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Sample records for industrial activities principles

  1. PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION OF INNOVATION ACTIVITY IN SCIENTIFIC AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironchuk V. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides and justifies the most preferred principle of innovative activity in agro-industrial complex - the development of multilevel model based on marketing concept of spheres and its approaches to managing innovation. The concept aims to create a competitive scientific and technical production, demand in the market through active marketing of the scientific-technical and innovation industry

  2. The Factors and Transversal Reorganizations Principles of Romanian Textile Industry Enterprises using Activity-Based Costing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the factors and the principles of transversal reorganization of the enterprises from the Romanian textile industry by adapting the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC to its specific. There are presented and analyzed the real possibilities of reorganization of the enterprises in Romania by elaboration of methodological phases that will be covered until the implementation of their transversal organization. Are we ready to adapt the Activity-Based Costing method to the specific of the Romanian textile industry and not only? Here is the question whose response we will find in this article.

  3. Contextual Mobile Learning Strongly Related to Industrial Activities: Principles and Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    David, Bertrand; Chalon, René

    2010-01-01

    M-learning (mobile learning) can take various forms. We are interested in contextualized M-learning, i.e. the training related to the situation physically or logically localized. Contextualization and pervasivity are important aspects of our approach. We propose in particular MOCOCO principles (Mobility - COntextualisation - COoperation) using IMERA platform (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment). We are studying various mobile learning contexts related to professional activities, in order to master appliances (Installation, Use, Breakdown diagnostic and Repairing). Contextualization, traceability and checking of execution of prescribed operations are based mainly on the use of RFID labels. Investigation of the appropriate training methods for this kind of learning situation, applying mainly a constructivist approach known as "Just-in-time learning", "learning by doing", "learning and doing", constitutes an important topic of this project. From an organizational point of view we are in perfect...

  4. The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Rjabchenko

    2013-03-01

    enables to systematize existent pricing principles. The analysed principles are the basis of pricing policy. Within marketing activity in the sphere of pricing it is necessary to adhere principles mentioned above. The results of this research can be used in further scientific developments which will be connected with principles of marketing pricing, in the process of pricing strategy forming and in practical activity of domestic industrial enterprises.

  5. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R

    2000-01-01

    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  6. The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    I.M. Rjabchenko; V.V. Bozhkova

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprisesTheoretical and methodological aspects of marketing pricing formation are investigated in the article. The aim of this research is systematization of marketing pricing principles and formation of corresponding offers concerning perfection of a domestic industrial enterprises pricing policy.The results of the analysis. The authors note that pricing principles are important element of pricing methodology which form basic posit...

  7. Principles of biotechnological treatment of industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roig, M.G.; Martin Rodriguez, M.J.M.; Cachaza, J.M. (Univ. de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica); Mendoza Sanchez, L. (C/Sol Oriente, Salamanca (Spain). Estudios y Proyectos); Kennedy, J.F. (Univ. of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Research Lab. for the Chemistry of Bioactive Carbohydrates and Proteins)

    1993-07-01

    This review includes current information on biodegradation processes of pollutants, digestor biocenosis and bioadditives, sludge production, measurement of pollution, and advances regarding biotechnological treatment of a series of specific industrial effluents. It was foreseen in 1980 that biotechnology would foster the creation of new industries with low energy requirements. This is because the growth of microorganisms provides a renewable source of energy.

  8. Principles of biotechnological treatment of industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, M G; Martín Rodriguez, M J; Cachaza, J M; Mendoza Sánchez, L; Kennedy, J F

    1993-01-01

    This review includes current information on biodegradation processes of pollutants, digestor biocenosis and bioadditives, sludge production, measurement of pollution, and advances regarding biotechnological treatment of a series of specific industrial effluents.

  9. Best practice governance principles in the sports industry: an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Best practice governance principles in the sports industry: an overview. ... The paradigm of sport participation as well as sport management has shifted globally from ... This overview examines the British and Australian models and codes of ...

  10. PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION AND REALIZATION OF REGIONAL INDUSTRIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Chenenova

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available It is analysed existing norm-legal base of realization of regional industrial policy from a position of conformity of principles of its formation and realization to problems of development of the industry in conditions of an openness to the world market. Opportunities of their evolution in the directions promoting becoming of competitive structure of an industrial complex of region are shown.

  11. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  12. Ergonomics and design: its principles applied in the industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ademario Santos; Silva, Francisco Nilson da

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Design encompasses both product development and optimization of production process. In this sense, Ergonomics plays a fundamental role, because its principles, methods and techniques can help operators to carry out their tasks most successfully. A case study carried out in an industry shows that the interaction among Design, Production Engineering and Materials Engineering departments may improve some aspects concerned security, comfort, efficiency and performance. In this process, Ergonomics had shown to be of essential importance to strategic decision making to the improvement of production section.

  13. Industrial heating principles, techniques, materials, applications, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Deshmukh, Yeshvant V

    2005-01-01

    Industry relies on heating for a wide variety of processes involving a broad range of materials. Each process and material requires heating methods suitable to its properties and the desired outcome. Despite this, the literature lacks a general reference on design techniques for heating, especially for small- and medium-sized applications. Industrial Heating: Principles, Techniques, Materials, Applications, and Design fills this gap, presenting design information for both traditional and modern heating processes and auxiliary techniques.The author leverages more than 40 years of experience int

  14. Thermal sensors principles and applications for semiconductor industries

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to both the fundamentals of thermal sensors and their advanced functions. Key topics include sensor materials, CMOS-compatible sensors, measurement capabilities, thermal management and manufacturing processes. The introductory chapter covers the basic principles of thermal sensors from the essentials of heat transfer to smart wireless sensors. Later chapters illustrate the wide range of thermal sensor uses, from microprocessor thermal sensing to energy converter applications. Modeling and simulation techniques are used to explain the future direction of the field. Designed for researchers and practitioners working with wireless sensors and thermal management, Thermal Sensors: Principles and Applications for Semiconductor Industries is a valuable reference to the benefits and challenges these sensors offer. Advanced-level students studying mechanical or electrical engineering and networks will also find the content useful.

  15. Principles, techniques, and applications of biocatalyst immobilization for industrial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eş, Ismail; Vieira, José Daniel Gonçalves; Amaral, André Corrêa

    2015-03-01

    Immobilization is one of the most effective and powerful tools used in industry, which has been studied and improved since the last century. Various immobilization techniques and support materials have been used on both laboratory and industrial scale. Each immobilization technique is applicable for a specific production mostly depending on the cost and sensibility of process. Compared to free biocatalyst systems, immobilization techniques often offer better stability, increased activity and selectivity, higher resistance, improved separation and purification, reuse of enzymes, and consequently more efficient process. Recently, many reviews have been published about immobilization systems; however, most of them have focused on a specific application or not emphasized in details. This review focuses on most commonly used techniques in industry with many recent applications including using bioreactor systems for industrial production. It is also aimed to emphasize the advantages and disadvantages of the immobilization techniques and how these systems improve process productivity compared to non-immobilized systems.

  16. Control: Why, when and how? Some general principles of state control presented on the example of disqualification from performing commercial activities pursuant to § 35 of the German Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pürner Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues relating to state control and state reaction to breaches of the rules discovered, using the example of Section 35 of the German Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act (§ 35 Gewerbeordnung, GewO. This provision is the central norm in German law, on the basis of which entrepreneurial activities can be prohibited. In the introduction, the author provides an overview of different forms of control and discusses the role of the courts in general, but also in the context of reviewing the control measures taken by the state. The author agrees that jurisprudence (case law is not a source of law in the countries of the European-Continental legal system. However, this should not lead to the wrong conclusion that the courts are neither qualified nor obliged to develop the law. After the introductory remarks, the author discusses the provisions contained in § 35 of the German Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act (Gewerbeordnung. This example is of particular interest as it demonstrates various general principles of state control over private activities. While the provision originally contained a casuistic enumeration of individual cases, it nowadays uses a blanket clause. Accordingly, the concept of Unzuverlässigkeit ('unreliability ', which is not defined in more detail is the definitional element for a disqualification from the practice of commercial activities. Hence, the courts' task in dealing with the respective cases has significantly changed, as the control process involves consideration of both public and private interests, as well as striking a fair balance between the opposing public and private interests. The author points out that this is also justified as the legislator can hardly foresee all cases to which the provision might appear in practice. In particular, the author points out that the German legislator, unlike the legislators in some transformation states, has opted for having as few

  17. Principles of Language Learning Activity Design Based on Constructivism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于玉星

    2010-01-01

    <正>This essay introduces constructivism and its four key theories in learning and explores its applications in language learning activity design.Following the theoretical background analysis,it proposes three principles concerning English language teaching activity design,namely interactive thinking principle,I + 1 principle and authentic communication principle.This paper also provides some practical teaching activities such as supporting examples of how these three principles can work in language teaching.

  18. Justification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernysh Iryna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is the study and justification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis policy of the state in the tourist industry. The article justifies and proves expediency of the use of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry. The article marks out the scientific problem of identification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry by scientists, provides the composition and specifies the characteristics of principles of the anti-crisis state policy, and justifies functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry; proves the necessity of identification of principles and functions when developing conceptual grounds of the anti-crisis state policy and establishes their interrelation and interdependence during realisation of the relevant concept.

  19. Handbook of industrial refractories technology principles, types, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Caniglia, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Encompasses the entire range of industrial refractory materials and forms: properties and their measurement, applications, manufacturing, installation and maintenance techniques, quality assurance, and statistical process control.

  20. Design principles of a nuclear and industrial HVAC of IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneri, Giuseppe [IFMIF/EVEDA, Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Ibarra, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Heidinger, R. [F4E, Garching (Germany); Knaster, J. [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Sugimoto, M. [JAEA, Rokkasho (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Parameter of Derivate air Contamination (DAC) allows to associate the type of air ventilation. • The construction and operation of IFMIF will be subjected to the regulations of the country in which it will be sited. • Structures, systems and components are assigned a particular safety important components (SIC, 1–2 and Non-SIC) clarification that is based on the consequences of their failure. • Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) analysis has given a great contribution of the facility to optimize the configuration, particularly for the HVAC system. - Abstract: In 2013, the IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase, framed by the Broader Approach Agreement between Japan and EURATOM, accomplished in 2013 its mandate to provide the engineering design of the plant on schedule [1]. The IFMIF aims to qualify and characterize materials that are capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux originated in D-T reactions of future fusion reactors due to a neutron flux with a broad peak at 14 MeV, which is able to provide >20 dpa/fpy on small specimens in this EVEDA phase. The successful operation of such a challenging plant demands a careful assessment of the Conventional Facilities (CF), which have adequate redundancies to allow for the target plant availability [2]. The present paper addresses the design proposed in the IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report regarding the CF, particularly the IFMIF's Nuclear and Industrial HVAC design. A preliminary feasibility study, including the initial configuration, calculations and reliability/availability analysis, were performed. The nuclear HVAC design was developed progressively; first, by establishing a conceptual design, starting from the system functional description, followed by the identification of the corresponding interfacing systems and their

  1. The marketing of innovation activity results commercialization in industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Kalynychenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the theoretical and methodological principles of marketing commercialize innovations. Scientific and practical recommendations about use of marketing approach for commercialization of innovative activity results in the industry are developed. They consist of stages of commercialization marketing project management process observance and application of design, scenaring and network planning.

  2. Industrial positron-based imaging: principles and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D.J. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Hawkesworth, M.R. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Broadbent, C.J. (School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Fowles, P. (School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Fryer, T.D. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); McNeil, P.A. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom))

    1994-09-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has great potential as a non-invasive flow imaging technique in engineering, since 511 keV gamma-rays can penetrate a considerable thickness of (e.g.) steel. The RAL/Birmingham multiwire positron camera was constructed in 1984, with the initial goal of observing the lubricant distribution in operating aero-engines, automotive engines and gearboxes, and has since been used in a variety of industrial fields. The major limitation of the camera for conventional tomographic PET studies is its restricted logging rate, which limits the frequency with which images can be acquired. Tracking a single small positron-emitting tracer particle provides a more powerful means of observing high speed motion using such a camera. Following a brief review of the use of conventional PET in engineering, and the capabilities of the Birmingham camera, this paper describes recent developments in the Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) technique, and compares the results obtainable by PET and PEPT using, as an example, a study of axial diffusion of particles in a rolling cylinder. ((orig.))

  3. Industry as a metabolic activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, B.(SUPA - School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom)

    1992-01-01

    The concept of "industrial economic metabolism" can provide a bridge to better understanding between environmentalists and industry. In nature each individual or species reacts to natural stimuli, competing with others for resources, extending its domain until it loses comparative advantage and comes to equilibrium with an adjacent competitor. Those species that succeed over time flourish; those that do not, diminish or disappear. Nature's rule book has no moral or ethical ingredient beyond s...

  4. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  5. Activity-Based Management principles and implementation opportunities of the ABM system

    OpenAIRE

    Căpuşneanu, Sorinel/I

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the principles of Activity-Based Management and treats the implementation stages of it in enterprises from steel industry of Romania. The ABC method becomes the main tool of providing information for the ABM method. Thus, the ABM method becomes an important tool of obtaining performances in business.

  6. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-02-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human-computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity.

  7. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline are

  8. Guideline Principles for Designing Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Linda

    2015-03-01

    We astronomy outreachers are passionate about sharing astronomy widely-but many astronomy outreach activities are designed more by how we hope things will work than in a careful intentional way. We also rarely evaluate how well our activities are achieving our goals. As a result, many educational activities must be significantly less effective than they could be. Fortunately, there is a large body of education research on how people learn. If we are serious about sharing astronomy widely and effectively, we must treat our teaching like research: (1) Have clear goals for our outreach, evaluate how well we are achieving our goals, and revise our strategies in light of what we learn; and (2) Use appropriate teaching techniques supported by education research wherever possible.

  9. Vibrational optical activity principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nafie, Laurence A

    2011-01-01

    This unique book stands as the only comprehensive introduction to vibrational optical activity (VOA) and is the first single book that serves as a complete reference for this relatively new, but increasingly important area of molecular spectroscopy. Key features:A single-source reference on this topic that introduces, describes the background and foundation of this area of spectroscopy.Serves as a guide on how to use it to carry out applications with relevant problem solving.Depth and breadth of the subject is presented in a logical, complete and progressive fashion. A

  10. Mathematic principle of active jamming against wideband LFM radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixian Gong; Xizhang Wei; Xiang Li; Yongshun Ling

    2015-01-01

    The inherent mathematic principle of active jamming against the wideband linear frequency modulated (LFM) radar is investigated. According to different generation strategies, the active jamming methods are reclassified into three groups, i.e., non-coherent jamming (NCJ), convolution jamming (CJ) and mul-tiplying jamming (MJ). Based on the classification, the mathematic principles of different active jamming groups are put forward, which describe the relationships between the modulated signals and the jamming results. The advantages and disadvantages of different groups are further analyzed, which provides a new perspective for the study of jamming/anti-jamming methods and a potential for engineers to integrate similar jamming methods into one jam-mer platform. The analyses and simulation results of some typical active jamming methods prove the validity of the proposed mathe-matics principle.

  11. Regional tourist industry in context of principles of regional socioeconomic systems self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennadyevich Shelomentsev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with basic principles of self-regulation of tourist complexes as regional socio-economic systems on the example of Sverdlovsk region. These include the principles of goal setting and the necessary diversity of economic entropy: in this case, these are important for the tourism industry and the human and natural resource and ecological potential. Is it shown how a tourist complex influences the socio-economic development of regional economic systems. In particular, tourism influences some of migration processes. Tourism development strategy in the Russian Federation at the tourist center level is analyzed. The need to develop such a strategy is due to the transition to market relations and, as a consequence, complexity of governmental regulation. It is substantiated that Sverdlovsk region is a subject to following strategy and might be successful in various sectors of tourism: business and congress and exhibition, urban entertainment, family and shopping tourism, sports, medical and recreational tourism.

  12. Principles and applications of knowledge management in the BC industry (with examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Bizjak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many definitions define Knowledge Management as capturing, organizing and storing knowledge by different methods from various sources and transforming it into enduring value. The knowledge management is one of the most important principles that companies must explore and use to gain the competitive advantage, even in buildings and construction industry. There are various projects of knowledge management for the BC industry. One such project is e-COGNOS. Its key issues are knowledge management in the construction domain and documents interdependencies and consistency across projects and between enterprises. At the Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of Slovenia we are using very crude methods of knowledge management or we even can not call it a knowledge management. It is more or less information services or document management. With new technologies like Microsoft SharePoint services, we are hoping that we will be able to advance these old methods and use accumulated knowledge in a more sophisticated way.

  13. Selection of industrial robot using axiomatic design principles in fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant V. Khandekar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, industrial robots are being pervasively used in almost every manufacturing organization for improving operational quality, safety and productivity. Depending on the nature of task to be performed, many varieties of robots are now commercially available from different manufacturers. For efficiently carrying out the designed task, a number of functional attributes of an industrial robot are also simultaneously responsible. Therefore, selection of an appropriate and competitive robot alternative becomes a complicated and equally challenging task for the decision makers. A quite strong model of multi-criteria decision-making is needed to deal with this problem of industrial robot evaluation and selection. In this paper, the applicability of fuzzy axiomatic design (FAD principles is explored for solving a real time robot selection problem. Seven candidate robots which are commercially available for light assembly operations are evaluated with respect to a mix of nine criteria. All these criteria are either qualitative in nature or expressed as a range of numerical values. Suitability rankings of all the feasible alternatives are derived using FAD methodology, thus establishing it as a systematic and dependable tool for solving industrial robot selection problems in fuzzy environment.

  14. The Didactic Principles and Their Applications in the Didactic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius-Costel, Esi

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation and reevaluation of the fundamental didactic principles suppose the acceptance at the level of an instructive-educative activity of a new educational paradigm. Thus, its understanding implies an assumption at a conceptual-theoretical level of some approaches where the didactic aspects find their usefulness by relating to value…

  15. METHODOLOGICAL ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES OF REGIONAL INVESTMENT ACTIVITY FINANCEMENT MECHANIZM IMPROVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    V.V. Morozov

    2005-01-01

    The strategy principles and main directions of regional investment activity financement mechanism improvement are formulated and worked out in the article. The contemporary conditions are analyzed, the factors are researched, the priority directions are defined, the suggestions on the better use of investment sources are worked out, and on this base the suggestions on the investment process activization in the territorial systems are worked out.

  16. Engineering microbial cell factories for the production of plant natural products: from design principles to industrial-scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Ding, Wentao; Jiang, Huifeng

    2017-07-19

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are widely used as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, seasonings, pigments, etc., with a huge commercial value on the global market. However, most of these PNPs are still being extracted from plants. A resource-conserving and environment-friendly synthesis route for PNPs that utilizes microbial cell factories has attracted increasing attention since the 1940s. However, at the present only a handful of PNPs are being produced by microbial cell factories at an industrial scale, and there are still many challenges in their large-scale application. One of the challenges is that most biosynthetic pathways of PNPs are still unknown, which largely limits the number of candidate PNPs for heterologous microbial production. Another challenge is that the metabolic fluxes toward the target products in microbial hosts are often hindered by poor precursor supply, low catalytic activity of enzymes and obstructed product transport. Consequently, despite intensive studies on the metabolic engineering of microbial hosts, the fermentation costs of most heterologously produced PNPs are still too high for industrial-scale production. In this paper, we review several aspects of PNP production in microbial cell factories, including important design principles and recent progress in pathway mining and metabolic engineering. In addition, implemented cases of industrial-scale production of PNPs in microbial cell factories are also highlighted.

  17. Active magnetic bearings applied to industrial compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. G.; Hustak, J. F.; Schoeneck, K. A.

    1993-01-01

    The design and shop test results are given for a high-speed eight-stage centrifugal compressor supported by active magnetic bearings. A brief summary of the basic operation of active magnetic bearings and the required rotor dynamics analysis are presented with specific attention given to design considerations for optimum rotor stability. The concerns for retrofits of magnetic bearings in existing machinery are discussed with supporting analysis of a four-stage centrifugal compressor. The current status of industrial machinery in North America using this new support system is presented and recommendations are given on design and analysis requirements for successful machinery operation of either retrofit or new design turbomachinery.

  18. Application of Pilates principles increases paraspinal muscle activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Letícia Souza; Mochizuki, Luís; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; da Silva, Renato André Sousa; Mota, Yomara Lima

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effect of Pilates principles on the EMG activity of abdominal and paraspinal muscles on stable and unstable surfaces. Surface EMG data about the rectus abdominis (RA), iliocostalis (IL) and lumbar multifidus (MU) of 19 participants were collected while performing three repetitions of a crunch exercise in the following conditions: 1) with no Pilates technique and stable surface (nP + S); 2) with no Pilates technique and unstable surface (nP + U); 3) with Pilates technique and stable surface (P + S); 4) with Pilates and unstable surface (P + U). The EMG Fanalysis was conducted using a custom-made Matlab(®) 10. There was no condition effect in the RA iEMG with stable and unstable surfaces (F(1,290) = 0 p = 0.98) and with and without principles (F(1,290) = 1.2 p = 0.27). IL iEMG was higher for the stable surface condition (F(1,290) = 32.3 p Pilates principles (F(1,290) = 21.9 p Pilates principles (F(1,290) = 84.9 p < 0.001). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Organisation of Innovative Activities Across Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Leiponen, Aija

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the organisation of innovation across sectors in Denmark and Finland. First, patterns of innovative activity within manufacturing and services are identified though applying factor analysis on firm-level innovation survey data from the two countries. The analysis......, the relation between innovation modes and innovation outcome are investigated through regression analysis. The analysis confirms that the way innovation is organised matters for outcome, in terms of type of innovation, as well as in terms of share of sales stemming from innovation. Finally, we explore whether...... innovation modes are aligned with industry classifications, as it is assumed in the original work on technological regimes. Contrary to these assumptions we find that industries by no means are uniform in terms of organisation of innovation; in most cases two or three regimes are represented in a single...

  20. The internationalization of Chinese industries : Overseas acquisition activity in Chinese mining and manufacturing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, C.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how industrial characteristics at home affect Chinese overseas acquisition activities from an industry-level resource-based view. Analyzing data on 512 Chinese overseas acquisition deals across 36 industries in 60 countries over 2003–2008, we find that: (1) firms in industries wi

  1. Eco-marketing in industrial enterprise activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Chupryna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is determination of the areas of industrial enterprise’s development and detection of the specificity of their activity in terms of environmental priorities. The results of the analysis. The analysis of the research and publications of the leading scholars on the eco-marketing’s problem was conducted. The main factors of eco-marketing’s mechanism use were considered. Eco-marketing was determined as an important tool of the enterprises’ modern production behavior correcting. Nowadays enterprises in Ukraine have to act according to modern production requirements, provide ecological safety and implement eco-marketing. The infrastructure of eco-marketing was built. The components of ecomarketing were distinguished. They are: eco-technologies, eco-product, eco-services, eco-consumers. The definition of «eco-consumer» was improved. The four areas of ecomarketing were identified: I – eco-services – eco-consumer; II – eco-Products – eco-consumer; III – eco-technologies – eco-product; IV – eco-technologies – eco-service. It was supposed that while analysing of the enterprise’s activities the influence of eco-marketing as a complex of influencing factors must be taken into consideration. Also it was determined that it is possibile to take into account the effect of «decoupling» in four areas of eco-marketing. The effect of «decoupling» was considered as an indicator of the region (the enterprise transition to a green economy. It is proposed to calculate the effect of «decoupling» by means of an integral index. The main points of the mathematical set theory application for the analysis of the eco-marketing’s infrastructure components was allocated. It was supposed that the number of eco-consumers is set A, number of eco-products on the market is set B, the overall volume of eco-services in the area is set C and D is set that defines consumers which buy and consume not only

  2. The Working Principle and Use of High Pressures in the Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlović, S.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available High pressure in the food industry, as a new non-thermal method, is applied in many phases of food processing. This new non-thermal technology was developed in the 1990s. The main advantages of high-pressure processing are in the short time of processing which is between a few seconds and 30 minutes. Processing of solid or liquid food products with or without packaginghappens in the temperature interval 5 – 90 °C, and pressures 50 – 1000 MPa. The driving pressure is distributed uniformly through the whole product independently of its quantity and shape. These processing characteristics combined with improved food microbiological safety, less energy expenditure, low concentration of waste products and longer shelf life make high-pressure processing a very promising novel food technology. Combined with lower cost of treatment (but unfortunately higher initial cost of equipment compared to traditional processing technologies, it is also economically profitable. The main purpose of such treated food products are in preservation of sensory, nutritive and textural properties. As the temperature increase is very low, there are no significant changes in sensory properties, in contrast to conventional thermal processing (sterilization, pasteurization. However, with the combination of heating or cooling and high pressure, modification of existing and creation of new food products is possible. Today, high pressure is used for the treatment of meat products (inactivation of microorganisms, freezing and defrosting of foodstuffs, production of fruit juices (pasteurization, processing of oysters, modificationof milk characteristics (foaming etc. The main purpose of this work is to present the working principle and application of high pressure in the food industry.

  3. Principles and Rules of Conduct in the Internal Audit Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Iuliana Dumitru

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the paper are to present the basic principles governing the internal audit mission as well as the code of conduct that must be observed in exercising such a mission, because the completion of a professional audit mission implies precisely the compliance with the two category of elements. Consequently, this paper is meant to be added to the practice specific to this field as support in exercising the internal audit according to the market requirements. For this purpose, we analysed the above-mentioned elements, presenting brief examples in support of the importance of the approached topics. Thus, from the practical point of view, we can notice the mechanisms used to apply these principles and how the compliance with the audit specific audit conduct lead to a more efficient activity. For these reasons, we can say that the paper is an element of interest both for the academic field (as a starting point for the support of practical approaches and also for the future researches in order to improve the specific audit activity.

  4. Toxic industrial deposit remediation by ant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilkova, Veronika; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Toxic industrial deposits are often contaminated by heavy metals and the substrates have low pH values. In such systems, soil development is thus slowed down by high toxicity and acidic conditions which are unfavourable to soil fauna. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) are considered tolerant to heavy metal pollution and are known to increase organic matter content and microbial activity in their nests. Here, we focused on soil remediation caused by three ant species (Formica sanguinea, Lasius niger, and Tetramorium sp.) in an ore-washery sedimentation basin near Chvaletice (Czech Republic). Soil samples were taken from the centre of ant nests and from the nest surroundings (>3 m from nests). Samples were then analyzed for microbial activity and biomass and contents of organic matter and nutrients. As a result, ant species that most influenced soil properties was F. sanguinea as there were higher microbial activity and total nitrogen and ammonia contents in ant nests than in the surrounding soil. We expected such a result because F. sanguinea builds conspicuous large nests and is a carnivorous species that brings substantial amounts of nitrogen in insect prey to their nests. Effects of the other two ant species might be lower because of smaller nests and different feeding habits as they rely mainly on honeydew from aphids or on plant seeds that do not contain much nutrients.

  5. The politics and strategy of industry self-regulation: the pharmaceutical industry's principles for ethical direct-to-consumer advertising as a deceptive blocking strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Denis G; Oakley, James L

    2013-06-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry lobbies European regulators to permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the European Union, we found that five leading companies violated industry-developed and -promulgated standards for ethical advertising in the United States. Utilizing multiple data sources and methods, we demonstrate a consistent failure by companies that market erectile dysfunction drugs to comply with the industry's guiding principles for ethical DTCA over a four-year period despite pledges of compliance by company leaders. Noncompliance resulted in children being exposed to sexually themed promotional messages more than 100 billion times. We argue that the guidelines are a coordinated effort by the industry to prevent unwanted federal regulation, and we introduce the concept of a blocking strategy to explain company behavior and to advance theoretical understanding of firms' public affairs strategies. We recommend policy responses to prevent deceptive practices, protect children from adult content, and promote genuine health care education.

  6. Quality Management Principles as Illustrated by the Organization of Romanian Inter-War Factories. A Century of Romanian Industrial Tradition in Aeronautics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela RUSU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Inter-war Romania developed 6 aircraft factories, the first starting its activity in 1916. Four of these, with three located in Bucharest, produced over 2000 aircraft, maily for the military use as Romania entered the Second World War. The activity of these factories was undertaken in times when nobody thought about formulating the principles of quality management and the research of the first scientists in quality, Deming, Shewhart and Juran had not yet been accepted or published. The work aims to present the inter-war Romanian aeronautical industry developments regarding the quality management.

  7. Creative implementation of 3Rs principles within industry programs: beyond regulations and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratcher, Natalie A; Reinhard, Gregory R

    2015-03-01

    The industry involved with using animals as an essential part of research has supported the theory and philosophy of the 3Rs for years. However, both the culture and approach surrounding the 3Rs is evolving rapidly, and many institutions are attempting to surpass the regulations and guidelines to implement the 3Rs for improved science and animal welfare. Regulatory documents and guidelines such as the Animal Welfare Act, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the US Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training clearly outline how the IACUC should address the 3Rs, but there are many additional paradigms and resources that an institution can use to promote the 3Rs creatively. We review the legal mandates and guidelines that institutions must or should follow, and we present some creative approaches toward their compliance, including the creation of full-time dedicated 3Rs roles as well as temporary 3Rs-focused positions such as visiting scientist and postdoctoral fellowships and internships. We also discuss how to creatively achieve 3Rs progress through internal committees and working groups, involvement in 3Rs consortia, recognizing 3Rs advances through awards programs, and creating 3Rs volunteer opportunities. Adherence to regulations and guidelines creates a solid foundation for good animal care and science, and creative 3Rs approaches enable the growth of a robust animal welfare culture that enhances the potential for 3Rs benefits to animals and science.

  8. Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

  9. 78 FR 64064 - Agency Information Collection (Principles of Excellence Complaint System Intake) Activity Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Principles of Excellence Complaint System Intake) Activity Under... Excellence Complaint System Intake).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Principles of Excellence Complaint... System Intake) in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Crystal Rennie, Enterprise...

  10. 40 CFR 721.80 - Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industrial, commercial, and consumer... Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Whenever a substance is identified in subpart E of this part... the substance. (l) Non-industrial use. (m) Commercial use. (n) Non-commercial use. (o) Use in...

  11. 36 CFR 27.2 - Commercial and industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial and industrial... INTERIOR CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE; ZONING STANDARDS § 27.2 Commercial and industrial activities. No commercial or industrial districts may be established within the Cape Cod National Seashore....

  12. 76 FR 4360 - Guidance for Industry on Process Validation: General Principles and Practices; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... the pharmaceutical industry on the elements of process validation for the manufacture of human and... pharmaceutical industry on the elements of process validation for the manufacture of human and animal drug and... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Process Validation:...

  13. Industry activities to improve valve performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, C.

    1996-12-01

    Motor-operated valve issues refuse to go away. For over a decade the industry and the NRC have been focusing extraordinary resources on assuring these special components operate when called upon. Now that industry has fixed the design deficiencies, it is focusing on assuring that they perform their safety function within the current licensing basis for the remainder of plant life. NEI supported the efforts by ASME to develop OMN-1 and was encouraged that the industry and the NRC worked together to develop risk and performance based approaches to maintain MOV performance.

  14. Applying Adaptive Agricultural Management & Industrial Ecology Principles to Produce Lower- Carbon Ethanol from California Energy Beets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiades, Anthy Maria

    The life cycle assessment of a proposed beet-to-ethanol pathway demonstrates how agricultural management and industrial ecology principles can be applied to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, minimize agrochemical inputs and waste, provide ecosystem services and yield a lower-carbon fuel from a highly land-use efficient, first-generation feedstock cultivated in California. Beets grown in California have unique potential as a biofuel feedstock. A mature agricultural product with well-developed supply chains, beet-sugar production in California has contracted over recent decades, leaving idle production capacity and forcing growers to seek other crops for use in rotation or find a new market for beets. California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) faces risk of steeply-rising compliance costs, as greenhouse gas reduction targets in the transportation sector were established assuming commercial volumes of lower-carbon fuels from second-generation feedstocks -- such as residues, waste, algae and cellulosic crops -- would be available by 2020. The expected shortfall of cellulosic ethanol has created an immediate need to develop lower-carbon fuels from readily available feedstocks using conventional conversion technologies. The life cycle carbon intensity of this ethanol pathway is less than 28 gCO2e/MJEthanol: a 72% reduction compared to gasoline and 19% lower than the most efficient corn ethanol pathway (34 gCO2e/MJ not including indirect land use change) approved under LCFS. The system relies primarily on waste-to-energy resources; nearly 18 gCO2e/MJ are avoided by using renewable heat and power generated from anaerobic digestion of fermentation stillage and gasification of orchard residues to meet 88% of the facility's steam demand. Co-products displace 2 gCO2e/MJ. Beet cultivation is the largest source of emissions, contributing 15 gCO 2e/MJ. The goal of the study is to explore opportunities to minimize carbon intensity of beet-ethanol and investigate the potential

  15. Three Industrial design principles of brand oriented%品牌导向的工业设计三原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹; 戴世富

    2015-01-01

    目的:对品牌导向的工业设计原则进行探讨。方法针对目前产品同质化的现象,对品牌在工业设计中的困境进行分析,并结合经典案例来寻求新的工业设计出路。结论提出了品牌导向的工业设计三原则,即融合符号设计,凸显品牌个性;吸引用户参与,扩大品牌市场;洞悉人性特征,赢得用户好感。%ABSTRACT:Objective To analyze the brand-oriented industrial design principles. Methods Aiming at the phenomenon of product homogenization, the brand in the industrial design the plight of the analysis, combined with the classic case to seek a new way of industrial design. Conclusion Industrial design put forward three principles of brand orientation, namely symbol integration design, highlight the brand personality; attract users to participate in, to expand the brand market; insight into human nature characteristics, to win customer goodwill.

  16. The Key Principles of Process Manager Motivation in Production and Administration Processes in an Industrial Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chromjakova Felicita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic premise of sustainable development is that companies should completely re-evaluate their enterprise work logic and process organization. Most of the necessary changes concern employee stimulation and motivation. If we are truly interested in improving business results and the effectiveness of business processes – there would be no progress otherwise – we have to strive to break down the barriers between company management (leadership and employees in order to establish effective relationships between firms and customers. This paper presents research results of process manager activities in modern industrial enterprises, connected with a methodology proposal for the systematically-oriented process manager motivation of employees in accordance with the increased competitiveness of production and administration processes. It also presents an effective methodology of how to increase the positive effects of welldefined employee motivations from the process manager´s perspective. The core benefit of this methodology lies in the design of a systematic approach to the motivation process from the process manager side, allowing for radical performance improvement via production and administrative processes and the increased competitiveness of enterprise processes.

  17. Phillips Active in China's Oil Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Keyu

    2001-01-01

    @@ Phillips has attached great importance to its cooperation with China and committed itself to the Chinese energy industrial development, said Roy Lyons, the newly appointed President of Phillips China Inc., adding that he was glad to move to Beijing and optimistic about Phillips development in China.

  18. Market power, industrial concentration and innovative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, RW

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the paradox between the positive effect of industrial concentration on R & D spending, and its non-positive effect on the number of innovations. Also, I analyze whether concentration has different effects on small- and large-firm R & D. The analysis shows that the positive

  19. Potentials for win-win alliances among animal agriculture and forest products industries: application of the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Ellis B; Furiness, Carl S

    2005-12-01

    Commercial forests in many parts of the world are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrient-deficient forests often exist in close proximity to large animal feeding operations, meat processing and other food, textile, or other biomass-processing plants, and municipal waste treatment facilities. Many of these facilities produce large surpluses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter as gaseous ammonia, urea, uric acid, phosphorus compounds, bacterial sludges, and partially treated municipal wastewaters. These co-existing and substantial nutrient deficiencies and surpluses offer ready-made opportunities for discovery, demonstration, and commercial development of science-based, technology-facilitated, environmentally sound, economically viable, and socially acceptable "win-win alliances" among these major industries based on the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development. The major challenge is to discover practical means to capture the surplus nutrients and put them to work in forest stands from which value-added products can be produced and sold at a profit.

  20. Potentials for win-win alliances among animal agriculture and forest products industries: application of the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Ellis B; Furiness, Cari S

    2005-09-01

    Commercial forests in many parts of the world are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrient-deficient forests often exist in close proximity to large animal feeding operations, meat processing and other food, textile, or other biomass-processing plants, and municipal waste treatment facilities. Many of these facilities produce large surpluses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter as gaseous ammonia, urea, uric acid, phosphorus compounds, bacterial sludges, and partially treated municipal wastewaters. These co-existing and substantial nutrient deficiencies and surpluses offer ready-made opportunities for discovery, demonstration, and commercial development of science-based, technology-facilitated, environmentally sound, economically viable, and socially acceptable "win-win alliances" among these major industries based on the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development. The major challenge is to discover practical means to capture the surplus nutrients and put them to work in forest stands from which value-added products can be produced and sold at a profit.

  1. Basic principles of knowledge management and its application to the industrial company in tactical operations of maintenance and operational exploitation: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cárcel Carrasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Although knowledge and its management is, and has been, studied in depth, particularly since the 90’s decade of the past century, especially for the strategic management, innovation, trade, or business administration, there are still many questions on how it articulates or transfers and the barriers to its management, especially when we talk about internal tactical activities that affect staff that we could call "offices", such as maintenance and industrial assembly or exploitation and conduction of the facilities. Because of the peculiarities normally seen in this kind of activity in the industrial companies, the knowledge of these people is strongly based on their experience (strong tacit component, difficult to measure and articulate, and on many occasions, however, this rupture of information-knowledge, can represent a high cost for the company (often assumed to be something inevitable due to the increase in production and service downtime, loss of efficiency, or tuning time of new staff to these areas.Design/methodology/approach: After a description of the State of the art and the basic principles of knowledge management, a qualitative study in an industrial company has been carried out, within the areas of operation and maintenance, in order to know the barriers and facilitators that such involved personnel finds in order to achieve an adequate transmission and use of that knowledge.Findings and Originality/value: Learn about barriers, facilitators and impact that offers the knowledge management in the areas of industrial maintenance, especially among professionals in offices which operate with a high degree of tacit knowledge and with a heavy dependence on the company on these professionals.Research limitations/implications: Those characteristics of a qualitative study in a particular area and within a geographical area, although it can be extrapolated to other types of companies and regional areas.Practical implications: Learn

  2. Basic Principles of Industrial Electric Power Network Computer Aided Design and Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fursanov; I. Dul

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual model for a computer aided design and engineering system has been developed in the paper. The paper presents basic automation process principles including a graphical representation   network and calculation results, convenient user interface, automatic mode calculation, selection of transformer rated power and cross-section area of wires. The developed algorithm and program make it possible to save time and improve quality of project implementation.

  3. Recycling industrial architecture : the redefinition of the recycling principles in the context of sustainable architectural design

    OpenAIRE

    Šijaković, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the elucidation of the concept of architectural recycling as an environmentally sustainable alternative to demolition and preservation. More precisely, the research aim relates to the redefinition of recycling design principles in the context of the sustainable architectural design. The process of architectural recycling was placed in the context of a sustainable architectural design, as the global concept of sustainable development is imposed as a general context fo...

  4. Basic Principles of Industrial Electric Power Network Computer Aided Design and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fursanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model for a computer aided design and engineering system has been developed in the paper. The paper presents basic automation process principles including a graphical representation   network and calculation results, convenient user interface, automatic mode calculation, selection of transformer rated power and cross-section area of wires. The developed algorithm and program make it possible to save time and improve quality of project implementation.

  5. STRATEGY OF INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY OF INDUSTRIAL ENTER-PRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Kravchenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Successful activity of the large-scale industrial enterprises is carefully thought out strategy of management by innovative activity. Object of the article – to designate the existent problems of management by strategic potential at the large-scale industrial enterprises, their functioning and forming during adaptation in a world market and to work out the mechanism of strategy of management of innovative activity that can be applied at large-scale industrial enterprises; as well as to carry out a systematic analysis of the problem activity at the large-scale industrial enterprises mainly in the carriage-building branch. Methodology. The main factor of economic growth of any country is the innovations that are implemented at the enterprise to improve economic growth. Theoretical and methodological basis of research is systematic analysis of the strategy problem of innovative activity at the large-scale industrial enterprises, especially of the carriage-building branch, which is at the present moment on the decline and in need of reform. Rightly developed strategy of management of innovative activity will allow to balance the internal and external environment of the enterprise, as well as to compare the existing capacities at the enterprise, and the most importantly, will ensure survival in a changed political situation. Findings. The authors improved mechanism of the strategy of innovative activity at the large-scale industrial enterprises. Effective implementation of the strategic innovative activity of the industrial enterprises can enhance the competitiveness of not only some industrial enterprises but also the economy of Ukraine in general. Originality. The authors gave theoretical generalization and improved scheme of a mechanism of strategy of innovative activity at the large-scale industrial enterprises on improvement of indicators of intellectual activity and competitiveness in the market, as well as the resumption of

  6. An Industry-Equilibrium Analysis of the LeChatelier Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    for wage increases but not for wage decreases. These results are important for the interpretation of estimated labour-demand elasticities. Finally, we show that the LCP may hold for the total industry labour demand in situations where it does not hold for the labour demand of individual firms....

  7. HMM Framework, for Industrial Maintenance ActivitiesHMM Framework, for Industrial Maintenance Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Roblès, Bernard; Avila, Manuel; Duculty, Florent; Vrignat, Pascal; Begot, Stéphane; Kratz, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    8 pages; International audience; This paper uses the Hidden Markov Model to model an industrial process seen as a discrete event system. Different graphical structures based on Markov automata, called topologies, are proposed. We designed a Synthetic Hidden Markov Model based on a real industrial process. This Synthetic Model is intended to produce industrial maintenance observations (or "symbols"), with a corresponding degradation indicator. These time series events are shown as Markov chain...

  8. Human biomonitoring activities--programmes by industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Peter J

    2007-05-01

    Biomonitoring of exposure to chemicals has been practiced for over half a century on a regular basis. During the last decade, however, the focus changed from occupational to environmental settings, requiring a different interpretative framework. Under the auspices of the European Centre for Ecology and Ecotoxicology (ECETOC) a framework was developed that allows to assess the relevance of any biomonitoring result to be interpreted reliably. If biomonitoring data is to be used for the evaluation of health risks of a substance, information is required on the analytical integrity of the data, the toxicokinetics of this substance, and its health effects in relation to (low) exposures. In addition, a weight-of-evidence needs to be used. The framework also identifies a number of data-gaps, several of which are addressed through the Long-range Research Initiative (LRI), an initiative of the global chemical industries (EU, USA, and Japan), which aims to help answering important questions in the application of biomonitoring data in human health risk assessment.

  9. Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-06-01

    Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl₃, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC₅₀ value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC₅₀ 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC₅₀ 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC₅₀ 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC₅₀ 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause.

  10. Outsourcing of Logistics Activities in Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Ogorelc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The external supply of logistics se1vices is part of a trend towardoutsourcing non-core logistics activities. The scope ofthird-party logistics may range from a relatively limited combinationof activities (e.g. transportation and warehousing to acomprehensive set of logistics se1vices.The authors first discuss the characteristics of business logisticsin manufacturing indusfly, to be taken into account inlogistics outsourcing. They particularly point out the motimtionsfor logistics outsourcing, the possibilities of outsourcing,as well as supplier selection. Finally they analyze the outsourcingin the reverse logistics.

  11. Ethical principles for project collaboration between academic professionals or institutions and the biomedical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riis P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Povl Riis Age Forum, State Board for Research and Age Policies, Odense, DenmarkAbstract: Ethics in biomedical research cannot be defined by etymology, and need a semantic definition based on national and contemporary values. In a Nordic cultural and historic context, key values are solidarity with one's fellow man, equality, truth, justice, responsibility, freedom, and professionalism. In contemporary medical research, such ethics are further subgrouped into research ethics, researcher ethics, societal ethics, and distributive ethics. Lately, public and academic debates have addressed the necessary strengthening of the ethical concerns and interests of patients and society. Despite considerable progress, common ethical definitions and control systems still lack uniformity or indeed do not exist. Among the cooperative partners involved, the pharmaceutical industry have preserved an important role. The same is true for the overall judgments reflected by the European Forum for Good Clinical Practice, leading peer-reviewed journals, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics for developing nations, and the latest global initiative, the Singapore Statement on Research Integrity. To help both institutions and countries, it will be valuable to include the following information in academia–industry protocols before starting a project: international authorship names; fixed agendas and time schedules for project meetings; chairperson shifts, meeting reports, and project plan changes; future author memberships; equal blinding and data distribution from disciplinary groups; an equal plan for exchange of project manuscripts at the proofing stage; contractual descriptions of all procedures, disagreements, publishing rights, prevention, and controls for suspected dishonesty; and a detailed description of who is doing what in the working process.Keywords: ethics, collaboration, academia, biomedical industry

  12. Improving the Reverse Logistics Respecting Principles of Sustainable Development in an Industrial Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidlerová, Helena; Mĺkva, Miroslava

    2016-06-01

    Reverse logistics, the movement of materials back up the supply chain, is recognised by many organisations as an opportunity for adding value. The paper considers the theoretical framework and the conception of reverse logistics in literature and practice. The objective of the article is to propose tangible solutions which eliminate the imbalances in reverse logistics and improve the waste management in the company. The case study focuses on the improvement in the process of waste packaging in the context of sustainable development as a part of reverse logistics in the surveyed industrial company in Slovakia.

  13. Improving the Reverse Logistics Respecting Principles of Sustainable Development in an Industrial Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidlerová Helena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reverse logistics, the movement of materials back up the supply chain, is recognised by many organisations as an opportunity for adding value. The paper considers the theoretical framework and the conception of reverse logistics in literature and practice. The objective of the article is to propose tangible solutions which eliminate the imbalances in reverse logistics and improve the waste management in the company. The case study focuses on the improvement in the process of waste packaging in the context of sustainable development as a part of reverse logistics in the surveyed industrial company in Slovakia.

  14. The Working Principle and Use of High Pressures in the Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Karlović, S.; Brnčić, M.; Ježek, D.; Tripalo, B.; Bosiljkov, T.

    2010-01-01

    High pressure in the food industry, as a new non-thermal method, is applied in many phases of food processing. This new non-thermal technology was developed in the 1990s. The main advantages of high-pressure processing are in the short time of processing which is between a few seconds and 30 minutes. Processing of solid or liquid food products with or without packaginghappens in the temperature interval 5 – 90 °C, and pressures 50 – 1000 MPa. The driving pressure is distributed uniformly thro...

  15. Prediction of solid oxide fuel cell cathode activity with first-principles descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Kleis, Jesper; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate that the experimentally measured area specific resistance and oxygen surface exchange of solid oxide fuel cell cathode perovskites are strongly correlated with the first-principles calculated oxygen p-band center and vacancy formation energy. These quantities...... are therefore descriptors of catalytic activity that can be used in the first-principles design of new SOFC cathodes....

  16. Ethical principles for project collaboration between academic professionals or institutions and the biomedical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Povl

    2012-01-01

    Ethics in biomedical research cannot be defined by etymology, and need a semantic definition based on national and contemporary values. In a Nordic cultural and historic context, key values are solidarity with one's fellow man, equality, truth, justice, responsibility, freedom, and professionalism. In contemporary medical research, such ethics are further subgrouped into research ethics, researcher ethics, societal ethics, and distributive ethics. Lately, public and academic debates have addressed the necessary strengthening of the ethical concerns and interests of patients and society. Despite considerable progress, common ethical definitions and control systems still lack uniformity or indeed do not exist. Among the cooperative partners involved, the pharmaceutical industry have preserved an important role. The same is true for the overall judgments reflected by the European Forum for Good Clinical Practice, leading peer-reviewed journals, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics for developing nations, and the latest global initiative, the Singapore Statement on Research Integrity. To help both institutions and countries, it will be valuable to include the following information in academia-industry protocols before starting a project: international authorship names; fixed agendas and time schedules for project meetings; chairperson shifts, meeting reports, and project plan changes; future author memberships; equal blinding and data distribution from disciplinary groups; an equal plan for exchange of project manuscripts at the proofing stage; contractual descriptions of all procedures, disagreements, publishing rights, prevention, and controls for suspected dishonesty; and a detailed description of who is doing what in the working process.

