures as a whole, the parameter, μ10 as the reverse of V10, V10 being the volume necessary to decrease the peak area in DPV by 10%, was selected. Higher μ10 values correspond to higher scavenging activity. The studies have been extended to aqueous extracts of some species. The results may be useful in explaining the effect of spices in vitro and in vivo studies.

  8. Main Principles of the Organization of Decommissioning Activities for Legacy Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikheykin, S.V., E-mail: Mikheykin@rosrao.ru [Department of Techniques for Remediation, Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' RosRAO' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    As a result of more than 60 years development of nuclear industry in the former Soviet Union and in the Russian Federation there has accumulated a number of unresolved problems associated with contamination of facilities and environment during the early stages of research and industrial activities. Prior to the year 2000 most of the problems were solved slowly; the main decisions were postponed for the future. During that time were done the local works for the rehabilitation of contaminated sites. The Federal Target Programme ''Nuclear and Radiation Safety for 2008 and for the period to 2015'' was adopted in 2008. Analysis of accumulated experience as result of previous work on decontamination to develop new project management system for the rehabilitation of the nuclear legacy is needed. This CRP contribution is aimed at solving the tasks of the rehabilitation of the nuclear legacy. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Extracts and Active Principles of Commonly Consumed Indian Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kartick; Jana, Samarjit; Mandal, Deba Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Shamee

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that free radical reactions play a key part in the development of degenerative diseases and that an antioxidant-rich diet is a major defense against these free radical reactions. In this study, we explore comparative antioxidant capacities of extracts of some commonly used in Indian spices (anise, cardamom, Ceylon cinnamon, and clove) along with their purified components (anethole, eucalyptol, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol, respectively). Eugenol shows the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide scavenging and reducing power activity in terms of weight; however, this was not found when compared in terms of equivalence. Extracts of the other three spices were found to be more potent antioxidants than their corresponding active components. Interestingly, clove extract, despite possessing the highest phenol and flavonoid content, is not the most potent radical scavenger. At low concentrations, both the crude extracts and their purified components (except for anethole and eugenol) have low hemolytic activity, but at higher concentrations purified components are more toxic than their respective crude extract. This study suggests that spices as a whole are more potent antioxidants than their purified active components, perhaps reflecting the synergism among different phytochemicals present in spice extracts.

  10. A survey of activity-based costing in hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadollah Fathi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on implementation of activity based cost (ABC method in hotel industry. The study determines four possible factors of organizational, environmental, individual and technological, which could influence on ABC implementation. The study selects a sample of 205 employees who worked for Laleh International Hotel in Iran. Using one-way t-student test, the study has determined that all variables were effective on ABC implementation while individual factor was the most important one. In addition, correlation test has determined that all variables had meaningful correlations with each other. Further investigation indicates that gender did not play essential role for ABC implementation while experienced employee tended to be more effective for the success of ABC implementation.

  11. THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ GROUP PROJECT ACTIVITY WHILE LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Kalamazh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research the theoretical principles of psychological analysis of group project activity of students in the process of learning foreign language are defined on the basis of subject-activity, socio-psychological and cognitive paradigms. The approaches of different authors to the understanding of the concept of project and in particular group project activity are considered. The difficulties of the theoretical analysis of this specific notion are indicated due to the considerable variety of subjects, types and forms of the pedagogical activity, academic disciplines regarding which the researches are being carried out. Not disclosed aspects of organizing the group project activity of students are being determined, among them is a project group as an autonomous subject of joint activity for the realization students’ project activity while learning a foreign language; forming psychological readiness of teacher and student to use project method; the role of metacognitive aspect in the surrounding, where the project activity is being carried out; group functioning through the project work as a subject of group examination. It has been indicated that the analysis of project activity as an innovative technology must include its assessment as a condition of student’s developing as a subject of learning activity, his personal, socio-psychological, intellectual and professional self-perfection. Three levels of subjectivity in group project activity are being distinguished: teacher; each particular student; and student project group. Interaction between teacher and student is based on subject-subject relations. An organization of a project activity while learning a foreign language is considered as the one in which the student is moving in order to get the manager position and to master the basis of expert knowledge. Hereby, the main stress is on the group role as a subject of group examination, and also on metacognitive character of the

  12. IAEA Activities in Nuclear High Temperature Heat for Industrial Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    IAEA activities to support Member States: Information Exchange; Modelling and Simulations; Development of Methodologies; Safety; Technology Support; Education and Training; Knowledge Preservation. Assist MSs with national nuclear programmes; Support innovations in nuclear power deployment; Facilitate and assist international R&D collaborations. Interest in HTGR technology • The IAEA activities in the area of HTGR are guided by the recommendations of the TWG-GCRs – Currently 14 members: China, France, Germany, Indonesia, Japan, Korea (Rep. of), Netherlands, Russian Federation, South Africa, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America – 3 International Organizations: OECD/NEA, European Commission, Gen-IV Forum. – 2 new members in 2017: Poland and Singapore. Meetings • Meet every 24 months • Next meeting: 30 October – 1 November 2017 • Other Member states with some activities on HTGRs – Kazakhstan – history of close cooperation with Japan – Saudi Arabia – feasibility study for HTGRs to provide heat for the petro-chemical industry – Canada – three HTR designs under consideration in the nuclear regulator pre-licensing vendor design reviews

  13. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  14. Importance of industrial classification of economic activities for teaching merchandising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Presová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Business subjects in any national economy perform activities results of which are products, services or goods directly distributed to the market network. Volume of products differs according to the level of operational facilities, number of producers and the level of their facilities. Based on the development of information technology, there arise new specialization fields and new ranges of goods. Classification criteria are developed to qualify level of production and for enlistment of a firm to a particular branch. Currently the criteria of production classification are being developed. The understanding of these principles is particularly important on the bachelor level of the specialization Trade Management, where students are getting acquainted with the characteristics of goods, creative and degradation influences on utility, etc. Students are encouraged to understand how the quality and criteria mentioned above influence market prices. Teaching emphasis is put on the complexity of food assortment and the knowledge of Czech and EU legalislation relating to hygienic aspects and health quality of production, processing, and selling of food products. This complex procedure enables to obtain an overall survey of the origin of particular products, their catering, and sales. This means that the students obtain an idea about the complexity of relations existing among the origin of products, their sales and their consumption.

  15. Redistribution Principle Approach for Evaluation of Seismic Active Earth Pressure Behind Retaining Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskar, A. D.; Madhekar, S. N.; Phatak, D. R.

    2017-11-01

    The knowledge of seismic active earth pressure behind the rigid retaining wall is very essential in the design of retaining wall in earthquake prone regions. Commonly used Mononobe-Okabe (MO) method considers pseudo-static approach. Recently there are many pseudo-dynamic methods used to evaluate the seismic earth pressure. However, available pseudo-static and pseudo-dynamic methods do not incorporate the effect of wall movement on the earth pressure distribution. Dubrova (Interaction between soils and structures, Rechnoi Transport, Moscow, 1963) was the first, who considered such effect and till date, it is used for cohesionless soil, without considering the effect of seismicity. In this paper, Dubrova's model based on redistribution principle, considering the seismic effect has been developed. It is further used to compute the distribution of seismic active earth pressure, in a more realistic manner, by considering the effect of wall movement on the earth pressure, as it is displacement based method. The effects of a wide range of parameters like soil friction angle (ϕ), wall friction angle (δ), horizontal and vertical seismic acceleration coefficients (kh and kv); on seismic active earth pressure (Kae) have been studied. Results are presented for comparison of pseudo-static and pseudo-dynamic methods, to highlight the realistic, non-linearity of seismic active earth pressure distribution. The current study results in the variation of Kae with kh in the same manner as that of MO method and Choudhury and Nimbalkar (Geotech Geol Eng 24(5):1103-1113, 2006) study. To increase in ϕ, there is a reduction in static as well as seismic earth pressure. Also, by keeping constant ϕ value, as kh increases from 0 to 0.3, earth pressure increases; whereas as δ increases, active earth pressure decreases. The seismic active earth pressure coefficient (Kae) obtained from the present study is approximately same as that obtained by previous researchers. Though seismic earth

  16. Teollisuuden Voima Oy - Industrial Power Company Ltd. Local information activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engros, Taina

    1989-01-01

    There are two nuclear power producers in Finland - the state-owned power company Imatran Voima Oy which operates two 440 MW Soviet-made PWR units in southern Finland, east of Helsinki and the Teollisuuden Voima Oy - Industrial Power Company Ltd, or TVO, owned by Finnish industrial companies. TVO operates two 710 MW ABB ATOM BWR units producing about one fifth of the country's electricity consumption. Operating experiences are extremely good from all Finnish nuclear power plants. The Finns' attitude towards nuclear power has changed into a positive direction in recent times. This can probably be noted as an international trend now that the Chernobyl accident is becoming an incident of the past. The Finnish citizens and politicians are facing two questions; first, what is their attitude towards nuclear power as a source of energy, in other words, do they approve of the plants currently in operation. The second question is how they stand on the building of new plants. It is probably another universal phenomenon that the attitudes of people living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants are less critical than the attitudes of those living farther away. This does not, by any means, result in local information activity being easier or less important than nationwide information activity. On the contrary, local decision-makers, local media and inhabitants are those who can, and through whom we can, influence also wider circles. The Nuclear Energy Act, which became effective in Finland last year, defines that the final decision on whether nuclear power plants can be built inside a municipality, is made at local level. As far as TVO is concerned one factor making local information activity easier is the small size of the locality. The difficulty TVO has to face is the people's suspicion of information activity. All information is considered propaganda, regardless of its form, and only negative news are considered information. Also, a large proportion of people are passive

  17. Teollisuuden Voima Oy - Industrial Power Company Ltd. Local information activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engros, Taina [Department of Information, TVO, Olkiluoto FIN-27160 (Finland)

    1989-07-01

    There are two nuclear power producers in Finland - the state-owned power company Imatran Voima Oy which operates two 440 MW Soviet-made PWR units in southern Finland, east of Helsinki and the Teollisuuden Voima Oy - Industrial Power Company Ltd, or TVO, owned by Finnish industrial companies. TVO operates two 710 MW ABB ATOM BWR units producing about one fifth of the country's electricity consumption. Operating experiences are extremely good from all Finnish nuclear power plants. The Finns' attitude towards nuclear power has changed into a positive direction in recent times. This can probably be noted as an international trend now that the Chernobyl accident is becoming an incident of the past. The Finnish citizens and politicians are facing two questions; first, what is their attitude towards nuclear power as a source of energy, in other words, do they approve of the plants currently in operation. The second question is how they stand on the building of new plants. It is probably another universal phenomenon that the attitudes of people living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants are less critical than the attitudes of those living farther away. This does not, by any means, result in local information activity being easier or less important than nationwide information activity. On the contrary, local decision-makers, local media and inhabitants are those who can, and through whom we can, influence also wider circles. The Nuclear Energy Act, which became effective in Finland last year, defines that the final decision on whether nuclear power plants can be built inside a municipality, is made at local level. As far as TVO is concerned one factor making local information activity easier is the small size of the locality. The difficulty TVO has to face is the people's suspicion of information activity. All information is considered propaganda, regardless of its form, and only negative news are considered information. Also, a large proportion of people are passive

  18. Neutron activation analysis of the MIBI, MAG-3 and sodium fitate active principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Perez Sayaz, G.; Moreno Bermudez, J.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Molina Insfran, J.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) both instrumental (INAA) and radiochemical (RNAA) are extensively applied for determination of minor and trace elements in samples of quite different origin and composition. Particularly, the application of INAA is well recognized for analysis of microquantitis of heavy metals as well as toxic elements in biological samples. In this work the possibility of the determination of MIBI, MAG-3 and sodium fitate elemental composition by INAA was investigated Analytical information about the concentration and/or detection limits of some toxic elements (Hg, Cd, As, Se, Sb) and other trace elements of interest (Fe, Cr, Co, Zn, Br) was obtained. The samples were irradiated in the CAb Ra-6 nuclear research reactor

  19. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

    2001-07-01

    . In this respect there is a European and International mechanism of handling safety- and risk-related matters. So, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) core objective on risk management is to support Member countries' efforts to develop national policies and actions, and, where appropriate, to develop and implement international risk management measures. In support of this objective, the OECD Risk Management Programme focuses on two areas: (1) developing methods and technical tools that can be used by OECD and Member countries to enhance their current risk management programmes; and (2) identifying specific chemical exposures of concern in Member countries and evaluating possible risk management opportunities. The current paper highlights the EU legislation on major accident hazards related to the chemical industry, differences in the national approaches to risk analyses in the process industry and European-scale activity in improving the understanding of the sources of uncertainty in risk assessments.

  20. In vitro antituberculous activity of thymoquinone, an active principle of nigella sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randhawa, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa seed has been used in folk medicine against many ailments including infections. The present study was aimed to investigate activity of thymoquinone, in vitro, against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: Mycobacteria obtained from patients of King Fahd Hospital of University, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia were subcultured at 37 degree C in MGIT tubes containing Middle brook broth and OADC growth supplement and growth detected by BACTEC Micro MGIT fluoro meter on day 10. Mycobacteria were then inoculated in MGIT tubes containing thymoquinone 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 micro g/ml, streptomycin 1.25 micro g/ml or controls in Middle brook broth plus supplement, incubated at 37 degree C for 14 days and read daily for fluorescence. In addition, isolates were inoculated in culture tubes containing Middle brook agar (plus supplement) in presence of thymoquinone 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 micro g/ml, streptomycin 1.25 micro g/ml or controls, and incubated at 37 degree C for 4 weeks. Results: In Middle brook broth, fluorescence test for tuberculosis was negative with thymoquinone 20, 40 and 80 micro g/ml and streptomycin 1.25 micro g/ml up to day 14. With controls, thymoquinone 2.5, 5 and 10 micro g/ml fluorescence was detectable from day 10 to 14. In Middle brook agar, there was no visible growth of tubercle bacillus with thymoquinone 20, 40 and 80 micro g/ml and streptomycin 1.25 micro g/ml, however, with controls, thymoquinone 2.5 and 5 micro g/ml abundant and with 10 micro g/ml few colonies were observed. Conclusions: Thymoquinone possesses activity against M. tuberculosis with MIC of 20 micro g/ml and has potential for further investigation. Our study confirms the benefit of N. sativa in native medicine against chest infection. (author)

  1. Topics on Education Activities in Japanese Nuclear Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Haruko

    2008-01-01

    The progression of an aging society with fewer children or a foreseeable decrease in population has caused the nuclear power plants under planning canceled or delayed. As a result, the number of students graduating with a nuclear degree began to decrease, while the development of the next generation light water reactor or of the practical use of the fast breeder reactor requires many skilled engineers. Atomic Energy Commission of Japan realized this potential impact of human resources. The Commission submitted the Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy including this issue to the government. The report says that without future talent development, Japan will lose its competitiveness against other industrialized countries, and that without replenishment after a large number of baby boomers retire, the shortage of specialists in the radiation field will occur. In conjunction with the Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry carried out the Nuclear Power Human Resources Development Program in 2007 fiscal year. The program focused on i) Support of educational activities, such as basic nuclear education and research, internship, and preparation of core curriculums and texts for nuclear power, ii) Implementation of research in the basic and infrastructure technology fields supporting the nuclear power (ex. structural strength, material strength, welding, erosion/corrosion, heat transfer, radiation safety). This program will continue till the end of 2009 fiscal year. Besides in order to promote nuclear power acceptance and to secure diversity, effective measures should be taken to support young, women, and foreign researchers and to promote their utilization. Mitsubishi accepts overseas students and researchers as an internship every year, and accelerates the safety architecture in the world. (author)

  2. Topics on Education Activities in Japanese Nuclear Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroiwa, Haruko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, LTD - MHI, 2-16-5 Kona Minato-K 108-8215 Tokyo (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    The progression of an aging society with fewer children or a foreseeable decrease in population has caused the nuclear power plants under planning canceled or delayed. As a result, the number of students graduating with a nuclear degree began to decrease, while the development of the next generation light water reactor or of the practical use of the fast breeder reactor requires many skilled engineers. Atomic Energy Commission of Japan realized this potential impact of human resources. The Commission submitted the Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy including this issue to the government. The report says that without future talent development, Japan will lose its competitiveness against other industrialized countries, and that without replenishment after a large number of baby boomers retire, the shortage of specialists in the radiation field will occur. In conjunction with the Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry carried out the Nuclear Power Human Resources Development Program in 2007 fiscal year. The program focused on i) Support of educational activities, such as basic nuclear education and research, internship, and preparation of core curriculums and texts for nuclear power, ii) Implementation of research in the basic and infrastructure technology fields supporting the nuclear power (ex. structural strength, material strength, welding, erosion/corrosion, heat transfer, radiation safety). This program will continue till the end of 2009 fiscal year. Besides in order to promote nuclear power acceptance and to secure diversity, effective measures should be taken to support young, women, and foreign researchers and to promote their utilization. Mitsubishi accepts overseas students and researchers as an internship every year, and accelerates the safety architecture in the world. (author)

  3. Using Mathematical Model in Audit of Compliance with the Principle of Continuity of Company Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article’s objective is to study and systematize the existing methods to assess the risk of termination of company activities, and to develop a methodology for applications of factor models in assessment of this risk. Criteria to be met by the method selected for audit are highlighted. The extensive review of the most widespread methods for predicting the financial performance at company level is made: computation of current ratio, computation of acid text ratio, Beaver model, two-factor model of Altman, five-factor model of Altman, Springate model. The study aimed at further development and adaptation of the existing mathematical models for audit of compliance with the principle of continuity of company activities is made. The review of the above mentioned methods and analysis of their applications in the procedures involved in assessing the risk of inadequate use of the assumption on the continuity of company activities in preparing financial reports by company managers allows for the conclusion that the best way to obtain auditor evidence based on mathematical coefficients reflecting the declining economic performance of a company is to apply the methods for computation of current ratio and acid text ratio, and Springate model.

  4. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM.

  5. Safety and Health Perceptions in Work-related Transport Activities in Ghanaian Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Atombo

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: OSH culture is not fully complied in industries transport activities. This study, therefore, supports the use of safety seminars and training sessions for industry workers responsible for transport operations for better integration of safety standards.

  6. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  7. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  8. Antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa and its potency to prevent bacterial biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrouf Amina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymoquinone is an active principle of Nigella sativa seed known as "Habbah Al-Sauda" in Arabic countries and "Sinouj" in Tunisia. Bacterial biofilms tend to exhibit significant tolerance to antimicrobials drugs during infections. Methods The antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone (TQ and its biofilm inhibition potencies were investigated on 11 human pathogenic bacteria. The growth and development of the biofilm were assessed using the crystal violet (CV and the 2, 3-bis [2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT reduction assay. Results TQ exhibited a significant bactericidal activity against the majority of the tested bacteria (MICs values ranged from 8 to 32 μg/ml especially Gram positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510. Crystal violet assay demonstrated that the minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (BIC50 was reached with 22 and 60 μg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510 respectively. In addition our data revealed that cells oxidative activity was influenced by TQ supplementation. In the same way, TQ prevented cell adhesion to glass slides surface. Conclusion The ability of TQ to prevent biofilm formation warrants further investigation to explore its use as bioactive substances with antibiofilm potential.

  9. Public relations activities of the power industry tailored to target groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.; Coninx, C.

    1984-03-01

    It is only by communications that the electricity industry can make transparent the necessary energy-political and energy-economic decisions to the public. In this case, not only scientific and technical principles but also economic and ecological as well as social aspects should be made clear.

  10. Principles and methods of ecological information science in the solution of ecological problems of the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Kokoreva, L.V.; Reznichenko, V.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The accident at Chernobyl' Atomic Power Plant has drawn attention to the ecological aspects of the development of the nuclear power industry. It has become clear that the stage of discussions of the importance of ecological problems and of the advisability of studying them further has passed. We now face the stage of carrying out specific tasks: the creation of regional and global monitoring systems; the collection and analysis of data on the effect of nuclear power on nature and humans; modeling and optimization of the strategy for developing the power industry with consideration for ecological aspects; ecological factoring in scientific and technical decisions related to atomic power plant design and siting; and so forth. Three main areas of application of ecological information science can be identified in the nuclear power industry: the creation of global data banks on the safety and reliability of enterprises involved in the nuclear fuel cycle; the development of standard tools for processing and analysis of ecological data; and the creation of tools to support decisions in the field of ecology. The authors' experience in working with information systems and various groups of untrained users (biologists, medical workers, ecologists, etc.) makes possible the conclusion that the most important requirement is a convenient interface that does not require a great deal of effort to master. In the systems discussed here, the authors used structured query languages and menus

  11. An examination of expert systems activities within the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.; Washio, Takashi.

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of a detailed evaluation that the authors recently completed on expert systems applications within the nuclear industry. That evaluation examined the motivation for utilizing expert systems, identified the areas to which they were being applied, and provided an assessment of their utility. Listed here are some of the salient findings of that report. (1) Utilities are developing their own artificial intelligence tools rather than using commercial products. (2) Few expert systems are being developed for the express purpose of capturing human expertise. (3) A number of successful expert systems have been developed to assist in plant design, management, and maintenance scheduling. (4) Interactive diagnostic systems are being developed for the analysis of physical processes that vary slowly. (5) Real-time diagnostic expert systems are currently at the cutting edge of the technology. (6) Operator adviser and emergency response expert systems constitute ∼25% of the total. (7) Research on the use of expert systems for reactor control is quite active. (8) Too few quantitative evaluations of the benefits of expert systems to reactor operators have been performed. The operator's need is for timely, factual information on plant status. Hence, the true challenge to expert systems is real-time diagnostics

  12. Limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (LOTES-2017): Engineering principles, regulatory statutes, and industry standards for wellness, over-the-counter, or prescription devices with low risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikson, Marom; Paneri, Bhaskar; Mourdoukoutas, Andoni; Esmaeilpour, Zeinab; Badran, Bashar W; Azzam, Robin; Adair, Devin; Datta, Abhishek; Fang, Xiao Hui; Wingeier, Brett; Chao, Daniel; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Lee, Kiwon; Knotkova, Helena; Woods, Adam J; Hagedorn, David; Jeffery, Doug; Giordano, James; Tyler, William J

    regard to output performance and standing regulation, the availability of tDCS, tACS, or tPCS to the public would not introduce risk, provided such devices are responsibly manufactured and legally marketed. In Part 3, we develop voluntary manufacturer guidance for limited output tES that is aligned with current regulatory standards. Based on established medical engineering and scientific principles, we outline a robust and transparent technical framework for ensuring limited output tES devices are designed to minimize risks, while also supporting access and innovation. Alongside applicable medical and government activities, this voluntary industry standard (LOTES-2017) further serves an important role in supporting informed decisions by the public. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental Defense Fund Oil and Gas Methane Studies: Principles for Collaborating with Industry Partners while Maintaining Scientific Objectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, S.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) launched a series of 16 research studies in 2012 to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas (O&G) supply chain. In addition to EDF's funding from philanthropic individuals and foundations and in-kind contributions from universities, over forty O&G companies contributed money to the studies. For a subset of studies that required partner companies to provide site access to measure their equipment, five common principles were followed to assure that research was objective and scientifically rigorous. First, academic scientists were selected as principal investigators (PIs) to lead the studies. In line with EDF's policy of not accepting money from corporate partners, O&G companies provided funding directly to academic PIs. Technical work groups and steering committees consisting of EDF and O&G partner staff advised the PIs in the planning and implementation of research, but PIs had the final authority in scientific decisions including publication content. Second, scientific advisory panels of independent experts advised the PIs in the study design, data analysis, and interpretation. Third, studies employed multiple methodologies when possible, including top-down and bottom-up measurements. This helped overcome the limitations of individual approaches to decrease the uncertainty of emission estimates and minimize concerns with data being "cherry-picked". Fourth, studies were published in peer-reviewed journals to undergo an additional round of independent review. Fifth, transparency of data was paramount. Study data were released after publication, although operator and site names of individual data points were anonymized to ensure transparency and allow independent analysis. Following these principles allowed an environmental organization, O&G companies, and academic scientists to collaborate in scientific research while minimizing conflicts of interest. This approach can serve as a model for a scientifically rigorous

  14. Active Learning for Creating Innovators: Employability Skills beyond Industrial Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology initiated a project entitled "Improving Higher Education for Industrial Needs" in which 147 universities have participated. One of the main purposes of this project is to identify what industrial needs and help develop university students' employability…

  15. Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor for proton radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, Joao; Depauw, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) in producing proton radiographic images using the proton beam at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). A CMOS APS, previously tested for use in s-ray radiation therapy applications, was used for proton beam radiographic imaging at the MGH. Two different setups were used as a proof of principle that CMOS can be used as proton imaging device: (i) a pen with two metal screws to assess spatial resolution of the CMOS and (ii) a phantom with lung tissue, bone tissue, and water to assess tissue contrast of the CMOS. The sensor was then traversed by a double scattered monoenergetic proton beam at 117 MeV, and the energy deposition inside the detector was recorded to assess its energy response. Conventional x-ray images with similar setup at voltages of 70 kVp and proton images using commercial Gafchromic EBT 2 and Kodak X-Omat V films were also taken for comparison purposes. Images were successfully acquired and compared to x-ray kVp and proton EBT2/X-Omat film images. The spatial resolution of the CMOS detector image is subjectively comparable to the EBT2 and Kodak X-Omat V film images obtained at the same object-detector distance. X-rays have apparent higher spatial resolution than the CMOS. However, further studies with different commercial films using proton beam irradiation demonstrate that the distance of the detector to the object is important to the amount of proton scatter contributing to the proton image. Proton images obtained with films at different distances from the source indicate that proton scatter significantly affects the CMOS image quality. Proton radiographic images were successfully acquired at MGH using a CMOS active pixel sensor detector. The CMOS demonstrated spatial resolution subjectively comparable to films at the same object-detector distance. Further work will be done in order to establish the spatial and energy resolution of the CMOS detector for protons. The

  16. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  17. Comparative studies of utilization of industrial electron accelerators and adsorption with activated carbon for industrial effluent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Rela, Paulo R.; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Las Casas, Alexandre; Mori, Manoel Nunes; Omi, Nelson M.

    2005-01-01

    A technical and economical feasibility study was performed comparing the use electron beam and activated charcoal for treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study was used synthetic solutions, prepared in laboratory with organic compounds standards, where the composition was focused on the critical organic contaminants usually presented in wastewater from petrochemical industry. For the sample irradiation was used an industrial electron beam from Radiation Dynamics Inc. 1.5 MeV - 37.5 kW setup in IPEN. The doses ranged from 5 kGy to 100 kGy. A common granulated activated charcoal in a fixed-bed absorber glass column was used to study the pollutants absorption performance. The results show that if the adequate irradiation dose was delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is, in aspect of organic removal efficiency, similar to the activated carbon process. (author)

  18. Overview of non-pharmacological intervention for dementia and principles of brain-activating rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Maki, Yohko; Yamagami, Tetsuya

    2010-12-01

    Non-pharmacological interventions for dementia are likely to have an important role in delaying disease progression and functional decline. Research into non-pharmacological interventions has focused on the differentiation of each approach and a comparison of their effects. However, Cochrane Reviews on non-pharmacological interventions have noted the paucity of evidence regarding the effects of these interventions. The essence of non-pharmacological intervention is dependent of the patients, families, and therapists involved, with each situation inevitably being different. To obtain good results with non-pharmacological therapy, the core is not 'what' approach is taken but 'how' the therapists communicate with their patients. Here, we propose a new type of rehabilitation for dementia, namely brain-activating rehabilitation, that consists of five principles: (i) enjoyable and comfortable activities in an accepting atmosphere; (ii) activities associated with empathetic two-way communication between the therapist and patient, as well as between patients; (iii) therapists should praise patients to enhance motivation; (iv) therapists should try to offer each patient some social role that takes advantage of his/her remaining abilities; and (v) the activities should be based on errorless learning to ensure a pleasant atmosphere and to maintain a patient's dignity. The behavioral and cognitive status is not necessarily a reflection of pathological lesions in the brain; there is cognitive reserve for improvement. The aim of brain-activating rehabilitation is to enhance patients' motivation and maximize the use of their remaining function, recruiting a compensatory network, and preventing the disuse of brain function. The primary expected effect is that patients recover a desire for life, as well as their self-respect. Enhanced motivation can lead to improvements in cognitive function. Amelioration of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and improvements in

  19. Principle of neutron activation analysis and its use for determination of trace elements in sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Neutron Activation analysis (NAA) is a multi element analysis technique, often non-destructive in nature where approximately 75 elements can be measured with the detection limits ranging from 10 -6 to 10 -12 g of element in a sample. Typical sample sizes range from 1 mg to 1 g, however in principle much larger samples can be activated and the size is only limited by the capacity of the neutron irradiation facility. In NAA, a sample (solid or liquid or gas) is exposed to neutrons and radiations emitted by the radioactive products, formed during the nuclear reaction, are measured using a suitable detector. The energy of the emitted radiation is a characteristic of a radioisotope whereas the intensity of the emitted radiation is proportional to the mass of the analyte. NAA can be carried out by measurement of (i) prompt gamma rays emitted by compound nucleus, called prompt gamma ray NAA (PGNAA) and (ii) β rays emitted from radioactive product or delayed gamma rays emitted subsequent to β decay, called conventional NAA or simply NAA. PGNAA is an online measurement method. PGNAA is complementary to conventional NAA in terms of analyzing low Z elements. Conventional NAA is an offline method and is easy to perform. Depending upon the nature of matrix and analyte to be determined, three approaches are possible in NAA namely, (i) instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), (ii) radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA), and (iii) chemical neutron activation analysis (CNAA). Quantification is accomplished by any of the three standardisation methodologies namely (i) absolute method (ii) relative method and (iii) single comparator method. The relative method is most precise and simple to perform. Natural processes responsible for the formation of bottom sediments can be altered by anthropogenic activities. Bottom sediments are a sink as well as a source of contaminants in the aquatic environment. Analysis of-sediments provides environmentally significant

  20. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters.

  1. 77 FR 37704 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Industrial Minerals Surveys (40...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Activities: Comment Request for the Industrial Minerals Surveys (40 Forms) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey... the revision of the currently approved paperwork requirements for the Industrial Minerals Surveys... industrial mineral commodities, some of which are considered strategic and critical. This information will be...

  2. 77 FR 6580 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Industrial Minerals Surveys (40...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Industrial Minerals Surveys (40 Forms) AGENCY: U.S. Geological... forms to supply the USGS with domestic production and consumption data of industrial mineral commodities... Minerals Yearbook, monthly Mineral Industry Surveys, annual Mineral Commodity Summaries, and special...

  3. Enova's industrial activities 2010; Enovas industriaktiviteter 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    Enova's ambition is that Norwegian industry will be the world's most energy efficient, and that all manufacturing firms by 2015 should have a clear and obvious targets for energy use. Through our industry network, we see that several business units are on track towards achieving this goal, but still there are great opportunities to improve competitiveness through better energy efficiency. (AG)

  4. Ukraine and the Council of Europe common activity in implementation of key principles of participatory democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaliuk Nazar Yuriyovych

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the main forms of mutual cooperation of Ukraine and the Council of Europe in order to implement basic principles of participatory democracy, to conform the legislation of Ukraine to standards of the European Union. The article examines the main legal documents, phases, and the main areas of cooperation between Ukraine and the Council of Europe. The author also assesses the processes of implementation of key principles of participatory democracy in Ukraine.

  5. Safety of spanish nuclear park. Analysis of the fundamental principles of security of nuclear facilities and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the fundamental principles underlying the safety of nuclear installations and activities, which defined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These principles determine the roles of government and responsibilities of the holders of power, explain how to achieve security and nuclear energy to justify the society, present and future and the environment from the risks of ionizing radiation, both and explain natural and man must be managed as waste that occur or have occurred in the past. (Author)

  6. THE KEY ACTIVITIES OF GREEN LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT IN THE THAI AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Thanyaphat Muangpan; Mana Chaowarat; Jutaporn Neamvonk

    2016-01-01

    Thai automotive industry needs to be developed for understanding activities management on inbound logistics that is an essential element of business operations for a manufacturing firm. The purpose of research is to study the main activities of green logistics management (inbound logistics) in the Thai automotive industry. Survey research was used in this study to collect data by sampling from the people in the field of logistics and environmental management of Thai automotive industry to exa...

  7. The internationalization of the technological activities in the energy industries; L'internationalisation des activites technologiques dans les industries energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, B [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie - IEPE-CNRS/ Universite Pierre Mendes-France, 38 - Grenoble (France); Jacquier-Roux, V [Institut de Recherche Economique sur la Production et le Developpement -IREPD, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2001-06-01

    This analysis of the technological internationalization factors is defined in five chapters. The first chapter deals with the evolutionist representation of the internationalization process of the technological activities of the firms. The chapter two is an historical synthesis from 1985 to 2000, of the industrial dynamics and of the technological strategies of the petroleum and electric power industries. The chapter three details the empirical method used to verify the hypothesis. Chapter four exposes the data analysis results of the patents of the sampled firms. The last chapter is devoted to the results interpretation. (A.L.B.)

  8. Removal of chromium ion from leather industrial wastes by activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    293 – 323 K). The adsorption of Cr from industrial wastage was found to be exothermic. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (G°), enthalpy (H°) and entropy (S°) of adsorption was also calculated and interpreted from the slope and ...

  9. Investment activities in the U.S. secondary woodworking industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Karen. Koenig

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. secondary woodworking industry has shown signs of improvement after the steep losses in sales volume associated with the housing crisis that began in 2007. Employment in several sectors has begun to increase, suggesting that companies that survived the downturn are positioning to increase sales growth. It is likely that investment plans to improve firm-level...

  10. Glyphosate-Degrading Microorganisms from Industrial Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Balthazor, Terry M.; Hallas, Laurence E.

    1986-01-01

    A plating medium was developed to isolate N-phosphonomethylglycine (glyphosate)-degrading microorganisms, with glyphosate as the sole phosphorus source. Two industrial biosystems treating glyphosate wastes contained elevated microbial counts on the medium. One purified isolate metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid, mineralizing this accumulating intermediate during log growth. This microorganism has been identified as a Flavobacterium species.

  11. PARTICULARITIES OF THE MARKETING ACTIVITY IN THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Al.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the insurance industry there is a new way of thinking which determined the passage from transactional marketing to a holistic marketing concept. In this paper five key elements of holistic marketing are presented: relationship marketing, integrated mar

  12. Low specific activity scale in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The NRPB present an illustrated fold-out leaflet in the At-a-glance series, for members of the oil industry, indicating the type of radioactivity to be met during off-shore drilling, possible hazards, doses, and precautions and procedures to be undertaken by workers. (author)

  13. Chinese tobacco industry promotional activity on the microblog Weibo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Zheng, Pinpin; Yang, Dongyun; Freeman, Becky; Fu, Hua; Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143) could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%), followed by 'advertisement' and 'tobacco culture' (both at 12%), 'traditional culture' and 'public relations' (both at 11%), and finally 'social and business affairs' (5%). 33% of posts included the words 'cigarette' or 'smoking' and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban.

