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Sample records for induction linac driver

  1. Progress in Induction Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporaso, G J

    2000-09-27

    This presentation will be a broad survey of progress in induction technology over the past four years. Much work has been done on accelerators for hydrodynamic test radiography and other applications. Solid-state pulsers have been developed which can provide unprecedented flexibility and precision in pulse format and accelerating voltage for both ion and electron induction machines. Induction linacs can now be built which can operate with MHz repetition rates. Solid-state technology has also made possible the development of fast kickers for precision control of high current beams. New insulator technology has been developed which will improve conventional induction linacs in addition to enabling a new class of high gradient induction linacs.

  2. An Induction Linac Driver For A 0.44 MJ Heavy-Ion Direct Drive Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, P.A.; Lee, E.P.; Bangerter, R.O.; Faltens, A.

    2010-02-08

    The conceptual design of a heavy ion fusion driver system is described, including all major components. Particular issues emerging from this exercise are identified and discussed. The most important conclusion of our study is that due to stringent requirements on ion pulse phase space, we are unable to find a credible accelerator design that meets the requirements of the example target. Either the target design must be modified to accept larger ion ranges and larger focal spot sizes, or we must consider other target options.

  3. Induction Linac Pulsers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltens, Andris

    2011-01-07

    The pulsers used in most of the induction linacs evolved from the very large body of work that was done in the U.S. and Great Britain during the development of the pulsed magnetron for radar. The radar modulators started at {approx}100 kW and reached >10 MW by 1945. A typical pulse length was 1 {mu}s at a repetition rate of 1,000 pps. A very comprehensive account of the modulator development is Pulse Generators by Lebacqz and Glasoe, one of the Radiation Laboratory Series. There are many permutations of possible modulators, two of the choices being tube type and line type. In earlier notes I wrote that technically the vacuum tube pulser met all of our induction linac needs, in the sense that a number of tubes, in series and parallel if required, could produce our pulses, regulate their voltage, be useable in feed-forward correctors, and provide a low source impedance. At a lower speed, an FET array is similar, and we have obtained and tested a large array capable of >10 MW switching. A modulator with an electronically controlled output only needs a capacitor for energy storage and in a switched mode can transfer the energy from the capacitor to the load at high efficiency. Driving a full size Astron induction core and a simulated resistive 'beam load' we achieved >50% efficiency. These electronically controlled output pulses can produce the pulses we desire but are not used because of their high cost. The second choice, the line type pulser, visually comprises a closing switch and a distributed or a lumped element transmission line. The typical switch cannot open or stop conducting after the desired pulse has been produced, and consequently all of the initially stored energy is dissipated. This approximately halves the efficiency, and the original cost estimating program LIACEP used this factor of two, even though our circuits are usually worse, and even though our inveterate optimists often omit it. The 'missing' energy is that which is

  4. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units.

  5. FRIB driver linac vacuum model and benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    Durickovic, Bojan; Kersevan, Roberto; Machicoane, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a superconducting heavy-ion linear accelerator that is to produce rare isotopes far from stability for low energy nuclear science. In order to achieve this, its driver linac needs to achieve a very high beam current (up to 400 kW beam power), and this requirement makes vacuum levels of critical importance. Vacuum calculations have been carried out to verify that the vacuum system design meets the requirements. The modeling procedure was benchmarked by comparing models of an existing facility against measurements. In this paper, we present an overview of the methods used for FRIB vacuum calculations and simulation results for some interesting sections of the accelerator. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An induction linac developed for FEL application

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mascureau, J.; Anthouard, Ph.; Bardy, J.; Eyharts, Ph.; Eyl, P.; Launspach, J.; Thevenot, M.; Villate, D.

    1992-07-01

    An induction linac is being studied and built at CESTA for FEL application. At first we studied the induction technology and namely the high-voltage (HV) generators and the induction cells. A HV generator designed to feed the cells with calibrated pulses (150 kV, 50 ns, δV/V magnetic switches. This generator is planned for kHz repetition-rate operation. A prototype induction cell has also been built and tested with a cable generator. An electron injector (1.5 MeV, 1.5kA) has been designed and is now under test: it uses ten induction cells and a thermionic dispenser cathode. Numerical codes have been developed and simulations have been compared with experimental results for HV generators, induction cells, and the injector. An induction accelerating module has been studied and we plan to have the accelerator working at 3 MeV in 1992.