  17. Potentials for win-win alliances among animal agriculture and forest products industries: Application of the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ellis B. Cowling; Cari S. Furiness

    2005-01-01

    Commercial forests in many parts of the world are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrient-deficient forests often exist in close proximity to large animal feeding operations, meat processing and other food, textile, or other biomass-processing plants, and municipal waste treatment facilities. Many of these facilities produce large surpluses of nitrogen,phosphorus, and organic matter as gaseous ammonia, urea, uric acid, phosphorus compounds,bacterial sludges, and partially treated municipal wastewaters. These co-existing and substantial nutrient deficiencies and surpluses offer ready-made opportunities for discovery, demonstration,and commercial development of science-based, technology-facilitated, environmentally sound,economically viable, and socially acceptable "win-win alliances" among these major industries based on the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development. The major challenge is to discover practical means to capture the surplus nutrients and put them to work in forest stands from which value-added products can be produced and sold at a profit.

  18. Workspace Design: A case study applying participatory design principles of healthy workplaces in an industrial setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2010-01-01

    in a case involving the design and implementation of a new mixing technology in an industrial plant. The case showed how the WSD concept can contribute to an engineering design process. The WSD team took the role as workspace designer and by the participatory workshops achieved an impact on the technology......The Danish Workspace Design (WSD) research program is aimed to develop and trial a potential new concept for ergonomists and other workplace consultants who are to engage in socio-technical design processes. The objective of this paper is to report on the trial of the workspace design concept...... project. In the role as workspace designer it was important for the WSD team to make sure that the achievements in the workshops were “transmitted” to and sustained in the ordinary engineering design process. In this case, it turned out that the artefacts such as a layout game board and documents...

  19. Workspace Design: A case study applying participatory design principles of healthy workplaces in an industrial setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2010-01-01

    The Danish Workspace Design (WSD) research program is aimed to develop and trial a potential new concept for ergonomists and other workplace consultants who are to engage in socio-technical design processes. The objective of this paper is to report on the trial of the workspace design concept...... in a case involving the design and implementation of a new mixing technology in an industrial plant. The case showed how the WSD concept can contribute to an engineering design process. The WSD team took the role as workspace designer and by the participatory workshops achieved an impact on the technology...... project. In the role as workspace designer it was important for the WSD team to make sure that the achievements in the workshops were “transmitted” to and sustained in the ordinary engineering design process. In this case, it turned out that the artefacts such as a layout game board and documents...

  20. Industrial through-air drying of nonwovens and paper: Basic principles and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watzi, A.; Rueckert, M. [Fleissner GmbH and Co., Frankfurt (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The requirements for drying and thermobonding equipment working on the basis of the hot air flow-through system vary considerably due to the large variety of nonwovens qualities, production methods and required production speeds. It is therefore necessary to construct diverse drying systems in order to be able to offer appropriate machines for the desired purposes. Optimum heat and mass transfer from the penetrating air to the permeable material to be dried is ensured by through-air drying. Following Hans Fleissner`s invention of the through-air system for drying of textiles and its practical application in the perforated drum dryer for more than 50 years a second engineering breakthrough for the paper and nonwovens industry has been achieved by Gerold Fleissner with the high-tech through-air drum. This paper presents various possibilities of air flow through the material and provide criteria to facilitate selection of the proper drying system.

  1. Industrial applications using BASF eco-efficiency analysis: perspectives on green engineering principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonnard, David R; Kicherer, Andreas; Saling, Peter

    2003-12-01

    Life without chemicals would be inconceivable, but the potential risks and impacts to the environment associated with chemical production and chemical products are viewed critically. Eco-efficiency analysis considers the economic and life cycle environmental effects of a product or process, giving these equal weighting. The major elements of the environmental assessment include primary energy use, raw materials utilization, emissions to all media, toxicity, safety risk, and land use. The relevance of each environmental category and also for the economic versus the environmental impacts is evaluated using national emissions and economic data. The eco-efficiency analysis method of BASF is briefly presented, and results from three applications to chemical processes and products are summarized. Through these applications, the eco-efficiency analyses mostly confirm the 12 Principles listed in Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37(5), 94A), with the exception that, in one application, production systems based on bio-based feedstocks were not the most eco-efficient as compared to those based on fossil resources. Over 180 eco-efficiency analyses have been conducted at BASF, and their results have been used to support strategic decision-making, marketing, research and development, and communication with external parties. Eco-efficiency analysis, as one important strategy and success factor in sustainable development, will continue to be a very strong operational tool at BASF.

  2. Petroleum industry. 1997 activity report; L`industrie Petroliere. Rapport d`activite 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This activity report from the direction of hydrocarbons of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (ministry of economy, finances and industry) presents an economic analysis of the activities of the French petroleum industry for 1997. After a recall of the missions of the direction of hydrocarbons, the report analyses successively: 1- the evolution of the petroleum market: the international petroleum market in 1997, the hydrocarbon supplies and external trade (natural gas, crude oil, condensates), the French petroleum market (primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, French petroleum consumption, the petroleum logistics in overseas departments and territories), the prices, margins and fiscal policy in France and Europe (crude oil and refined product prices in the international market, retail prices in France and Europe, the French petroleum fiscal policy, statistics of petroleum prices in France and Europe; 2- the petroleum industry activities: exploration and production in France and worldwide, the maritime and domestic transports and the storage (French commercial fleet, domestic transports, storage facilities, strategic stocks), the refining activity and the quality of products and fuel substitutes (refining, automotive fuels quality, bio-fuels), the distribution of petroleum products (automotive and diesel fuels, LPG, aircraft fuels, lubricants); 3- the environmental and safety aspects of refining, transportation (pipelines, tanker-ships) and exploration-production; 4- the economic situation of the companies: petroleum groups, French para-petroleum industry, scientific and technical research. (J.S.)

  3. Research of features of professional activity of specialists of motor industry industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukhlantseva N.V.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The basic aspects of transport-engineers professional activity are examined in the article, the modern looks of authors on the problem of the professionally-applied physical preparation of students of technical higher educational establishments, in particular future specialists of transporting industry open up. In research took part 88 engineer-technical workers with practical experience 11-19 years.

  4. Monitoring industrial facilities using principles of integration of fiber classifier and local sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotaev, Valery V.; Denisov, Victor M.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Serikova, Mariya G.; Timofeev, Andrey V.

    2015-05-01

    The paper deals with the creation of integrated monitoring systems. They combine fiber-optic classifiers and local sensor networks. These systems allow for the monitoring of complex industrial objects. Together with adjacent natural objects, they form the so-called geotechnical systems. An integrated monitoring system may include one or more spatially continuous fiber-optic classifiers based on optic fiber and one or more arrays of discrete measurement sensors, which are usually combined in sensor networks. Fiber-optic classifiers are already widely used for the control of hazardous extended objects (oil and gas pipelines, railways, high-rise buildings, etc.). To monitor local objects, discrete measurement sensors are generally used (temperature, pressure, inclinometers, strain gauges, accelerometers, sensors measuring the composition of impurities in the air, and many others). However, monitoring complex geotechnical systems require a simultaneous use of continuous spatially distributed sensors based on fiber-optic cable and connected local discrete sensors networks. In fact, we are talking about integration of the two monitoring methods. This combination provides an additional way to create intelligent monitoring systems. Modes of operation of intelligent systems can automatically adapt to changing environmental conditions. For this purpose, context data received from one sensor (e.g., optical channel) may be used to change modes of work of other sensors within the same monitoring system. This work also presents experimental results of the prototype of the integrated monitoring system.

  5. Multiplier impact of wine activity on inter-industry interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio CIASCHINI; Socci, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Wine is usually studied as a separate activity. Our attempt is to introduce it within the industries composing output that react to disposable income changes. We first harmonize the available data in a Social Accounting framework. From this data base we get the parameters of a multi-industry multi-sectoral model. We apply on the model a type of dispersion analysis based on singular value decompositions. The results show the position held by wine with respect to the other activities in relatio...

  6. First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William; Peerani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (~0.2 wt% 235U) to high enriched (>20 wt% 235U); compositions consisting of U3O8, UO2, UF6, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since 235U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the 235U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the "known standard" method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U3O8 samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact 235U sample masses.

  7. Outdoor Adventure Risk Management: Curriculum Design Principles from Industry and Educational Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Nevin; Robinson, David W.

    2005-01-01

    Leaders working in the outdoor adventure field are faced with making critical decisions that keep students, clients, or customers safe from the perils of risk-related activities while enabling them to benefit from these experiences. The knowledge and competency necessary to analyze and manage risk is integral to those providing outdoor adventure…

  8. Comprehensive chemical characterization of industrial PM2.5 from steel industry activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Alexandre; Mizzi, Aurélie; Mathiot, Sébastien; Masson, Fanny; Jaffrezo, Jean L.; Dron, Julien; Mesbah, Boualem; Wortham, Henri; Marchand, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    Industrial sources are among the least documented PM (Particulate Matter) source in terms of chemical composition, which limits our understanding of their effective impact on ambient PM concentrations. We report 4 chemical emission profiles of PM2.5 for multiple activities located in a vast metallurgical complex. Emissions profiles were calculated as the difference of species concentrations between an upwind and a downwind site normalized by the absolute PM2.5 enrichment between both sites. We characterized the PM2.5 emissions profiles of the industrial activities related to the cast iron (complex 1) and the iron ore conversion processes (complex 2), as well as 2 storage areas: a blast furnace slag area (complex 3) and an ore terminal (complex 4). PM2.5 major fractions (Organic Carbon (OC) and Elemental Carbon (EC), major ions), organic markers as well as metals/trace elements are reported for the 4 industrial complexes. Among the trace elements, iron is the most emitted for the complex 1 (146.0 mg g-1 of PM2.5), the complex 2 (70.07 mg g-1) and the complex 3 (124.4 mg g-1) followed by Al, Mn and Zn. A strong emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), representing 1.3% of the Organic Matter (OM), is observed for the iron ore transformation complex (complex 2) which merges the activities of coke and iron sinter production and the blast furnace processes. In addition to unsubstituted PAHs, sulfur containing PAHs (SPAHs) are also significantly emitted (between 0.011 and 0.068 mg g-1) by the complex 2 and could become very useful organic markers of steel industry activities. For the complexes 1 and 2 (cast iron and iron ore converters), a strong fraction of sulfate ranging from 0.284 to 0.336 g g-1) and only partially neutralized by ammonium, is observed indicating that sulfates, if not directly emitted by the industrial activity, are formed very quickly in the plume. Emission from complex 4 (Ore terminal) are characterized by high contribution of Al (125.7 mg

  9. [Detection of enzyme activity in decontaminated spices in industrial use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R; Theobald, R

    1995-03-01

    A range of decontaminated species of industrial use have been examined for their enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, amylase, lipase activity). The genuine enzymes remain fully active in irradiated spices, whereas the microbial load is clearly reduced. In contrast steam treated spices no longer demonstrate enzyme activities. Steam treatment offers e.g. black pepper without lipase activity, which can no longer cause fat deterioration. Low microbial load in combination with clearly detectable enzyme activity in spices is an indication for irradiation, whereas, reduced microbial contamination combined with enzyme inactivation indicate steam treatment of raw material.

  10. Industry 4.0 implies lean manufacturing: Research activities in industry 4.0 function as enablers for lean manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sanders

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lean Manufacturing is widely regarded as a potential methodology to improve productivity and decrease costs in manufacturing organisations. The success of lean manufacturing demands consistent and conscious efforts from the organisation, and has to overcome several hindrances. Industry 4.0 makes a factory smart by applying advanced information and communication systems and future-oriented technologies. This paper analyses the incompletely perceived link between Industry 4.0 and lean manufacturing, and investigates whether Industry 4.0 is capable of implementing lean. Executing Industry 4.0 is a cost-intensive operation, and is met with reluctance from several manufacturers. This research also provides an important insight into manufacturers’ dilemma as to whether they can commit into Industry 4.0, considering the investment required and unperceived benefits. Design/methodology/approach: Lean manufacturing is first defined and different dimensions of lean are presented. Then Industry 4.0 is defined followed by representing its current status in Germany. The barriers for implementation of lean are analysed from the perspective of integration of resources. Literatures associated with Industry 4.0 are studied and suitable solution principles are identified to solve the abovementioned barriers of implementing lean. Findings: It is identified that researches and publications in the field of Industry 4.0 held answers to overcome the barriers of implementation of lean manufacturing. These potential solution principles prove the hypothesis that Industry 4.0 is indeed capable of implementing lean. It uncovers the fact that committing into Industry 4.0 makes a factory lean besides being smart. Originality/value: Individual researches have been done in various technologies allied with Industry 4.0, but the potential to execute lean manufacturing was not completely perceived. This paper bridges the gap between these two realms, and identifies

  11. Modeling & imaging of bioelectrical activity principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of electrical activity in biological tissues and systems, and for developing non-invasive functional imaging technologies to aid clinical diagnosis of dysfunction in the human body. The book will provide full basic coverage of the fundamentals of modeling of electrical activity in various human organs, such as heart and brain. It will include details of bioelectromagnetic measurements and source imaging technologies, as well as biomedical applications. The book will review the latest trends in

  12. Space Industrialization: Manufacturing and Construction Activities. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Charles H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how space industrialization will provide direct benefits for our nation and will transfer technology to the many diverse areas of human activity. Examples are the development of the Space Shuttle, the Space Studies Institute, and the LS Society (advocates for colonizing space). (NRJ)

  13. Tertiary activated carbon treatment of paper and board industry wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, B.G.; Grolle, K.C.F.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of activated carbon post-treatment of (biologically treated) wastewater from the paper and board industry was investigated, the goal being to remove refractory organic pollutants and produce water that can be re-used in the production process. Because closing water-circuits in the pa

  14. Tertiary activated carbon treatment of paper and board industry wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, B.G.; Grolle, K.C.F.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of activated carbon post-treatment of (biologically treated) wastewater from the paper and board industry was investigated, the goal being to remove refractory organic pollutants and produce water that can be re-used in the production process. Because closing water-circuits in the pa

  15. Tertiary activated carbon treatment of paper and board industry wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, B.G.; Grolle, K.C.F.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of activated carbon post-treatment of (biologically treated) wastewater from the paper and board industry was investigated, the goal being to remove refractory organic pollutants and produce water that can be re-used in the production process. Because closing water-circuits in the

  16. Active-involvement principle in dental health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L

    1985-01-01

    A basic problem in dental health education (DHE) is that the effect usually disappears shortly after the termination of a program. The purpose of the present study was to obtain long-term effect of a DHE-program by emphasizing the active involvement of the participants. The sample comprised...

  17. Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mesnage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3. Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300–600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone.

  18. Major pesticides are more toxic to human cells than their declared active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3). Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300-600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone.

  19. Formation algorithm indicative planning of the food industry production activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bukreev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current process of planning production activities in the food industry in Russia is very different interpretations of both the characteristics of the different stages, and maintaining them in a single scheduling algorithm. In this article, we attempt to form an algorithm indicative planning of production activities with general theoretical positions by considering the process of determining the overall purpose, objectives and consistency of production planning.

  20. Fundamental principles of the cultural-activity approach in the psychology of giftedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaeva, Yuliya D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the cultural-activity approach to the study of giftedness, which is based on the ideas of L. S. Vygotsky, A. N. Leontiev, and O. K. Tikhomirov. Three basic principles of this approach are described: the principle of polymorphism, the dynamic principle, and the principle of the holistic analysis of the giftedness phenomenon. The article introduces the results of empirical research (including a 10-year longitudinal study, which verifies the efficacy of the cultural-activity approach and its prospects for solving actual problems in the psychology of giftedness in light of the creation of new diagnostic procedures and methods of education and the development of gifted children.

  1. Applying Standard Industrial Components for Active Magnetic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert-Uwe Koehler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of active magnetic bearing applications, satisfying additional requirements is becoming increasingly more important. As for every technology, moving away from being a niche product and achieving a higher level of maturity, these requirements relate to robustness, reliability, availability, safety, security, traceability, certification, handling, flexibility, reporting, costs, and delivery times. Employing standard industrial components, such as those from flexible modular motion control drive systems, is an approach that allows these requirements to be satisfied while achieving rapid technological innovation. In this article, we discuss technical and non-technical aspects of using standard industrial components in magnetic bearing applications.

  2. In-vivo neutron activation analysis: principles and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress. It seems likely that by the end of this century there will have been significant progress with this research tool, and exciting insights obtained into the nature and dynamics of human body composition.

  3. Supporting Teachers in Designing CSCL Activities: A Case Study of Principle-based Pedagogical Patterns in Networked Second Language Classrooms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yun Wen; Chee-Kit Looi; Wenli Chen

    2012-01-01

      This paper proposes the identification and use of principle-based pedagogical patterns to help teachers to translate design principles into actionable teaching activities, and to scaffold student...

  4. Antitumor properties and modulation of antioxidant enzymes' activity by Aloe vera leaf active principles isolated via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shemy, H A; Aboul-Soud, M A M; Nassr-Allah, A A; Aboul-Enein, K M; Kabash, A; Yagi, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer properties and modulatory effect of selected Aloe vera (A. vera) active principles on antioxidant enzyme activities. Thus, three anthraquinones (Namely: aloesin, aloe-emodin and barbaloin) were extracted from A. vera leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and subsequently purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the N-terminal octapeptide derived from verectin, a biologically active 14 kDa glycoprotein present in A. vera, was also tested. In vivo, active principles exhibited significant prolongation of the life span of tumor-transplanted animals in the following order: barbaloin> octapeptide> aloesin > aloe-emodin. A. vera active principles exhibited significant inhibition on Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cell (EACC) number, when compared to positive control group, in the following order: barbaloin> aloe-emodin > octapeptide > aloesin. Moreover, in trypan blue cell viability assay, active principles showed a significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytes leukemia (ALL) cancerous cells. Furthermore, in MTT cell viability test, aloe-emodin was found to be active against two human colon cancer cell lines (i.e. DLD-1 and HT2), with IC(50) values of 8.94 and 10.78 microM, respectively. Treatments of human AML leukemic cells with active principles (100 microg ml(-1)) resulted in varying intensities of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis, in the following order: aloe-emodin> aloesin> barbaloin> octapeptide. Intererstingly, treatment of EACC tumors with active principles resulted in a significant elevation activity of key antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GST, tGPx, and LDH). Our data suggest that the tested A. vera compounds may exert their chemo-preventive effect through modulating antioxidant and detoxification enzyme activity levels, as they are one of the indicators of tumorigenesis. These

  5. Principles of adoption of the successful environmental practices used in developed countries into mining industry in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    presence of the audit and monitoring that do not address the local conditions of the mining operations. Based on the above the following concepts were thought of to improve the environmental conditions in mining sector: 1. Was developed the Regional Environmental Management principle based on the local conditions such as physiographic region, local population, and socioeconomic conditions of the area; 2. Devised were criteria for the risk assessment for developing countries. Where the fundamental principals were public health, both near and far from the operation, environmental and biodiversity impact, waste management, long- and short- term rehabilitation plans, compliance with international standards and norms. 3. Developed was the mechanism of the economic motivation to make mining operations "environmentally friendly" that includes defrayal of expenses from both direct and indirect damages. 4. Identified were spheres of possible cooperation between mining companies, government organizations, and the NGOs. These include development of international standards for Good Neighbor Agreement, exchange of environmental information, exchange of successful environmental, health, and safety practices between mining operations from developed and developing countries. The study showed the dire necessity for the mining industry that operates in developing countries to adopt the successful environmental practices used in developed countries. To achieve this goal the Regional Environmental Management principle, the risk assessment criteria, the mechanism of the economic motivation and the principles for international cooperation can play an extremely important role.

  6. METHODOLOGY TO EVALUATE THE INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY OF THE MEAT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Bakaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the methods of estimation of innovative activity of the enterprise. Revealed advantages and disadvantages of the proposed techniques in various publications, devoted to the innovative development. Analysis of the works of domestic and foreign authors showed that the existing methods do not provide an adequate assessment of innovative activity of the enterprise. Asked to enter the integral indicator of innovative activity, which is the criterion of the dynamism of innovative activity of the enterprise, as measured by the speed and volume creation, promotion and use of innovations in economic activity of the enterprise. The proposed system of estimation of innovative activity of the enterprise is based on the following indicators: the ratio of personnel development, the growth rate of financial assets directed on conducting innovative activity of the enterprise, the coefficient for mastering new technologies, the growth rate of intellectual property. The assessment matrix integral indicator of innovative activity of the enterprise reflects the relationship of the indicators of innovative potential and innovative activity and includes a group of indicators, which allows the estimation of innovative activity of enterprises in various spheres of business: technological, organizational, marketing. The main advantages of the developed technique of estimation of level of innovative development of the enterprises of the meat industry is: an assessment of the level in dynamics; complex research of a level of innovation development; the possibility of comparison of actual values with the values of the indicators, assessments United experts. A feature of the proposed method is not only able to measure the level of innovation development in General, but diagnosis of individual factors. This allows you to determine which factors-the Torah must be activated to display the meat industry to a higher level of innovation development.

  7. Enova's industrial activities with results from 2006; Enovas industriaktiviteter med resultater fra 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    During 2006 Enova has been monitoring the energy consumption of the industries connected with Enova's group for industry. The industries activities, statistical numbers for energy consumption and bench-marketing number are included

  8. Alberta petroleum industry activity and oil economics. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    This report, largely in graphic form, presents the following information on current petroleum industry activity in Alberta: number of oil and gas parcels requested for public tender and their average price, number of drilling rigs, capital raised by oil and gas companies in Canada, changes in federal and provincial oil/gas fiscal systems since 1985, Alberta crude oil producer netbacks, maps showing major oil play economics and intensive oil and gas activity, heavy oil and in-situ bitumen production, and project costs. 10 figs.

  9. Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Selected Brazilian Plants and Identification of the Active Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Cechinel Filho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds from some selected Brazilian medicinal plants against strains of promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and L. brasiliensis in vitro. The cell viability was determined, comparing the results with reference standards. The dichloromethane fractions of the roots, stems, and leaves of Allamanda schottii showed IC50 values between 14.0 and 2.0 μg/mL. Plumericin was the main active compound, with IC50 of 0.3 and 0.04 μg/mL against the two species of Leishmania analyzed. The hexane extract of Eugenia umbelliflora fruits showed IC50 of 14.3 and 5.7 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. The methanolic extracts of the seeds of Garcinia achachairu and guttiferone A presented IC50 values of 35.9 and 10.4 μg/mL, against L. amazonensis, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of the stem barks of Rapanea ferruginea and the isolated compound, myrsinoic acid B, presented activity against L. brasiliensis with IC50 of 24.1 and 6.1 μg/mL. Chloroform fraction of Solanum sisymbriifolium exhibited IC50 of 33.8 and 20.5 μg/mL, and cilistol A was the main active principle, with IC50 of 6.6 and 3.1 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. It is concluded that the analyzed plants are promising as new and effective antiparasitic agents.

  10. Analytical Provision of Profitable Activity of Clothing Industry Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrypnyk Mykola Ye.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is improvement of the methodology of study of financial results through introduction into the domestic practice of application of modern instruments of methods of non-linear dynamics – catastrophe theory for analytical provision of management of profitability of clothing industry enterprises on its basis. In the result of the conducted study the article proves that the catastrophe theory is a conceptual and methodological basis for studying and forecasting financial results of activity of clothing industry enterprises as unstable to system changes and is a component of such a modern scientific direction as synergetics. The essence of the latter is that under conditions when in the course of conduct of main activity there is accumulation of a critical reserve of influence of various factors upon change of financial results, which, in their turn, undergo impact of various factors, including random ones, and at a certain point of time the activity becomes unprofitable, changing its qualitative characteristics in leaps and bounds, that is, it passes to a new trajectory of changes. The prospect of further studies in this direction is the study of behaviour of financial results of clothing production, which are negative for its activity due to uneven negative changes and which manifest themselves in unprofitable management due to unexpected reaction on correlation between the object of study and insignificant fluctuations of influence factors, in particular, in disproportions between the rates of growth of expenditure and income components of activity.

  11. Innovative Activity in the Industry of Ukraine: Problems, Risks, Activization Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pidorycheva, I.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The general characteristic of a condition of innovative activity of the industrial enterprises in Ukraine and positive tendencies of the last years in this plane are shined. The key problems and demotivating factors of increase of interest of the industry in innovations are analyzed. Risks of preservation of available tendencies in the sphere of innovative and technological development of the industry, which can lead to preservation of outdated structure of national production are defined. Priorities and medium-term measures for overcoming of available restrictions in realization of new model of economic development, at the heart of which — investments into the innovative activity, new industrialization and industrial updating of the country are offered.

  12. Principles and Implementation of Reading Activities in Primary School English Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinxiu, Jing; Zhengping, Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Reading is an important skill in learning English. However, reading class is not emphasized in some primary schools in China, and there are various problems with the reading activities, which inadequately just focus on teaching of words, sentences separately from texts. This paper aims to bring out a whole system of principles in designing…

  13. Thermal activation of an industrial sludge for a possible valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamrani Sanae

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work fits within the framework of sustainable management of sludge generated from wastewater treatment in industrial network. The studied sludge comes from an industry manufacturing sanitary ware products.Physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization was performed to give an identity card to the sludge. We noted the absence of metal pollution.The industrial sludge has been subjected to thermal activation at various temperatures (650°C to 850°C. The pozzolanic activity was evaluated by physico- chemical and mechanical methods [1]. Pozzolanicity measurement was carried out based on Chapelle test and conductivity revealed the existence of pozzolanic properties of the calcined samples. The best pozzolanic reactivity was obtained for the sample calcined at 800°C. We noticed a decrease in the reactivity of the sample calcined at 850°C. In addition, analysis by means of X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that sludge recrystallization begins at a temperature of 850°C. Pozzolanicity index of the thermally treated samples was determined by measuring the mechanical resistance of mortar specimens previously kept in a saturated lime solution for 28 days (ASTM C618 [2]. The best pozzolanic activity index was obtained for the sample calcined at 800°C (109.1%.This work is a contribution to the research for new supplying sources of raw materials and additives in the field of construction. It presents a proposition of a promising solution for the valorization of waste material as an additive instead of being discharged into open air dumps causing a major environmental problem.

  14. The pilot survey of the industry 4.0 principles penetration in the selected Czech and Polish companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Basl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the aspects of the ICT innovation based on the development of the internet of things in industrial branches. This trend is known as the Industry 4.0, e.g. the forth industrial revolution. The article presents main results of the pilot survey done in selected Czech and Polish companies. They show the current status of the Industry 4.0 understanding and penetration in companies, incl. expected benefits and known obstacles of this trend.

  15. Perspective of surface active agents in baking industry: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asif; Arshad, Nazish; Ahmed, Zaheer; Bhatti, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zahoor, Tahir; Anjum, Nomana; Ahmad, Hajra; Afreen, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Different researchers have previously used surfactants for improving bread qualities and revealed that these compounds result in improving the quality of dough and bread by influencing dough strength, tolerance, uniform crumb cell size, and improve slicing characteristics and gas retention. The objective of this review is to highlight the areas where surfactants are most widely used particularly in the bread industries, their role and mechanism of interaction and their contribution to the quality characteristics of the dough and bread. This review reveals some aspects of surface-active agents regarding its role physiochemical properties of dough that in turn affect the bread characteristics by improving its sensory quality and storage stability.

  16. THE INNOVATION ACTIVITY OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN UKRAINE: STATE AND TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Miroshnychenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article includes analytical results of innovation activity of Ukrainian industrial enterprises. The enterprise innovation activity level, the level of innovations implementation into the Ukrainian industry has been researched. The dynamics of new innovation products and new technological products put into service, share of the innovation product sold in industrial output has been analysed. The level of the use of different types of innovation by industrial enterprises (marketing, organizational, process and product innovation has been determined. The main sources of finance for innovation activities have been considered. The dividing of innovation activity costs in industrial sector has been considered. The main problems of innovative development of the Ukrainian industry have been determined. The activity of industrial enterprises in Ukraine is characterized by a low level of innovation activity, an insufficient volume of realized innovative products, a low financing of innovation activity. The suggestions, which shall promote the effectiveness of innovation activity of Ukrainian industrial enterprises, have been put forward.

  17. The Working Principle of Deinked Pulp CPT Flotation Column And Industrialization%脱墨浆渣CPT浮选柱的工作原理及工业化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽英; 李琼砚; 陈倩

    2011-01-01

    分析了加拿大CPT浮选柱的工作原理、自动控制系统,并分析了脱墨浆渣浮选柱工业化的难点。%Abstract. The thesis discusses the working principle of deinked pulp CPT flotation column, automatic control system, Meanwhile discussing the difficulties in developing industry in deinked pulp CPT flotation column.

  18. Basic Principles of Seam Design for Pattern Design in Garment Industry%服装工业版型缝份设计的基本原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴正春; 潘力

    2012-01-01

      This article explained the concepts and principles of seam design, emphasizing its importance in pattern design in garment industry.%  本文介绍了服装工业用版型的缝份设计的概念、原则,强调了缝份设计在服装版型设计中的重要性。

  19. INNOVATION LEAN PRINCIPLES IN AUTOMOTIVE GREEN MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Sabadka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, industries such as automotive and manufacturing industries deal with a lot of environmental regulations. Lean is a production strategy whose fundamental principles drive the industry towards a more effective production of goods and services. The eco-efficiency concept is primary to sustainable development and intends to provide more value with less environmental impact. The aim of this study is to identify and explore the contributions of Lean to reduce environmental impacts that naturally result from industrial activity.

  20. The future of active and intelligent packaging industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Innovation in food and beverage packaging is mostly driven by consumer needs and demands influenced by changing global trends, such as increased life expectancy, fewer organizations investing in food production and distribution. Food industry has seen great advances in the packaging sector since its inception in the 18th century with most active and intelligent innovations occurring during the past century. These advances have led to improved food quality and safety. Active and intelligent packaging is new and exciting area of technology  which efficient contemporary consumer response. Materials and methods: On the basis of broad review of the current state of the art in world literature, the market active and intelligent packaging is discussed. Results: This paper shows present innovation in the market active and intelligent packaging. Conclusion: Research and development in the field of active and intelligent packaging materials is very dynamic and develops in relation with the search for environment friendly packaging solutions. Besides, active and intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. The future of this type of packaging system seems to be very interesting.

  1. 2015 Summary Report on Industrial and Regulatory Engagement Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    activities and future plans were made to Arizona Public Service, Exelon, Duke Energy, Pacific Gas & Electric, SCANA, Southern Nuclear, South Texas Project, STARS Alliance, Tennessee Valley Authority, and Xcel. Discussions were also held on the pathway goals and activities with major industry support organizations during FY 2102, including the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), the Nuclear Information Technology Strategic Leadership (NITSL), the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), and the Electric Power Research Institute. The Advanced II&C Pathway work was presented at five major industry conferences and Informal discussions were held with key NRC managers at industry conferences. In addition, discussions were held with NRC senior managers on digital regulatory issues through participation on the NEI Digital I&C Working Group. Meetings were held with major industry suppliers and consultants, to explore opportunities for collaboration and to provide a means of pilot project technology transfer. In the international area, discussions were held with Electricite’ de France (EdF) concerning possible collaboration in the area NPP configuration control using intelligent wireless devices.

  2. INDUSTRIAL/MILITARY ACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENT SCREENING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Kalinich

    1999-09-27

    Impacts due to nearby installations and operations were determined in the Preliminary MGDS Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1996) to be potentially applicable to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of the potential activities ongoing on or off the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is intended that the Industrial/Military Activity-Initiated Accident Screening Analysis provided herein will meet the requirements of the ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987) in establishing whether this external event can be screened from further consideration or must be included as a design basis event (DBE) in the development of accident scenarios for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis only considers issues related to preclosure radiological safety. Issues important to waste isolation as related to impact from nearby installations will be covered in the MGR performance assessment.

  3. The increasing need for active dosemeters in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Whitby, ON (Canada). Health Physics Dept.

    1995-12-31

    As a legal and administrative dose limits come down, there is an increasing need in the nuclear industry for greater accuracy in dose measurement, for lower detection limits, and for more rapid reporting of doses, Active (i.e. electronic) dosemeters offer the possibility of substantial improvements in these areas. The advantages of electronic dosemeters are reviewed, some impediments to their more rapid adoption considered, some needs for research and development suggested, and the implications of a change from passive to active dosemeters looked at. A review of the present status of electronic dosemeter testing, standard-setting and system implementation is given. The next major era in the history of radiation dosimetry appears to be well under way. (Author).

  4. Oil Industry Activities in Ghana: Community Perceptions and Sustainable Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Agyei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and exploitation of oil reserves in Ghana has generated different expectations and reactions from the local population about the inevitable consequences for industrialization and economic development in the oil producing area. In pursuit of the perceptions and expectations of communities closer to the offshore operations, a mixture of semi-structured, open ended questions were randomly administered. In analyzing the perceptions and reactions of the local population to the prospects created by the oil discovery in commercial quantities, insights in sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR were considered. The study reveals that the people in the communities closer to the offshore operations share the same convictions and aspirations; that is they are comfortable with their existing sources of livelihood, afraid that these sources might be hurt from oil-related activities and demanding a just allocation of the expected economic benefits through a harmonization of local fishing, farming and oil extraction activities.

  5. Application of the VALUE communication principles in ACTIVE hospice team meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Karla T; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Parker Oliver, Debra; Demiris, George; Shaunfield, Sara; Crumb, Edith

    2013-01-01

    The ACTIVE (Assessing Caregivers for Team Intervention through Video Encounters) intervention uses technology to enable family caregivers to participate in hospice interdisciplinary team (IDT) meetings from geographically remote locations. Previous research has suggested that effective communication is critical to the success of these meetings. The purpose of this study was to explore communication in ACTIVE IDT meetings involving family caregivers and to assess the degree to which hospice teams use specific communication principles (summarized in the mnemonic VALUE: value, acknowledge, listen, understand, and elicit), which have been supported in previous research in intensive care settings. Researchers analyzed team-family communication during 84 video- and/or audio-recorded care plan discussions that took place during ACTIVE team meetings, using a template approach to text analysis to determine the extent and quality of VALUE principles. The total content analyzed was 9 hours, 28 minutes in length. Hospice clinicians routinely employed the VALUE communication principles in communication during ACTIVE IDT meetings with family caregivers, but the quality of this communication was frequently rated moderate or poor. The majority of such communication was task-focused. Less often, communication centered on emotional concerns and efforts to gain a more holistic understanding of patients and families. This analysis suggests an opportunity for improving support for family members during ACTIVE IDT meetings. Members of hospice IDTs should remain aware of the opportunity for additional attention to the emotional realities of the hospice experience for family caregivers and could improve support for family caregivers during IDT meetings by ensuring that messages used to exemplify VALUE principles during team-family communication are of a high quality.

  6. Active Geophysical Monitoring in Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakulin, A.; Calvert, R.

    2005-12-01

    Effective reservoir management is a Holy Grail of the oil and gas industry. Quest for new technologies is never ending but most often they increase effectiveness and decrease the costs. None of the newcomers proved to be a silver bullet in such a key metric of the industry as average oil recovery factor. This factor is still around 30 %, meaning that 70 % of hydrocarbon reserves are left in the ground in places where we already have expensive infrastructure (platforms, wells) to extract them. Main reason for this inefficiency is our inability to address realistic reservoir complexity. Most of the time we fail to properly characterize our reservoirs before production. As a matter of fact, one of the most important parameters -- permeability -- can not be mapped from remote geophysical methods. Therefore we always start production blind even though reservoir state before production is the simplest one. Once first oil is produced, we greatly complicate the things and quickly become unable to estimate the state and condition of the reservoir (fluid, pressures, faults etc) or oilfield hardware (wells, platforms, pumps) to make a sound next decision in the chain of reservoir management. Our modeling capabilities are such that if we know true state of the things - we can make incredibly accurate predictions and make extremely efficient decisions. Thus the bottleneck is our inability to properly describe the state of the reservoirs in real time. Industry is starting to recognize active monitoring as an answer to this critical issue. We will highlight industry strides in active geophysical monitoring from well to reservoir scale. It is worth noting that when one says ``monitoring" production technologists think of measuring pressures at the wellhead or at the pump, reservoir engineers think of measuring extracted volumes and pressures, while geophysicist may think of change in elastic properties. We prefer to think of monitoring as to measuring those parameters of the

  7. INDUSTRIAL DEVICE FOR THE ELECTROCHEMICAL ACTIVATION OF WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasavtsev B. E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a stationary industrial plant for electrochemical activation (ECA of the water created on the creamery of "Yuzhni Polyus" in Kropotkin. It includes 4 diaphragm reactor - electrolyzer of a dielectric material volume of 200 liters each, control cabinet, power electrical equipment, water supply system, containers for activated water, pumping equipment for its transport and ventilation system. The anode and cathode chambers are separated by ion permeable diaphragm reactors of cotton filter cloth. The reactors operate pairwise in succession, one pair in the production mode, the other - in the mode of preparation. The anode is made of titanium sheet; the cathode is made of stainless steel 12HN9T. In the selection of the electrode material we used mass-spectrometric investigation of the chemical element composition of water before and after electrochemical activation. The device produces alkaline catholyte 15.84 m3 / day (pH 10,4 ÷ 11,71 and acid anolyte 3.36 m3 / day (pH 2,24 ÷ 3,1. Using the created device (power consumption –11,4 kW ∙ h / t meets the basic requirements of production – resource conservation, environmental safety, high performance and ease of use. These circuit diagram and photos of the installation allows reproducing it in other enterprises, contributing to the wider application of electrochemically activated water

  8. Cobalt in alluvial Egyptian soils as affected by industrial activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-five surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from different locations in Egypt representing non-polluted,moderately and highly polluted soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Co content in alluvial soils of Delta in Egypt using the delayed Neturen activation analysis technique (DNAA). The two prominent gamma ray lines at 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV was efficiently used for 60Co determination. Co content in non-polluted soil samples ranged between 13.12 to 23.20 ppm Co with an average of 18.16*4.38 ppm. Cobalt content in moderately polluted soils ranged between 26.5 to 30.00 ppm with an average of 28.3*1.3 ppm. The highest Co levels (ranged from 36 to 64.69 ppm with an average of 51.9*9.5); were observed in soil samples collected from, either highly polluted agricultural soils due to prolonged irrigation with industrial wastewater or surface soil samples from industrial sites.

  9. On the neglect of causality principles in solar activity - climate relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Many research papers have claimed to demonstrate close relations between solar activity and the terrestrial climate. In most cases the relations have been based on comparisons between time series of solar activity parameters, for instance sunspot numbers, and climate parameters, for instance terrestrial temperatures. However, many of the reported close relations are based on skilfully manipulated data and neglect of basic causality principles. For cause-effect relations to be reliably established, the cause must obviously happen prior to the effects. Thus it is problematic to use, for instance, running averages of parameters if the result depends too much on posterior elements of the causative time series or precursory elements of the effects. Even more neglected are the causality principles for cause-effect relations with a strongly varying source function. Damping of source variations by smoothing data handling introduces additional implied delays, which should be considered in the judgement of apparent correlations between processed time series of cause and effect parameters. The presentation will discuss examples of frequently quoted solar activity-climate relations (e.g., by Reid, Friis-Christensen, and Svensmark), which violate basic causality principles.

  10. A survey of activity-based costing in hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadollah Fathi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on implementation of activity based cost (ABC method in hotel industry. The study determines four possible factors of organizational, environmental, individual and technological, which could influence on ABC implementation. The study selects a sample of 205 employees who worked for Laleh International Hotel in Iran. Using one-way t-student test, the study has determined that all variables were effective on ABC implementation while individual factor was the most important one. In addition, correlation test has determined that all variables had meaningful correlations with each other. Further investigation indicates that gender did not play essential role for ABC implementation while experienced employee tended to be more effective for the success of ABC implementation.

  11. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  12. ACTIVITY-BASED PRINCIPLE IMPLEMENTATION IN THE METHODOLOGICAL CONCEPT OF N. E. JERGANOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Chapaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the publication is a philosophical-pedagogical conceptualization and the discovery of the mechanism of application of the principle while solving problems of program-methodological support of vocational education on the basis of summarizing the scientific heritage of N. E. Jerganova.Methods. The research is based on the hermeneutic methodology. The leading methods of analysis are the following: interpretation, conceptualization, understanding, as well as analysis, comparing, contrasting, synthesis, generalization.Results. Based on the analysis of the texts of the works of N. E. Jerganova, interpretational model of actualization principle of activity in developing methods of professional education is developed. According to this model, personal and professional development of man is attained primarily due to the actualization of his/her intellectual and creative potential, turning it into relatively self-sufficient entity of educational activity.Scientific novelty. Philosophical-methodological foundations and technological tools of the application of the principle activities in the process of problem solving of software and methodological support of professional education are disclosed; the expediency of development of activity-based strategy of professional education in modern conditions is proved.Practical significance. The thesis and conclusions of the article can be used in the development of the modern concept of methodological activities, in the process of program-methodological support of educational activity in professional education organizations.

  13. Respecting the right to access to medicines: Implications of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights for the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Suerie

    2013-06-14

    What are the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies with regard to access to medicines? The state-based international human rights framework has long struggled with the issue of the human rights obligations of non-state actors, a question sharpened by economic globalization and the concomitant growing power of private for-profit actors ("business"). In 2011, after a six-year development process, the UN Human Rights Council unanimously endorsed the Guiding Principles advanced by the UN Secretary General's Special Representative on Business and Human Rights, John Ruggie. The Ruggie Principles sought to clarify and differentiate the responsibilities of states and non-state actors-in this case, "business" -with respect to human rights. The framework centered on "three core principles: the state duty to protect against human rights abuses by third parties, including business; the corporate responsibility to respect human rights; and the need for more effective access to remedies." The "Protect, Respect, and Remedy" Framework emerged from a review of many industrial sectors operating from local to global scales, in many regions of the world, and involving multiple stakeholder consultations. However, their implications for the pharmaceutical industry regarding access to medicines remain unclear. This article analyzes the 2008 Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines advanced by then-UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health, Paul Hunt, in light of the Ruggie Principles. It concludes that some guidelines relate directly to the industry's responsibility to respect the right to access to medicines, and form a normative baseline to which firms should be held accountable. It also finds that responsibility for other guidelines may better be ascribed to states than to private actors, based on conceptual and practical considerations. While not discouraging the pharmaceutical industry from making additional

  14. Design Activities in the NorwegianSeafood Industry: A theoretical approach to understanding cooperation and communication

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Kjersti Øverbø

    2009-01-01

    The thesis discusses design activities in the Norwegian seafood processing industry, with focus on cooperation between packaging suppliers and designers. There is a twofold objective: to increase understanding of how industrial design methodology can be utilised in the seafood industry, and to introduce a theoretical foundation for cooperation and communication in industrial design methodology.Sales of fish and seafood represent Norway’s third largest export. Seafood is an industrially proces...

  15. Screening for antibacterial principle and activity of Aerva javanica (Burm .f) Juss. ex Schult.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Srinivas; S Ram Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial principle and activity of Aerva javanica, a medicinal plant. Methods: Crude extracts of different parts of Aerva javanica were made with hexane, chloroform and methanol. Phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts was done by following the standard methodology, and antibacterial activity was evaluated by inhibition zone and MIC values. Crude extracts were resolved through HPTLC and the antibacterial activity of the separated compounds was evaluated by bioautography. Results: The yields of crude extracts made from different plant parts varied both with plant part and solvent. Methanolic extracts of leaf and flower have shown a wide range of phytochemicals and more antibacterial activity. HPTLC separation of extracts coupled with bioautography studies revealed that apigenin followed by rutin and kaempferol has shown antibacterial activity against more number of bacteria. Conclusions:The present study supports the use of Aerva javanica in the traditional medicine, and it can be used against bacterial infections.

  16. Principles for microscale separations based on redox-active surfactants and electrochemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosslee, C A; Abbott, N L

    2001-10-15

    We report principles for microscale separations based on selective solubilization and deposition of sparingly water-soluble compounds by an aqueous solution of a redox-active surfactant. The surfactant, (11-ferrocenylundecyl)trimethylammonium bromide, undergoes a reversible change in micellization upon oxidation or reduction. This change in aggregation is exploited in a general scheme in which micelles of reduced surfactant are formed and then put in contact with a mixture of hydrophobic compounds leading to selective solubilization of the compounds. The micelles are then electrochemically disrupted, leading to the selective deposition of their contents. We measured the selectivity of the solubilization and deposition processes using mixtures of two model drug-like compounds, o-tolueneazo-beta-naphthol (I) and 1-phenylazo-2-naphthylamine (II). By repeatedly solubilizing and depositing a mixture that initially contained equal mole fractions of each compound, we demonstrate formation of a product that contains 98.4% of I after six cycles. Because the aggregation states of redox-active surfactants are easily controlled within simple microfabricated structures, including structures that define small stationary volumes (e.g., wells of a microtiter plate) or flowing volumes of liquids (e.g., microfabricated channels), we believe these principles may be useful for the purification or analysis of compounds in microscale chemical process systems. When used for purification, these principles provide separation of surfactant and product.

  17. Safety and Health Perceptions in Work-related Transport Activities in Ghanaian Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Atombo

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: OSH culture is not fully complied in industries transport activities. This study, therefore, supports the use of safety seminars and training sessions for industry workers responsible for transport operations for better integration of safety standards.

  18. Importance of industrial classification of economic activities for teaching merchandising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Presová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Business subjects in any national economy perform activities results of which are products, services or goods directly distributed to the market network. Volume of products differs according to the level of operational facilities, number of producers and the level of their facilities. Based on the development of information technology, there arise new specialization fields and new ranges of goods. Classification criteria are developed to qualify level of production and for enlistment of a firm to a particular branch. Currently the criteria of production classification are being developed. The understanding of these principles is particularly important on the bachelor level of the specialization Trade Management, where students are getting acquainted with the characteristics of goods, creative and degradation influences on utility, etc. Students are encouraged to understand how the quality and criteria mentioned above influence market prices. Teaching emphasis is put on the complexity of food assortment and the knowledge of Czech and EU legalislation relating to hygienic aspects and health quality of production, processing, and selling of food products. This complex procedure enables to obtain an overall survey of the origin of particular products, their catering, and sales. This means that the students obtain an idea about the complexity of relations existing among the origin of products, their sales and their consumption.

  19. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    Second World era international system (1945-1990) may not have done any good to ... wedge between the capitalist and socialist blocs, not only blurred Third World .... Politics and the Stages of Economic Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge ... complex industries producing mainly for export, but also producing for local.

  20. Physical Workload Analysis Among Small Industry Activities Using Postural Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiul Ahasan, M; Väyrynen, Seppo; Kirvesoja, Heli

    1996-01-01

    Small industry workers are often involved in manual handling operations that require awkward body postures, therefore, musculoskeletal disorders and occupational injuries are a major problem. In this study, various types of tasks were recorded with a video camera to chart and analyze different postures by computerized OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System). Collected data showed that poor postures were adopted not only for lifting or hammering operation but also for other tasks; mostly with bent and twisted back. The main aim was to determine the physical workload by identifying harmful postures and to develop recommendations for improving the existing situation. Forty-eight male workers from eight different units (M age = 37 years) participated. The performed activities were then divided into 26 subtasks. Altogether, 1,534 postures were selected for analysis and then classified into different OAC (OWAS Action Categories). From all observations, unhealthy postures, for which corrective measures had to be considered immediately (i.e., 10.6% classified as OAC III, and 3.3% as OAC IV), were found. The applied method was useful in determining the physical workload by locating potential activities due to harmful postures, providing a detailed description with analysis, and suggesting successful means to reduce postural load.

  1. Supporting Teachers in Designing CSCL Activities: A Case Study of Principle-Based Pedagogical Patterns in Networked Second Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yun; Looi, Chee-Kit; Chen, Wenli

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes the identification and use of principle-based pedagogical patterns to help teachers to translate design principles into actionable teaching activities, and to scaffold student learning with sufficient flexibility and creativity. A set of pedagogical patterns for networked Second language (L2) learning, categorized and…

  2. The Operating Principle of a Fully Solid State Active Magnetic Regenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative refrigeration technology, magnetocaloric refrigeration has the potential to be safer, quieter, more efficient, and more environmentally friendly than the conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology. Most of the reported active magnetic regenerator (AMR) systems that operate based on the magnetocaloric effect use heat transfer fluid to exchange heat, which results in complicated mechanical subsystems and components such as rotating valves and hydraulic pumps. This paper presents an operating principle of a fully solid state AMR, in which an alternative mechanism for heat transfer between the AMR and the heat source/sink is proposed. The operating principle of the fully solid state AMR is based on moving rods/sheets (e.g. copper, brass, iron or aluminum), which are employed to replace the heat transfer fluid. Such fully solid state AMR would provide a significantly higher heat transfer rate than a conventional AMR because the conductivity of moving solid rods/plates is high and it enables the increase in the machine operating frequency hence the cooling capacity. The details of operating principle are presented and discussed here. One of the key enabling features for this technology is the contact between the moving rods/sheets and magnetocaloric material, and heat exchange mechanism at the heat source/sink. This paper provides an overview of the design for a fully solid state magnetocaloric refrigeration system along with guidelines for their optimal design.