  14. Guide to hazardous industrial activities: handbook for the cataloguing and selection of industrial activities for which an Emergency Management Plan ought to be drafted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.M.; Blom-Bruggeman, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for the cataloguing of hazardous (industrial) activities and the evaluation of these activities as part of the process of formulating an emergency management plan. This guide will enable priorities to be set at local level (district, region) for the drafting of

  15. Research advances in industrial engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides discussions and the exchange of information on principles, strategies, models, techniques, methodologies and applications of industrial engineering. It communicates the latest developments and research activity on industrial engineering and is useful for all those interested in the technological challenges in the field.

  16. Methodological principles outline discipline "Organization studies-tourism activity" using information technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The basic methodological principles of the disciplines of tourism and local history with information technology. 15 analyzed the literature and experience of leading experts in the field of sports and health tourism, and orienteering. Identified principles of academic disciplines of tourism and local history: the shift in emphasis from sports tourism to the cognitive, health tourism, the development of spiritual qualities, acquisition of life skills in nature, discovery and development of pedagogical and psychological abilities, character traits through the study of native land, the development of cognitive-research abilities, physical abilities, motor skills, application of modern information technology.

  17. Ingerop - Energy activities and industry - General brochure 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Ingerop is a leading player in France and a major player internationally in engineering and consulting in sustainable mobility, energy transition and living environment and in major issues of today and tomorrow. The industrial engineering provided by Ingerop in France and for export, provides a response to customer expectations, integrating more and more the theme of sustainable development. Faced with a growing demand for electricity both in the world and in Europe Ingerop made the energy sector its priority development. The controlled use of energy (energy efficiency, renewable energy) is an ongoing challenge for Ingerop. The group continues its development in nuclear energy by extending its remit from the upstream phases for new construction projects abroad until the decommissioning phases in France and abroad. Ingerop continues its development in nuclear energy by extending its remit from the upstream phases for new construction projects abroad to decommissioning in France and abroad. Ingerop strengthens its expertise in new energy with new projects in biomass boilers and heat networks. The group has profound geothermal skills in heating networks or fatal energy recovery, permitting them to intervene with local authorities such as farmers, from feasibility studies to commissioning and assisting project management with technical studies. The expertise acquired by the group Ingerop in the 1990's, through the construction of fifty data centers on behalf of SFR, enables a significant experience going back twenty years. Furthermore, development continued on the design of more energy-efficient projects and ensuring increasingly high reliability. This brochure presents Ingerop's skills and main references in its four domains of intervention: energy industry (operation in nuclear environment, conventional power plants, new energy technologies, data centers), other industries, infrastructures, and building industry

  18. Chinese tobacco industry promotional activity on the microblog Weibo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. METHODS: Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. RESULTS: Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143 could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%, followed by 'advertisement' and 'tobacco culture' (both at 12%, 'traditional culture' and 'public relations' (both at 11%, and finally 'social and business affairs' (5%. 33% of posts included the words 'cigarette' or 'smoking' and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. CONCLUSIONS: Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban.

  19. EXAMINATION OF EMPIRICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES AND AGRICULTURAL POLICY OUTPUTS IN NIGERIA (1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Brownson Akpan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated relationships between agricultural policy output (proxy by the agricultural productivity index, agricultural GDP/total GDP and crop productivity index and output of industrial sector (proxy by the industrial capacity utilization rate from 1970 to 2012 period in Nigeria. The study employed time series variables obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN, National Bureau of Statistics and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO. Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test was conducted on the specified time series, and the result showed that all non-growth rate series were integrated of order one, while growth rate series were stationary at level. The two-step Engle Granger method was employed to test for the presence of cointegration among specified variables. The result revealed that variables were not co-integrated. To avoid spurious regression, the specified models for non-growth rate series were estimated at first difference of the log variables. The empirical result revealed that, the industrial activities Granger cause crop activities in Nigeria. Also, the industrial activity has insignificant relationship with agricultural productivity indices in Nigeria. The same result was also obtained for industrial activities and agricultural GDP/total GDP. However, the result further revealed that, the industrial activity has significant negative correlation with the crop productivity index in Nigeria. These imply that, agricultural production had not played significant role in industrial development in Nigeria. This result suggests that, there is no significant impact of the backward integration policy of the agricultural sector on industrial sector in Nigeria. In addition, the result revealed that, agricultural policies during liberalization era (1986 - 2012 shifted the coefficient of the industrial activities positively. Therefore, it is recommended that the agricultural production in Nigeria should be boosted so as to

  20. Cosmological principles. II. Physical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, E.R.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)

  1. Activities of nuclear human resource development in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikura, Yonezo

    2010-01-01

    Since 2007, the JAIF (Japan Atomic Industrial Forum) had established the nuclear energy human resource development council to make analysis of the issue on nuclear human resource development. The author mainly contributed to develop its road map as a chairman of working group. Questionnaire survey to relevant parties on issues of nuclear human resource development had been conducted and the council identified the six relevant issues and ten recommendations. Both aspects for career design and skill-up program are necessary to develop nuclear human resource at each developing step and four respective central coordinating hubs should be linked to each sector participating in human resource development. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Mobility management principle, technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shanzhi; Hu, Bo; Ai, Ming

    2016-01-01

    This is the first book devoted to mobility management, covering the important principles, technologies and applications of mobility management based on years of academic research and industry experiences. The content is organized according to the reference models proposed by the authors, and emphasizes on technical principles rather than protocol details; a systematic and comprehensive introduction is presented yet without losing focuses; the existing technologies in cellular system, mobile Internet and IMS/SIP are also extensively compared. This book can be an indispensable reference for mobile communication engineers, computer network engineers, researchers and anyone else involved in academic, industrial and standardization activities on mobility management.

  3. Competitor localization and innovation activity of peripheral industrial systems in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Arkadiusz Swiadek

    2013-01-01

    Spatial proximity to competitors is an important factor in the acceleration of technological change in industrial systems in most developed countries, but is it also in Poland? The main objective of the study was to identify and evaluation the impact of distance from the nearest competitor on the innovative activity of selected peripheral regional industrial systems in Poland. Surveys conducted in the years 2007-11, including a group of 1 860 industrial companies in the five diverse and locat...

  4. Optimal Model-Based Fault Estimation and Correction for Particle Accelerators and Industrial Plants Using Combined Support Vector Machines and First Principles Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Timely estimation of deviations from optimal performance in complex systems and the ability to identify corrective measures in response to the estimated parameter deviations has been the subject of extensive research over the past four decades. The implications in terms of lost revenue from costly industrial processes, operation of large-scale public works projects and the volume of the published literature on this topic clearly indicates the significance of the problem. Applications range from manufacturing industries (integrated circuits, automotive, etc.), to large-scale chemical plants, pharmaceutical production, power distribution grids, and avionics. In this project we investigated a new framework for building parsimonious models that are suited for diagnosis and fault estimation of complex technical systems. We used Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to model potentially time-varying parameters of a First-Principles (FP) description of the process. The combined SVM and FP model was built (i.e. model parameters were trained) using constrained optimization techniques. We used the trained models to estimate faults affecting simulated beam lifetime. In the case where a large number of process inputs are required for model-based fault estimation, the proposed framework performs an optimal nonlinear principal component analysis of the large-scale input space, and creates a lower dimension feature space in which fault estimation results can be effectively presented to the operation personnel. To fulfill the main technical objectives of the Phase I research, our Phase I efforts have focused on: (1) SVM Training in a Combined Model Structure - We developed the software for the constrained training of the SVMs in a combined model structure, and successfully modeled the parameters of a first-principles model for beam lifetime with support vectors. (2) Higher-order Fidelity of the Combined Model - We used constrained training to ensure that the output of the SVM (i.e. the

  5. Optimal Model-Based Fault Estimation and Correction for Particle Accelerators and Industrial Plants Using Combined Support Vector Machines and First Principles Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyar-Rodsari, Bijan; Schweiger, Carl; /SLAC /Pavilion Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX

    2010-08-25

    Timely estimation of deviations from optimal performance in complex systems and the ability to identify corrective measures in response to the estimated parameter deviations has been the subject of extensive research over the past four decades. The implications in terms of lost revenue from costly industrial processes, operation of large-scale public works projects and the volume of the published literature on this topic clearly indicates the significance of the problem. Applications range from manufacturing industries (integrated circuits, automotive, etc.), to large-scale chemical plants, pharmaceutical production, power distribution grids, and avionics. In this project we investigated a new framework for building parsimonious models that are suited for diagnosis and fault estimation of complex technical systems. We used Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to model potentially time-varying parameters of a First-Principles (FP) description of the process. The combined SVM & FP model was built (i.e. model parameters were trained) using constrained optimization techniques. We used the trained models to estimate faults affecting simulated beam lifetime. In the case where a large number of process inputs are required for model-based fault estimation, the proposed framework performs an optimal nonlinear principal component analysis of the large-scale input space, and creates a lower dimension feature space in which fault estimation results can be effectively presented to the operation personnel. To fulfill the main technical objectives of the Phase I research, our Phase I efforts have focused on: (1) SVM Training in a Combined Model Structure - We developed the software for the constrained training of the SVMs in a combined model structure, and successfully modeled the parameters of a first-principles model for beam lifetime with support vectors. (2) Higher-order Fidelity of the Combined Model - We used constrained training to ensure that the output of the SVM (i.e. the

  6. Melon husk-based activated carbon for treatment of industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of concentration of activating agent, adsorbent dose and contact time on adsorption of organic contaminants from Coca Cola wastewater was examined at room temperature. The AC prepared with 1.0 M activating agent proved to be the most effective in contaminants removal when dosage and contact time were ...

  7. The sequential patterning of tactics: Activism in the global sports apparel industry, 1988–2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hond, F.; de Bakker, F.G.A.; de Haan, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Activist groups apply a range of tactics in order to improve labour conditions in the global sports and apparel industry. The accumulation of these tactics leads to the build-up of pressure on firms within this industry (brands, retailers) to change their policies and activities on labour

  8. Industrial activity, gas emissions and environmental urban management. Operative condition's diagnostic of smelting activities in Tandil, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soledad Sosa, Beatriz; Guerrero, Elsa Marcela; Banda Noriega, Roxana

    2013-01-01

    Amongst urban environmental problems, those associated to industry are of particular interest in environmental management. Tandil, a city in Argentina, owes its economic and urban growth to metalworking activity, especially to smelting. Despite the crisis in the sector, activity continues to be the axis of local economic and urban growth. The present research characterizes, in production, operative and environmental terms, local smelting industries and assesses operative conditions of gas emissions management during 2010. There were analyzed 25 industries over 30. The sample was representative of five productive processes: aluminum (Al), aluminum/iron (Al Fe), aluminum/bronze (Al Cu+Sn), aluminum/iron/bronze (Al Fe Cu+Sn), and iron (Fe). The variables analyzed were: primary fusion mater, oven used and industry size. To obtain production data we applied structured interviews, and for industry sizes we used surveys. It was possible to describe the productive prospect of the sector at a local level: for most industries the destination of their production is automotive sector. Taking into account the relation between the size and the type of industry, the aluminum smelting companies are small. Regarding iron industries, all three company sizes are present in the sample and exists a medium size industry that occupies between 51 and 230 employees. The operative conditions and their compliance with current legislation regarding control of gas emissions require to identify monitoring indicators for the melting stage that allow knowing precisely the resulting contaminants and their environmental effects.

  9. ACTIVATED ADSORPTION ON CLAY OF MICROPOLLUTANTS FROM PAPER PRINTING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA C. MIRILĂ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a preliminary study of chemisorption onto anionic and cationic clays, in order to reduce the content of pollutants from a paper printing effluent, collected after technological step named: printing of paper fabric manufacturing. The procedure of filtration fallowed by adsorption process is an effective, fast and low cost technique for treatment of black effluent resulting from paper printing industry. The key parameters tested to achieve a high efficiency for the movement of micropollutants from printing fluid were substrate dose and contact time. The highest treatment performance was obtained for cationic substrate at pH = 6.80, in contact and agitated magnetically for 30 respectively 90 minutes at room temperature.

  10. Identifying high dose activities in industrial site radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, B.

    2000-01-01

    Although the radiation doses received by industrial radiographers in the UK have progressively fallen over the last few years, with most now receiving less than 1 mSv/y, a few still receive, relative to the rest, much higher doses. As a percentage of all radiographers the number stays surprisingly constant from year to year. This paper describes a survey to identify the work causing these doses and suggest possible solutions. The UK Central Index of Dose Information was interrogated to identify the industrial radiography companies having staff (not necessarily the same person) with doses of greater than 5mSv/y in the last three years for which information was available. This was 15 in total. The people on the staff receiving these doses were identified and a questionnaire sent to the companies concerned requesting information about their work. A general questionnaire about the operation of the company was also included. With the agreement of the company these questionnaires were followed up by a visit to the company to interviews a number of the management and the radiographers if available. Both groups were generally very open about their problems and every discussion had a positive outcome. Several areas of work/reasons for the doses have been identified. These are: pipeline radiography, ultra sound radiographers working on nuclear reactors, complex plant work often with several teams in the area, inability to retreat from the wind out equipment due to height or access problems, site pressure to not follow the best practices and a lack of appreciation when a dose was being received or, alternatively, carelessness. Some o these problem areas are very difficult to resolve. However ways in which the Health and Safety can help influence the doses have been identified together with practical suggestions radiographers could adopt. These will be reported. (author)

  11. Environmental amenities and the location of industrial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, T.; Calzonetti, F.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the impacts of perceived risk on decisions to locate business activity in areas likely to host noxious facilities has become an important part of socioeconomic impact analysis. The paper reviews the literature and presents empirical evidence, and shows that amenities are only a significant location factor for certain types of business activity. Policies to offset the potential loss of businesses through perceived risk in communities hosting waste facilities, should, therefore, carefully consider the sensitivity to environmental amenities of the types of business activity present or likely to locate

  12. Industrial Radiography: Principle and Practical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The successful and effectiveness of radiography method as a tool to increase quality level and safety of the engineering system and processing plants depend with the level of radiographer knowledge as service provider and also as supervisor. This book was published as effort several local experts to give their knowledge, theory and practical related to radiography technique to the involved public directly or indirectly. This book started with basic physic knowledge that becomes a root to radiography technology. Then, followed by discussion on tools and device that used in radiography work including x-ray machine, gamma projector, film, dark room, and others. Each aspect of radiograph quality also mentioned here to guide the reader on how to produce good radiograph that filled the specification wanted. The good radiograph does not mean anything if it failed to be interpreted correctly. Because of that, this book also explain how to choose good radiograph that qualified to be interpreted and after that how interpretation and evaluation process of object quality inspected was implemented based on image digestion that showed in radiograph. Several code and standard that usually applied in this country also will be referred as well for this work.

  13. Innovation activity in the hotel industry: evidence from Balearic Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Ros, Ester; Orfila Sintes, Francina; Crespí Cladera, Rafel

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides empirical evidence on technological activity in the Spanish service sector, in particular for the tourist accommodation in the Balearics. The study wants to fulfil the lack of analyses in the field of tourism. Commonly, the study of innovation activity has been carried out from a manufacture perspective, for that reason the paper discusses the precise definition of innovation in accommodation services. The data refer to a large representative sample of hotels in Balearic Is...

  14. IN THE SEARCH FOR MECHANISMS OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND ACTIVITY OF STUDENTS: THE ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Dmitriev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of development of education is clearly detected the movement of various social and humanitarian disciplines to interdisciplinary and Meta-study. The article is an attempt, based on an interdisciplinary approach to analyze the anthropic principles of educational technology. For the authors of the proposed theoretical and methodological basis of identified and described the basic components of the structuring of educational space and didactic methods of modeling specific professional activity in the sphere of physical culture. The article describes the principles developed by us anthropic technologies. Especially stresses the need and importance of nature conservation kulturotvoryaschego educational system and provide a subject position of students in the educational space of the university. In the latter case, a special place is given to reflexive stages of self-reflection and self-transformation of the creative person in the professional culture - the identification of "I" self-actualization "I" self-realization "I am."

  15. The Role of Leisure Activities in the Revival of Romanian Tourism Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dridea Catrinel Raluca

    2011-01-01

    This paper is trying to identify the importance of leisure activities in revival of Romanian tourism industry. Many important destinations have understood the role of the leisure industry as a dynamic factor in tourism circulation. As a main component of the tourism economy, the leisure activities have determined a boost in the tourism circulation, by offering a variety of enjoyment opportunities. Taking into account the experience of famous destinations, Romanian tourism can learn from this ...

  16. Understanding Insurance. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenk, Lester G.; Tuel, Charles

    This learning activity package (LAP) on the insurance industry and the methods used to give protection to the insured is designed for student self-study. Following a list of learning objectives, the LAP contains a pretest (answer key provided at the back). Six learning activities follow. The learning activities cover the following material: terms…

  17. Inventory of activation analysis facilities available in the European Community to Industrial users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, J.

    1975-01-01

    This inventory includes lists of activation equipment produced in the European Community, facilities available for industrial users and activation laboratories existing in the European companies. The aim of this inventory is to provide all information that may be useful, to companies interested in activation analysis, as well as to give an idea on existing routine applications and on the European market in facilities

  18. The Rethinking of the Economic Activity Based on Principles of Eco-Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VÎRJAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought, floods, damaging storms, heat waves, acid rain, climate changes are but a few of the consequences of human action upon the environment. Can we possibly live against the environment? The answer is NO, and as such we must run an economy which respects the principles of eco-efficiency because only so can economic progress go on. Green economy is a great opportunity for all of the world’s countries, and is a real economy which keeps the resource-needs and environment relation in balance, aims towards quality and not quantity, lays emphasis on regeneration, recycling, reuse and creativity. Eco-efficiency implies both innovation towards a high degree of product dematerialization, services and systems, alongside with greatly changing current production and consumption practices. If we produce based on the principle of eco-efficiency we can reduce the effects of the profound economic, ecological, socio-political and cultural-spiritual crisis which marks our planet and countries.

  19. Guidelines for responsible short-term global health activities: developing common principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Judith N; Aldrink, Myron; Balasubramaniam, Ramaswami; Caldron, Paul; Compton, Bruce; Evert, Jessica; Loh, Lawrence C; Prasad, Shailendra; Siegel, Shira

    2018-02-07

    Growing concerns about the value and effectiveness of short-term volunteer trips intending to improve health in underserved Global South communities has driven the development of guidelines by multiple organizations and individuals. These are intended to mitigate potential harms and maximize benefits associated with such efforts. This paper analyzes 27 guidelines derived from a scoping review of the literature available in early 2017, describing their authorship, intended audiences, the aspects of short term medical missions (STMMs) they address, and their attention to guideline implementation. It further considers how these guidelines relate to the desires of host communities, as seen in studies of host country staff who work with volunteers. Existing guidelines are almost entirely written by and addressed to educators and practitioners in the Global North. There is broad consensus on key principles for responsible, effective, and ethical programs--need for host partners, proper preparation and supervision of visitors, needs assessment and evaluation, sustainability, and adherence to pertinent legal and ethical standards. Host country staff studies suggest agreement with the main elements of this guideline consensus, but they add the importance of mutual learning and respect for hosts. Guidelines must be informed by research and policy directives from host countries that is now mostly absent. Also, a comprehensive strategy to support adherence to best practice guidelines is needed, given limited regulation and enforcement capacity in host country contexts and strong incentives for involved stakeholders to undertake or host STMMs that do not respect key principles.

  20. Preclinical evaluation of Luffa operculata Cogn. and its main active principle in the treatment of bacterial rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo; Costa, Henrique Olival; Souza, Flávia Coelho de; Lopes, Elaine Monteiro Cardoso; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko

    2016-12-26

    The prevalence of rhinosinusitis is quite high. Despite the widespread use of antibiotics for rhinosinusitis, there are other forms of treatment, including phytotherapy. One of the most widely used herbal medicines for treatment of rhinosinusitis is Luffa operculata. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of topical nasal solution of the aqueous extract of L. operculata, determining the toxicity to its use and identifying the active principles presented in the aqueous extract. The secondary objective was to evaluate the action of active principles on bacteria commonly involved in acute rhino sinusitis. The study was conducted in experimental model of sinusitis. Three different concentrations of L. operculata were used as local treatment of rhino sinusitis. The results were compared with those observed in control groups that received nasal saline solution. Histological examination of the liver, kidney, spleen, myocardium, brain and lungs of all animals evaluated the toxicity of L. operculata. The aqueous extract used was subjected to chromatographic analysis and an active principle was isolated and tested for in vitro inhibition of bacterial colonies usually found in rhino sinusitis. Intranasal treatment of sinusitis with L. operculata showed better clinical evolution than control group. Statistically significant difference (p>0.10) between the treated group and the control group was observed in the histologic evaluation for inflammatory pattern. The aqueous extract of L. operculata used presented a predominance of 2,3-dicafeoilglicaric acid, a substance not yet described in the literature. There was a significant difference in bacterial growth of Streptococcus pyogenes on blood-agar plates when under the influence of both the aqueous extract and the active substance. Topical nasal solution of the aqueous extract of L. operculata is effective compared to the application of saline solution for the treatment of bacterial rhinosinusitis in an experimental model. L

  1. Blasting activity of the mining industry in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, P.G. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    About 2 megatons of chemcial explosives are used annually in the U.S., principally in mining for coal and metal ores. Most of this explosive is used in surface mines rather than underground mines. On a typical work day there are about 30 explosions greater than 50 tons, including one shot greater than 200 tons. Shots in underground mines are typically much smaller, because of safety considerations. Almost all chemical explosions above 1 ton in the U.S. are ripple-fired and almost all above 10 tons are also shallow. Almost all are intended to break rock or to remove overburden, and are therefore very inefficient, relative to contained single shots, in generating seismic signals at regional ore teleseismic distances. These attributes make explosions used in industry quite different from the Non-Proliferation Experiment. There is very little correlation between the total amount of explosive used in a ripple-fired blast, and the seismic magnitude. Statistics on blasting magnitudes are of interest in the context of monitoring network. There is a blast reported with regional (or duration) magnitude 3.5 or above, in the U.S., a few tens of times a year; but it would appear that the teleseismic magnitude (m{sub b}) of such events are significantly lower than 3.5. Only about 10 to 30 chemical explosions per year in the U.S. are detected teleseismically with m{sub b}>3. Methods of routinely discriminating most chemical explosions from other seismic sources use spectra of regional phases at frequencies up to about 30 Hz, which is significantly higher than frequencies needed for recording teleseismic signals. The best discriminants appear to be the high-frequency spectral ratio of waves with P-wave energy (e.g. Pn or Pg) to waves with S-wave energy (Sn or Lg); and the use of spectrograms, which can be particularly useful in identifying ripple-firing.

  2. Community-based physical activity intervention using principles of social marketing: a demonstration project in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subitha, L; Soudarssanane, M Bala; Murugesan, R

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to study the development and implementation of promotion of physical activity in a rural community by applying the principles of social marketing and to determine participation behaviour in a physical activity programme in a community setting. The intervention targeted 485 people, 20-49 years of age, residents of Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam villages, Tamil Nadu. This community-based participatory research was based on the principles of 'social marketing'. Health education by one-to-one counselling, written materials and community events were used to popularize moderate intensity physical activity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on 4 days/week). We formed 30 walking groups under four coordinators, in a home-based setting with professional supervision and guidance. A log of physical activity sessions for the 10-week intervention period was maintained in the form of group attendance record. Village leaders, self-help groups and youth clubs were involved in promoting physical activity. Of the 485 subjects, 265 people (54.6%) engaged in brisk walking >4 days a week, while 156 subjects (32.2%) performed walking on 1-4 days per week during the intervention. The drop-out rate was 13.2% (64 subjects). Age, occupation and educational status were important determinants of participation and adherence to the physical activity programme. Application of social marketing techniques in an intervention to promote physical activity was successful in a rural Indian community. Studying the determinants of adoption of a physical activity programme and addressing the barriers to behaviour change are essential for designing relevant policies and effective programmes. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  3. Neutron activation analysis of final molasses from cuban sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.; Gonzalez, E.; Rosenberg, R.J.; Diaz-Rizo, O.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal and epithermal non-destructive activation analyses have been performed on samples of final molasses from 14 different sugar factories , covering the most important regions in Cuba. From the first measurement after irradiation at the Triga Mark reactor (VTT), the concentration of more than 15 elements is reported. The almost constant elemental composition shows that they can be used equally for different purposes as animal foodstuff and for the manufacture of biotechnological products. This work is part of a research project developed in order to establish a complete characterization of Cuban sugar molasses. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  4. The crisis and activities of the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, Mr F. Birol (IEA) presents the results of a recent study made by the IEA on the impacts in the world of the crisis for the production of petroleum and natural gas, the exploration/production investments and the demand of petroleum products. A projection for the years 2015 - 2030 is made. Then, Mr J.J. Mosconi (Total) presents the strategy of the Total's firm in terms of investments on account of the crisis. At last, Mr K. Bennaceur (Schlumberger) gives its point of view of the impact of the crisis on its activity. (O.M.)

  5. Corporate political activity of the dairy industry in France: an analysis of publicly available information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; Mialon, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we used a structured approach based on publicly available information to identify the corporate political activity (CPA) strategies of three major actors in the dairy industry in France. We collected publicly available information from the industry, government and other sources over a 6-month period, from March to August 2015. Data collection and analysis were informed by an existing framework for classifying the CPA of the food industry. Setting/Subjects Our study included three major actors in the dairy industry in France: Danone, Lactalis and the Centre National Interprofessionnel de l'Economie Laitière (CNIEL), a trade association. During the period of data collection, the dairy industry employed CPA practices on numerous occasions by using three strategies: the 'information and messaging', the 'constituency building' and the 'policy substitution' strategies. The most common practice was the shaping of evidence in ways that suited the industry. The industry also sought involvement in the community, establishing relationships with public health professionals, academics and the government. Our study shows that the dairy industry used several CPA practices, even during periods when there was no specific policy debate on the role of dairy products in dietary guidelines. The information provided here could inform public health advocates and policy makers and help them ensure that commercial interests of industry do not impede public health policies and programmes.

  6. Activity-Based Costing in the After Press Services Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevasuthisilp, Suntichai; Punsathitwong, Kosum

    2009-10-01

    This research was conducted to apply activity-based costing (ABC) in an after press service company in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The company produces all of its products by one-stop service (such as coating, stitching, binding, die cutting, and gluing). All products are made to order, and have different sizes and patterns. A strategy of low price is used to compete in the marketplace. After cost analysis, the study found that the company has high overhead (36.5% of total cost). The company's problem is its use of traditional cost accounting, which has low accuracy in assigning overhead costs. If management uses this information when pricing customer orders, losses may occur because real production costs may be higher than the selling price. Therefore, the application of ABC in cost analysis can help executives receive accurate cost information; establish a sound pricing strategy; and improve the manufacturing process by determining work activities which have excessively high production costs. According to this research, 6 out of 56 items had a production cost higher than the selling price, leading to losses of 123,923 baht per year. Methods used to solve this problem were: reducing production costs; establishing suitable prices; and creating a sales promotion with lower prices for customers whose orders include processes involving unused capacity. These actions will increase overall sales of the company, and allow more efficient use of its machinery.

  7. "Green chemistry": os 12 princípios da química verde e sua inserção nas atividades de ensino e pesquisa Green chemistry: the 12 principles of green chemistry and it insertion in the teach and research activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder João Lenardão

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry ¾ defined as the design, development, and application of chemical processes and products to reduce or eliminate the use and generation of substances hazardous to human health and the environment. This article summarizes the 12 principles of green chemistry, describing how they have been applied to the academic, industrial and research activities around the world.

  8. Principle and Control Design of Active Ground-Fault Arc Suppression Device for Full Compensation of Ground Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Zeng, Xiangjun; Yan, Lingjie

    2017-01-01

    current into the neutral without any large-capacity reactors, and thus avoids the aforementioned overvoltage. It compensates all the active, reactive and harmonic components of the ground current to reliably extinguish the ground-fault arcs. A dual-loop voltage control method is proposed to realize arc...... suppression without capacitive current detection. Its time-based feature also brings the benefit of fast response on ground-fault arc suppression. The principle of full current compensation is analyzed, together with the controller design method of the proposed device. Experiment on a prototype was carried...

  9. Zymography Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Kurz, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Zymography, the detection, identification, and even quantification of enzyme activity fractionated by gel electrophoresis, has received increasing attention in the last years, as revealed by the number of articles published. A number of enzymes are routinely detected by zymography, especially with clinical interest. This introductory chapter reviews the major principles behind zymography. New advances of this method are basically focused towards two-dimensional zymography and transfer zymography as will be explained in the rest of the chapters. Some general considerations when performing the experiments are outlined as well as the major troubleshooting and safety issues necessary for correct development of the electrophoresis.

  10. Industry decries sharp decline in U.S. offshore activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Roadblocks to offshore activity in the U.S. drew much of the spotlight at the 24th Offshore Technology Conference last week in Houston. Among OTC highlights included in this paper are: Two panels reviewed how federal leasing moratoriums and regulatory restrictions are reining U.S. offshore development. Conoco Inc.'s manager of exploration and development in Russia detailed the allure of giant and supergiant fields in the Commonwealth of Independent States and reviewed the status of the company's efforts to negotiate E and D deals with Russian partners. Minerals Management Service officials reviewed environmental challenges facing operators on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf and new MMS inspection strategies in the Gulf of Mexico. The 1992 OTC Distinguished Achievement Award for companies went to Brazil's Petroleo Brasileiro SA for deepwater development records set with the 3 Marlim well in the Campos basin off Brazil

  11. Analysis of industrial coke samples by activation with cyclotron protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M.A.; Lee, M.M.; Spicer, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    A Melbourne Petrochemical Company was experiencing excessive coke formation in its ''cracking furnaces'', which was causing unnecessary stoppage of production and wastage of energy due to additional insulation. In order to investigate the possible causes of this excessive coke formation, we analyzed various coke samples and other coke-like materials obtained from these furnaces by activation with cyclotron-protons. Our results showed that, out of the two suspected coke promoters As and Sb whose small concentration in feed would produce greatly accelerated coke formation, As could not be detected in any of the eight samples investigated, while Sb was present in only one sample. However, we did observe Ca, Cr and Fe in all the samples, with surprisingly high concentrations in some of them. It has, therefore, been suggested that Ca, and perhaps Cr and Fe, but not As or Sb, could have been responsible for the excessive coke formation in the ''cracking furnaces''

  12. Formation of activation mechanism for investment maintenance management of gas industry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Валеріївна Чорній

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The problematic aspects of the existing management mechanism of investment management of gas industry enterprises are analyzed in the article. The ways of their elimination are suggested in accordance with the Energy Strategy of Ukraine – 2035 at different levels of its operation. The ways of improving the investment management mechanism of the enterprises in this industry on three levels are proved. Activation mechanism for investment maintenance management of gas industry enterprises is developed as result of research. Its implementation will allow enterprises of the industry to increase its investment attractiveness and effectively carry out the procedure for enterprises’ entry to the market of initial public offering to raise the required amount of investment resources for the modernization of investigated industry.

  13. Public health, academic medicine, and the alcohol industry's corporate social responsibility activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine

    2013-02-01

    We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry's economic interests.

  14. Bernoulli's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  15. Development of highly microporous activated carbon from the alcoholic beverage industry organic by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto-Delgado, C.; Terrones, M.; Rangel-Mendez, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    This work has the aim to employ the agave bagasse, a waste from Tequila and Mescal industries, to obtain a product of high commercial value such as activated carbon. The activated carbon production methodology was based on a chemical activation, by using ZnCl 2 and H 3 PO 4 as activating agent and agave bagasse as a natural source of carbon. The activation temperature (150-450 o C), activation time (0-60 min) and weight ratio of activating agent to precursor (0.2-4) were studied. The produced carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen physisorption at -196 o C. In addition, the activating agent recovery was evaluated. We were able to obtain highly microporous activated carbons with micropore volumes between 0.24 and 1.20 cm 3 /g and a surface area within 300 and 2139 m 2 /g. These results demonstrated the feasibility to treat the industrial wastes of the Tequila and Mescal industries, being this wastes an excellent precursor to produce highly microporous activated carbons that can be processed at low activation temperatures in short times, with the possibility of recycling the activating agent.

  16. Technology and industrialization in Spanish economy from 1950 to 1960: the patents as technological activity indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo Nuchera, A.; Molero Zayas, J.; Granda Gayo, I.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research is to study the innovative activity developed in the fifties by the Spanish industry focussing on the foreign technology incorporated in the activity of several industrial sectors. The structure of innovation in each sector has been characterized by using patents as technological activity indicators. The data of patents registered in Spain belonging to the 1950-1960 period have been obtained taking into account the research developed by the Department of Business Administration of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid through a subsidy granted by the Spanish Patent Office. (Author)

  17. Atominform's activities as the information and analytical center of nuclear industry and power of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetko, Y.V.

    1993-01-01

    The Central Research Institute of Management, Economics and Information, Atominform, is a division of information-analytical support of scientific, production and commercial efforts of the nuclear industry and is also involved in the most ''traditional'' information activity. These ''traditional'' lines of activity include: compilation and maintenance of all types of data bases and their reference facilities; library activities; information support; information flows both between the nuclear industry enterprises and through exchange with information bodies of the state system of scientific and technical information and other branches of the national economy; introduction of the state-of-the-art information technologies into the information practice. (orig.)

  18. Research activities of Samsung Heavy Industries in the conservation of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, D.K.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    Research activities for accelerator fields at Samsung Heavy Industries could be categorized into the accelerator development and its industrial applications. As the initial step of the efforts, high voltage industrial electron accelerators are developed, and development of synchrotron light source and other accelerators are also investigated. The research activities for the applications of accelerator include wastewater treatment, combustion flue gas purification, semiconductor treatment, and other radio-chemical processing. For wastewater treatment, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000m 3 /day of wastewater from 60,000m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater is under construction in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from papermill company is also under construction in S-paper Co. in Cheongwon city, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process

  19. Evaluating environmental impact caused by industrial activities - Implementation of the WTP-WTA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsidas, Odysseas; Batzias, Fragiskos

    2012-12-01

    In this work, a methodological framework under the form of an algorithmic procedure, including 28 activity stages and 6 decision nodes, has been developed for evaluating environmental impact caused by industrial activities. The main part of this procedure is a modification of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), which is heavily relied on survey-based estimation of WTP-WTA (willingness to pay/accept, respectively). The survey may take place either under a strictly controlled environment or in situ and as-is ('laboratory conditions' or 'field conditions', respectively, in the terminology of experimental economics). Implementation of this methodology is presented, referring to three cases of industrial pollution (in three different sites) caused by (i) a cement producing units, (ii) an oil refinery complex, and (iii) an industrialized small city with an intensively polluted port, where several industrial units co-exist, all of them located in the vicinity of Athens, Greece. The results are interpreted/discussed and conclusions are drawn.