  7. Reliability and Availability Studies in the RIA Linac Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Schnirman-Lessner, Eliane

    2005-01-01

    The RIA facility will include various complex systems and must provide radioactive beams to many users simultaneously. The availability of radioactive beams for most experiments at the fully-commissioned facility should be as high as possible within design cost limitations. To make a realistic estimate of the achievable reliability a detailed analysis is required. The RIA driver linac is a complex machine containing a large number of SC resonators and capable of accelerating multiple-charge-state beams. At the pre-CDR stage of the design it is essential to identify critical facility subsystem failures that can prevent the driver linac from operating. The reliability and availability of the driver linac are studied using expert information and data from operating machines such as ATLAS, APS, JLab, and LANL. Availability studies are performed with a Monte-Carlo simulation code previously applied to availability assessments of the NLC facility [http://www.slac.stanford.edu/xorg/accelops/Full/LCoptsfull] and the ...

  8. Parametic Study of the current limit within a single driver-scaletransport beam line of an induction Linac for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, Lionel Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ~0.2 μC/m) over long pulse durations (4 μs) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K+ ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (~80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  9. Error analysis in post linac to driver linac transport beam line of RAON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of magnet errors in the beam transport line connecting the post linac to the driver linac (P2DT) in the Rare Isotope Accelerator in Korea (RAON). The P2DT beam line is bent by 180-degree to send the radioactive Isotope Separation On-line (ISOL) beams accelerated in Linac-3 to Linac-2. This beam line transports beams with multi-charge state 132Sn45,46,47. The P2DT beam line includes 42 quadrupole, 4 dipole and 10 sextupole magnets. We evaluate the effects of errors on the trajectory of the beam by using the TRACK code, which includes the translational and the rotational errors of the quadrupole, dipole and sextupole magnets in the beam line. The purpose of this error analysis is to reduce the rate of beam loss in the P2DT beam line. The distorted beam trajectories can be corrected by using six correctors and seven monitors.

  10. Optimization of Steering Elements in the RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    SchnirmanLessner, Eliane; Ostroumov, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The driver linac of the projected RIA facility is a versatile accelerator, a 1.4-GV, CW superconducting linac designed to simultaneously accelerate several heavy-ion charge states, providing beams from protons at about 1 GeV to uranium at 400 MeV/u at power levels at a minimum of 100 kW and up to 400 kW for most beams. Acceleration of multiple-charge-state uranium beams places stringent requirements on the linac design. A steering algorithm was derived that fulfilled the driver’s real estate requirements, such as placement of steering dipole coils on SC solenoids and of beam position monitors outside cryostats, and beam-dynamics requirements, such as coupling effects induced by the focusing solenoids.* The algorithm has been fully integrated in the tracking code TRACK** and is used to study and optimize the number and position of steering elements that minimize the multiple-beam centroid oscillations and preserve the beam emittance under misalignments of accelerating and transverse focusing elements...

  11. High average-power induction linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prono, D.S.; Barrett, D.; Bowles, E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Clark, J.C.; Coffield, F.; Newton, M.A.; Nexsen, W.; Ravenscroft, D.

    1989-03-15

    Induction linear accelerators (LIAs) are inherently capable of accelerating several thousand amperes of /approximately/ 50-ns duration pulses to > 100 MeV. In this paper we report progress and status in the areas of duty factor and stray power management. These technologies are vital if LIAs are to attain high average power operation. 13 figs.

  12. Control of beam dynamics in high energy induction linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, G. J.

    1986-07-01

    The Advent of laser-ion-guiding in the Advanced test Accelerator along with the development of accelerator cavities optimized with respect to beam breakup coupling impedence now make it possible to consider a new class of high current, high emergy linear induction accelerators. The control of the beam breakup and other instabilities by laser guiding and by various magnetic focusing schemes will be discussed along with the scaling laws for the design of such machines to minimize the growth of the beam breakup instability. Many linacs, particularly induction linacs are limited in performance by the beam breakup (BBU) instability. The instability is found in two forms. In the first form the accelerating cavities communicate with one another through interaction with the beam and through propagation of cavity fields through the accelerator structure. In the second form which is the more virulent of the two, the cavities couple to each other only through their interactions with the beam. It is this second form of PPU that will be discussed in this paper.

  13. Beam Loss Studies for Rare Isotope Driver Linacs Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangler, T P; Kurennoy, S S; Billen, J H; Crandall, K R; Qiang, J; Ryne, R D; Mustapha, B; Ostroumov, P; Zhao, Q; York, and R. C.