  3. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  4. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters.

  5. Active Learning for Creating Innovators: Employability Skills beyond Industrial Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology initiated a project entitled "Improving Higher Education for Industrial Needs" in which 147 universities have participated. One of the main purposes of this project is to identify what industrial needs and help develop university students' employability…

  6. Antimicrobial effect of Calotropis procera active principles against aquatic microbial pathogens isolated from shrimp and fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanian Velmurugan; Vijayaragavan Thanga Viji; Mariavincent Michael Babu; Mary Josephine Punitha; Thavasimuthu Citarasu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of Calotropis procera (C. procera) active principles against aquatic microbial pathogens isolated from shrimp and fishes. Methods: C. procera leaf powder was serially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and screened by antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity against aquatic pathogens which isolated from shrimp/fish. After initial screening, the active extract was purified through column chromatography and again screened. Finally the active fractions were characterized by phytochemical analysis and GC-MS analysis. Results: In vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral screening revealed that, the ethyl acetate extracts were effectively suppressed the bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Vibrio harveyi (V. harveyi) and Aeromons hydrophila (A. hydrophila) of more than 20 mm zone of inhibition; the fungi Fusarium sp and the killer virus WSSV. The ethyl acetate extracts of C. procera incubated WSSV was failed to multiply its progeny in the in vivo system of shrimp P. monodon. The shrimp had 80% survival after WSSV challenge from the control group significantly (P<0.001) and also PCR detection confirmed that no WSSV transcription found in shrimp haemolymph. After purified the ethyl acetate extracts again antimicrobial screening performed and it concluded that the fraction namely F-II was effectively suppressed the bacterial growth and WSSV due to its enriched active principles such as cardiac glycosides, Phenols, alkaloids, Tannin and quinines. Surprisingly this fraction, F-II was effectively controlled the WSSV at 90% level at a highest significant level (P<0.001). Finally the structural characterization by GC-MS analysis revealed that, the F-II fraction contained Phenols including several other compounds such as 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, Methyl tetradecanoate, Bicyclo[3.1.1] heptane, 2,6,6-trimethyl-, (1α,2β,5α)-and Hexadecanoic acid etc. Conclusions: The present study revealed

  7. The Achievements of Participating International Standardization Activities Made by Chinese Electrotechnical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Standardization Research Dept of China

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese electrotechnical industry includes power generation equipment, power transmission and distribution equipment, multi-purpose equipment, and basic electrical material. The industry has 46 national technical committees (TC) and sub-committees (SC), which mirrors to 70 TCs and SCs of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). During the past five years, leaded by Standardization Administration of China (SAC),China Electrical Equipment Industry Association (CEEIA) obtained many great achievements in promoting participation of international standardization activities by improving unified management and concentrating industrial strength:

  8. Principles of sustainable development of the territory and priorities of architectural and urban construction activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontsov, Dmitry; Yushkova, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    The paper is aimed at detecting conceptual conflicts within the architectural and urban construction activity (AUCA), defining their reasons and substantiating ways to decrease adverse effects they caused. Methods of causes and effects analyses are used, as well as evolutional and comparative analyses. They allow defining the laws to form activity model in modern environment, whose elements are ranked. Relevance of the paper is based on defining scientific and theoretical grounds of necessity to improve methodology of AUCA via its adaption to the imperatives of state management. System analyses enabled to prove practicability of considering factors of institution environment for reorganization of the model of AUCA, which provide the fullest implementation of sustainable development principles. It was proved that territorial planning is not only the leading type of AUCA, but also integrator for functioning structures of state management within planning of social and economic development. As main result of the paper consist in detection of the perspective ways for evolution of modern methodology due to increasing interdisciplinary aspect leading to the qualitative renewal of territorial management principles.

  9. Pharmaceutical gel analysis by NIR spectroscopy. Determination of the active principle and low concentration of preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, M; Alcalá, M; Bautista, M

    2008-04-23

    Near infrared spectroscopy has proved highly suitable for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations. However, its limited sensitivity can severely restrict its scope of application. In this work, we determine the active principle and two preservatives in a pharmaceutical preparation available as a hydrogel. The matrix of the pharmaceutical preparation exhibits strong absorption in the NIR spectral region; also, the two preservatives (parabens) are very similar in chemical and spectral terms, and present at low concentrations in the pharmaceutical. These complications make it rather difficult to accurately quantify the active principle and the preservatives, which can only be accomplished by using an effective design in order to prepare the samples to be included in the calibration set and select the optimum spectral range for measuring each analyte. The evaporation of solvents during the measurement process produces increasing errors related with sample's air exposition; the introductions of new samples with a wider range of the volatile components correct this effect. An ANOVA of the predictions obtained with the new models shows that correct the error due to evaporation. The proposed method was validated for the analytical control of the studied preparation.

  10. Activating Mg acceptors in AlN by oxygen: first principles calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, R Q

    2007-01-01

    First principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) are performed to study the electronic properties of Mg acceptors in AlN at the presence of oxygen. It is found that Mg and O tend to form complexes like Mg-O, Mg$_2$-O, Mg$_3$-O and Mg$_4$-O which have activation energies about 0.23 eV lower than that of Mg (except of the passive Mg-O). The lower activation energies originate from the extra states over valence band top of AlN induced by the passive Mg-O. By comparing to the well-established case of GaN, it is possible to fabricate Mg and O codoped AlN without MgO precipitate. These results suggest the possibility of achieving higher hole concentration in AlN by Mg and O codoping.

  11. Principle Component Analysis of Birkeland Currents Determined by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Principle Component Analysis is performed on northern and southern hemisphere Birkeland or field-aligned current (FAC) measurements from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE). PCA identifies the patterns in the FACs that respond coherently to different aspects of geomagnetic activity. The region 1 and 2 current system is shown to be the most reproducible feature of the currents, followed by cusp currents associated with magnetic tension forces on newly-reconnected field lines. The cusp currents are strongly modulated by season, indicating that their strength is regulated by the ionospheric conductance at the foot of the field lines. PCA does not identify a pattern that is clearly characteristic of a substorm current wedge. Rather, a superposed epoch analysis of the currents associated with substorms demonstrates that there is not a single mode of response, but a complicated and subtle mixture of different patterns. Other interhemispheric differences are discussed.

  12. First-Principles Study of Photochemical Activation of CO2 by Ti-based Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haiying; Zapol, Peter; Curtiss, Larry

    2013-03-01

    The photochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into energy-bearing hydrocarbon fuels provides an attractive way of mitigating the green-house gas CO2 and utilizing solar energy as a sustainable energy source. However, due to the high reduction potential and chemical inertness of CO2 molecules, the conversion rate of CO2 is impractically low. The activation of CO2 is critical in facilitating further reactions. By carrying out first-principles calculations of reaction pathways from CO2 to CO2-anions on Ti-based oxides including zeolites in the presence of photoexcited electrons, we have studied the initial step of CO2 activation via 1e transfer. It is shown that the CO2 reactivity of these surfaces strongly depends on the crystal structure, surface orientation, and presence of defects. This opens a new dimension in surface structure modification to enhance the CO2 adsorption and reduction on semiconductor surfaces.

  13. Enova's industrial activities 2010; Enovas industriaktiviteter 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    Enova's ambition is that Norwegian industry will be the world's most energy efficient, and that all manufacturing firms by 2015 should have a clear and obvious targets for energy use. Through our industry network, we see that several business units are on track towards achieving this goal, but still there are great opportunities to improve competitiveness through better energy efficiency. (AG)

  14. State support as factor of increase of innovative activity of industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Bondarenko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted research of factors of increase of innovative activity of enterprise, the indexes of innovative activity of industrial enterprises are analysed in Ukraine, the necessity of creation of attractive terms is grounded for development of innovative activity and increase of innovative activity of management subjects at state level, the forms of state support as factor of increase of innovative activity of industrial enterprises are considered.

  15. Research advances in industrial engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides discussions and the exchange of information on principles, strategies, models, techniques, methodologies and applications of industrial engineering. It communicates the latest developments and research activity on industrial engineering and is useful for all those interested in the technological challenges in the field.

  16. Determination of antioxidant activity of spices and their active principles by differential pulse voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Alberto; Ruiz Montoya, Mercedes; Arteaga, Jesús F; Rodríguez Mellado, Jose M

    2014-01-22

    The anodic oxidation of mercury in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to determine the antioxidant (AO) character of radical scavengers. Hydroperoxide radical is formed at the potentials of the oxidation peak on mercury electrodes, such radical reacting with the antioxidants in different extension. The parameter C10 (antioxidant concentration at which the peak area decreases by 10%) is used to measure the scavenging activity of the individual antioxidants. To establish the scavenging activity of antioxidant mixtures as a whole, the parameter, μ10 as the reverse of V10, V10 being the volume necessary to decrease the peak area in DPV by 10%, was selected. Higher μ10 values correspond to higher scavenging activity. The studies have been extended to aqueous extracts of some species. The results may be useful in explaining the effect of spices in vitro and in vivo studies.

  17. Environmental Defense Fund Oil and Gas Methane Studies: Principles for Collaborating with Industry Partners while Maintaining Scientific Objectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, S.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) launched a series of 16 research studies in 2012 to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas (O&G) supply chain. In addition to EDF's funding from philanthropic individuals and foundations and in-kind contributions from universities, over forty O&G companies contributed money to the studies. For a subset of studies that required partner companies to provide site access to measure their equipment, five common principles were followed to assure that research was objective and scientifically rigorous. First, academic scientists were selected as principal investigators (PIs) to lead the studies. In line with EDF's policy of not accepting money from corporate partners, O&G companies provided funding directly to academic PIs. Technical work groups and steering committees consisting of EDF and O&G partner staff advised the PIs in the planning and implementation of research, but PIs had the final authority in scientific decisions including publication content. Second, scientific advisory panels of independent experts advised the PIs in the study design, data analysis, and interpretation. Third, studies employed multiple methodologies when possible, including top-down and bottom-up measurements. This helped overcome the limitations of individual approaches to decrease the uncertainty of emission estimates and minimize concerns with data being "cherry-picked". Fourth, studies were published in peer-reviewed journals to undergo an additional round of independent review. Fifth, transparency of data was paramount. Study data were released after publication, although operator and site names of individual data points were anonymized to ensure transparency and allow independent analysis. Following these principles allowed an environmental organization, O&G companies, and academic scientists to collaborate in scientific research while minimizing conflicts of interest. This approach can serve as a model for a scientifically rigorous

  18. Antifeedant activity of ethanolic extract from Flourensia oolepis and isolation of pinocembrin as its active principle compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Napal, Georgina N; Carpinella, María C; Palacios, Sara M

    2009-07-01

    The ethanolic extract from Flourensia oolepis aerial parts showed strong antifeedant activity against the pest larvae, Epilachna paenulata, with an antifeedant index (AI%) of 99.1% at 100 microg/cm(2). Based on chromatographic fractionation of the extract, guided by bioassays on E. paenulata, the flavanone pinocembrin (1) was isolated as the most active principle. In a choice assay, compound 1 showed strong antifeedant activity against E. paenulata, Xanthogaleruca luteola and Spodoptera frugiperda with an AI% of 90, 94 and 91% (p<0.01) respectively, at 50 microg/cm(2). The dosages necessary for 50% feeding inhibition of the insects (ED(50)) were 7.98, 6.13 and 8.86 microg/cm(2), respectively. The feeding inhibitory activity of 1 against E. paenulata was compared with the activity of other structurally related flavonoids like naringenin, which was inactive up to 100 microg/cm(2), catechin which was nearly 6 times less active than 1, and quercetin which was equally active as 1. The effect of these on the feeding behavior of E. paenulata was also studied.

  19. Effect of biochar activation by different methods on toxicity of soil contaminated by industrial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołtowski, Michał; Charmas, Barbara; Skubiszewska-Zięba, Jadwiga; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of various methods of biochar activation on the ecotoxicity of soils with various properties and with various content and origin of contaminants. The biochar produced from willow (at 700°C) was activated by 1) microwaves (in a microwave reactor under an atmosphere of water vapour), 2) carbon dioxide (in the quartz fluidized bed reactor) and 3) superheated steam (in the quartz fluidized bed reactor). Three different soils were collected from industrial areas. The soils were mixed with biochar and activated biochars at the dose of 5% and ecotoxicological parameters of mixture was evaluated using two solid phase test - Phytotoxkit F (Lepidium sativum) and Collembolan test (Folsomia candida) and one liquid phase test - Microtox® (Vibrio fischeri). Biochar activation had both positive and negative impacts, depending on the activation method, kind of bioassay and kind of soil. Generally, biochar activated by microwaves increased the effectiveness of ecotoxicity reduction relative to non-activated biochars. Whereas, biochar activated with CO2 most often cause a negative effect manifested by deterioration or as a lack of improvement in relation to non-activated biochar or to non-amended soil. It was also demonstrated that the increase of biochar specific surface area caused a significant reduction of toxicity of water leachates from the studied soils. Effectiveness of the reduction of leachate toxicity was weakened in the presence of dissolved organic carbon in the soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oncogenic and tumor-promoting Spermatophytes and Pteridophytes and their active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, N R; Bingel, A S; Fong, H H; Saleh, A A; Christenson, G M; Saufferer, S M

    1976-08-01

    A survey and discussion are presented of plants classified as Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta, extracts of which have been shown to be oncogenic or tumor-promoting in animals. The active oncogenic and tumor-promoting principles, where known, have been identified. They represent tannins; pyrrolizidine, indole, tropolone, quinoline, purine, and benzophenanthridine alkaloids; nitroso compounds; triterpene glycosides; lignans; isoflavans; allyl benzenoids; simple (nu-pyrenes; and carbocyclic hydroxy acids. A total of 28 compounds of known structure have been identified as oncogens and several phorbol esters as tumor-promoters. Plants known to contain any of the 28 oncogens (excluding shikimic acid and caffeine) have been tabulated; they represent at least 454 species, 110 genera, and 34 families of Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta.

  1. Investment activities in the U.S. secondary woodworking industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Karen. Koenig

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. secondary woodworking industry has shown signs of improvement after the steep losses in sales volume associated with the housing crisis that began in 2007. Employment in several sectors has begun to increase, suggesting that companies that survived the downturn are positioning to increase sales growth. It is likely that investment plans to improve firm-level...

  2. Chinese tobacco industry promotional activity on the microblog Weibo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Zheng, Pinpin; Yang, Dongyun; Freeman, Becky; Fu, Hua; Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143) could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%), followed by 'advertisement' and 'tobacco culture' (both at 12%), 'traditional culture' and 'public relations' (both at 11%), and finally 'social and business affairs' (5%). 33% of posts included the words 'cigarette' or 'smoking' and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban.

  3. Glyphosate-Degrading Microorganisms from Industrial Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Balthazor, Terry M.; Hallas, Laurence E.

    1986-01-01

    A plating medium was developed to isolate N-phosphonomethylglycine (glyphosate)-degrading microorganisms, with glyphosate as the sole phosphorus source. Two industrial biosystems treating glyphosate wastes contained elevated microbial counts on the medium. One purified isolate metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid, mineralizing this accumulating intermediate during log growth. This microorganism has been identified as a Flavobacterium species.

  4. Guide to hazardous industrial activities: handbook for the cataloguing and selection of industrial activities for which an Emergency Management Plan ought to be drafted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.M.; Blom-Bruggeman, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for the cataloguing of hazardous (industrial) activities and the evaluation of these activities as part of the process of formulating an emergency management plan. This guide will enable priorities to be set at local level (district, region) for the drafting of Emerg

  5. EXAMINATION OF EMPIRICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES AND AGRICULTURAL POLICY OUTPUTS IN NIGERIA (1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Brownson Akpan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated relationships between agricultural policy output (proxy by the agricultural productivity index, agricultural GDP/total GDP and crop productivity index and output of industrial sector (proxy by the industrial capacity utilization rate from 1970 to 2012 period in Nigeria. The study employed time series variables obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN, National Bureau of Statistics and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO. Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test was conducted on the specified time series, and the result showed that all non-growth rate series were integrated of order one, while growth rate series were stationary at level. The two-step Engle Granger method was employed to test for the presence of cointegration among specified variables. The result revealed that variables were not co-integrated. To avoid spurious regression, the specified models for non-growth rate series were estimated at first difference of the log variables. The empirical result revealed that, the industrial activities Granger cause crop activities in Nigeria. Also, the industrial activity has insignificant relationship with agricultural productivity indices in Nigeria. The same result was also obtained for industrial activities and agricultural GDP/total GDP. However, the result further revealed that, the industrial activity has significant negative correlation with the crop productivity index in Nigeria. These imply that, agricultural production had not played significant role in industrial development in Nigeria. This result suggests that, there is no significant impact of the backward integration policy of the agricultural sector on industrial sector in Nigeria. In addition, the result revealed that, agricultural policies during liberalization era (1986 - 2012 shifted the coefficient of the industrial activities positively. Therefore, it is recommended that the agricultural production in Nigeria should be boosted so as to

  6. AEON eco-store principles for the creation of energy efficient and sustainable policies in Bangkok retailer industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanida, Nao (UNEP-Tongji Inst. for environment and sustainable development, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji Univ., Shanghai (China))

    2009-07-01

    Retailers in Bangkok, Thailand, are rapidly developing and have started to consume more and more energy and resources, pioneering retailering in other developing countries in South East Asia. Some of the biggest chain retailers in Bangkok are now trying to implement environmental management into their business in order to attract green-minded customers. However, most retailers are not willing to take steps at the cost of losing their economic benefits. This paper focuses on environmental management aiming to ensure triple benefits (minimizing resource use, economic benefits, and the abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions) based on the management system by AEON, which is one of the biggest Japanese retailers. AEON is known as the pioneer of eco-store and is also expanding its economic benefit simultaneously. The paper highlights the fact that one needs to have a longer term view instead of focusing on first-cost only (though it may be difficult to convince people to adopt life-cycle analysis when one is not sure about what the distant future holds for us). In this context, the paper will demonstrate the need for policy changes at the macro level to send the right signal to the concerned stakeholders in the country (as has been shown by the example of Thailand's creation of an Energy Conservation Fund which has allowed 'Revolving Fund' to lend money at a preferential interest rate to those who are willing to implement energy saving technologies), and how the AEON eco-store principles can be developed into a suitable practice for the situation of Bangkok.

  7. MICE INDUSTRY INFLUENCE ON ACTIVISATION OF BUSINESS ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    N. N. Smagina

    2014-01-01

    Global tourism market exposed the internationalization is forced to produce modern strategies, offering consumers innovative forms of tourism. Issues of the business communications, requirement of the continuous of business participants’ interaction, formed a new ways of thinking in the tourism industry evolution: business tourism development. The article reveals the concept of international business tourism. Influence on the factors determining the international business travel market trends...

  8. Chinese tobacco industry promotional activity on the microblog Weibo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although China ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] in 2005, the partial ban on tobacco advertising does not cover the internet. Weibo is one of the most important social media channels in China, using a format similar to its global counterpart, Twitter. The Weibo homepage is a platform to present products, brands and corporate culture. There is great potential for the tobacco industry to exploit Weibo to promote products. METHODS: Seven tobacco industry Weibo accounts that each had more than 5000 fans were selected to examine the content of Weibos established by tobacco companies or their advertising agents. RESULTS: Of the 12073 posts found on the seven accounts, 92.3% (11143 could be classified into six main themes: traditional culture, popular culture, social and business affairs, advertisement, public relations and tobacco culture. Posts under the theme of popular culture accounted for about half of total posts (49%, followed by 'advertisement' and 'tobacco culture' (both at 12%, 'traditional culture' and 'public relations' (both at 11%, and finally 'social and business affairs' (5%. 33% of posts included the words 'cigarette' or 'smoking' and 53% of posts included the tobacco brand name, indicating that tobacco companies carefully construct the topic and content of posts. CONCLUSIONS: Weibo is an important new online marketing tool for the Chinese tobacco industry. Tobacco industry use of Weibo to promote brands and normalize smoking subverts China's ratification of the WHO FCTC. Policy to control tobacco promotion needs reforming to address this widespread circumvention of China's tobacco advertising ban.

  9. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM.

  10. Antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa and its potency to prevent bacterial biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrouf Amina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymoquinone is an active principle of Nigella sativa seed known as "Habbah Al-Sauda" in Arabic countries and "Sinouj" in Tunisia. Bacterial biofilms tend to exhibit significant tolerance to antimicrobials drugs during infections. Methods The antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone (TQ and its biofilm inhibition potencies were investigated on 11 human pathogenic bacteria. The growth and development of the biofilm were assessed using the crystal violet (CV and the 2, 3-bis [2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT reduction assay. Results TQ exhibited a significant bactericidal activity against the majority of the tested bacteria (MICs values ranged from 8 to 32 μg/ml especially Gram positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510. Crystal violet assay demonstrated that the minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (BIC50 was reached with 22 and 60 μg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510 respectively. In addition our data revealed that cells oxidative activity was influenced by TQ supplementation. In the same way, TQ prevented cell adhesion to glass slides surface. Conclusion The ability of TQ to prevent biofilm formation warrants further investigation to explore its use as bioactive substances with antibiofilm potential.

  11. Antiatherosclerotic Potential of Active Principle Isolated from Eugenia jambolana in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reenu Singh Tanwar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the antiatherosclerotic effect of active principle (FIIc isolated from aqueous fruit pulp extract of Eugenia jambolana. Crude aqueous extract of E. jambolana was subjected to purification using chromatographic techniques which yielded purified active compound (FIIc. Purity of FIIc was tested by HPLC. Phytochemical investigation of FIIc by NMR, IR, and UV spectra showed that the purified compound is α-hydroxy succinamic acid. The streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats were fed atherosclerotic (Ath diet containing 1.5 mL olive oil containing 8 mg (3, 20,000 IU vitamin D2 and 40 mg cholesterol for 5 consecutive days. The STZ-induced diabetic rats receiving Ath diet were orally administered FIIc at doses of 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg, and results were compared with reference drug, that is, glibenclamide (600 μg/mg and healthy control. 30-day treatment with FIIc resulted in significant (P<.001 improvement in blood glucose, serum lipid profile, apolipoproteins (Apo A1 and apoB100, and endothelial dysfunction parameters. Histomorphological studies also confirmed biochemical findings. Our results showed that FIIc has protective effect on hyperglycemia-induced atherosclerosis.

  12. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Drug Master Files Under the Generic Drug User Fee... Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled...

  13. Introduction procedure of marketing testing innovative products in practical activity of industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Nagornyy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the relevance of implementing marketing testing procedures in practical activities of industrial enterprises that develop, manufacture and sales of new or innovative products.

  14. The affect of industrial activities on zinc in alluvial Egyptian soil determined using neutron activation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-two surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from different locations in Egypt representing non-polluted,moderately and highly polluted soils.The aim of this study was to evaluate total Zn content in alluvial soils of Nile Delta in Egypt by using the delayed neutron activation analysis technique (DNAA),in the irradiation facilities of the first Egyptian research reactor (ET-RR-1).The gamma-ray spectra were recorded with a hyper pure germanium detection system.The well resolved gamma-ray peak at 1116.0 kev was efficiently used for 65Zn content determination.Zn content in non-polluted soil samples ranged between 74.1 and 103.8 ppm with an average of 98.5 + 5.1 ppm.Zn content in moderately polluted soils ranged between 136.0 and 232.5 ppm with an average of 180.1 + 32.6 ppm.The highest Zn levels ranging from 240.0 and 733.0 ppm with an average of 410.3 + 54.4 ppm,were observed in soil samples collected from,either highly polluted agricultural soils exposed to prolonged irrigation with industrial wastewater or surface soil samples from industrial sites.

  15. The affect of industrial activities on zinc in alluvial Egyptian soil determined using neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Sabour, M F; Abdel-Basset, N

    2002-07-01

    Thirty-two surface (0-20 cm) soil samples were collected from different locations in Egypt representing non-polluted, moderately and highly polluted soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Zn content in alluvial soils of Nile Delta in Egypt by using the delayed neutron activation analysis technique (DNAA), in the irradiation facilities of the first Egyptian research reactor (ET-RR-1). The gamma-ray spectra were recorded with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The well resolved gamma-ray peak at 1116.0 keV was efficiently used for 65Zn content determination. Zn content in non-polluted soil samples ranged between 74.1 and 103.8 ppm with an average of 98.5 +/- 5.1 ppm. Zn content in moderately polluted soils ranged between 136.0 and 232.5 ppm with an average of 180.1 +/- 32.6 ppm. The highest Zn levels ranging from 240.0 and 733.0 ppm with an average of 410.3 +/- 54.4 ppm, were observed in soil samples collected from, either highly polluted agricultural soils exposed to prolonged irrigation with industrial wastewater or surface soil samples from industrial sites.

  16. Recent National Solar Thermal Test Facility activities, in partnership with industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Cherly; Cameron, Christopher P.; Ralph, Mark E.; Pacheco, James E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Evans, Lindsey R.

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA conducts testing of solar thermal components and systems, funded primarily by the US Department of Energy. Activities are conducted in support of Central Receiver Technology, Distributed Receiver Technology and Design Assistance projects. All activities are performed in support of various cost-shared government/industry joint ventures and, on a design assistance basis, in support of a number of other industry partners.

  17. Recent National Solar Thermal Test Facility activities, in partnership with industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanbari, C.; Cameron, C.P.; Ralph, M.E.; Pacheco, J.E.; Rawlinson, K.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R. [Ewing Technical Design, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA conducts testing of solar thermal components and systems, funded primarily by the US Department of Energy. Activities are conducted in support of Central Receiver Technology, Distributed Receiver Technology and Design Assistance projects. All activities are performed in support of various cost-shared government/industry joint ventures and, on a design assistance basis, in support of a number of other industry partners.

  18. Principles and potential of the anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appels, Lise; Degreve, Jan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, W. De Croylaan 46, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Baeyens, Jan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Dewil, Raf [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, W. De Croylaan 46, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Chemical Engineering, Associated Faculty of Technology and Biosciences, Campus De Nayer, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Jan De Nayerlaan 5, B-2860 Sint-Katelijne-Waver (Belgium)

    2008-12-15

    When treating municipal wastewater, the disposal of sludge is a problem of growing importance, representing up to 50% of the current operating costs of a wastewater treatment plant. Although different disposal routes are possible, anaerobic digestion plays an important role for its abilities to further transform organic matter into biogas (60-70 vol% of methane, CH{sub 4}), as thereby it also reduces the amount of final sludge solids for disposal whilst destroying most of the pathogens present in the sludge and limiting odour problems associated with residual putrescible matter. Anaerobic digestion thus optimises WWTP costs, its environmental footprint and is considered a major and essential part of a modern WWTP. The potential of using the biogas as energy source has long been widely recognised and current techniques are being developed to upgrade quality and to enhance energy use. The present paper extensively reviews the principles of anaerobic digestion, the process parameters and their interaction, the design methods, the biogas utilisation, the possible problems and potential pro-active cures, and the recent developments to reduce the impact of the problems. After having reviewed the basic principles and techniques of the anaerobic digestion process, modelling concepts will be assessed to delineate the dominant parameters. Hydrolysis is recognised as rate-limiting step in the complex digestion process. The microbiology of anaerobic digestion is complex and delicate, involving several bacterial groups, each of them having their own optimum working conditions. As will be shown, these groups are sensitive to and possibly inhibited by several process parameters such as pH, alkalinity, concentration of free ammonia, hydrogen, sodium, potassium, heavy metals, volatile fatty acids and others. To accelerate the digestion and enhance the production of biogas, various pre-treatments can be used to improve the rate-limiting hydrolysis. These treatments include

  19. Optimal Model-Based Fault Estimation and Correction for Particle Accelerators and Industrial Plants Using Combined Support Vector Machines and First Principles Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyar-Rodsari, Bijan; Schweiger, Carl; /SLAC /Pavilion Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX

    2010-08-25

    Timely estimation of deviations from optimal performance in complex systems and the ability to identify corrective measures in response to the estimated parameter deviations has been the subject of extensive research over the past four decades. The implications in terms of lost revenue from costly industrial processes, operation of large-scale public works projects and the volume of the published literature on this topic clearly indicates the significance of the problem. Applications range from manufacturing industries (integrated circuits, automotive, etc.), to large-scale chemical plants, pharmaceutical production, power distribution grids, and avionics. In this project we investigated a new framework for building parsimonious models that are suited for diagnosis and fault estimation of complex technical systems. We used Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to model potentially time-varying parameters of a First-Principles (FP) description of the process. The combined SVM & FP model was built (i.e. model parameters were trained) using constrained optimization techniques. We used the trained models to estimate faults affecting simulated beam lifetime. In the case where a large number of process inputs are required for model-based fault estimation, the proposed framework performs an optimal nonlinear principal component analysis of the large-scale input space, and creates a lower dimension feature space in which fault estimation results can be effectively presented to the operation personnel. To fulfill the main technical objectives of the Phase I research, our Phase I efforts have focused on: (1) SVM Training in a Combined Model Structure - We developed the software for the constrained training of the SVMs in a combined model structure, and successfully modeled the parameters of a first-principles model for beam lifetime with support vectors. (2) Higher-order Fidelity of the Combined Model - We used constrained training to ensure that the output of the SVM (i.e. the

  20. Optimal Model-Based Fault Estimation and Correction for Particle Accelerators and Industrial Plants Using Combined Support Vector Machines and First Principles Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyar-Rodsari, Bijan; Schweiger, Carl; /SLAC /Pavilion Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX

    2010-08-25

    Timely estimation of deviations from optimal performance in complex systems and the ability to identify corrective measures in response to the estimated parameter deviations has been the subject of extensive research over the past four decades. The implications in terms of lost revenue from costly industrial processes, operation of large-scale public works projects and the volume of the published literature on this topic clearly indicates the significance of the problem. Applications range from manufacturing industries (integrated circuits, automotive, etc.), to large-scale chemical plants, pharmaceutical production, power distribution grids, and avionics. In this project we investigated a new framework for building parsimonious models that are suited for diagnosis and fault estimation of complex technical systems. We used Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to model potentially time-varying parameters of a First-Principles (FP) description of the process. The combined SVM & FP model was built (i.e. model parameters were trained) using constrained optimization techniques. We used the trained models to estimate faults affecting simulated beam lifetime. In the case where a large number of process inputs are required for model-based fault estimation, the proposed framework performs an optimal nonlinear principal component analysis of the large-scale input space, and creates a lower dimension feature space in which fault estimation results can be effectively presented to the operation personnel. To fulfill the main technical objectives of the Phase I research, our Phase I efforts have focused on: (1) SVM Training in a Combined Model Structure - We developed the software for the constrained training of the SVMs in a combined model structure, and successfully modeled the parameters of a first-principles model for beam lifetime with support vectors. (2) Higher-order Fidelity of the Combined Model - We used constrained training to ensure that the output of the SVM (i.e. the

  1. Principles and Application of Magnetic Rubber Testing for Crack Detection in High-Strength Steel Components: I. Active-Field Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Principles and Application of Magnetic Rubber Testing for Crack Detection in High-Strength Steel Components: I...scientific principles governing both active-field and residual-field variants of MRT were examined. The results of theoretical and experimental...investigations into active-field MRT are documented in the current report, which describes the principles of active-field MRT, and then examines both the basis

  2. Evaluation of the genetic activity of industrially produced carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwin, C J; LeBlanc, J V; Thomas, W C; Haworth, S R; Kirby, P E; Thilagar, A; Bowman, J T; Brusick, D J

    1981-06-01

    Commercially produced oil furnace carbon black (Chemical Abstract Service Registry No. 1333-86-4) has been evaluated by five different assay for genetic activity. These were the Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation test, sister chromatid exchange test in CHO cells, mouse lymphoma test, cell transformation assay in C3H/10T1/2 cells, and assay for genetic effects in Drosophila melanogaster. Limited cellular toxicity was exhibited but no significant genetic activity was noted.

  3. Innovation Activities of Industrial Enterprises in Market and Transition Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuravskaya, E.G.; Gracheva, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to make an overview of the recent economic tendency surveys as the source of information on enterprises' innovation activities in market and transition economies. The introductory section focuses on innovation theory as the basis of currently conducted innovation tests. The second and third sections are devoted to the analysis of changes in innovation activities of West and East German enterprises reflected in the results of regular surveys. The fourth section exa...

  4. Mobility management principle, technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shanzhi; Hu, Bo; Ai, Ming

    2016-01-01

    This is the first book devoted to mobility management, covering the important principles, technologies and applications of mobility management based on years of academic research and industry experiences. The content is organized according to the reference models proposed by the authors, and emphasizes on technical principles rather than protocol details; a systematic and comprehensive introduction is presented yet without losing focuses; the existing technologies in cellular system, mobile Internet and IMS/SIP are also extensively compared. This book can be an indispensable reference for mobile communication engineers, computer network engineers, researchers and anyone else involved in academic, industrial and standardization activities on mobility management.

  5. Corporate political activity of the dairy industry in France: an analysis of publicly available information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; Mialon, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we used a structured approach based on publicly available information to identify the corporate political activity (CPA) strategies of three major actors in the dairy industry in France. We collected publicly available information from the industry, government and other sources over a 6-month period, from March to August 2015. Data collection and analysis were informed by an existing framework for classifying the CPA of the food industry. Setting/Subjects Our study included three major actors in the dairy industry in France: Danone, Lactalis and the Centre National Interprofessionnel de l'Economie Laitière (CNIEL), a trade association. During the period of data collection, the dairy industry employed CPA practices on numerous occasions by using three strategies: the 'information and messaging', the 'constituency building' and the 'policy substitution' strategies. The most common practice was the shaping of evidence in ways that suited the industry. The industry also sought involvement in the community, establishing relationships with public health professionals, academics and the government. Our study shows that the dairy industry used several CPA practices, even during periods when there was no specific policy debate on the role of dairy products in dietary guidelines. The information provided here could inform public health advocates and policy makers and help them ensure that commercial interests of industry do not impede public health policies and programmes.

  6. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  7. Public health, academic medicine, and the alcohol industry's corporate social responsibility activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine

    2013-02-01

    We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry's economic interests.

  8. Optics At The Arctic Circle, An Example Of Application-Oriented Research Generating New Industrial Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammasniemi, Jorma; Myllyla, Risto; Hannula, Tapio

    1989-04-01

    This paper discusses research/industry interaction in application-oriented research groups specializing in the development of optoelectronic instruments and measurement methods. The research groups are working in Oulu, a city in Northern Finland, in an industrial environment consisting originally of pulp and paper industries together with metalworking and engineering industries. These established industrial areas are active in adopting new technologies for automation and process renewal. Furthermore, new emerging businesses are being generated through pilot installations and new product ideas created by research groups. The technologies considered are optical and infrared process analyzers, semiconductor laser-based dimension measurements and optoelectronic hybrid module fabrication. Examples of new products and enterprises employing these technologies are given. Additional skills and education especially in miniature optics and related constructions, are considered important for the future.

  9. Environmental stressors: the mental health impacts of living near industrial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Van Willigen, Marieke

    2005-09-01

    A growing literature examines whether the poor, the working class, and people of color are disproportionately likely to live in environmentally hazardous neighborhoods. This literature assumes that environmental characteristics such as industrial pollution and hazardous waste are detrimental to human health, an assumption that has not been well tested. Drawing upon the sociology of mental health and environmental inequality studies, we ask whether industrial activity has an impact on psychological well-being. We link individual-level survey data with data from the US. Census and the Toxic Release Inventory and find that residential proximity to industrial activity has a negative impact on mental health. This impact is both direct and mediated by individuals' perceptions of neighborhood disorder and personal powerlessness, and the impact is greater for minorities and the poor than it is for whites and wealthier individuals. These results suggest that public health officials need to take seriously the mental health impacts of living near industrial facilities.

  10. Activity-Based Costing in the After Press Services Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevasuthisilp, Suntichai; Punsathitwong, Kosum

    2009-10-01

    This research was conducted to apply activity-based costing (ABC) in an after press service company in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The company produces all of its products by one-stop service (such as coating, stitching, binding, die cutting, and gluing). All products are made to order, and have different sizes and patterns. A strategy of low price is used to compete in the marketplace. After cost analysis, the study found that the company has high overhead (36.5% of total cost). The company's problem is its use of traditional cost accounting, which has low accuracy in assigning overhead costs. If management uses this information when pricing customer orders, losses may occur because real production costs may be higher than the selling price. Therefore, the application of ABC in cost analysis can help executives receive accurate cost information; establish a sound pricing strategy; and improve the manufacturing process by determining work activities which have excessively high production costs. According to this research, 6 out of 56 items had a production cost higher than the selling price, leading to losses of 123,923 baht per year. Methods used to solve this problem were: reducing production costs; establishing suitable prices; and creating a sales promotion with lower prices for customers whose orders include processes involving unused capacity. These actions will increase overall sales of the company, and allow more efficient use of its machinery.

  11. Antibacterial activity of propolis and its active principles alone and in combination with macrolides, beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones against microorganisms responsible for respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciale, A; Costanzo, R; Puglisi, S; Musumeci, R; Catania, M R; Caccamo, F; Iauk, L

    2006-04-01

    Propolis is produced by bees and is reported to have several pharmaceutical properties. Its antibacterial activity against strains causing upper respiratory tract infections is particularly important: propolis might be used as a therapeutic agent to prevent the bacterial infections that sometimes overlap viral infections. In this study the in vitro activity of both an alcoholic solution and a hydroglyceric extract of propolis, as well as its active principles, was tested against bacteria responsible for respiratory infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pyogenes). We also evaluated the in vitro activity of a combination of propolis and its active principles and some beta-lactams, macrolides and fluoroquinolones. Our results, though not demonstrating a clearly synergistic activity between antibiotics and propolis and its constituents, show the possibility of using natural preparations, due to their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, to enhance antibacterial therapy.

  12. Environmental Stressors: The Mental Health Impacts of Living Near Industrial Activity*

    OpenAIRE

    Downey, Liam; VAN WILLIGEN, MARIEKE

    2005-01-01

    A growing literature examines whether the poor, the working class, and people of color are disproportionately likely to live in environmentally hazardous neighborhoods. This literature assumes that environmental characteristics such as industrial pollution and hazardous waste are detrimental to human health, an assumption that has not been well tested. Drawing upon the sociology of mental health and environmental inequality studies, we ask whether industrial activity has an impact on psycholo...

  13. Methodological principles outline discipline "Organization studies-tourism activity" using information technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The basic methodological principles of the disciplines of tourism and local history with information technology. 15 analyzed the literature and experience of leading experts in the field of sports and health tourism, and orienteering. Identified principles of academic disciplines of tourism and local history: the shift in emphasis from sports tourism to the cognitive, health tourism, the development of spiritual qualities, acquisition of life skills in nature, discovery and development of pedagogical and psychological abilities, character traits through the study of native land, the development of cognitive-research abilities, physical abilities, motor skills, application of modern information technology.

  14. [Civil responsibility of medical care activities in regard to the precautionary principle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foyer de Costil, H

    2000-01-01

    In the absence of a legal body regulating the precaution, do we have to confine the principle to public health? A negative answer is required at a time the medical liability is increasing more and more and the obligation to take all means is slipping toward to a strict obligation as to the result. The respect of the principle of precaution can be found in the obligation for the doctor to prove that he has fully informed the patient, but the medicine specificity requires delimitation of this obligation outlines.

  15. BUSINESS DECISION MAKING ON FINANCING OPERATING ACTIVITIES IN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Djokovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Outputs of management process related to decision making and the implementation of decisions of the business. Business decision-making, in the widest sense of the time aspect, it can be seen from the operational and strategic character. In this paper, the focus is on analyzing leverage and rate of return the operational decision-making in the hotel as a function of current financing activities. Operational decision-making, must be aligned with strategic, so that all segments of the operational decision-making found appropriate and meaningful implementation. Decisions in practice, in most cases, can not be considered independently, because each of them implies the use of properties, human, financial, information technology and other related capabilities.

  16. Selenite bioremediation potential of indigenous microorganisms from industrial activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbisu, C; Alkorta, I; Carlson, D E; Leighton, T; Buchanan, B B

    1997-12-01

    Ten bacterial strains were isolated from the activated sludge waste treatment system (BIOX) at the Exxon refinery in Benicia, California. Half of these isolates could be grown in minimal medium. When tested for selenite detoxification capability, these five isolates (members of the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter and Aeromonas), were capable of detoxifying selenite with kinetics similar to those of a well characterized Bacillus subtilis strain (168 Trp+) studied previously. The selenite detoxification phenotype of the Exxon isolates was stable to repeated transfer on culture media which did not contain selenium. Microorganisms isolated from the Exxon BIOX reactor were capable of detoxifying selenite. Treatability studies using the whole BIOX microbial community were also carried out to evaluate substrates for their ability to support growth and selenite bioremediation. Under the appropriate conditions, indigenous microbial communities are capable of remediating selenite in situ.

  17. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this report is to help focus the federal programs in biomass energy, by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid-1979. In addition, the industry's perceptions of government activities are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations, as listed in Exhibit 1. Interview findings have been supplemented by research of recent literature. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry; (2) what are the companies doing; (3) what are their objectives and strategies; and (4) what are the implications for government policy. This executive summary provides highlights of the key findings and conclusions. The summary discussion is presented in seven parts: (1) overview of the biomass field; (2) structure of the biomass industry today; (3) corporate activities in biomass-related areas; (4) motivations for these activities; (5) industry's outlook on the future for energy-from-biomass; (6) industry's view of government activities; and (7) implications for Federal policy.

  18. Business cycle and innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzikowski Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines differences in an impact of business cycle phases on innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland. It is assumed that each business cycle phase influences innovation activity in the same fashion, but its impact varies and it depends on the firm’s innovation activity. The higher innovation activity the less impact of business cycle. The scope of the survey relates to innovation in MHT and HT industry in Poland. The data concerns the innovation at the firm level and the diffusion “new for the company”. Innovation activity is defined by the following activities: (1 expenditure on research and development and investments in fixed assets not used so far such as: abuildings, premises and land; b machinery and equipment, c computer software; (2 implementation of new products and technological processes and (3 innovation cooperation. The methodological part of the analysis includes a logit modeling. The survey includes 1355 companies. Business cycle has a great influence on innovation activity in MTH and HT industry in Poland. The influence of recovery phase is positive whereas both stagnation and recession phases decrease the probability of innovation activity. The character of influence depends on the propensity to take innovation activity. The higher level of innovation activity the enterprises present the less influence of business cycle they get.

  19. Industry consequences of reduced petroleum activity; Naeringsmessige konsekvenser av redusert petroleumsaktivitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-22

    Norwegian oil production is falling. Top of the petroleum production was reached in 2004, and in line with forecasts from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and Econ Poeyry (2009), we anticipate a continued decline in production towards an end around 2080. Petroleum industries accounted for about a quarter of Norwegian value creation in 2008. The industries provide strong growth impetus to the Norwegian economy through investments in new fields and operation of existing ones. The petroleum activity on the Norwegian shelf add to our estimates, the basis for about 90 000 jobs in the petroleum industry and the supplier industry. The prescribed reduction in Norwegian petroleum activities will naturally reduce petroleum-related employment. We calculate in this report the effect of a reduction in the petroleum activity with regard to employment. The calculations show a strong decline in employment in the period 2025-2080. In order to reduce the effects of the fall, the Norwegian authorities can open more areas for petroleum production. We show in this report the employment consequences of an opening of the areas off Lofoten, Vesteraalen and Senja may have for employment. To calculate the employment effects are based on an estimate of 2 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe), and assuming that it made more commercial discoveries. This estimate lies between the updated estimate of Petroleum Directorate announced 16 April 2010 and the projection industry refers to. Our estimate of 2 billion barrels is based on continued technological advances that increase the recovery rate. Based on an estimate of 2 billion barrels, our calculations show that this can lay the basis for between 3000 and 8000 permanent jobs in the petroleum industry and supplier industry. We do not know today whether it is or how much petroleum resources in the areas concerned. If there is no commercial discoveries, employment effect will only be related to exploration activity. If however, there are more

  20. Applied and industrial activities at the ESRF: Present status and future development

    CERN Document Server

    Doucet, J

    2003-01-01

    Be it proteins, new superconductors, polymers or ferro-magnetic compounds, fundamental research is laying foundations for possible technical applications as well as industrial exploitation. At the ESRF, industrial companies can be involved in two main ways, depending on the type of research they are interested in. The first concerns beam time allocation for non-proprietary and fully-published research, the procedure is the same as for public laboratories. The second concerns the proprietary research, for which a fee is charged and where results are kept confidential. The use of synchrotron radiation for the characterisation of materials is certain to play a crucial role in the development of new materials in the close future. It is a policy of the ESRF that European industry should share the benefit of its facilities. A survey of the today industrial activity at the ESRF and of its perspective in near future is presented.

  1. RELATIONSHIPS WITH SUPPLIERS AND INNOVATION ACTIVITY IN FOOD INDUSTRY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Świadek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is one of the traditional areas of management, the so-called low-tech. For this reason, technological and spatial proximity may be the key to create new solutions in the Polish food industry. The main objective of the study was an attempt to seek infl uence of relationships with suppliers on innovation activities of enterprises in the food industry in Poland. As a consequence, this would allow to determine the boundary conditions for the model structure of innovation networks within producers of food and beverages, with special reference to the Polish economy. The study was conducted on a group of 631 companies food industry companies located in Poland. Methodical part of the analysis was based on probit regression (probability theory.

  2. Survey of US Department of Defense Manufacturing Technology Program activities applicable to civilian manufacturing industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimi, S.A.; Conrad, J.L.; Reed, J.E.

    1985-03-01

    Intent of the survey was to identify and characterize activities potentially applicable to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in the civilian manufacturing industries. The civilian industries emphasized were the general manufacturing industries (including fabricated metals, glass, machinery, paper, plastic, textile, and transportation equipment manufacturing) and the primary metals industries (including primary aluminum, copper, steel, and zinc production). The principal steps in the survey were to: develop overview taxonomies of the general manufacturing and primary metals industries as well as specific industry taxonomies; identify needs and opportunities for improving process energy efficiency and productivity in the industries included; identify federal programs, capabilities, and special technical expertise that might be relevant to industry's needs and opportunities; contact federal laboratories/facilities, through visits and other forms of inquiry; prepare formatted profiles (descriptions) potentially applicable work efforts; review findings with industry; and compile and evaluate industry responses.

  3. THE KEY ACTIVITIES OF GREEN LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT IN THE THAI AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyaphat Muangpan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thai automotive industry needs to be developed for understanding activities management on inbound logistics that is an essential element of business operations for a manufacturing firm. The purpose of research is to study the main activities of green logistics management (inbound logistics in the Thai automotive industry. Survey research was used in this study to collect data by sampling from the people in the field of logistics and environmental management of Thai automotive industry to examine the key activities of Green logistics management. Inferential statistics analysis using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA is applied to determine the key activities that influence to the logistics management in the sense of environmental friendly. There are two finding of research. Firstly, the conceptual framework presents three dimensions i.e. Green Transportation Activity (GTA, Green Purchasing Activity (GPA and Green Inventory Activity (GIA for key activities of green logistics management (inbound logistics. Secondly, the measurement model of the main three activities that GTA, GPA, and GIA are tested. The Goodness of fit statistic is 0.546. These suggest the fit of collected data to the hypothesized model.

  4. "Green chemistry": os 12 princípios da química verde e sua inserção nas atividades de ensino e pesquisa Green chemistry: the 12 principles of green chemistry and it insertion in the teach and research activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder João Lenardão

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry ¾ defined as the design, development, and application of chemical processes and products to reduce or eliminate the use and generation of substances hazardous to human health and the environment. This article summarizes the 12 principles of green chemistry, describing how they have been applied to the academic, industrial and research activities around the world.

  5. The Policy Dystopia Model: An Interpretive Analysis of Tobacco Industry Political Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Ulucanlar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco industry interference has been identified as the greatest obstacle to the implementation of evidence-based measures to reduce tobacco use. Understanding and addressing industry interference in public health policy-making is therefore crucial. Existing conceptualisations of corporate political activity (CPA are embedded in a business perspective and do not attend to CPA's social and public health costs; most have not drawn on the unique resource represented by internal tobacco industry documents. Building on this literature, including systematic reviews, we develop a critically informed conceptual model of tobacco industry political activity.We thematically analysed published papers included in two systematic reviews examining tobacco industry influence on taxation and marketing of tobacco; we included 45 of 46 papers in the former category and 20 of 48 papers in the latter (n = 65. We used a grounded theory approach to build taxonomies of "discursive" (argument-based and "instrumental" (action-based industry strategies and from these devised the Policy Dystopia Model, which shows that the industry, working through different constituencies, constructs a metanarrative to argue that proposed policies will lead to a dysfunctional future of policy failure and widely dispersed adverse social and economic consequences. Simultaneously, it uses diverse, interlocking insider and outsider instrumental strategies to disseminate this narrative and enhance its persuasiveness in order to secure its preferred policy outcomes. Limitations are that many papers were historical (some dating back to the 1970s and focused on high-income regions.The model provides an evidence-based, accessible way of understanding diverse corporate political strategies. It should enable public health actors and officials to preempt these strategies and develop realistic assessments of the industry's claims.