  20. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-1010] Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical... certain drug master files, namely, Type II active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) drug master files (DMFs...

  1. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  2. Studying of the standardization principles of pharmacological activity of recombinant erythropoietin preparations

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Yakovlev; L. A. Gayderova; N. A. Alpatova; T. N. Lobanova; E. L. Postnova; E. I. Yurchikova; T. A. Batuashvili; R. A. Volkova; V. N. Podkuiko; Yu. V. Olefir

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the publications devoted to the structure, functions, mechanism of action of erythropoietin is given in the article. Erythropoietin preparations derived from recombinant DNA technology are a mixture of isoforms with different biological activity, which determine the biological properties pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of medicinal product. Erythropoietin preparations derived by using recombinant DNA technology are a mixture of isoforms with differe...

  3. The Use of Promotional Activities in the Tourism Industry : The Case of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Jakir, Hossain Md.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This thesis is an attempt to investigate how the use of promotional activities can help to develop the tourism industry by giving a special concentration to the case of Bangladesh. The investigation was conducted from both a theoretical and an empirical point of view. The contribution of the same industry to the world economy is considerable. Many countries are now dependent on this sector for foreign currency earnings. Every destination country is trying to achieve more gain by deve...

  4. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this report is to help focus the federal programs in biomass energy, by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid-1979. In addition, the industry's perceptions of government activities are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations, as listed in Exhibit 1. Interview findings have been supplemented by research of recent literature. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry; (2) what are the companies doing; (3) what are their objectives and strategies; and (4) what are the implications for government policy. This executive summary provides highlights of the key findings and conclusions. The summary discussion is presented in seven parts: (1) overview of the biomass field; (2) structure of the biomass industry today; (3) corporate activities in biomass-related areas; (4) motivations for these activities; (5) industry's outlook on the future for energy-from-biomass; (6) industry's view of government activities; and (7) implications for Federal policy.

  5. Business cycle and innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzikowski Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines differences in an impact of business cycle phases on innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland. It is assumed that each business cycle phase influences innovation activity in the same fashion, but its impact varies and it depends on the firm’s innovation activity. The higher innovation activity the less impact of business cycle. The scope of the survey relates to innovation in MHT and HT industry in Poland. The data concerns the innovation at the firm level and the diffusion “new for the company”. Innovation activity is defined by the following activities: (1 expenditure on research and development and investments in fixed assets not used so far such as: abuildings, premises and land; b machinery and equipment, c computer software; (2 implementation of new products and technological processes and (3 innovation cooperation. The methodological part of the analysis includes a logit modeling. The survey includes 1355 companies. Business cycle has a great influence on innovation activity in MTH and HT industry in Poland. The influence of recovery phase is positive whereas both stagnation and recession phases decrease the probability of innovation activity. The character of influence depends on the propensity to take innovation activity. The higher level of innovation activity the enterprises present the less influence of business cycle they get.

  6. Soil contamination from urban and industrial activity: example of the mining district of Linares (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J.; Llamas, J. F.; de Miguel, E.; Rey, J.; Hidalgo, M. C.

    2008-04-01

    The Linares region (southern Spain) has been subjected to two important sources of pollution: the intensive mining works and the urban-industrial activity. To obtain a geochemical characterisation of the soil, 31 trace elements were analysed and 669 soil samples were collected. By means of clustering analysis, we identified groups of elements and grid squares in which relations could be established concerning soil lithology, urban and industrial activities and the degree of pollution impact; in addition, we were able to characterise the geochemical background of the study area. The multivariate study led us to identify four factors. Particularly important was factor 2, which represented the elements associated with mineral paragenesis (Cu, Pb, As, Co, Mn, Zn, Sn, Ba). This factor also contains elements related with an urban-industrial activity, such as Pb, Cu, Zn, As and Ba. Furthermore, we identified factor 4, associating Ni, V and Cr, and which is related to the use of fuels.

  7. Cellular telephones measure activity and lifespace in community-dwelling adults: proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Ana Katrin; Witbrodt, Bradley C; Hoarty, Carrie A; Carlson, Richard H; Goulding, Evan H; Potter, Jane F; Bonasera, Stephen J

    2011-02-01

    To describe a system that uses off-the-shelf sensor and telecommunication technologies to continuously measure individual lifespace and activity levels in a novel way. Proof of concept involving three field trials of 30, 30, and 21 days. Omaha, Nebraska, metropolitan and surrounding rural region. Three participants (48-year-old man, 33-year-old woman, and 27-year-old male), none with any functional limitations. Cellular telephones were used to detect in-home position and in-community location and to measure physical activity. Within the home, cellular telephones and Bluetooth transmitters (beacons) were used to locate participants at room-level resolution. Outside the home, the same cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) technology were used to locate participants at a community-level resolution. Physical activity was simultaneously measured using the cellular telephone accelerometer. This approach had face validity to measure activity and lifespace. More importantly, this system could measure the spatial and temporal organization of these metrics. For example, an individual's lifespace was automatically calculated across multiple time intervals. Behavioral time budgets showing how people allocate time to specific regions within the home were also automatically generated. Mobile monitoring shows much promise as an easily deployed system to quantify activity and lifespace, important indicators of function, in community-dwelling adults. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Socio-economic benefits from petroleum industry activity in Newfoundland and Labrador 2003 and 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    An update on previous macroeconomic analyses of the impacts of offshore petroleum activities in Newfoundland and Labrador was presented. Details of industry activity and expenditures in Newfoundland and Labrador were presented as well as the resultant direct, indirect and induced economic benefits to the province. Related developments in infrastructure, education, training, and research and development were also provided. It was observed that there was a further consolidation and expansion of the offshore petroleum industry in the province as well as additional growth in its contribution to the province's economy. By 2004, the petroleum industry was responsible for nearly 25 per cent of the province's GDP, with total labour income being 12 per cent higher than it would have been without offshore petroleum industry activity. Significant positive effects were noted in retail sales, the unemployment rate, housing starts and the size of the provincial population. Production activity has become increasingly important, and there has been increased involvement of local companies and individuals in export work, indicating that the petroleum industry is making an important contribution to economic diversification and sustainability. New offshore petroleum activities included the Hebron oilfield project; satellite field developments in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin; exploration in the Orphan Basin and Laurentian Sub-basin; and the development of natural gas reserves using compressed natural gas (CNG) or alternative transportation strategies. Infrastructure, education, training and research and development activities were outlined. It was noted that the low level of exploration in 2003 and 2004 was a matter of concern. It was concluded that a failure to proceed with more recent development projects would be a major blow to the local petroleum industry and the economy as a whole. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Pomegranate juice and prostate cancer: importance of the characterisation of the active principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrubasik-Hausmann, Sigrun; Vlachojannis, Christian; Zimmermann, Benno

    2014-11-01

    Two exploratory clinical studies investigating proprietary pomegranate products showed a trend of effectiveness in increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. A recent clinical study did not support these results. We therefore analysed a lot of the marketed pomegranate blend for co-active pomegranate compounds. The high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to detect punicalagin, ellagic acid and anthocyanins. Total polyphenoles were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method using gallic acid as reference. The results show that the co-active compounds in the daily dose of the pomegranate blend were far below those previously tested and that the photometric assessment is not reliable for the standardisation of study medications. Not pomegranate but the low amount of co-active compounds in the proprietary pomegranate blend was responsible for its clinical ineffectiveness. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Industry consequences of reduced petroleum activity; Naeringsmessige konsekvenser av redusert petroleumsaktivitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-22

    Norwegian oil production is falling. Top of the petroleum production was reached in 2004, and in line with forecasts from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and Econ Poeyry (2009), we anticipate a continued decline in production towards an end around 2080. Petroleum industries accounted for about a quarter of Norwegian value creation in 2008. The industries provide strong growth impetus to the Norwegian economy through investments in new fields and operation of existing ones. The petroleum activity on the Norwegian shelf add to our estimates, the basis for about 90 000 jobs in the petroleum industry and the supplier industry. The prescribed reduction in Norwegian petroleum activities will naturally reduce petroleum-related employment. We calculate in this report the effect of a reduction in the petroleum activity with regard to employment. The calculations show a strong decline in employment in the period 2025-2080. In order to reduce the effects of the fall, the Norwegian authorities can open more areas for petroleum production. We show in this report the employment consequences of an opening of the areas off Lofoten, Vesteraalen and Senja may have for employment. To calculate the employment effects are based on an estimate of 2 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe), and assuming that it made more commercial discoveries. This estimate lies between the updated estimate of Petroleum Directorate announced 16 April 2010 and the projection industry refers to. Our estimate of 2 billion barrels is based on continued technological advances that increase the recovery rate. Based on an estimate of 2 billion barrels, our calculations show that this can lay the basis for between 3000 and 8000 permanent jobs in the petroleum industry and supplier industry. We do not know today whether it is or how much petroleum resources in the areas concerned. If there is no commercial discoveries, employment effect will only be related to exploration activity. If however, there are more

  11. Transforming Principles into Practice: Using Cognitive Active Learning Strategies in the High School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    High school teachers who engage students through active learning in their classrooms can more fully understand this instructional practice by examining the theories and strategies underlying the cognitive perspective of educational psychology, which addresses the development of knowledge in the individual mind. Two theoretical explanations,…

  12. Developing Constructivist Early Childhood Curriculum: Practical Principles and Activities. Early Childhood Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Rheta; Zan, Betty; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Edmiaston, Rebecca; Sales, Christina

    This book provides a constructivist interpretation of developmentally appropriate preschool and kindergarten curriculum, incorporating descriptions of how activities are transformed over time and how children's reasoning is transformed, and placing the interpretation in the context of the play-oriented approach advocated by the National…

  13. Data-Based Active Learning in the Principles of Macroeconomics Course: A Mock FOMC Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Cathleen

    2006-01-01

    The author presents an active-learning exercise for the introductory macroeconomics class in which students participate in a mock Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting. Preparation involves data gathering and writing both a research report and a policy recommendation. An FOMC meeting is simulated in which students give their policy…

  14. Applied and industrial activities at the ESRF: Present status and future development

    CERN Document Server

    Doucet, J

    2003-01-01

    Be it proteins, new superconductors, polymers or ferro-magnetic compounds, fundamental research is laying foundations for possible technical applications as well as industrial exploitation. At the ESRF, industrial companies can be involved in two main ways, depending on the type of research they are interested in. The first concerns beam time allocation for non-proprietary and fully-published research, the procedure is the same as for public laboratories. The second concerns the proprietary research, for which a fee is charged and where results are kept confidential. The use of synchrotron radiation for the characterisation of materials is certain to play a crucial role in the development of new materials in the close future. It is a policy of the ESRF that European industry should share the benefit of its facilities. A survey of the today industrial activity at the ESRF and of its perspective in near future is presented.

  15. The Implications of Industrial Management for the Administration of Industrial Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses the functions and principles of industrial management, compares educational and industrial organization, and notes industrial management techniques applicable to industrial education administration. (MF)

  16. Physical activity promotion in business and industry: evidence, context, and recommendations for a national plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Nicolaas P

    2009-11-01

    The contemporary workplace setting is in need of interventions that effectively promote higher levels of occupational and habitual physical activity. It is the purpose of this paper to outline an evidence-based approach to promote physical activity in the business and industry sector in support of a National Physical Activity Plan. Comprehensive literature searches identified systematic reviews, comprehensive reviews, and consensus documents on the impact of physical activity interventions in the business and industry sector. A framework for action and priority recommendations for practice and research were generated. Comprehensive, multicomponent work-site programs that include physical activity components generate significant improvements in health, reduce absenteeism and sick leave, and can generate a positive financial return. Specific evidence-based physical activity interventions are presented. Recommendations for practice include implementing comprehensive, multicomponent programs that make physical activity interventions possible, simple, rewarding and relevant in the context of a social-ecological model. The business and industry sector has significant opportunities to improve physical activity among employees, their dependents, and the community at-large and to reap important benefits related to worker health and business performance.

  17. The Policy Dystopia Model: An Interpretive Analysis of Tobacco Industry Political Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucanlar, Selda; Fooks, Gary J; Gilmore, Anna B

    2016-09-01

    Tobacco industry interference has been identified as the greatest obstacle to the implementation of evidence-based measures to reduce tobacco use. Understanding and addressing industry interference in public health policy-making is therefore crucial. Existing conceptualisations of corporate political activity (CPA) are embedded in a business perspective and do not attend to CPA's social and public health costs; most have not drawn on the unique resource represented by internal tobacco industry documents. Building on this literature, including systematic reviews, we develop a critically informed conceptual model of tobacco industry political activity. We thematically analysed published papers included in two systematic reviews examining tobacco industry influence on taxation and marketing of tobacco; we included 45 of 46 papers in the former category and 20 of 48 papers in the latter (n = 65). We used a grounded theory approach to build taxonomies of "discursive" (argument-based) and "instrumental" (action-based) industry strategies and from these devised the Policy Dystopia Model, which shows that the industry, working through different constituencies, constructs a metanarrative to argue that proposed policies will lead to a dysfunctional future of policy failure and widely dispersed adverse social and economic consequences. Simultaneously, it uses diverse, interlocking insider and outsider instrumental strategies to disseminate this narrative and enhance its persuasiveness in order to secure its preferred policy outcomes. Limitations are that many papers were historical (some dating back to the 1970s) and focused on high-income regions. The model provides an evidence-based, accessible way of understanding diverse corporate political strategies. It should enable public health actors and officials to preempt these strategies and develop realistic assessments of the industry's claims.

  18. Problems of determination of principle of psychological profile of unknown criminal person in investigational activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Getman

    2017-03-01

    By the author of the article of analysis different determinations of «psychological profile of unknown criminal person» were subjected. They are set positive lines and separate positions that in opinion of author are not expedient and important are subjected to criticism. That is why, the author points in conclusions the argued positions in relation to the necessity of the use of psychological profile of  unknown criminal person during investigation of criminal realizations in activity of investigator.

  19. Overview of maintenance principles and regulatory supervision of maintenance activities at nuclear power plants in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohar, S.; Cepcek, S.

    1997-01-01

    The maintenance represents one of the most important tools to ensure safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The emphasis of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic to the maintenance issue is expressed by requirements in the regulations. The current practice of maintenance management in operated nuclear power plants in Slovak Republic is presented. Main aspects of maintenance, as maintenance programme, organization of maintenance, responsibilities for maintenance are described. Activities of nuclear regulatory authority in maintenance process are presented too. (author)

  20. Principles and methods of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in improved water resources development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dim, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    The methods of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as it applies to water resources exploration, exploitation and management has been reviewed and its capabilities demonstrated. NAA has been found to be superior and offer higher sensitivity to many other analytical techniques in analysis of water. The implications of chemical and element concentrations (water pollution and quality) determined in water on environmental impact assessment to aquatic life and human health are briefly highlighted

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the active second stage of labour: Proof of principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guettler, F.V.; Heinrich, A.; Rump, J.; Bucourt, M. de; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U.K.; Schnackenburg, B.; Bamberg, C.

    2012-01-01

    To prove that magnetic resonance imaging of foetal anatomy during the active second stage of vaginal delivery is feasible. Initially, five pregnant volunteers around the 30th week of gestation were examined in an open MRI. Based on the findings, one vaginal delivery was acquired under real-time imaging. To monitor the birth status during image acquisition, an MR-compatible wireless cardiotocography (CTG) system was built. Single-shot sequence parameters were optimised to compensate motion artefacts during labour. Safety requirements to monitor the birth process under real-time MR imaging were met. High-resolution MR images were acquired immediately before and after delivery. In one patient, TSE single-shot cinematic sequences of the active second stage of labour were obtained. All sequences were adapted to tolerate movement of the mother and infant, as well as residual noise from the CTG. Furthermore, the MR imaging during labour showed only minor image artefacts. CTG-monitored acquisition of MRI series during the active second stage of delivery is feasible. Image quality should allow various further studies to improve models for birth simulation as well as potential investigation of obstructed labour and obstetric complications. (orig.)

  2. Assessing participants' perceptions on group-based principles for action in community-based health enhancing physical activity programmes: The APEF tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herens, Marion; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2017-12-01

    In community-based health enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programmes, group-based principles for action such as active participation, enjoyment, and fostering group processes are widely advocated. However, not much is known about participants' perceptions of these principles as there are no assessment tools available. Therefore, this article describes the development of the APEF (Active Participation, Enjoyment, and Fostering group processes) tool and reports on its implementation in a Dutch CBHEPA programme. Indicators for the principles have been identified from literature research, interviews with professionals, and secondary analysis of three group interviews with 11 practitioners. To address the identified indicators, the APEF tool was developed, pretested, and used in 10 focus groups with 76 participants. The APEF tool consists of eight statements about group-based principles for action, on which CBHEPA participants vote, followed by in-depth discussion. The voting procedure engages participants. Spider diagrams visualise participants' perceptions of group-based principles. The APEF tool addresses the challenge of relating group level outcomes to individual outcomes such as physical activity behaviour. The tool facilitates as well as evaluates group-based principles for action, it stimulates dialogue and is culturally sensitive, but it needs strong facilitating skills to manage group dynamics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Tuning the chemical activity through PtAu nanoalloying: a first principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-06-21

    The electronic structure and adsorption properties of 1.5 nm sized Pt, Au, and PtAu nanoclusters are studied by density functional theory. We explain the recent experimental finding that 20% Au content in PtAu nanoparticles is optimal to induce a dramatically different catalytic behavior. Our results show that the d-band center together with the density of states at the Fermi energy can be used as an indicator of the chemical activity of PtAu nanoclusters. The most favorable adsorption sites on the cluster surfaces as a function of the Pt/Au ratio are identified using atomic H as a probe.

  4. First-Principles Predictions of Vibrational Raman Optical Activity of Globular Proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kessler, Jiří; Kapitán, J.; Bouř, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 16 (2015), s. 3314-3319 ISSN 1948-7185 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA ČR GA15-09072S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005; GA MŠk(CZ) ED3.2.00/08.0144 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular property tensors * activity spectra * spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 8.539, year: 2015 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b01500

  5. Tuning the chemical activity through PtAu nanoalloying: a first principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The electronic structure and adsorption properties of 1.5 nm sized Pt, Au, and PtAu nanoclusters are studied by density functional theory. We explain the recent experimental finding that 20% Au content in PtAu nanoparticles is optimal to induce a dramatically different catalytic behavior. Our results show that the d-band center together with the density of states at the Fermi energy can be used as an indicator of the chemical activity of PtAu nanoclusters. The most favorable adsorption sites on the cluster surfaces as a function of the Pt/Au ratio are identified using atomic H as a probe.

  6. Survey of US Department of Defense Manufacturing Technology Program activities applicable to civilian manufacturing industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimi, S.A.; Conrad, J.L.; Reed, J.E.

    1985-03-01

    Intent of the survey was to identify and characterize activities potentially applicable to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in the civilian manufacturing industries. The civilian industries emphasized were the general manufacturing industries (including fabricated metals, glass, machinery, paper, plastic, textile, and transportation equipment manufacturing) and the primary metals industries (including primary aluminum, copper, steel, and zinc production). The principal steps in the survey were to: develop overview taxonomies of the general manufacturing and primary metals industries as well as specific industry taxonomies; identify needs and opportunities for improving process energy efficiency and productivity in the industries included; identify federal programs, capabilities, and special technical expertise that might be relevant to industry's needs and opportunities; contact federal laboratories/facilities, through visits and other forms of inquiry; prepare formatted profiles (descriptions) potentially applicable work efforts; review findings with industry; and compile and evaluate industry responses.

  7. Oxygen plasma etching of graphene: A first-principles dynamical inspection of the reaction mechanisms and related activation barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Kenichi; Boero, Mauro; Shigeta, Yasuteru; Oshiyama, Atsushi; Dept. of Applied Physics Team; Institute of Physics and Chemistry of Strasbourg (IPCMS) Collaboration; Department Of Materials Engineering Science Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Oxygen plasma etching is a crucial step in the fabrication of electronic circuits and has recently received a renovated interest in view of the realization of carbon-based nanodevices. In an attempt at unraveling the atomic-scale details and to provide guidelines for the control of the etching processes mechanisms, we inspected the possible reaction pathways via reactive first principles simulations. These processes involve breaking and formation of several chemical bonds and are characterized by different free-energy barriers. Free-energy sampling techniques (metadynamics and blue moon), used to enhance the standard Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics, provide us a detailed microscopic picture of the etching of graphene surfaces and a comprehensive scenario of the activation barriers involved in the various steps. MEXT, Japan - contract N. 22104005

  8. Synthesis and Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity of CeO₂ Nanoboxes Based on Pearson’s Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shengsong; Bao, Liwei; Shao, Qian; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Liu, Zingyun

    2017-01-01

    The CeO₂ nanoboxes with well-defined hollow structure were fabricated by template-engaged coordinating etching of Cu₂O cubes based on Pearson’s hard and soft acid-base principle. The morphologically uniform CeO₂ nanoboxes have an average edge length of 400 nm and shell thickness of around 60 nm. The strong chemical affinity between Cu+ and S₂O(2− 3) was the driving force for the etching of Cu₂O templates and the formation of shells. A possible formation mechanism of CeO₂ nanoboxes was proposed. The synthesized CeO₂ nanoboxes exhibit good photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of acid orange 7 (AO 7) under visible light irradiation.

  9. Investigation into the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Moringa stenopetala: identification of the active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-03-01

    The fresh leaves of Moringa stenopetala (family, Moringaceae) are commonly eaten as cabbage while dried leaves are used as nutritional supplement and for treating a variety of disease conditions including diabetes. The present investigation into the therapeutic potential of the leaves and seeds of the plant revealed no inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme up to the concentration of 200 μg/mL but the leaves extract displayed potent DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect (IC50, 59.5 ± 4.1 μg/mL). An activity directed fractionation and isolation procedure resulted in the identification of the major antioxidant compound as rutin and minor active component, neochlorogenic acid. Both the crude extract (0.8-200 μg/mL) and rutin (0.8-200 μM) but not neochlorogenic acid displayed a concentration-dependent protection of human pancreatic β-cells (1.4E7 cells) from oxidant-induced cell death. The identification of these compounds along with their potential role in the nutritional and medicinal significance of the plant is discussed.

  10. Basic Principles of the Activity and Synergetic Approach as a Means of Interdisciplinary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolsunovskaya L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of interdisciplinarity as the main tendency of today’s science to unite the methodology and terminology and adapt them to any academic field in order to achieve more objective results in the study of complex phenomena. This article is a descriptive one and it deals with problems of terms’ interpretations and their adaptation to the anthropocentric research viewed by scientists of different academic schools. The main idea of the article is to find the most relevant and systemic definition of the given terms, which could be used as a tool in further linguistic analysis applied to the coming research of the authors. Special attention is paid to the description of the Activity Theory from different aspects of its interpretation: psychological, sociological, linguistic; to the explanation of the correlation between the epistemic structure of knowledge and an open non-linear synergetic bilateral (conceptual and lexical-semantic system influenced and motivated by processual factors to evolution in the modern discourse as the communicative activity of the interpreter and the constructor of discourse.

  11. Hypolipidemic action of curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, P S; Srinivasan, K

    1997-01-01

    Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were maintained on 0.5% curcumin containing diet for 8 weeks. Blood cholesterol was lowered significantly by dietary curcumin in these diabetic animals. Cholesterol decrease was exclusively from LDL-VLDL fraction. Significant decrease in blood triglyceride and phospholipids was also brought about by dietary curcumin in diabetic rats. In a parallel study, wherein diabetic animals were maintained on a high cholesterol diet, the extents of hypercholesterolemia and phospholipidemia were still higher compared to those maintained on control diet. Curcumin exhibited lowering of cholesterol and phospholipid in these animals also. Liver cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid contents were elevated under diabetic conditions. Dietary curcumin showed a distinct tendency to counter these changes in lipid fractions of liver. This effect of curcumin was also seen in diabetic animals maintained on high cholesterol diet. Dietary curcumin also showed significant countering of renal cholesterol and triglycerides elevated in diabetic rats. In order to understand the mechanism of hypocholesterolemic action of dietary curcumin, activities of hepatic cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase and HMG CoA reductase were measured. Hepatic cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase activity was markedly higher in curcumin fed diabetic animals suggesting a higher rate of cholesterol catabolism.

  12. Protective role of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) an active principle of turmeric on chloroquine induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Amali, D Rosalin

    2005-04-30

    Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) is an antioxidative substance, which is derived from curcumin, the component of turmeric. In the present investigation, the effect of THC and curcumin against chloroquine (CQ) induced hepatotoxicity were studied in female Wistar rats. On single oral administration of CQ (970 mg/kg body weight) the activities of serum marker enzymes namely aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase and the levels of bilirubin were significantly increased with significant alterations of lipids in serum and lipidperoxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides in plasma and liver were also elevated in CQ treated rats. The levels of non-enzymic antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E and reduced glutathione) and enzymic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) were also decreased in CQ treated rats. Administration of THC (80 mg/kg body weight) and curcumin (80 mg/kg body weight) for 8 days before and 7 days after single administration of CQ significantly decreased the activities of serum markers and lipids in serum. In addition, the level of TBARS and hydroperoxides were significantly decreased with significant increase in non-enzymic and enzymic antioxidants on treatment with THC and curcumin. The biochemical observation was supplemented by histopathological examination of liver section. The results of the study reveal that THC shows more pronounced protective effect than curcumin against CQ induced toxicity.

  13. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibition by active principles from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Chi; Lin, Rong-Dih; Chen, Cheng-Tang; Lee, Mei-Hsien

    2005-08-22

    Attenuation of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity may provide protection against oxidative neurodegeneration. For this reason, inhibition of MAO-B activity is used as part of the treatment of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's patients. The hook of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks. (Rubiaceae) is a traditional Chinese herbal drug that is generally used to treat convulsive disorders. In this study, the fractionation and purification of Uncaria rhynchophylla extracts using a bioguided assay isolated two known compounds, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. The compounds inhibited MAO-B, as measured by an assay of rat brain MAO-B separated by electrophoresis on a 7.5% native polyacrylamide gel. The IC(50) values of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were 88.6 and 58.9 microM, respectively, and inhibition occurred in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by the fluorescence method. The Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed K(i) values for (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin of 74 and 21 microM, respectively. This suggests that these two compounds, isolated here for the first time from Uncaria rhynchophylla, might be able to protect against neurodegeneration in vitro, and, therefore, the molecular mechanism deserves further study. This finding may also increase interest in the health benefits of Uncaria rhynchophylla.

  14. Can active learning principles be applied to the bioscience assessments of nursing students? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakon, Shannon; Craft, Judy; Christensen, Martin; Wirihana, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    To explore if active learning principles be applied to nursing bioscience assessments and will this influence student perception of confidence in applying theory to practice? A review of the literature utilising searches of various databases including CINAHL, PUBMED, Google Scholar and Mosby's Journal Index. The literature search identified research from twenty-six original articles, two electronic books, one published book and one conference proceedings paper. Bioscience has been identified as an area that nurses struggle to learn in tertiary institutions and then apply to clinical practice. A number of problems have been identified and explored that may contribute to this poor understanding and retention. University academics need to be knowledgeable of innovative teaching and assessing modalities that focus on enhancing student learning and address the integration issues associated with the theory practice gap. Increased bioscience education is associated with improved patient outcomes therefore by addressing this "bioscience problem" and improving the integration of bioscience in clinical practice there will subsequently be an improvement in health care outcomes. From the literature several themes were identified. First there are many problems with teaching nursing students bioscience education. These include class sizes, motivation, concentration, delivery mode, lecturer perspectives, student's previous knowledge, anxiety, and a lack of confidence. Among these influences the type of assessment employed by the educator has not been explored or identified as a contributor to student learning specifically in nursing bioscience instruction. Second that educating could be achieved more effectively if active learning principles were applied and the needs and expectations of the student were met. Lastly, assessment influences student retention and the student experience and as such assessment should be congruent with the subject content, align with the learning

  15. 77 FR 50462 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Winnebago Industries, Inc., Subzone 107A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Charles City, IA Winnebago Industries, Inc. (Winnebago), operator of Subzone 107A, submitted a notification of proposed production activity for their facilities in Forest City and Charles City, Iowa. The... closing period for their receipt is October 1, 2012. A copy of the notification will be available for...

  16. Determinant factors of industrial purchasing personnel’s adoption of internet for business purchasing related activities

    OpenAIRE

    Shook Mei Chan; Siohong Tih

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to examine a path model and the mediating effect of perceived communication convenience towards explaining industrial purchasing personnel’s Internet adoption for business purchasing related activities. It involves sequencing paths examining the predictive effect of perceived Internet skills and supplier support on perceived communication convenience. Consequently, perceived communication convenience would influence Internet adoption as commun...

  17. Assessment of an active industrial exoskeleton to aid dynamic lifting and lowering manual handling tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysamen, K.; Looze, M.P. de; Bosch, T.; Ortiz, J.; Toxin, S.; O'Sullivan, L.W.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an industrial exoskeleton on muscle activity, perceived musculoskeletal effort, measured and perceived contact pressure at the trunk, thighs and shoulders, and subjective usability for simple sagittal plane lifting and lowering conditions. Twelve

  18. How design-inclusive UXR influenced the integration of project activities. Three design cases from industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kollenburg, J.W.M.; Bogers, S.J.A.; Deckers, E.J.L.; Frens, J.W.; Hummels, C.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how the implementation of design-inclusive User Experience Research (UXR) has influenced the composition of UXR and design activities in the industrial setting of Philips Design. We present three design case studies that were executed in a time span of three years: a baby

  19. Safety- and risk analysis activities in other areas than the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozine, I.; Duijm, N.J.; Lauridsen, K.

    2000-12-01

    The report gives an overview of the legislation within the European Union in the field of major industrial hazards and gives examples of decision criteria applied in a number of European countries when judging the acceptability of an activity. Furthermore, the report mentions a few methods used in the analysis of the safety of chemical installations. (au)

  20. Annual and activity report 2005 - INB - Brazilian Nuclear Industries. Nuclear fuel: technology for the essential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document reports the activities of Brazilian Nuclear Industry company during 2005 as follows: uranium isotope enrichment; production of nuclear fuel; mineral resources; finance and administration; planning and sales; quality, safety and environment, communication and social action; economic and financial management

  1. Physical principles of intracellular organization via active and passive phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Joel; Brangwynne, Clifford P.; Haataja, Mikko

    2018-04-01

    Exciting recent developments suggest that phase transitions represent an important and ubiquitous mechanism underlying intracellular organization. We describe key experimental findings in this area of study, as well as the application of classical theoretical approaches for quantitatively understanding these data. We also discuss the way in which equilibrium thermodynamic driving forces may interface with the fundamentally out-of-equilibrium nature of living cells. In particular, time and/or space-dependent concentration profiles may modulate the phase behavior of biomolecules in living cells. We suggest future directions for both theoretical and experimental work that will shed light on the way in which biological activity modulates the assembly, properties, and function of viscoelastic states of living matter.

  2. Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus: A Preliminary South African Health Promotion Activity Using Service-Learning Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Sunitha C; Paphitis, Sharli Anne

    2016-06-01

    A marked increase in the chronic non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus in the South African population is in concert with global trends. A health promotion activity carried out by pharmacy students for school learners during the Sasol National Festival of Science and Technology (SciFest) in South Africa was used as a service-learning opportunity. Pilot tested quizzes on hypertension and diabetes were used to determine the level of knowledge of attendees before and after taking the computer based quiz. Posters, information leaflets and interactive models on these two conditions were also used to reach out to the larger population. Of the 203 participants for the hypertension quiz, 169 completed both the pre- and post-intervention quizzes. Similarly, 86 of the 104 participants for the diabetes quiz, completed both the pre- and post-intervention quizzes. The results show that the post-intervention quiz resulted in a significant increase in the scores from 78.2 to 85.6 % in the case of Hypertension while a marginal increase from 94.2 to 95.5 % was obtained in the case of diabetes. The knowledge of the SciFest attendees with regard to both conditions is above average and improved further after the educational intervention. Health promotion activities which include interactive educational methods and culturally appropriate materials carried out by pharmacy students during service-learning courses are important for improving the awareness on the prevention of these chronic health conditions. Heath promotion service-learning courses can assist in addressing the health care gaps which arise because of a lack of co-ordinated efforts between NGO's and local Government to address the prevention and management of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  3. Mosquito adulticidal activity of the leaf extracts of Spondias mombin L. against Aedes aegypti L. and isolation of active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaegbu, Elijah Eze; Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Chijoke, Ikemefuna Uzochukwu; Okoye, Festus Basden Chiedu

    2016-03-01

    Aedes aegypti is a domestic mosquito and one of the primary vectors for dengue and yellow fever. Since, it is a vector of deadly diseases, its control becomes essential. Medicinal plants may be an alternative to adulticidal agents since they contain rich source of bioactive compounds. This study was designed to determine the adulticidal activity of Spondias mombin leaf methanol crude extract, n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions against female adults of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes and isolate active compound(s) responsible for the bioactivity. All leaf extract and fractions were evaluated for adulticidal activity against Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The dichloromethane fraction was further purified being the most active fraction using silica gel column chromatography and the active compounds were identified with the aid of HPLC and LC-ESI-MS/MS. The LC50 and LC90 were determined by Probit analysis. Dichloromethane fraction was the most effective fraction with LC50 value of 2172.815 μg/ml. Compounds identified were mainly ellagic acid and 1-O-Galloyl-6-O-luteoyl-α-D-glucose. The S. mombin leaf extracts and fractions proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable adulticide, alternative to synthetic adulticide.

  4. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Yoon Shin; Cho, Yong-Sung; Yun, Seong-Taek; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (I geo), calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution. PMID:22645468

  5. 'Maximising shareholder value': a detailed insight into the corporate political activity of the Australian food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary

    2017-04-01

    To gain deeper insight into the corporate political activity (CPA) of the Australian food industry from a public health perspective. Fifteen interviews with a purposive sample of current and former policy makers, public health advocates and academics who have closely interacted with food industry representatives or observed food industry behaviours. All participants reported having directly experienced the CPA of the food industry during their careers, with the 'information and messaging' and 'constituency building' strategies most prominent. Participants expressed concern that food industry CPA strategies resulted in weakened policy responses to addressing diet-related disease. This study provides direct evidence of food industry practices that have the potential to shape public health-related policies and programs in Australia in ways that favour business interests at the expense of population health. Implications for public health: This evidence can inform policy makers and public health advocates and be used to adopt measures to ensure that public interests are put at the forefront as part of the policy development and implementation process. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanul Kabir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo, calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution.

  7. The status of nuclear industry Cost Beneficial Licensing Actions (CBLA) activities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, A.M.; Sokolsky, D.

    1995-05-01

    The project addressed in this report investigated the status of nuclear utility industry Cost Beneficial Licensing Action (CBLA) and Commitment Reduction (CR) activities. The CBLA program was a recent NRC initiative to enable utilities to revise regulatory commitments that have minimal safety impact and have but have been costly to implement. The project determined that approximately half of the utilities in the industry have formal programs to address this issue and that the programs implemented to date have had mixed results: some utilities benefited greatly and others only achieved minimal rewards. The project also determined that there are some significant factors that impact the potential for success of such programs. These factors include the level of management involvement and support, the level of resources dedicated to CBLA/CR activities, and the willingness of the utility to pursue issues that previously had not been considered. In addition, the overall success of the industry efforts will be highly dependent upon the effectiveness of the respective assigned NRR Project Manager, NRC's newly formed CBLA Task Group, and the NRC's ability to effect a mechanism to provide real value added for those submittals made to the Commission that are designated as CBLA submittals. It is anticipated that the next 12 months will be critical to the success or failure of industry CBLA/CR efforts as the industry begins to use an NEI process designed to facilitate the evaluation of CBLA/CR issues and the NRC CBLA Task Group begins to function in a routine manner

  8. ACHIEVING ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH TQM PRINCIPLES IN DEVELOPING INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY OF PALM OIL MERCHANDISING BUSINESS IN CROSS RIVER STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Mojtahedzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As a developing country, economic and environmental performance has to be balanced in India. Green supply chain management (GSCM is emerging as an important proactive approach for Indian enterprises forimproving environmental performance of processes and products in accordance with the requirements of environmental regulations. This study examines the consistency approaches by confirmatory factor analysis that determines the construct validity, convergent validity, construct reliability and internal consistency of the items of Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM requirements. This study examines the consistency approaches by Confirmatory factor analysis that determines the adoption and implementation of Sustainable supply chain management activities in small & medium scale industries. The requirements include Management commitment, customer coordination, sustainable design & production, green procurement and eco logistics for sustainable supply chains. This study suggested that the five factor model with eighteen items of the sustainable supply chain design had a good fit. Further, the study showed a valid and reliable measurement to identify critical items among the requirements of sustainable supply chains.

  9. Storage in pressurized cylinders of Kr adsorbed on activated carbon. Fundamental principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrion, P.N.; Greff, J.F. de; Claes, W.; Leurs, A.

    1979-01-01

    Pressure of a few kg/cm 2 cause considerable adsorption of krypton on charcoal. In presence of this adsorbent, the aspects of krypton storage in a pressurized cylinder are modified in such a way that, eventually, a simplified engineered storage can be based on this procedure. As fission krypton generates heat and since the amount adsorbed is a function of temperature and pressure, there is no easy way of assessing the value of this concept. The purpose of this study was therefore to review the types of charcoal commercially available to examine their properties as adsorbents, as well as the thermal conductivity and the packing efficiency obtainable in beds made of these materials. The ways in which data are measured or estimated are explained in some detail. Heat transfer was evaluated by a simple mathematical model and, by means of selected values from the above data, realistic examples were treated, leading to explicit relationships between wall temperature, pressure and useful krypton load. Influence of krypton specific activity ( 85 Kr dilution) was also examined. The pressure vessels diameter is however of fundamental importance. The authors strongly recommend the use of specially designed, light-weight, relatively narrow pressure cylinders

  10. Antibacterial activity of Nigella sativa seed essential oil and effect of different extraction methods on content its active principle, thymoquinone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokoška, L.; Havlík, J.; Valterová, Irena; Sovová, Helena; Sajfrtová, Marie; Maršík, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 11 (2006), s. 1008 ISSN 0032-0943. [Annual Congress on Medicinal Plant Research. 29.08.2006-02.09.2006, Helsinki] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/06/1174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antibacterial activity * Nigella * extraction * thymoquinone Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  11. A Study on an Executive Technique and Activation of Clean Production in Chemical Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Seong Yong; Lee, Hee Seok; Kim, Kang Seok [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Clean production does not only make the sustainable development possible through preventing the deterioration of the environmental pollution from the expansion of industrialization but also enhance the company's competitiveness. Clean production is required by all industrial fields but is the most important in chemical industry. The Government has made efforts to change the domestic industrial structure to the environmental-friendly structure through developing the research. However, the domestic industry has not yet activated overall except some large companies, which has concretized the activation of clean production. Especially, the medium and small companies are more sluggish due to the inferiority of capital and technology. With recognizing that the main body of clean production is a company, the effort based on the Government and the academic world, without companies' positive, will cannot help being limited in effects. Therefore, it is necessary to trigger the schemes that urge the companies' motivation to show the effects from the support that have concentrated in hardware like technology until now. It seems to be very important that the guidebook for clean production, which a company can easily adopt, is developed and spread. This report provides the guidebook for clean production that managers and engineers can easily understand and approach in a producing field and presents the scheme to promote clean production, for chemical industry that is seriously required clean production. Even if the presented contents are not perfect, they can be applied to the development of the Government's policy and the administrative activities of companies for clean production as a useful data. 53 refs., 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  12. Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa), ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sameer; Kulkarni, Shrinivas K; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2006-10-01

    Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes leads to the overproduction of free radicals and evidence is increasing that these contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Among the spices, turmeric (Curcuma longa) is used as a flavouring and colouring agent in the indian diet every day and is known to possess anti-oxidant properties. The present study was designed to examine the effect of curcumin, a yellow pigment of turmeric, on renal function and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg) in rats. Four weeks after STZ injection, rats were divided into four groups, namely control rats, diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated with curcumin (15 and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) for 2 weeks. Renal function was assessed by creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and urea clearance and urine albumin excretion. Oxidative stress was measured by renal malonaldehyde, reduced glutathione and the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. Streptozotocin-injected rats showed significant increases in blood glucose, polyuria and a decrease in bodyweight compared with age-matched control rats. After 6 weeks, diabetic rats also exhibited renal dysfunction, as evidenced by reduced creatinine and urea clearance and proteinuria, along with a marked increase in oxidative stress, as determined by lipid peroxidation and activities of key anti-oxidant enzymes. Chronic treatment with curcumin significantly attenuated both renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. These results provide confirmatory evidence of oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy and point towards the possible anti-oxidative mechanism being responsible for the nephroprotective action of curcumin.

  13. PRINSIP HAKIM AKTIF DALAM PERKARA PERDATA / The Principle of Active Judge in Civil Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarto Sunarto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Keadilan harus dengan tegas ditegakkan. Tuntutan tersebut tidak memungkinkan untuk dimodifikasi karena penegakan keadilan sangat berhubungan dengan penegakan hak. Paradigma umum dalam melihat hukum acara perdata menempatkan Hakim bersifat pasif dalam menjalankan tugas dan fungsinya. Meskipun begitu terdapat keadaan-keadaan yang memposisikan hakim agar aktif menyelesaikan perkara perdata. Hal itu dapat terlihat pada penerapan Pasal 119 HIR pada saat Ketua Pengadilan Negeri memberikan bantuan berupa nasehat serta bantuan yang berhubungan dengan formalitas atau syarat-syarat gugatan agar gugatan dapat diterima dan memenuhi syarat-syarat formalitas gugatan kepada penggugat atau kuasanya. Selain itu, Pasal 130 HIR / Pasal 154 RBG, diwajibkan agar Ketua Pengadilan Negeri berusaha mendamaikan kedua belah pihak yang berperkara. Selanjutnya pada Pasal 132 HIR / Pasal 156 RBG, Hakim memiliki peranan aktif untuk menginformasikan kepada kedua belah pihak yang berperkara dan memberikan penjelasan kepada para pihak yang berperkara tentang adanya hak untuk melakukan upaya hukum serta hak untuk mengajukan alat-alat bukti di persidangan.   The Justice must be firmly maintained. This demand can not be modified due to it was closely related to the rights enforcement. The common paradigm in civil code perception makes judges passively work in civil cases handling. It can be seen in Article 119 HIR when the general court chief judge give a support as advice and help related to the formality or the terms of the lawsuit for the strike to be acceptable and meets the requirements of formality lawsuit against the plaintiff or attorney. Moreover, Article 130 HIR / RBG Article 154, required that general court chief judge attempted to reconcile the two parties litigant. Furthermore, in Article 132 HIR / RBG Article 156, the Judge has an active role to inform both litigants and provide an explanation to the litigants of their rights to take legal actions and the right to

  14. Analysis of the corporate political activity of major food industry actors in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Wate, Jillian; Tukana, Isimeli; Sacks, Gary

    2016-05-10

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of mortality in Fiji, a middle-income country in the Pacific. Some food products processed sold and marketed by the food industry are major contributors to the NCD epidemic, and the food industry is widely identified as having strong economic and political power. However, little research has been undertaken on the attempts by the food industry to influence public health-related policies and programs in its favour. The "corporate political activity" (CPA) of the food industry includes six strategies (information and messaging; financial incentives; constituency building; legal strategies; policy substitution; opposition fragmentation and destabilisation). For this study, we aimed to gain a detailed understanding of the CPA strategies and practices of major food industry actors in Fiji, interpreted through a public health lens. We implemented a systematic approach to monitor the CPA of the food industry in Fiji for three months. It consisted of document analysis of relevant publicly available information. In parallel, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 stakeholders involved in diet- and/or public health-related issues in Fiji. Both components of the study were thematically analysed. We found evidence that the food industry adopted a diverse range of strategies in an attempt to influence public policy in Fiji, with all six CPA strategies identified. Participants identified that there is a substantial risk that the widespread CPA of the food industry could undermine efforts to address NCDs in Fiji. Despite limited public disclosure of information, such as data related to food industry donations to political parties and lobbying, we were able to identify many CPA practices used by the food industry in Fiji. Greater transparency from the food industry and the government would help strengthen efforts to increase their accountability and support NCD prevention. In other low- and middle-income countries, it

  15. Experience gained upon industrial application of on-line activation analysis in flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.; Riffel, F.

    1979-01-01

    At the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center an anlyzer was developed which allows continuous evaluation of the valuable minerals content in process streams. Experience is reported which has been gathered in several weeks of industrial application in a fluorspar flotation plant, the first industrial scale application of on-line activation analysis in Europe. The use has shown that with the equipment presented on-line monitoring with the desired accuracy is possible of all the strategically important points. This is of considerable importance for the economy of the process. (orig.) [de

  16. The Sectorial Code - an inquiry into the contemporary sector development activities in the Danish construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing

    development towards modular system deliverances in the industry. The consequence of this belief was that the initiative did not engage in activities which aimed to anchor its strategic orientation through organised community building or political agenda setting. Modularization as a sectorial development...... to be developed and implemented in the industry. Building Lab on the other hand diagnosed the symptoms as the effects of an under modularized production environment characterized by project specific problem solving and short term collaboration that hindered organization specialization and innovation...

  17. Exploiting biological activities of brown seaweed Ecklonia cava for potential industrial applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, W A J P; Jeon, You-Jin

    2012-03-01

    Seaweeds are rich in vitamins, minerals, dietary fibres, proteins, polysaccharides and various functional polyphenols. Many researchers have focused on brown algae as a potential source of bioactive materials in the past few decades. Ecklonia cava is a brown seaweed that is abundant in the subtidal regions of Jeju Island in the Republic of Korea. This seaweed attracted extensive interest due to its multiple biological activities. E. cava has been identified as a potential producer of wide spectrum of natural substances such as carotenoids, fucoidans and phlorotannins showing different biological activities in vital industrial applications including pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and functional food. This review focuses on biological activities of the brown seaweed E. cava based on latest research results, including antioxidant, anticoagulative, antimicrobial, antihuman immunodeficiency virus, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antimutagenic, antitumour and anticancer effects. The facts summarized here may provide novel insights into the functions of E. cava and its derivatives and potentially enable their use as functional ingredients in potential industrial applications.

  18. The transports in the French Plutonium Industry. A high risk activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This study throws light on the scale of transport of plutonium in France nuclear industry, an activity involving quantities of high risk materials often unknown to the public. The study is a significantly extended update of the one carried out by WISE-Paris in 1995 for the Plutonium Forum. It was motivated by important developments in the French plutonium industry and the publication of numerous data concerning transport activities since 1995. The 2003 study presents, in particular, all of the flows of plutonium crossing France every year, as well as analysis of the risks associated with this particular transport activity. Putting these data into perspective in terms of a rapidly and permanently changing political and industrial context, and a description of the regulatory framework within which shipments of plutonium take place, serve as a guide and source of reference to help readers better understand the issues. The importance of transport in the plutonium ''chain'', i.e. the stages corresponding to various industrial processes, is often under-estimated, even by the nuclear industry itself. Transport is, in fact, the activity which involves the greatest quantities of plutonium in the entire nuclear chain. Plutonium, produced during the fission reactions in the cores of nuclear reactors, is transported, contained in the irradiated fuel, to the facilities at La Hague where reprocessing separates it from the other radioactive components of the spent fuel. Part of the plutonium, now isolated in powder form, is then shipped to one of the three plants able to produce the fuel known as MOX. These are located at Cadarache and Marcoule, in France, and at Dessel in Belgium. Once in the MOX form, this plutonium has to be re-transported to reactor sites to be used. Once irradiated, the spent MOX will return to the La Hague installations to be stored for an unknown period; the plutonium contained in the spent MOX is not, at present, destined to be re

  19. The transports in the French Plutonium Industry. A high risk activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This study throws light on the scale of transport of plutonium in France nuclear industry, an activity involving quantities of high risk materials often unknown to the public. The study is a significantly extended update of the one carried out by WISE-Paris in 1995 for the Plutonium Forum. It was motivated by important developments in the French plutonium industry and the publication of numerous data concerning transport activities since 1995. The 2003 study presents, in particular, all of the flows of plutonium crossing France every year, as well as analysis of the risks associated with this particular transport activity. Putting these data into perspective in terms of a rapidly and permanently changing political and industrial context, and a description of the regulatory framework within which shipments of plutonium take place, serve as a guide and source of reference to help readers better understand the issues. The importance of transport in the plutonium ''chain'', i.e. the stages corresponding to various industrial processes, is often under-estimated, even by the nuclear industry itself. Transport is, in fact, the activity which involves the greatest quantities of plutonium in the entire nuclear chain. Plutonium, produced during the fission reactions in the cores of nuclear reactors, is transported, contained in the irradiated fuel, to the facilities at La Hague where reprocessing separates it from the other radioactive components of the spent fuel. Part of the plutonium, now isolated in powder form, is then shipped to one of the three plants able to produce the fuel known as MOX. These are located at Cadarache and Marcoule, in France, and at Dessel in Belgium. Once in the MOX form, this plutonium has to be re-transported to reactor sites to be used. Once irradiated, the spent MOX will return to the La Hague installations to be stored for an unknown period; the plutonium contained in the spent MOX is not, at present, destined to be re-used. (author)

  20. Sponsorship of physical activity programs by the sweetened beverages industry: public health or public relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Luis; Jacoby, Enrique; Ibarra, Lorena; Lucumí, Diego; Hernandez, Alexandra; Parra, Diana; Florindo, Alex; Hallal, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    The growing evidence on the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity and other chronic diseases has highlighted the need to implement policy actions that go beyond programs exclusively focused on individual responsibility. In order to protect their commercial goals in Latin America, the sugar-sweetened beverage industry practices intense lobbying at high government levels in several countries across the region. This strategy is accompanied by corporate social responsibility programs that fund initiatives promoting physical activity. These efforts, although appearing altruistic, are intended to improve the industry's public image and increase political influence in order to block regulations counter to their interests. If this industry wants to contribute to human well being, as it has publicly stated, it should avoid blocking legislative actions intended to regulate the marketing, advertising and sale of their products.

  1. In Vivo Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activity of Hydro-Ethanolic Extract and Isolated Active Principles from Aristeguietia glutinosa and Mechanism of Action Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Varela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The currently available treatments for Chagas disease show limited therapeutic potential and are associated with serious side effects. Attempting to find alternative drugs isolated from Nature as agents against Trypanosoma cruzi has been our goal. Recently, we have demonstrated the in vitro anti-T. cruzi activities of two secondary metabolites isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa (Lam., (family Asteraceae. These active principles displayed poor hemolytic activity, low toxicity against murine macrophages, and absence of mutagenicity. Herein, proof of concept in vivo studies of the whole hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa and of the most active component isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract, i.e., (+-15-hydroxy-7-labden-17-al, was done in a murine acute model of Chagas disease. Both treatments caused a decrease in the animals’ parasitemia. Metabolomic mechanism of action studies were done by 1H-NMR, both on the extract and on the active compounds, examining the effects of the metabolites both on membrane sterol biosynthesis and mitochondrial dehydrogenases, whereby we found that one of the metabolites inhibited the activity of the parasite mitochondrial dehydrogenases and the other inhibited the biosynthesis of parasite membrane sterols. The results are interesting in the context of popular use of plants for the treatment of Chagas disease.

  2. Antifungal, Antileishmanial, and Cytotoxicity Activities of Various Extracts of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae) and Its Active Principle Berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Sepahvand, Asghar; Sharififar, Fariba; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Gorohi, Fatemeh; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in vitro antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum was studied by disk diffusion test and assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using CLSI broth macrodilution method (M38-A2). Moreover, antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of B. vulgaris and berberine against promastigotes of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were evaluated by colorimetric MTT assay. The findings indicated that the various extracts of B. vulgaris particularly berberine showed high potential antidermatophytic against pathogenic dermatophytes tested with MIC values varying from 0.125 to >4 mg/mL. The results revealed that B. vulgaris extracts as well as berberine were effective in inhibiting L. major and L. tropica promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values varying from 2.1 to 26.6  μ g/mL. Moreover, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50% of cells) values varying from 27.3 to 362.6  μ g/mL. Results of this investigation were the first step in the search for new antidermatophytic and antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in animal models as well as volunteer human subjects.

  3. Isocyanatocyclohexane and isothiocyanatocyclohexane levels in urban and industrial areas and possible emission-related activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, E.; Roca, F. X.; Perales, F.; Ribes, A.; Carrera, G.; Guardino, X.; Berenguer, M. J.

    Isocyanatocyclohexane and isothiocyanatocyclohexane are becoming relevant compounds in urban and industrial air, as they are used in important amounts in automobile industry and building insulation, as well as in the manufacture of foams, rubber, paints and varnishes. Glass multi-sorbent tubes (Carbotrap, Carbopack, Carboxen) were connected to LCMA-UPC pump samplers for the retention of iso- and isothiocyanatocyclohexanes. The analysis was performed by automatic thermal desorption (ATD) coupled with capillary gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry detector (MSD). TD-GC/MS was chosen as analytical method due to its versatility and the possibility of analysis of a wide range of volatility and polarity VOC in air samples. The method was satisfactory sensitive, selective and reproducible for the studied compounds. The concentrations of iso- and isothioisocyanatocyclohexanes were evaluated in different urban, residential and industrial locations from extensive VOC air quality and odour episode studies in several cities in the Northeastern edge of Spain. Around 200-300 VOC were determined qualitatively in each sample. Higher values of iso- and isothiocyanatocyclohexane were found in industrial areas than in urban or residential locations. The concentrations ranged between n.d.-246 and n.d.-29 μg m -3 for isocyanatocyclohexane and isothiocyanatocyclohexane, respectively, for industrial areas. On the other hand, urban and residential locations showed concentrations ranging between n.d.-164 and n.d.-29 μg m -3 for isocyanatocyclohexane and isothiocyanatocyclohexane, respectively. The site location (urban or industrial), the kind and nearness of possible iso- and isothiocyanatocyclohexane emission activities (industrial or building construction) and the changes of wind regimes throughout the year have been found the most important factors influencing the concentrations of these compounds in the different places.

  4. First-Principles Quantum Dynamics of Singlet Fission: Coherent versus Thermally Activated Mechanisms Governed by Molecular π Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroyuki; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Burghardt, Irene; Olivier, Yoann; Beljonne, David

    2015-09-01

    Singlet excitons in π -stacked molecular crystals can split into two triplet excitons in a process called singlet fission that opens a route to carrier multiplication in photovoltaics. To resolve controversies about the mechanism of singlet fission, we have developed a first principles nonadiabatic quantum dynamical model that reveals the critical role of molecular stacking symmetry and provides a unified picture of coherent versus thermally activated singlet fission mechanisms in different acenes. The slip-stacked equilibrium packing structure of pentacene derivatives is found to enhance ultrafast singlet fission mediated by a coherent superexchange mechanism via higher-lying charge transfer states. By contrast, the electronic couplings for singlet fission strictly vanish at the C2 h symmetric equilibrium π stacking of rubrene. In this case, singlet fission is driven by excitations of symmetry-breaking intermolecular vibrations, rationalizing the experimentally observed temperature dependence. Design rules for optimal singlet fission materials therefore need to account for the interplay of molecular π -stacking symmetry and phonon-induced coherent or thermally activated mechanisms.

  5. Effect of pressure on Zircon's (ZrSiO4) Raman active modes: a first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremetyeva, Natalya; Cherniak, Daniele; Watson, Bruce; Meunier, Vincent

    Zircon is a mineral commonly found in the Earth crust. Its remarkable properties have given rise to considerable attention. This includes possible inclusion of radioactive elements in natural samples, which allows for geochronological investigations. Subsequently, Zircon was proposed as possible host material for radioactive waste management. Internal radiation damage in zircon leads to the destruction of its crystal structure (an effect known as metamictization) which is subject to ongoing research. Recently, the effect of pressure and temperature on synthetic zircon has been analyzed experimentally using Raman spectroscopy which led to the calibration of zircon as a pressure sensor in diamond-anvil cell experiments. While there have been a number of theoretical studies, the effect of pressure on the Raman active modes of zircon has not been investigated theoretically. Here we present a first-principles pressure calibration of the Raman active modes in Zircon employing density-functional theory (DFT). We find excellent quantitative agreement of the slopes ∂ω / ∂P with the experimental ones and are able to rationalize the ω vs. P behavior based on the details of the vibrational modes.

  6. A hybrid active filter for damping of harmonic resonance in industrial power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Hideaki; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Akagi, Hirofumi

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid active filter for damping of harmonic resonance in industrial power systems. The hybrid filter consists of a small-rated active filter and a 5th tuned passive filter. The active filter is characterized by detecting the 5th harmonic current flowing into the passive filter. It is controlled in such a way as to behave as a negative or positive resistor by adjusting a feedback gain from a negative to positive value, and vice versa. The negative resistor presented by t...

  7. Strategies for Implementing Activity-Based Costing in the UK Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Wai Ming; Tan, Kian; Tan, Swee; Sutton, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the findings with a case study on why activity based costing lacks impact in the UK manufacturing industry. Activity based costing was performed on selected MT range subsystems of an electrical power generator to compare with the current UNN UK’s conven-tional costing system. The results have found that the current costing system works well for the MT products and thus change of costing system is not necessary for these products. The activity based costi...

  8. Cathinone, an active principle of Catha edulis, accelerates oxidative stress in the limbic area of swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safhi, Mohammed M; Alam, Mohammad Firoz; Hussain, Sohail; Hakeem Siddiqui, Mohammed Abdul; Khuwaja, Gulrana; Jubran Khardali, Ibrahim Abdu; Al-Sanosi, Rashad Mohammed; Islam, Fakhrul

    2014-10-28

    Cathinone hydrochloride is an active principle of the khat plant (Catha edulis) that produces pleasurable and stimulating effects in khat chewers. To the best of our knowledge no data of cathinone on oxidative stress in limbic areas of mice is available. This is the first study of cathinone on oxidative stress in limbic areas of the brain in Swiss albino male mice. The animals were divided into four groups. Group-I was the control group and received vehicle, while groups-II to IV received (-)-cathinone hydrochloride (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg body wt., i.p.) once daily for 15 days. The level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was elevated dose-dependently and was significant (p<0.05, p<0.01) with doses of 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg body wt. of cathinone as compared to control group. In contrast, the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) was decreased significantly (p<0.01, p<0.001) with doses of 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg body wt. of cathinone as compared to control group. The activity of antioxidant enzymes (GPx, GR, GST, CAT, and SOD) was also decreased dose-dependently: the decreased activity of GPx, GR, catalase and SOD was significant with doses of 0.25 and 0.5 mg of cathinone as compared to control group, while the activity of GST was decreased dose-dependently and was significant with 0.5mg of cathinone as compared to control group. The results indicate that the cathinone generated oxidative stress hampered antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Market development for active solar thermal systems (ASTS) in the institutional, commercial and industrial (ICI) sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The market potential for active solar thermal systems in the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors of the Canadian economy was investigated, the objective being to identify markets and to prepare action plans as the foundation for developing these markets by Natural Resources Canada and the industry. In the process of researching the market, barriers to market development in these sectors of the economy were also identified as well as actions to overcome these barriers. Nine potential applications were modelled to determine their energy, economic and environmental performance. Of these four attractive applications have been selected for more detailed treatment. Separate action plans have been developed for Natural Resources Canada, the Canadian Solar Industries Association and the active solar thermal industry. The close cooperation of all three partners is considered essential for a successful marketing effort. A marketing plan which gives due consideration to the product, planning, packaging, price and promotion, is also considered to be a vital ingredient, as is a meticulous follow-up on 'leads' created by exposure to the target market. Solarwall'TM' for preheating of ventilation air to new school buildings and solar domestic hot water heating for camp grounds have been identified as the most attractive candidates for marketing at this time. Highlights of marketing plans for these two options are included for purposes of illustrating the essential ingredients of marketing plans. 1 fig

  10. Influence of agricultural activities, forest fires and agro-industries on air quality in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phairuang, Worradorn; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Furuuchi, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Annual and monthly-based emission inventories in northern, central and north-eastern provinces in Thailand, where agriculture and related agro-industries are very intensive, were estimated to evaluate the contribution of agricultural activity, including crop residue burning, forest fires and related agro-industries on air quality monitored in corresponding provinces. The monthly-based emission inventories of air pollutants, or, particulate matter (PM), NOx and SO 2 , for various agricultural crops were estimated based on information on the level of production of typical crops: rice, corn, sugarcane, cassava, soybeans and potatoes using emission factors and other parameters related to country-specific values taking into account crop type and the local residue burning period. The estimated monthly emission inventory was compared with air monitoring data obtained at monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, Thailand (PCD) for validating the estimated emission inventory. The agro-industry that has the greatest impact on the regions being evaluated, is the sugar processing industry, which uses sugarcane as a raw material and its residue as fuel for the boiler. The backward trajectory analysis of the air mass arriving at the PCD station was calculated to confirm this influence. For the provinces being evaluated which are located in the upper northern, lower northern and northeast in Thailand, agricultural activities and forest fires were shown to be closely correlated to the ambient PM concentration while their contribution to the production of gaseous pollutants is much less. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Analysis of antitrust activity in the coal industry: 1964-1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Antitrust activity in the coal industry from 1964 to 1974 is studied for two major areas: 1) acquisitions and mergers, which involve the structure of the industry; and 2) price fixing, bid rigging, and customer allocations, which deal with the behavior of the industry. The government is criticized for the lack of antitrust activity during this time period. Offences of the antitrust laws by suppliers of fuel could have a chain-reaction effect on all commodity prices, because artificially high fuel prices could force other industries to increase their prices. Several recommendations are made: 1) a special section in both the Justice Department and the Federal Trade Commission should be established to handle violations of the antitrust laws occurring in the ''energy market''; 2) nolo contendere pleas and other forms of a consent settlement should be denied as an option for any energy concern accused of transgressing the antitrust laws; 3) all known coal reserves in the U.S. should be rationalized and placed under the supervision of the Federal Energy Administration; 4) a National reporting system for the ownership of coal reserves should be established; and 5) public regulatory commissions should be encouraged to order electric utilities to file private suits when anti-competitive conduct is suspected by coal suppliers. (26 references) (BYB)

  12. Export and import activity of the wine industry: tendencies, current risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Svitlana Anatoliyivna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies state of wine industry’s export-import activity, analyzes tendencies, which provide to reveal peculiar regulations andmain modern risks, which are necessary to be considered for appropriate level of the sector export capability. Export-import activity of wine industry is analyzed; capacity dynamics and market openness degree are estimated. It has been proved that redulatory impact on the winemaking and wine industry development has to be based, on the onehand, on the work with consumer, forming his national awareness of the domestic production from wine industry, and on the other hand, on the country import restructuring. Development of the wine industry state support in Ukraine, considering the world experience, is an important step to form the market of grape and its products, which is characterized with losing tendency. The revealed tendency concerning import price prevail over export, requires special measures for contraction. The main tools to fight with European wine producers for Ukrainian consumer to increase quality, creative, budgets increase for direct access to consumer via winery tasty rooms, tourists’ involvement to vineyards and productive capacities, including to the tourist routes. Therefore the main purpose is necessity for native consumer’s upbringing, wine culture growing, to teach to make considerable choice, but not a choice in favor of foreign container.

  13. Novel synthesis of nanosilver particles using plant active principle aloin and evaluation of their cytotoxic effect against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thota Venkata Chaitanya Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a reliable, eco-friendly and easy process for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aloin, the active principle of medicinal plant ‘Aloe vera ’ and to evaluate antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, a causative organism of most of the diseases in livestock and to standardize the level of safety of synthesized silver nanoparticles. Methods: Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometry, DLS technique, FT-IR and SEM. Tube dilution method was carried out to evaluate the MIC of the compound against S. aureus. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the level of safety of nanoparticles. Results: UV-vis absorption spectrum showed a maximum absorption around 200 nm for aloin mediated silver nanoparticles (ANS. The size of the particles as measured by DLS technique was 67.8 nm. The results of FT-IR analysis indicated the involvement of hydroxyl, carboxyl, amine and nitrile groups in the synthesis and stabilization of aloin mediated silver nanoparticles. SEM images showed that ANS with cubical, rectangular, triangular and spherical morphology and measured sizes of the agglomerated nanoparticles are in a range of 287.5 to 293.2 nm, however the average size of an individual particle is estimated to be approximately 70 nm. The compound (ANS showed a MIC of 21.8 ng/mL against S. aureus and showed an in vitro spleenocyte viability of more than 80% at the highest concentration of 87.5 mg/L per well. Conclusions: Aloin consists of functional groups which reduced Ag+ ions to Ago ions and helped in synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesis process has further enhanced the antimicrobial activity of nanosilver. The compound is also proved to be safe at the level many times higher than the MIC.

  14. Charter of good practices in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document describes good practices in the field of industrial radiography. After having presented the main prevention and radiation protection principles, the actors inside and outside of the company, and actors intervening during an operation subcontracting in industrial radiography, this report analyzes the activity: prerequisites for work preparation, prevention coordination, work preparation, transportation, work achievement, return on experience. It addresses personnel training and information, and the dosimetric and medical monitoring of technicians in industrial radiography. Some aspects are addressed in appendix: principles (justification, optimization, and limitation), regulations, intervention form, exposure form, and so on

  15. Synergy between research activity and management procedures in an industrial waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertanza, G.; Collivignarelli, M.C.; Zanaboni, S.

    2006-01-01

    The optimization of operation criteria for centralized industrial waste treatment plants is a difficult task. Experimental research can be a useful tool for understanding how to carry out this optimization process; however, in order to obtain proper solution, a very close connection must been observed activity and the field (e.g. practical application at the full scale). In this paper a three years successful experience is described: the research was carried out in an industrial waste treatment facility located in Northern Italy. Thanks to a close interaction between management and research activities, a significant synergy was achieved: in fact, interesting and original suggestions for the research arose from plant monitoring, and the first findings of the research have already led to important improvements in the full scale plant management [it

  16. LWRS II&C Industry and Regulatory Engagement Activities for FY 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Thomas

    2011-09-01

    To ensure broad industry support and coordination for the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Controls (II&C) Systems Technologies research pathway, an engagement process will be continually pursued with nuclear asset owners, vendors, and suppliers, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the major industry support organizations of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), and Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). Nuclear asset owner engagement is a necessary and enabling activity to obtain data and accurate characterization of long-term operational challenges, assess the suitability of proposed research for addressing long-term needs, and gain access to data and representative infrastructure and expertise needed to ensure success of the proposed research and development (R&D) activities. Engagement with vendors and suppliers will ensure that vendor expectations and needs can be translated into requirements that can be met through technology commercialization.

  17. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Las Casas, Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    Several methods are used In the pollutant removal from Industrial and domestic wastewater. However when the degradation of toxic organic pollutants, mainly the recalcitrant is objectified, the conventional treatments usually do not meet the desirable performance in the elimination or decrease the impact when the effluent are released to the environment what takes to the research of alternative methods that seek the improvement of the efficiency of the wastewater treatment systems jointly employees or separately. This work presents a study of degradation/removal of pollutants organic compounds comparing two methods using radiation from industrial electron beam and granular activated carbon (GAC). The removal efficiency of the pollutants was evaluated and it was verified that the efficiency of adsorption with activated carbon is similar to the radiation method. The obtained results allowed to evaluated the relative costs of these methods. (author)

  18. Efficiency principles of consulting entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz Yustina S.; Drozdov Igor N.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the primary goals and problems of consulting entrepreneurship. The principles defining efficiency of entrepreneurship in the field of consulting are generalized. The special attention is given to the importance of ethical principles of conducting consulting entrepreneurship activity.

  19. ANALYSIS AND UNDERSTANDING OF KEY MARKETING CONCEPTS MARKETING ACTIVITIES ORGANIZED WITHIN THE FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Adina Pastiu

    2011-01-01

    Marketing in its hypostasis: optical and economic design, practice science andart, it appears and develops in the context of a competitive economy, as a necessity ofbusiness success. These considerations and not only determined us researching its directsteps: business to business, and to identify characteristics of marketing activities undertakenby companies in competitive markets. In this paper we follow, based on research carried outon a sample of 160 statistical units (footwear industry co...

  20. Tobacco Industry Political Activity and Tobacco Control Policy Making in Washington: 1996-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Meredith L. BA; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    • After making substantial progress on tobacco control in the mid-1990s, the tobacco industry has stifled tobacco control activities in Washington through a mixture of campaign contributions and legal challenges. • Political campaign contributions have remained steadily high throughout the 1990s. Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, the Tobacco Institute, Lorillard, Brown & Williamson, and the Smokeless Tobacco Council contributed $362,298 to campaigns in 1996 through 2000 election cycles: $1...

  1. Analysis of Factors Influencing Activity-Based Costing Applications in the Hospitality Industry in Yenagoa, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Appah, Ebimobowei; Bariweni Binaebi

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the factors influencing activity-based costing application in the hospitality industry in Yenagoa, Nigeria. To achieve this objective, primary and secondary data were used. The secondary data include books, journals, periodicals, unpublished research materials and the internet and the primary data include interview and a well structured questionnaire administered to one hundred and 165 respondents in the 50 hotels sampled from the population. The data collected from the...