  6. The juridical nature of the European Court of Justice and the principles of its activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Hasneziri

    2015-07-01

    In this work, especially in the second part, there shall be presented several decisions of the European Court of Justice as well, that have to do with its interpretation on the dispositions of the establishing Treaties as well as the analysis of the above mentioned principles. At the end of this work, there will be given its conclusions as well as the bibliography where it is based on.

  7. Government Intervention to Encourage the Increase of Innovation Activities: The Case of Automotive Component Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erry Ricardo Nurzal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly globalizing and very tight competition in the world market nowadays requires companies to increase their competitiveness to maintain and strengthen their position. One of the efforts has to be taken into consideration by companies is innovating sustainably. Evidence shows that companies characterised by innovation have above-average productivity and become leader in the industry. Firms innovate either to produce technologically new products or services, or to produce technologically improved products or services. To produce technologically new and improved products or services, firms need to undertake some innovation activities. Innovation activities are all those scientific, technological, organizational, financial and commercial steps, including investment in new knowledge, which actually, or are intended to, lead to the implementation of technologically new or improved products or processes. Small and medium enterprises face some problems to innovate. Government. intervention is needed to manage the problems, and is expected to increase innovation in the industry.Innovation activities discussed in this paper are focused on those occurred in small and medium enterprises in the automotive component sector as one of the sectors will be developed by the government. In the first part is the introduction which presents problem background. Then, the explanation about methodology and followed by the purpose of the study. The next part is results and discussion. Finally, the paper provides recommendation on intervention necessarily to be taken by the government in order to increase innovation activities in the industry.Key words: Government Intervention, Innovation Activities, and Automotive Component Industry

  8. Government Intervention to Encourage the Increase of Innovation Activities: The Case of Automotive Component Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erry Ricardo Nurzal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly globalizing and very tight competition in the world market nowadays requires companies to increase their competitiveness to maintain and strengthen their position. One of the efforts has to be taken into consideration by companies is innovating sustainably. Evidence shows that companies characterised by innovation have above-average productivity and become leader in the industry. Firms innovate either to produce technologically new products or services, or to produce technologically improved products or services. To produce technologically new and improved products or services, firms need to undertake some innovation activities. Innovation activities are all those scientific, technological, organizational, financial and commercial steps, including investment in new knowledge, which actually, or are intended to, lead to the implementation of technologically new or improved products or processes. Small and medium enterprises face some problems to innovate. Government. intervention is needed to manage the problems, and is expected to increase innovation in the industry.Innovation activities discussed in this paper are focused on those occurred in small and medium enterprises in the automotive component sector as one of the sectors will be developed by the government. In the first part is the introduction which presents problem background. Then, the explanation about methodology and followed by the purpose of the study. The next part is results and discussion. Finally, the paper provides recommendation on intervention necessarily to be taken by the government in order to increase innovation activities in the industry.Key words: Government Intervention, Innovation Activities, and Automotive Component Industry

  9. From Theory to Practice: Enhancing the Potential Policy Impact of Industrial Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Deutz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Industrial ecology introduced a new paradigm of principles and tools useful to academic analysis and decision support activities for industry and policymakers. This paper presents a view of the state of the art of industrial ecology, encompassing the four major theoretical traditions comprising the field, and emphasizing the relevance to practice. The principles of industrial ecology offer a basis for integrating environmental perspectives into production and consumption strategies, though there are significant challenges to be addressed.

  10. Design principles for oxygen-reduction activity on perovskite oxide catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntivich, Jin; Gasteiger, Hubert A; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Nakanishi, Haruyuki; Goodenough, John B; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2011-06-12

    The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to σ-orbital (e(g)) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the σ orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O(2)(2-)/OH(-) displacement and OH(-) regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

  11. Mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathways participate in the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction-induced differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghui Zheng; Jian Liang; Xin Deng; Xiaofeng Chen; Fasheng Wu; Xiaofang Zhao; Yuan Luo; Lei Fu; Zuling Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Our preliminary studies confirmed that an active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction, comprising alkaloid, polysaccharide, aglycon, glucoside and volatile oil, can induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into neurons. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling was identified as one of the key pathways underlying this differentiation process. The present study shows phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and phosphorylated p38 protein expression was increased after differentiation. Cellular signaling pathway blocking agents, PD98059 and SB203580, inhibited extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and p38 in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways respectively. mRNA and protein expression of the neuronal marker, neuron specific enolase, and neural stem cell marker, nestin, were decreased in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells after treatment with the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction. Experimental findings indicate that, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and p38 in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways participate in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into neuron-like cells, induced by the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction.

  12. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanul Kabir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo, calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution.

  13. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Yoon Shin; Cho, Yong-Sung; Yun, Seong-Taek; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (I geo), calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution. PMID:22645468

  14. 'Maximising shareholder value': a detailed insight into the corporate political activity of the Australian food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary

    2017-04-01

    To gain deeper insight into the corporate political activity (CPA) of the Australian food industry from a public health perspective. Fifteen interviews with a purposive sample of current and former policy makers, public health advocates and academics who have closely interacted with food industry representatives or observed food industry behaviours. All participants reported having directly experienced the CPA of the food industry during their careers, with the 'information and messaging' and 'constituency building' strategies most prominent. Participants expressed concern that food industry CPA strategies resulted in weakened policy responses to addressing diet-related disease. This study provides direct evidence of food industry practices that have the potential to shape public health-related policies and programs in Australia in ways that favour business interests at the expense of population health. Implications for public health: This evidence can inform policy makers and public health advocates and be used to adopt measures to ensure that public interests are put at the forefront as part of the policy development and implementation process. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Determinant factors of industrial purchasing personnel’s adoption of internet for business purchasing related activities

    OpenAIRE

    Shook Mei Chan; Siohong Tih

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to examine a path model and the mediating effect of perceived communication convenience towards explaining industrial purchasing personnel’s Internet adoption for business purchasing related activities. It involves sequencing paths examining the predictive effect of perceived Internet skills and supplier support on perceived communication convenience. Consequently, perceived communication convenience would influence Internet adoption as commun...

  16. Safety- and risk analysis activities in other areas than the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozine, I.; Duijm, N.J.; Lauridsen, K. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2000-12-01

    The report gives an overview of the legislation within the European Union in the field of major industrial hazards and gives examples of decision criteria applied in a number of European countries when judging the acceptability of an activity. Furthermore, the report mentions a few methods used in the analysis of the safety of chemical installations. (au)

  17. AIR QUALITY AFFECTED BY INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES GORJ COUNTY, IN THE YEAR 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana - Gabriela POPA; Irina-Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the main industrial activities pollution the air, at the level of Gorj County, in the year 2010. There are mentioned gases with greenhouse effect, acid effect gases, their graphical representation and pollution produced by the main polluting agents of the county: depositing dusts and dusts in suspension.

  18. AIR QUALITY AFFECTED BY INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES GORJ COUNTY, IN THE YEAR 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana - Gabriela POPA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main industrial activities pollution the air, at the level of Gorj County, in the year 2010. There are mentioned gases with greenhouse effect, acid effect gases, their graphical representation and pollution produced by the main polluting agents of the county: depositing dusts and dusts in suspension.

  19. Evaluating the performance of active noise control systems in commercial and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depies, C.; Deneen, S.; Lowe, M.; Wise, S.

    1995-06-01

    Active sound cancellation technology is increasingly being used to quiet commercial and industrial air-moving devices. Engineers and designers are implementing active or combination active/passive technology to control sound quality in the workplace and the acoustical environment in residential areas near industrial facilities. Sound level measurements made before and after the installation of active systems have proved that significant improvements in sound quality can be obtained even if there is little or no change in the NC/RC or dBA numbers. Noise produced by centrifugal and vane-axial fans, pumps and blowers, commonly used for ventilation and material movement in industry, are frequently dominated by high amplitude, tonal noise at low frequencies. And the low-frequency noise produced by commercial air handlers often has less tonal and more broadband characteristics, resulting in audible duct rumble noise and objectionable room spectrums. Because the A-weighting network, which is commonly used for industrial noise measurements, de-emphasizes low frequencies, its single number rating can be misleading in terms of judging the overall subjective sound quality in impacted areas and assessing the effectiveness of noise control measures. Similarly, NC values, traditionally used for commercial HVAC acoustical design criteria, can be governed by noise at any frequency and cannot accurately depict human judgment of the aural comfort level. Analyses of frequency spectrum characteristics provide the most effective means of assessing sound quality and determining mitigative measures for achieving suitable background sound levels.

  20. Verification of a characterization method of the laser-induced selective activation based on industrial lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, laser-induced selective activation (LISA) for subsequent autocatalytic copper plating is performed by several types of industrial scale lasers, including a Nd:YAG laser, a UV laser, a fiber laser, a green laser, and a short pulsed laser. Based on analysis of all the laser-machine...

  1. The Policy Dystopia Model: An Interpretive Analysis of Tobacco Industry Political Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucanlar, Selda; Fooks, Gary J.; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco industry interference has been identified as the greatest obstacle to the implementation of evidence-based measures to reduce tobacco use. Understanding and addressing industry interference in public health policy-making is therefore crucial. Existing conceptualisations of corporate political activity (CPA) are embedded in a business perspective and do not attend to CPA’s social and public health costs; most have not drawn on the unique resource represented by internal tobacco industry documents. Building on this literature, including systematic reviews, we develop a critically informed conceptual model of tobacco industry political activity. Methods and Findings We thematically analysed published papers included in two systematic reviews examining tobacco industry influence on taxation and marketing of tobacco; we included 45 of 46 papers in the former category and 20 of 48 papers in the latter (n = 65). We used a grounded theory approach to build taxonomies of “discursive” (argument-based) and “instrumental” (action-based) industry strategies and from these devised the Policy Dystopia Model, which shows that the industry, working through different constituencies, constructs a metanarrative to argue that proposed policies will lead to a dysfunctional future of policy failure and widely dispersed adverse social and economic consequences. Simultaneously, it uses diverse, interlocking insider and outsider instrumental strategies to disseminate this narrative and enhance its persuasiveness in order to secure its preferred policy outcomes. Limitations are that many papers were historical (some dating back to the 1970s) and focused on high-income regions. Conclusions The model provides an evidence-based, accessible way of understanding diverse corporate political strategies. It should enable public health actors and officials to preempt these strategies and develop realistic assessments of the industry’s claims. PMID:27649386

  2. Insights into the emission reductions of multiple unintentional persistent organic pollutants from industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Rong; Zhao, Yuyang; Zhan, Jiayu

    2016-02-01

    Industrial activities result in unintentional production of multiple types of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at various concentrations. Because of the potential adverse effect of these POPs on the environment, biota and human health, methods for controlling emission of POPs are required. Development and application of techniques for controlling emissions of POPs can be a technical and economic burden for the industry involved. Therefore, from the point of view of cost-benefit analysis, reducing emissions of multiple pollutants at the same time is optimal for sustainable industrial development. Although techniques have been developed for reducing the emissions of individual POPs, such as dioxins, further work is required on multi-POP control emissions from industrial activities. This paper discusses three important aspects that need to be taken to achieve multi-POP control. These aspects include the establishment of a comprehensive system for evaluating the risk from emissions of multiple POPs, determination of indicators for total emissions of multiple POPs, and the preparation and application of functional materials to inhibit formation of multiple POPs. These discussion might be helpful for the future research on the multi-POP control in industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anxiolytic activity and active principles of Piper amalago (Piperaceae), a medicinal plant used by the Q'eqchi' Maya to treat susto, a culture-bound illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, M; Cayer, C; Muhammad, A; Walshe-Roussel, B; Ahmed, F; Sanchez-Vindas, P E; Otarola Rojas, M; Merali, Z; Cal, V; Durst, T; Trudeau, V L; Arnason, J T

    2016-06-05

    The medicinal plant, Piper amalago L. (Piperaceae), is used traditionally by Q'eqchi' Maya healers for the treatment of "susto" a culture-bound syndrome. Previous research suggests that susto symptoms may be a manifestation of anxiety. The objectives were to characterize the effect of ethanolic extract of P. amalago in behavioral assays of anxiety at doses representative of traditional use and to isolate active principles. Rats treated orally with low dose ethanolic extracts of P. amalago leaves (8-75mg/kg) were tested in several behavioral paradigms including the elevated plus maze (EPM), social interaction (SI), and conditioned emotional response (CER) tests, and compared to diazepam, a positive control. The active anxiolytic principle was isolated by bioassay guided isolation using an in vitro GABAA competitive binding assay. Extracts had significant anxiolytic activity in all behavioral tests, with the strongest activity in the SI and the CER paradigms. In an in vitro GABAA competitive binding assay, a 66.5µg/mL concentration of P. amalago ethanol extract displaced 50% of the GABAA-BZD receptor ligand [(3)H]-Flunitrazepam. Bioassay-guided fractionation identified a furofuran lignan, a molecule with structural similarity to yangambin, with high affinity for the GABAA-BZD receptor as the principle bioactive. The results suggest that the ethnobotanical use of this plant may have a pharmacological basis in its anxiolytic activity, as demonstrated in animal behaviour tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The nomenclature of publishing activities within the framework of creative and cultural industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nives Tomašević

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the nomenclature basis of publishing activities in the Republic of Croatia and the EU, and deals with the challenges of future comparative studies dealing with the structure of classifications. Creative and cultural industries are trying to find the optimal classification to define, track and direct creative/cultural activities. In some EU countries, the classification frames are in line with the stated classification, although some countries are still searching for nomenc...

  5. Perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and the antecedents of customer loyalty in the airline industry

    OpenAIRE

    Asatryan, Roman; Asamoah, Emmanuel Selase

    2014-01-01

    In today’s world of business, consumers are increasingly expecting firms to engage in CSR and managers see it as marketing for competitive advantage. For the firms in the airline industry, their interest is how current and potential consumers would evaluate their CSR activities and more importantly whether it could lead to the creation of more loyal customers. The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities on the anteced...

  6. Preclinical evaluation of Luffa operculata Cogn. and its main active principle in the treatment of bacterial rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo; Costa, Henrique Olival; Souza, Flávia Coelho de; Lopes, Elaine Monteiro Cardoso; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko

    2016-12-26

    The prevalence of rhinosinusitis is quite high. Despite the widespread use of antibiotics for rhinosinusitis, there are other forms of treatment, including phytotherapy. One of the most widely used herbal medicines for treatment of rhinosinusitis is Luffa operculata. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of topical nasal solution of the aqueous extract of L. operculata, determining the toxicity to its use and identifying the active principles presented in the aqueous extract. The secondary objective was to evaluate the action of active principles on bacteria commonly involved in acute rhino sinusitis. The study was conducted in experimental model of sinusitis. Three different concentrations of L. operculata were used as local treatment of rhino sinusitis. The results were compared with those observed in control groups that received nasal saline solution. Histological examination of the liver, kidney, spleen, myocardium, brain and lungs of all animals evaluated the toxicity of L. operculata. The aqueous extract used was subjected to chromatographic analysis and an active principle was isolated and tested for in vitro inhibition of bacterial colonies usually found in rhino sinusitis. Intranasal treatment of sinusitis with L. operculata showed better clinical evolution than control group. Statistically significant difference (p>0.10) between the treated group and the control group was observed in the histologic evaluation for inflammatory pattern. The aqueous extract of L. operculata used presented a predominance of 2,3-dicafeoilglicaric acid, a substance not yet described in the literature. There was a significant difference in bacterial growth of Streptococcus pyogenes on blood-agar plates when under the influence of both the aqueous extract and the active substance. Topical nasal solution of the aqueous extract of L. operculata is effective compared to the application of saline solution for the treatment of bacterial rhinosinusitis in an experimental model. L

  7. A Study on an Executive Technique and Activation of Clean Production in Chemical Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Seong Yong; Lee, Hee Seok; Kim, Kang Seok [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Clean production does not only make the sustainable development possible through preventing the deterioration of the environmental pollution from the expansion of industrialization but also enhance the company's competitiveness. Clean production is required by all industrial fields but is the most important in chemical industry. The Government has made efforts to change the domestic industrial structure to the environmental-friendly structure through developing the research. However, the domestic industry has not yet activated overall except some large companies, which has concretized the activation of clean production. Especially, the medium and small companies are more sluggish due to the inferiority of capital and technology. With recognizing that the main body of clean production is a company, the effort based on the Government and the academic world, without companies' positive, will cannot help being limited in effects. Therefore, it is necessary to trigger the schemes that urge the companies' motivation to show the effects from the support that have concentrated in hardware like technology until now. It seems to be very important that the guidebook for clean production, which a company can easily adopt, is developed and spread. This report provides the guidebook for clean production that managers and engineers can easily understand and approach in a producing field and presents the scheme to promote clean production, for chemical industry that is seriously required clean production. Even if the presented contents are not perfect, they can be applied to the development of the Government's policy and the administrative activities of companies for clean production as a useful data. 53 refs., 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. The Rethinking of the Economic Activity Based on Principles of Eco-Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VÎRJAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought, floods, damaging storms, heat waves, acid rain, climate changes are but a few of the consequences of human action upon the environment. Can we possibly live against the environment? The answer is NO, and as such we must run an economy which respects the principles of eco-efficiency because only so can economic progress go on. Green economy is a great opportunity for all of the world’s countries, and is a real economy which keeps the resource-needs and environment relation in balance, aims towards quality and not quantity, lays emphasis on regeneration, recycling, reuse and creativity. Eco-efficiency implies both innovation towards a high degree of product dematerialization, services and systems, alongside with greatly changing current production and consumption practices. If we produce based on the principle of eco-efficiency we can reduce the effects of the profound economic, ecological, socio-political and cultural-spiritual crisis which marks our planet and countries.

  9. Determinants of merger and acquisition activity in the renewable energy industry in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    For the past few decades, the renewable energy industry has grown and expanded its influence and competitiveness in global markets. This thesis analysis whether certain factors related to the energy industry are conducive to mergers and acquisitions. Using regression analysis, it concludes that solar industry growth, power industry growth, and crude oil prices have no impact on M&A activity on the given timeframe.

  10. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  11. The transports in the French Plutonium Industry. A high risk activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This study throws light on the scale of transport of plutonium in France nuclear industry, an activity involving quantities of high risk materials often unknown to the public. The study is a significantly extended update of the one carried out by WISE-Paris in 1995 for the Plutonium Forum. It was motivated by important developments in the French plutonium industry and the publication of numerous data concerning transport activities since 1995. The 2003 study presents, in particular, all of the flows of plutonium crossing France every year, as well as analysis of the risks associated with this particular transport activity. Putting these data into perspective in terms of a rapidly and permanently changing political and industrial context, and a description of the regulatory framework within which shipments of plutonium take place, serve as a guide and source of reference to help readers better understand the issues. The importance of transport in the plutonium ''chain'', i.e. the stages corresponding to various industrial processes, is often under-estimated, even by the nuclear industry itself. Transport is, in fact, the activity which involves the greatest quantities of plutonium in the entire nuclear chain. Plutonium, produced during the fission reactions in the cores of nuclear reactors, is transported, contained in the irradiated fuel, to the facilities at La Hague where reprocessing separates it from the other radioactive components of the spent fuel. Part of the plutonium, now isolated in powder form, is then shipped to one of the three plants able to produce the fuel known as MOX. These are located at Cadarache and Marcoule, in France, and at Dessel in Belgium. Once in the MOX form, this plutonium has to be re-transported to reactor sites to be used. Once irradiated, the spent MOX will return to the La Hague installations to be stored for an unknown period; the plutonium contained in the spent MOX is not, at present, destined to be re

  12. Sponsorship of physical activity programs by the sweetened beverages industry: public health or public relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Luis; Jacoby, Enrique; Ibarra, Lorena; Lucumí, Diego; Hernandez, Alexandra; Parra, Diana; Florindo, Alex; Hallal, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    The growing evidence on the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity and other chronic diseases has highlighted the need to implement policy actions that go beyond programs exclusively focused on individual responsibility. In order to protect their commercial goals in Latin America, the sugar-sweetened beverage industry practices intense lobbying at high government levels in several countries across the region. This strategy is accompanied by corporate social responsibility programs that fund initiatives promoting physical activity. These efforts, although appearing altruistic, are intended to improve the industry's public image and increase political influence in order to block regulations counter to their interests. If this industry wants to contribute to human well being, as it has publicly stated, it should avoid blocking legislative actions intended to regulate the marketing, advertising and sale of their products.

  13. PROBLEMS OF INVESTMENT ACTIVITY OF THE INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES OF RUSSIA IN MODERN CONDITIONS OF MANAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey M. Korolev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern conditions of managing of industri-al enterprises are characterized by growth of integration processes in economy and increase of a role of technologies on production. The crisis phenomena of the last years have once again brought up questions of need of reforming of an oc-cupational sector which could become the engine of national economic growth. At the same time there is a set of the structural problems exerting a negative impact on possibilities of industrial growth in the short term. The purpose of this article is the current assessment of a condition of a national occupational sector and identi-cation of the problems interfering growth of investment activity of the entities

  14. Promotion of Chinese Liquor Principle is a Need for the Development of China Liquor Industry-review on Chinese Liquor Principle VII%弘扬中华酒道是我国酒业发展的需要--七论中华酒道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵玉

    2013-01-01

    The formation of Chinese liquor principle, its practice and development in Dalian were introduced. The relationship between Chinese liquor principle and alcoholic liquor marketing is briefly explained. It is regarded that alcoholic beverage culture is priceless, and a lubricant of the sustainable development of liquor industry. It is also tremendous and valuable assets as well as and an inexhaustible source of wisdom for liquor industry. Therefore, efforts should be made to promote Chinese liquor principle in order to promote China liquor industry.%介绍了中华酒道的形成及在大连的实践和发展,简单说明了中华酒道与酒类营销的关系,并认为酒文化是无价之宝,是维持酒业持续发展的润滑剂,是酿酒行业巨大而宝贵的无形资产,是酒业取之不竭的智慧源泉,因此,应努力弘扬中华酒道,以促进我国酒业发展。

  15. Growth inhibition and differentiation of promyelocytic cells (HL-60) induced by BC-4, an active principle from Boswellia carterii Birdw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Y; Xia, L; Han, R

    1992-03-01

    The induction of cell differentiation and growth inhibition of HL-60 cells by Bc-4, an active principle from Boswellia carterii, was studied in vitro and in vivo. The proliferation of HL-60 cells was found to be inhibited by Bc-4 at a concentration of 5-10 micrograms/ml. Under the action of Bc-4, the acid phosphatase and NBT reduction activities in HL-60 cells were increased, and phagocytosis of cells was also induced. All these activities were concentration dependent. The HL-60 cells were induced by Bc-4 to differentiate into more mature cells morphologically. The in vivo growth of HL-60 cells in mouse subrenal capsules (SRC) and in diffusion chambers inoculated into mice was inhibited by Bc-4 at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The morphology of HL-60 cells treated by Bc-4 in diffusion chambers exhibited characteristics of mature granulocytic cells.

  16. Anti-hyperglycaemic and antioxidant effects of Bidens tripartita and quantitative analysis on its active principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilüfer; İçöz, Ülkü Gökçen; Altun, Levent; Aslan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Bidens species are used for their antidiabetic properties traditionally in many countries. Aim of this study is to evaluate hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activity of Bidens tripartita extract and to identify its active compounds through bioactivity guided isolation technique. Materials and Methods: Hypoglycaemic effects of B. tripartita extract and its sub-extracts were investigated in normal and glucose-hyperglycaemic rats. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were used to examine antidiabetic activity of the extract and its sub-extracts after acute and sub-acute administration. Additionally, in vitro enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities were evaluated. HPLC analyses were carried out to determine the active constituents of the extract and its sub-extracts. Results: Through in vivo bioactivity-guided fractionation process, ethyl acetate and n-buthanol sub-extracts were found to have potent antidiabetic activity. In vitro enzyme inhibitory activities of the same sub-extracts were found to be potent. The highest total phenol, flavonoid contents and radical scavenging activity was determined in ethyl acetate sub-extract. According to LC-MS analyses, chlorogenic acid, luteolin and 7-O-glucoside of luteolin (cynaroside) were determined as the main components of the active sub-extracts. Conclusion: According to our results, B. tripartita has potent antidiabetic activity and its active constituents might be beneficial for diabetes and its complications. PMID:27872708

  17. Synthesis of Five and Six-Membered Heterocycles Using Activated Nitriles for Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Refat; Almalki, Meshal H K

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is a synthesis of new bioactive heterocyclic compounds incorporated fatty chain for use in different industrial applications. Cyanoacetamide derivative (2) was successfully transferred into five and six membered heterocyclic derivatives by the reaction with various chemical reagents. Addition number of moles of propylene oxide to these compounds gave nonionic surface-active agents having a good solubility, biodegradability and hence lowers the toxicity to human beings and becomes environmentally friendly. The antimicrobial and surface activities were investigated that showed the most of them have pronounced activity, which makes them suitable for diverse applications like the manufacturing of drugs, pesticides, emulsifiers, cosmetics, etc.

  18. Export and import activity of the wine industry: tendencies, current risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Svitlana Anatoliyivna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies state of wine industry’s export-import activity, analyzes tendencies, which provide to reveal peculiar regulations andmain modern risks, which are necessary to be considered for appropriate level of the sector export capability. Export-import activity of wine industry is analyzed; capacity dynamics and market openness degree are estimated. It has been proved that redulatory impact on the winemaking and wine industry development has to be based, on the onehand, on the work with consumer, forming his national awareness of the domestic production from wine industry, and on the other hand, on the country import restructuring. Development of the wine industry state support in Ukraine, considering the world experience, is an important step to form the market of grape and its products, which is characterized with losing tendency. The revealed tendency concerning import price prevail over export, requires special measures for contraction. The main tools to fight with European wine producers for Ukrainian consumer to increase quality, creative, budgets increase for direct access to consumer via winery tasty rooms, tourists’ involvement to vineyards and productive capacities, including to the tourist routes. Therefore the main purpose is necessity for native consumer’s upbringing, wine culture growing, to teach to make considerable choice, but not a choice in favor of foreign container.

  19. Influence of agricultural activities, forest fires and agro-industries on air quality in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phairuang, Worradorn; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Furuuchi, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Annual and monthly-based emission inventories in northern, central and north-eastern provinces in Thailand, where agriculture and related agro-industries are very intensive, were estimated to evaluate the contribution of agricultural activity, including crop residue burning, forest fires and related agro-industries on air quality monitored in corresponding provinces. The monthly-based emission inventories of air pollutants, or, particulate matter (PM), NOx and SO2, for various agricultural crops were estimated based on information on the level of production of typical crops: rice, corn, sugarcane, cassava, soybeans and potatoes using emission factors and other parameters related to country-specific values taking into account crop type and the local residue burning period. The estimated monthly emission inventory was compared with air monitoring data obtained at monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, Thailand (PCD) for validating the estimated emission inventory. The agro-industry that has the greatest impact on the regions being evaluated, is the sugar processing industry, which uses sugarcane as a raw material and its residue as fuel for the boiler. The backward trajectory analysis of the air mass arriving at the PCD station was calculated to confirm this influence. For the provinces being evaluated which are located in the upper northern, lower northern and northeast in Thailand, agricultural activities and forest fires were shown to be closely correlated to the ambient PM concentration while their contribution to the production of gaseous pollutants is much less.

  20. ACHIEVING ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH TQM PRINCIPLES IN DEVELOPING INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY OF PALM OIL MERCHANDISING BUSINESS IN CROSS RIVER STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Mojtahedzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As a developing country, economic and environmental performance has to be balanced in India. Green supply chain management (GSCM is emerging as an important proactive approach for Indian enterprises forimproving environmental performance of processes and products in accordance with the requirements of environmental regulations. This study examines the consistency approaches by confirmatory factor analysis that determines the construct validity, convergent validity, construct reliability and internal consistency of the items of Sustainable supply chain management (SSCM requirements. This study examines the consistency approaches by Confirmatory factor analysis that determines the adoption and implementation of Sustainable supply chain management activities in small & medium scale industries. The requirements include Management commitment, customer coordination, sustainable design & production, green procurement and eco logistics for sustainable supply chains. This study suggested that the five factor model with eighteen items of the sustainable supply chain design had a good fit. Further, the study showed a valid and reliable measurement to identify critical items among the requirements of sustainable supply chains.

  1. Discovery, Molecular Mechanisms, and Industrial Applications of Cold-Active Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Margarita; Ramírez-Sarmiento, César A.; Zamora, Ricardo A.; Parra, Loreto P.

    2016-01-01

    Cold-active enzymes constitute an attractive resource for biotechnological applications. Their high catalytic activity at temperatures below 25°C makes them excellent biocatalysts that eliminate the need of heating processes hampering the quality, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness of industrial production. Here we provide a review of the isolation and characterization of novel cold-active enzymes from microorganisms inhabiting different environments, including a revision of the latest techniques that have been used for accomplishing these paramount tasks. We address the progress made in the overexpression and purification of cold-adapted enzymes, the evolutionary and molecular basis of their high activity at low temperatures and the experimental and computational techniques used for their identification, along with protein engineering endeavors based on these observations to improve some of the properties of cold-adapted enzymes to better suit specific applications. We finally focus on examples of the evaluation of their potential use as biocatalysts under conditions that reproduce the challenges imposed by the use of solvents and additives in industrial processes and of the successful use of cold-adapted enzymes in biotechnological and industrial applications. PMID:27667987

  2. Discovery, Molecular Mechanisms and Industrial Applications of Cold-Active Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Santiago

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cold-active enzymes constitute an attractive resource for biotechnological applications. Their high catalytic activity at temperatures below 25 ºC makes them excellent biocatalysts that eliminate the need of heating processes hampering the quality, sustainability and cost-effectiveness of industrial production. Here we provide a review of the isolation and characterization of novel cold-active enzymes from microorganisms inhabiting different environments, including a revision of the latest techniques that have been used for accomplishing these paramount tasks. We address the progress made in the overexpression and purification of cold-adapted enzymes, the evolutionary and molecular basis of their high activity at low temperatures and the experimental and computational techniques used for their identification, along with protein engineering endeavors based on these observations to improve some of the properties of cold-adapted enzymes to better suit specific applications. We finally focus on examples of the evaluation of their potential use as biocatalysts under conditions that reproduce the challenges imposed by the use of solvents and additives in industrial processes and of the successful use of cold-adapted enzymes in biotechnological and industrial applications.

  3. "JCE" Classroom Activity #108. Using Archimedes' Principle to Explain Floating and Sinking Cans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, students (working alone or in groups) measure the mass of several soda cans (diet and regular soda) along with the mass of water that each can displaces. The students are then asked to compare these two mass values for the sinking cans and for the floating cans. The purpose of this activity is for students to determine that the…

  4. "JCE" Classroom Activity #108. Using Archimedes' Principle to Explain Floating and Sinking Cans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, students (working alone or in groups) measure the mass of several soda cans (diet and regular soda) along with the mass of water that each can displaces. The students are then asked to compare these two mass values for the sinking cans and for the floating cans. The purpose of this activity is for students to determine that the…

  5. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Lorenzo; Zatta, Alessandro; Stefanini, Ilaria; Grandi, Silvia; Sgorbati, Barbara; Biavati, Bruno; Monti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The present study focused on inhibitory activity of freshly extracted essential oils from three legal (THChemp varieties (Carmagnola, Fibranova and Futura) on microbial growth. The effect of different sowing times on oil composition and biological activity was also evaluated. Essential oils were distilled and then characterized through the gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thereafter, the oils were compared to standard reagents on a broad range inhibition of microbial growth via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Microbial strains were divided into three groups: i) Gram (+) bacteria, which regard to food-borne pathogens or gastrointestinal bacteria, ii) Gram (-) bacteria and iii) yeasts, both being involved in plant interactions. The results showed that essential oils of industrial hemp can significantly inhibit the microbial growth, to an extent depending on variety and sowing time. It can be concluded that essential oils of industrial hemp, especially those of Futura, may have interesting applications to control spoilage and food-borne pathogens and phytopathogens microorganisms.

  6. LWRS II&C Industry and Regulatory Engagement Activities for FY 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Thomas

    2011-09-01

    To ensure broad industry support and coordination for the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Controls (II&C) Systems Technologies research pathway, an engagement process will be continually pursued with nuclear asset owners, vendors, and suppliers, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the major industry support organizations of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), and Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). Nuclear asset owner engagement is a necessary and enabling activity to obtain data and accurate characterization of long-term operational challenges, assess the suitability of proposed research for addressing long-term needs, and gain access to data and representative infrastructure and expertise needed to ensure success of the proposed research and development (R&D) activities. Engagement with vendors and suppliers will ensure that vendor expectations and needs can be translated into requirements that can be met through technology commercialization.

  7. Distributed smart home activity recommender system using hidden Markov model principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    A smart home is able to propose learned activities to its user and learn new activities by observing the user’s behavioral patterns, that is, the user’s actions. Most of today’s discussed systems use some more or less complex classifier algorithms to predict user activities from contextual...... information provided by sensors. However, an alternative concept using a distributed framework is presented in this paper. It offers the possibility of combining simple low level activity classifiers with a more sophisticated one. The high level classifier has been modeled in Java and tested on a publicly...... available data set that offers approximately seven months of annotated activity including 6468 sensor events produced by a women living in the test home. Using this data set, it has been shown that this system can achieve good performance with a recognition probability of 75%....

  8. ANALYSIS AND UNDERSTANDING OF KEY MARKETING CONCEPTS MARKETING ACTIVITIES ORGANIZED WITHIN THE FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Adina Pastiu

    2011-01-01

    Marketing in its hypostasis: optical and economic design, practice science andart, it appears and develops in the context of a competitive economy, as a necessity ofbusiness success. These considerations and not only determined us researching its directsteps: business to business, and to identify characteristics of marketing activities undertakenby companies in competitive markets. In this paper we follow, based on research carried outon a sample of 160 statistical units (footwear industry co...

  9. Extraction yield, antioxidant activity andphenolics from grape, mango and peanut agro-industrial by-products

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine and correlate the extraction yields, antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids from grape, mango and peanut agro-industrial by-products. The β-carotene/linoleic acid autoxidation system and scavenging capacity for DPPH and ABTS free radicals assays were used. The results were expressed in terms of lyophilized sample or dry extract. Mango bagasse exhibited the highest extraction yield (37.07%) followed by peanut skin ...

  10. Assessment of air pollutants produced by industrial activity from an aluminium alloys foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cirtina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The industrial activity in non-ferrous alloys foundries leads to the elimination of the pollutants in the atmosphere that may have adverse effects on the environment and human health. This paper presents an evaluation of the pollutantemissions resulting from an aluminium foundry starting from data on concentrations and pollutant massflow rates estimated for each phase of the technological process and on measured ambient levels for the area of influence of the objective to study.

  11. A Cu-amyloid β complex activating Fenton chemistry in Alzheimer's disease: Learning with multiple first-principles simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Penna, Giovanni; Hureau, Christelle; Faller, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Amyloid β peptides form complexes with copper, both in vitro and in vivo, relatively soluble in water as oligomers and active as catalysts for oxidation of organic substrates by hydrogen peroxide, a species always present in cells and in their aerobic environment. All these species are present in the synapse, thus making a connection between the amyloid cascade hypothesis and the oxidative damages by reactive oxygen species in neurons, when pathological dishomeostasis of amyloid peptides and metal ions occur. In order to understand the structural features of these toxic complexes, we built several models of Cu-Aβ peptides in monomeric and dimeric forms and we found, performing multiple first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, that Cu-induced dimers are more active than monomers in converting hydrogen peroxide into aggressive hydroxyl radicals.

  12. Improvement of the Mechanism for the Management of Innovation Activity in the Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Nikolaevich Makoveev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition of Russia’s economy from raw materials exporting model of development to the innovation model is a national priority, since it contributes to intensive and sustainable economic growth and reduces economic dependence on external markets. GDP growth rate of 75–90% in the developed countries such as the USA, Japan, Germany, the UK, France, and also in the newly industrialized countries of Southeast Asia and China, is achieved due to the “progress of knowledge” – the intellectualization of the main production factors. Due to this fact, the increase in the standard of living in Russia, as well as overcoming its technological and economic lagging behind the more developed countries is possible only on the basis of the increase in productivity, enhancement of Russia’s competitiveness in international markets of innovative products, modernization and sustainable development of industrial enterprises through the creation of new innovation capabilities and the extensive utilization of that which have already been accumulated. The manufacturing industry is a powerful driving force of innovation economic development, since this sector concentrates the main production of the most technologically sophisticated and knowledgeintensive products with high added value. However, in the process of market transformations the products of domestic manufacturing enterprises have become much less competitive on international markets. There is a steady tendency toward the growth of imports and decrease of exports of enterprises of this sector. In this regard, the article identifies the factors that have the greatest influence on the development of innovation activities in the manufacturing industry. The author builds a multivariate regression model that determines the degree of influence of various socio-economic factors on the level of development of innovation activity in manufacturing. The paper proposes an organizational-economic mechanism

  13. Effect of Tomato Industrial Processing on Phenolic Profile and Antiplatelet Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Palomo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (e.g., tomatoes has been shown to be beneficial in terms of reducing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The industrial processing of tomatoes into tomato-based products includes several thermal treatments. Very little is known on the effect of tomato industrial processing on antiaggregatory activity and phenolic profile. Methods: It was assessed the effect of tomato and by-products extracts on platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6 and arachidonic acid. These in vitro antithrombotic properties were further supported in an in vivo model of thrombosis. A set of antiplatelet compounds has been selected for HPLC analysis in the different extracts. Results: Some natural compounds such as chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were identified by HPLC in tomatoes and its products may inhibit platelet activation. Red tomatoes, tomato products (sauce, ketchup and juice and by-products extracts inhibited platelet aggregation induced adenosine 5'-diphosphate, collagen, thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 and arachidonic acid, but to a different extent. Also, pomace extract presents antithrombotic activity. Conclusions: Processed tomatoes may have a higher content of health-benefiting compounds than fresh ones. Pomace even presents the best antiplatelet activity. Finally, tomato products may be used as a functional ingredient adding antiplatelet activities to processed foods.

  14. Strategic consistency of enterprise logistics activities on the bases of ecological principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Mashchak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The consistency of logistics enterprises with environmental strategies investigated. Examples of foreign experience and results of such consistency in practice are given. The necessity and strategic advantages of logistic activities on environmental grounds proved.

  15. Studying of the standardization principles of pharmacological activity of recombinant erythropoietin preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Yakovlev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the publications devoted to the structure, functions, mechanism of action of erythropoietin is given in the article. Erythropoietin preparations derived from recombinant DNA technology are a mixture of isoforms with different biological activity, which determine the biological properties pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of medicinal product. Erythropoietin preparations derived by using recombinant DNA technology are a mixture of isoforms with different biological activity, that determine the biological properties, pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics, safety and therapeutic efficacy of the drug. However, at production of erythropoietin, its pharmacological activity is controlled only by the ability to stimulate erythropoiesis, despite the multiplicity of different directions of action of drugs erythropoietin. The drug is dispensed and applied on this indicator. The international reference standard, a European reference biologic drug or calibrated by him enterprise standard samples are used by manufacturers to assess the quality of erythropoietin in the Russian Federation. The urgency of developing domestic standard samples for the evaluation of biological activity and physico-chemical characteristics of erythropoietin preparations produced by recombinant DNA technology.

  16. Screening of actinomycetes from earthworm castings for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 % as compared to grassland (25% and agricultural land (16.66%. The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics were Streptomyces (60.41% followed by Streptosporangium (10.41%, Saccharopolyspora (6.25% and Nocardia (6.25%. Besides these, other genera like Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Planobispora and Nocardiopsis were also recovered but in low frequency. Among the 48 isolates, 52.08% were found active against one or more test organisms. Out of 25 active isolates 16% showed activity against bacterial, human fungal as well as phytopathogens. Among 48 isolates 38, 32, 21, 20, 16 and 14 produced enzyme amylase, caseinase, cellulase, gelatinase, xylanase and lipase respectively while 10 isolates produced all the enzymes. More interestingly 2, 3, and 1 isolates produced amylase, xylanase and lipase at 45°C respectively. In the view of its antimicrobial activity as well as enzyme production capability the genus Streptomyces was dominant. The isolate EWC 7(2 was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei. The results of these findings have increased the scope of finding industrially important actinomycetes from earthworm castings and these organisms could be promising sources for industrially important molecules or enzymes.

  17. Introduction of the cluster model of organisation of activity of light industry enterprises of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippov Mykhaylo I.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the world experience of introduction of the cluster model of activity of enterprises. It considers main prerequisites of creation and prospects of activity of clusters in light industry in Ukraine. It justifies application of the cluster approach in Ukraine, which is a necessary condition for revival of the domestic production, increase of efficiency of innovation development of regions and achievement of a high level of economic development and competitiveness. It provides proposals on improvement of the state policy of development of innovation clusters for increase of competitiveness of economy and ensuring entry of Ukraine into the circle of economically developed countries of the world.

  18. Cellular Telephones Measure Activity and Lifespace in Community-Dwelling Adults: Proof of Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Ana Katrin; Witbrodt, Bradley C.; Hoarty, Carrie A.; Carlson, Richard H.; Goulding, Evan H.; Potter, Jane F.; Bonasera, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe a system that uses off-the-shelf sensor and telecommunication technologies to continuously measure individual lifespace and activity levels in a novel way. DESIGN Proof of concept involving three field trials of 30, 30, and 21 days. SETTING Omaha, Nebraska, metropolitan and surrounding rural region. PARTICIPANTS Three participants (48-year-old man, 33-year-old woman, and 27-year-old male), none with any functional limitations. MEASUREMENTS Cellular telephones were used to detect in-home position and in-community location and to measure physical activity. Within the home, cellular telephones and Bluetooth transmitters (beacons) were used to locate participants at room-level resolution. Outside the home, the same cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) technology were used to locate participants at a community-level resolution. Physical activity was simultaneously measured using the cellular telephone accelerometer. RESULTS This approach had face validity to measure activity and lifespace. More importantly, this system could measure the spatial and temporal organization of these metrics. For example, an individual’s lifespace was automatically calculated across multiple time intervals. Behavioral time budgets showing how people allocate time to specific regions within the home were also automatically generated. CONCLUSION Mobile monitoring shows much promise as an easily deployed system to quantify activity and lifespace, important indicators of function, in community-dwelling adults. PMID:21288235

  19. The history of the peat manufacturing industry in The Netherlands: Peat moss litter and active carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.W. Gerding

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of three major forms of peat processing by the manufacturing industry in The Netherlands since the last quarter of the 19th century. At a time when peat as a fuel was gradually being replaced by coal, the first form was the peat moss litter industry. Peat moss litter was made from white peat that was ground and sieved in factories which were located mainly in bog areas in the south-east of the province of Drenthe. It served as excellent bedding for horses and cattle. The second form of industrial peat processing was the manufacture, from 1921 onwards, of active carbon made from black peat. The Purit (Norit factory, now part of the Cabot Corporation, is still the only active carbon factory using peat as a raw material. The third form of peat processing was the production of garden peat and potting soil. This is still a widespread activity in peat areas all over the world. The peat moss litter industry thrived from the 1880s until shortly after the First World War. The arrival of the horse-drawn tram in all of the major cities of Europe created a great demand for animal bedding to be used in the vast stables of the tramway companies. Peat moss litter was cleaner, healthier and easier to handle than straw. There was similar demand from the armies, which used millions of horses during the First World War. Owing to the development of motorised vehicles, the peat market collapsed after the war and this plunged the industry into a prolonged crisis which was not overcome until peat was found to be a suitable growing medium for horticulture in the 1950s. Living and working conditions in peatlands were harsh, earnings irregular and labourers’ rights limited. The peat manufacturing industry was the first to introduce collective labour agreements, medical benefits and pension plans. Nonetheless massive unemployment, poverty and the necessity to migrate to other parts of the country were clear signs that the era of

  20. Pomegranate juice and prostate cancer: importance of the characterisation of the active principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrubasik-Hausmann, Sigrun; Vlachojannis, Christian; Zimmermann, Benno

    2014-11-01

    Two exploratory clinical studies investigating proprietary pomegranate products showed a trend of effectiveness in increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. A recent clinical study did not support these results. We therefore analysed a lot of the marketed pomegranate blend for co-active pomegranate compounds. The high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to detect punicalagin, ellagic acid and anthocyanins. Total polyphenoles were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method using gallic acid as reference. The results show that the co-active compounds in the daily dose of the pomegranate blend were far below those previously tested and that the photometric assessment is not reliable for the standardisation of study medications. Not pomegranate but the low amount of co-active compounds in the proprietary pomegranate blend was responsible for its clinical ineffectiveness.

  1. Protection of ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila by treating Ixora coccinea active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Paulraj; Thangaviji, Vijayaragavan; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-02-01

    Herbals such as Ixora coccinea, Daemia extensa and Tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of I. coccinea was able to suppress the A. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. The purified active fraction, which eluted from H40: EA60 mobile phase was structurally characterized by GC-MS analysis. Two compounds such as Diethyl Phthalate (1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, monobutyl ester) and Dibutyl Phthalate were characterized using NIST database search. In order to study the in vivo immunostimulant influence of the compounds, the crude extracts (ICE) and purified fractions (ICF) were incorporated to the artificial diets at the concentration of 400 mg kg⁻¹ and fed to the ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus for 30 days. After termination of feeding experiment, they were challenged with highly virulent A. hydrophila AHV-1 which was isolated from infected gold fish and studied the survival, specific bacterial load reduction, serum biochemistry, haematology, immunology and histological parameters. The control diet fed fishes succumbed to death within five days at 100% mortality whereas ICE and ICF fed groups survived 60 and 80% respectively after 10 days. The diets also helped to decrease the Aeromonas load after challenge and significantly (P ≤ 0.01) improved the serum albumin, globulin and protein. The diets also helped to increase the RBC and haemoglobin level significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from the control group. Surprisingly the immunological parameters like phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.001) in the experimental diets. Macrophages and erythrocytes were abundantly expressed in the

  2. Principles of the bark of Amphipterygium adstringens (Julianaceae) with anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Chávez, I; Ramírez-Apan, T; Soto-Hernández, M; Martínez-Vázquez, M

    2004-07-01

    Despite the fact that Amphipterygium adstringens (usually known as "cuachalalate") is used intensively in traditional medicine throughout México, there are, to our knowledge, no previous studies concerning the actual therapeutic, anti-inflammatory properties of this species. This lack of data prompted us to evaluate the aqueous (AE) and hexane (HE) extracts from A. adstringens in two models of acute inflammation: 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema. The results showed that HE possesses dose-dependent activity, while AE showed no anti-inflammatory effect on TPA-induced edema. Reverse effects were found in the carrageenan test, wherein AE showed a 73.5% of inhibition of edema, while HE showed only a 14.4% activity at 100 mg/kg body weight. These results could indicate that AE and HE possess different anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action. On the other hand, it is known that masticadienonic (1) and 3alpha-hydroxymasticadienonic (2) acids are the main constituents of the organic extract of A. adstringens bark. Because of this knowledge, we tested 1 and 2 in the same experimental models. The results showed that 2 possesses a dose-dependent effect, while 1 does not show a dose-dependent response in TPA-induced edema. In carrageenan-induced edema tests, both 1 and 2 showed almost the same activity (approximately 44% inhibition at 100 mg/kg body weight). In order to determine whether the anti-inflammatory activities of AE, HE, 1 and 2 are involved in the alteration of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, we evaluated these substances by examining nitric oxide generation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated peritoneal macrophages. The results showed that 1 presented the highest activity (93.3%), followed by 2 (86.5%), while AE (57%) and HE (33.6%) showed the lowest. In the cytotoxic MTT assay, however only 1 and 2 showed any activity whatsoever.