  2. Effect of Tomato Industrial Processing on Phenolic Profile and Antiplatelet Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Palomo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (e.g., tomatoes has been shown to be beneficial in terms of reducing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The industrial processing of tomatoes into tomato-based products includes several thermal treatments. Very little is known on the effect of tomato industrial processing on antiaggregatory activity and phenolic profile. Methods: It was assessed the effect of tomato and by-products extracts on platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6 and arachidonic acid. These in vitro antithrombotic properties were further supported in an in vivo model of thrombosis. A set of antiplatelet compounds has been selected for HPLC analysis in the different extracts. Results: Some natural compounds such as chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were identified by HPLC in tomatoes and its products may inhibit platelet activation. Red tomatoes, tomato products (sauce, ketchup and juice and by-products extracts inhibited platelet aggregation induced adenosine 5'-diphosphate, collagen, thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 and arachidonic acid, but to a different extent. Also, pomace extract presents antithrombotic activity. Conclusions: Processed tomatoes may have a higher content of health-benefiting compounds than fresh ones. Pomace even presents the best antiplatelet activity. Finally, tomato products may be used as a functional ingredient adding antiplatelet activities to processed foods.

  3. Industry's demand for the BESSY synchrotron radiation (SR): approaches towards interlinking basic scientific research activities and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierhals, R.; Schmoch, U.; Nick, D.; Pilorget, L.; Ritschel, C.; Walter, G.H.

    1994-08-01

    In Germany, industry's demand for synchrotron radiation (SR) is very limited, due to the current macroeconomic situation and the corporate strategy of potential SR users in industry. This is in contrast to the conditions in the USA (and Japan), where industrial enterprises more readily invest in and run their own long-term basic research projects for exploration of potential commercial applications according to their demands, with research goals pursued there and in Germany overlapping to a large extent. It cannot be expected that demand for SR from industry in Germany will ever come up to the level seen in the USA. In Germany, non-university research institutes are most likely to become an important group of potential users of SR. Substantially boosting the demand for SR from industry will need a change of macroeconomic framework conditions affecting the corporate strategy to the effect that industry will more strongly commit itself to and take up responsibility for application-oriented fundamental research and the corresponding technology transfer. This can be achieved by a policy providing both for institutional means and financial incentives. As to near-market, strategic technological developments, establishment of structures allowing direct cooperation of science and technology, for instance in the form of joint ventures, or underwriting agreements and corresponding supervisory boards, seem to be promising. As to basic-research-oriented promotion of research, a technology screening might lead to the selection of technology-relevant research goals, and corresponding financial support from a special fund. Such incentives for cooperative action by technology, science and the government will create novel types of research-industry interfaces in Germany between ''historical'' spheres of autonomy of research of industry and the scientific community. (orig.) [de

  4. Spatial distribution of uranium in Subarnarekha river and its correlation with industrial activities in its coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Lenka, P.; Gupta, Anil; Patra, A.C.; Ravi, P.M.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Jha, V.N.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sethy, N.K.

    2018-01-01

    Subamarekha river is one of the major river flowing in the states of Jharkhand, West Bengal and Odisha. It originates from the Piskanagri, in the outskirt of Ranchi city, Jharkhand and finally discharges to Bay of Bengal at Chandrabali, Balasore, Odisha. The river is a perennial one that has flowing water all over year. Uranium is present in groundwater and surface water naturally and the anthropogenic activities may enhance the levels. The treated liquid effluents are discharged in the river from many industries including uranium mining industry in the state of Jharkhand. The uranium mining industry in the Jaduguda region of Singhbhum east district of Jharkand process the liquid effluent for removal of natural radionuclides and chemicals and monitor to conform the regulatory limits before discharging to the local streams which finally discharges to Subamarekha river. The uranium mining activities in the region are for the last five decades and regularly the river water was analysed to check the levels of uranium and its series radionuclides. In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyse the river water from its origin to estuary and compare the uranium level in upstream and downstream of the river with respect to uranium mining activities in Jaduguda region

  5. Choosing the Direction of Development of Foreign Economic Activity for Enterprises in the Aviation Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtal Tetyana V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the existing approaches to the development of foreign economic activity (FEA of enterprise, elaborating the procedure of its management in order to determine the direction of development of FEA of enterprises in the aviation industry of Ukraine. The authors have developed, formalized and visualized a phased mechanism of choosing the direction of development of FEA for enterprise, according to the method of functional modeling. The obtained instrument was used to determine the direction of FEA development for a typical enterprise in the aviation industry. Features of the aforementioned enterprise have been allocated, a suitable set of development directions has been selected, a reasoned procedure of implementation of activities on development of foreign economic activity at the enterprise has been analyzed and determined. Prospect for further research in this direction can be implementation of the mechanism at the enterprises of other industries, refinement of the instrumentarium for each stage of the process according to their features and needs.

  6. Quantification of active principles and pigments in leaf extracts of Isatis tinctoria by HPLC/UV/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Tobias; Potterat, Olivier; Hamburger, Matthias

    2007-02-01

    An HPLC method has been developed and validated for the quantification of the pharmacologically active principles tryptanthrin (1), 1,3-dihydro-3-[(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methylene]-2 H-indol-2-one (indolinone) (3), indirubin (4), alpha-linolenic acid (2), and indigo (5), an isomer of indirubin, in extracts from the traditional anti-inflammatory plant Isatis tinctoria (woad). The chromatographic separation was performed on a C-18 column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile in water containing 0.1% formic acid. The method combines UV and electrospray MS detection in the positive ion mode for the detection of the alkaloids, with a switch to the negative mode for the analysis of alpha-linolenic acid. The method was applied to the analysis of woad extracts obtained by supercritical fluid (SFE) CO2 extraction, and by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with dichloromethane and methanol, respectively. While the highest concentration of alpha-linolenic acid was found in the SFE extract (7.43%), the concentrations of tryptanthrin , indolinone, indirubin and indigo were the highest in the dichloromethane extract (0.30, 0.035, 2.48 and 0.84%, respectively). Compound 3 was not detected in the methanolic extract and only traces of compounds 1, 4 and 5 and low amount of alpha-linolenic acid (0.39%) were present in this extract.

  7. Biocompounds from rapeseed oil industry co-stream as active ingredients for skin care applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Rommi, K; Fernandes, M M; Lantto, R; Tzanov, T

    2015-10-01

    Despite the great number of substances produced by the skincare industry, very few of them seem to truly have an effect on the skin. Therefore, given the social implications surrounding physical appearance, the search for new bioactive compounds to prevent or attenuate skin ageing and enhance self-image is a priority of current research. In this context, being rich in valuable compounds, such as proteins, phenolics, lipids and vitamins, this study is focused on the potential activity of rapeseed press cake hydrolysates to be used as raw materials for skincare applications. In this study, the protein-rich press residue from the rapeseed oil industry was converted enzymatically into short-chain biologically active peptides using four protease products with varying substrate specificity - Alcalase 2.4L FG, Protex 6L, Protamex and Corolase 7089. The antioxidant, anti-wrinkle and anti-inflammatory activities of the obtained hydrolysates were evaluated in vitro while their biocompatibility with human skin fibroblasts was tested. All hydrolysates were biocompatible with skin fibroblasts after 24 h of exposure, while the non-hydrolysed extract induced cell toxicity. Alcalase 2,4L FG and Protex 6L-obtained hydrolysates were the most promising extracts showing improved bioactivities suitable for skin anti-ageing formulations, namely antioxidant activity, inhibiting approximately 80% cellular reactive oxidative species, anti-inflammatory and anti-wrinkle properties, inhibiting around 36% of myeloperoxidase activity and over 83% of elastase activity. The enzymatic technology applied to the rapeseed oil industry costream results in the release of bioactive compounds suitable for skincare applications. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Features of formation of the mechanism of introduction of the corporate social responsibility in activity the domestic industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Antoshko, T.

    2011-01-01

    Article opens essence of the corporate social responsibility (CSR), its components and principles CSR. The developed process model of formation of the mechanism of introduction CSR on the basis of disclosing principles of directions CSR. The mechanism of introduction CSR at the enterprise is developed. As criterion of an assessment of the mechanism of introduction CSR it has been suggested factor of activity of use of components of the mechanism of introduction CSR.

  9. Principles of Activity Theory in analysing the process of construction of pedagogic activities with the use of mobile devices in the Chemistry learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane da Silva Coelho Jacon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices emerge as the major players to ensure a favorable resource to connect, minimizing the limitation space-time constraints among people and enabling the use of emerging mobile learning (m-learning. The use of mobile devices in pedagogic praxis implies in a closer link between teachers in their initial development and their teacher educator in order to enable the incorporation of this mobile technology in undergraduate courses. This “approach” means the facilitation of meeting to discuss, reflect and talk about the incorporation of this technology in the teaching learning process. In this research, two professors had meetings to discuss and reflect about the employment of this mobile technology in the undergraduate course. One of them, a Chemistry teacher educator and the other is a computer and education teacher-research. The methodological approach is based on a qualitative method with some elements of action-research based on theoretical assumptions of the Activity Theory (ENGESTRÖM, 1999. Therefore, the study based on the debates over the use of mobile devices in the teaching of chemistry was developed as part of the undergraduate course in Chemistry at the Federal University of Rondonia. Among a set of activities, in which students and professors were present with their objects of specific activities, was presented the Activity system related to the construction of those activities. The analysis of SA from the perspective of the 5 principles of Activity Theory points out that the process of collaborative participation in the meetings, the implementation of activities with the students of the degree course and the preparation of scientific papers demonstrated the qualitative evolution of the chemistry teacher educator

  10. Hybrid Active Filter with Variable Conductance for Harmonic Resonance Suppression in Industrial Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Tzung-Lin; Wang, Yen-Ching; Li, Jian-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional series and/or parallel resonances, due to the tuned passive filter and the line inductance, may result in severe harmonic distortion in the industrial power system. This paper presents a hybrid active filter to suppress harmonic resonance and reduce harmonic distortion as well...... expensive. A reasonable trade-off between filtering performances and cost is to use the hybrid active filter. Design consideration are presented and experimental results are provided to validate effectiveness of the proposed method. Furthermore, this paper discusses filtering performances on line impedance...

  11. Piper betel leaf extract: anticancer benefits and bio-guided fractionation to identify active principles for prostate cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Gundala, Sushma R; Lakshminarayana, N; Sagwal, Arpana; Asif, Ghazia; Pandey, Anjali; Aneja, Ritu

    2013-07-01

    Plant extracts, a concoction of bioactive non-nutrient phytochemicals, have long served as the most significant source of new leads for anticancer drug development. Explored for their unique medicinal properties, the leaves of Piper betel, an evergreen perennial vine, are a reservoir of phenolics with antimutagenic, antitumor and antioxidant activities. Here, we show that oral feeding of betel leaf extract (BLE) significantly inhibited the growth of human prostate xenografts implanted in nude mice compared with vehicle-fed controls. To gain insights into the 'active principles', we performed a bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanolic BLE employing solvents of different polarity strengths using classical column chromatography. This approach yielded 15 fractions, which were then pooled to 10 using similar retention factors on thin-layer chromatographs. Bioactivity assays demonstrated that one fraction in particular, F2, displayed a 3-fold better in vitro efficacy to inhibit proliferation of prostate cancer cells than the parent BLE. The presence of phenols, hydroxychavicol (HC) and chavibetol (CHV), was confirmed in F2 by nuclear magnetic resonance, high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Further, the HC containing F2 subfraction was found to be ~8-fold more potent than the F2 subfraction that contained CHV, in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells as evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Removing CHV from F2 remarkably decreased the IC50 of this fraction, indicating that HC is perhaps the major bioactive constituent, which is present to an extent of 26.59% in BLE. These data provide evidence that HC is a potential candidate for prostate cancer management and warrants further preclinical evaluation.

  12. Current activities in support of CANDU plant life management: an industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, B.A.; Price, E.G.; Hopkins, J.; Charlebois, P.

    1998-01-01

    The current focus of the CANDU industry is to position the nuclear option as a cost competitive, safe and reliable means of electricity production. To achieve its goal the CANDU industry as a whole is undertaking steps to improve further its performance and safety of its nuclear power plants. A number of programs have been planned and implemented particularly for plants in the mid-life range. Some of these programs include life assessment studies of critical systems, Structures and Components (SSCS), refurbishment and upgrading programs and monitoring and periodic inspection programs. Some elements of the programs have been in place from station start up and some are being instituted as part of the aging management and performance improvement program. The industry recognizes that the key to sustaining high performance over the life of the plant is the implementation of an integrated aging management program that encompasses all elements of plant operation and maintenance. A systematically implemented program on optimized maintenance and inspection strategy, standardized work processes, component rehabilitation programs, and applying lessons learned are some of the elements of a sustainable high performance and an effective plant life assurance program. The paper will describe the elements of an integrated program, the multiphase approach defined for CANDU PLIM and some of the activities undertaken by the industry to further improve and sustain plant safety, reliability and performance. (author)

  13. History of technological activities of Japanese industry; Sangyo gijutsu rekishi keisho chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    History of technological activities of Japanese industry has been recorded, preserved, compiled and systematized. The purpose is to make international contribution by transmitting Japanese experience and knowledge to the world, and to bring up the human resource for researches by teaching the history of passion and efforts of the predecessors and by arousing interests and creative volitions of science and technology of young persons. However, memorial matters, data and witnesses relating to the history of industrial science and technology are rapidly being lost day by day. When leaving as it is, succession of the history to next generation becomes hard. Under such a situation, basic survey has been conducted to succeed the history of industrial science and technology and promote the creative utilization of them. This is in the third stage of the survey. This report contains the development of new cold rolled steel sheet for cars, plant engineering technology in Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, electronics, electric power distribution technology in Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., development of the PAN carbon fibers, four cycle and low speed marine diesel engines, production of electrolytic copper foil, development of jet engines, camera makers, and production of office machinery. 86 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. In silico analysis of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase active site with toxic industrial dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Nirmal K; Vindal, Vaibhav; Narayana, Siva Lakshmi; Ramakrishna, V; Kunal, Swaraj Priyaranjan; Srinivas, M

    2012-05-01

    Laccases belong to multicopper oxidases, a widespread class of enzymes implicated in many oxidative functions in various industrial oxidative processes like production of fine chemicals to bioremediation of contaminated soil and water. In order to understand the mechanisms of substrate binding and interaction between substrates and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase, a homology model was generated. The resulted model was further validated and used for docking studies with toxic industrial dyes- acid blue 74, reactive black 5 and reactive blue 19. Interactions of chemical mediators with the laccase was also examined. The docking analysis showed that the active site always cannot accommodate the dye molecules, due to constricted nature of the active site pocket and steric hindrance of the residues whereas mediators are relatively small and can easily be accommodated into the active site pocket, which, thereafter leads to the productive binding. The binding properties of these compounds along with identification of critical active site residues can be used for further site-directed mutagenesis experiments in order to identify their role in activity and substrate specificity, ultimately leading to improved mutants for degradation of these toxic compounds.

  15. Active Power Flow Optimization of Industrial Power Supply with Regard to the Transmission Line Conductor Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyzgold D.Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the problem of the transmission line conductor heating effect on the active power flows optimization in the local segment of industrial power supply. The purpose is to determine the optimal generation rating of the distributed power sources, in which the power flow values will correspond to the minimum active power losses in the power supply. The timeliness is the need to define the most appropriate rated power values of distributed sources which will be connected to current industrial power supply. Basing on the model of active power flow optimization, authors formulate the description of the nonlinear transportation problem considering the active power losses depending on the transmission line conductor heating. Authors proposed a new approach to the heating model parameters definition based on allowable current loads and nominal parameters of conductors as part of the optimization problem. Analysis of study results showed that, despite the relatively small active power losses reduction to the tune 0,45% due to accounting of the conductors heating effect for the present configuration of power supply, there are significant fluctuations in the required generation rating in nodes of the network to 9,32% within seasonal changes in the outer air temperature. This fact should be taken into account when selecting the optimum power of distributed generation systems, as exemplified by an arbitrary network configuration.

  16. Nuclear detectors. Physical principles of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochet, Th.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear detection is used in several domains of activity from the physics research, the nuclear industry, the medical and industrial sectors, the security etc. The particles of interest are the α, β, X, γ and neutrons. This article treats of the basic physical properties of radiation detection, the general characteristics of the different classes of existing detectors and the particle/matter interactions: 1 - general considerations; 2 - measurement types and definitions: pulse mode, current mode, definitions; 3 - physical principles of direct detection: introduction and general problem, materials used in detection, simple device, junction semiconductor device, charges generation and transport inside matter, signal generation; 4 - physical principles of indirect detection: introduction, scintillation mechanisms, definition and properties of scintillators. (J.S.)

  17. The history of the peat manufacturing industry in The Netherlands: Peat moss litter and active carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.W. Gerding

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of three major forms of peat processing by the manufacturing industry in The Netherlands since the last quarter of the 19th century. At a time when peat as a fuel was gradually being replaced by coal, the first form was the peat moss litter industry. Peat moss litter was made from white peat that was ground and sieved in factories which were located mainly in bog areas in the south-east of the province of Drenthe. It served as excellent bedding for horses and cattle. The second form of industrial peat processing was the manufacture, from 1921 onwards, of active carbon made from black peat. The Purit (Norit factory, now part of the Cabot Corporation, is still the only active carbon factory using peat as a raw material. The third form of peat processing was the production of garden peat and potting soil. This is still a widespread activity in peat areas all over the world. The peat moss litter industry thrived from the 1880s until shortly after the First World War. The arrival of the horse-drawn tram in all of the major cities of Europe created a great demand for animal bedding to be used in the vast stables of the tramway companies. Peat moss litter was cleaner, healthier and easier to handle than straw. There was similar demand from the armies, which used millions of horses during the First World War. Owing to the development of motorised vehicles, the peat market collapsed after the war and this plunged the industry into a prolonged crisis which was not overcome until peat was found to be a suitable growing medium for horticulture in the 1950s. Living and working conditions in peatlands were harsh, earnings irregular and labourers’ rights limited. The peat manufacturing industry was the first to introduce collective labour agreements, medical benefits and pension plans. Nonetheless massive unemployment, poverty and the necessity to migrate to other parts of the country were clear signs that the era of

  18. Catalytic activity of bed materials from industrial CFB boilers for the decomposition of N2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, V.; Klingstedt, F.; Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M.; Naydenov, A.; Stefanov, P.

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between the catalytic activity towards N 2 O decomposition and fuel type was studied for the bed materials sampled from the bottom bed of two industrial CFB boilers, a 12MW th and a 550MW th , burning biomass fuels and wastes, alone or as a mixture. It was found that the elemental composition of the surface of the bed material particles changed according to the composition of the ash from the parent fuel. The measured catalytic activity of the bed material samples increased with the amount of the catalytically active oxides (CaO, MgO, Fe 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 ). In the case of limestone addition, the activity of the bed material was influenced by both the elemental composition of the fuel, and the ratio between lime and sulfated lime

  19. EVALUATION OF HUMAN RELIABILITY IN SELECTED ACTIVITIES IN THE RAILWAY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika SUJOVÁ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on evaluation of human reliability in the human – machine system in the railway industry. Based on a survey of a train dispatcher and of selected activities, we have identified risk factors affecting the dispatcher‘s work and the evaluated risk level of their influence on the reliability and safety of preformed activities. The research took place at the authors‘ work place between 2012-2013. A survey method was used. With its help, authors were able to identify selected work activities of train dispatcher’s risk factors that affect his/her work and the evaluated seriousness of its in-fluence on the reliability and safety of performed activities. Amongst the most important finding fall expressions of un-clear and complicated internal regulations and work processes, a feeling of being overworked, fear for one’s safety at small, insufficiently protected stations.

  20. Mining the metagenome of activated biomass of an industrial wastewater treatment plant by a novel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nandita; Tanksale, Himgouri; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2012-12-01

    Metagenomic libraries herald the era of magnifying the microbial world, tapping into the vast metabolic potential of uncultivated microbes, and enhancing the rate of discovery of novel genes and pathways. In this paper, we describe a method that facilitates the extraction of metagenomic DNA from activated sludge of an industrial wastewater treatment plant and its use in mining the metagenome via library construction. The efficiency of this method was demonstrated by the large representation of the bacterial genome in the constructed metagenomic libraries and by the functional clones obtained. The BAC library represented 95.6 times the bacterial genome, while, the pUC library represented 41.7 times the bacterial genome. Twelve clones in the BAC library demonstrated lipolytic activity, while four clones demonstrated dioxygenase activity. Four clones in pUC library tested positive for cellulase activity. This method, using FTA cards, not only can be used for library construction, but can also store the metagenome at room temperature.

  1. Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho

    2012-01-01

    In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L −1 , respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation. - Highlights: ► Livestock effluent showed strong estrogenic activity due to E2, E1 and EE2. ► EE2 remained in all effluents after gamma-irradiation even at a dose of 10 kGy. ► DOMs in effluents inhibited degradation and activity of estrogenic compounds.

  2. Logistics Principles in Third Wave Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Carleton

    1999-01-01

    .... Transformation of doctrine must proceed apace, challenging whether established principles grounded in past "Industrial Age" wars can be carried forward through both a revolution in military affairs...

  3. Agrice 2003. Activity report - New industrial resources, from agriculture to bio-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Renewable raw materials derived from agricultural crops are used to manufacture bio-products in energy, chemicals and materials industries. Renewable feedstocks address a double need. On the one hand, they offer alternatives to fossil resources, and on the other hand, they are a response to today's environmental challenges: mitigation of the greenhouse affect, reduction of air, soil and water pollution, innocuousness and biodegradability of products. A new chemistry must be created. Large-scale and ongoing research work must be committed to this goal. The research effort implies active coordination of all the various actors involved - multidisciplinary research teams, agro-industrial enterprises, user industries (petrochemicals, chemicals, materials), and specific agricultural branches. With these ends in mind the scientific interest group AGRICE - Agriculture for Chemicals and Energy - was established by public authorities and eight partners in France in 1994. The AGRICE consortium was renewed for six years in 2001, with a broader membership base. AGRICE now includes the following partners: - the research arms of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), and the Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (INRA), - professional organisations representing producers of oilseeds (ONIDOL), grains (AGPB) and beets (CGB), - corporate members ATOFINA, AUTOBAR PACKAGING France, BAYER CROP SCIENCE, CERESTAR France, LIMAGRAIN Agro-Industrie, RHODIA, TOTAL FINA ELF, - the French ministries of Agriculture, Industry, Research, and the Environment, - the French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management (ADEME), - the French Agency for Innovation (ANVAR). ADEME is responsible for managing AGRICE. The consortium is involved in major international undertakings, notably through the European Renewable Resources and Materials Association (ERRMA). This report presents: 1 - the AGRICE profile, scope of activity, structure and Operations

  4. Incorporated residues to sugar cone during the industrial processing evaluated by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de; Bacchi, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the Brazilian sugar and alcohol industry a modern agronomic and industrial technology has been developed during the last years, due to the high demand for sugarcane. The intensive harvest mechanization has increased the soil levels in the cane delivered to the mills despite of the introduced washing systems. Electric welding has been used to recuperate the rollers of the mill and other metallic components thus increasing the contents of metals in the processed material. Samples of cane, juice and bagasse were colected at several points of the milling tandem and submitted to neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Co, Zn, Br and Cs showed an increment through the mill, indicating the contribution of the rollers wear. Sc and the rare earth elements La, Ce, Sm and Eu had about the same levels in all samples, therefore they must have come with the soil adhered to the cane. (author)

  5. Business process modeling of industrial maintenance at TRANSPETRO: integrating oil pipeline and marine terminals activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade e Inovacao

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of TRANSPETRO in remodeling industrial maintenance activities focusing on: preparing for business process modeling (BPM); mapping and analyzing 'As-Is' process; designing 'To-Be' process; implementing remodeled process; improving process continuously. The conceptual model and results achieved will contribute to several areas within the company as: reliability engineering; human resources, including employees' selective processes, training and development, and certifications; standardization process encompassing standard and operational procedures adoption according to up-dating external normative references and legal requirements; health, safety and environment (HSE) performance improvement. These are some of potential benefits from BPM focusing on TRANSPETRO's industrial maintenance area in the search of operational excellence. (author)

  6. Innovation indicators: a survey of innovative activities in the international food processed industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Cardoso de Barros Fornari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to combine traditional methods of measuring intensity with other alternative indicators to examine the dispersion of innovation activities in different industries and countries. The hypothesis that underlies the study lies in the fact that in the Food Processed Industry (IAP the traditional methods are insufficient to detect the core of the innovation process. As method, we analyzed patent data extracted from the twenty-five largest food processed companies in the world and suggested different indicators developed from the Pesquisa de Inovação Tecnológica (PINTEC, 2010 – for Brazilian companies – and the Community Innovation Survey (CIS, 2009 – for European Union companies. The results allowed us to establish relationships in three dimensions: (i the complexity of the innovative effort of the IAP; (ii the efforts to innovation in different countries are distinct and; (iii there is heterogeneity in country performance.

  7. Activization of the Industrial Development on the Platform of Partnership: Measures of State Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Y. Nikitaeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of partnership and interaction of economic actors play an important role in activization of an industrial development, achieving a critical mass, necessary for generation of essential positive results, due to special measures of state regulation. According to this, the factors influencing the choice of measures of state regulation of partner interactions and formation of their complex structure are defined and analysed. On the example of clusters possible roles of the state in formation and development of partner associations of the appropriate type are presented. The potential risks arising in the course of development and implementation of measures of state regulation of integration structures are shown. The sequence of steps for determination of measures of state regulation of development of partnership in the industrial sphere taking into account local specifics is offered in the paper.

  8. Problems in complying with regulations related to low activity materials: Industry, medical, research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, J. van der

    1997-01-01

    The new Basic Safety Standards (BSS) for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources contain nuclide specific exemption levels on reporting. In many cases, these exemption levels differ orders of magnitude, higher or lower, compared to those from the old standards. For the natural radionuclides, the exempted specific activity is much lower (10 or even 1 Bq/g, depending on the radionuclide, compared to 500 Bq/g in the old BSS). As a consequence, industrial activities with certain minerals or raw materials containing elevated concentrations of radionuclides, which were exempted from the radiation protection control system under the old BSS, may have to be declared as radiologically relevant activities and may now come under regulatory control. Examples of these activities are the phosphate ore processing, the refining of a number of metals, the use of slag, and the oil and natural gas production. This might give rise, in some cases, to large volumes of waste which should be treated, conditioned and disposed of in a controlled way. For artificial radionuclides with higher exemption levels, the use of such radionuclides for industrial, medical or research purposes, such as tracers, sealed sources and beta lights, may increase considerably without being controlled any longer by the regulatory system. (author)

  9. Immunostimulatory and anti-metastatic activity of polysaccharides isolated from byproducts of the corn starch industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue Jung; Lee, Ho Sung; Kim, Sun Young; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2018-02-01

    Corn steep liquor (CSL) is a major by-product of the corn steeping process that is utilized in the wet milling industry. To develop new physiologically active polysaccharides from CSL, polysaccharides were isolated and their innate immunostimulatory and anti-metastatic activities were investigated. Corn byproduct polysaccharides (CBP) were preferentially isolated from CSL and further separated into supernatant (CBP1S) and precipitate (CBP1P) fractions. The anti-complementary activity of CBP1S was more potent than CBP1P and CBP. In addition, CBP1S enhanced production of macrophage-stimulating cytokines (e.g., IL-6 and IL-12) and natural killer (NK) cell-activating substances (e.g., granzyme and interferon-γ). Further, CBP1S significantly inhibited lung metastasis at a dose of 1000μg per mouse in an experimental lung metastasis model. These results suggest that CBP1S seems to promote the inhibition of lung metastasis through a mechanism leading to stimulation of the innate immune system, and CBP1S could be used as immunostimulating agents and for industrial applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exercising older people´s brains in Costa Rica: Design principles for using information and communication technologies for cognitive activity and social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro Rojas, Maria Dolores; Bygholm, Ann; Hansen, Tia Gitte Bondesen

    2018-01-01

    This study is part of a design-based research project aimed at designing a learning intervention for enabling Costa Rican older people to use information and communication technologies for cognitive activity and social interaction. Data from relevant literature, a focus group with older adults......-sensitive design principles that include wider topics that influence the learning process, such as emotions and stereotypes related to learning about and using information and communication technologies, as well as the social support to that learning. The resulting eight design principles argue for respectful...

  11. Evolutionist approach of upstream activities competitiveness of the petroleum industry in a long term perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the concept of competitiveness of companies and nations in the upstream sector of the international oil industry, trying to identify the possibilities of future development of this sector as well as the interactions that may exist between different actors such as governments, consumers and oil companies to boost or re-launch the competitive position of their enterprises and countries in the international context of the industry. In order to attain that, we analyze the developments of the most important economic attributes that characterize the oil activity as well as its most crucial political aspects. We develop a model of 'oil competition' and a definition of 'oil competitiveness' that take clearly into consideration both the differences between various oil actors and the dynamic aspects linked to the evolution of the oil industry. We do so by constructing an evolutionist model of competition and competitiveness. This approach emulates a 'biological process' where firms and the economic environment interact with each other within a process similar to 'natural selection' with the survival of the fittest. This evolutionist model adopts some analytical instruments established by Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, to interpret the changes and the dissimilarities of behavior of various oil actors as well as to explain their respective role in the new oil world that is being organized. Thus, we introduce the notions of 'dominant form of competition' and 'generic strategy of enterprises'. Then, we use our methodology to analyze the past of the oil industry (the stability and the instability). We conclude this work by discussing about the future evolution of the oil activities in the context of a new long term cycle of investment for the sector. (author)

  12. Study and radiological impact assessment produced by activities of different non-nuclear industries. Titanium dioxide industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Manjon, G.; Abril, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    After a careful study and evaluation of radiological impact, the conclusion is that these industries do not need to be subject to control, and it is not necessary any corrective action to reduce the exposition and/or to apply any radiation protection measures.

  13. The Effect of Active Principles of Cilantro and Spirulina Powder on Lead Antagonism to Copper and Chromium in Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our work was to highlight the detoxifying potential of the active principles from lyophilized cilantro and spirulina in experimental contamination with lead, to Carassius gibelio, and their effect on lead antagonism to copper and chromium. 120 Prussian carps, weighing 22-25 g each were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C group (without treatment, E1 group (75 ppm Pb into water as Pb(NO32x ½H2O, E2 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E3 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized spirulina in feed. At the end of the experimental period, tissue samples (gills, muscles myotome– epaxial, heart, skin and scales, intestine, liver, brain, gonads, kidney were collected after a starving for 12 hours, and fish euthanasia with clove oil. Determination of Cu and Cr concentration in biological samples was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-VARIAN. Pb addition into water in dose of 75 ppm, has resulted in Cu and Cr mobilization from fish tissues. Decreasing of Cu tissue level occurred less intensive in tissues sampled from groups receiving cilantro and spiriulina powder in feed, maximum efficiency in the counteracting the antagonism against Pb showing spirulina on the heart, liver, and kidney. Cr was maintained at relatively low values, although, cilantro powder has induced in some wise the Pb complexing. In contrast, the freeze-dried spirulina brought the tissue level of Cr close to that of the control group or even has determined its more efficient takeover from the feed.

  14. ECONOMIC AND THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF PLANNING EFFECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ENTERPRISES IN THE COAL INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. K. Galiev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Relevance and purpose of the study. Under modern conditions, the share of loss-making enterprises of the coal industry is still high. This brings the solution of the problem of improving the efficiency of their activities up to date. It also determines the purpose of this research. Research methods: scientific generalization, system and factor analysis, and statistical modeling are used in the present work. Results. The article discusses the economic and theoretical aspects of planning the effective activities in the coal industry. The paper analyzes the elasticity of the unit cost price in terms of its labor productivity. It also deals with the elasticity of the volume of output in terms of labor productivity. This indicates that the existing coal mining technologies have, to some extent, exhausted their advantages in the coal industry. They require a change on the achieved level of the capital-labor ratio. It is recommended to strive to ensure advanced ratio of growth of labor productivity of workers compared to the growth rate of unit costs. This should be done at the introduction of a new technology at the enterprises of the coal industry. The advanced ratio of growth in output compared to the growth rate of labor productivity of workers should also be guaranteed. The early growth rate of revenue from sales compared to the growth rate in total costs of production should be provided. The advanced ratio of profit growth compared to the growth rate of revenue from sales has to be provided as well. It is proven that for coal industry enterprises the type of competitive advantages called “the lowest costs” can be the only acceptable one in comparison with other types. We have considered the requirements to the new developed technologies for coal mining. They are as follows: the value of marginal profit in the planned period should be more than the fixed costs of the enterprise; the value of marginal profit in the planned period should be more

  15. Certification centres for management systems in the energy industry. Principles, normative specifications, DAkkS specifications, formalita using the example of ISO 27001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubichi, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The IT security law forced the energy industry to implement system certifications for the first time in history. In contrast to most companies in the energy industry, which often only knew about product certifications, the energy industry now has to enter new territory. Certification companies receive their legitimation in Germany through DAkkS. The DAkkS is embedded in the context of European Union law. The work of the certification companies is determined by the specifications of the DAkkS as well as by the requirements of the ISO/IEC standards. These regulations should in any case be known to a certification customer so that he knows what a certification company does or does not do. In addition, a certification customer must also know which evidence must be presented in the sense of a reference standard against the certification company. The concrete evidence in this essay is based on an ISO/IEC 27001 certification in conjunction with the IT Security Catalog of the Bundesnetzagentur. With all this knowledge, the cooperation with the certification company will not be a problem for system certification.

  16. Principles of Bioremediation Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, E. L.

    2001-12-01

    Although microorganisms have successfully and spontaneously maintained the biosphere since its inception, industrialized societies now produce undesirable chemical compounds at rates that outpace naturally occurring microbial detoxification processes. This presentation provides an overview of both the complexities of contaminated sites and methodological limitations in environmental microbiology that impede the documentation of biodegradation processes in the field. An essential step toward attaining reliable bioremediation technologies is the development of criteria which prove that microorganisms in contaminated field sites are truly active in metabolizing contaminants of interest. These criteria, which rely upon genetic, biochemical, physiological, and ecological principles and apply to both in situ and ex situ bioremediation strategies include: (i) internal conservative tracers; (ii) added conservative tracers; (iii) added radioactive tracers; (iv) added isotopic tracers; (v) stable isotopic fractionation patterns; (vi) detection of intermediary metabolites; (vii) replicated field plots; (viii) microbial metabolic adaptation; (ix) molecular biological indicators; (x) gradients of coreactants and/or products; (xi) in situ rates of respiration; (xii) mass balances of contaminants, coreactants, and products; and (xiii) computer modeling that incorporates transport and reactive stoichiometries of electron donors and acceptors. The ideal goal is achieving a quantitative understanding of the geochemistry, hydrogeology, and physiology of complex real-world systems.

  17. Management Activity Linkages to Innovation Deconstruction: An Exploratory Study of the Furniture Industry in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Pirc Barčić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Corporate leaders often view innovation as a key contributor to superior profits, market sharing, and competitive positioning. However, confusion regarding the definition of innovation, how to create it, and how to implement it remains. In countries that are recent European Union members, little research has been done on innovation and how innovation is related to corporate management activities. In this study, the linkages were examined in the Croatian furniture industry. The first part of the study was to deconstruct innovation into three components: product innovation, production process innovation, and human resource innovation. The second part of the study evaluates the relationships between these innovation components and four company management activities/factors (research and development investments, company flexibility, export activity, and the Internet usage were examined. Scale testing resulted in valid deconstruction measures of innovation. Hypothesized correlations between innovation components and company management factors were supported, although the results were not fully consistent with those of previous studies.