  3. Current parallel chemistry principles and practice: application to the discovery of biologically active molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Paul J

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the use of parallel chemistry techniques for drug discovery, based on publications from January 2006 to December 2008. Chemical libraries that yielded active compounds across a range of biological targets are presented, together with synthetic details when appropriate. Background information for the biological targets involved and any SAR that could be discerned within members of a library series also is discussed. New technological developments, as applied to library design and synthesis and, more generally, in the discovery of biologically active entities, are highlighted. In addition, the likely future directions for parallel chemistry in its ability to impact upon drug discovery are also presented.

  4. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of Gentiana olivieri herbs on subacute administration and isolation of active principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Aslan, Mustafa; Aktay, Göknur; Ergun, Ender; Yesilada, Erdem; Ergun, Fatma

    2003-04-04

    Hepatoprotective effect of Gentiana olivieri Griseb. (Gentianaceae) flowering herbs on subacute administration were studied using in vivo models in rats. For the activity assessment on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage following biochemical parameters were evaluated; plasma and hepatic tissue malondialdehyde formation, and liver tissue glutathione level, as well as plasma transaminase enzyme levels (aspartate transferase and alanine transferase). Results of biochemical tests were also confirmed by histopathological examination. Through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures isoorientin, a known C-glycosylflavone, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction as the active antihepatotoxic constituent by silica gel column chromatography. Isoorientin exhibited significant hepatoprotective effect at 15 mg/kg b.w. dose.

  5. Active Power Flow Optimization of Industrial Power Supply with Regard to the Transmission Line Conductor Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyzgold D.Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the problem of the transmission line conductor heating effect on the active power flows optimization in the local segment of industrial power supply. The purpose is to determine the optimal generation rating of the distributed power sources, in which the power flow values will correspond to the minimum active power losses in the power supply. The timeliness is the need to define the most appropriate rated power values of distributed sources which will be connected to current industrial power supply. Basing on the model of active power flow optimization, authors formulate the description of the nonlinear transportation problem considering the active power losses depending on the transmission line conductor heating. Authors proposed a new approach to the heating model parameters definition based on allowable current loads and nominal parameters of conductors as part of the optimization problem. Analysis of study results showed that, despite the relatively small active power losses reduction to the tune 0,45% due to accounting of the conductors heating effect for the present configuration of power supply, there are significant fluctuations in the required generation rating in nodes of the network to 9,32% within seasonal changes in the outer air temperature. This fact should be taken into account when selecting the optimum power of distributed generation systems, as exemplified by an arbitrary network configuration.

  6. Evaluation of the biological activities of crude extracts from patagonian prosopis seeds and some of their active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuca, M; Kraus, W; Balzaretti, V

    2003-01-01

    Extracts of different polarities from three species and three varieties of the genera Prosopis: P. alpataco, P. denudans var. denudans, P. denudans var. patagonica, and P. denudans var. stenocarpa, were screened in order to evaluate their antibacterial, antifungal, antifeedant, antihelminthic, molluscicidal and toxic activities. The extractions of the plant materials were carried out successively with petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. All petroleum ether extracts showed antibacterial activity. The dichloromethane extract of P. alpataco showed antibacterial and antifungal activities. Methanol and aqueous extracts of P. denudans var. denudans and P. denudans var. patagonica showed antifungal activities and a slight response to the toxicity test. Fatty acids and a group of pentacyclic triterpenes were identified as responsible for antibacterial activities in some of the active extracts.

  7. Using an FPLC to Promote Active Learning of the Principles of Protein Structure and Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Rebekah L.; Neely, Amy E.; Mojadedi, Wais; Threatt, Katie N.; Davis, Nicole Y.; Weiland, Mitch H.

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of protein purification are often taught in undergraduate biology and biochemistry lectures and reinforced during laboratory exercises; however, very few reported activities allow students to directly gain experience using modern protein purification instruments, such as Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC). This laboratory…

  8. Transforming Principles into Practice: Using Cognitive Active Learning Strategies in the High School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    High school teachers who engage students through active learning in their classrooms can more fully understand this instructional practice by examining the theories and strategies underlying the cognitive perspective of educational psychology, which addresses the development of knowledge in the individual mind. Two theoretical explanations,…

  9. Using an FPLC to Promote Active Learning of the Principles of Protein Structure and Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Rebekah L.; Neely, Amy E.; Mojadedi, Wais; Threatt, Katie N.; Davis, Nicole Y.; Weiland, Mitch H.

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of protein purification are often taught in undergraduate biology and biochemistry lectures and reinforced during laboratory exercises; however, very few reported activities allow students to directly gain experience using modern protein purification instruments, such as Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC). This laboratory…

  10. Activity concentration of natural radioactive nuclides in nonmetallic industrial raw materials in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-11-01

    Natural materials such as rock, ore, and clay, containing natural radioactive nuclides are widely used as industrial raw materials in Japan. If these are high concentrations, the workers who handle the material can be unknowingly exposed to radiation at a high level. In this study, about 80 nonmetallic natural materials frequently used as industrial raw materials in Japan were comprehensively collected from several industrial companies, and the activity concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series and (40)K in the materials was determined by ICP-MS (inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and gamma ray spectrum analyses. Effective doses to workers handling them were estimated by using methods for dose estimation given in the RP 122. We found the activity concentrations to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the IAEA Safety Guide. The maximum estimated effective dose to workers handling these materials was 0.16 mSv y(-1), which was lower than the reference level (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for existing situation given in the ICRP Publ.103.

  11. Causality Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Do Minh

    2001-01-01

    We advance a famous principle - causality principle - but under a new view. This principle is a principium automatically leading to most fundamental laws of the nature. It is the inner origin of variation, rules evolutionary processes of things, and the answer of the quest for ultimate theories of the Universe.

  12. Mining the metagenome of activated biomass of an industrial wastewater treatment plant by a novel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nandita; Tanksale, Himgouri; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2012-12-01

    Metagenomic libraries herald the era of magnifying the microbial world, tapping into the vast metabolic potential of uncultivated microbes, and enhancing the rate of discovery of novel genes and pathways. In this paper, we describe a method that facilitates the extraction of metagenomic DNA from activated sludge of an industrial wastewater treatment plant and its use in mining the metagenome via library construction. The efficiency of this method was demonstrated by the large representation of the bacterial genome in the constructed metagenomic libraries and by the functional clones obtained. The BAC library represented 95.6 times the bacterial genome, while, the pUC library represented 41.7 times the bacterial genome. Twelve clones in the BAC library demonstrated lipolytic activity, while four clones demonstrated dioxygenase activity. Four clones in pUC library tested positive for cellulase activity. This method, using FTA cards, not only can be used for library construction, but can also store the metagenome at room temperature.

  13. EVALUATION OF HUMAN RELIABILITY IN SELECTED ACTIVITIES IN THE RAILWAY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika SUJOVÁ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on evaluation of human reliability in the human – machine system in the railway industry. Based on a survey of a train dispatcher and of selected activities, we have identified risk factors affecting the dispatcher‘s work and the evaluated risk level of their influence on the reliability and safety of preformed activities. The research took place at the authors‘ work place between 2012-2013. A survey method was used. With its help, authors were able to identify selected work activities of train dispatcher’s risk factors that affect his/her work and the evaluated seriousness of its in-fluence on the reliability and safety of performed activities. Amongst the most important finding fall expressions of un-clear and complicated internal regulations and work processes, a feeling of being overworked, fear for one’s safety at small, insufficiently protected stations.

  14. An economic benefit deriving from space activities: Integration between science institutions and industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, R.; D'Amore, M.; D'Angelo, L.

    1993-09-01

    A lively debate is taking place in Italy on the assessment of the economic benefits deriving from the national expenditure in space programmes. Specific studies have been recently committed by the Italian Space Agency on this subject. This paper aims at providing an original insight in this debate by focusing on the often underestimated effect that the development of space programmes has on the process of integration of university, research centres and industry. In fact, the economic analysis of the technology innovation evidences that the integration of research institutions and industry represents a key issue in the establishment of an effective national innovation system towards a higher industrial competitiveness. It is widely recognized that the initiation and promotion of the process of integration of industry and research institutions is primarily dependent on their cooperation within large public funded programmes in the field of high technology. Do space programmes show any peculiarity which make them especially suitable to generate an effective cooperation between industry and science institutions? The major goal of this paper will be to give an answer to this question through the analysis of the main characteristics of space programmes as far as the integration process is concerned. Space programmes will then be analysed identifying the critical aspects related to the process of research and technology development. Following, it will be demonstrated to which extent cooperation between industry and science institutions has been helpful in solving the identified critical aspects. The analysis will also address the organizational issues in order to identify the cooperation modes. Furthermore, an attempt will be made to assess the benefits deriving from the identified forms of cooperation in view of an increasing integration between industry and science institutions. The analysis will then be focused on the microgravity field; in fact, on the basis of the

  15. Business process modeling of industrial maintenance at TRANSPETRO: integrating oil pipeline and marine terminals activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Metrologia para Qualidade e Inovacao

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of TRANSPETRO in remodeling industrial maintenance activities focusing on: preparing for business process modeling (BPM); mapping and analyzing 'As-Is' process; designing 'To-Be' process; implementing remodeled process; improving process continuously. The conceptual model and results achieved will contribute to several areas within the company as: reliability engineering; human resources, including employees' selective processes, training and development, and certifications; standardization process encompassing standard and operational procedures adoption according to up-dating external normative references and legal requirements; health, safety and environment (HSE) performance improvement. These are some of potential benefits from BPM focusing on TRANSPETRO's industrial maintenance area in the search of operational excellence. (author)

  16. Innovation indicators: a survey of innovative activities in the international food processed industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Cardoso de Barros Fornari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to combine traditional methods of measuring intensity with other alternative indicators to examine the dispersion of innovation activities in different industries and countries. The hypothesis that underlies the study lies in the fact that in the Food Processed Industry (IAP the traditional methods are insufficient to detect the core of the innovation process. As method, we analyzed patent data extracted from the twenty-five largest food processed companies in the world and suggested different indicators developed from the Pesquisa de Inovação Tecnológica (PINTEC, 2010 – for Brazilian companies – and the Community Innovation Survey (CIS, 2009 – for European Union companies. The results allowed us to establish relationships in three dimensions: (i the complexity of the innovative effort of the IAP; (ii the efforts to innovation in different countries are distinct and; (iii there is heterogeneity in country performance.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the active second stage of labour: Proof of principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guettler, F.V.; Heinrich, A.; Rump, J.; Bucourt, M. de; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U.K. [Charite University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schnackenburg, B. [Philips GmbH Unternehmensbereich Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Bamberg, C. [Charite University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    To prove that magnetic resonance imaging of foetal anatomy during the active second stage of vaginal delivery is feasible. Initially, five pregnant volunteers around the 30th week of gestation were examined in an open MRI. Based on the findings, one vaginal delivery was acquired under real-time imaging. To monitor the birth status during image acquisition, an MR-compatible wireless cardiotocography (CTG) system was built. Single-shot sequence parameters were optimised to compensate motion artefacts during labour. Safety requirements to monitor the birth process under real-time MR imaging were met. High-resolution MR images were acquired immediately before and after delivery. In one patient, TSE single-shot cinematic sequences of the active second stage of labour were obtained. All sequences were adapted to tolerate movement of the mother and infant, as well as residual noise from the CTG. Furthermore, the MR imaging during labour showed only minor image artefacts. CTG-monitored acquisition of MRI series during the active second stage of delivery is feasible. Image quality should allow various further studies to improve models for birth simulation as well as potential investigation of obstructed labour and obstetric complications. (orig.)

  18. 电磁轴承的原理与应用%Principle and Application of Active Magnetic Bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严文彩; 李宏冰; 周殿莹

    2013-01-01

    The active magnetic bearing is a new supporting technology in the world,and it began to be study in the mid- 1960s.In the paper, the structure,principle,characteristics of active magetic bearings were introduced,and the developing level and tendency of the active magnetic bearing were analyzed. At last, taking methane expansion compressor in the ethylene plant as an example, matters needing attention during design,type selection and application of the active magetic bearing were discussed.%  电磁轴承技术是国际上20世纪60年代中期开始研究的一项新的支承技术。第一部分简要介绍电磁轴承的结构、原理、特点,并分析了国内外电磁轴承的发展现状及前景。第二部分,以乙烯装置的甲烷膨胀/压缩机为例,阐述了电磁轴承设计选型时的注意事项及其应用。

  19. Exploring the catalytic activity of pristine T6[100] surface for oxygen reduction reaction: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Paramita; Chakrabarty, Soubhik; Thapa, Ranjit; Das, G. P.

    2017-10-01

    The electrocatalytic activity of T6[100] surface containing both sp3 (C1) and sp2 (C2) hybridized carbon atoms is explored using first-principles density functional theory based approach. The top layered C1 atom of the surface is found to be more active towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), as compared to that of C2 atom. This is attributed to the presence of dangling σ bond in the corresponding C1 atom, leading to the high electron density near the Ferrmi level. Whereas, the π electron in the top layered C2 atom forms a weak out of plane network. As estimated from free energy profile, the overpotential is much lower when C1 is considered as the active site and the final step i.e desorption of final OH- ion is found to be the potential determining step. We have also reported the effect of Si dopant on the catalytic activity of T6[100] surface and explained the origin of high overpotential value in this case. Thus in this report, we propose a new metal-free catalyst i.e T6[100] surface, having both sp2 (maintains the high metallicity needed to reduce ohmic loss) and sp3 (helps in capturing the upcoming molecules) hybridized carbon atoms, as a potential candidate for ORR.

  20. [Ethical and legal principles for the activities of bioprospection in relation to human beings and the human genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2012-01-01

    During recent decades, bioprospecting has become an important field of research, which looks for development alternatives, entry into global (environmental) markets, and the subsequent obtention of benefits under sustainable development principles. However, there is still so much to discuss regarding the social and environmental impacts produced by this activity, as well as its main limitations. To this end, the Forum/round-table discussion, entitled "Bioprospección, Etica y Sociedad" was organised to take place on 28 March 2012 at the National University of Colombia. Its main objective was to enrich our knowledge on bioprospecting considering the ethical considerations that involve society. The presentation given by Professor ROMEO CASABONA, regarding the connection between bioprospecting and the human genome deserves special attention and is presented below.

  1. Determinant factors of industrial purchasing personnel’s adoption of internet for business purchasing related activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shook Mei Chan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research is to examine a path model and the mediating effect of perceived communication convenience towards explaining industrial purchasing personnel’s Internet adoption for business purchasing related activities. It involves sequencing paths examining the predictive effect of perceived Internet skills and supplier support on perceived communication convenience. Consequently, perceived communication convenience would influence Internet adoption as communication tools in a business-to-business context. It also examines the indirect effects of perceived Internet skills and supplier support on Internet adoption mediated by perceived communication convenience. Method: A structured questionnaire was developed to carry out a cross-sectional survey. A business-to-business company’s database consists of its current and potential customers was selected as the sampling frame. A total of 139 responses was collected and Partial Least Square – Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM 3.0 was utilized in data processing and hypotheses testing. Results: The findings of the study indicate that perceived Internet skills and supplier support have a significant effect on perceived communication convenience. Subsequently, perceived communication convenience have a direct impact on industrial purchasing personnel’s adoption of the Internet for business purchasing related activities. Perceived communication convenience significantly mediates the effect of perceived Internet skills and supplier support on business Internet adoption. Conclusion: This study contributes towards identifying significant predictors and mediator of adopting Internet for business purchasing related activities among purchasing personnel. Practitioners need to emphasize on Internet skills and support in order to enhance communication convenience, thus encourages industrial buyers to adopt the Internet in purchasing activities.

  2. Foreign Experience of Activity of Chambers of Commerce and Industry and Prospects of its Introduction in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrova Bohdana V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article conducts analysis of foreign experience of activity of chambers of commerce and industry under conditions of market economy. It studies specific features of its formation and establishment in the countries of European Union and Commonwealth of Independent States. In particular, it analyses activity of chambers of commerce and industry of Germany, Denmark, Great Britain, Russia, Moldova and Belarus. It considers continental, anglo-saxon, state and mixed models of activity of a chamber of commerce and industry. It identifies specific features of functioning of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Ukraine. Having analysed the progressive experience, it offers measures for improvement of the procedure of interaction of business with the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Ukraine at the national, regional and branch levels.

  3. Can active learning principles be applied to the bioscience assessments of nursing students? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakon, Shannon; Craft, Judy; Christensen, Martin; Wirihana, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    To explore if active learning principles be applied to nursing bioscience assessments and will this influence student perception of confidence in applying theory to practice? A review of the literature utilising searches of various databases including CINAHL, PUBMED, Google Scholar and Mosby's Journal Index. The literature search identified research from twenty-six original articles, two electronic books, one published book and one conference proceedings paper. Bioscience has been identified as an area that nurses struggle to learn in tertiary institutions and then apply to clinical practice. A number of problems have been identified and explored that may contribute to this poor understanding and retention. University academics need to be knowledgeable of innovative teaching and assessing modalities that focus on enhancing student learning and address the integration issues associated with the theory practice gap. Increased bioscience education is associated with improved patient outcomes therefore by addressing this "bioscience problem" and improving the integration of bioscience in clinical practice there will subsequently be an improvement in health care outcomes. From the literature several themes were identified. First there are many problems with teaching nursing students bioscience education. These include class sizes, motivation, concentration, delivery mode, lecturer perspectives, student's previous knowledge, anxiety, and a lack of confidence. Among these influences the type of assessment employed by the educator has not been explored or identified as a contributor to student learning specifically in nursing bioscience instruction. Second that educating could be achieved more effectively if active learning principles were applied and the needs and expectations of the student were met. Lastly, assessment influences student retention and the student experience and as such assessment should be congruent with the subject content, align with the learning

  4. Tuning the chemical activity through PtAu nanoalloying: a first principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-06-21

    The electronic structure and adsorption properties of 1.5 nm sized Pt, Au, and PtAu nanoclusters are studied by density functional theory. We explain the recent experimental finding that 20% Au content in PtAu nanoparticles is optimal to induce a dramatically different catalytic behavior. Our results show that the d-band center together with the density of states at the Fermi energy can be used as an indicator of the chemical activity of PtAu nanoclusters. The most favorable adsorption sites on the cluster surfaces as a function of the Pt/Au ratio are identified using atomic H as a probe.

  5. Investigation into the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Moringa stenopetala: identification of the active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-03-01

    The fresh leaves of Moringa stenopetala (family, Moringaceae) are commonly eaten as cabbage while dried leaves are used as nutritional supplement and for treating a variety of disease conditions including diabetes. The present investigation into the therapeutic potential of the leaves and seeds of the plant revealed no inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme up to the concentration of 200 μg/mL but the leaves extract displayed potent DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect (IC50, 59.5 ± 4.1 μg/mL). An activity directed fractionation and isolation procedure resulted in the identification of the major antioxidant compound as rutin and minor active component, neochlorogenic acid. Both the crude extract (0.8-200 μg/mL) and rutin (0.8-200 μM) but not neochlorogenic acid displayed a concentration-dependent protection of human pancreatic β-cells (1.4E7 cells) from oxidant-induced cell death. The identification of these compounds along with their potential role in the nutritional and medicinal significance of the plant is discussed.

  6. A Principle for Describing and Verifying Brain Mechanisms Using Ongoing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, David

    2017-01-01

    Not even the most informed scientist can setup a theory that takes all brain signals into account. A neuron not only receives neuronal short range and long range input from all over the brain but a neuron also receives input from the extracellular space, astrocytes and vasculature. Given this complexity, how does one describe and verify a typical brain mechanism in vivo? Common to most described mechanisms is that one focuses on how one specific input signal gives rise to the activity in a population of neurons. This can be an input from a brain area, a population of neurons or a specific cell type. All remaining inputs originating from all over the brain are lumped together into one background input. The division into two inputs is attractive since it can be used to quantify the relative importance of either input. Here we have chosen to extract the specific and the background input by means of recording and inhibiting the specific input. We summarize what it takes to estimate the two inputs on a single trial level. The inhibition should not only be strong but also fast and the specific input measurement has to be tailor-made to the inhibition. In essence, we suggest ways to control electrophysiological experiments in vivo. By applying those controls it may become possible to describe and verify many brain mechanisms, and it may also allow the study of the integration of spontaneous and ongoing activity, which in turn governs cognition and behavior. PMID:28174523

  7. Basic Principles of the Activity and Synergetic Approach as a Means of Interdisciplinary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolsunovskaya L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of interdisciplinarity as the main tendency of today’s science to unite the methodology and terminology and adapt them to any academic field in order to achieve more objective results in the study of complex phenomena. This article is a descriptive one and it deals with problems of terms’ interpretations and their adaptation to the anthropocentric research viewed by scientists of different academic schools. The main idea of the article is to find the most relevant and systemic definition of the given terms, which could be used as a tool in further linguistic analysis applied to the coming research of the authors. Special attention is paid to the description of the Activity Theory from different aspects of its interpretation: psychological, sociological, linguistic; to the explanation of the correlation between the epistemic structure of knowledge and an open non-linear synergetic bilateral (conceptual and lexical-semantic system influenced and motivated by processual factors to evolution in the modern discourse as the communicative activity of the interpreter and the constructor of discourse.

  8. An active coronagraph using a liquid crystal array for exoplanet imaging: principle and testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Zhang; De-Qing Ren; Yong-Tian Zhu; Jiang-Pei Dou

    2012-01-01

    High-contrast imaging coronagraphs,used for the detection of exoplanets,have always adopted passive coronagraph optical components.It is therefore impossible to actively optimize the coronagraphs to achieve their best performance.To solve this problem,we propose a novel high-contrast imaging coronagraph which combines a liquid crystal array (LCA) for active pupil apodization and a deformable mirror (DM) for phase correction.The LCA we use is an amplitude-only spatial light modulator.The LCA is well calibrated and compensates for its amplitude non-uniformity and nonlinear intensity responsivity.We measured the imaging contrasts of the coronagraph system with the LCA only and without the DM deployed.Imaging contrasts of 10-4 and 10-5 can be reached at an inner working angular distance of 2.5 and 5λ/D,respectively.A simulation shows that the phase errors on the coronagraph pupil limit the contrast performance.The contrast could be further improved if a DM is deployed to correct the phase errors induced by the LCA and coronagraph optics.

  9. IMPROVEMENT OF THE PRINCIPLES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF INSPECTION AND SUPERVISING ACTIVITY OF BANK OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Макарович Заернюк

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article established practices of the organization of control and supervision of Bank of Russia of activity of the Russian commercial banks are considered.  The analysis is carried out and the assessment of a level of development of a substantial component of bank regulation and supervision is given.Purpose: Research of tendencies and problems in the organization of control and supervising activity of Bank of Russia at the present stage.Methodology: General scientific methods were used: analysis and synthesis, comparisons, generalizations, system approach. In the course of use of the actual material methods of the economical and statistical analysis were used.Results: The conclusion that the excessive and bureaucratized control from the Central bank interferes with dynamic development of the banking sector is drawn. It is required to generation of the new thinking which is expressing in transfer of accent from need of strict, in many respects of formal, application of bank instructions and regulations on formation of professional opinion of the controler, increase of its responsibility for results of checks.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-1

  10. The internationalization of the technological activities in the energy industries; L'internationalisation des activites technologiques dans les industries energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, B. [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie - IEPE-CNRS/ Universite Pierre Mendes-France, 38 - Grenoble (France); Jacquier-Roux, V. [Institut de Recherche Economique sur la Production et le Developpement -IREPD, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2001-06-01

    This analysis of the technological internationalization factors is defined in five chapters. The first chapter deals with the evolutionist representation of the internationalization process of the technological activities of the firms. The chapter two is an historical synthesis from 1985 to 2000, of the industrial dynamics and of the technological strategies of the petroleum and electric power industries. The chapter three details the empirical method used to verify the hypothesis. Chapter four exposes the data analysis results of the patents of the sampled firms. The last chapter is devoted to the results interpretation. (A.L.B.)

  11. Addressing Responsible Research and Innovation to Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaghmaei, Emad

    2015-01-01

    . In solving such gap in the literature, this article constructs a solid framework that provides a conceptual starting point for future research on levels of RRI. It draws a fundamental path to align industrial activities with environmental and societal needs. The framework develops a normatively grounded......Responsible research and innovation (RRI) is taking a role to assist all types of stakeholders including industry to move research and innovation initiatives to responsible manner for tackling grand challenges. The literature on RRI focuses little on how industry can implement RRI principles...... models of corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature. Drawing on these models, this study develops stages and dimensions of RRI for discussing why industry should become engaged in RRI, how industry can embed RRI principles into research and innovation processes, how companies progress from one RRI...

  12. Industry 4.0 implies lean manufacturing: Research activities in industry 4.0 function as enablers for lean manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Sanders; Chola Elangeswaran; Jens Wulfsberg

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Lean Manufacturing is widely regarded as a potential methodology to improve productivity and decrease costs in manufacturing organisations. The success of lean manufacturing demands consistent and conscious efforts from the organisation, and has to overcome several hindrances. Industry 4.0 makes a factory smart by applying advanced information and communication systems and future-oriented technologies. This paper analyses the incompletely perceived link between Industr...

  13. Industry 4.0 implies lean manufacturing: research activities in industry 4.0 function as enablers for lean manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Sanders; Chola Elangeswaran; Jens Wulfsberg

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Lean Manufacturing is widely regarded as a potential methodology to improve productivity and decrease costs in manufacturing organisations. The success of lean manufacturing demands consistent and conscious efforts from the organisation, and has to overcome several hindrances. Industry 4.0 makes a factory smart by applying advanced information and communication systems and future-oriented technologies. This paper analyses the incompletely perceived link between Industr...

  14. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, Verena; Sendker, Jandirk; Petereit, Frank; Liebau, Eva; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-08-14

    Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1) extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1), oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins) and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP) revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  15. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Spiegler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1 extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  16. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de E-mail: mhosampa@ipen.br; Rela, Paulo Roberto; Las Casas, Alexandre; Nunes Mori, Manoel; Lopes Duarte, Celina

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study that compares the use of electron beam processing and activated carbon adsorption to clean up a standardized organic aqueous solution and a real industrial effluent. The electron beam treatment was performed in a batch system using the IPEN's Electron Beam Accelerators from Radiation Dynamics Inc., Dynamitron 37.5 kW. The granular activated carbon removal treatment was performed using charcoal made from wood 'pinus'. If the adequate irradiation dose is delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is similar to the activated carbon process in organic removal efficiency.

  17. Antifungal activity of Oleoresins used in meat industry on some toxigenic Aspergillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šošo Vladislava M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Different spice oleoresins are widely used in meat industry. They contribute to the specific aroma and flavor of the end products, but they have also been reported to have strong antimicrobial activity. These properties open a plenty of possibilities to be used for defining the specific sensory profile of the product but also as natural food preservatives. This paper focuses on the antifungal activity of four oleoresins against different foodborne toxigenic Aspergillus species. Oleoresins used in the experiments were cayenne pepper, black pepper, garlic and rosemary oleoresins, and they were tested against following Aspergillus species: A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. versicolor. Antifungal activity was tested using microtitre-plate-based assay incorporating resazurin as an indicator of cell growth and broth microdilution-method. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46009

  18. QSAR prediction of estrogen activity for a large set of diverse chemicals under the guidance of OECD principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanxiang; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2006-11-01

    A large number of environmental chemicals, known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals, are suspected of disrupting endocrine functions by mimicking or antagonizing natural hormones, and such chemicals may pose a serious threat to the health of humans and wildlife. They are thought to act through a variety of mechanisms, mainly estrogen-receptor-mediated mechanisms of toxicity. However, it is practically impossible to perform thorough toxicological tests on all potential xenoestrogens, and thus, the quantitative structure--activity relationship (QSAR) provides a promising method for the estimation of a compound's estrogenic activity. Here, QSAR models of the estrogen receptor binding affinity of a large data set of heterogeneous chemicals have been built using theoretical molecular descriptors, giving full consideration to the new OECD principles in regulation for QSAR acceptability, during model construction and assessment. An unambiguous multiple linear regression (MLR) algorithm was used to build the models, and model predictive ability was validated by both internal and external validation. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validation paths indicate that the proposed QSAR model is robust and satisfactory, and can provide a feasible and practical tool for the rapid screening of the estrogen activity of organic compounds.

  19. RESTRUCTURING OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Podderegina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents main principles for execution of current and strategic restructuring of national enterprises while using experience of countries with developed market economy. The principles contribute to higher efficiency in internal industrial relations at national industrial enterprises.

  20. Irrigation with industrial wastewater activates antioxidant system and osmoprotectant accumulation in lettuce, turnip and tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, H A; Hassanein, R A; El-Deep, M H; Shouman, A I

    2013-09-01

    We focused on the impact of industrial wastes on the water quality of the El-Amia drain in Egypt and the effect of irrigation with industrial wastewater on the growth, cell membranes, photosynthetic pigment content, the antioxidant system and selected osmoprotectants (proline, total amino nitrogen and soluble sugars) in three crop plants: turnip, tomato and lettuce. Furthermore, the present work focused on the analysis of the heavy metal content and its accumulation in the studied plants. For this purpose, water samples were collected 1, 10 and 19 km from the beginning of the drain and used for irrigation, with fresh water as a control. We found that industrial wastewater contained significant amounts of heavy metals (Cd, Ni and Co) warranted a pollution problem as their amounts exceed the maximum recommended concentrations according to FAO guidelines for trace metals in irrigation water. The three crop plants accumulate significant amounts of heavy metals in their shoots and roots and showed a significant decrease in leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight of shoots and roots, accompanied by a marked reduction in photosynthetic pigment content and damage to cell membranes, as indicated by increased electrolyte leakage and a lower membrane stability index. Significant increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and in the glutathione, proline, soluble sugar and total amino nitrogen content in response to irrigation with wastewater may be defense mechanisms induced in response to heavy metal stress.

  1. Feasibility of Applying Active Lubrication to Reduce Vibration in Industrial Compressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Scalabrin, A.

    2004-01-01

    number, as it would be the case of conventional hydrodynamic bearings, but they are also dependent on the excitation frequencies and gains of the control loop. Stiffness as well as damping coefficients can be strongly influenced by the choice of the control strategy, servo valve dynamics and geometry...... of the orifices distributed over the sliding surface. The dynamic coefficients of tilting-pad bearings with and without active lubrication and their influence on an industrial compressor of 391 Kg, which operates with a maximum speed of 10,200 rpm, are analyzed. In the original compressor design, the bearing...

  2. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid; Ali; Khan; Nafees; Bacha; Bashir; Ahmad; Ghosia; Lutfullah; Umar; Farooq; Russell; John; Cox

    2014-01-01

    Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of producing biologically active secondary metabolites.Fungi have been used as tool for producing different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory conditions.The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using different laboratory techniques,for example,homologous and heterologous expressions.This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites:also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.

  3. The effects of industrial and agricultural activity on the water quality of the Sitnica River (Kosovo)

    OpenAIRE

    Albona Shala; Fatbardh Sallaku; Agron Shala; Shkëlzim Ukaj

    2015-01-01

    An important issue in Kosovo is water pollution. The use of polluted water has a direct impact on human health and cause long-term consequences. The longest and most polluted river in Kosovo is the Sitnica, a 90 km long river with its source located near the village of Sazli. The river flows into the Ibar River in Northern Kosovo. Agriculture is prevailing activity in the basin of Sitnica which is why agricultural as well as industrial waste are the biggest water pollutants. The purpose of th...

  4. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid Ali Khan; Nafees Bacha; Bashir Ahmad; Ghosia Lutfullah; Umar Farooq; Russell John Cox

    2014-01-01

    Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of producing biologically active secondary metabolites. Fungi have been used as tool for producing different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory conditions. The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using different laboratory techniques, for example, homologous and heterologous expressions. This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites;also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.

  5. Active principles of Grindelia robusta exert antiinflammatory properties in a macrophage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Vu Dang; Lazzarin, Francesco; Ricci, Donata; Fraternale, Daniele; Genovese, Salvatore; Epifano, Francesco; Grenier, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Plant extracts and/or secondary metabolites are receiving considerable attention as therapeutic agents for treating inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis, which affects the tooth supporting tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a Grindelia robusta extract enriched in saponins and polyphenols on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory mediator (IL-6, TNF-a, RANTES, MCP-1, PGE(2) ) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, -3, -7, -8, -9, -13) secretion by macrophages. LPS induced a marked increase in the secretion of all inflammatory mediators and MMPs tested by macrophages, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, the G. robusta extract inhibited dose-dependently the secretion of IL-6, RANTES, MCP-1 and, to a lesser extent, PGE(2) and TNF-a. Such inhibition was also observed for MMP-1, -3, -7, -8, -9 and -13 secretion. This ability of G. robusta extract to reduce the LPS-induced secretion of inflammatory mediators and MMPs was associated with a reduction of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) p65 activation. The results suggest that G. robusta extract possesses an antiinflammatory therapeutic potential through its capacity to reduce the accumulation of inflammatory mediators and MMPs.

  6. Forum: Communication Activism Pedagogy. Long-Term Impacts of Communication Activism Pedagogy: Guiding Principles for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Vincent; Congdon, Mark, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Communication activism pedagogy (CAP) illuminates an array of ways to intervene into oppressive systems to promote just conditions, and CAP's transformative effects on students and communities have been substantively demonstrated (Frey & Palmer 2014). Yet, Frey and Palmer recognize that "social justice issues are long-term, large-scale…

  7. Ameliorative Effect of Active Principle Isolated from Seeds of Eugenia jambolana on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Bala Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of LH II purified from ethanolic seed extract of Eugenia jambolana in alloxan-induced mild diabetic (MD and severely diabetic (SD rabbits. Ethanolic extract upon chromatographic purification yielded partially purified hypoglycemic principle (SIII which on further purification by sephadex LH 20 yielded pharmacological active compound LH II. Homogeneity of LH II was tested by HPLC. Phytochemical investigation of LH II by various structural spectra showed the presence of saturated fatty acid, Δ5 lipid and presence of sterol. LH II was administered orally at a dose of 10 mg kg−1 body weight to MD and SD. LH II resulted, significant fall in FBG at 90 min (21.2% MD: 28.6% SD, 7th day (35.6% MD and 15th day (59.6% SD. Glycosylated hemoglobin was significantly decreased (50.5% in SD after 15 days treatment (Tt. Plasma insulin levels were significantly increased (P <  .001. In vitro studies with pancreatic islets showed 3-fold increase in insulin levels as compared to untreated animals. LH II also showed extrapancreatic effect by significantly increasing (P <  .001 the activity of key enzymes of glycolysis and significantly decreasing (P <  .001 the activity of key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Liver and muscle glycogen content were increased by 36.6 and 30% for MD, and 52 and 47% for SD, respectively. Thus, the present study demonstrates that LH II possesses potent antidiabetic activity and it is effective in both MD and SD rabbits.

  8. Impact of climate and weather on the activities of the building and construction industry in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, GDT

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a quantitative survey of the impact of the climate and weather on the activities of the building and construction industry in South Africa. Seasonal productivity problems, the seasonal provision of special facilities...

  9. An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Mark Joseph

    Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to

  10. Xanthoangelol and 4-Hydroxyderricin Are the Major Active Principles of the Inhibitory Activities against Monoamine Oxidases on Angelica keiskei K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Ho; Son, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Gun Hee; Hwang, Keum Hee

    2013-05-30

    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) have been widely used as antidepressants. Recently, there has been renewed interest in MAO inhibitors. The activity-guided fractionation of extracts from Angelica keiskei Koidzumi (A. keiskei K.) led to the isolation of two prenylated chalcones, xanthoangelol and 4-hydroxyderricin and a flavonoid, cynaroside. These three isolated compounds are the major active ingredients of A. keiskei K. to inhibit the MAOs and DBH activities. Xanthoangelol is a nonselective MAO inhibitor, and a potent dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitor. IC50 values of xanthoangelol to MAO-A and MAO-B were calculated to be 43.4 μM, and 43.9 μM. These values were very similar to iproniazid, which is a nonselective MAO inhibitor used as a drug against depression. The IC50 values of iproniazid were 37 μM, and 42.5 μM in our parallel examination. Moreover, IC50 value of xanthoangelol to DBH was calculated 0.52 μM. 4-Hydroxyderricin is a potent selective MAO-B inhibitor and also mildly inhibits DBH activity. The IC50 value of 4-hydroxyderricin to MAO-B was calculated to be 3.43 μM and this value was higher than that of deprenyl (0.046 μM) used as a positive control for selective MAO-B inhibitor in our test. Cynaroside is a most potent DBH inhibitor. The IC50 value of cynaroside to DBH was calculated at 0.0410 μM. Results of this study suggest that the two prenylated chalcones, xanthoangelol and 4-hydroxyderricin isolated from A. keiskei K., are expected for potent candidates for development of combined antidepressant drug. A. keiskei K. will be an excellent new bio-functional food material that has the combined antidepressant effect.

  11. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity of chosen dyes and surface active compounds used in the textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybojewska, B; Barański, B; Spiechowicz, E; Szymczak, W

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the mutagenic and genotoxic properties of ten dyes and four surface active compounds using Salmonella/microsome assay and the micronucleus test. Five of the investigated dyes (Acid Blue 7, Acid Green 16, Direct Black 19:1, Basic Red 22, Basic Orange 28) possessed mutagenic activity with regard to test strains of Salmonella. In addition, all of them increased the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of mice. Three other compounds (Acid Blue 62, Direct Yellow 12, Direct Red 81), which were not mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay, were genotoxic in the micronucleus test. The other two dyes (Reactive Blue 13, Acid Red 213), as well as tested surface active compounds, did not exert mutagenic and genotoxic effects, and therefore, it is most probable that they do not have carcinogenic properties. Besides, it was noted that Acid Blue 62, Direct Black 19:1, Direct Red 81 and Basic Orange 28 cause a significant decrease in the ratio polychromatic to normochromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of mice, which means that, at the doses used in the experiment, they are toxic to the erythrocyte series cells of bone marrow. The other compounds under consideration have no such effect.

  12. Use of grape stalk, a waste of the viticulture industry, to obtain activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, A C; Sardella, M F; Silva, H; Amaya, A; Tancredi, N

    2009-12-15

    Grape stalk is an organic waste produced in great amounts in the industrialization processes of grape. This work presents the results of studies carried out to use this waste as raw material to prepare activated carbon through the physical and chemical route. The physicochemical characterization of this material suggests the presence of unusually high levels of ashes. Metal content was determined and high levels of potassium, sodium, iron, calcium and magnesium in carbonized and raw grape stalk were exhibited. This characteristic made difficult physical activation at high temperatures. A leaching step was included before the activation with steam, and adsorbents with surface areas between 700 and 900 m(2)/g were obtained. Physical activation was also performed at lower temperatures using carbonized grape stalk without leaching, leading to the development of some grade of porosity, with an area of 412 m(2)/g. These results would indicate the catalytic effect of the minerals present in this raw material. Chemical activation using phosphoric acid as activating agent seemed to be a very efficient method as final products with BET areas between 1000 and 1500 m(2)/g were obtained.

  13. The effects of industrial and agricultural activity on the water quality of the Sitnica River (Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albona Shala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An important issue in Kosovo is water pollution. The use of polluted water has a direct impact on human health and cause long-term consequences. The longest and most polluted river in Kosovo is the Sitnica, a 90 km long river with its source located near the village of Sazli. The river flows into the Ibar River in Northern Kosovo. Agriculture is prevailing activity in the basin of Sitnica which is why agricultural as well as industrial waste are the biggest water pollutants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality of the river and analyse the pollution level along the Sitnica River caused by agricultural activities and industrial discharges. In order to assess the impact of pollutants on this river, a measurements were carried out in four (five monitoring stations: the first station represents the reference station which has not undergone or has not been affected by polluting pressures, two stations in water areas affected by the irrigation of farming land and two monitoring stations in water areas affected by industrial wastewater discharge. Some of the parameters of water quality analysed are temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity, pH, DO, COD, BOD, P total, nitrates, sulfates, and heavy metals iron, manganese, zinc, nickel. Compared to the reference station the results obtained from the Gracka and Pestova monitoring stations prove that the dominant form of pollution is that from agricultural lands irrigation, while the Plemetin and Mitrovica stations show that the Sitnica River is affected by wastewater discharge which contains significant concentrations of heavy metals, as well as metal ions selected in this paper. It can be concluded that the irrigation of agricultural lands and discharges from mining significantly affect water quality of the Sitnica River.

  14. In Vivo Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activity of Hydro-Ethanolic Extract and Isolated Active Principles from Aristeguietia glutinosa and Mechanism of Action Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Varela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The currently available treatments for Chagas disease show limited therapeutic potential and are associated with serious side effects. Attempting to find alternative drugs isolated from Nature as agents against Trypanosoma cruzi has been our goal. Recently, we have demonstrated the in vitro anti-T. cruzi activities of two secondary metabolites isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa (Lam., (family Asteraceae. These active principles displayed poor hemolytic activity, low toxicity against murine macrophages, and absence of mutagenicity. Herein, proof of concept in vivo studies of the whole hydro-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Aristeguietia glutinosa and of the most active component isolated from the hydro-ethanolic extract, i.e., (+-15-hydroxy-7-labden-17-al, was done in a murine acute model of Chagas disease. Both treatments caused a decrease in the animals’ parasitemia. Metabolomic mechanism of action studies were done by 1H-NMR, both on the extract and on the active compounds, examining the effects of the metabolites both on membrane sterol biosynthesis and mitochondrial dehydrogenases, whereby we found that one of the metabolites inhibited the activity of the parasite mitochondrial dehydrogenases and the other inhibited the biosynthesis of parasite membrane sterols. The results are interesting in the context of popular use of plants for the treatment of Chagas disease.

  15. In Vitro Inhibitory Effect of Clove Essential Oil and Its Two Active Principles on Tooth Decalcification by Apple Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu M. Marya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dental erosion or decalcification of enamel is a significant clinical problem. Apple acidic beverages are thought to increase the potential for dental erosion. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of clove essential oil (CEO and its active principles on tooth decalcification of apple juices. On GC-MS analysis, CEO showed a high content of eugenol (58.29% and eugenyl acetate (19.10%. Teeth specimens were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: control, CEO, eugenol, eugenyl-acetate, and fluoride. The specimens were exposed for 24 h and were analyzed for calcium contents using Inductively Coupled Plasma with Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Data were analyzed using student t-test (<0.05. CEO, eugenol, and eugenyl-acetate significantly decreased the decalcification of tooth by the apple juice to only 17, 24, and 21 mgL−1, respectively. Hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes was studied to exclude the possibility of further associated cytotoxicity. It was observed that the CEO and its two lead molecules inhibit the decalcification and/or promote the remineralization caused by the apple juices. The effect of the test compounds appears to be distinct like that of fluoride treatment. CEO may, therefore, serve to be a promising adjunct to fluoride in the treatment of root caries during minimally invasive therapy.

  16. In Vitro Inhibitory Effect of Clove Essential Oil and Its Two Active Principles on Tooth Decalcification by Apple Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Charu M.; Satija, Gunjan; J., Avinash; Nagpal, Ruchi; Kapoor, Rohtash; Ahmad, Aijaz

    2012-01-01

    The dental erosion or decalcification of enamel is a significant clinical problem. Apple acidic beverages are thought to increase the potential for dental erosion. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of clove essential oil (CEO) and its active principles on tooth decalcification of apple juices. On GC-MS analysis, CEO showed a high content of eugenol (58.29%) and eugenyl acetate (19.10%). Teeth specimens were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: control, CEO, eugenol, eugenyl-acetate, and fluoride. The specimens were exposed for 24 h and were analyzed for calcium contents using Inductively Coupled Plasma with Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Data were analyzed using student t-test (P < 0.05). CEO, eugenol, and eugenyl-acetate significantly decreased the decalcification of tooth by the apple juice to only 17, 24, and 21 mgL−1, respectively. Hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes was studied to exclude the possibility of further associated cytotoxicity. It was observed that the CEO and its two lead molecules inhibit the decalcification and/or promote the remineralization caused by the apple juices. The effect of the test compounds appears to be distinct like that of fluoride treatment. CEO may, therefore, serve to be a promising adjunct to fluoride in the treatment of root caries during minimally invasive therapy. PMID:22997520

  17. Endoscopic Scores for Evaluation of Crohn's Disease Activity at Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy: General Principles and Current Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Bruno; Pinho, Rolando; de Ferro, Susana Mão; Almeida, Nuno; Cotter, José; Saraiva, Miguel Mascarenhas

    2016-01-01

    The small bowel is affected in the vast majority of patients with Crohn's Disease (CD). Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has a very high sensitivity for the detection of CD-related pathology, including early mucosal lesions and/or those located in the proximal segments of the small bowel, which is a major advantage when compared with other small bowel imaging modalities. The recent guidelines of European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) advocate the use of validated endoscopic scoring indices for the classification of inflammatory activity in patients with CD undergoing SBCE, such as the Lewis Score or the Capsule Endoscopy Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CECDAI). These scores aim to standardize the description of lesions and capsule endoscopy reports, contributing to increase inter-observer agreement and enabling a stratification of the severity of the disease. On behalf of the Grupo de Estudos Português do Intestino Delgado (GEPID) - Portuguese Small Bowel Study Group, we aimed to summarize the general principles and clinical applications of current endoscopic scoring systems for SBCE in the setting of CD, covering the topic of suspected CD as well as the evaluation of disease extent (with potential prognostic and therapeutic impact), evaluation of mucosal healing in response to treatment and evaluation of post-surgical recurrence in patients with previously established diagnosis of CD.

  18. Adapting active noise control headsets for the mining industry: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vipac Engineers and Scientists Ltd., North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    Noise induced hearing loss and its consequences with regard to occupational health and safety remain a major problem in the coal industry, especially underground. Australian Standards for exposure to noise in the occupational environment are being lowered from 8-hour equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level of 90 dBA to 85 dBA. The most desirable solution is to treat the noise problem at source. Where noise control strategies are not feasible, the use of hearing protection devices remains the most widely used strategy for limiting the exposure to noise in the work place. This project aimed to demonstrate design specifications for ANC (Active Noise Control) Headsets for use in the coal mining industry, especially underground. Tests showed some devices benefit from a significantly improved noise attenuation performance at low frequencies due the ANC system. Using measured noise from continuous miner and the measured noise attenuation performance of one of the ANC headsets under evaluation as an example, it was demonstrated that with Active Noise Control, the overall Leq noise level was reduced from 90 dBA (with passive hearing protection only) to 77 dBA. The final part of the project was to establish a set of specifications for the manufacturers to use in developing ANC headsets for use underground. (author). 8 tabs., 7 figs., 20 refs.

  19. Magnetotactic bacteria in microcosms originating from the French Mediterranean Coast subjected to oil industry activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postec, Anne; Tapia, Nicolas; Bernadac, Alain; Joseph, Manon; Davidson, Sylvain; Wu, Long-Fei; Ollivier, Bernard; Pradel, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) mineralize nanosized magnetite or greigite crystals within cells and thus play an important role in the biogeochemical process. Despite decades of research, knowledge of MTB distribution and ecology, notably in areas subjected to oil industry activities, is still limited. In the present study, we investigated the presence of MTB in the Gulf of Fos, French Mediterranean coast, which is subjected to intensive oil industry activities. Microcosms containing sediments/water (1:2, v/v) from several sampling sites were monitored over several weeks. The presence of MTB was revealed in five of eight sites. Diverse and numerous MTB were revealed particularly from one site (named CAR), whilst temporal variations of a homogenous magnetotactic cocci population was shown within the LAV site microcosm over a 4-month period. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, and a novel genus from the LAV site was evidenced. Among the physicochemical parameters measured, a correlation was shown between the variation of MTB abundance in microcosms and the redox state of sulphur compounds.

  20. Graphene wrapped Copper Phthalocyanine nanotube: Enhanced photocatalytic activity for industrial waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Moumita; Ghorai, Uttam Kumar; Samanta, Madhupriya; Santra, Angshuman; Das, Gour P.; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K.

    2017-10-01

    To improve the photocatalytic performance of metal phthalocyanine based catalyst, Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite has been synthesized through a simple chemical approach. The obtained product was characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The photocatalytic activity of the RGO/CuPc nanocomposite was performed by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the RGO/CuPc nanocomposite exhibits much stronger catalytic behavior than the pristine CuPc nanotube. A plausible mechanism for the photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was suggested. The RGO wrapped CuPc nanotube composite materials offer great potential as active photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutions in industrial waste water.

  1. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA of industrial sludge from the aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Schneiders

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, specific methanogenic activity (SMA tests were performed on textile sludge and food industry sludge. The textile sludge from an activated sludge was collected at the entrance of the secondary biologic clarifier and the food sludge was collected in a UASB reactor. Once collected, the sludges were characterized and tested for SMA. It was found that the microrganisms present in the food sludge had SMA of 0.17 gCOD-CH4 gSSV.d-1 and 337.05 mL of methane production, while the microrganisms of the textile sludge presented 0.10 gCOD-CH4 gSSV.d-1 of SMA and 3.04 mL of methane production. Therefore, the food sludge was more suitable to be used as a starting inoculum in UASB.

  2. Software citation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfon M. Smith

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Software is a critical part of modern research and yet there is little support across the scholarly ecosystem for its acknowledgement and citation. Inspired by the activities of the FORCE11 working group focused on data citation, this document summarizes the recommendations of the FORCE11 Software Citation Working Group and its activities between June 2015 and April 2016. Based on a review of existing community practices, the goal of the working group was to produce a consolidated set of citation principles that may encourage broad adoption of a consistent policy for software citation across disciplines and venues. Our work is presented here as a set of software citation principles, a discussion of the motivations for developing the principles, reviews of existing community practice, and a discussion of the requirements these principles would place upon different stakeholders. Working examples and possible technical solutions for how these principles can be implemented will be discussed in a separate paper.

  3. Novel synthesis of nanosilver particles using plant active principle aloin and evaluation of their cytotoxic effect against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thota Venkata Chaitanya Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a reliable, eco-friendly and easy process for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aloin, the active principle of medicinal plant ‘Aloe vera ’ and to evaluate antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, a causative organism of most of the diseases in livestock and to standardize the level of safety of synthesized silver nanoparticles. Methods: Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometry, DLS technique, FT-IR and SEM. Tube dilution method was carried out to evaluate the MIC of the compound against S. aureus. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the level of safety of nanoparticles. Results: UV-vis absorption spectrum showed a maximum absorption around 200 nm for aloin mediated silver nanoparticles (ANS. The size of the particles as measured by DLS technique was 67.8 nm. The results of FT-IR analysis indicated the involvement of hydroxyl, carboxyl, amine and nitrile groups in the synthesis and stabilization of aloin mediated silver nanoparticles. SEM images showed that ANS with cubical, rectangular, triangular and spherical morphology and measured sizes of the agglomerated nanoparticles are in a range of 287.5 to 293.2 nm, however the average size of an individual particle is estimated to be approximately 70 nm. The compound (ANS showed a MIC of 21.8 ng/mL against S. aureus and showed an in vitro spleenocyte viability of more than 80% at the highest concentration of 87.5 mg/L per well. Conclusions: Aloin consists of functional groups which reduced Ag+ ions to Ago ions and helped in synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesis process has further enhanced the antimicrobial activity of nanosilver. The compound is also proved to be safe at the level many times higher than the MIC.

  4. Active and Principled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    wang yi

    2016-01-01

    Reuters: The fourth foreign ministers' meet- ing of the ISSG held yesterday [February 11] had achieved some breakthroughs. However, in the situation that Russia is still carrying out military strikes against Syria, do you think the outcomes of this foreign ministers' meeting will bring about changes in the situation on the ground in Syria?

  5. Travel Industry Specialists’ Training for Professional Activities in a Foreign Language in the North Caucasus Federal District of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Markaryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the theoretical and practical aspects of foreign language teaching of the future hospitality and tourism specialists in terms of professional intercultural communication. First of all, we have analyzed the peculiarities of professional activities and job specification of tourism specialists, then on these grounds we have selected professional foreign competences, which are necessary to develop while teaching this type of specialists foreign languages. Taking into consideration the nature of the tourism specialists’ professional activities and the training objectives of professional foreign language communication, we have worked out the fundamental methodological principles of teaching foreign languages for special purposes, namely the professional communicative principle and the professional intercultural principle. At the same time, we have presented linguistic-didactic basics of tourism specialists’ language training. Particular emphasis is put on the use of the materials, containing regional component, which facilitate to develop the ability to represent native culture during professional intercultural communication.

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EXTENT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROCESS MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND THE LEGAL FORM OF THE BUSINESS AND BUSINESS ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Maříková

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, enterprises are challenged with continuously changing environment and they have to react quickly to these changes. Process management can be a tool that greatly helps businesses in this difficult time to survive (Hora, 2010. Process Management brings a relatively new perspective on corporate governance. According to McCoy et al. (2007 enterprises which implemented rules of process management have a competitive advantage over others. The paper presents the application of the principles of process management in relation to the legal form of business enterprise and business activity. For determining the level of principles of process management the indicator MPP was used (Rolśnek, 2012; Truneček, 2005. Based on statistical analysis, it can be argued that there is a relationship between the application of the principles of process management, business legal forms and also business activities.

  7. Impacts of Socially Responsible Corporate Activities on Korean Consumers’ Corporate Evaluations in the Agrifood Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmin Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The variety of socially responsible corporate activities employed in the agrifood industry has been broadening. An increasing number of agrifood companies have been employing strategic approaches to socially responsible activities, reinforced by Porter and Kramer’s concept of creating shared value (CSV. This study compares the effects on corporate evaluations of two socially responsible corporate activities: philanthropic giving and CSV. Because prior studies concerning the effects of corporate prosocial behaviors on consumer responses have yielded mixed results, the present study examines the effects of a priori perceptions of companies by using corporate stereotypes as moderators. The results show that the type of socially responsible corporate activity (CSV vs. philanthropic giving does not influence corporate evaluations. However, in cases of CSV (vs. philanthropic giving, consumers evaluate an unwarm but competent company more attractively and place higher value on an incompetent but warm company. This research is important not only for enriching existing literature, but also for providing guidelines to practitioners with respect to selecting appropriate corporate initiatives based on perceived consumer stereotypes.

  8. Study on Effect of IH764-3, an Active Principle of Salviae miltiorrhizae, in Inducing Hepatic Stellate Cell Apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东强; 姜慧卿; 修贺明; 张晓岚

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the anti-fibrotic mechanism of Salviae miltiorrhizae from the view of proliferation and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells (HSC).Methods: IH764-3, an active principle of Salviae miltiorrhizae, was used to intervene in the cultured HSC in vitro. Cell proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method, and the cell apoptosis was examined by electron microscopy, flow cytometer and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling method (TUNEL).Results: MTT showed that IH764-3 has obvious inhibition on the proliferation of HSC. Specific cell apoptosis figures of HSC, such as chromatin agglutination, were seen under electron microscopy in the IH764-3 treated group. By flow cytometer, it was shown that the HSC apoptosis rate in the IH764-3 treated group was higher than that in the control group, and the apoptosis inducing effect of IH764-3 was dose- and time-dependent. TUNEL analysis showed that the HSC apoptotsis rate was 28.3±1.5% after being incubated for 48 hrs with IH764-3, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (6.7±0.6%, P<0.05).Conclusion: IH764-3 could inhibit the proliferation of HSC and induce its apoptosis. These effects may be one of the anti-fibrotic mechanisms of Salviae miltiorrhizae.

  9. Screening of promising chemotherapeutic candidates against human adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma from plants: active principles from Physalis pruinosa and structure-activity relationships with withanolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Daisuke; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Hatsuse, Takahiro; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Okawa, Masafumi; Okabe, Hikaru; Tamura, Kazuo; Kinjo, Junei

    2011-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a peripheral T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1). Clinical manifestations of ATL range from smoldering to chronic, lymphoma and acute subtypes. Patients with acute and lymphoma-type ATL require therapeutic intervention. Conventional chemotherapeutic regimens used against other malignant lymphoma have been administered to ATL patients, but the therapeutic outcomes of acute and lymphoma-type ATL remain very poor. In this study, 214 extracts from 162 plants belonging to 65 families were screened for the purpose of elucidating the anti-proliferative effect against HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines. Extracts from aerial parts of Physalis pruinosa showed potent inhibitory effect. We isolated five withanolides from the extracts by activity-guided fractionation and examined the structure-activity relationships. The presence of a 5β,6β-epoxy function is suggested to be essential for the activity, and the most active principle showed selective toxicity to HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines.

  10. Morinda citrifolia (Noni: A comprehensive review on its industrial uses, pharmacological activities, and clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Abou Assi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medical practitioners in Hawaii and Polynesia have used Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni for centuries to cure or prevent varieties of illnesses. The popularity of M. citrifolia as a dietary supplement, a food functional ingredient, or as a natural health enhancer is increasing throughout the world. M. citrifolia contains phytochemicals that own antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumor, anthelminthic, analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory and immune enhancing effects. Moreover, the increasing vogue of M. citrifolia has attracted industries to employ it as a part of various products and for wide applications such as a natural source of medicines and chemical reagents as well as a green insecticidal. The wide spread of M. citrifolia in tropical climate of the globe, from USA to Brazil reaching to Tahiti, Malaysia and Australia, contributed in enriching its uses and potentials due to the variation in harvest locations. M. citrifolia parts including fruits, seeds, barks, leaves, and flowers are utilized on their own for individual nutritional and therapeutical values, however, the fruit is considered to contain the most valuable chemical compounds. This review discusses in details the industrial uses and the pharmacological activities of M. citrifolia fruit, seed, leaf and root, along with their isolated phytochemical compounds, through describing the conducted in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical data.

  11. Risk assessment of hazardous impacts on urbanization and industrialization activities based upon toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A risk assessment study was conducted to predict the expected hazardous influence on the ecosystem resulted from urbanization and industrialization activities at Helwan area, Egypt. To achieve these goals, soils, plants and water samples were collected from Helwan area, and their total concentrations of inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and organic pollutants; such as Phenol and hydrocarbons were measured. The obtained results showed that, the concentrations of organic contaminants in water streams and surrounding soils recorded high concentration values than the permissible limits, while inorganic elements were within the safe limits for irrigation. In addition, soils irrigated with the effluents of industrial units recorded high values of inorganic and organic contaminants. Consequently, the levels of these contaminants were high in plant tissues grown thereon; especially the edible parts. Risk assessment based on available Predicted No Effect Concentration values for the aquatic and terrestrial environment was performed. Inorganic elements were expected to cause serious hazard problems for both aquatic organisms and soil microorganisms. The impact of these pollutants on human health was calculated using daily metals intake of inorganic metals via consumption of edible plants. Hazard index values proved that concentrations of Cr may cause serious hazard problems for humans in this area; especially, children.

  12. The Sectorial Code - an inquiry into the contemporary sector development activities in the Danish construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing

    and incompatible experiences by perceiving them as symptoms of a sectorial malfunction in a way which defines new strategic opportunities or necessities. Concretization signifies processes by which the strategic orientation of the theorized sector representation is turned into experimental activities. Finally...... to be developed and implemented in the industry. Building Lab on the other hand diagnosed the symptoms as the effects of an under modularized production environment characterized by project specific problem solving and short term collaboration that hindered organization specialization and innovation...... optimised in order to facilitate organizational differentiation and company specific learning and capability building based on project independent production and development processes. . The two sector development strategies did however not only differ in concern to the sector representation which informed...

  13. Communication, activity and knowledge – governing unpredictability in post-industrial societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbeshausen, Hans; Ilgenayeva, Valentyna

    2016-01-01

    and its derivatives are paradigm-forming constructs of qualitatively new ideas about the world, its interactional structure, political culture, flows of information, and social relationships. In order to gain a holistic understanding of the importance of knowledge in post-industrial society, further......Abstract Purpose – The article mainly concentrates on the role of information and knowledge in transformation processes. The article examines and compares the concepts of information and knowledge in Social Communication Theory and Cultural-historical Activity Theory. This will be done in order...... to analyze the knowledge-power-relation essential for transformational and governmental processes in knowledge-societies. The dialectics between the rationalization of power and the politicization of knowledge are visible in the techniques used in social engineering and political administration. Social...

  14. Elemental analysis of some Egyptian ores and industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Elemental analysis of iron ore samples and first industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples from each kind were irradiated for a 48 hours at a thermal neutron flux of 4x1012 n/(cm2.s) in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-PP-1. Also the pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS) attached to the reactor in Inshass, was used to measure the elements of short-life time.The gamma-ray spectra were recorded by means of the hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. The long and short lived isotopes were considered. A comparative study and a discussion on the elemental concentration values are given.

  15. Elemental analysis of two Egyptian iron ores and produced industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroo, A; Abdel-Basset, N; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Hassan, A M

    2001-03-01

    Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4 x 10(12) n/cm2 s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The gamma-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented.

  16. Elemental analysis of two Egyptian iron ores and produced industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A.; Abdel-Basset, N.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Hassan, A.M

    2001-03-01

    Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4x10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The {gamma}-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented.

  17. Elemental analysis of some Egyptian ores and industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srror, A; Abdel-Basset, N; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Hassan, A M

    2001-01-01

    Elemental analysis of iron ore samples and first industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples from each kind were irradiated for a 48 hours at a thermal neutron flux of 4 x 10(12) n/(cm2.s) in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also the Pneumatic irradiation Rabbit system (PIRS) attached to the reactor in Inshass, was used to measure the elements of short-life time. The gamma-ray spectra were recorded by means of the hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. The long and short lived isotopes were considered. A comparative study and a discussion on the elemental concentration values are given.

  18. Analysis and Assessment of Main Economic Indicators of Activity of Agro-industrial Enterprises of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reznikova Olha S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in analysis of the modern state of the level of resource availability and efficiency of functioning of agro-industrial enterprises of the Crimean region. The article studies works of scientists, considers problems of concentration of agro-industrial production and land resources, economic efficiency of agro-industrial production and factors of its increase, however, issues of analysis and assessment of activity of agro-industrial enterprises of the AR Crimea stay unstudied. The article analyses and assesses main economic indicators of activity of agro-industrial enterprises of the Crimean regions, studies the state of efficiency of production of agricultural products in agro-formations of the region and also assesses the modern state of efficiency of functioning of agro-industrial enterprises of the AR of Crimea. The article offers prospective directions of increase of efficiency of functioning of agro-industrial enterprises that include technical re-equipment of production, increase of a number of people engaged in production of agricultural products and significant increase of well-being of a rural worker.

  19. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  20. Active load management with advanced window wall systems: Research and industry perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Levi, Mark S.; Blanc, Steven L.; McConahey, Erin; McClintock, Maurya; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Sbar, Neil L.; Myser, Michael P.

    2002-06-01

    Advanced window wall systems have the potential to provide demand response by reducing peak electric loads by 20-30% in many commercial buildings through the active control of motorized shading systems, switchable window coatings, operable windows, and ventilated double-skin facade systems. These window strategies involve balancing daylighting and solar heat gains, heat rejection through ventilation, and night-time natural ventilation to achieve space-conditioning and lighting energy use reductions without the negative impacts on occupants associated with other demand responsive (DR) strategies. This paper explores conceptually how advanced window systems fit into the context of active load management programs, which cause customers to directly experience the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Technological options are suggested. We present pragmatic criteria that building owners use to determine whether to deploy such strategies. A utility's perspective is given. Industry also provides their perspectives on where the technology is today and what needs to happen to implement such strategies more broadly in the US. While there is significant potential for these advanced window concepts, widespread deployment is unlikely to occur with business-as-usual practice. Technologically, integrated window-lighting-HVAC products are underdeveloped. Implementation is hindered by fragmented labor practices, non-standard communication protocols, and lack of technical expertise. Design tools and information products that quantify energy performance, occupant impacts, reliability, and other pragmatic concerns are not available. Interest within the building industry in sustainability, energy-efficiency, and increased occupant amenity, comfort, and productivity will be the driving factors for these advanced facades in the near term--at least until the dust settles on the deregulated electricity market.

  1. Utilization of Activated Carbon for the Removal of Ni Metal from Industrial Liquid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *1H. Tahir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution caused by toxic metals seems to occur globally. Metal intoxicated wastewater can be challenging to health safety. The high concentration of pollutants is required to be removed before the discharge of wastewater into open waste streams. The present study relates the monitoring of heavy metals in the industrial waste coming from Shairshah, Lyari SITE industrial area and control sites selected from Clifton beach of Karachi (Pakistan. Concentrations of selected trace metals, Cr, Fe, Hg, Na, K, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mo, Mn and Cu were estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Flame Photometer and 200 Multi parameter Ion Specific Meter under standard analytical conditions. Statistical methods of relevance were applied to check the accuracy of the system. Selective removal of Ni metal from waste water was carried out by adsorption process using activated carbon prepared from agricultural waste. The effectiveness of the adsorption process has been tested under the optimized conditions of temperature, concentration, stay time and amount of adsorbent. Adsorption isotherm models like Freundlich and Langmuir were applied to determine the feasibility of process by finding the values oftheir respective constants. The R2 values show that Langmuir model was the best fitted adsorption model. The feasibility of adsorption process was determined by RL factor. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (ΔG˚, enthalpy (ΔH˚ and entropy (ΔS˚ of the system were calculated. The sorption free energy (Es was also estimated. The pHpzc of adsorbent was also estimated by adopting pH drift method. The percentage removal and distribution coefficient (KD values for Ni removal were also determined. The present system represents that Ni and other metals can be effectively removed by employing adsorption method using low cost natural adsorbents.

  2. Synthesis of Analogues of Gingerol and Shogaol, the Active Pungent Principles from the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Evaluation of Their Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Shih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads.

  3. Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) against Russell's viper venom: characterization of piperine as active principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

    2013-05-20

    Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. To examine the ability of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L., Piperaceae (PLE) and piperine, one of the main active principles of Piper longum, to inhibit the Russell's viper (Doboia russelii, Viperidae) snake venom activities. Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine against Russell's viper venom was studied in embryonated fertile chicken eggs, mice and rats by using various models as follows: inhibition of venom lethal action, inhibition of venom haemorrhagic action (in vitro), inhibition of venom haemorrhagic action (in vivo), inhibition of venom necrotizing action, inhibition of venom defibrinogenating action, inhibition of venom induced paw edema, inhibition of venom induced mast cell degranulation, creatine kinase assay and assay for catalase activity. PLE was found to inhibit the venom induced haemorrhage in embryonated fertile chicken eggs. Administration of PLE and piperine significantly (p<0.01) inhibited venom induced lethality, haemorrhage, necrosis, defibrinogenation and inflammatory paw edema in mice in a dose dependent manner. PLE and piperine also significantly (p<0.01) reduced venom induced mast cell degranulation in rats. Venom induced decrease in catalase enzyme levels in mice kidney tissue and increase in creatine kinase enzyme levels in mice serum were significantly (p<0.01) reversed by administration of both PLE and piperine. PLE possesses good anti-snake venom properties and piperine is one of the compounds responsible for the effective venom neutralizing ability of the plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Industry and the Environment: A Danish Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    Many countries have introduced comprehensive environmental protection laws during the last few decades in response to the direct, visible environmental impacts of industrial activities. This has often resulted in specific technical regulations, but it has gradually been recognized that a change...... of awareness and management principles is needed too. In consequence, environmental management techniques have been developed to assist companies to reduce, evaluate, monitor and control their environmental impact at a corporate level. But how has this development been adopted in industry, and has it resulted...... in any changes in attitude? This article examines these questions, based on a survey of Danish industrial companies....

  5. The Design Principles of Micro-Video Production and In-Class Activi-ties on the Base of Flipped Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢盟梦

    2016-01-01

    Flipped classroom is a brand-new teaching mode both at home and abroad. Its core is to reverse teaching sequence and teaching content by letting students watch self-made videos to learn relatively junior teaching content before class, thus leaving students adequate space to exert full activities in the classroom to complete knowledge absorption and consolidation. This article focus mainly on the design principles and relevant experiences of video production. In the meanwhile, the article also puts for-ward instructive suggestions for teachers to make appealing and stylistic videos as well as mobilize the enthusiasm of students. Video as the stepping stone only serves as a media to convey knowledge before class, the class is the core to convert students’ traditional role to be the real master by a series of effective activities, which should be carefully designed by teachers. So the sec-ond focus of the articles falls on the design principles of in-class activities.

  6. SIZE ENTERPRISES’ INFLUENCE FOR INNOVATION ACTIVITY IN REGIONAL INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM IN POMORSKIE REGION IN 2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Świadek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In transition countries, company’s size has a big impact on economy processes, including innovation activity in industry. The main objective of the study was to search for the impact of class size of enterprises on their innovation activity within the regional industrial system in Pomorskie region, and consequently determine the boundary conditions for the model structure of regional innovation networks, which take into account the specificity of region, allowing a skillful creation of innovation policy. Methodological part of the study was based on probit modeling (probability theory.

  7. Extraction yield, antioxidant activity andphenolics from grape, mango and peanut agro-industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Costa Braga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine and correlate the extraction yields, antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids from grape, mango and peanut agro-industrial by-products. The β-carotene/linoleic acid autoxidation system and scavenging capacity for DPPH and ABTS free radicals assays were used. The results were expressed in terms of lyophilized sample or dry extract. Mango bagasse exhibited the highest extraction yield (37.07% followed by peanut skin (15.17% and grape marc (7.92%. In terms of lyophilized sample, total phenolics did not vary significantly among the residues evaluated (average of 60.33mg EAG g-1; however, when they were expressed as dry extract grape marc exhibited the highest total phenolic (768.56±116.35mg GAE g-1, followed by peanut skin (404.40±13.22mg GAE g-1 and mango bagasse (160.25±4.52mg GAE g-1, Peanut skin exhibited the highest content of total flavonoids (2.44mg QE g-1, while grape marc (1.76mg QE g-1 and mango bagasse (1.70 mg QE g-1 showed no significant differences. The extraction yield showed strong negative linear correlation with total phenolic and total flavonoid. This study showed that peanut skin was the sample with the highest antioxidant activity and it was strongly influenced by total flavonoids. All extracts of byproducts showed antioxidant activity comparable to α-tocopherol, and they can be a source of natural compounds with potential to replace synthetic antioxidants such as BHT.

  8. Introducing principles of validation into biochemistry and biotechnology courses: Practical concepts and a framework for active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembroke, J T

    2008-01-01

    Although undergraduate biochemistry and biotechnology courses teach the concept of accuracy and precision during practical laboratory sessions, the formal teaching of validation methodologies receives little attention. An increasing number of biochemistry and biotechnology graduates are finding work in industry in the area of industrial validation associated with biopharmaceutical, diagnostics, biomedical device, and pharmaceutical validation. We have introduced a structured introduction to validation into our undergraduate industrial biochemistry programme to illustrate the importance of validation within a framework of good manufacturing practice (GMP) and to show how validation is essential for regulatory compliance. Copyright © 2008 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  10. IMPACT OF LINKAGES WITH SUPPLIERS AND CUSTOMERS IN SUPPLY CHAIN ON THE INNOVATION ACTIVITY OF FOOD INDUSTRY IN WESTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dzikowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study which aims to determine the effect of the number of industrial vertical linkages and participation in the supply chain on innovation activity of food industry in western Poland. The main research hypothesis is the assumption that innovation processes in food industry are strongly determined by the intensity and nature of the linkages and membership in the supply chain. The scope of the survey relates to innovation in food industry, concerns innovation at the company level and takes into account the diffusion to the “new to the company”. Innovative activities are divided into three general groups including: expenditure on research and development and investments in fi xed assets not used so far (such as: buildings, premises and land, machinery and equipment, computer software, implementation of new products and processes, and innovative collaboration. The survey covers 422 industrial enterprises. The methodological part of the study uses probit modelling that enables to identify the probability of occurrence of innovation activity.

  11. Industrial Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Dan

    Intended for seniors planning a career in industry as skilled laborers, this specialized course in Industrial Communications offers the student basic communications skills which he will need in his work and in his daily life. Since class activities center around short, factual oral reports, class size will be limited to 20, providing a maximum of…

  12. Concentration and Separation of Active Proteins from Potato Industry Waste Based on Low-Temperature Evaporation and Ethanol Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahokas, Mikko; Järvinen, Juho; Toivanen, Juho; Tanskanen, Juha P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Potato fruit juice, a residue of starch industry, contains up to 2.5% [w/w] of proteins that are potentially valuable raw-materials of food, cosmetic, and pharma industries. The recovery of protein from the potato fruit juice is limited by the lack of industrially feasible concentration and separation technologies. The present research thus aimed at development of such process for the separation of active protease inhibitors from potato fruit juice. Methods. Low temperature mechanical vapor recompression evaporation was applied for concentration of potato fruit juice followed by ethanol precipitation for recovery of active proteins. The effects of precipitation temperature and precipitative agents were investigated employing response surface modeling methodology. Results. Concentration of potato fruit juice by evaporation was successful without loss of trypsin inhibition activity. Precipitation using 6.5 M ethanol at low temperature (0–+4°C) was found suitable for the recovery of active protease inhibitors from the concentrate. Piloting at starch industry yielded 50% of total proteins, with a high quantity of active protease inhibitors and a minor inclusion of other proteins. Conclusion. Concentration by low-temperature evaporation, followed by ethanol precipitation of protease inhibitors at optimized temperature, is an attractive option for valorization of potato fruit juice. PMID:28299232

  13. Exhibition activity as effective tool of industrial products promoting into new sales markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Bozhkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article presents comparative analysis of exhibition and fair activities, reviews essence of such definitions as «exhibition» and «fair», generalizes and systematizes classification of different kinds of exhibitions, grounds expediency of application of this marketing communication tool when outputting industrial products into new sales markets. The results of the analysis. The article analyzes the exhibition activities as one of the current and future marketing communication tools of domestic enterprises. Examples of the largest exhibition centers in Ukraine in general, and in the Sumy region in particular are shown. The essence of the concept of «exhibition» and definition of «fair» are analysed. It is noted that the main difference between these measures is in their form (product demonstration, explanation of the features and operation of its production or sale of goods. It is indicated the appearance synthesized measures («sales exhibitions», «fairs» that share features of both types of events. An exhibition benefits for businesses as measures that outline the prospects of certain activities and is a kind of «window into the future». It is indicated that costs about a third of the budget for the communication exhibitions is economically feasible and effective. It is considered mission, goals and objectives of exhibitions. The comparative analysis of exhibition and fair activities, which have different and common features associated with unique capabilities informing different target audiences about competitive advantagesof certain producers, which allowed the application of the noted features exhibitions to domestic producers. It is proved that the task of removing domestic products to new markets (especially international, weak enterprises survive the economic crisis, a successful competition in the various markets, the increase in sales is impossible to realize without this tool of marketing

  14. Declining physical activity and the socio-cultural context of the geography of industrial restructuring: a novel conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy

    2014-05-01

    At the population level, the prevalence of physical activity has declined considerably in many developed countries in recent decades. There is some evidence that areas exhibiting the lowest activity levels are those which have undergone a particularly strong transition away from employment in physically demanding occupations. We propose that processes of deindustrialization may be causally linked to unexplained geographical disparities in levels of physical activity. While the sociocultural correlates of physical activity have been well studied, and prior conceptual frameworks have been developed to explain more general patterns of activity, none have explicitly attempted to identify the components of industrial change that may impact physical activity. In this work we review the current literature on sociocultural correlates of health behaviors before using a case study centered on the United Kingdom to present a novel framework that links industrial change to declining levels of physical activity. We developed a comprehensive model linking sociocultural correlates of physical activity to processes associated with industrial restructuring and discuss implication for policy and practice. A better understanding of sociocultural processes may help to ameliorate adverse health consequences of employment decline in communities that have experienced substantial losses of manual employment.

  15. Geoethics and its principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó Štefan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining and mineral processing belong to the activities with a mostly negative impact on the environment. GAIA hypothesis should help us to understand the basic mechanisms of planetary homeostasis, influenced by human activities. Principles of the geoethics should help to respect the limits of disturbances and loading capacity of ecosystems, which have the essential importance for our survival.

  16. Monitoring and troubleshooting of non-filamentous settling and dewatering problems in an industrial activated sludge treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, B. V.; Keiding, Kristian; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2001-01-01

    A large industrial activated sludge wastewater treatment plant had temporary problems with settling and dewatering of the sludge. Microscopical investigations revealed that the poor settling properties were not due to presence of filamentous bacteria, but poor floc properties. In order...... at this industrial plant. The described strategy can be useful in general to find and solve many solid/liquid separation problems in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants....... had started after summer closedown. Possible reasons for the changes in floc properties in the process tanks were found by a) analysing change in wastewater composition by evaluating the different production lines in the industrial plant, b) evaluating the operation of the plant, and c) performing...

  17. Genetic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the basic principles of genetics, including the classification of genetic disorders and a consideration of the rules and mechanisms of inheritance. The most common pitfalls in clinical genetic diagnosis are described, with emphasis on the problem of the negative or misleading family history.

  18. Cosmological principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-10-01

    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 2/, 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 4/, and 2 Gm/c/sup 2/l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution. (SC)

  19. [Advanced Treatment of Effluent from Industrial Park Wastewater Treatment Plant by Ferrous Ion Activated Sodium Persulfate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Song-mei; Zhou, Zhen; Gu, Ling-yun; Jiang, Hai-tao; Ren, Jia-min; Wang, Luo-chun

    2016-01-15

    Fe(II) activated sodium persulfate (PS) technology was used for advanced treatment of effluent from industrial park wastewater treatment plant. Separate and combined effects of PS/COD, Fe(II)/PS and pH on COD and TOC removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology. Variations of organic substances before and after Fe(II)-PS oxidation were characterized by UV-Vis spectrometry, gel chromatography and three-dimensional fluorescence. PS/COD and Fe(II)/PS had significant effect on COD removal, while all the three factors had significant effect on TOC removal. The combined effect of PS/COD and pH had significant effect on COD removal. COD and TOC removal efficiencies reached 50.7% and 60.6% under optimized conditions of PS/COD 3.47, Fe(II)/PS 3.32 and pH 6.5. Fe(II)-PS oxidation converted macromolecular organic substances to small ones, and reduced contents of protein-, humic- and fulvic-like substances.

  20. Production from Activated Sludge Process of Sago Industry Wastewater Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Subha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sago industries effluent containing large amounts of organic content produced excess sludge which is a serious problem in wastewater treatment. In this study ozonation has been employed for the reduction of excess sludge production in activated sludge process. Central composite design is used to study the effect of ozone treatment for the reduction of excess sludge production in sago effluent and to optimise the variables such as pH, ozonation time, and retention time. ANOVA showed that the coefficient determination value (R2 of VSS and COD reduction were 0.9689 and 0.8838, respectively. VSS reduction (81% was achieved at acidic pH 6.9, 12 minutes ozonation, and retention time of 10 days. COD reduction (87% was achieved at acidic pH 6.7, 8 minutes of ozonation time, and retention time of 6 days. Low ozonation time and high retention time influence maximum sludge reduction, whereas low ozonation time with low retention time was effective for COD reduction.

  1. SELF-REGULATION FOR PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES OF STOCK MARKET PARTICIPANTS THEIR SENSE, AIMS AND PRINCIPLES OF INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Bachal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The expediency of introduction of self-regulation as most important element of realization of the general strategy of optimization of the state intervention in economy is proved. The essence, the purposes and principles of introduction of the self-regulatory organizations of stock exchange market participants are shown. Advantages and demerits of self-regulation are presented.

  2. An analysis of flaring and venting activity in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew R; Coderre, Adam R

    2011-02-01

    Alberta, Canada, is an important global producer of petroleum resources. In association with this production, large amounts of gas (1.14 billion m3 in 2008) are flared or vented. Although the amount of flaring and venting has been measurably reduced since 2002, data from 2005 reveal sharp increases in venting, which have important implications in terms of resource conservation and greenhouse gas emissions (which exceeded 8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2008). With use of extensive monthly production data for 18,203 active batteries spanning the years 2002-2008 obtained in close cooperation with the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, a detailed analysis has been completed to examine activity patterns of flaring and venting and reasons behind these trends in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry. In any given year, approximately 6000 batteries reported flaring and/or venting, but the distribution of volumes flared and vented at individual sites was highly skewed, such that small numbers of sites handled large fractions of the total gas flaring and venting in the Province. Examination of month-to-month volume variability at individual sites, cast in terms of a nominal turndown ratio that would be required for a compressor to capture that gas and direct it into a pipeline, further revealed that volumes at a majority of sites were reasonably stable and there was no evidence that larger or more stable sites had been preferentially reduced, leaving potential barriers to future mitigation. Through linking of geospatial data with production data coupled with additional statistical analysis, the 31.2% increase in venting volumes since 2005 was revealed to be predominantly associated with increased production of heavier oils and bitumen in the Lloydminster region of the Province. Overall, the data suggest that quite significant reductions in flaring and venting could be realized by seeking mitigation solutions for only the largest batteries in

  3. ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY OF ACTIVITY OF MANAGING SUBJECT OF VINE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudnikov A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the analysis of the effectiveness and the efficiency of entrepreneurial activity of organizations we apply a system of indexes, characterizing the level of the use of production resources: labor, floorspace, average annual cost of the combined assets, average annual cost of circulating assets, including supplies, average annual cost of own capital, production expenses, including financial expenses. As a quantitative result of activity of managing subject we use volume cost indexes, characterizing an effect: gross products are in current prices; profit yield from sales; gross revenue; income from sales; income to taxation; net income [1, 2, 3]. The high-quality indexes of efficiency of the use of production resources: gross products in current prices on an average annual worker; profit yield from sales on an average annual worker; gross. The analogical set of indexes of efficiency is applied, determining correlation of different types of effect and other resources. That determine an index, characterizing correlation of gross products in current prices and floorspace (in agricultural organizations we use 1 ga of lands, in point-of-sale – 1 m2 of point-ofsale area, in industry – 1 m2 of floorspace of factory, factory, workshop; correlation of profit yield from sales and floorspace; correlation of different. Then we determine indexes, characterizing correlation of different types of effect and average annual cost of the combined assets, correlation of different types of effect and average annual cost of circulating assets, production supplies, property asset, production expenses, and financial expenses. In obedience to methodical positions of analysis of indexes, characterizing the results of activity of managing subjects, we probe the dynamics of indexes for the last 3 – 5 years with the purpose of exposure of it. Important in research of indexes and efficiency of entrepreneurial activity is the use of factor analysis, allowing defining a

  4. The Application of Cooperation Principle and Politeness Principle in Oral Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石洁

    2014-01-01

    The pragmatic principle that people should comply with in communicative activities are the principles of cooperation and politeness principle. The principles of cooperation play a regulatory role in communication while politeness principle actually has a greater binding. In teaching, teachers should always teach basing on language and make students understand the Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle in pragmatics in order to improve oral communication skills.

  5. Merger and Acquisition Activity as Driver of Spatial Clustering : The Spatial Evolution of the Dutch Banking Industry, 1850-1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Hartog, Matté

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which merger and acquisition (M&A) activity contributed to the spatial clustering of the Dutch banking industry in Amsterdam. This analysis is based on a unique database of all banks in the Netherlands that existed in the period 1850-1993. We found that

  6. Skills in Motion: Boys' Trail Motorbiking Activities as Transitions into Working-Class Masculinity in a Post-Industrial Locale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivinson, Gabrielle Mary

    2014-01-01

    During an ethnographic research project exploring young people's perceptions of living in a post-industrial semi-rural place, boys aged 13/14 years revealed their semi-clandestine motorbiking activities across mountains trails. It was found that riding motorbikes and fixing engines were potential resources for young boys' transitions into adult…

  7. Skills in Motion: Boys' Trail Motorbiking Activities as Transitions into Working-Class Masculinity in a Post-Industrial Locale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivinson, Gabrielle Mary

    2014-01-01

    During an ethnographic research project exploring young people's perceptions of living in a post-industrial semi-rural place, boys aged 13/14 years revealed their semi-clandestine motorbiking activities across mountains trails. It was found that riding motorbikes and fixing engines were potential resources for young boys' transitions into adult…

  8. Merger and Acquisition Activity as Driver of Spatial Clustering : The Spatial Evolution of the Dutch Banking Industry, 1850-1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Hartog, Matté

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which merger and acquisition (M&A) activity contributed to the spatial clustering of the Dutch banking industry in Amsterdam. This analysis is based on a unique database of all banks in the Netherlands that existed in the period 1850-1993. We found that spatia

  9. Employment within the power supply industry and the power supply related activities 2010; Sysselsatte i kraftnaeringen og kraftrelatert virksomhet 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoen, Haavard

    2011-07-01

    The report's main objective is to investigate employment within the power supply industry and the power supply related activities. The report will describe the composition of employees in regard to sex, age and education. The power supply industry is defined in Statistics Norway's Standard Industrial Classification, as 'Production and distribution of electricity'. The group of companies related to power supply related activities employ similar persons in regard to education and occupation, typical to companies in the power supply industry. In the report, these two groups make up the power supply sector. In 2010 there were 18215 employees in the power supply sector. This constitutes an increase of nearly 12 per cent since 2004 and 1,7 per cent since 2008. The sex distribution of about 80 per cent men and 20 per cent women has been fairly stable since 2004. Compared to the private sector in general the power supply sector has a low share of women among its employees. In 2009 the level of education in the power supply sector was higher than for the private sector in general. Since 2004, the share of persons with higher education has increased from 27 to 33 per cent. Employees in the power supply sector are on an average older than the employees in the private sector. The employees have matured since 2004, but in the last few years, there have also been signs of fresh recruitment. The power supply industry had a net influx of 347 new employees, or 2 percent, in the period between 2009 and 2010. There were 1522 new employees and 1175 employees lost in the sector due to attrition, which gives a turnover rate of 20 percent. If we look at the supply of new employees who were also employed in 2009, 19 percent of female employees worked in temporary staff recruitment agencies. This indicates that temporary work was an entry gate to the power supply industry for many women. Among men, the building- and construction sector was the most common background for

  10. Comparison of soil heavy metal pollution caused by e-waste recycling activities and traditional industrial operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kailing; Sun, Zehang; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-04-01

    The traditional industrial operations are well recognized as an important source of heavy metal pollution, while that caused by the e-waste recycling activities, which have sprouted in some developing countries, is often overlooked. This study was carried out to compare the status of soil heavy metal pollution caused by the traditional industrial operations and the e-waste recycling activities in the Pearl River Delta, and assess whether greater attention should be paid to control the pollution arising from e-waste recycling activities. Both the total contents and the chemical fractionation of major heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in 50 surface soil samples collected from the e-waste recycling areas and 20 soil samples from the traditional industrial zones were determined. The results show that the soils in the e-waste recycling areas were mainly polluted by Cu, Zn, As, and Cd, while Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were the major heavy metals in the soils from the traditional industrial zones. Statistical analyses consistently show that Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils from both types of sites were contributed mostly by human activities, while As, Cr, and Ni in the soils were dominated by natural background. No clear distinction was found on the pollution characteristic of heavy metals in the surface soils between the e-waste recycling areas and traditional industrial zones. The potential ecological risk posed by heavy metals in the surface soils from both types of sites, which was dominated by that from Cd, ranged from low to moderate. Given the much shorter development history of e-waste recycling and its largely unregulated nature, significant efforts should be made to crack down on illegal e-waste recycling and strengthen pollution control for related activities.

  11. The marketing potential of corporate social responsibility activities: the case of the alcohol industry in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantani, Daniela; Peltzer, Raquel; Cremonte, Mariana; Robaina, Katherine; Babor, Thomas; Pinsky, Ilana

    2017-01-01

    The aims were to: (1) identify, monitor and analyse the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices of the alcohol industry in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and (2) examine whether the alcohol industry is using these actions to market their products and brands. Nine health experts from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay conducted a content analysis of 218 CSR activities using a standardized protocol. A content rating procedure was used to evaluate the marketing potential of CSR activities as well as their probable population reach and effectiveness. The LEAD procedure (longitudinal, expert and all data) was applied to verify the accuracy of industry-reported descriptions. A total of 55.8% of the actions were found to have a marketing potential, based on evidence that they are likely to promote brands and products. Actions with marketing potential were more likely to reach a larger audience than actions classified with no marketing potential. Most actions did not fit into any category recommended by the World Health Organization; 50% of the actions involving classroom and college education for young people were found to have marketing potential; 62.3% were classified as meeting the definition of risk management CSR. Alcohol industry Corporate Social Responsibility activities in Latin America and the Caribbean appear to have a strategic marketing role beyond their stated philanthropic and public health purpose. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. The Sectorial Code - an inquiry into the contemporary sector development activities in the Danish construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing

    of development the first block sets out by introducing the concepts of systems, regimes and fields. These concepts are introduced as they offer different vocabularies which may be used to understand how sectors condition industrial development. More importantly these vocabularies however also offer different....... This initiative thus suggested that an industrial transition based configurable system deliverances developed and produced independent of the individual construction project needed to be initiated. The image of rational behaviour which informed DC thus suggested that the organization of the project oriented...... development agenda. While the strategy of DC was to engage with the organised industrial interests, Building Lab DK perceived these interests as a barrier to an industrial reorganization based on configurable system deliverances. The strategy of this initiative accordingly was to target the companies...

  13. [Study of hydrogen cyanide activity in various working environment in gold-mining industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedkova, L A; Dorogova, V B; Petrov, V F

    2008-01-01

    The study concerned an influence of saline content of liquid phase of crushed ore and presence or absence of solution blending on the process of cyanic hydrogen release in air of working area gold-mining industry.

  14. Federal agencies active in chemical industry-related research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 calls for a program to further the commercialization of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies for the industrial sector.. The primary objective of the Office of Industrial Technologies Chemical Industry Team is to work in partnership with the US chemical industry to maximize economic, energy, and environmental benefits through research and development of innovative technologies. This document was developed to inventory organizations within the federal government on current chemical industry-related research and development. While an amount of funding or number of projects specifically relating to chemical industry research and development was not defined in all organizations, identified were about 60 distinct organizations representing 7 cabinet-level departments and 4 independent agencies, with research efforts exceeding $3.5 billion in fiscal year 1995. Effort were found to range from less than $500 thousand per year at the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior to over $100 million per year at the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The total number of projects in these programs exceeded 10,000. This document is complete to the extent that agencies volunteered information. Additions, corrections, and changes are encouraged and will be incorporated in future revisions.

  15. Alexandra Masaitis, UNR NV, USA. PhD Grad St. Principles of Adoption of the Successful Environmental Policies and Practices Used in Developed Countries into the Russian Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, A.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental Management principle based on the local conditions; 2. Devised were criteria for the risk assessment for mining operations in Russia. Where the fundamental principals were public health, environmental and biodiversity impact, long- and short- term rehabilitation plans, compliance with international standards and norms. Every criterion has grade level of probability that directly affects quarterly fees. 3. Developed was the mechanism of the economic motivation to make mining operations "environmentally friendly" that includes defrayal of expenses from both direct and indirect damages. 4. Identified were spheres of possible cooperation between mining companies, government organizations, and the NGOs. These include development of standards for Good Neighbor Agreement, exchange of environmental information, international exchange of successful environmental, health, and safety practices. The study showed the necessity for the Russian Federation mining industry to adopt the more successful environmental policies and practices used in developed countries. To achieve this goal the Regional Environmental Management principle, the risk assessment criteria, the mechanism of the economic motivation, and the principles for international cooperation can play an extremely important role.

  16. The Effect of Pulp Industrial Waste as Chemical Admixture to Compressive Strength of Fly Ash Based Alkali Activated Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmaji Andrie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Black liquor is a toxic by-product from industrial pulp manufacture. It contains sodium hydroxide that can be used as precursor activator for alkali activated material, which is an aluminosilicate material that can be prepared from thermal activation of solid material containing alumina and silica as precursor and alkali activator solution. In this work, alkali activated mortar was prepared by mixing fly ash as main precursors, aggregate, followed by addition of activator solution containing sodium hydroxide solution and waterglass, and chemical admixture which is lignin or black liquor. The best compressive strength was 34.40 MPa achieved in addition of 10 wt% of black liquor to alkali activated mortar. X-ray diffraction demonstrated the formation of albite in mortars, indicating that geopolymerization have been successfully formed. FTIR spectra showed the presence of siloxo and sialate peaks which commonly found in geopolymerization.

  17. Organization of industrial maintenance in oil pipeline and terminals activities: a project for the implantation of a corporative management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Paulo de Tarso Arruda [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses the definition and implementation of a corporate management model for industrial maintenance within TRANSPETRO's Terminals and Oil Pipelines business segment. A project is under way to answer the company's needs for better coordination of its maintenance activities as well as to face the challenge of increasing performance with higher systems and equipment' availability, at lower costs. To achieve this target, the project has been employing updating management tools for industrial maintenance planning and control. Its scope comprises the definition of: industrial maintenance process guidelines; industrial maintenance normative requirements and operational procedures; industrial maintenance performance indicators; local organizational charts; training of maintenance personnel; qualification and certification policies; conceptualization of maintenance engineering and maintenance based on risk; updating technologies such as asset management; warehousing and logistics for maintenance support in the supply of spare parts and materials. The project will also consider the results of a previous strategic sourcing study, concerning the definition of the most suitable out sourcing strategy for each operational unit, considering its characteristics as well as the characteristics of the region where it is located. (author)

  18. Valores sociales y actividad física: la evolución de la gimnasia al deporte en la modernidad industrial=Social values and physical activity: the evolution from gymnastics to sport in industry modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rodríguez Díaz

    2013-03-01

    pattern in religion and its age-old principles on body movement as a matter subject to moral discussion. With the new society arising from the Industrial Revolution a new concept of the body is created as an educational object for its labour aim. Firstly, gymnastics comes up as a tool for collective instruction in the new discipline of ruled movement of the body. Afterwards, it was English sports, based on team strategies and rule-based play that become established. In both cases, gymnastics and sport derive from a new core of values in which competition, joint effort and sense of surmounting are the dominant references. Such values are, likewise, connected to the nationalist spirit emerging in the 19th century. Thus, the birth of nation-states in Europe runs parallel to industrial economy and to a new body conception which evolves from gymnastics to sport. In this article we analyze the case of modernization of Spain, showing some illustrative examples of the change in the values concerned with physical activity carried out during the passage from the 19th to the 20th century.

  19. The Integration Aspects of Activities of the Companies in the Oil and Gas Industry Sector in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panevnyk Tetiana M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers both the dynamics and the structure of oil and gas production in Ukraine, situation of the oil and gas companies at the current stage of globalization of the world economy have been covered. The main problems impacting the functioning of the domestic industry sector have been identified, including the lack of effectiveness of the existing integration processes. The world trends and patterns of integration processes have been considered. It has been determined that the oil and gas industry sector leaders are the multinational companies that actively use integration in their practices. The current trends in creating integration linkages in different parts of the process chain in the oil and gas industry have been identified. Influence by large corporations of the innovative type on the creation of a favorable investment climate has been confirmed, as well as conducting their own policies of expansion in the overseas markets. On the basis of studying the foreign experience, expediency of development of the oil and gas sector enterprises by activating integration processes has been substantiated. Priorities and possibilities for further functioning of enterprises in the the oil and gas industry sector have been identified

  20. Achieving a predictable 24-hour return to normal activities after breast augmentation: part I. Refining practices by using motion and time study principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbetts, John B

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop techniques to predictably return patients receiving inframammary and axillary, subpectoral breast augmentation to full normal activities within 24 hours of their primary breast augmentation. This 5-year study applies motion and time study principles to refine practices in augmentation mammaplasty to reduce perioperative morbidity and shorten patient recovery. Retrospective data for operative times, medications administered, recovery times, times to discharge, and time to return to normal activities were collected from patient chart reviews and patient contacts from 1982 to 1984 (group 1, n = 16, axillary partial retropectoral augmentations) and 1990 (group 2, n = 16, inframammary partial retropectoral augmentations). Videotapes from operative procedures of groups 1 and 2 were analyzed with macromotion and micromotion study principles, and tables of events were formulated for all operating room personnel, detailing every step of each function they performed. The events tables were then refined into detailed scripts by using motion and time study principles. Scripts were used for surgeon and personnel training and for reference during operative procedures. Extensive changes in all aspects of patient care, including patient education, preparation, operative planning, implant selection, anesthesia techniques, surgical techniques, instrumentation, and postoperative care derived from data and videotape studies of patients in groups 1 and 2 were then applied to a third group of patients (group 3), collecting prospective data over a 3-year period (1998 to 2000). Group 3 (n = 627) data included timed events, medications, and time to return to normal activities. Patients in group 3 had substantially shorter anesthesia, operation, and postanesthesia care unit times and time to discharge and time to return to normal activities compared with groups 1 and 2. Of the patients in group 3, 96 percent were able to return to normal activities

  1. Employment within the power supply industry and the power supply related activities; Sysselsatte i kraftnaeringen og kraftrelatert virksomhet 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoen, Haavard

    2012-07-01

    The report's main objective is to investigate employment within the power supply industry and the power supply related activities. The report will describe the composition of employees in regard to sex, age and education. The power supply industry is defined in Statistics Norway's Standard Industrial Classification, as 'Production and distribution of electricity'. The group of companies related to power supply related activities employ similar persons in regard to education and occupation, typical to companies in the power supply industry. These two groups make up the power supply sector in this report. In 2011 there were 18 450 employees in the power supply sector. This constitutes an increase of nearly 13.5 per cent since 2004 and 1.1 per cent since 2010. The sex distribution of about 80 per cent men and 20 per cent women has been fairly stable since 2004. The power supply sector has a low share of women among its employees compared to the private sector in general. In 2011 the level of education in the power supply sector was higher than for the private sector in general. Since 2004, the share of persons with higher education has increased from 27 to 33 per cent. Employees in the power supply sector are on average older than employees in the private sector. The employees have matured since 2004, but in the last few years, there have also been signs of fresh recruitment. The power supply industry had a net influx of 380 new employees, in the period between 2009 and 2011. There were 1678 new employees and 1298 employees lost in the sector due to attrition. If we look at the supply of new employees who were also employed in 2010, 14.2 percent of female employees worked in temporary staff recruitment agencies. Temporary work seems to be an important entry gate to the power supply industry for women. Among men, the building- and construction sector was the most common background for new employees in the power supply industry. Among people who quit

  2. Microwave-assisted preparation and adsorption performance of activated carbon from biodiesel industry solid reside: influence of operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon has been attempted using KOH as activating agent by microwave heating from biodiesel industry solid residue, oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFBAC). The significance of chemical impregnation ratio (IR), microwave power and activation time on the properties of activated carbon were investigated. The optimum condition has been identified at the IR of 1.0, microwave power of 600 W and activation time of 7 min. EFBAC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption isotherm. The surface chemistry was examined by zeta potential measurement, determination of surface acidity/basicity, while the adsorptive property was quantified using methylene blue as dye model compound. The optimum conditions resulted in activated carbon with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 395.30 mg/g and carbon yield of 73.78%, while the BET surface area and total pore volume were corresponding to 1372 m2/g and 0.76 cm3/g, respectively.