  18. Foreign Experience of Activity of Chambers of Commerce and Industry and Prospects of its Introduction in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrova Bohdana V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article conducts analysis of foreign experience of activity of chambers of commerce and industry under conditions of market economy. It studies specific features of its formation and establishment in the countries of European Union and Commonwealth of Independent States. In particular, it analyses activity of chambers of commerce and industry of Germany, Denmark, Great Britain, Russia, Moldova and Belarus. It considers continental, anglo-saxon, state and mixed models of activity of a chamber of commerce and industry. It identifies specific features of functioning of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Ukraine. Having analysed the progressive experience, it offers measures for improvement of the procedure of interaction of business with the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Ukraine at the national, regional and branch levels.

  19. Experiment of Industrial Waste Absorption using Activated Carbon from Coal of Tanjung Tabalong, South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ulum Gani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.130Activated carbon made from Tanjung Tabalong coal was investigated its absorption capability to organic and inorganic elements in industrial waste. Coal was carbonized at low temperature of 600C to produce semicoke, and then was activated at temperature of 700C with activation time of 120 minutes with water steam flow. The absorption capability of activated carbon to chemical oxygen demand (COD was performed using 2.5 and 9.0 g activated carbon for 250 ml and 300 ml COD waste respectively. The agitation time of each experiment were 30, 60, and 90 minutes. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS was used to analyze the COD waste. The result shows that 2.5 g activated carbon could absorb COD waste ranging from 6.9-67.5 %, while the utilization of 9 g could absorb COD waste ranging from 88.9 - 100 %. The more activated carbon and the longer time of agitation used in this experiment, the more the absorption of COD waste.

  20. Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) against Russell's viper venom: characterization of piperine as active principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

    2013-05-20

    Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. To examine the ability of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L., Piperaceae (PLE) and piperine, one of the main active principles of Piper longum, to inhibit the Russell's viper (Doboia russelii, Viperidae) snake venom activities. Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine against Russell's viper venom was studied in embryonated fertile chicken eggs, mice and rats by using various models as follows: inhibition of venom lethal action, inhibition of venom haemorrhagic action (in vitro), inhibition of venom haemorrhagic action (in vivo), inhibition of venom necrotizing action, inhibition of venom defibrinogenating action, inhibition of venom induced paw edema, inhibition of venom induced mast cell degranulation, creatine kinase assay and assay for catalase activity. PLE was found to inhibit the venom induced haemorrhage in embryonated fertile chicken eggs. Administration of PLE and piperine significantly (p<0.01) inhibited venom induced lethality, haemorrhage, necrosis, defibrinogenation and inflammatory paw edema in mice in a dose dependent manner. PLE and piperine also significantly (p<0.01) reduced venom induced mast cell degranulation in rats. Venom induced decrease in catalase enzyme levels in mice kidney tissue and increase in creatine kinase enzyme levels in mice serum were significantly (p<0.01) reversed by administration of both PLE and piperine. PLE possesses good anti-snake venom properties and piperine is one of the compounds responsible for the effective venom neutralizing ability of the plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis of Analogues of Gingerol and Shogaol, the Active Pungent Principles from the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Evaluation of Their Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hung-Cheng; Chern, Ching-Yuh; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Wu, You-Cheng; Chan, Yu-Yi; Liao, Yu-Ren; Teng, Che-Ming; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b) exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads. PMID:24599082

  2. Synthesis of Analogues of Gingerol and Shogaol, the Active Pungent Principles from the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Evaluation of Their Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Shih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads.

  3. Feasibility of Applying Active Lubrication to Reduce Vibration in Industrial Compressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Scalabrin, A.

    2004-01-01

    of the orifices distributed over the sliding surface. The dynamic coefficients of tilting-pad bearings with and without active lubrication and their influence on an industrial compressor of 391 Kg, which operates with a maximum speed of 10,200 rpm, are analyzed. In the original compressor design, the bearing...... housings are mounted on squeeze-film dampers in order to ensure reasonable stability margins during full load condition (high maximum continuous speed). Instead of having a combination of tilting-pad bearings and squeeze-film dampers, another design solution is proposed and theoretically investigated...

  4. Identification of hand-made and industrial explosives by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomomasa; Tokunaga, Osamu; Nakamura, Jun; Kumooka, Yoshio

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary study was made to evaluate the use of neutron activation analysis for the characterization of hand-made and industrial explosives for forensic purpose. A total of 26 samples of Chinese firecracker, toy fireworks, sulfur and industrial explosives was analysed non-destructively. Chinese firecracker and toy fireworks showed high degree of homogenity within an individual sample and/or within the samples of the same lot. Antimony was found to be a key element in distinguishing between Chinese firecracker samples. The significant differences in ten element contents (K, Ba, Sr, Na, Br, As, Sb, Sc, La, Sm) were found among toy fireworks samples. The sulfur samples of natural origin and of by-product in refining process of oil were analysed, and the elements such as Se, As and Sb were found to be characteristic of the samples of natural origin. In analysis of industrial explosives, K, Ba and Na were detected as a characteristic element in black powder, smokeless powder of single base and Shiraume dynamite samples, respectively. (author)

  5. Industry 4.0 implies lean manufacturing: research activities in industry 4.0 function as enablers for lean manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Adam; Elangeswaran, Chola; Wulfsberg, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Lean Manufacturing is widely regarded as a potential methodology to improve productivity and decrease costs in manufacturing organisations. The success of lean manufacturing demands consistent and conscious efforts from the organisation, and has to overcome several hindrances. Industry 4.0 makes a factory smart by applying advanced information and communication systems and future-oriented technologies. This paper analyses the incompletely perceived link between Industr...

  6. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  7. The internationalization of the technological activities in the energy industries; L'internationalisation des activites technologiques dans les industries energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, B. [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie - IEPE-CNRS/ Universite Pierre Mendes-France, 38 - Grenoble (France); Jacquier-Roux, V. [Institut de Recherche Economique sur la Production et le Developpement -IREPD, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2001-06-01

    This analysis of the technological internationalization factors is defined in five chapters. The first chapter deals with the evolutionist representation of the internationalization process of the technological activities of the firms. The chapter two is an historical synthesis from 1985 to 2000, of the industrial dynamics and of the technological strategies of the petroleum and electric power industries. The chapter three details the empirical method used to verify the hypothesis. Chapter four exposes the data analysis results of the patents of the sampled firms. The last chapter is devoted to the results interpretation. (A.L.B.)

  8. An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Mark Joseph

    Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE EXTERNAL FACTORS OF INFLUENCE ON INNOVATION ACTIVITY OF AN INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Salikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. For successful functioning and development of the enterprise is a need to strive as possible deeper and more dynamic influence on parameters and objects OK-environmental management, primarily due to increase their innovation activity. Innovative activity of enterprises influenced by many factors. They can be classified on the factors of direct influence (micro and factors of indirect impacts (macro. Factors of direct impact of the influence on the pace and scale of development of the enterprise, on its effectiveness, because the whole spectrum of these factors acts as a limiter. Macro factors create the General conditions of existence of the enterprise in the external environment. To analyses these factors approach was used to SNW-analysis. As a result of analysis, factors of micro and macro-were classified on: stimulating, it minesweepers and dissuasive. Also studied were the degree of influence of these factors on the innovative activity of the enterprise. Reviewed rating factors hindering the development of innovation activity of industrial enterprise in Russia. In the result of which identified factors that hinder the development of innovative activity, and justified in the direction of overcoming them. It should be noted that the distinction between enabling and constraining factors is rather thin and conditional. So, the factors initially restraining innovation, at a certain point can be transformed into a stimulus for its development. Accounting for these factors, creation of necessary conditions and introduction of innovations in various aspects of the functioning of industrial enterprises will allow them to provide competitor-term benefits and sustainable development in a rapidly changing environment and the external environment.

  10. Halophilic Bacteria of Lunsu Produce an Array of Industrially Important Enzymes with Salt Tolerant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonika Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The halophilic bacterial isolates SS1, SS2, SS3, SS5, and SS8 were characterized for production of industrially important enzymes like amylase, protease, lipase, and glutaminase. Halophilic bacterial isolates SS1 and SS3 exhibited salt dependent extracellular amylase and protease activities. Both the halophilic isolates SS1 and SS3 exhibited maximum amylase and protease activities in the presence of 1.5 and 1.0 M NaCl, respectively, with the optimum pH 8 and temperature 40°C. SS2 showed maximum extracellular protease and lipase activities in the presence of 0.75 M NaCl, at optimum pH of 7, and temperature 37°C. The glutaminase activity of SS3 increased with increase in concentration of NaCl up to 2.5 M. The optimum pH and temperature for L-glutaminase activity of SS3 was 8 and 40°C, respectively. The combined hydrolytic activities of these halophilic bacterial isolates can be used for bioconversion of organic materials to useful products.

  11. Halophilic Bacteria of Lunsu Produce an Array of Industrially Important Enzymes with Salt Tolerant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sonika; Sharma, Parul; Dev, Kamal; Sourirajan, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    The halophilic bacterial isolates SS1, SS2, SS3, SS5, and SS8 were characterized for production of industrially important enzymes like amylase, protease, lipase, and glutaminase. Halophilic bacterial isolates SS1 and SS3 exhibited salt dependent extracellular amylase and protease activities. Both the halophilic isolates SS1 and SS3 exhibited maximum amylase and protease activities in the presence of 1.5 and 1.0 M NaCl, respectively, with the optimum pH 8 and temperature 40°C. SS2 showed maximum extracellular protease and lipase activities in the presence of 0.75 M NaCl, at optimum pH of 7, and temperature 37°C. The glutaminase activity of SS3 increased with increase in concentration of NaCl up to 2.5 M. The optimum pH and temperature for L-glutaminase activity of SS3 was 8 and 40°C, respectively. The combined hydrolytic activities of these halophilic bacterial isolates can be used for bioconversion of organic materials to useful products.

  12. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  13. Impact of climate and weather on the activities of the building and construction industry in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, GDT

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a quantitative survey of the impact of the climate and weather on the activities of the building and construction industry in South Africa. Seasonal productivity problems, the seasonal provision of special facilities...

  14. Travel Industry Specialists’ Training for Professional Activities in a Foreign Language in the North Caucasus Federal District of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Markaryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the theoretical and practical aspects of foreign language teaching of the future hospitality and tourism specialists in terms of professional intercultural communication. First of all, we have analyzed the peculiarities of professional activities and job specification of tourism specialists, then on these grounds we have selected professional foreign competences, which are necessary to develop while teaching this type of specialists foreign languages. Taking into consideration the nature of the tourism specialists’ professional activities and the training objectives of professional foreign language communication, we have worked out the fundamental methodological principles of teaching foreign languages for special purposes, namely the professional communicative principle and the professional intercultural principle. At the same time, we have presented linguistic-didactic basics of tourism specialists’ language training. Particular emphasis is put on the use of the materials, containing regional component, which facilitate to develop the ability to represent native culture during professional intercultural communication.

  15. The effects of industrial and agricultural activity on the water quality of the Sitnica River (Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albona Shala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An important issue in Kosovo is water pollution. The use of polluted water has a direct impact on human health and cause long-term consequences. The longest and most polluted river in Kosovo is the Sitnica, a 90 km long river with its source located near the village of Sazli. The river flows into the Ibar River in Northern Kosovo. Agriculture is prevailing activity in the basin of Sitnica which is why agricultural as well as industrial waste are the biggest water pollutants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality of the river and analyse the pollution level along the Sitnica River caused by agricultural activities and industrial discharges. In order to assess the impact of pollutants on this river, a measurements were carried out in four (five monitoring stations: the first station represents the reference station which has not undergone or has not been affected by polluting pressures, two stations in water areas affected by the irrigation of farming land and two monitoring stations in water areas affected by industrial wastewater discharge. Some of the parameters of water quality analysed are temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity, pH, DO, COD, BOD, P total, nitrates, sulfates, and heavy metals iron, manganese, zinc, nickel. Compared to the reference station the results obtained from the Gracka and Pestova monitoring stations prove that the dominant form of pollution is that from agricultural lands irrigation, while the Plemetin and Mitrovica stations show that the Sitnica River is affected by wastewater discharge which contains significant concentrations of heavy metals, as well as metal ions selected in this paper. It can be concluded that the irrigation of agricultural lands and discharges from mining significantly affect water quality of the Sitnica River.

  16. The effects of industrial and agricultural activity on the water quality of the Sitnica River (Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albona Shala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important issue in Kosovo is water pollution. The use of polluted water has a direct impact on human health and cause long-term consequences. The longest and most polluted river in Kosovo is the Sitnica, a 90 km long river with its source located near the village of Sazli. The river flows into the Ibar River in Northern Kosovo. Agriculture is prevailing activity in the basin of Sitnica which is why agricultural as well as industrial waste are the biggest water pollutants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality of the river and analyse the pollution level along the Sitnica River caused by agricultural activities and industrial discharges. In order to assess the impact of pollutants on this river, a measurements were carried out in four (five monitoring stations: the first station represents the reference station which has not undergone or has not been affected by polluting pressures, two stations in water areas affected by the irrigation of farming land and two monitoring stations in water areas affected by industrial wastewater discharge. Some of the parameters of water quality analysed are temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity, pH, DO, COD, BOD, P total, nitrates, sulfates, and heavy metals iron, manganese, zinc, nickel. Compared to the reference station the results obtained from the Gracka and Pestova monitoring stations prove that the dominant form of pollution is that from agricultural lands irrigation, while the Plemetin and Mitrovica stations show that the Sitnica River is affected by wastewater discharge which contains significant concentrations of heavy metals, as well as metal ions selected in this paper. It can be concluded that the irrigation of agricultural lands and discharges from mining significantly affect water quality of the Sitnica River.

  17. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA of industrial sludge from the aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Schneiders

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, specific methanogenic activity (SMA tests were performed on textile sludge and food industry sludge. The textile sludge from an activated sludge was collected at the entrance of the secondary biologic clarifier and the food sludge was collected in a UASB reactor. Once collected, the sludges were characterized and tested for SMA. It was found that the microrganisms present in the food sludge had SMA of 0.17 gCOD-CH4 gSSV.d-1 and 337.05 mL of methane production, while the microrganisms of the textile sludge presented 0.10 gCOD-CH4 gSSV.d-1 of SMA and 3.04 mL of methane production. Therefore, the food sludge was more suitable to be used as a starting inoculum in UASB.

  18. Bio-Prospecting Laccases in the Bacterial Diversity of Activated Sludge From Pulp and Paper Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vijaya; Capalash, Neena; Gupta, Naveen; Sharma, Prince

    2017-03-01

    Activated sludge is an artificial ecosystem known to harbor complex microbial communities. Bacterial diversity in activated sludge from pulp and paper industry was studied to bioprospect for laccase, the multicopper oxidase applicable in a large number of industries due to its ability to utilize a wide range of substrates. Bacterial diversity using 454 pyrosequencing and laccase diversity using degenerate primers specific to conserved copper binding domain of laccase like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) genes were investigated. 1231 OTUs out of 11,425 sequence reads for bacterial diversity and 11 OTUs out of 15 reads for LMCO diversity were formed. Phylum Proteobacteria (64.95 %) with genus Thauera (13.65 %) was most abundant followed by phylum Bacteriodetes (11.46 %) that included the dominant genera Paludibacter (1.93 %) and Lacibacter (1.32 %). In case of LMCOs, 40 % sequences showed affiliation with Proteobacteria and 46.6 % with unculturable bacteria, indicating considerable novelty, and 13.3 % with Bacteroidetes. LMCOs belonged to H and J families.

  19. Analysis of antitrust activity in the coal industry: 1964--1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson, W.R.

    1974-01-01

    During this period antitrust activity by the government in the coal industry was of a token nature and did not prevent (1) large investments in coal and uranium by large oil companies, nor (2) concentration with industry by large companies buying out small companies. A major result was the buying up of coal reserves, which were thus unavailable to small companies and hindered them from competing. Neither the government nor public utility companies did much to deter these developments and the results of the few court suits that were brought were not effective in discouraging the process. In fact, the widespread acceptance of nolo contendere pleas by the judicial system could make it profitable for a coal company to violate the antitrust laws. Several recommendations are made: (1) for more vigorous antitrust activity (with nonacceptance of nolo contendere pleas); (2) nationalisation of coal reserves (with bidding for reserves to be mined by competing companies); (3) a reporting system for ownership of coal reserves; and (4) encouragement of electric utilities to file private suit when anticompetitive behavior is suspected. (LTN)

  20. Environmental approach and gas industry activities: the actions of two AFG members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The members of the French gas association (AFG) are fully aware of the responsibility they have in the domain of sustainable development. For us, it is a global commitment which consists in improving the impact of their activities in their different social, society, economical and environmental aspects. The environmental aspect is of primary importance with the Kyoto protocol and the obligation for France to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. In order to better understand the implications of an environmental approach in the gas industry sector, this paper presents the actions and projects developed by Gaz de France and Total companies for the rational use of energy, the development of renewable energy sources (geothermal, wind and solar energies, hydrogen and fuel cells) and the abatement of the impacts of their activities on the environment: development of high efficiency equipments and appliances, improvement of existing fuels, development of natural gas for vehicles, LPG fuels and bio-fuels, investment in projects of greenhouse effect abatement (carbon prototype stock), reduction of works impact on the environment, geologic sequestration of CO 2 , recycling of coal mine gas, optimum processing of industrial effluents and wastes (development of gas-fueled processes) etc.. (J.S.)

  1. Healthy kids out of school: using mixed methods to develop principles for promoting healthy eating and physical activity in out-of-school settings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Sarah A; Sharma, Shanti; Dietz, William H; Dolan, Peter R; Nelson, Miriam E; Newman, Molly B; Rockeymoore, Maya; Economos, Christina D

    2014-12-31

    Widespread practices supporting availability of healthful foods, beverages, and physical activity in out-of-school-time (OST) settings would further obesity prevention efforts. The objective of this article was to describe principles to guide policy development in support of healthy eating and physical activity practices in out-of-school settings to promote obesity prevention. The Institute of Medicine's L.E.A.D. framework (Locate Evidence, Evaluate it, Assemble it, and Inform Decisions) was used to identify practices relevant to children's healthful eating in most OST settings: 1) locate and evaluate information from a national survey of children's perceptions of healthful-food access; published research, reports, policies and guidelines; and roundtables with OST organizations' administrators; 2) assemble information to prioritize actionable practices; and 3) inform programmatic direction. Three evidence-informed guiding principles for short-duration OST resulted: 1) drink right: choose water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages; 2) move more: boost movement and physical activity in all programs; and 3) snack smart: fuel up on fruits and vegetables. Healthy Kids Out of School was launched to support the dissemination and implementation of these guiding principles in short-duration OST settings, complementing efforts in other OST settings to shift norms around eating and physical activity.

  2. Removal of chromium(III) from tannery wastewater using activated carbon from sugar industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, N F; Barsoum, B N; Eid, A E; Khalil, M S

    2006-08-21

    Chromium is commonly found in huge quantities in tannery wastewaters. For this reason, the removal and recovery of the chromium content of tannery wastewaters is crucial for environmental protection and economic reasons. Removal and recovery of chromium were carried out by using low-cost potential adsorbents. For this purpose three types of activated carbon; C1, the waste generated from sugar industry as waste products and the others (C2, C3) are commercial granular activated carbon, were used. The adsorption process and extent of adsorption are dependent on the physical and chemical characteristics of the adsorbent, adsorbate and experimental condition. The effect of pH, particle size and different adsorbent on the adsorption isotherm of Cr(III) was studied in batch system. The sorption data fitted well with Langmuir adsorption model. The efficiencies of activated carbon for the removal of Cr(III) were found to be 98.86, 98.6 and 93 % for C1, C2 and C3, respectively. The order of selectivity is C1>C2>C3 for removal of Cr(III) from tannery wastewater. Carbon "C1" of the highest surface area (520.66 m(2)/g) and calcium content (333.3 mg/l) has the highest adsorptive capacity for removal of Cr(III). The results revealed that the trivalent chromium is significantly adsorbed on activated carbon collected from sugar industry as waste products and the method could be used economically as an efficient technique for removal of Cr(III) and purification of tannery wastewaters.

  3. Safety Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Grinenko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The offered material in the article is picked up so that the reader could have a complete representation about concept “safety”, intrinsic characteristics and formalization possibilities. Principles and possible strategy of safety are considered. A material of the article is destined for the experts who are taking up the problems of safety.

  4. Maquet principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, R.B.; Stassi, J.; Karasick, D.

    1985-04-01

    Anterior displacement of the tibial tubercle is a well-accepted orthopedic procedure in the treatment of certain patellofemoral disorders. The radiologic appearance of surgical procedures utilizing the Maquet principle has not been described in the radiologic literature. Familiarity with the physiologic and biochemical basis for the procedure and its postoperative appearance is necessary for appropriate roentgenographic evaluation and the radiographic recognition of complications.

  5. Cosmological principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8πGl 2 rho/c 2 , 8πGl 2 rho/c 4 , and 2 Gm/c 2 l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution

  6. Addressing Responsible Research and Innovation to Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaghmaei, Emad

    2015-01-01

    Responsible research and innovation (RRI) is taking a role to assist all types of stakeholders including industry to move research and innovation initiatives to responsible manner for tackling grand challenges. The literature on RRI focuses little on how industry can implement RRI principles...... models of corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature. Drawing on these models, this study develops stages and dimensions of RRI for discussing why industry should become engaged in RRI, how industry can embed RRI principles into research and innovation processes, how companies progress from one RRI....... In solving such gap in the literature, this article constructs a solid framework that provides a conceptual starting point for future research on levels of RRI. It draws a fundamental path to align industrial activities with environmental and societal needs. The framework develops a normatively grounded...

  7. Nuclear industry and radioecological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V. G.

    2006-01-01

    The beginning of XXI century is marked with increasing public concern over impact of man-made activity, including nuclear technologies, on the environment. Currently, the anthropocentric principle is applied in the course of the radioecological safety guaranteeing for the environment, which postulates that human protectability serves as guarantee of the environmental one. However, this principle correctness is called in question recently. The ecocentric principle is proposed as an alternative doctrine, defining balance between human importance and that of any other elements of biota. The system recommended isn't intended for the regulatory standards development yet, because of substantial gaps in scientific knowledge. Nevertheless, renunciation of the anthropocentric principle can result in unwarranted tightened regulatory basis, decreasing of nuclear industry evolution rates, and, consequently, breaching of societal and economical priorities. It is obvious that for the safety guaranteeing, nuclear industry shouldn't stand out against a background of other fields of human activity involved hazard factors. Therefore, new conceptions applying within the regulatory system is to be weighted and exclude formal using of discussion theses. More than semi-centennial experience of the anthropocentric approach applying serves as an evidence of safe protection of ecosystems against radiation exposure that ensures safe ecological development of nuclear power industry and other fields of nuclear technologies application. (author)

  8. RESTRUCTURING OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Podderegina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents main principles for execution of current and strategic restructuring of national enterprises while using experience of countries with developed market economy. The principles contribute to higher efficiency in internal industrial relations at national industrial enterprises.

  9. Horticultural activity predicts later localized limb status in a contemporary pre-industrial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Trumble, Benjamin C; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Modern humans may have gracile skeletons due to low physical activity levels and mechanical loading. Tests using pre-historic skeletons are limited by the inability to assess behavior directly, while modern industrialized societies possess few socio-ecological features typical of human evolutionary history. Among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists, we test whether greater activity levels and, thus, increased loading earlier in life are associated with greater later-life bone status and diminished age-related bone loss. We used quantitative ultrasonography to assess radial and tibial status among adults aged 20+ years (mean ± SD age = 49 ± 15; 52% female). We conducted systematic behavioral observations to assess earlier-life activity patterns (mean time lag between behavioural observation and ultrasound = 12 years). For a subset of participants, physical activity was again measured later in life, via accelerometry, to determine whether earlier-life time use is associated with later-life activity levels. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected during medical exams. Structural decline with age is reduced for the tibia (female: -0.25 SDs/decade; male: 0.05 SDs/decade) versus radius (female: -0.56 SDs/decade; male: -0.20 SDs/decade), which is expected if greater loading mitigates bone loss. Time allocation to horticulture, but not hunting, positively predicts later-life radial status (β Horticulture  = 0.48, p = 0.01), whereas tibial status is not significantly predicted by subsistence or sedentary leisure participation. Patterns of activity- and age-related change in bone status indicate localized osteogenic responses to loading, and are generally consistent with the logic of bone functional adaptation. Nonmechanical factors related to subsistence lifestyle moderate the association between activity patterns and bone structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Application in industry and energy production of active carbon/cobalt catalyst for nitrogen oxide neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhandzhiev, D.; Nikolov, R.; Lyutskanov, L.; Dushanov, D.; Lakov, L.

    1997-01-01

    A new material for neutralization of nitrogen oxides is presented. Two or three metals containing catalysts with a good activity and selectivity towards NO x have been obtained. Preparation of carbon catalysts by deposition of the active phase precursor on the initial carbon material prior to activation is considered as the most promising method. An active carbon-based catalyst (AC/Co) has been synthesized Apricot shells preliminary impregnated with a water-alcohol solution of Co nitrate have been used as initial carbon material. after drying they have been subjected to one-phase steam pyrolysis using a fix-bed reactor. The catalyst thus obtained has a specific surface area (BET) of 53 m 2 g -1 , a favorable mesopore volume/total volume ratio (about 0.85) determined by nitrogen adsorption, a suitable mesopore distribution, about 70% of the mesopores being characterized by r p larger than 25 A and a high dispersion of the Co oxide phase. In addition the catalyst possesses the necessary mechanical resistance. The catalyst has exhibited a high activity with respect to NO x reduction with CO at low temperatures (at 150-250 o C which are the temperatures of industrial flue gases, nO conversion up to 60-95% occurs) and a high selectivity. No presence of H 2 O has been established over the whole temperature range (100-300 o C). An additional advantage of the catalyst is the fact that the amount of CO above 150 o C is lower than the stoichiometric which indicates parallel participation in the process of both the active phase and the support (active carbon) It is also important that the presented catalyst has a low price due to the use of waste products from agriculture and the elimination of special thermal treatment of the supported Co nitrate. There are possibilities of using of other organic wastes from agriculture as well as wastes obtained during flotation of coal. (author)

  11. Can we conserve trans-resveratrol content and antioxidant activity during industrial production of chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Izabela; Massarioli, Adna P; Silva, Anna Paula S; Malaguetta, Heloísa; Melo, Priscilla S; Alencar, Severino M

    2018-05-23

    Cocoa exhibits high content of phenolic compounds, among which trans-resveratrol stands out, associated with several bioactive activities such as antioxidant properties. Chocolate contains reduced amounts of these bioactive compounds due to losses during the production process. Therefore, this study aimed to assess changes in total phenolic content and specifically trans-resveratrol, as well as in the antioxidant activity of cocoa and its products during industrial production of chocolate. A total of ten different cocoa products were analyzed. The processes of fermentation and roasting caused significant loss of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. However, due to high temperature, roasting had a major influence on this loss (71% for total phenolic compounds and 53% to 77% for antioxidant activity), except for trans-resveratrol. The content of trans-resveratrol formed after fermentation (9.8 μg kg -1 ) showed little variation during the processes, and it was detected in higher concentrations both in natural (11.4 μg kg -1 ) and in alkalized cocoa powder (13.5 μg kg -1 ). Alkalization of cocoa products led to loss of capacity of deactivating superoxide radical. These findings contribute to the optimization of the production process of chocolate and other food products containing cocoa and its derivatives aiming to better preserve their bioactive compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Impacts of Socially Responsible Corporate Activities on Korean Consumers’ Corporate Evaluations in the Agrifood Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmin Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The variety of socially responsible corporate activities employed in the agrifood industry has been broadening. An increasing number of agrifood companies have been employing strategic approaches to socially responsible activities, reinforced by Porter and Kramer’s concept of creating shared value (CSV. This study compares the effects on corporate evaluations of two socially responsible corporate activities: philanthropic giving and CSV. Because prior studies concerning the effects of corporate prosocial behaviors on consumer responses have yielded mixed results, the present study examines the effects of a priori perceptions of companies by using corporate stereotypes as moderators. The results show that the type of socially responsible corporate activity (CSV vs. philanthropic giving does not influence corporate evaluations. However, in cases of CSV (vs. philanthropic giving, consumers evaluate an unwarm but competent company more attractively and place higher value on an incompetent but warm company. This research is important not only for enriching existing literature, but also for providing guidelines to practitioners with respect to selecting appropriate corporate initiatives based on perceived consumer stereotypes.

  13. Risk assessment of hazardous impacts on urbanization and industrialization activities based upon toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A risk assessment study was conducted to predict the expected hazardous influence on the ecosystem resulted from urbanization and industrialization activities at Helwan area, Egypt. To achieve these goals, soils, plants and water samples were collected from Helwan area, and their total concentrations of inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and organic pollutants; such as Phenol and hydrocarbons were measured. The obtained results showed that, the concentrations of organic contaminants in water streams and surrounding soils recorded high concentration values than the permissible limits, while inorganic elements were within the safe limits for irrigation. In addition, soils irrigated with the effluents of industrial units recorded high values of inorganic and organic contaminants. Consequently, the levels of these contaminants were high in plant tissues grown thereon; especially the edible parts. Risk assessment based on available Predicted No Effect Concentration values for the aquatic and terrestrial environment was performed. Inorganic elements were expected to cause serious hazard problems for both aquatic organisms and soil microorganisms. The impact of these pollutants on human health was calculated using daily metals intake of inorganic metals via consumption of edible plants. Hazard index values proved that concentrations of Cr may cause serious hazard problems for humans in this area; especially, children.

  14. The principles, terms and responsibilities contained in the Romanian legislation related to coverage of risk in nuclear activities developed by Societatea Nationala Nuclearelectrica SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatamanu, Mariana

    2005-01-01

    experience of decommissioning of older CANDU nuclear plants, decommissioning process of Cernavoda Project have been evaluated. Cernavoda site complies with the requirements of international standards concerning nuclear plants. The nuclear safety standards applicable to Cernavoda NPP Units 1 and 2 site construction and operation comply with all safety principles included in IAEA guideline and regulations. A variety of public and private insurance tools may be used to transfer risk resulting from extreme weather events associated with climate change. The most prominent of these regimes have developed in connection with risks from nuclear damage, oil spills, transportation of dangerous and hazardous goods, and the pollution of watercourses through industrial accidents. The paper will introduce how insurance tools are used within these existing regimes to transfer and share risk and losses and present the tiered compensation systems currently used in these regimes to redistribute risk. This is done to allow consideration of how similar concepts might be used to address transboundary damage resulting from climate change. Finally, the nuclear third party liability regime in Romania shall be described and the way Societatea Nationala ''Nuclearelectrica'' S.A. - the key player and promoter of Romanian nuclear industry development. (author)

  15. Neutron activation analysis in an industrial laboratory using an off-site nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, T.W.; Broering, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    A multifunctional research laboratory, such as Procter and Gamble's Miami Valley Laboratories, requires elemental analyses on many materials. A general survey technique is important even if the information it provides is incomplete or is less precise than single element analyses. Procter and Gamble has developed neutron activation analysis (NAA) capabilities using a nuclear reactor several hundred miles away. The concentration of 40 to 50 elements can be determined in a variety of matrices. We have found NAA to be a powerful supplement to some of the more classical analytical techniques even without having an on-site neutron source. We have also found an automated data acquisition system to be essential for the successful application of NAA in an industrial laboratory

  16. Contributions to the prompt neutron activation analysis of industrially used coals and zinc roasting products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammermann, H.

    1982-01-01

    The construction of an irradiation plant for calibration measurement by means of prompt neutron activation analysis is described. A 5.84 μg and 16.3 μg Cf-252 source serve as neutron sources. Tests have shown an inner centred arrangement to offer the best solution for sources of this strength. The use of the PNAA method for determining sulphur, iron and chloride content in brown coal was tested and calibration curves drawn. The sulphur content of the coal briquettes tested was found to be 0.27% S, the iron content amounting to 0.21% Fe and chloride to 0.06%. These values correlate closely with values obtained from wet chemical industrial analysis. (WI)

  17. Elemental analysis of two Egyptian iron ores and produced industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.; Abdel-Basset, N.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Hassan, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4x10 12 n/cm 2 s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The γ-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented

  18. Verification of a characterization method of the laser-induced selective activation based on industrial lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, laser-induced selective activation (LISA) for subsequent autocatalytic copper plating is performed by several types of industrial scale lasers, including a Nd:YAG laser, a UV laser, a fiber laser, a green laser, and a short pulsed laser. Based on analysis of all the laser......-machined surfaces, normalized bearing area curves and parameters are used to characterize the surface quantitatively. The range of normalized bearing area curve parameters for plate-able surface is suggested. PBT/PET with 40 % glass fiber was used as the substrate material. For all of the studied lasers......, the parameters were varied in a relatively large range, and matrixes of the laser-machined surface were obtained. The topography of those laser-machined surfaces was examined by scanning electronic microscope (SEM). For each sample examined by SEM, there was an identical workpiece plated by for 90 min...

  19. Energy, materials and water in industrial activities in Galicia (Spain); Energia, Materiales y Agua en la Industria Manufacturera Gallega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doldan Garcia, X. R.

    2003-07-01

    The Galicia industrial activities request a big amount of raw materials energy and water, generating several kinds of residues. Most of them directly spoil the environment, causing important damages. Furthermore, the primary energy self supply capacity doesn't exist at this moment, being substituted by high levels of energetic resources importations satisfying industrial demand without decreasing the electricity and petroleum products exportations. This article tries to develop a complete analysis of this kind of problems, making an approach to the environmental situation of the Galicia manufacturing industry through materials, energy and water flow models. It focuses in those sectors which have a remarkable production within the Galicia industry, analysing their situation in two different years, 1992 and 2000. This will allow to identify possible tendencies of the industry as a whole, like a relative dematerialization, followed by a complete rematerialization.

  20. Phytochemistry, biological activities and potential of annatto in natural colorant production for industrial applications - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid-Ul-Islam; Rather, Luqman J; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2016-05-01

    Bixa orellana commonly known as annatto is one of the oldest known natural dye yielding plants native to Central and South America. Various parts of annatto have been widely used in the traditional medical system for prevention and treatment of a wide number of health disorders. The plethora of traditional uses has encouraged researchers to identify and isolate phytochemicals from all parts of this plant. Carotenoids, apocarotenoids, terpenes, terpenoids, sterols, and aliphatic compounds are main compounds found in all parts of this plant and are reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. In recent years annatto has received tremendous scientific interest mainly due to the isolation of yellow-orange natural dye from its seeds which exhibits high biodegradability, low toxicity, and compatibility with the environment. Considerable research work has already been done and is currently underway for its applications in food, textile, leather, cosmetic, solar cells, and other industries. The present review provides up-to-date systematic and organized information on the traditional usage, phytochemistry and pharmacology of annatto. It also highlights its non-food industrial applications in order to bring more interest on this dye plant, identifies the existing gaps and provides potential for future studies. Studies reported in this review have demonstrated that annatto holds a great potential for being exploited as source of drugs and a potential natural dye. However, further efforts are required to identify extract biomolecules and their action mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities in order to understand the full phytochemical profile and the complex pharmacological effects of this plant.