  3. 浅谈听力活动设计原则及影响因素%Design principle and influencing factor of listening activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈适; 朱晨

    2013-01-01

    Many language teachers have been committed to the design of the listening activities, in order to make the students actively participate in teaching activities in classroom listening, and obtain satisfactory learning effect. According to the author's own teaching experience and professional literature, summarizes and expounds the factors influencing the design principle and listening activities.%很多语言教学工作者一直致力于听力活动的设计,以求能让学生积极主动地参与课堂听力教学活动,并获得较为满意的学习效果。本文结合作者的自身教学经验以及一些专业文献资料,简单归纳和阐述了听力活动设计的原则以及影响因素。

  4. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This study was initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  5. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes a study initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  6. Threshold responses of songbirds to long-term timber management on an active industrial forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D.A.; Wood, P.B.; Keyser, P.D.; Wigley, T.B.; Dellinger, R.; Weakland, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Forest managers often seek to balance economic benefits from timber harvesting with maintenance of habitat for wildlife, ecosystem function, and human uses. Most research on the relationship between avian abundance and active timber management has been short-term, lasting one to two years, creating the need to investigate long-term avian responses and to identify harvest thresholds when a small change in habitat results in a disproportionate response in relative abundance and nest success. Our objectives were to identify trends in relative abundance and nest success and to identify landscape-scale disturbance thresholds for avian species and habitat guilds in response to a variety of harvest treatments (clear-cuts, heavy and light partial harvests) over 14 years. We conducted point counts and monitored nests at an industrial forest in the central Appalachians of West Virginia during 1996-1998, 2001-2003, and 2007-2009. Early successional species increased in relative abundance across all three time periods, whereas interior-edge and forest-interior guilds peaked in relative abundance mid-study after which the forest-interior guild declined. Of 41 species with >10 detections, four (10%) declined significantly, 13 (32%) increased significantly (only three species among all periods), and 9 (22%) peaked in abundance mid-study (over the entire study period, four species had no significant change in abundance, four declined, and one increased). Based on piecewise linear models, forest-interior and interior-edge guilds' relative abundance harvest thresholds were 28% total harvests (all harvests combined), 10% clear-cut harvests, and 18% light partial harvests, after which abundances declined. Harvest thresholds for the early successional guild were 42% total harvests, 11% clear-cut harvest, and 10% light partial harvests, and relative abundances increased after surpassing thresholds albeit at a reduced rate of increase after the clear-cut threshold. Threshold confidence

  7. [The effect of economic activities on the fauna and population count of malarial mosquitoes in an industrial city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarechnaia, S N; Severin, N V

    1989-01-01

    During his practical activities man produces a considerable effect on the Anopheles urban population by changing areas and character of the breeding sites as well as urban conglomerates' microclimate. In the 80-s breeding site areas and number of Anopheles larvae were observed in the Il'ichevskiĭ industrial district of Mariupol'. Domination indices have changed. An. hyrcanus has disappeared completely. The number of An. claviger has reduced to 2-5%. At present, the dominant species is An. maculipennis.

  8. Current state of ESCO activities in Asia: ESCO industry development programs and future tasks in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakoshi, Chiharu; Nakagami, Hidetoshi (Jyukankyo Research Inst. (Japan))

    2009-07-01

    In Japan and other Asian countries, ESCO markets are under formation. Introduction of ESCOs to Asia took place in the 1990s. A vigorous ESCO market is already forming in Japan, South Korea, China, and Thailand. Also, in Malaysia, and the Philippines, ESCO market development is proceeding. How did these countries introduce ESCO industries? What kind of activities are being carried out, and what are future tasks? As a first step in implementing ESCO development programs, developed countries have used government support, while emerging countries have co-operated with international organisations. By classifying the types of programs and examining activities currently under way, we can understand necessary conditions for developing an ESCO industry. When we classify programs of various countries, we see that most countries implement the same kinds of measures. However, the results vary. Some countries are progressing with market development, while others have not reached the point of market formation. Analysis of factors leading to these variations is important to the future development of ESCO industries. In this paper, we describe the current state of ESCO activities in Japan and emerging countries, and we examine ESCO development programs of each country. In particular, by comparing measures taken in countries with successful ESCO market development, such as Japan, China, Thailand and India with those still trying to develop ESCO markets, such as Malaysia, and the Philippines, we analyse factors leading to success, and we illuminate future tasks for each country.

  9. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 7: BLOW AND PURGE ACTIVITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  10. Gamescape Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobaew, Banphot; Ryberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new theoretical framework or visual grammar for analysing visual aspects of digital 3D games, and for understanding more deeply the notion of Visual Digital Game Literacy. The framework focuses on the development of a visual grammar by drawing on the digital literacy framewo...... as to understand how learners posses or can develop broader critical media literacies and visual digital literacies in education.......This paper proposes a new theoretical framework or visual grammar for analysing visual aspects of digital 3D games, and for understanding more deeply the notion of Visual Digital Game Literacy. The framework focuses on the development of a visual grammar by drawing on the digital literacy framework...... and interviews) collected during a game workshop where students, studying to become game designers, developed a number of games. The visual digital literacy framework we propose consists of five main major components: Gamescape Principles, Interpretation, Style, Experiences and Practices. For the purpose...

  11. Widely available active sites on Ni2P for electrochemical hydrogen evolution - insights from first principles calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Stern, Lucas-Alexandre; Feng, Ligang;

    2015-01-01

    We present insights into the mechanism and the active site for hydrogen evolution on nickel phosphide (Ni2P). Ni2P was recently discovered to be a very active non-precious hydrogen evolution catalyst. Current literature attributes the activity of Ni2P to a particular site on the (0001) facet. In ...

  12. Application of the Activity Based Costing System to the Wood Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Petru Vârteiu

    2016-01-01

    Costing through this method requires taking the following steps: identification of activities,assessment of resources consumed by each activity, determination of cost drivers and calculationof unit costs for each driver, and allocation of activity costs for each cost object.

  13. Performance of Submerged Membrane Bioreactor Combined with Powdered Activated Carbon Addition for the Treatment of an Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Widjaja

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane technology is one of the alternative solutions to overcome industrial wastewater treatment developed nowadays. The addition of PAC (Powdered Activated Carbon in the activated sludge using Submerged Membrane Adsorption Hybrid Bioreactor (SMAHBR is expected to increase the organic material removal. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of submerged membrane bioreactor and activated carbon adsorption capacity of organic materials in wastewater. This study used SIER (Surabaya Industrial Estate Rungkut – Surabaya, Indonesia waste as activated sludge operated at Mixed Liquor Suspended Solid (MLSS concentrations of 8000 and 15000 mg/l, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD concentrations of 1500, 2500 mg/l, Sludge Retention Time (SRT of 10;20; and 30 days and activated carbon variables of 0%; 2.5%; 5%; 7.5%; 10%. The results showed that the fouling potential occurred at high MLSS where the COD removal occurred at PAC addition of 10% reaching 91.86%. High Soluble Microbial Product (SMP accumulation (± 10 mg/l occurred in short SRT and high MLSS concentration. PAC addition resulted in decreased microorganisms in the reactor and better effluent of SMAHBR, as a result, the performance of the submerged membrane bioreactor would be restored.

  14. Effect of long-term industrial waste effluent pollution on soil enzyme activities and bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; Zhang, Li-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the influence of exogenous pollutants on microorganisms, the effect of long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) pollution on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria was still unclear. Three soil samples characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) receiving mixed organic and heavy metal pollutants for more than 20 years through IWE were collected along the Mahi River basin, Gujarat, western India. Basal soil respiration and in situ enzyme activities indicated an apparent deleterious effect of IWE on microbial activity and soil function. Community composition profiling of soil bacteria using 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method indicated an apparent bacterial community shift in the IWE-affected soils. Cloning and sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the dominated bacterial phyla in polluted soil were affiliated with Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, indicating that these bacterial phyla may have a high tolerance to pollutants. We suggested that specific bacterial phyla along with soil enzyme activities could be used as relevant biological indicators for long-term pollution assessment on soil quality. Graphical Abstract Bacterial community profiling and soil enzyme activities in long-term industrial waste effluent polluted soils.

  15. Evaluation of Materials in a Biomechanical System for Uses in Industrial Lifting Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto L. Avitia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A biomechanical system is proposed for the emulation of the movement of human arm, leg, and spine movements, as an industry alternative to manage heavy operations in a manufacturing process. The Matlab® programming environment is used as a simulation tool for the analysis and validation of this proposed biomechanism. This machine would reduce the accidents due to human exposure to risky industry environments like the particular one at the host company that we are using as a model for our research. They claim that the accidents in this area alone arise to around thirty percent of the total, causing a decrease in the productivity of the company and other economic losses derived from the worker injuries and insurances.

  16. Usefulness of Activated Carbon Prepared from Industrial Wastes in the Removal of Nickel from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajalakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Elimination of heavy metals like nickel from waste water is an important subject in view of public health. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the applicability of industrial by-products as potential metal adsorbents to remove nickel from aqueous solutions and polluted water. A direct proportionality between the percentage of Ni(II removal and adsorbent dosage was noted. Maximum removal ⁄ recovery of nickel was achieved at pH range of 10-12 for all adsorbents. An optimum temperature of 40 °C for efficient removal of Ni(II was observed. The effect of nickel adsorption was affected by salinity. The adsorption isotherm data confirmed to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Conformation of data to the Lagergren᾽s rate equation indicated first order kinetics. The suitability of the industrial by-products in the successful removal of nickel from aqueous solution is quite obvious from the study.

  17. Framework for the design and delivery of organized physical activity sessions for children and adolescents: rationale and description of the 'SAAFE' teaching principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Lonsdale, Chris; Cohen, Kristen; Eather, Narelle; Beauchamp, Mark R; Morgan, Philip J; Sylvester, Benjamin D; Smith, Jordan J

    2017-02-23

    The economic burden of inactivity is substantial, with conservative estimates suggesting the global cost to health care systems is more than US$50 billion. School-based programs, including physical education and school sport, have been recommended as important components of a multi-sector, multi-system approach to address physical inactivity. Additionally, community sporting clubs and after-school programs (ASPs) offer further opportunities for young people to be physically active outside of school. Despite demonstrating promise, current evidence suggests school-based physical activity programs, community sporting clubs and ASPs are not achieving their full potential. For example, physical activity levels in physical education (PE) and ASP sessions are typically much lower than recommended. For these sessions to have the strongest effects on young people's physical activity levels and their on-going physical literacy, they need to improve in quality and should be highly active and engaging. This paper presents the Supportive, Active, Autonomous, Fair, Enjoyable (SAAFE) principles, which represent an evidence-based framework designed to guide the planning, delivery and evaluation of organized physical activity sessions in school, community sport and ASPs. In this paper we provide a narrative and integrative review of the conceptual and empirical bases that underpin this framework and highlight implications for knowledge translation and application.

  18. Effect of rTMS on brain activation in schizophrenia with negative symptoms: A proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlabac-de Lange, Jozarni J; Liemburg, Edith J; Bais, Leonie; Renken, Remco J; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2015-10-01

    Prefrontal cortical dysfunction is frequently reported in schizophrenia and is thought to underlie negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) can modulate neuronal activity and has been shown to improve negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, but the underlying neural mechanism is unknown. To examine whether 3weeks of 10Hz rTMS treatment of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would improve frontal brain activation in patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the Tower of London (ToL) task. 24 patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia with moderate to severe negative symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative subscale≥15) participated. Patients were randomized to a 3-week (15day) course of active or sham rTMS. All patients performed the ToL task during fMRI scanning both pre-treatment and post-treatment. Differences in brain activation between the two groups were compared non-parametrically. After rTMS treatment, brain activity in the active group increased in the right DLPFC and the right medial frontal gyrus as compared to the sham group. In addition, the groups significantly differed with regard to activation change in the left posterior cingulate, with decreased activation in the active and increased activation in the sham group. Treatment with rTMS over the DLPFC may have the potential for increasing task-related activation in frontal areas in patients with schizophrenia. Effects of different rTMS parameters and fMRI tasks targeting relevant brain circuitry deserve further investigation. Nederlands Trial Register, registration number: NTR1261. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Athletic Apparel Industry Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIE; TAN; NAFISUL; ISLAM; MILAN; MITRASINOVIC

    2015-01-01

    Industry Overview The athletic apparel industry is the fastest growing segment of global clothing industry differentiated by offering high quality athletic apparel made of technically advanced fabrics.The athletic apparel is made for a variety of sports and physical activities for children,men and women and enhances comfort and performance of athletes.The industry consists of companies that design and market

  20. Spatial Determinants on Export marketing activity in Marshallian Districts: An investigation of the Danish Furniture Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the contribution is investigate the role of localised districts on the organisation of export activities in small and medium-sized furniture producers. To what extent do local environments influence the export activities taken on by firms?...

  1. [To 70th anniversary of the Victory: activities of V.A. Obukh Central Institute for Industrial hygiene and Occupational diseases with USSR Narkomzdrav during Great Patriotic War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmerov, N F; Bukhtiiarov, I V; Prokopenko, L V; Shigan, E E

    2015-01-01

    The article covers data on activities of scientists and staffers of VA. Obukh Central Institute for Industrial hygiene and Occupational diseases with USSR Narkomzdrav during Great Patriotic War, on role of occupational therapists and hygienists in solving problems of better medical and sanitary care for workers engaged into defence industry.

  2. Hybrid Active Filter with Variable Conductance for Harmonic Resonance Suppression in Industrial Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Tzung-Lin; Wang, Yen-Ching; Li, Jian-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    -tuned passive filter and an active filter in series connection, both dc voltage and kVA rating of the active filter are dramatically decreased compared with the pure shunt active filter. In real application, this feature is very attractive since the active power filter with fully power electronics is very...... expensive. A reasonable trade-off between filtering performances and cost is to use the hybrid active filter. Design consideration are presented and experimental results are provided to validate effectiveness of the proposed method. Furthermore, this paper discusses filtering performances on line impedance...

  3. Adsorption of gold ions from industrial wastewater using activated carbon derived from hard shell of apricot stones - an agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Mansooreh; Kaghazchi, Tahereh

    2008-09-01

    In this study, hard shell of apricot stones was selected from agricultural solid wastes to prepare effective and low cost adsorbent for the gold separation from gold-plating wastewater. Different adsorption parameters like adsorbent dose, particle size of activated carbon, pH and agitation speed of mixing on the gold adsorption were studied. The results showed that under the optimum operating conditions, more than 98% of gold was adsorbed onto activated carbon after only 3h. The equilibrium adsorption data were well described by the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Isotherms have been used to obtain thermodynamic parameters. Gold desorption studies were performed with aqueous solution mixture of sodium hydroxide and organic solvents at ambient temperatures. Quantitative recovery of gold ions is possible by this method. As hard shell of apricot stones is a discarded as waste from agricultural and food industries, the prepared activated carbon is expected to be an economical product for gold ion recovery from wastewater.

  4. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Sandy; Giovino, Gary; Chaloupka, Frank

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) and the interest in studying tobacco harm reduction, sound research and surveillance are needed to examine and understand the distribution and availability of PREPs in communities, as well as the tobacco industry's marketing practices surrounding these products. We examined the availability and marketing of PREPs in a national sample of tobacco retail stores. We also compared the price of PREPs to those of premium brand cigarettes and examined the distribution of PREPs in comparison with premium brand cigarettes by store type, urbanization, region, and race/ethnicity. We found that PREPs are not widely available, are priced similarly to leading cigarette brands, and have few promotional offers. We also found some significant differences in the distribution of PREPs and cigarettes, as well as in the distribution of Ariva and Omni, by store type and community demographics. The fact that this study used data collected nationally emphasizes the importance of these findings and helps shed some light on the tobacco industry's PREP marketing strategies. This study's national sample provides a unique perspective that needs to be replicated if and when other PREPs are widely marketed.

  5. The status of Chinese permanent magnet industry and R&D activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shengzhi; Li, Wei; Chen, Hongsheng; Han, Rui

    2017-05-01

    It has been 15 years since China dominated the rare earth permanent magnet market in 2001. The annual output of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets in China reached a new record of 126,300 tonnages in 2015 while the output in 2001 is only 6,500 tonnages. The average growth rate from 2001 to 2015 is about 23.5% though the output in 2012 suffers a deep drop due to the well known rare earth crisis in 2011. Currently, the RE magnet production capability in China seems to be over developed compared to actual requirements. Needless to say the oversupply situation implies a hard time for RE magnet manufacturers due to the fierce competition but maybe a good time for the whole industry. The motivation for a company to develop new technology and more competitive products with better performance and/or lower costs is greatly enhanced. The objective of this paper is to give a general picture of Chinese REPM industry and market including the output capability, the status of competition, the development of magnet application and the market trend. Some new research hot points potentially being applied, for example the Cerium magnet, will be introduced as well.

  6. Mutagenicity of particulate matter fractions in areas under the impact of urban and industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Andréia Torres; Coronas, Mariana Vieira; Rocha, Jocelita Aparecida Vaz; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2012-11-01

    Organisms in the environment are exposed to a mixture of pollutants. Therefore the purpose of this study was to analyze the mutagenicity of organic and inorganic responses in two fractions of particulates (TSP and PM2.5) and extracts (organic and aqueous). The mutagenicity of organic and aqueous particulate matter extracts from urban-industrial and urban-residential areas was evaluated by Salmonella/microsome assay, through the microsuspension method, using strain TA98 with and without liver metabolization. Additionally, strains YG1021 and YG1024 (nitro-sensitive) were used for organic extracts. Aqueous extracts presented negative responses for mutagenesis and cytotoxicity was detected in 50% of the samples. In these extracts the presence of potential bioavailable metals was identified. All organic extracts presented mutagens with a higher potential associated with PM2.5. This study presents a first characterization of PM2.5 in Brazil, through the Salmonella/microsome assay. The evaluation strategy detected the anthropic influence of groups of compounds characteristically found in urban and industrial areas, even in samples with PM values in accordance with quality standards. Thus, the use of a genotoxic approach in areas under different anthropic influences will favor the adoption of preventive measures in the health/environment relation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Directly alcohol-attributable mortality by industry and occupation in a Spanish Census cohort of economically active population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, José; Vallejo, Fernando; Alonso-López, Ignacio; Regidor, Enrique; Villar, Fernando; de la Fuente, Luis; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Barrio, Gregorio

    2017-08-18

    To assess disparities in directly alcohol-attributable (DAA) mortality by industry/occupation in Spain during 2002-2011 and the contribution of different socio-demographic factors, including socioeconomic position, to explain such disparity. Nationwide cohort study covering 16 million economically active people living in Spain in 2001. Deaths at age 25-64 were analyzed. Subjects were classified by employment status, industry and occupation at baseline. Poisson regression models were built, calculating rate ratios (RRs) compared to all employees or those in the education sector. DAA mortality was much higher in the unemployed than in employees (Crude RR: 2.4; 95% CI: 2.3-2.6) and varied widely across industries/occupations. Crude RRs>3.0 (p1.33 (poccupational disparities in alcohol-attributable mortality, implementation of special measures to reduce this mortality in the highest risk groups is fully justified. Future research should better characterize the explanatory factors of disparities and their role in the causal chain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Correlation of wood-based components and dewatering properties of waste activated sludge from pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyllönen, H; Lehto, J; Pirkonen, P; Grönroos, A; Pakkanen, H; Alén, R

    2010-01-01

    Large amounts of wet sludge are produced annually in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. Already in pulp and paper industry, more than ten million tons of primary sludge, waste activated sludge, and de-inking sludge is generated. Waste activated sludge contains large quantities of bound water, which is difficult to dewater. Low water content would be a matter of high calorific value in incineration but it also has effects on the volume and the quality of the matter to be handled in sludge disposal. In this research waste activated sludges from different pulp and paper mills were chemically characterised and dewatered. Correlations of chemical composition and dewatering properties were determined using multivariate analysis. Chemical characterisation included basic sludge analysis, elementary analysis and analysis of wood-based components, such as hemicelluloses and lignin-derived material. Dewatering properties were determined using measurements of dry solids content, flux and flocculant dosage. The effects of different variables varied according to the response concerned. The variables which were significant regarding cake DS increase in filtration or centrifugation and flocculant dosage needed in filtration were different from those which were significant regarding flux.

  9. Novel Principles of Gamma-Retroviral Insertional Transcription Activation in Murine Leukemia Virus-induced End-stage Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Martin; Wabl, Matthias; Rius Ruiz, Irene;

    2014-01-01

    Background Insertional mutagenesis screens of retrovirus-induced mouse tumors have proven valuable in human cancer research and for understanding adverse effects of retroviral-based gene therapies. In previous studies, the assignment of mouse genes to individual retroviral integration sites has...... been based on close proximity and expression patterns of annotated genes at target positions in the genome. We here employed next-generation RNA sequencing to map retroviral-mouse chimeric junctions genome-wide, and to identify local patterns of transcription activation in T-lymphomas induced...... than 2,000 mice was examined. Results We detected several novel mechanisms of retroviral insertional mutagenesis: bidirectional activation of mouse transcripts on opposite sides of a provirus including transcription of unannotated mouse sequence; sense/antisense-type activation of genes located...

  10. Principle and Control Design of Active Ground-Fault Arc Suppression Device for Full Compensation of Ground Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Zeng, Xiangjun; Yan, Lingjie;

    2017-01-01

    Traditional ground-fault arc suppression devices mainly deal with capacitive component of ground current and have weak effect on the active and harmonic ones, which limits the arc suppression performance. The capacitive current detection needed in them suffers from low accuracy and robustness....... The commonly-used large-capacity reactive component may bring about overvoltage because of possible resonance with the distributed phase-to-ground capacitance. To solve these problems, an active ground-fault arc suppression device is presented. It employs a topology based on single-phase inverter to inject...... current into the neutral without any large-capacity reactors, and thus avoids the aforementioned overvoltage. It compensates all the active, reactive and harmonic components of the ground current to reliably extinguish the ground-fault arcs. A dual-loop voltage control method is proposed to realize arc...

  11. Industrial extension, the Oklahoma way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Edmund J.

    1994-03-01

    Oklahoma has established a customer-driven industrial extension system. A publicly-chartered, private non-profit corporation, the Oklahoma Alliance for Manufacturing Excellence, Inc. (`the Alliance') coordinates the system. The system incorporates principles that Oklahoma manufacturers value: (1) decentralization and local accessibility; (2) coordinated existing resources; (3) comprehensive help; (4) interfirm cooperation; (5) pro-active outreach; (6) self- help and commitment from firms; (7) customer governance; and (8) performance accountability. The Oklahoma system consists of: (1) a network of locally-based broker/agents who work directly with manufacturers to diagnose problems and find appropriate assistance; (2) a group of industry sector specialists who collect and disseminate sector specific technological and market intelligence to the broker/agents and their clients; (3) all the specialized public and private sector resources coordinated by the system; and (4) a customer- driven coordination and evaluation mechanism, the Alliance.

  12. Social stratification in a global successful activity: the case of wine industry in Mendoza (1995-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Heredia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to contribute to the knowledge of social inequalities in contemporary Argentina, this article examines how the restructuring of the wine from Mendoza (which begun in the late eighties and consolidated in the year two thousand resulted in the restructuring of different socio-professional categories and their ties. The speed and depth of these transformations, in a relatively limited space and in an economic activity that is judged as a successful case of integration into the international market make Mendoza wine’s industry a privileged case to discuss social impact of agribusiness’ transnationalization

  13. Investigation of the potential effects of underwater noise from petroleum-industry activities on feeding humpback whale behavior. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malme, C.I.; Miles, P.R.; Tyack, P.; Clark, C.W.; Bird, J.E.

    1985-06-01

    An investigation was made of the potential effects of underwater noise from petroleum-industry activities on the behavior of feeding humpback whales in Frederick Sound and Stephens Passage, Alaska in August, 1984. Test sounds were a 100 cu. in. air gun and playbacks of recorded drillship, drilling platform, production platform, semi-submersible drill rig, and helicopter fly-over noise. Sound source levels and acoustic propagation losses were measured. The movement patterns of whales were determined by observations of whale-surfacing positions.

  14. Extreme load alleviation using industrial implementation of active trailing edge flaps in a full design load basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Athanasios; Pettas, Vasilis; Gertz, Drew Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The application of active trailing edge flaps in an industrial oriented implementation is evaluated in terms of capability of alleviating design extreme loads. A flap system with basic control functionality is implemented and tested in a realistic full Design Load Basis (DLB) for the DTU 10MW...... Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) model and for an upscaled rotor version in DTU's aeroelastic code HAWC2. The flap system implementation shows considerable potential in reducing extreme loads in components of interest including the blades, main bearing and tower top, with no influence on fatigue loads and power...

  15. Comparative studies of utilization of industrial electron accelerators and adsorption with activated carbon for industrial effluent treatment; Estudo comparativo da utilizacao de aceleradores industriais de eletrons e adsorcao com carvao ativado para tratamento de efluentes industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Rela, Paulo R.; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Las Casas, Alexandre; Mori, Manoel Nunes; Omi, Nelson M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mhosampa@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    A technical and economical feasibility study was performed comparing the use electron beam and activated charcoal for treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study was used synthetic solutions, prepared in laboratory with organic compounds standards, where the composition was focused on the critical organic contaminants usually presented in wastewater from petrochemical industry. For the sample irradiation was used an industrial electron beam from Radiation Dynamics Inc. 1.5 MeV - 37.5 kW setup in IPEN. The doses ranged from 5 kGy to 100 kGy. A common granulated activated charcoal in a fixed-bed absorber glass column was used to study the pollutants absorption performance. The results show that if the adequate irradiation dose was delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is, in aspect of organic removal efficiency, similar to the activated carbon process. (author)

  16. Effect of the Principle of Activating Blood Circulation to Break Stasis on GMP-140 and D2 Dimer in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of the principle of activating blood circulation to break stasis (ABCBS) and its influence on platelet membranous protein particle (GMP-140) and D2 dimer (Ddimer) before and after treatment. Methods: Eighty-eight patients with blood stasis syndrome (BSS) of acute cerebral infarction (ACI) were randomly divided into two groups, both of which were treated with conventional treatment, i.e. with western medicine (WM), with Salvia injection added through intravenously dripping.One of the two groups was used as the control and the other group as the treated group who had ABCBS herbs orally taken in addition. The duration of treatment course for both groups was 3 weeks. Results: There were changes in both groups over clinical symptoms, nerve function deficit scoring and GMP-140, D-dimer, but the treated group showed significantly better than that of the control group, (P<0.05). Conclusion: ABCBS principle could serve as an important auxiliary treating method for BSS of ACI, as it can effectively alter the blood of ACI patients which was viscous, condense, coagulant and aggregating.

  17. First principles investigation of the activity of thin film Pt, Pd and Au surface alloys for oxygen reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    of Au with mixed Pt/Pd skins. The activity of the binary and ternary catalysts is explained through weakening of the OH binding energy caused by solute elements. However, given the low alloy formation energies it may be difficult to tune and retain the composition under operating conditions...

  18. Effect of rTMS on brain activation in schizophrenia with negative symptoms : A proof-of-principle study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dlabac-de Lange, Jozarni J.; Liemburg, Edith J.; Bais, Leonie; Renken, Remco J.; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prefrontal cortical dysfunction is frequently reported in schizophrenia and is thought to underlie negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) can modulate neuronal activity and has been shown to improve negative symptoms in patients with schiz

  19. Kinetic studies of overlapping pyrolysis reactions in industrial waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Zhenpeng

    2009-07-01

    A sludge pyrolytic kinetics model was established in this study. Two types of sewage sludge from different industrial wastewater treatment plant produced different DTG (Derivative Thermogravimetry) shapes with an overlapping pattern. The multi-heating rate method was conducted to evaluate the kinetics for obtaining reasonable pyrolysis mechanisms and DTG curves were divided into several peaks using the Lorentz fitting method based on the composition of the sludge and the desire for precision. The peaks formed corresponded to the pyrolysis reactions of volatile matter, microbe cells, proteins, inorganic substances and char respectively, which can be reasonably explained based on the results from the flue gas analyzer and the chemical analysis. Two types of sewage sludge were found to have similar pyrolysis mechanisms. Reasonable reasons were also given to explain the distortion and lag observed in the DTG curves and pyrolysis mechanism.

  20. Activity origin and catalyst design principles for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution on heteroatom-doped graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yan; Zheng, Yao; Davey, Kenneth; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2016-10-01

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a fundamental process in electrocatalysis and plays an important role in energy conversion through water splitting to produce hydrogen. Effective candidates for HER are often based on noble metals or transition metal dichalcogenides, while carbon-based metal-free electrocatalysts generally demonstrate poorer activity. Here we report evaluation of a series of heteroatom-doped graphene materials as efficient HER electrocatalysts by combining spectroscopic characterization, electrochemical measurements, and density functional theory calculations. Results of theoretical computations are shown to be in good agreement with experimental observations regarding the intrinsic electrocatalytic activity and the HER reaction mechanism. As a result, we establish a HER activity trend for graphene-based materials, and explore their reactivity origin to guide the design of more efficient electrocatalysts. We predict that by rationally modifying particular experimentally achievable physicochemical characteristics, a practically realizable graphene-based material will have the potential to exceed the performance of the metal-based benchmark for HER.

  1. Comparison of the Simple Cyclic Voltammetry (CV and DPPH Assays for the Determination of Antioxidant Capacity of Active Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús F. Arteaga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of a number of small (low molecular weight natural compounds found in spices, condiments or drugs (gallic acid, sesamol, eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, vanillin, salicylaldehyde, limonene, geraniol, 4-hexylresorcinol, etc. has been evaluated using electrochemical and DPPH radical scavenging measurements. Structural analysis of the tested compound suggest a remarkable activity for phenol derivatives and the importance of the –R groups located on the phenolic ring in the molecule’s ability to act as free radical scavenging as well as their influence in the electrochemical behavior. The voltammetric method can be used for the determination of the antioxidant capability in the same manner as the DPPH radical scavenging because of the correlation found between oxidation potentials and anti-radical power (ARP = 1/EC50. Such electrochemical determination is fast and cheap and allows making measurements under a variety of experimental conditions. The accuracy of the electrochemical measurements is the same for all the compounds, irrespective of their scavenging activity, the opposite of what occurs in the DPPH test.

  2. First principles investigation of the activity of thin film Pt, Pd and Au surface alloys for oxygen reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    active binary thin films are near-surface alloys of Pt with subsurface Pd and certain PdAu and PtAu thin films with surface and/or subsurface Au. The most active ternary thin films are with pure metal Pt or Pd skins with some degree of Au in the surface and/or subsurface layer and the near-surface alloys...... of Au with mixed Pt/Pd skins. The activity of the binary and ternary catalysts is explained through weakening of the OH binding energy caused by solute elements. However, given the low alloy formation energies it may be difficult to tune and retain the composition under operating conditions....... This is particularly challenging for alloys containing Au due to a high propensity of Au to segregate to the surface. We also show that once Au is on the surface it will diffuse to defect sites, explaining why small amounts of Au retard dissolution of Pt nanoparticles. For the PtPd thin films there is no pronounced...

  3. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  4. A Crystallin Fold in the Interleukin-4-inducing Principle of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs (IPSE/α-1) Mediates IgE Binding for Antigen-independent Basophil Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N Helge; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Blindow, Silke; Barths, Daniela; Mewes, Astrid; Weimar, Thomas; Köhli, Thies; Bade, Steffen; Madl, Tobias; Frey, Andreas; Haas, Helmut; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Sattler, Michael; Schramm, Gabriele

    2015-09-04

    The IL-4-inducing principle from Schistosoma mansoni eggs (IPSE/α-1), the major secretory product of eggs from the parasitic worm S. mansoni, efficiently triggers basophils to release the immunomodulatory key cytokine interleukin-4. Activation by IPSE/α-1 requires the presence of IgE on the basophils, but the detailed molecular mechanism underlying activation is unknown. NMR and crystallographic analysis of IPSEΔNLS, a monomeric IPSE/α-1 mutant, revealed that IPSE/α-1 is a new member of the βγ-crystallin superfamily. We demonstrate that this molecule is a general immunoglobulin-binding factor with highest affinity for IgE. NMR binding studies of IPSEΔNLS with the 180-kDa molecule IgE identified a large positively charged binding surface that includes a flexible loop, which is unique to the IPSE/α-1 crystallin fold. Mutational analysis of amino acids in the binding interface showed that residues contributing to IgE binding are important for IgE-dependent activation of basophils. As IPSE/α-1 is unable to cross-link IgE, we propose that this molecule, by taking advantage of its unique IgE-binding crystallin fold, activates basophils by a novel, cross-linking-independent mechanism.

  5. Biomonitoring of cadmium, chromium, nickel and arsenic in general population living near mining and active industrial areas in Southern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Feki-Tounsi, Molka; Hammami, Bouthaina; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2014-02-01

    The human health impact of the historic and current mining and industrial activities in Tunisia is not known. This study assessed the exposure to metals in the population of Southern Tunisia, using biomonitoring. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate metal exposure on 350 participants living near mining and active industrial areas in the South of Tunisia. Blood specimens were analyzed for metals (Cd, Cr, As, and Ni) by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer equipped with Zeeman background correction and AS-800 auto sampler by graphite furnace and graphite tubes with integrated L'vov platform. The sample population was classified according to different age groups, sex, smoking habit, sea food and water drinking consumption, occupational exposure, amalgam fillings and place of residence. The blood As, Cd, Cr and Ni values expressed as mean ± SD were 1.56 ± 2.49, 0.74 ± 1.15, 35.04 ± 26.02 and 30.56 ± 29.96 μg/l, respectively. Blood Cd and Ni levels in smokers were 2 and 1.2 times, respectively, higher than in non-smokers. Blood Cd levels increase significantly with age (p = 0.002). As, Cd and Ni were significantly correlated with gender and age (p Tunisia reveals a substantial exposure to several metals. The pathways of exposure and health significance of these findings need to be further investigated.

  6. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  7. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature.

  8. Effective removal of tetracycline from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) industrial processing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayğılı, Hasan; Güzel, Fuat

    2016-09-01

    Activated carbon (TAC) prepared under optimized conditions with ZnCl2 activation from a new precursor; tomato industrial processing waste (TW), was applied as an adsorbent to remove tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solution. The factors (TAC dosage, initial TC concentration, contact time, ionic strength and solution temperature) affecting the adsorption process were examined at natural pH (5.7) of TAC-TC system in aqueous solution. Kinetic data was found to be best complied by the pseudo-second order model. The isotherm analysis indicated that the equilibrium data could be represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity was identified as 500.0mgg(-1) at 308K.

  9. Methanol Synthesis over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3: The Active Site in Industrial Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Malte

    2012-03-28

    Unlike homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts that have been optimized through decades are typically so complex and hard to characterize that the nature of the catalytically active site is not known. This is one of the main stumbling blocks in developing rational catalyst design strategies in heterogeneous catalysis. We show here how to identify the crucial atomic structure motif for the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol synthesis catalyst. Using a combination of experimental evidence from bulk-, surface-sensitive and imaging methods collected on real high-performance catalytic systems in combination with DFT calculations. We show that the active site consists of Cu steps peppered with Zn atoms, all stabilized by a series of well defined bulk defects and surface species that need jointly to be present for the system to work.

  10. Transaminases activity in the sand lizard’s serum under influence of industrial pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Klymenko

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the environmental pollution on the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the blood serum of the sand lizard has been studied. Aminotransferases (ALT and AST are similar by the mechanism of action. These enzymes take part in the amino acids metabolism. The increase of the transaminases activities under conditions of the pollution is found. It may be a proof of a damage of relevant organs: namely, the liver.

  11. Transaminases activity in the sand lizard’s serum under influence of industrial pollution

    OpenAIRE

    O. Y. Klymenko; V. Y. Gasso

    2009-01-01

    Influence of the environmental pollution on the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the blood serum of the sand lizard has been studied. Aminotransferases (ALT and AST) are similar by the mechanism of action. These enzymes take part in the amino acids metabolism. The increase of the transaminases activities under conditions of the pollution is found. It may be a proof of a damage of relevant organs: namely, the liver.

  12. Investment activities of the German electric power industry in the course of deregulation of this industrial segment; Investitionen in der deutschen Elektrizitaetswirtschaft nach der Liberalisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeliger, A. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 2 - Wirtschaftswissenschaften

    1999-12-13

    This last survey in the series of surveys published by VDEW and the Ifo-Institut covers the year 1999 and shows that capital expenditure of the electric power industry, as compared to other branches of industry, continued on the downward trend observed in the previous year. This year's decline reduced capital spending down to 11%, or DM 10 310 million. The article explains details of the background of this development, which is of significance to the entire industrial sector in Germany, and gives a five-year forecast indicating further declines. (orig./CB) [German] Die Erhebung der VDEW und des Ifo-Institutes von 1999 ergab einen erneuten Rueckgang der Investitionen der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft. Gegenueber dem Vorjahr sank diese nicht nur fuer die Branche wichtige Kennzahl um 11% auf 10 310 Mio DM. Eine Vorschau auf die naechsten fuenf Jahre zeigt weitere hohe Rueckgaenge. (orig.)

  13. A 70 year Record of Contamination from Industrial Activity Along the Garonne River and its Tributaries (SW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grousset, F. E.; Jouanneau, J. M.; Castaing, P.; Lavaux, G.; Latouche, C.

    1999-03-01

    In this work, we document the historical record (≈70 yr) of contamination from industrial activity along the Garonne River and its tributaries (SW France), through the geochemical study of a sediment core recovered from the inner section of a flood-tidal dock, located in the city of Bordeaux, along the Garonne River. The chronology of the core was estimated by extrapolation from and interpolation between a few geochemical datums provided by a high resolution 137Cs record, the atmospheric initiation of radioactive fallout (˜1952); the maximum of atmospheric radioactive fallout (˜1963) and the Chernobyl accident (1986). Concentrations of Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, U, Pb and the Pb isotope composition were analyzed by ICP-MS, in the ' exchangeable ' fraction. The pollution impact of a few heavy metals (mostly Pb, Cd, Zn, Sn) was particularly enhanced from 1950 to about 1980, due to the activity of a mining and foundry company located on the Lot, a tributary of the Garonne River. A five-step historical evolution of the foundry's activity is faithfully recorded in the sedimentary record. Despite the fact that the mining activity stopped 20 years ago, and that the contamination seems to be very limited at present, enrichments are still observed in the estuary waters and sediments. These may be due to the release of both particulate and dissolved metals from previously released tailings in the dowstream from the Decazeville mining/foundry site. Over the last 20 years, another kind of pollution by Cr and V is identified, and is related to a different industrial origin, tanneries and electrolysis factories, located along other tributaries of the Garonne River (Dordogne and Tarn). Contamination from local sources (Bordeaux) is negligible compared to the dominant influence of the remote pollution sources.

  14. First principles investigation of the activity of thin film Pt, Pd and Au surface alloys for oxygen reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Further advances in fuel cell technologies are hampered by kinetic limitations associated with the sluggish cathodic oxygen reduction reaction. We have investigated a range of different formulations of binary and ternary Pt, Pd and Au thin films as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction. The most...... active binary thin films are near-surface alloys of Pt with subsurface Pd and certain PdAu and PtAu thin films with surface and/or subsurface Au. The most active ternary thin films are with pure metal Pt or Pd skins with some degree of Au in the surface and/or subsurface layer and the near-surface alloys....... This is particularly challenging for alloys containing Au due to a high propensity of Au to segregate to the surface. We also show that once Au is on the surface it will diffuse to defect sites, explaining why small amounts of Au retard dissolution of Pt nanoparticles. For the PtPd thin films there is no pronounced...

  15. Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter K

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms, and which can be extracted from cells and then used to catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. This chapter covers the basic principles of enzymology, such as classification, structure, kinetics and inhibition, and also provides an overview of industrial applications. In addition, techniques for the purification of enzymes are discussed.

  16. Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms, and which can be extracted from cells and then used to catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. This chapter covers the basic principles of enzymology, such as classification, structure, kinetics and inhibition, and also provides an overview of industrial applications. In addition, techniques for the purification of enzymes are discussed. PMID:26504249

  17. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally.

  18. [Gender inequity in health in contexts of environmental risk from mining and industrial activity in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Vázquez, Minerva; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio

    2015-06-01

    Analyze how gender inequity manifests in contexts of poverty in different environmental risk scenarios in Mexico. Qualitative design based on six discussion groups and 54 in-depth interviews with women from six exposed communities: two to environmental manganese in a mining district, two in an industrial corridor, and two bordering a sanitary landfill. A document review of environmental and health studies in each area was done to relate them to the women's perspective on the problem. In the three case studies, by gender roles, women stay at home and do housework and, therefore, are subject to intense environmental exposure when carrying out their daily tasks, such as house cleaning. Interview and discussion group results were found to be related to epidemiological study results. In the case of the mining district, women's perceptions are consistent with study comments on adverse cognitive effects of manganese exposure. In all three cases, there are serious limitations on women's political participation in environmental risk management. Due to conditions of inequity, women are highly exposed to environmental health risks and their social participation in solving environmental problems is quite limited. These results have social and environmental policy implications in the areas studied, especially with regard to risk assessment, management, and communication.

  19. Linde FUSRAP Site Remediation: Engineering Challenges and Solutions of Remedial Activities on an Active Industrial Facility - 13506

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beres, Christopher M.; Fort, E. Joseph [Cabrera Services, Inc., 473 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT 06118 (United States); Boyle, James D. [United States Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo, 1776 Niagara Street, Buffalo, NY 14207 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Linde FUSRAP Site (Linde) is located in Tonawanda, New York at a major research and development facility for Praxair, Inc. (Praxair). Successful remediation activities at Linde combines meeting cleanup objectives of radiological contamination while minimizing impacts to Praxair business operations. The unique use of Praxair's property coupled with an array of active and abandoned utilities poses many engineering and operational challenges; each of which has been overcome during the remedial action at Linde. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District (USACE) and CABRERA SERVICES, INC. (CABRERA) have successfully faced engineering challenges such as relocation of an aboveground structure, structural protection of an active water line, and installation of active mechanical, electrical, and communication utilities to perform remediation. As remediation nears completion, continued success of engineering challenges is critical as remaining activities exist in the vicinity of infrastructure essential to business operations; an electrical substation and duct bank providing power throughout the Praxair facility. Emphasis on engineering and operations through final remediation and into site restoration will allow for the safe and successful completion of the project. (authors)

  20. Diabetes melito: plantas e princípios ativos naturais hipoglicemiantes Diabetes mellitus: hypoglicemic plants and natural active principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Negri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes melito é considerada como uma síndrome que é, quanto a etiologia e patogênese, caracterizada por alterar a homeostase do organismo, por distúrbios metabólicos complexos e primários dos carboidratos, que envolvem secundariamente, porém de forma importante, lipídeos e proteínas. Grande número de espécies de plantas tem sido usado experimentalmente para tratar os sintomas do diabetes melito e a distância filogenética entre este grupo de plantas é forte indicação da natureza variada de seus constituintes. Tem sido constatado que muitas substâncias extraídas de plantas reduzem o nível de glicose no sangue. A grande diversidade de classes químicas indica que uma variedade de mecanismos de ação deve estar envolvida na redução do nível de glicose no sangue. Algumas destas substâncias podem ter potencial terapêutico enquanto outras podem produzir hipoglicemia como um efeito colateral devido à sua toxicidade, especialmente hepatotoxidade. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão atualizada e acrescenta mais plantas e princípios ativos hipoglicemiantes à extensa lista existente nos artigos de revisão anteriores.Diabetes mellitus comprises a group of ethiologically and clinically heterogeneous disorders with a common set of symptoms: excessive thirst and hunger, muscular weakness, weight loss, excessive urination and elevation of the blood glucose level among others. There has been a striking emergence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as a major health problem in populations undergoing modernization of life-style, both in developed and underdeveloped nations. Many species of plants have been used ethnopharmacologically or experimentally to treat symptons of diabetes mellitus. The high percentage of active plants probably reflects, at least in part, the great variety of possible active constituents and mechanisms of action. The wide diversity of chemical classes indicate a variety of mechanisms must be involved

  1. First-principles investigation of Cu-doped ZnS with enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ming; Zhou, Peng; Jiang, Chuanjia; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo

    2017-01-01

    The band structure and electronic properties of Cu-doped wurtzite ZnS were investigated by density functional theory calculations. According to the formation energies, the substitutional Cu and S vacancy defects are stable among the examined doping species. Particularly, the hybridization of substitutional Cu 3d and S 3p orbitals narrows the band gap of substitutional Cu-doped ZnS (CuZn-ZnS), while the high effective mass ratio of photogenerated holes and electrons (mh∗/me∗) in the CuZn-ZnS is beneficial for the separation and migration of the photogenerated charge carriers. Lab-synthesized CuZn-ZnS sample exhibited enhanced visible-light absorption and photocatalytic hydrogen production activity compared to pure ZnS.

  2. Communication, activity and knowledge – governing unpredictability in post-industrial societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbeshausen, Hans; Ilgenayeva, Valentyna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – The article mainly concentrates on the role of information and knowledge in transformation processes. The article examines and compares the concepts of information and knowledge in Social Communication Theory and Cultural-historical Activity Theory. This will be done in order...... to analyze the knowledge-power-relation essential for transformational and governmental processes in knowledge-societies. The dialectics between the rationalization of power and the politicization of knowledge are visible in the techniques used in social engineering and political administration. Social...... practice and individual activity and take up a distinct stance on historical change and societal transformation. In both cases, knowledge is conceived as individual knowing, as structuring process in social organizations and as a collective result of social activity. Research implications – Knowledge...

  3. Industrial heat pump assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, R. N.; Priebe, S. J.; Wilfert, G. L.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes preliminary studies that assess the potential of industrial heat pumps for reduction of process heating requirements in industries receiving power from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This project was initiated at the request of BPA to determine the potential of industrial heat pumps in BPA's service area. Working from known heat pump principles and from a list of BPA's industrial customers, the authors estimated the fuel savings potential for six industries. Findings indicate that the pulp and paper industry would yield the greatest fuel savings and increased electrical consumption. Assessments presented in this report represent a cooperative effort between The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Battelle-Northwest Laboratories.

  4. 29 CFR 776.22b - Guiding principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guiding principles. 776.22b Section 776.22b Labor... Individual Employee Coverage in the Construction Industry § 776.22b Guiding principles. (a) Scope of bulletin... inconsistent or in conflict with the principles stated in this subpart, they are hereby rescinded and withdrawn....

  5. Bioremediation Approaches in a Laboratory Activity for the Industrial Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology (IBAM Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Raiger Iustman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology is an optional 128h-course for Chemistry and Biology students at the Faculty of Sciences, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. This course is usually attended by 25 students, working in teams of two. The curriculum, with 8 lab exercises, includes an oil bioremediation practice covering an insight of bioremediation processes: the influence of pollutants on autochthonous microbiota, biodegrader isolation and biosurfactant production for bioavailability understanding. The experimental steps are: (A evaluation of microbial tolerance to pollutants by constructing pristine soil microcosms contaminated with diesel or xylene and (B isolation of degraders and biosurfactant production analysis. To check microbial tolerance, microcosms are incubated during one week at 25-28ºC. Samples are collected at 0, 4 and every 48 h for CFU/g soil testing. An initial decrease of total CFU/g related to toxicity is noticed. At the end of the experiment, a recovery of the CFU number is observed, evidencing enrichment in biodegraders. Some colonies from the CFU counting plates are streaked in M9-agar with diesel as sole carbon source. After a week, isolates are inoculated on M9-Broth supplemented with diesel to induce biosurfactant production. Surface tension and Emulsification Index are measured in culture supernatants to visualize tensioactive effect of bacterial products. Besides the improvement in the good microbiological practices, the students show enthusiasm in different aspects, depending on their own interests. While biology students explore and learn new concepts on solubility, emulsions and bioavailability, chemistry students show curiosity in bacterial behavior and manipulation of microorganisms for environmental benefits.

  6. First-principles study on codoping effect to enhance photocatalytic activity of anatase TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yujie; Zhang, Qinfang; Zheng, Fubao; Yang, Yun; Meng, Qiangqiang; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Baolin

    2017-03-01

    Codopant is an effective approach to modify the bandgap and band edge positions of transition metal oxide. Here, the electronic structures as well as the optical properties of pristine, mono-doped (N/P/Sb) and codoped (Sb, N/P) anatase TiO2 have been systematically investigated based on density functional theory calculations. It is found that mono-doped TiO2 exhibits either unoccupied or partially occupied intermediate state within the energy gap, which promotes the recombination of electron-hole pairs. However, the presence of (Sb, N/P) codopant not only effectively reduces the width of bandgap by introducing delocalized occupied intermediate states, but also adjusts the band edge alignment to enhance the hydrogen evolution activity of TiO2. Moreover, the optical absorption spectrum for (Sb, N/P) codoped TiO2, which is favored under oxygen-rich condition, demonstrates the improvement of its visible light absorption. These findings will promote the potential application of (Sb, N/P) codoped TiO2 photocatalysis for water splitting under visible light irradiation.

  7. Urinary mutagenicity, CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity in textile industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanlo, Ana; Sinuès, Blanca; Mayayo, Esteban; Bernal, Luisa; Soriano, Antonia; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; Martínez-Ballarín, Enrique

    2004-11-01

    The two major causes of bladder cancer have been recognised to be cigarette smoke and occupational exposure to arylamines. These compounds are present both in tobacco smoke and in the dyes used in textile production. Aromatic amines suffer oxidative metabolism via P450 cytochrome CYP1A2, and detoxification by the polymorphic NAT2. The aim of the present work was to assess the association between occupational-derived exposure to mutagens and CYP1A2 or NAT2 activity. This cross-sectional study included 117 textile workers exposed to dyes and 117 healthy controls. The urinary mutagenicity was determined in 24 h urine using TA98 Salmonella typhimurium strain with microsomal activation S9 (MIS9) or incubation with beta-glucuronidase (MIbeta). Urinary caffeine metabolite ratios: AFMU+1X+1U/17U, and AFMU/AFMU+1X+1U were calculated to assess CYP1A2 and NAT2 activities, respectively. The results show that workers present a strikingly higher urine mutagenicity than controls (p0.05) was compared, and the urinary mutagenicity was not significantly associated with the CYP1A2 activity marker (r=0.04 and r=-0.01 for MIS9 and MIbeta, respectively). This study clearly indicates the need for further protective policies to minimise exposure to the lowest feasible limit in order to avoid unnecessary risks.

  8. Aberration-corrected imaging of active sites on industrial catalyst nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gontard, Lionel Cervera; Chang, L-Y; Hetherington, CJD

    2007-01-01

    Picture perfect: Information about the local topologies of active sites on commercial nanoparticles can be gained with atomic resolution through spherical-aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A powder of Pt nanoparticles on carbon black was examined with two advanced TEM t...

  9. Aberration-corrected imaging of active sites on industrial catalyst nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gontard, Lionel Cervera; Chang, L-Y; Hetherington, CJD;

    2007-01-01

    Picture perfect: Information about the local topologies of active sites on commercial nanoparticles can be gained with atomic resolution through spherical-aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A powder of Pt nanoparticles on carbon black was examined with two advanced TEM t...

  10. Marketing Activities to Support ‘Moderately Novel’ Product Innovation: Insights from the Chemical Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.A.J.; Vissers, G.A.N.; Dankbaar, B.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars often follow a contingency approach to study which marketing activities are suitable for a particular type of product innovation project, thereby making a distinction between incremental and radical innovation only. ‘Moderately novel’ projects, which have intermediate levels of newness, hav

  11. Evaluating the dynamical characteristics of particle matter emissions in an open ore yard with industrial operation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, X C; Yang, G S; Qu, J H; Dai, M X

    2016-11-01

    A study to investigate the dynamical characteristics of particle matter emissions in a working open yard is conducted in Caofeidian Port of Hebei Province, China. The average diurnal concentrations of the total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and respirable particulate matter (PM10 and PM5) are monitored during the field measurement campaign. Sampling is performed at a regular interval at 8 monitoring stations in the yard with normal industrial activities. The average TSP, PM10 and PM5 concentrations range from 285 to 568, 198 to 423 and 189 to 330 μg.m-3 in the yard, respectively. The linear regression correlation coefficient of TSP/PM10 and TSP/PM5 is 0.95±0.01 and 0.88±0.02, respectively.By using the Spearman correlation method, the wind speed and relative humidity are both weakly correlated with the PM10 and PM5 concentrations according to the measurements. In addition, industrial operation activities, such as vehicular traffic in the yard and the loading time of stackers, are significantly positively correlated with the PM concentration. Using the multivariate regression method, the main parameters influencing the TSP concentration variations are integratedly analysed. The traffic volume is found to be a significant predictor of TSP concentration variation, with the smallest P value (Pindustrial activities in the yard is proposed. The dynamical emissions average 5.25x10(5) kg.year(-1) and EFD is evaluated to be 0.29 kg.(ton.day)(-1) during the measurement period. These outcomes have meaningful implications not only for understanding the dynamical characteristics of particle emissions in the working stockyard but also for implementing effective control measures at appropriate sites in the harbour area.

  12. THE POLICY OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF CORPORATE INDUSTRIAL BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Merzlikina; T. U. Gribtsova

    2013-01-01

    Study of the content and limits of corporate social responsibility industrial business. Features of industrial business. Corporate social responsibility. The principles of cor-porate social responsibility policy of industrial business.

  13. Dynamics of microbiological parameters, enzymatic activities and worm biomass production during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge of bakery industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anoop; Suthar, S; Garg, V K

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the changes in microbial parameters and enzymatic activities during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETPS) of bakery industry spiked with cow dung (CD) by Eisenia fetida. Six vermibins containing different ratios of ETPS and CD were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions for 15 weeks. Total bacterial and total fungal count increased upto 7th week and declined afterward in all the bins. Maximum bacterial and fungal count was 31.6 CFU × 10(6) g(-1) and 31 CFU × 10(4) g(-1) in 7th week. Maximum dehydrogenase activity was 1921 μg TPF g(-1) h(-1) in 9th week in 100 % CD containing vermibin, whereas maximum urease activity was 1208 μg NH4 (-)N g(-1) h(-1) in 3rd week in 100 % CD containing vermibin. The enzyme activity and microbial counts were lesser in ETPS containing vermibins than control (100 % CD). The growth and fecundity of the worms in different vermibins were also investigated. The results showed that initially biomass and fecundity of the worms increased but decreased at the later stages due to non-availability of the palatable feed. This showed that quality and palatability of food directly affect biological parameters of the system.

  14. On the Role of Design Activities in the Development of Complex Industrial Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda

    -rent times and places than some “decision point” implies. The research also contributes to intervention theory in a broad sense, as the research findings hold implications for how to intervene in ongoing operations, planning and conducting design activities in or-der to drive development – of beliefs...... and thus of operations systems. The research has indicated, among other tings, that systems development is likely to be re-leased if action is based on opportunities or urgent challenges combined with dominant or-ganizational ideas. Such ideas ensure convergence of action as they provide guidance while...... leaving open significant degrees of freedom for local operationalisation. It is argued that de-sign activities generally become influential through local middle managers, who are respon-sible for addressing operational problems, and strive towards local performance as well as personal self...

  15. Outsourcing Maintenance Activities or Increasing Risks? Case Study in Oil Industry of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Nili

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this Research are to identify the the Potential risks and Expected outsourcing benefits influencing the decision making to outsource maintenance Activities in Aghajari Oil and Gas Production Company (Aj.O.G.P.C, and to investigate the relative importance of each of the identified factors based on the expressed opinions of the mangers and head employee in the Aj.O.G.P.C.The authors conducted a comprehensive review of the literature in the fields of maintenance management and outsourcing practices to achieve a thorough understanding of the issues involved, and identifying the crucial factors and the Potential risks and Expected outsourcing benefits affecting the outsourcing decision of maintenance Activities. A questionnaire survey was developed to assess each the Potential risks and expected outsourcing benefits influencing the decision to outsource maintenance services between 182 managers and head employee of the Aj.O.G.P.C.

  16. Risk management activities of a non-industrial private forest owner with a bivariate utility function

    OpenAIRE

    Brunette, Marielle; Couture, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to analyse the choice of risk management activity made by a nonindustrial private forest owner who derives utility from consumption and from the sentimental value of the forest that bears a risk of disaster. We consider a bivariate utility function depending on consumption and sentimental value of forest. In this context, we analyse insurance and/or self-insurance decisions. We show that, under fair premium, full insurance is optimal only if the cross derivative of t...

  17. THE EFFECT OF THE SLUDGE RECYCLE RATIO IN AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF AMOL'S INDUSTRIAL PARK WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAHAR HOSSEINI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An activated sludge aeration tank and a sedimentation basin were used to treat Amol’s industrial park effluents originating from all industrial units. A continuous system was implemented and the kinetic parameters were measured.The parameters such as rate constant, substrate utilization rate constant, yield and decay coefficient were 2.12 d-1, 232.4 mg l-1, 0.33 g/g of substrate and 0.096 d−1, respectively. The hydraulic retention times (HRT were in the range of 9 to 27 h. The sludge recycle ratios in the range from 0.3 to 1 were considered. The COD removal, SVI and DO were determined and the optimal values were obtained. It was observed that at HRT of 16 h and the sludge recycle ratio of 0.85, the COD removal and SVI were 95 and 85 %, respectively. The sludge recycle ratio greater than 0.85 had no significant effect on the COD removal.

  18. The active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction induced differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neural-like cells Superior effects over original formula of Buyang Huanwu decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghui Zheng; Yi Wan; Jianhuai Chi; Dekai Shen; Tingting Wu; Weimin Li; Pengcheng Du

    2012-01-01

    The present study induced in vitro-cultured passage 4 bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into neural-like cells with a mixture of alkaloid, polysaccharide, aglycone, glycoside, essential oils, and effective components of Buyang Huanwu decoction (active principle region of decoction for invigorating yang for recuperation). After 28 days, nestin and neuron-specific enolase were expressed in the cytoplasm. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses showed that nestin and neuron-specific enolase mRNA and protein expression was greater in the active principle region group compared with the original formula group. Results demonstrated that the active principle region of Buyang Huanwu decoction induced greater differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into neural-like cells in vitro than the original Buyang Huanwu decoction formula.

  19. Principles Guiding Vocabulary Learning through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is one of a range of activities that can be used in a language learning course. Ideally, the choice of activities to go into a course should be guided by principles which are well supported by research. Similarly, the way each of those activities is used should be guided by well-justified principles. In this article, we look at…

  20. Discussion on the creating principle of primary school activity space%初探小学活动空间的营造原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋

    2015-01-01

    Based on the current actual requirements,combining with two excellent design examples of Tsinghua University elementary school and Xiaoquan national primary school,from the convenience,diversity,size appropriate three aspects of space activities discussed the creating princi-ple of primary school activity space,made the design scheme to meet the space environment and atmosphere of learning and communication,pro-moted the healthy development of student’s body and mind.%立足于现阶段的现实需求,结合清华大学附小和孝泉民族小学两个优秀的设计实例,从活动空间的便捷性、多样性、尺度的适宜性三个方面探讨了小学活动空间的营造原则,使设计方案能满足学习和交往的空间环境和氛围,促进学生身心的健康发展。

  1. THE DASHBOARD - STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT TOOL OF ACTIVITIES IN THE COAL MINING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINA IONELA-CLAUDIA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the objectives at all levels and categories of functions in the unit, use multiple information systems, including the dashboard which is one of the management tools that responds very well to the rationale and supporting data of management decisions complementary to those provided by other media. In this respect, we try to calculate indicators organization currently working compartments of the coal mining units and will propose a series of indicators whose calculation we consider would be necessary for a detailed presentation as activity carried out and the improvement of management.

  2. [Enterocin-35, a bacteriocin with activity against Listeria monocytogenes. Possible use in the food industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, R; Farías, M E; Kümmerlin, R; Sesma, F

    1999-01-01

    The in vitro inhibitory activity of enterocin-35 produced by Enterococcus faecium CRL 35, was studied against Listeria monocytogenes, isolated from seafoods. Optimal growth conditions of the enterocin-35 producing strain, for higher bacteriocin production and improve the extraction and purification of these peptides, were applied. A crude extract of enterocin-35 was assayed in a frozen seafood artificially contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes isolate, simulating at laboratory scale an eventual application of this biopreservant in a routine production process at factory level. The feasibility of biopreservation of seafoods by means of bacteriocins is proposed and discussed.

  3. Application of an artificial neural network for evaluation of activity concentration exemption limits in NORM industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Hannah; Peyrés, Virginia; Crespo, Teresa; Mejuto, Marcos; García-Toraño, Eduardo; Maringer, Franz Josef

    2016-12-27

    NORM emits many different gamma energies that have to be analysed by an expert. Alternatively, artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used. These mathematical software tools can generalize "knowledge" gained from training datasets, applying it to new problems. No expert knowledge of gamma-ray spectrometry is needed by the end-user. In this work an ANN was created that is able to decide from the raw gamma-ray spectrum if the activity concentrations in a sample are above or below the exemption limits.

  4. On the Role of Design Activities in the Development of Complex Industrial Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda

    The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to the cognitive school of strategic manage-ment, which is concerned with the mental models of managers, and less with decisions, which are found often to be artificial constructs, as the commitment to action might be made at entirely differ-rent......-actualisation. Propositions, further relate to particularities of design activity planning and facilitation, and to involvement issues. The research is based on a case study of developing logistics systems from the point of view of a divisionalised manufacturing enterprise....

  5. A framework for assessing cost management system changes: the case of activity-based costing implementation at food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Faraji

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An opportunity to investigate the technical and organizational effect of management accounting system changes has appeared with companies' adoption of activity-based costing (ABC. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of ABC system for case study from food industry in Iran. From this case, the paper develops a framework for assessing ABC implementation and hypotheses about factors that influence implementation. The study detects five cost centers and for each cost center, it determines different cost drivers. The results of our survey has detected that implementation of ABC system not only helps precise allocation of overhead costs but also helps internal management companies for better planning and control of production, making better decisions for company's profits.

  6. Study of the air quality in industrial areas of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain) by active biomonitoring with Pseudoscleropodium purum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Ángela; Fernández, Jose Ángel; Aboal, Jesús Ramón; Carballeira, Alejo

    2011-03-01

    A biomonitoring technique with terrestrial moss transplants (50 sampling sites in a regular grid) was used in an area of the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, close to an oil refinery and to an area of dense road traffic for a period of 2 months. The concentration of metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb and V) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. The density distribution was represented, the enrichment factors calculated and multifactorial analysis applied. In addition, contamination maps were elaborated on the basis of the bioconcentration obtained, and after confirming the existence of spatial structure, the response surfaces were represented. The results showed very high levels of contamination by Ni and V in the study area, with similar dispersal patterns observed for both. The concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb and PAHs were lower. Active biomonitoring with terrestrial mosses was found to be a suitable technique for implementing inexpensive environmental monitoring programmes in urban and industrialized areas.

  7. Extreme load alleviation using industrial implementation of active trailing edge flaps in a full design load basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlas, Thanasis; Pettas, Vasilis; Gertz, Drew; Madsen, Helge A.

    2016-09-01

    The application of active trailing edge flaps in an industrial oriented implementation is evaluated in terms of capability of alleviating design extreme loads. A flap system with basic control functionality is implemented and tested in a realistic full Design Load Basis (DLB) for the DTU 10MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) model and for an upscaled rotor version in DTU's aeroelastic code HAWC2. The flap system implementation shows considerable potential in reducing extreme loads in components of interest including the blades, main bearing and tower top, with no influence on fatigue loads and power performance. In addition, an individual flap controller for fatigue load reduction in above rated power conditions is also implemented and integrated in the general controller architecture. The system is shown to be a technology enabler for rotor upscaling, by combining extreme and fatigue load reduction.

  8. Selective monoamine oxidase B inhibition by an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae extract and by its constitutive active principles phycocyanin and mycosporine-like amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Yanina; Benvenuti, Francesca; Battistelli, Serafina; Canestrari, Franco; Benedetti, Serena

    2014-06-15

    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue-green alga that has been traditionally used for over 25 years for its health-enhancing properties. Recent studies have shown the ability of a proprietary AFA extract (Klamin(®)) to improve mood, counteract anxiety, and enhance attention and learning. Aim of this study was to test the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition activity of the same AFA extract and of its constituents phycocyanin (AFA-PC) and mycosporine-like aminoacids (AFA-MAAs). All compounds showed a dose-dependent selective inhibition of MAO-B activity as compared to MAO-A. The IC50 values of the AFA extract (concentration 10 mg/ml), AFA-PC and AFA-MAAs were 6.4 μl/ml, 1.33 μM and 1.98 μM, respectively, evidencing a mixed-type of inhibition for the AFA extract (Ki 0.99 μl/ml), a non-competitive inhibition for AFA-PC (Ki 1.06 μM) and a competitive inhibition for AFA-MAAs (Ki 0.585 μM). These results are important to explain the neuromodulating properties of the AFA extract Klamin(®), which is rich in phenylethylamine, a general neuromodulator, that would nevertheless rapidly destroyed by MAO-B enzymes without the inhibitory activity of the synergic active principles AFA-PC and AFA-MAAs. The present investigation thus proposes the extract as potentially relevant in clinical areas such as mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Cultural and Creative Industries: "The Origin of Property" and "Symbol Principles" --.Also Studying the Demand for Creative Class and Integrated Talents%文化创意产业的"本源属性"与"符号原理"——兼论创意阶层复合式人才之需求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛

    2012-01-01

    The development of culture and creative industry in China has entered a bottleneck period as a result of the lack of talents. This paper interprets such important concepts as cultural products, cultural capital, symbolic production and symbolic consumption from the perspective of cultural economy, clarify- ing the fundamental principles and essential attribute of cultural and creative industry. Furthermore, the paper answers questions on the current progress of Chinese cultural and creative industry, establishes pre- liminary moral principles, studies the significance of cultivating a creative class and puts forward charac- teristics of creative talents within the academic frmnework.%中国文化创意产业发展受人才匮乏的限制已进入一个瓶颈期。本文从文化经济的角度解析文化创意产业的文化产品、文化资本、符号生产、符号消费等重要概念,厘清文化创意产业的基本原理和本质属性,破解当前中国文化创意产业发展中的认知疑惑,建立初步的文化创意产业义理,并在此大框架体系内研究培育创意阶层的重要性和提出创意人才的需求特征。

  10. A proposed approach to systematically identify and monitor the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health using publicly available information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, M; Swinburn, B; Sacks, G

    2015-07-01

    Unhealthy diets represent one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There is currently a risk that the political influence of the food industry results in public health policies that do not adequately balance public and commercial interests. This paper aims to develop a framework for categorizing the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health and proposes an approach to systematically identify and monitor it. The proposed framework includes six strategies used by the food industry to influence public health policies and outcomes: information and messaging; financial incentive; constituency building; legal; policy substitution; opposition fragmentation and destabilization. The corporate political activity of the food industry could be identified and monitored through publicly available data sourced from the industry itself, governments, the media and other sources. Steps for country-level monitoring include identification of key food industry actors and related sources of information, followed by systematic data collection and analysis of relevant documents, using the proposed framework as a basis for classification of results. The proposed monitoring approach should be pilot tested in different countries as part of efforts to increase the transparency and accountability of the food industry. This approach has the potential to help redress any imbalance of interests and thereby contribute to the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases.

  11. Principles of copula theory

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Copula Theory explores the state of the art on copulas and provides you with the foundation to use copulas in a variety of applications. Throughout the book, historical remarks and further readings highlight active research in the field, including new results, streamlined presentations, and new proofs of old results.After covering the essentials of copula theory, the book addresses the issue of modeling dependence among components of a random vector using copulas. It then presents copulas from the point of view of measure theory, compares methods for the approximation of copulas,

  12. Complete genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. ERGS1:01, a putative novel bacterium with prospective cold active industrial enzymes, isolated from East Rathong glacier in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakshak; Singh, Dharam; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-11-20

    We report the complete genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. ERGS1:01, a novel bacterium which produces industrial enzymes at low temperature. East Rathong glacier in Sikkim Himalayas is untouched and unexplored for microbial diversity though it has a rich source of glaciers, alpine and meadows. Genome sequence has provided the basis for understanding its adaptation under harsh condition of Himalayan glacier, its ability to produce cold active industrial enzymes and has unlocked opportunities for microbial bioprospection from East Rathong glacier.

  13. Tillandsia usneoides L, a biomonitor in the determination of Ce, La and Sm by neutron activation analysis in an industrial corridor in Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac-Olive, K. [Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, Toluca, 50120 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Solis, C., E-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Martinez-Carrillo, M.A; Andrade, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Lopez, C.; Longoria, L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Salazar, 50045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho-Constantino, C.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun, Km. 20., Hidalgo, Mexico (Mexico); Beltran-Hernandez, R.I. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo km. 4.5, 42184, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2012-04-15

    The atmosphere of the Tula Industrial Corridor in Central Mexico is contaminated due to several industries including oil refining while station monitoring in this area are limited. Lanthanides are considered fingerprint of oil refinery activities, and La, Ce and Sm have been previously detected in this area using filters. The suitability of T. usneoides as a biomonitor assessing the La, Ce and Sm concentrations in Particulate Matter is evaluated by NAA. Results of both biomonitor and filters are highly correlated.

  14. Production of biodegradable plastics from activated sludge generated from a food processing industrial wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, M; Mudliar, S N; Reddy, K M K; Chakrabarti, T

    2004-12-01

    Most of the excess sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (60%) is disposed by landfill. As a resource utilization of excess sludge, the production of biodegradable plastics using the sludge has been proposed. Storage polymers in bacterial cells can be extracted and used as biodegradable plastics. However, widespread applications have been limited by high production cost. In the present study, activated sludge bacteria in a conventional wastewater treatment system were induced, by controlling the carbon: nitrogen ratio to accumulate storage polymers. Polymer yield increased to a maximum 33% of biomass (w/w) when the C/N ratio was increased from 24 to 144, where as specific growth yield decreased with increasing C/N ratio. The conditions which are required for the maximum polymer accumulation were optimized and are discussed.

  15. Mechanistic investigation of industrial wastewater naphthenic acids removal using granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm based processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-01-15

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) found in oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) have known environmental toxicity and are resistant to conventional wastewater treatments. The granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm treatment process has been shown to effectively treat OSPW NAs via combined adsorption/biodegradation processes despite the lack of research investigating their individual contributions. Presently, the NAs removals due to the individual processes of adsorption and biodegradation in OSPW bioreactors were determined using sodium azide to inhibit biodegradation. For raw OSPW, after 28 days biodegradation and adsorption contributed 14% and 63% of NA removal, respectively. For ozonated OSPW, biodegradation removed 18% of NAs while adsorption reduced NAs by 73%. Microbial community 454-pyrosequencing of bioreactor matrices indicated the importance of biodegradation given the diverse carbon degrading families including Acidobacteriaceae, Ectothiorhodospiraceae, and Comamonadaceae. Overall, results highlight the ability to determine specific processes of NAs removals in the combined treatment process in the presence of diverse bacteria metabolic groups found in GAC bioreactors.

  16. Biomass Industrial Effluent Effect on Carbohydrates, Aminoacids, Nitrite and Nitrite Enzyme Activities of Arachis hypogaea L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PC Nagajyoti; N Dinakarc; S Suresh; Y Udaykiran; C Suresh; T N V K V Prasad; T Damodharam

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the present investigations are to see the effects of biomass power plant effluent on the carbohydrates, aminoacids, nitrite and nitrite enzyme activitiesand proline of Arachis hypogaea L. vat TCGS 320 under controlled pot culture methods. Plants were cultivated with 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the effluent and a control without the effluent. The treatment of the crop with 25% of the effluent has shown stimulatory effect on all the biochemical parameters studied. Carbohydrates, starch, aminoacids, protein, nitrate and nitrite reductase enzymatic activities have increased in 10, 15, 20 DAS (days after sowing). In 25 and 30 DAS all biochemical parameters have decreased, due to environmental factors (rainfall, temperature, humidity, etc.). The present investigation clearly indicated that the biomass power plant effluent has stimulatory effect on all the biochemical contents at lower concentration, and at higher concentration they have deleterious effects.

  17. About the effectiveness of spectrometry in alpha-activity monitoring of industrial air-borne particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domnikov, V.N.; Saltykov, L.S.; Slusarenko, L.I.; Shevchenko, S.V. E-mail: shevsv@i.kiev.ua

    2001-10-01

    The maximum-likelihood method (MLM) is applied for the analysis of the background compensation problem when using alpha-spectrometry to measure the transuranium radionuclide (TRU) content in thick aerosol samples. It is shown, that the uncertainty of the measurement results has a rather small dependence on the digit capacity of the analog to digital converter (ADC). For the total TRU alpha-activity measurement a 7-bit conversion in the energy range up to 9-10 MeV is sufficient to evaluate the background parameters in the energy region of interest (ROI). Background compensation is also made by subtraction of the estimated total background from the sum of counts measured in the ROI.

  18. On the Role of Design Activities in the Development of Complex Industrial Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda

    than tacit, and therefore become subject to revision. Bringing together actors with conflicting viewpoints is expected to yield creativity and impact beliefs, identifying role models affects ideals of operation, and the selection of performance indicators impacts beliefs, focus and priorities...... dissatisfaction in terms of op-erational problems is to reinterpret current practices in terms of different system boundaries than nor-mally considered. When the perception or definition of system boundaries is extended, a call for integra-tion is likely to arise. Sub-optimal solutions become apparent and set...... the direction for development, and actors need not change their ideals of operation, but simply extend the scope of these. Design activities that facilitate an awareness and evaluation of emerging or local practices were as-sumed to potentially impact beliefs. This was confirmed empirically, where it was found...

  19. Active slag filters-simple and sustainable phosphorus removal from wastewater using steel industry byproduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, C; Shilton, A

    2010-01-01

    Active filtration, where effluent is passed through a reactive substrate such as steel slag, offers a simple and cost-effective option for removing phosphorus (P) from effluent. This work summarises a series of studies that focused on the world's only full-scale active slag filter operated through to exhaustion. The filter achieved 75% P-removal during its first 5 years, reaching a retention capacity of 1.23 g P/kg slag but then its performance sharply declined. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and chemical extractions revealed that P sequestration was primarily achieved via adsorption onto iron (Fe) oxyhydroxides on the slag's surface. It was concluded that batch equilibrium tests, whose use has been repeatedly proposed in the literature, cannot be used as an accurate predictor of filter adsorption capacity because Fe oxyhydroxides form via chemical weathering in the field, and laboratory tests don't account for this. Research into how chemical conditions affect slag's P retention capacity demonstrated that near-neutral pH and high redox are optimal for Fe oxyhydroxide stability and overall filter performance. However, as Fe oxyhydroxide sites fill up, removal capacity becomes exhausted. Attempts to regenerate P removal efficiency using physical techniques proved ineffective contrary to dogma in the literature. Based on the newly-developed understanding of the mechanisms of P removal, chemical regeneration techniques were investigated and were shown to strip large quantities of P from filter adsorption sites leading to a regenerated P removal efficiency. This raises the prospect of developing a breakthrough technology that can repeatedly remove and recover P from effluent.

  20. Industrial Design in Education. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklus, C. Samuel

    Background, principles, and procedures of industrial design are presented in this student manual. Chapter I describes the emergence of industrial design as a profession and emphasizes specific designers and their contributions to the field. A twenty question objective test is included. Chapter II presents ten principles of well-designed products.…

  1. Preparation of reusable conductive activated charcoal plate as a new electrode for industrial wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoubi-Feiz, Baharak; Aber, Soheil [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A conductive activated charcoal plate (ACP) was prepared from a low-cost, abundant, and non-conductive charcoal. The prepared ACP was characterized using N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the charcoal and the ACP was 0.58m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 461.67m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, respectively. The ACP was employed in textile wastewater treatment using electrosorption process. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to design the experiments. The decolorization efficiency of 76% at optimum conditions of voltage=450mV, pH=4, and contact time=120 min indicated that the ACP has promising potential to decolorize textile wastewater. Moreover, the results of the kinetic analyses demonstrated that wastewater treatment followed pseudo-first order kinetic model. The ACP electrode could be regenerated and reused effectively at five successive cycles of electrosorption/electrodesorption.

  2. Industrial diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  3. Uranium industry annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-05

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  4. Uranium industry annual 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  5. Source characteristics of the Fairview, OK, earthquake sequence and its relationship to industrial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeck, W. L.; Weingarten, M.; Benz, H.; McNamara, D. E.; Herrmann, R. B.; Rubinstein, J. L.; Earle, P. S.; Bergman, E.

    2016-12-01

    We characterize the spatio-temporal patterns of seismicity surrounding the February 13, 2016, Mw 5.1 Fairview, Oklahoma earthquake. This earthquake sequence accounts for the largest moment release in the central and eastern US since the November 06, 2011 Mw 5.6 Prague, OK earthquake sequence. To improve the location accuracy of the sequence and measure near-source ground motions, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) deployed eight seismometers and accelerometers in the epicentral region. With the added depth control from these stations, we show that earthquakes primarily occur in the Precambrian basement, at depths of 6-10 km below sea level. The Mw 5.1 mainshock, the largest event in the cluster, locates near the base of the seismicity. Relocated aftershocks delineate a partially unmapped, 14-km-long fault segment that strikes approximately N40°E, partially bridging the gap between previously mapped basement faults to the southwest and northeast. Gas production and hydraulic fracking data from the region show no evidence that either of these activities correlates spatio-temporally with the Fairview sequence. Instead, we suggest that a series of high-rate, Arbuckle injection wells (> 300,000 bbls/month) 8-25 km northeast of this sequence pressurized the reservoir in the far field. Regional injection into the Arbuckle formation increased 7-fold in the 24 months before the initiation of the sequence with some wells operating at rates greater than 1 million barrels per month. Seismicity in the proximity of the high-rate wells is diffuse whilst the energetic Fairview sequence occurs more than 15 km from this region. Our observations point to the critical role pre-existing geologic structures play in the occurrence of large induced earthquakes. This study demonstrates the need for a better understanding of the role of far-field pressurization. High-quality data sets such as this facilitate the USGS mission to improve earthquake hazard identification, especially

  6. Modernization of industrial enterprises and innovative implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    У.M. Petrovych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The main objective of the domestic company is the development of new market mechanisms, the implementation of progressive reforms, formation of specialized structures supporting innovation-oriented management. The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive approach to the principles of industrial enterprises modernization. Based on the goal, the main objectives of the study are: to identify the main objectives of modernization of industrial enterprises; to develop an algorithm modernization of industrial enterprises; to propose the approach to investment support modernization justification. The results of the analysis. Improving economic openness of Ukraine and in particular the Agreement on free trade zone with the EU Ukraine has led to increased international competition and exacerbated the problem of how to enhance the competitiveness of domestic industry. Condition of most industrial enterprises is characterized by low innovation activity, insufficient use of outdated equipment and technology, inefficient system of organizing business processes and more. The modern vision of modernization must include the full range of interrelated elements: improving of production management system in general, the state of the environment, work with personnel, updated product range. The authors give basic provisions of the economic model of target formation modernization. The methodical base of investment planning should be target-oriented approach to basic principles which include: commitment, consistency, complexity, security, priority and timeliness. Principles of investment portfolio formation for modernization projects together are proposed. Policy principles for support are given basing on the financial condition of the company and its investment activity in financial markets. The algorithm of enterprise modernization is suggested. Practical implementation of the tasks is to implement the program of investment

  7. Toward better understanding and feasibility of controlling greenhouse gas emissions from treatment of industrial wastewater with activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Yang, Jun-Hong; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Yang, Ying-Hsien

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been recognized as important sources for anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The objective of the study was to thoroughly investigate a typical industrial WWTP in southern Taiwan in winter and summer which possesses the emission factors close to those reported values, with the analyses of emission factors, mass fluxes, fugacity, lab-scale in situ experiments, and impact assessment. The activated sludge was the important source in winter and summer, and nitrous oxide (N2O) was the main contributor (e.g., 57 to 91 % of total GHG emission in a unit of kg carbon dioxide-equivalent/kg chemical oxygen demand). Albeit important for the GHGs in the atmosphere, the fractional contribution of the GHG emission to the carbon or nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment was negligible (e.g., less than 1.5 %). In comparison with the sludge concentration or retention time, adjusting the aeration rate was more effective to diminish the GHG emission in the activated sludge without significantly affecting the treated water quality. When the aeration rate in the activated sludge simulation was reduced by 75 %, the mass flux of N2O could be diminished by up to 53 % (from 9.6 to 4.5 mg/m(2)-day). The total emission in the WWTP (including carbon dioxide, methane, and N2O) would decrease by 46 % (from 0.67 to 0.36 kg CO2-equiv/kg COD). However, the more important benefit of changing the aeration rate was lowering the energy consumption in operation of the WWTP, as the fractional contribution of pumping to the total emission from the WWTP ranged from 46 to 93 % within the range of the aeration rate tested. Under the circumstance in which reducing the burden of climate change is a global campaign, the findings provide insight regarding the GHG emission from treatment of industrial wastewater and the associated impact on the treatment performance and possible mitigation strategies by operational modifications.

  8. Development of a NIR-based blend uniformity method for a drug product containing multiple structurally similar actives by using the quality by design principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yiqing; Li, Weiyong; Xu, Jin; Boulas, Pierre

    2015-07-05

    The aim of this study is to develop an at-line near infrared (NIR) method for the rapid and simultaneous determination of four structurally similar active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in powder blends intended for the manufacturing of tablets. Two of the four APIs in the formula are present in relatively small amounts, one at 0.95% and the other at 0.57%. Such small amounts in addition to the similarity in structures add significant complexity to the blend uniformity analysis. The NIR method is developed using spectra from six laboratory-created calibration samples augmented by a small set of spectra from a large-scale blending sample. Applying the quality by design (QbD) principles, the calibration design included concentration variations of the four APIs and a main excipient, microcrystalline cellulose. A bench-top FT-NIR instrument was used to acquire the spectra. The obtained NIR spectra were analyzed by applying principal component analysis (PCA) before calibration model development. Score patterns from the PCA were analyzed to reveal relationship between latent variables and concentration variations of the APIs. In calibration model development, both PLS-1 and PLS-2 models were created and evaluated for their effectiveness in predicting API concentrations in the blending samples. The final NIR method shows satisfactory specificity and accuracy.

  9. Pretreatment of furfural industrial wastewater by Fenton, electro-Fenton and Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate processes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C W; Wang, D; Tang, Q

    2014-01-01

    The Fenton, electro-Fenton and Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate (PDS) processes have been applied for the treatment of actual furfural industrial wastewater in this paper. Through the comparative study of the three processes, a suitable pretreatment technology for actual furfural wastewater treatment was obtained, and the mechanism and dynamics process of this technology is discussed. The experimental results show that Fenton technology has a good and stable effect without adjusting pH of furfural wastewater. At optimal conditions, which were 40 mmol/L H₂O₂ initial concentration and 10 mmol/L Fe²⁺ initial concentration, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate can reach 81.2% after 90 min reaction at 80 °C temperature. The PDS process also has a good performance. The COD removal rate could attain 80.3% when Na₂S₂O₈ initial concentration was 4.2 mmol/L, Fe²⁺ initial concentration was 0.1 mol/L, the temperature remained at 70 °C, and pH value remained at 2.0. The electro-Fenton process was not competent to deal with the high-temperature furfural industrial wastewater and only 10.2% COD was degraded at 80 °C temperature in the optimal conditions (2.25 mA/cm² current density, 4 mg/L Na₂SO₄, 0.3 m³/h aeration rate). For the Fenton, electro-Fenton and PDS processes in pretreatment of furfural wastewater, their kinetic processes follow the pseudo first order kinetics law. The pretreatment pathways of furfural wastewater degradation are also investigated in this study. The results show that furfural and furan formic acid in furfural wastewater were preferentially degraded by Fenton technology. Furfural can be degraded into low-toxicity or nontoxic compounds by Fenton pretreatment technology, which could make furfural wastewater harmless and even reusable.

  10. Degradation of organic pollutants and characteristics of activated sludge in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic reactor treating chemical industrial wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic system operated at the hydraulic retention times (HRT of 20, 40, and 60 h with mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS concentrations of 3 g/L and 6 g/L was considered for treating chemical industrial wastewater rich in complex organic compounds and total dissolved solids. Extending the HRT and increasing the MLSS concentration resulted in higher removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand at 72%. Organic compounds in wastewater could be classified into easily-removed and refractory compounds during treatment. The easily-removed compounds consisted primarily of ethers, alcohols, and aldehydes, whereas the refractory compounds included mainly oxygen-containing heterocyclic and benzene-containing compounds. Results from energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that several metal ions accumulated in activated sludge, particularly Fe(III. Fe accumulated mainly on the surface of sludge floc pellets and resulted in the compactness of activated sludge, which caused the values of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids /MLSS and sludge volume index to decrease.

  11. The importance of observation of structural changes of lead acid battery active mass in special applications in the mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zimáková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To be able to use lead acid batteries in particularly difficult conditions in the mining industry, it is very important to understand the events that occur during traction operation of mining carts, or auxiliary lighting. Failure of lead accumulators in the hazardous environments, where it is desired non-explosive embodiment, may have fatal consequences. The paper describes the possibility of observing changes in active materials at the microscopic level. The process of charging and discharging lead-acid accumulator has been described in many publications. The aim of this article is to supplement known information about a series of images and analysis that will accurately show progressive changes in the structure of the negative electrode. Negative electrodes are, at each cycle, charged and discharged under the same conditions, scanned with a scanning electron microscope, the elemental analysis (EDS is performed, and the size of the individual sulfate crystals is measured. Previously measured results indicate that during the charging the conversion of PbSO4 crystals into a charged form of the active mass is not complete, and there is a rapid increase in the size of lead sulfate crystals on the negative electrode. This article compares changes in electrode surface composition after two cycles. There is a clear loss of lead and, on the other hand, the visible growth of sulfur. This indicates progressive surface sulfation.

  12. Phylogeny, physiology and distribution of 'Candidatus Microthrix calida', a new Microthrix species isolated from industrial activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levantesi, Caterina; Rossetti, Simona; Thelen, Karin; Kragelund, Caroline; Krooneman, Janneke; Eikelboom, Dick; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer; Tandoi, Valter

    2006-09-01

    Twelve strains of filamentous bacteria morphologically identified as 'Microthrix parvicella' were isolated from industrial activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis showed that these strains were all closely related to 'Candidatus Microthrix parvicella'. Six of them, however, had a 16S rRNA gene similarity of only 95.7% and 96.7% to 'Candidatus Microthrix parvicella' suggesting the presence of a new species. The name 'Candidatus Microthrix calida' is proposed for this new microorganism. The physiological properties of these six isolates supported the description of a new taxon. The 'Candidatus Microthrix calida' strains produced thin filaments (0.3-0.7 microm diameter), they did not grow on the media supporting the growth of 'Candidatus Microthrix parvicella' and could be cultivated at higher temperature (up to 36.5 degrees C). Preliminary data on substrate uptake were obtained by microautoradiography on pure culture. Two new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, Mpa-T1-1260 specific for 'Candidatus Microthrix calida' and Mpa-all-1410 targeting both Microthrix species, were designed. The presence of Microthrix spp. was investigated in 114 activated sludge plants. 'Microthrix parvicella' morphotype was detected in 23% of the analysed samples and FISH analysis revealed that 'Candidatus Microthrix calida' was present in 5% of them. The remaining 'M. parvicella' filaments were positive with probe Mpa-all-1410 but could not all be identified as 'Candidatus Microthrix parvicella' suggesting the presence of more hitherto undescribed biodiversity within this morphotype.

  13. Economic analysis of the principles of liability in tort in the backdrop of liability for compensation for damage occurring as a result of the activities of one entity to the goods of another entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kuźmicka-Sulikowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses basic issues associated with the economic analysis of liability in tort principles. The deliberations focus on an attempt to define the economic and social consequences of introducing various combinations of principles of tortious liability for damage suffered as a result of the activities of one entity borne in the goods of another. Lack of liability situations are treated in some detail as well as liability based on the principle of risk and the principle of fault. The analyses were conducted based on unilateral and bilateral models. Factors coming into play in determining the economically effective level of carefulness in actions are discussed. A series of other factors of significant relevance for the choice of an optimal principle of liability from the economic point of view are also highlighted. In this context the role of the level of activity of entities, availability of insurance policies and costs associated with pursuing compensation claims are discussed. The deliberations are concluded with a summary, which also entails a critical look at the method of economic analysis of law.

  14. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon. A comparative study; Tratamento de efluentes industriais utilizando a radiacao ionizante de acelerador industrial de eletrons e por adsorcao com carvao ativado. Estudo comparativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Las Casas, Alexandre

    2004-07-01

    Several methods are used In the pollutant removal from Industrial and domestic wastewater. However when the degradation of toxic organic pollutants, mainly the recalcitrant is objectified, the conventional treatments usually do not meet the desirable performance in the elimination or decrease the impact when the effluent are released to the environment what takes to the research of alternative methods that seek the improvement of the efficiency of the wastewater treatment systems jointly employees or separately. This work presents a study of degradation/removal of pollutants organic compounds comparing two methods using radiation from industrial electron beam and granular activated carbon (GAC). The removal efficiency of the pollutants was evaluated and it was verified that the efficiency of adsorption with activated carbon is similar to the radiation method. The obtained results allowed to evaluated the relative costs of these methods. (author)

  15. Evaluation of waste activated sludge as a coagulant aid for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing mixed surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwiriyarat, Tongchai; Jangkorn, Siriprapha

    2009-04-01

    Wastewater generated by the industry manufacturing detergents and various kinds of consumer products normally contains very high contents of mixed surfactants, organic matters expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD), and phosphates that must be treated prior to discharge to the aquatic environment. In this study, jar-test experiments were conducted to evaluate the waste activated sludge (WAS) as a coagulation aid in the coagulation-flocculation process with ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate as a coagulant for the treatment of wastewater collected from the aforementioned industry. The WAS was selected because of its adsorption capability of anionic surfactants and its availability from the wastage stream of biological wastewater treatment process. The effective dosages of both coagulants with and without the WAS additions were determined in this study. Without the WAS addition, the concentrations of 800 mg/L aluminum sulfate at the optimum pH value of 8 and 2208 mg/L ferric chloride at the optimum pH value of 12 were the optimum chemical dosages. It appears that aluminum sulfate was more effective than ferric chloride based on the chemical dosage and removal efficiency. The turbidity, suspended particles, anionic surfactants, COD, and phosphates removal efficiencies of aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride under the optimum dosage were 95.6, 88.2, 78.4, 73.5, 47.3% and 98.8, 92.0, 72.7, 67.5, 53.1%, respectively. The addition of 200 mg/L WAS was sufficient to reduce the optimum dosages of both chemicals by 200 mg/L. The cationic surfactant existing in the wastewater worked as a flocculating agent leading to the flocculation of waste activated sludge resulting in the enmeshment of the suspended particles and colloids on which the COD, anionic surfactants, and phosphates were adsorbed. However, the substances removal efficiencies of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate were slightly enhanced and reduced, respectively. It is possibly explained that the settling time

  16. [Genetics and the precautionary principle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, J

    2000-01-01

    It is very important to follow the Precautionary Principles with regard to genetics because of its fast development and of its impact in the public imaginer. In that regard gene grafts, OGM or recombinant drugs are pre-eminently be suspected to transmit human or animal viruses and/or to induce severe allergies. Pharmaceutical Industry has conducted large reflexions on such problems and are using drastic rules to prevent them. By contrast, academic research laboratories are handicapped by the problem of fund seeking. At the genetic disease level and mainly because the fast development of Predictive Medicine, patient and family councelling requires a great lot of reflexion and carefulness. Memorization of the presence of abnormal genes in the history of families also constitutes an important problem. We believe that, to be in accordance with the Precautionary Principles, an important work of formation and information is required.

  17. INVESTMENT ACTIVITY OF AGRIBUSINESS IN THE AGROINDUSTRIAL COMPLEX REGION, AS ONE OF THE ELEMENTS OF THE FINANCIAL SECURITY OF THE AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF THE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Nikolaevna Uglitskikh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The developed economic-political situation around of Russia, specifies an indispensability of support of agricultural commodity producers as from their financial well-being, investment activity the financial security of agrarian and industrial complex of the state depends. Limitation of own financial resources at agrarians does not allow them to realize independently conceived projects. Studying of questions of formation and functioning of investment activity in agriculture of Stavropol Territory and an assessment of investment projects offered to reali-zation, have allowed to analyse investment activity of agrarian and industrial complex of region up to the introduction of Russia into WTO and in conditions of its membership. By results of the lead assessment the administrative areas of region showing the greatest investment activity, threats of a financial security of agrarian and industrial complex of region not putting by the activity have been revealed. It is drawn a conclusion on influence West-American sanctions on financial without-danger agra-rian and industrial complex of the state and the responsibility сельхозтоваропроизводителей about delivery of agricultural production in necessary volume and import substitution.

  18. Principles of neural information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Seelen, Werner v

    2016-01-01

    In this fundamental book the authors devise a framework that describes the working of the brain as a whole. It presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of Neural Information Processing as well as recent and authoritative research. The books´ guiding principles are the main purpose of neural activity, namely, to organize behavior to ensure survival, as well as the understanding of the evolutionary genesis of the brain. Among the developed principles and strategies belong self-organization of neural systems, flexibility, the active interpretation of the world by means of construction and prediction as well as their embedding into the world, all of which form the framework of the presented description. Since, in brains, their partial self-organization, the lifelong adaptation and their use of various methods of processing incoming information are all interconnected, the authors have chosen not only neurobiology and evolution theory as a basis for the elaboration of such a framework, but also syst...

  19. Safety of spanish nuclear park. Analysis of the fundamental principles of security of nuclear facilities and activities; Seguridad del parque nuclear espanol. Analisis de los principios fundamentales de ls seguridad de las instalaciones y actividades nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the fundamental principles underlying the safety of nuclear installations and activities, which defined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These principles determine the roles of government and responsibilities of the holders of power, explain how to achieve security and nuclear energy to justify the society, present and future and the environment from the risks of ionizing radiation, both and explain natural and man must be managed as waste that occur or have occurred in the past. (Author)

  20. Physico-chemical studies on the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of herbal extracts and active principles of some Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Soumyakanti; Indira Priyadarsini, Kavirayani; Mukherjee, Tulsi

    2007-05-01

    Understanding of the efficacy and mechanism for the reaction of the biologically important radicals with natural and/or synthetic antioxidants is the first step towards the development of future therapeutic agents. The kinetic parameters e.g., formation and decay rate constants predict the efficacy of an antioxidant and its fate after reaction. These parameters also dictate the ease with which competing reactions would occur in a bio-environment. The spectroscopic parameters provide the clue to the site of free radical attack to these antioxidants. Here, in this article an attempt has been made to show the use of physico-chemical methods in the evaluation of antioxidant activity of some important medicinal plants commonly used in India and the subcontinent. The systems chosen here for discussions are herbal extracts as such, curcumin from turmeric, methoxy phenols from Indian spices, dehydrogingerdione from ginger and bakuchiol from Psoralea corylifolia. All the examples shown in this article illustrate the potential of the pulse radiolysis coupled with kinetic spectroscopy and other physicochemical techniques for the study of antioxidants either in the form of mixture as in herbal extract or as an isolated compound.