  1. Chernobyl. Principles of international law in the context of transfrontier environmental pollution as a consequence of a technical-industrial disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehetner, F.

    1986-01-01

    The fact that the radioactive cloud released after the MCA in the Chernobyl reactor drifted over 1.300 kilometers in the atmosphere and contaminated the air over Europe, first shown by the alarm in Sweden's nuclear power plant, turned the national Russian disaster into an international case of emergency, a ''matter of international concern'', that creates manifold problems on the level of international law. The author discusses an important aspect, the obligation to inform the other members of the international community about possible transfrontier environmental pollution. The topical case now has shown that the problem of timely, complete, and mutual information in the event of nuclear reactor accidents needs to be systematically regularized by multilateral treaties. The difficulties the Soviet authorities had to master the disaster and its consequences point to problem of whether and to what extent international organisations or states are obliged to, or entitled to, a) offer assistance unasked; b) provide assistance upon request; c) engage in remedial activities against the will of the state concerned. The Chernobyl accident has led to considerations as to extend the concept of 'ultra-hazardous activities' and related legal provisions to also include an obligation to agree upon international information and assistance for disaster control beforehand, on the grounds that such activities may involve inassessible hazards and damage. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. Environmental planning related to the oil industry activities at Maracaibo Lake Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, F.

    1993-01-01

    Maracaibo Lake has been the center of most of the hydrocarbon exploration and production activities in Venezuela since the early twenties, with a total cumulative oil extraction of nearly 40 billion barrels. The intensive activities related to production have brought a wide variety of ecosystem perturbations, as a consequence of the construction of facilities for exploration, transport, treatment, storage, and oil refining, as well as the generation of effluents, emissions, and solid wastes therein associated. The Venezuelan Petroleum Corporation (PDVSA) has recognized the importance of preventing further potential damage from its current operations and future expansions, with an additional concern for restoring affected areas. Herein, actual and future restoration/mitigation environmental planning will be discussed, emphasizing a research program focused on the Maracaibo Lake region, being conducted by PDVSA's R ampersand D Corporative branch. Research main objective is to gather, for PDVSA operating companies, a priority setting, as a function of environmental or ecological risks, related to the oil industry activities. To this end, efforts will be directed from a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account some of the major links structuring ecosystem complexity

  3. Survey of active solar thermal collectors, industry and markets in Canada : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    A survey of the solar thermal industry in Canada was presented. The aim of the survey was to determine the size of the Canadian solar thermal industry and market. Data were used to derive thermal energy output as well as avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from solar thermal systems. The questionnaire was distributed to 268 representatives. Results revealed annual sales of 24.2, 26.4 and 37.5 MW TH in 2002, 2003, and 2004 respectively, which represented over 50 per cent growth in the operating base during the 3 year survey period. Sales of all collector types grew substantially during the 3 year period, and survey respondents anticipated 20 per cent growth in both 2005 and 2006. Approximately 10 per cent of all sales were exported during 2002-2004. Unglazed liquid collectors constituted the majority of collector types sold in Canada, almost all of which were sold into the residential sector for swimming pool heating. The majority of air collectors were sold into the industrial/commercial and institutional (I/CI) sectors for use in space heating. Sales of liquid glazed and evacuated tube collectors were split between the residential and I/CI sectors. Residential sales were primarily for domestic water heating. In 2004, 23 per cent of sales in the residential sector were for combination domestic hot water and space heating applications, an indication of strong growth. Results of the survey indicated that the solar thermal market in Quebec differed from other regions, with more than double the annual per capita revenue of any other region as a result of greater market penetration of unglazed air collectors. Calculations of the GHG emissions avoided due to active solar thermal systems were made based on historical estimates of solar thermal installations. A model was developed to calculate an operating base by collector type from 1979 to the present. The model showed that many of the systems installed during the 1980s were decommissioned during the 1990s, and that

  4. Survey of active solar thermal collectors, industry and markets in Canada : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    A survey of the solar thermal industry in Canada was presented. The aim of the survey was to determine the size of the Canadian solar thermal industry and market. Data were used to derive thermal energy output as well as avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from solar thermal systems. The questionnaire was distributed to 268 representatives. Results revealed annual sales of 24.2, 26.4 and 37.5 MW{sub TH} in 2002, 2003, and 2004 respectively, which represented over 50 per cent growth in the operating base during the 3 year survey period. Sales of all collector types grew substantially during the 3 year period, and survey respondents anticipated 20 per cent growth in both 2005 and 2006. Approximately 10 per cent of all sales were exported during 2002-2004. Unglazed liquid collectors constituted the majority of collector types sold in Canada, almost all of which were sold into the residential sector for swimming pool heating. The majority of air collectors were sold into the industrial/commercial and institutional (I/CI) sectors for use in space heating. Sales of liquid glazed and evacuated tube collectors were split between the residential and I/CI sectors. Residential sales were primarily for domestic water heating. In 2004, 23 per cent of sales in the residential sector were for combination domestic hot water and space heating applications, an indication of strong growth. Results of the survey indicated that the solar thermal market in Quebec differed from other regions, with more than double the annual per capita revenue of any other region as a result of greater market penetration of unglazed air collectors. Calculations of the GHG emissions avoided due to active solar thermal systems were made based on historical estimates of solar thermal installations. A model was developed to calculate an operating base by collector type from 1979 to the present. The model showed that many of the systems installed during the 1980s were decommissioned during the 1990s, and

  5. A review of active control approaches in stabilizing combustion systems in aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Lu, Zhengli; Zhao, He; Li, X. Y.; Wang, Bing; Liu, Peijin

    2018-02-01

    Self-sustained combustion instabilities are one of the most plaguing challenges and problems in lean-conditioned propulsion and land-based engine systems, such as rocket motors, gas turbines, industrial furnace and boilers, and turbo-jet thrust augmenters. Either passive or active control in open- or closed-loop configurations can be implemented to mitigate such instabilities. One of the classical disadvantages of passive control is that it is only implementable to a designed combustor over a limited frequency range and can not respond to the changes in operating conditions. Compared with passive control approaches, active control, especially in closed-loop configuration is more adaptive and has inherent capacity to be implemented in practice. The key components in closed-loop active control are 1) sensor, 2) controller (optimization algorithm) and 3) dynamic actuator. The present work is to outline the current status, technical challenges and development progress of the active control approaches (in open- or closed-loop configurations). A brief description of feedback control, adaptive control, model-based control and sliding mode control are provided first by introducing a simplified Rijke-type combustion system. The modelled combustion system provides an invaluable platform to evaluate the performance of these feedback controllers and a transient growth controller. The performance of these controllers are compared and discussed. An outline of theoretical, numerical and experimental investigations are then provided to overview the research and development progress made during the last 4 decades. Finally, potential, challenges and issues involved with the design, application and implementation of active combustion control strategies on a practical engine system are highlighted.

  6. Distribution of U and Th decay series and rare earth elements in sediments of Santos Basin. Correlation with industrial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T.

    2005-01-01

    Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 million tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series as well as rare earth elements originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. Environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system by measuring the concentration of U, Th and rare earth elements and activity concentration of radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 210 Pb. (author)

  7. Tobacco Industry Political Activity and Tobacco Control Policy Making in Pennsylvania: 1979-1996

    OpenAIRE

    Monardi, Fred M. Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    1997-01-01

    The tobacco industry is a major political and legal force in Pennsylvania through campaign contributions, lobbying and litigation. The tobacco industry has become a major source of campaign contributions to legislative candidates, state constitutional office candidates, and political party committees. In the 1979-1980 election cycle, the tobacco industry contributed $3,600 to candidates and parties. In 1995-1996, the tobacco industry contributed $65,850 to candidates and parties. ...

  8. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  9. Protecting the principles during progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, W.K.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will discuss the importance in recognizing the unique aspects of nuclear power generation in an industry facing deregulation, competitiveness, and commercialization. While exciting times of opportunity are again ahead for the nuclear industry, the excitement has to consider that there are differences between general nuclear and general commerce. These differences are driven by some fundamental principles that impact nuclear reactor operation and examples are given of how these principles must be protected to ensure that nuclear generation can be of continued benefit to the public. (author)

  10. The crisis and activities of the petroleum industry; La crise et les activites de l'industrie petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, B.

    2010-02-15

    In this work, Mr F. Birol (IEA) presents the results of a recent study made by the IEA on the impacts in the world of the crisis for the production of petroleum and natural gas, the exploration/production investments and the demand of petroleum products. A projection for the years 2015 - 2030 is made. Then, Mr J.J. Mosconi (Total) presents the strategy of the Total's firm in terms of investments on account of the crisis. At last, Mr K. Bennaceur (Schlumberger) gives its point of view of the impact of the crisis on its activity. (O.M.)

  11. Sustainable bio kerosene: Process routes and industrial demonstration activities in aviation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonti, David; Prussi, Matteo; Buffi, Marco; Tacconi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Routes to aviation biofuels are examined, focusing on drop-in biofuels, capable of high blend levels with fossil kerosene. • Industrial demonstration activities are reported. • Used cooking oil is considered as alternative sustainable biomass feedstock for paraffinic fuel production. - Abstract: Alternative fuels are expected to play a major role in EU in the coming years due European Directives on the promotion of renewable energies and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in transports. However, while in road transports a variety of possible renewable fuels (mainly biofuels, but also electricity) can be considered, in aviation only high quality paraffinic biofuels can be adopted. This means that biomass must be converted through advanced processes into pure hydrocarbon fuels, fully compatible with the existing systems. The aviation sector is responsible for the 2% of the world anthropogenic CO 2 emissions and the 10% of the fuel consumption: airlines’ costs for fuel reach 30% of operating costs. In addition, the aviation traffic is expected to double within 15 years from 2012, while fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions should double in 25 years. Thus, more than 2 billion people and 40 Mt of good/cargo will have to be moved every year. In this context, the EU Flightpath set a target of 2 Mt per year for aviation alternative fuel by 2020 (i.e. 4% of annual fuel consumption). New processes towards bio-hydrocarbons are being developed, demonstrated and soon industrialized. The present work explores the possible routes from biomass feedstock to sustainable paraffinic fuels, either through bio or thermo-chemical processes, as well as discusses those more mature, focusing on industrial demonstration initiatives. In fact, while the number of possible options towards paraffinic biofuel production is very large, and covers both thermochemical and biochemical routes, as well as hybrid one, only two pathways are today ready for testing a significant

  12. Assessment of an active industrial exoskeleton to aid dynamic lifting and lowering manual handling tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysamen, Kirsten; de Looze, Michiel; Bosch, Tim; Ortiz, Jesus; Toxiri, Stefano; O'Sullivan, Leonard W

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an industrial exoskeleton on muscle activity, perceived musculoskeletal effort, measured and perceived contact pressure at the trunk, thighs and shoulders, and subjective usability for simple sagittal plane lifting and lowering conditions. Twelve male participants lifted and lowered a box of 7.5 kg and 15 kg, respectively, from mid-shin height to waist height, five times, both with and without the exoskeleton. The device significantly reduced muscle activity of the Erector Spinae (12%-15%) and Biceps Femoris (5%). Ratings of perceived musculoskeletal effort in the trunk region were significantly less with the device (9.5%-11.4%). The measured contact pressure was highest on the trunk (91.7 kPa-93.8 kPa) and least on shoulders (47.6 kPa-51.7 kPa), whereas pressure was perceived highest on the thighs (35-44% of Max LPP). Six of the users rated the device usability as acceptable. The exoskeleton reduced musculoskeletal loading on the lower back and assisted with hip extensor torque during lifting and lowering. Contact pressures fell below the Pain Pressure Threshold. Perceived pressure was not exceptionally high, but sufficiently high to cause discomfort if used for long durations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Innovative development and factors affecting the innovative activity of industrial enterprises in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirova Asya Olegova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovations are a necessity, innovations are a factor, innovations are the moving force of the companies in the 21st century. Every modern manager should recognize the role of innovations for the existence of the enterprises and to aim at innovative development. The novelties in various areas are to be followed up. It is necessary to look for the options and to overcome the obstacles standing in the way of innovations. The major objective of this article is to establish the state of innovative activity of industrial enterprises in Bulgaria and to identify the factors exercising the largest influence on their innovative development. The major results to be achieved are the establishment of the basic internal and external factors that support innovations, the deduction of the major problems occurring during the innovation process and the establishment of some directives to activation. The major methods of study used in this work are statistical methods for evaluation, method of analysis and synthesis, method of comparison. Information of literature sources has been studied and systematized within the process of research, as well as analytical reports of Bulgaria and the European Union, and results from an inquiry held are used, as well as statistical data of the National Statistical Institute of the Republic of Bulgaria.

  14. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines.

  15. Gesture & Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2017-01-01

    The development of architecture is governed by an increasing gap between the experienced quality of architectural space, manifest as a sense of interiority on behalf of the user, and the means applied in its realization. Between means and ends, one could say, which calls for a continuous...... and critical development of architectural method. By method, I mean a systematic series of steps taken to acquire knowledge about an architectural problem. As the building industry and the actual construction of architecture is becoming ever more complex moving from craft over industrialization through...... to integration of digital technologies, the mentioned gap is becoming present in the processes and models of collaborations between the multiple parties involved in the realization of architecture, as well as in the work itself. This, as an increase of construction layers, installations and equipment tending...

  16. Bioassay-guided isolation of active principles from Nigerian medicinal plants identifies new trypanocides with low toxicity and no cross-resistance to diamidines and arsenicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebiloma, Godwin Unekwuojo; Igoli, John Ogbaji; Katsoulis, Evangelos; Donachie, Anne-Marie; Eze, Anthonius; Gray, Alexander Ian; de Koning, Harry P

    2017-04-18

    Leaves from the plant species studied herein are traditionally used in northern Nigeria against various protozoan infections. However, none of these herbal preparations have been standardized, nor have their toxicity to mammalian cells been investigated. In search of improved and non-toxic active antiprotozoal principles that are not cross-resistant with current anti-parasitics, we here report the results of the in vitro screening of extracts from seven selected medicinal plant species (Centrosema pubescens, Moringa oleifera, Tridax procumbens, Polyalthia longifolia, Newbouldia laevis, Eucalyptus maculate, Jathropha tanjorensis), used traditionally to treat kinetoplastid infections in Nigeria, and the isolation of their bioactive principles. To investigate the efficacies of medicinal plant extracts, and of compounds isolated therefrom, against kinetoplastid parasites, assess cross-resistance to existing chemotherapy, and assay their toxicity against mammalian cells in vitro. Plants were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Active principles were isolated by bioassay-led fractionation, testing for trypanocidal activity, and identified using NMR and mass spectrometry. EC 50 values for their activity against wild-type and multi-drug resistant Trypanosoma brucei were obtained using the viability indicator dye resazurin. Seven medicinal plants were evaluated for activity against selected kinetoplastid parasites. The result shows that crude extracts and isolated active compounds from Polyalthia longifolia and Eucalyptus maculata, in particular, display promising activity against drug-sensitive and multi-drug resistant Trypanosoma brucei. The EC 50 value of a clerodane (16α-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13(14)-Z-dien-15,16-olide) isolated from Polyalthia longifolia was as low as 0.38µg/mL, while a triterpenoid (3β,13β-dihydroxy-urs-11-en-28-oic acid) isolated from Eucalyptus maculata displayed an EC 50 of 1.58µg/mL. None of the isolated compounds displayed toxicity

  17. From bio-resources to industry. Agrice 2 Activity report 2001-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    framework of this new programme. This AGRICE 2001-2007 activity report presents: - the AGRICE's Profile, Structure and operations; - Scope of AGRICE's activity and 2001-2007 AGRICE II activity, 2001-2007 Applications; - sectors of activity: bio-energy, bio-products, Biomaterials; - AGRICE Activities from 2001 to 2007: Role and activities, Knowledge, Market studies, Environmental impact studies, Resources, Communication (Conferences and Technical study days Publications), Extracting value, Industrial success stories, International networks and programmes, Evaluation of AGRICE II (objectives, Principal findings and recommendations); In appendix: the Financial statement 2007 and 2001-2007; the evaluation of projects by theme; The topical breakdown of subsidies allocated by AGRICE (2001-2007); the projects initiated from 2001 to 2007; the members of the group council and AGRICE representatives; the AGRICE team

  18. The effect of fast and slow motor unit activation on whole-muscle mechanical performance: the size principle may not pose a mechanical paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, N C; Wakeling, J M; Biewener, A A

    2014-05-22

    The output of skeletal muscle can be varied by selectively recruiting different motor units. However, our knowledge of muscle function is largely derived from muscle in which all motor units are activated. This discrepancy may limit our understanding of in vivo muscle function. Hence, this study aimed to characterize the mechanical properties of muscle with different motor unit activation. We determined the isometric properties and isotonic force-velocity relationship of rat plantaris muscles in situ with all of the muscle active, 30% of the muscle containing predominately slower motor units active or 20% of the muscle containing predominately faster motor units active. There was a significant effect of active motor unit type on isometric force rise time (p motor units were active than when either fast or slow motor units were selectively activated. We propose this is due to the greater relative effects of factors such as series compliance and muscle resistance to shortening during sub-maximal contractions. The findings presented here suggest that recruitment according to the size principle, where slow motor units are activated first and faster ones recruited as demand increases, may not pose a mechanical paradox, as has been previously suggested.

  19. Present Situation and Activities of ISO 14000 series in Heavy Machinery Industries; Jukikai meka no taiou jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomisawa, Yukio. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Research Institute

    1999-01-15

    This paper shows the outline of the present situation and activities of ISO14000 series, environmental management system in heavy machinery industries. Today, main heavy machinery industries have already certified to ISO 14001 until this summer. The aim of the introduction of ISO 14001 are to establish the system improvement continuously by PDCA, to have essential elements in international trade and to keep up with the risk management. Some example of conducted ISO 14001 in heavy machinery industries are shown. The trend of heavy machinery industries will be able to predict to three key words, internationalization, network and opening information. The new role expected to environmental material engineer are indicated to research and develop ecomaterial by using LCA and to support the recycling, waste treatment and other technical basis of the environmental management system. (author)

  20. Radioactive waste from non-licensed activities - identification of waste, compilation of principles and guidance, and proposed system for final management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.; Pers, K.

    2001-07-01

    Presently national guidelines for the handling of radioactive waste from non-licensed activities are lacking in Sweden. Results and information presented in this report are intended to form a part of the basis for decisions on further work within the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute on regulations or other guidelines on final management and final disposal of this type of waste. An inventory of radioactive waste from non-licensed activities is presented in the report. In addition, existing rules and principles used in Sweden - and internationally - on the handling of radioactive and toxic waste and non-radioactive material are summarized. Based on these rules and principles a system is suggested for the final management of radioactive material from non-licensed activities. A model is shown for the estimation of dose as a consequence of leaching of radio-nuclides from different deposits. The model is applied on different types of waste, e.g. peat ashes, light concrete and low-level waste from a nuclear installation

  1. Analysis of the corporate political activity of major food industry actors in Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Wate, Jillian; Tukana, Isimeli; Sacks, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of mortality in Fiji, a middle-income country in the Pacific. Some food products processed sold and marketed by the food industry are major contributors to the NCD epidemic, and the food industry is widely identified as having strong economic and political power. However, little research has been undertaken on the attempts by the food industry to influence public health-related policies and programs in its favour. The ?corporat...

  2. The main goals and principles of nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huseynov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The use of modern radiation technology expands in various fields of human activity. The most advanced approach, methods and technologies and also radiation technologies are of great importance in industrial, medical, agricultural, construction, science, education, and etc. areas of the fastest growing Azerbaijan Republic. Ensuring of nuclear and radiation safety, safety standards, main principles and conception of safety play a crucial role. The following ten principles are taken as a basis to ensure safety measures. 1. Responsible for ensuring safety; 2. The role of government; 3. Leadership and management of security interests; 4. Devices and justification of activity; 5. Optimization of preservation; 6. Limiting of risks for physical persons; 7. The protection of present and future generations; 8. The prevention of accidents; 9. Emergency preparedness and response; 10. Reducing of risks of existing and unregulated radiation protection measures. The safety principles are applied together

  3. How is post-industrial decline associated with the geography of physical activity? Evidence from the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy; Southall, Humphrey

    2014-03-01

    In recent decades, the prevalence of physical activity has declined considerably in many developed countries, which has been related to rising levels of obesity and several weight-related medical conditions, such as coronary heart disease. There is evidence that areas exhibiting particularly low levels of physical activity have undergone a strong transition away from employment in physically demanding occupations. It is proposed that such processes of deindustrialisation may be causally linked to unexplained geographical disparities in physical activity. This study investigates how geographical variations in deindustrialisation are associated with current levels of physical activity across different activity domains and relevant macro-economic time periods in England. The analysis includes data on 27,414 adults from the Health Survey for England 2006 and 2008 who reported total, occupational, domestic, recreational and walking activity. Based on employment change in industries associated with heavy manual work, a local measurement of industrial decline was developed, covering the period 1841-2001. We applied a multilevel modelling approach to study associations between industrial decline and physical activity. Results indicate that the process of deindustrialisation appears to be associated with patterns of physical activity and that this is independent of household income. The effects observed were generally similar for men and women. However, the nature of the association differed across areas, time periods and employment types; in particular, residents of districts characterised by a history of manufacturing and mining employment had increased odds of reporting low activity levels. We conclude that post-industrial change may be a factor in explaining present-day variations in physical activity, emphasising the plausible impact of inherited cultures and regional identities on health related behaviours. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cluster as a Tool to Increase the Competitiveness and Innovative Activity of Enterprises of the Defense Industry Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina B. Dobrova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main goal of the publication is to make a comprehensive study of the possible application of the cluster approach to improve the competitiveness and innovation activity of enterprises of the defense industry complex.Methods: the methodology of the research is based on the collection and analysis of initial data and information, the article uses a systematic approach to the study of socio-economic processes and phenomena. The research is based on modern theory of competition, innovation, as well as the modern paradigm of cluster development of the economy. In preparing the study, practical materials from Corporation “Rostec”.Results: the article gives the notion of cluster, the prospects for the use of the cluster approach to enhance competitiveness and innovation enterprises of the military-industrial complex. It is noted that the activation of interaction with the “civil sector” is particularly relevant in the context of the reduction of the state defense order, and the theory and practice of cluster management offers a number of forms of cluster interaction between the enterprises of the defense industry and the civil sector. It is emphasized that the development of cluster mechanisms can solve a number of problems related to the insufficient financial stability of defense industry enterprises in the context of a reduction in the state defense order, low innovation activity and the lack of developed models of interaction with small innovative enterprises. Ultimately, the use of cluster mechanisms in the development of defense enterprises is intended to enhance the competitiveness of the complex, both nationally and globally. It is stated that the existing clusters are not able to fully solve a number of specific tasks related to the diversification of integrated defense industry structures. Attention is drawn to the fact that existing clusters are not able to fully solve a number of specific tasks related to the

  5. Decolorization of industrial wastewater by ozonation followed by adsorption on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konsowa, A.H.; Ossman, M.E.; Chen, Yongsheng; Crittenden, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The decolorization of industrial wastewater containing direct dye (Drimarene Red CL-3B) by advanced oxidation process using ozonation in a semi-batch bubble column reactor followed by granule activated carbon (GAC) adsorption process was studied. The effect of initial dye concentration, ozone concentration, pH and ozone-air flow rate on the rate of dye decolorization were investigated. It was found that the rate of dye decolorization increases with increasing ozone concentration, ozone-air flow rate, and pH but decreases with increasing initial dye concentration. This study is a hybrid system conducted in combination between ozonation process and GAC adsorption to reveal higher and efficient removal of color and TOC. The process started with ozonation for efficient and rapid decolorization of dyeing wastewater, followed by GAC adsorption process to gain efficient removal of color and TOC. The adsorption process was found to be very efficient in removal of ozonation residual TOC, in view of high TOC removal, up to 37% TOC removal was obtained. Numerical correlation using regression analysis for decolorization time with the operating conditions of the ozonation process were presented.

  6. Impact of agricultural and industrial activities on ground water quality in Kasur area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasneem, M.A.; Latif, Z.; Butt, S.; Afzal, M.; Ali, M.; Afzal, M.; Khan, I.H.; Sajjad, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of agricultural and industrial activities on groundwater quality. Kasur area was selected to study the influence of chemical fertilizers and tannery effluents on groundwater with the help of /sup 15/N of water nitrates. Bremner and keeney methods with certain modifications ware adopted for extraction of nitrate nitrogen in the form of ammonium ions. Ammonium concentrates were converted to nitrogen gas using potassium hypo bromide solution and analyzed on GD-150 mass spectrometer. /sup 15/N of nitrates from groundwater (n=14), pond water and Kisan urea were determined. There is a pronounced difference in the /sup 15/N values of nitrates from various sources. /sup 15/N of pond water (mixture of tannery effluents, sewerage and rainwater) was found to be +31.99% and +21.26% for the first and the second samplings respectively. /sup 15/N of Kisan urea sample was determined to be - 1.00%. The nitrate concentration of groundwater ranged from 1-171 ppm and / sup 15/N was found to be -0.40 to WHO permissible limits (45 ppm). Temporal variation was also observed but the values were still above the WHO limits. It is concluded that the major source of nitrates pollution in the Kasur area is due to chemical fertilizers and +37.10%. Out of 14 drinking water samples six have nitrate contents above biological wastes but not due to the tannery effluents. (author)

  7. Pyruvate Decarboxylase Activity Assay in situ of Different Industrial Yeast Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kręgiel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC, EC 4.1.1.1 is one of the key enzymes of yeast fermentative metabolism. PDC is the first enzyme which, under anaerobic conditions, leads to decarboxylation of pyruvate with acetaldehyde as the end product. The aim of this study is to develop a suitable method for PDC activity assay in situ for different industrial yeast strains. Saccharomyces sp. and Debaryomyces sp. yeast strains grew in fermentative medium with 12 % of glucose. Enzymatic assay was conducted in cell suspension treated with digitonin as permeabilisation agent, and with sodium pyruvate as a substrate, at temperature of 30 °C. Metabolites of PDC pathway were detected using gas chromatographic (GC technique. Various parameters like type and molar concentration of the substrate, minimal effective mass fraction of digitonin, cell concentration, reaction time and effect of pyrazole (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor were monitored to optimize PDC enzymatic assay in situ. In the concentration range of yeast cells from 1⋅10^7 to 1⋅10^8 per mL, linear correlation between the produced acetaldehyde and cell density was noticed. Only pyruvate was the specific substrate for pyruvate decarboxylase. In the presence of 0.05 M sodium pyruvate and 0.05 % digitonin, the enzymatic reaction was linear up to 20 min of the assay. During incubation, there was no formation of ethanol and, therefore, pyrazole was not necessary for the assay.

  8. Production from Activated Sludge Process of Sago Industry Wastewater Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Subha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the coefficient determination value (R2 of VSS and COD reduction were 0.9689 and 0.8838, respectively. VSS reduction (81% was achieved at acidic pH 6.9, 12 minutes ozonation, and retention time of 10 days. COD reduction (87% was achieved at acidic pH 6.7, 8 minutes of ozonation time, and retention time of 6 days. Low ozonation time and high retention time influence maximum sludge reduction, whereas low ozonation time with low retention time was effective for COD reduction.

  9. KEY TENDENCIES IN SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL (INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES OF RUSSIAN INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Dobrova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article off ers the analysis of expenditures on technological innovation in Russia and abroad. The author outlines the main reasons of the low level of technological development of Russian industrial companies. A number of organizational and economic measures to create conditions for technological development of the Russian economy are considered. In recent years, there was an essential increase in output of innovative products, works and services that coincided with the increased ratio of volumes of technological innovations to their costs. However, the expected decrease of this ratio in the coming years may cause slower growth of volumes of innovative production that requires drastic measures, especially aimed at restricting key factors impeding innovative activities. These factors include lack of own funds, high cost of innovations, lack of fi nancial support from the state, high economic risk and low innovative potential of the organization.

  10. [The economically active population in Verviers during the industrial revolution. Part 1. Inactivity and underemployment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desama, C

    1979-01-01

    The industrial revolution during the 1st 1/2 of the 19th century in Wallonia had important social and demographic repercussions which are still being felt today. The author examines and compares the demographic structures of the working population of the city of Verviers in 1806 and 1846. 1/4 of the adult population was not working at that time. Married women constitute a manpower reserve which is drawn upon in line with the general line of activity; the more than proportional overall offer of employment with respect to demand is a cause for inactivity which is as restraining as the education of children or social pressures may be which force these women to perform household work. Underemployment is linked to age, affecting the youngest among potential workers; it is high between ages 12-19, decreases until age 30 and then becomes negligible, and increases again by age 65 in 1806 or age 70 in 1846. Underemployment is also linked to sex since it affects women, although less than inactivity does. Finally, it affects bachelors; the evident relation in 1806 becomes almost exclusive in 1846 when 90% of underemployed individuals were bachelors. The increase in the rate of underemployment between 1806-1846 is the result of the volume of immigration and its structure which brought about disequilibrium between supply and demand. (author's)

  11. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

  12. Evaluation of hazards from industrial activity near nuclear power plants. Study of typical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannoy, A.; Gobert, T.; Granier, J.P.

    1981-08-01

    The design and dimensioning of nuclear power plant structures necessitate the evaluation of risks due to industrial activity. Among these risks, those due to the storage or transport of dangerous products merit special attention. They result, inter alia, in the explosion of flammable gas clouds. Such clouds can drift before igniting and, once alight, the resulting pressure wave can cause serious damage, even at a distance. A methodology both deterministic and probabilistic enabling this risk to be quantified has therefore been developed. It is based in part on an analysis of the statistics of actual accidents that have occurred. After briefly recalling the probabilistic model, the typical accidents selected are described and for three usual cases (storage under pressure, rail tank cars and road units) the main characteristics of the rupture are explicited. The deterministic models that have been worked out to calculate the consequences of such an accident: flow rate at the bursting point, evaporation, drift and atmospheric dispersion of the cloud formed, explosion of this cloud, are then described. At the present time the overpressure wave is quantified against a TNT equivalent of the explosive mixture. Some data are given as examples for three commonly employed hydrocarbons (butane, propane, propylene) [fr

  13. Activities for the privatisation of the electricity supply industry in Great Britain. Electricity changing from public ownership to administrative, regulatory control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, H P

    1988-11-01

    According to Great Britain's energy policy, the electricity industry is going to be denationalised, so that the electricity sector will be governed by the principles of free competition, releaved from governmental intervention and political constraints, and supervised by the Director General of Electricity Supply. This restructurisation is intended to improve Britain's electricity industry in terms of dynamics, creativity, supply quality, and efficiency. A major goal is to strengthen the competitiveness of the British industry, and to enhance electricity supply to private consumers by way of more favourable electricity rates.

  14. The history of the peat manufacturing industry in The Netherlands : peat moss litter and active carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karel, Erwin; Gerding, Michiel; De Vries, Gerben

    This article describes the development of three major forms of peat processing by the manufacturing industry in The Netherlands since the last quarter of the 19th century. At a time when peat as a fuel was gradually being replaced by coal, the first form was the peat moss litter industry. Peat moss

  15. Effect of turmeric and its active principle curcumin on t(3)-induced oxidative stress and hyperplasia in rat kidney: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Luna; Panigrahi, Jogamaya; Bhanja, Shravani; Chainy, Gagan B N

    2010-10-01

    The present study was designed to compare the potential of turmeric and its active principle curcumin on T(3)-induced oxidative stress and hyperplasia. Adult male Wistar strain rats were rendered hyperthyroid by T(3) treatment (10 μg · 100 g(-1) · day(-1) intraperitoneal for 15 days in 0.1 mM NaOH) to induce renal hyperplasia. Another two groups were treated similarly with T(3) along with either turmeric or curcumin (30 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) orally for 15 days). The results indicate that T(3) induces both hypertrophy and hyperplasia in rat kidney as evidenced by increase in cell number per unit area, increased protein content, tubular dilation and interstitial edema. These changes were accompanied by increased mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity without any change in catalase activity and glutathione content suggesting an oxidative predominance. Both turmeric and curcumin were able to restore the level of mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity in the present dose schedule. T(3)-induced histo-pathological changes were restored with turmeric treatment whereas curcumin administration caused hypoplasia. This may be due to lower concentration of curcumin in the whole turmeric. Thus it is hypothesized that regulation of cell cycle in rat kidney by T(3) is via reactive oxygen species and curcumin reveres the changes by scavenging them. Although the response trends are comparable for both turmeric and curcumin, the magnitude of alteration is more in the later. Turmeric in the current dose schedule is a safer bet than curcumin in normalizing the T(3)-induced hyperplasia may be due to the lower concentration of the active principle in the whole spice.

  16. Alexandra Masaitis, UNR NV, USA. PhD Grad St. Principles of Adoption of the Successful Environmental Policies and Practices Used in Developed Countries into the Russian Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, A.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental Management principle based on the local conditions; 2. Devised were criteria for the risk assessment for mining operations in Russia. Where the fundamental principals were public health, environmental and biodiversity impact, long- and short- term rehabilitation plans, compliance with international standards and norms. Every criterion has grade level of probability that directly affects quarterly fees. 3. Developed was the mechanism of the economic motivation to make mining operations "environmentally friendly" that includes defrayal of expenses from both direct and indirect damages. 4. Identified were spheres of possible cooperation between mining companies, government organizations, and the NGOs. These include development of standards for Good Neighbor Agreement, exchange of environmental information, international exchange of successful environmental, health, and safety practices. The study showed the necessity for the Russian Federation mining industry to adopt the more successful environmental policies and practices used in developed countries. To achieve this goal the Regional Environmental Management principle, the risk assessment criteria, the mechanism of the economic motivation, and the principles for international cooperation can play an extremely important role.

  17. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  18. Extreme load alleviation using industrial implementation of active trailing edge flaps in a full design load basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Athanasios; Pettas, Vasilis; Gertz, Drew Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The application of active trailing edge flaps in an industrial oriented implementation is evaluated in terms of capability of alleviating design extreme loads. A flap system with basic control functionality is implemented and tested in a realistic full Design Load Basis (DLB) for the DTU 10MW...

  19. Effect of the major components of industrial air pollution on nonsymbiotic nitrogen-fixation activity in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islamov, S S; Chunderova, A I

    1976-01-01

    Industrial pollution of atmosphere inhibits the activity of non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soils. The inhibiting effect of polluted air can be explained by the presence of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in it. Sulfur dioxide does not depress the nitrogenase complex of aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen fixing microorganisms.

  20. Merger and Acquisition Activity as Driver of Spatial Clustering : The Spatial Evolution of the Dutch Banking Industry, 1850-1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Hartog, Matté

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which merger and acquisition (M&A) activity contributed to the spatial clustering of the Dutch banking industry in Amsterdam. This analysis is based on a unique database of all banks in the Netherlands that existed in the period 1850-1993. We found that

  1. Widely available active sites on Ni2P for electrochemical hydrogen evolution - insights from first principles calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Stern, Lucas-Alexandre; Feng, Ligang

    2015-01-01

    We present insights into the mechanism and the active site for hydrogen evolution on nickel phosphide (Ni2P). Ni2P was recently discovered to be a very active non-precious hydrogen evolution catalyst. Current literature attributes the activity of Ni2P to a particular site on the (0001) facet....... In the present study, using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, we show that several widely available low index crystal facets on Ni2P have better properties for a high catalytic activity. DFT calculations were used to identify moderately bonding nickel bridge sites and nickel hollow sites for hydrogen...... adsorption and to calculate barriers for the Tafel pathway. The investigated surfaces in this study were the (10 (1) over bar0), ((1) over bar(1) over bar 20), (11 (2) over bar0), (11 (2) over bar1) and (0001) facets of the hexagonal Ni2P crystal. In addition to the DFT results, we present experiments on Ni2...

  2. Comparison of soil heavy metal pollution caused by e-waste recycling activities and traditional industrial operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kailing; Sun, Zehang; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-04-01

    The traditional industrial operations are well recognized as an important source of heavy metal pollution, while that caused by the e-waste recycling activities, which have sprouted in some developing countries, is often overlooked. This study was carried out to compare the status of soil heavy metal pollution caused by the traditional industrial operations and the e-waste recycling activities in the Pearl River Delta, and assess whether greater attention should be paid to control the pollution arising from e-waste recycling activities. Both the total contents and the chemical fractionation of major heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in 50 surface soil samples collected from the e-waste recycling areas and 20 soil samples from the traditional industrial zones were determined. The results show that the soils in the e-waste recycling areas were mainly polluted by Cu, Zn, As, and Cd, while Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were the major heavy metals in the soils from the traditional industrial zones. Statistical analyses consistently show that Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils from both types of sites were contributed mostly by human activities, while As, Cr, and Ni in the soils were dominated by natural background. No clear distinction was found on the pollution characteristic of heavy metals in the surface soils between the e-waste recycling areas and traditional industrial zones. The potential ecological risk posed by heavy metals in the surface soils from both types of sites, which was dominated by that from Cd, ranged from low to moderate. Given the much shorter development history of e-waste recycling and its largely unregulated nature, significant efforts should be made to crack down on illegal e-waste recycling and strengthen pollution control for related activities.

  3. Employment within the power supply industry and the power supply related activities 2010; Sysselsatte i kraftnaeringen og kraftrelatert virksomhet 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoen, Haavard

    2011-07-01

    The report's main objective is to investigate employment within the power supply industry and the power supply related activities. The report will describe the composition of employees in regard to sex, age and education. The power supply industry is defined in Statistics Norway's Standard Industrial Classification, as 'Production and distribution of electricity'. The group of companies related to power supply related activities employ similar persons in regard to education and occupation, typical to companies in the power supply industry. In the report, these two groups make up the power supply sector. In 2010 there were 18215 employees in the power supply sector. This constitutes an increase of nearly 12 per cent since 2004 and 1,7 per cent since 2008. The sex distribution of about 80 per cent men and 20 per cent women has been fairly stable since 2004. Compared to the private sector in general the power supply sector has a low share of women among its employees. In 2009 the level of education in the power supply sector was higher than for the private sector in general. Since 2004, the share of persons with higher education has increased from 27 to 33 per cent. Employees in the power supply sector are on an average older than the employees in the private sector. The employees have matured since 2004, but in the last few years, there have also been signs of fresh recruitment. The power supply industry had a net influx of 347 new employees, or 2 percent, in the period between 2009 and 2010. There were 1522 new employees and 1175 employees lost in the sector due to attrition, which gives a turnover rate of 20 percent. If we look at the supply of new employees who were also employed in 2009, 19 percent of female employees worked in temporary staff recruitment agencies. This indicates that temporary work was an entry gate to the power supply industry for many women. Among men, the building- and construction sector was the most common background for

  4. Radiation chemistry; principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, F.; Rodgers, M.A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The book attempts to present those fields of radiation chemistry which depend on the principles of radiation chemistry. The first four chapters are some prelude about radiation chemistry principles with respect to how ionizing radiation interacts with matter, and primary results from these interactions and, which kinetic laws are followed by these primary interactions and which equipment for qualitative studies is necessary. Following chapters included principles fields of radiation chemistry. The last six chapters discussed of principle of chemistry from physical and chemical point of view. In this connection the fundamentals of radiation on biological system is emphasised. On one hand, the importance of it for hygiene and safety as neoplasms therapy is discussed. on the other hand, its industrial importance is presented

  5. Perspective of nuclear power policy change and trend of nuclear industry activities from energy policy of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoko; Matsuo, Yuji; Nagatomi, Yu

    2009-01-01

    European countries of nuclear power phase-out have changed to commit to the future of nuclear energy due to the intended low-carbon power, the energy security concerns and the need of replacement reactors as current reactors approach the end of operating lives, as Italian government has passed legislation to build new nuclear power plants. This article described the perspective of nuclear power policy changes in UK, Italy an Sweden and the business trend and the SWOT analysis of related electric utilities (EDF, Enel and Vattenfall) and nuclear industries (Areva NP, Sheffield Forgemasters, ENSA and Studsvik). Policy implications obtained from this analysis were commented for Japanese nuclear industry activities. (T. Tanaka)

  6. The marketing potential of corporate social responsibility activities: the case of the alcohol industry in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantani, Daniela; Peltzer, Raquel; Cremonte, Mariana; Robaina, Katherine; Babor, Thomas; Pinsky, Ilana

    2017-01-01

    The aims were to: (1) identify, monitor and analyse the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices of the alcohol industry in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and (2) examine whether the alcohol industry is using these actions to market their products and brands. Nine health experts from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay conducted a content analysis of 218 CSR activities using a standardized protocol. A content rating procedure was used to evaluate the marketing potential of CSR activities as well as their probable population reach and effectiveness. The LEAD procedure (longitudinal, expert and all data) was applied to verify the accuracy of industry-reported descriptions. A total of 55.8% of the actions were found to have a marketing potential, based on evidence that they are likely to promote brands and products. Actions with marketing potential were more likely to reach a larger audience than actions classified with no marketing potential. Most actions did not fit into any category recommended by the World Health Organization; 50% of the actions involving classroom and college education for young people were found to have marketing potential; 62.3% were classified as meeting the definition of risk management CSR. Alcohol industry Corporate Social Responsibility activities in Latin America and the Caribbean appear to have a strategic marketing role beyond their stated philanthropic and public health purpose. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Hospital CEOs' priorities and perceptions regarding industry issues and the Virginia Hospital Association's activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, D R; Gerardo, E F; Duguid, D A; Cooning, P J

    1991-01-01

    Based on a survey of Virginia hospital CEOs, it was revealed that four industry issues are causing a high degree of concern, namely Medicare/Medicaid reimbursement policies, personnel shortages, indigent care, and increased operating expenses. Each of these issues will be discussed regarding the VHA's activities to devise possible solutions. Regarding Medicare, the VHA has worked closely with the American Hospital Association in their federal advocacy efforts encouraging members to write, call, and visit their Congressional representatives to persuade them to pass legislation increasing the Medicare budget. Regarding Medicaid, which is administered by each state and in Virginia involves a 50/50 sharing of the funding between the federal and state governments, the VHA has challenged what it believes to be an illegal hospital reimbursement system through the federal judicial system. While the process is continuing, the VHA is encouraged by the U.S. Supreme Court's decision (July 1990) affirming hospitals' and all other health care providers' right, to pursue via the judicial process their allegation that a state is violating federal law by setting inadequate and inequitable Medicaid reimbursement rates to hospitals. In order to address the personnel shortages issue, the VHA has actively addressed recruitment and retention challenges by establishing a Health Manpower Resource Center and hiring a full-time director. This office targets high school students, second-career adults, and current health care professionals through communication and education programs. The area of indigent care represents one of the VHA's most notable achievements to date. This entails the recent Virginia legislation creating the Indigent Care Trust Fund. This fund's initial amount is some $15 million and represents an approximate 60/40 contribution ratio involving both the State of Virginia and hospitals in Virginia. A formula has been developed for each hospital in Virginia to assess how

  8. First principles investigation of the activity of thin film Pt, Pd and Au surface alloys for oxygen reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Further advances in fuel cell technologies are hampered by kinetic limitations associated with the sluggish cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. We have investigated a range of different formulations of binary and ternary Pt, Pd and Au thin films as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction. The most...... active binary thin films are near-surface alloys of Pt with subsurface Pd and certain PdAu and PtAu thin films with surface and/or subsurface Au. The most active ternary thin films are with pure metal Pt or Pd skins with some degree of Au in the surface and/or subsurface layer and the near-surface alloys...

  9. Improving the Management of Innovative Development of Industrial Production According to Industry Specifics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papizh Yuliia S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of improvement of management efficiency of innovative development of industrial enterprises in modern economic conditions is indicated. The dynamics of innovative processes in Ukraine together with volumes of innovative activity of domestic enterprises are analyzed. The basic principles of formation and efficient functioning of the organizational-economic mechanism of innovative development of industrial production are substantiated. The branch specificity in management of innovative development of coal enterprises is identified. Directions of improvement of the organizational-economic mechanism of management of innovative development of enterprises of coal industry are defined. The basic principles of introduction of the mechanism for stimulation of innovative development of enterprises of coal industry are suggested.

  10. Indemnification of damage to the environment caused by non-nuclear industrial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, H.

    1985-01-01

    Environmental damage has reached catastrophic proportions, implying the death of hundreds of people or expenses of many hundreds of million dollars. The financial impact of this damage is however small at the level of the industrial sector concerned which could bear its costs. If States would take measures to redistribute such costs, they would avoid having to compensate victims of the gravest accidents. Special procedures were introduced for this purpose in certain industrial sectors. (NEA) [fr

  11. Federal agencies active in chemical industry-related research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 calls for a program to further the commercialization of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies for the industrial sector.. The primary objective of the Office of Industrial Technologies Chemical Industry Team is to work in partnership with the US chemical industry to maximize economic, energy, and environmental benefits through research and development of innovative technologies. This document was developed to inventory organizations within the federal government on current chemical industry-related research and development. While an amount of funding or number of projects specifically relating to chemical industry research and development was not defined in all organizations, identified were about 60 distinct organizations representing 7 cabinet-level departments and 4 independent agencies, with research efforts exceeding $3.5 billion in fiscal year 1995. Effort were found to range from less than $500 thousand per year at the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior to over $100 million per year at the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The total number of projects in these programs exceeded 10,000. This document is complete to the extent that agencies volunteered information. Additions, corrections, and changes are encouraged and will be incorporated in future revisions.

  12. Using non-local databases for the environmental assessment of industrial activities: The case of Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osses de Eicker, Margarita; Hischier, Roland; Hurni, Hans; Zah, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Nine non-local databases were evaluated with respect to their suitability for the environmental assessment of industrial activities in Latin America. Three assessment methods were considered, namely Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and air emission inventories. The analysis focused on data availability in the databases and the applicability of their international data to Latin American industry. The study showed that the European EMEP/EEA Guidebook and the U.S. EPA AP-42 database are the most suitable ones for air emission inventories, whereas the LCI database Ecoinvent is the most suitable one for LCA and EIA. Due to the data coverage in the databases, air emission inventories are easier to develop than LCA or EIA, which require more comprehensive information. One strategy to overcome the limitations of non-local databases for Latin American industry is the combination of validated data from international databases with newly developed local datasets.

  13. Activation of bentonite to remove the chromium from waste water produced by panning industry, and studying the chromium recovery efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.; Wahba, H.; AL-Masri, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The fast development of tanning industry led to an increase in environmental problems resulting from discharging its wastes to the surrounding environment. Thus solving this problem became one of the most important aims that the researchers work on. The chromium content of the industrial water wastes of the tanning industry considered as the main pollutant for the environment. The Aleppo Bentonite is used in early research to remove the chromium from the industrial waste water.The current research aims to find a method to activate the Aleppo Bentonite in order to increase the effective removal of chromium from the industrial waste water which is produced by tanning industry, as well as to specify the optimal conditions for chromium recovery.This study used the Aleppo Bentonite, whose origin is Tal Ajar-Aleppo to study the activation aspects using Sulfuric Acid, Hydrochloric Acid and Nitric Acid, in addition to study the recovery aspects using the same acids and hydrogen peroxide and to specify the optimal conditions for chromium recovery through applying some experiments based on three main factors: concentration, settling time and temperature.It was observed from the applied experiments that it is possible to recover chromium from Bentonite efficiently up to (80% - 90%) by treating the Bentonite with hydrogen peroxide(33% concentration) at room temperature, or by treating it with hydrogen peroxide(8.25% concentration) at 75 o C, while the settling time factor proved that full recovery of chromium is obtained during the first hour, and increasing the time factor does not affect the efficiency of chromium recovery. (author)

  14. Analysis of activity of information inquired group on radioecology and public communication in Ozyorsk (the town of nuclear industry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govyrina, E.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this report is an analysis of the activity of Information Inquired Group on radioecology and public communication, existed in the town of atomic industry Ozyorsk on the base of production association M ayak . Main tasks and functions of this organization, its management structure, forms of activity are considered in this report. In the report the emphasis is laid on the specification of nuclear branch and problems of the work with the public, connected with it. Conclusions maintain the practical recommendation by the work with the public, made on the experience of the Information Inquired Group's activity, and the results of functioning of the organization during ten years. (author)

  15. A possible highly active supported Ni dimer catalyst for O{sub 2} dissociation: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shan [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Zhang, Yanxing, E-mail: 2016025@htu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Zhang, Xilin; Mao, Jianjun [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Yang, Zongxian, E-mail: yzx@henannu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications, Henan Province (China)

    2017-04-30

    Graphical abstract: The minimum energy paths (MEPs) for the dissociation process of O{sub 2} on the surfaces of bare YSZ (111) and Ni{sub n}/YSZ (111) (n = 1, 2 and 3). - Highlights: • The catalytic activity of supported metal catalysts is closely related to the size of metal particles. • The dissociation of O{sub 2} on the YSZ (111) surface is largely enhanced by the supported Ni cluster. • The supported Ni dimer is predicted to be the smallest Ni cluster needed for efficient O{sub 2} dissociation. • The results would provide an important reference to improve the activity and efficiency of the Ni/YSZ(111) nanocomposite catalysts in cost-effective materials. - Abstract: The adsorption and dissociation of O{sub 2} on the supported small nickel clusters with one-, two-, three-Ni atoms on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (111) surfaces, as well as those on the bare YSZ(111) and Ni(111) surfaces are comparatively studied using ab initio density functional theory calculations. It is found that the dissociation of O{sub 2} on the YSZ(111) surface is largely enhanced by the supported Ni dimer, which is predicted to be the smallest Ni cluster needed for efficient O{sub 2} dissociation. The results would provide an important reference to improve the activity and efficiency of the Ni/YSZ(111) nanocomposite catalysts in cost-effective materials.

  16. First principles investigation of the activity of thin film Pt, Pd and Au surface alloys for oxygen reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    driving force for surface segregation, diffusion to defects or surface self-assembling. On the basis of stability and activity analysis we conclude that the near surface alloy of Pd in Pt and some PdAu binary and PtPdAu ternary thin films with a controlled amount of Au are the best catalysts for oxygen......Further advances in fuel cell technologies are hampered by kinetic limitations associated with the sluggish cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. We have investigated a range of different formulations of binary and ternary Pt, Pd and Au thin films as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction. The most...... active binary thin films are near-surface alloys of Pt with subsurface Pd and certain PdAu and PtAu thin films with surface and/or subsurface Au. The most active ternary thin films are with pure metal Pt or Pd skins with some degree of Au in the surface and/or subsurface layer and the near-surface alloys...

  17. Organization of industrial maintenance in oil pipeline and terminals activities: a project for the implantation of a corporative management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Paulo de Tarso Arruda [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses the definition and implementation of a corporate management model for industrial maintenance within TRANSPETRO's Terminals and Oil Pipelines business segment. A project is under way to answer the company's needs for better coordination of its maintenance activities as well as to face the challenge of increasing performance with higher systems and equipment' availability, at lower costs. To achieve this target, the project has been employing updating management tools for industrial maintenance planning and control. Its scope comprises the definition of: industrial maintenance process guidelines; industrial maintenance normative requirements and operational procedures; industrial maintenance performance indicators; local organizational charts; training of maintenance personnel; qualification and certification policies; conceptualization of maintenance engineering and maintenance based on risk; updating technologies such as asset management; warehousing and logistics for maintenance support in the supply of spare parts and materials. The project will also consider the results of a previous strategic sourcing study, concerning the definition of the most suitable out sourcing strategy for each operational unit, considering its characteristics as well as the characteristics of the region where it is located. (author)

  18. Experimental parameters optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis in order to determine selected elements in some industrial soils in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay; Nur Esen, Ayse; Erenturk, Sema

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is optimization of the experimental parameters for analysis of soil matrix by instrumental neutron activation analysis and quantitative determination of barium, cerium, lanthanum, rubidium, scandium and thorium in soil samples collected from industrialized urban areas near Istanbul. Samples were irradiated in TRIGA MARK II Research Reactor of Istanbul Technical University. Two types of reference materials were used to check the accuracy of the applied method. The achieved results were found to be in compliance with certified values of the reference materials. The calculated E n numbers for mentioned elements were found to be less than 1. The presented data of element concentrations in soil samples will help to trace the pollution as an impact of urbanization and industrialization, as well as providing database for future studies. - Highlights: • Optimization of experimental parameters is important for high sensitivity results by INAA. • Assessment of uncertainty sources is necessary to increase reliability of results. • The aim of this study is to determine a number of elements in industrial soil samples. • The higher concentrations of studied elements are due to rapid industrialization. • This baseline data can be used in future studies for other industrial areas

  19. Organization of industrial maintenance in oil pipeline and terminals activities: a project for the implantation of a corporative management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Paulo de Tarso Arruda [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses the definition and implementation of a corporate management model for industrial maintenance within TRANSPETRO's Terminals and Oil Pipelines business segment. A project is under way to answer the company's needs for better coordination of its maintenance activities as well as to face the challenge of increasing performance with higher systems and equipment' availability, at lower costs. To achieve this target, the project has been employing updating management tools for industrial maintenance planning and control. Its scope comprises the definition of: industrial maintenance process guidelines; industrial maintenance normative requirements and operational procedures; industrial maintenance performance indicators; local organizational charts; training of maintenance personnel; qualification and certification policies; conceptualization of maintenance engineering and maintenance based on risk; updating technologies such as asset management; warehousing and logistics for maintenance support in the supply of spare parts and materials. The project will also consider the results of a previous strategic sourcing study, concerning the definition of the most suitable out sourcing strategy for each operational unit, considering its characteristics as well as the characteristics of the region where it is located. (author)

  20. The new international certification and design principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijnen, W.H.P.M.; Heineman, H.

    1995-01-01

    ISO/TC 67 deals with standardization of Equipment for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries at a global level. The paper will provide the reader with insight in the Certification system as well as its link with Design. It will explain how the total process fits in the business structure of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry, with the focus on the emerging concepts such as partnering, turn key contracts, the developments in the EC and the need to reduce costs at a global basis. The paper will also address the topic of Design Principles based on the results of the study performed for ISO/TC 67. The paper will provide a framework that can be used by the industry in how to deal with issues such as, there shall the activity of the Operator be focused on when ordering equipment or services and how the manufacturer or service provider should prepare himself to become an equal partner with regard to the required equipment, service and its associated technology now and in the future. In the changing world with ever increasing focus on Health, Safety and Environment (HSE), the topic efficiency, technology, equipment performance and functionality should not be overlooked or been given less attention. The Certification and Design principles, implemented in standards, aim predominantly at Fitness for Purpose of equipment and/or services to regain the balance. A further aim is to limit consequential costs due to deficiencies in the broadest sense, allowing the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry to produce oil and gas in a cost effective manner with the highest possible HSE targets

  1. The Integration Aspects of Activities of the Companies in the Oil and Gas Industry Sector in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panevnyk Tetiana M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers both the dynamics and the structure of oil and gas production in Ukraine, situation of the oil and gas companies at the current stage of globalization of the world economy have been covered. The main problems impacting the functioning of the domestic industry sector have been identified, including the lack of effectiveness of the existing integration processes. The world trends and patterns of integration processes have been considered. It has been determined that the oil and gas industry sector leaders are the multinational companies that actively use integration in their practices. The current trends in creating integration linkages in different parts of the process chain in the oil and gas industry have been identified. Influence by large corporations of the innovative type on the creation of a favorable investment climate has been confirmed, as well as conducting their own policies of expansion in the overseas markets. On the basis of studying the foreign experience, expediency of development of the oil and gas sector enterprises by activating integration processes has been substantiated. Priorities and possibilities for further functioning of enterprises in the the oil and gas industry sector have been identified

  2. Valores sociales y actividad física: la evolución de la gimnasia al deporte en la modernidad industrial=Social values and physical activity: the evolution from gymnastics to sport in industry modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rodríguez Díaz

    2013-03-01

    pattern in religion and its age-old principles on body movement as a matter subject to moral discussion. With the new society arising from the Industrial Revolution a new concept of the body is created as an educational object for its labour aim. Firstly, gymnastics comes up as a tool for collective instruction in the new discipline of ruled movement of the body. Afterwards, it was English sports, based on team strategies and rule-based play that become established. In both cases, gymnastics and sport derive from a new core of values in which competition, joint effort and sense of surmounting are the dominant references. Such values are, likewise, connected to the nationalist spirit emerging in the 19th century. Thus, the birth of nation-states in Europe runs parallel to industrial economy and to a new body conception which evolves from gymnastics to sport. In this article we analyze the case of modernization of Spain, showing some illustrative examples of the change in the values concerned with physical activity carried out during the passage from the 19th to the 20th century.

  3. Threshold responses of songbirds to long-term timber management on an active industrial forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Douglas A.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Keyser, Patrick D.; Wigley, T. Bently; Dellinger, Rachel; Weakland, Cathy A.

    2011-01-01

    Forest managers often seek to balance economic benefits from timber harvesting with maintenance of habitat for wildlife, ecosystem function, and human uses. Most research on the relationship between avian abundance and active timber management has been short-term, lasting one to two years, creating the need to investigate long-term avian responses and to identify harvest thresholds when a small change in habitat results in a disproportionate response in relative abundance and nest success. Our objectives were to identify trends in relative abundance and nest success and to identify landscape-scale disturbance thresholds for avian species and habitat guilds in response to a variety of harvest treatments (clear-cuts, heavy and light partial harvests) over 14 years. We conducted point counts and monitored nests at an industrial forest in the central Appalachians of West Virginia during 1996–1998, 2001–2003, and 2007–2009. Early successional species increased in relative abundance across all three time periods, whereas interior-edge and forest-interior guilds peaked in relative abundance mid-study after which the forest-interior guild declined. Of 41 species with >10 detections, four (10%) declined significantly, 13 (32%) increased significantly (only three species among all periods), and 9 (22%) peaked in abundance mid-study (over the entire study period, four species had no significant change in abundance, four declined, and one increased). Based on piecewise linear models, forest-interior and interior-edge guilds’ relative abundance harvest thresholds were 28% total harvests (all harvests combined), 10% clear-cut harvests, and 18% light partial harvests, after which abundances declined. Harvest thresholds for the early successional guild were 42% total harvests, 11% clear-cut harvest, and 10% light partial harvests, and relative abundances increased after surpassing thresholds albeit at a reduced rate of increase after the clear-cut threshold. Threshold

  4. Effect of Turmeric and its Active Principle Curcumin on T3-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hyperplasia in Rat Kidney: A Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta, Luna; Panigrahi, Jogamaya; Bhanja, Shravani; Chainy, Gagan B. N.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare the potential of turmeric and its active principle curcumin on T3-induced oxidative stress and hyperplasia. Adult male Wistar strain rats were rendered hyperthyroid by T3 treatment (10 μg · 100 g−1 · day−1 intraperitoneal for 15 days in 0.1 mM NaOH) to induce renal hyperplasia. Another two groups were treated similarly with T3 along with either turmeric or curcumin (30 mg kg−1 body weight day−1 orally for 15 days). The results indicate that T3 induces...

  5. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes a study initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  6. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This study was initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  7. Employment within the power supply industry and the power supply related activities; Sysselsatte i kraftnaeringen og kraftrelatert virksomhet 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoen, Haavard

    2012-07-01

    The report's main objective is to investigate employment within the power supply industry and the power supply related activities. The report will describe the composition of employees in regard to sex, age and education. The power supply industry is defined in Statistics Norway's Standard Industrial Classification, as 'Production and distribution of electricity'. The group of companies related to power supply related activities employ similar persons in regard to education and occupation, typical to companies in the power supply industry. These two groups make up the power supply sector in this report. In 2011 there were 18 450 employees in the power supply sector. This constitutes an increase of nearly 13.5 per cent since 2004 and 1.1 per cent since 2010. The sex distribution of about 80 per cent men and 20 per cent women has been fairly stable since 2004. The power supply sector has a low share of women among its employees compared to the private sector in general. In 2011 the level of education in the power supply sector was higher than for the private sector in general. Since 2004, the share of persons with higher education has increased from 27 to 33 per cent. Employees in the power supply sector are on average older than employees in the private sector. The employees have matured since 2004, but in the last few years, there have also been signs of fresh recruitment. The power supply industry had a net influx of 380 new employees, in the period between 2009 and 2011. There were 1678 new employees and 1298 employees lost in the sector due to attrition. If we look at the supply of new employees who were also employed in 2010, 14.2 percent of female employees worked in temporary staff recruitment agencies. Temporary work seems to be an important entry gate to the power supply industry for women. Among men, the building- and construction sector was the most common background for new employees in the power supply industry. Among people who quit

  8. The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation

  9. Diabetes melito: plantas e princípios ativos naturais hipoglicemiantes Diabetes mellitus: hypoglicemic plants and natural active principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Negri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes melito é considerada como uma síndrome que é, quanto a etiologia e patogênese, caracterizada por alterar a homeostase do organismo, por distúrbios metabólicos complexos e primários dos carboidratos, que envolvem secundariamente, porém de forma importante, lipídeos e proteínas. Grande número de espécies de plantas tem sido usado experimentalmente para tratar os sintomas do diabetes melito e a distância filogenética entre este grupo de plantas é forte indicação da natureza variada de seus constituintes. Tem sido constatado que muitas substâncias extraídas de plantas reduzem o nível de glicose no sangue. A grande diversidade de classes químicas indica que uma variedade de mecanismos de ação deve estar envolvida na redução do nível de glicose no sangue. Algumas destas substâncias podem ter potencial terapêutico enquanto outras podem produzir hipoglicemia como um efeito colateral devido à sua toxicidade, especialmente hepatotoxidade. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão atualizada e acrescenta mais plantas e princípios ativos hipoglicemiantes à extensa lista existente nos artigos de revisão anteriores.Diabetes mellitus comprises a group of ethiologically and clinically heterogeneous disorders with a common set of symptoms: excessive thirst and hunger, muscular weakness, weight loss, excessive urination and elevation of the blood glucose level among others. There has been a striking emergence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as a major health problem in populations undergoing modernization of life-style, both in developed and underdeveloped nations. Many species of plants have been used ethnopharmacologically or experimentally to treat symptons of diabetes mellitus. The high percentage of active plants probably reflects, at least in part, the great variety of possible active constituents and mechanisms of action. The wide diversity of chemical classes indicate a variety of mechanisms must be involved

  10. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  11. Application of the Activity Based Costing System to the Wood Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Petru Vârteiu

    2016-01-01

    Costing through this method requires taking the following steps: identification of activities,assessment of resources consumed by each activity, determination of cost drivers and calculationof unit costs for each driver, and allocation of activity costs for each cost object.

  12. Biosorption of Cd, Cr, Mn, and Pb from aqueous solutions by Bacillus sp strains isolated from industrial waste activate sludge

    OpenAIRE

    García, Rocío; Campos, Juan; Cruz, Julio Alfonso; Calderón, Ma. Elena; Raynal, Ma. Elena; Buitrón, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The microorganisms are capable of accumulating heavy metal ions from water as biosorbent agents, offering a potential alternative for the detoxification and recovery of toxic/precious metals in industrial wastewater. In the present work, metal-resistant bacterial strains were isolated and identified from activated sludge of a waste treatment plant in the Municipality of Santa Rosa Jauregui, Querétaro. To obtain bacteria tolerant to metals, 37 bacterial strains and two isolates were s...

  13. Extreme load alleviation using industrial implementation of active trailing edge flaps in a full design load basis

    OpenAIRE

    Barlas, Athanasios; Pettas, Vasilis; Gertz, Drew Patrick; Aagaard Madsen , Helge

    2016-01-01

    The application of active trailing edge flaps in an industrial oriented implementation is evaluated in terms of capability of alleviating design extreme loads. A flap system with basic control functionality is implemented and tested in a realistic full Design Load Basis (DLB) for the DTU 10MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) model and for an upscaled rotor version in DTU's aeroelastic code HAWC2. The flap system implementation shows considerable potential in reducing extreme loads in components o...

  14. Comparison between worker-deaths in modern industries and in nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failla, L.

    1977-01-01

    The author examines the statistical data related to the deaths of workers in modern industries. This analysis regards deaths by accident. It regards some particular countries in the world; these particular countries have been selected because their data are comparable. The analysis in modern industry regards different years (1965 - 1974). For the worker deaths caused by professional diseases, some particular considerations are made in this paper. Due to the fact that international statistics for worker deaths due to professional diseases don't exist, it was necessary to resort to the existing correllation between professional diseases and accidents in industry, to extrapolate, with some approximation, the number of deaths due to professional disease. Using these considerations it is possible to find some interesting data. Then the author examines the statistics in order to compare them with those pertinent to nuclear energy. With regard to this topic, the author considers the mortal-risks from radiation exposures. Then the author compares the philosophy that is used in modern industry and in the nuclear energy field. A special discussion is carried on about ICRP conception, expressed in Publication 22; ''Implications of Commission Recommendations that Doses be kept as Low as Readily Achievable''

  15. Community College Faculty Who Conduct Industry Training Activities: A Job Satisfaction Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konicek, Dale George

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between industry-related training assignments and faculty job satisfaction, presenting findings from a study of faculty in 37 Texas community colleges. Highlights demographic and work environment variables. Reports general faculty satisfaction with the work but dissatisfaction with working conditions. Presents teachers'…

  16. Comparison between worker-deaths in modern industries and in nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failla, L.

    1977-01-01

    The statistical data related to the deaths of workers in modern industries, are examined. This analysis regards deaths by accident. It regards some particular countries in the world; these particular countries have been selected because their data are comparable. The analysis in modern industry regards different years. For the worker deaths caused by professional diseases, some particular considerations are made. Due to the fact that international statistics for worker deaths due to professional diseases don't exist, it was necessary to resort to the existing corollation between professional diseases and accidents in industry, to extrapolate, with some approximation, the number of deaths due to professional disease. Using these considerations it is possible to find some interesting data. The statistics are examined in order to compare them with those pertinent to nuclear energy. With regard to this topic, the mortal-risks from radiation exposures are considered. The philosophies used in modern industry and in the nuclear energy field, are compared. A special discussion is carried on about ICRP conception, expressed in Publication 22: 'Implications of Commission Recommendations that Doses be kept as Low as Readily Achievable'

  17. The strategy of innovation and investment activity of the integrated agro-industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    LYTNEVA N.A.; GONCHAROV P.V.; KYSHTYMOVA E.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article reveals the relevance of research to improve the system of strategic planning of innovation and investment activity in the agricultural enterprise, types of planning innovative-investment activity of agrarian enterprises, software-oriented model of strategic planning of innovation and investment activities of AIC, the evaluation criteria of innovation and investment activity of agricultural enterprises.

  18. The alcohol industry and public interest science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenius, Kerstin; Babor, Thomas F

    2010-02-01

    This report argues that the growing involvement of the alcohol industry in scientific research needs to be acknowledged and addressed. It suggests a set of principles to guide ethical decision-making in the future. We review relevant issues with regard to relationships between the alcohol industry and the international academic community, especially alcohol research scientists. The guiding principles proposed are modelled after expert committee statements, and describe the responsibilities of governmental agencies, the alcohol industry, journal editors and the academic community. These are followed by recommendations designed to inform individuals and institutions about current 'best practices' that are consistent with the principles. Growing evidence from the tobacco, pharmaceutical and medical fields suggests that financial interests of researchers may compromise their professional judgement and lead to research results that are biased in favour of commercial interests. It is recommended that the integrity of alcohol science is best served if all financial relationships with the alcoholic beverage industry are avoided. In cases where research funding, consulting, writing assignments and other activities are initiated, institutions, individuals and the alcoholic beverage industry itself are urged to follow appropriate guidelines that will increase the transparency and ethicality of such relationships.

  19. The Development of Media Activities by Undergraduate Students in Order to Promote Agricultural Tourism Community Enterprise According to the Principles of Social Service Learning and Community-Based Leaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamwipat, Kuntida; Princhankol, Pornpapatsorn; Yampinij, Sakesun; Meejaleurn, Sopon

    2018-01-01

    This research was aimed to develop media activities by undergraduate students to promote agricultural tourism community enterprise according to the principles of social service learning and community-based learning, 2) to evaluate the quality of such media activities, 3) to measure the income of the community after the development of media…

  20. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) in surface soils from coastal cities in North China: Correlation between diastereoisomer profiles and industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueqing; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a brominated flame retardant with a wide range of industrial applications, although little is known about its patterns of spatial distribution in soils in relation to industrial emissions. This study has undertaken a large-scale investigation around an industrialized coastal area of China, exploring the concentrations, spatial distribution and diastereoisomer profiles of HBCDD in 188 surface soils from 21 coastal cities in North China. The detection frequency was 100% and concentrations of total HBCDD in the surface soils ranged from 0.123 to 363 ng g(-1) and averaged 7.20 ng g(-1), showing its ubiquitous existence at low levels. The spatial distribution of HBCDD exhibited a correlation with the location of known manufacturing facilities in Weifang, suggesting the production of HBCDD as major emission source. Diastereoisomer profiles varied in different cities. Diastereoisomer compositions in soils were compared with emissions from HBCDD industrial activities, and correlations were found between them, which has the potential for source identification. Although the contemporary concentrations of HBCDD in soils from the study were relatively low, HBCDD-containing products (expanded/extruded polystyrene insulation boards) would be a potential source after its service life, and attention needs to be paid to prioritizing large-scale waste management efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.