    2008-03-26

    The Fortran 90 RIAPMTQ/IMPACT code package is a pair of linked beam-dynamics simulation codes that have been developed for end-to-end computer simulations of multiple-charge-state heavy-ion linacs for future exotic-beam facilities. These codes have multiple charge-state capability, and include space-charge forces. The simulations can extend from the low-energy beam-transport line after an ECR ion source to the end of the linac. The work has been performed by a collaboration including LANL, LBNL, ANL, and MSU. The code RIAPMTQ simulates the linac front-end beam dynamics including the LEBT, RFQ, and MEBT. The code IMPACT simulates the beam dynamics of the main superconducting linac. The codes have been benchmarked for rms beam properties against previously existing codes at ANL and MSU. The codes allow high-statistics runs on parallel supercomputing platforms, particularly at NERSC at LBNL, for studies of beam losses. The codes also run on desktop PC computers for low-statistics work. The code package is described in more detail in a recent publication [1] in the Proceedings of PAC07 (2007 US Particle Accelerator Conference). In this report we describe the main activities for the FY07 beam-loss studies project using this code package.

  14. Studies of a Linac Driver for a High Repetition Rate X-Ray FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, M.; Corlett, J.; Doolittle, L.; Filippetto, D.; Papadopoulos, C.; Penn, G.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Reinsch, M.; Ryne, R.; Sannibale, F.; Staples, J.; Wells, R.; Wurtele, J.; Zolotorev, M.; Zholents, A.

    2011-06-01

    We report on on-going studies of a superconducting CW linac driver intended to support a high repetition rate FEL operating in the soft x-rays spectrum. We present a pointdesign for a 1.8 GeV machine tuned for 300 pC bunches and delivering low-emittance, low-energy spread beams as needed for the SASE and seeded beamlines.

  15. End-to-End Beam Simulations for the MSU RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, X; Gorelov, D; Grimm, T L; Marti, F; York, R C; Zhao, Q

    2004-01-01

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac proposed by Michigan State University (MSU) will use a 10th sub-harmonic based, superconducting, cw linac to accelerate light and heavy ions to final energies of ≤400 MeV/u with beam powers of 100 to 400 kW. The driver linac uses superconducting quarter-wave, half-wave, and six-cell elliptical cavities with frequencies ranging from 80.5 MHz to 805 MHz for acceleration, and superconducting solenoids and room temperature quadrupoles for transverse focusing. For the heavier ions, two stages of charge-stripping and multiple-charge-state acceleration will be used to meet the beam power requirements and to minimize the requisite accelerating voltage. End-to-end, three-dimensional (3D), beam dynamics simulations from the ECR to the radioactive beam production targets have been performed. These studies include a 3D analysis of multi-charge-state beam acceleration, evaluation of transverse misalignment and rf errors on the machine performance, modeling of the c...

  16. End-to-End Beam Dynamics Simulations for the ANL-RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, P N

    2004-01-01

    The proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) Facility consists of a superconducting (SC) 1.4 GV driver linac capable of producing 400 kW beams of any ion from hydrogen to uranium. The driver is configured as an array of ~350 SC cavities, each with independently controllable rf phase. For the end-to-end beam dynamics design and simulation we use a dedicated code, TRACK. The code integrates ion motion through the three-dimensional fields of all elements of the driver linac beginning from the exit of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to the production targets. TRACK has been parallelized and is able to track large number of particles in randomly seeded accelerators with misalignments and a comprehensive set of errors. The simulation starts with multi-component dc ion beams extracted from the ECR. Beam losses are obtained by tracking up to million particles in hundreds of randomly seeded accelerators. To control beam losses a set of collimators is applied in designated areas. The end-to-end simulat...

  17. Beam dynamics studies in the driver LINAC pre-stripper section of the RIA facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E S Lessner; P N Ostroumov

    2002-12-01

    The RIA facility driver LINAC consists of about 400 superconducting (SC) independently phased rf cavities. The LINAC is designed to accelerate simultaneously several charge-state beams to generate as much as 400 kW of uranium beam power. The LINAC beam dynamics is most sensitive to the focusing and accelerating structure parameters of the pre-stripper section, where the uranium beam is accelerated from 0.17 keV/u to 9.4 MeV/u. This section is designed to accept and accelerate two charge states (28 and 29) of uranium beam from an ECR ion source. The pre-stripper section must be designed to minimize the beam emittance distortion of this two-charge-state beam. In particular, the inter-cryostat spaces must be minimized and beam parameters near transitions of the accelerating and focusing lattices must be matched carefully. Several sources of possible effective emittance growth are considered in the design of the pre-stripper section and a tolerance budget is established. Numerical beam dynamics studies include realistic electric and magnetic three-dimensional field distributions in the SC rf cavities and SC solenoids. Error effects in the longitudinal beam parameters are studied.

  18. Multi- Physics analysis of the RFQ for the Injector Scheme II of CADS Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Wang; Yuan, He; Xiao-Qi, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A 162.5 MHz, 2.1 MeV Radio Frequency Quadruples (RFQ) structure is being designed for the Injector Scheme II of China Accelerator Driver System (CADS) driver linac. The RFQ will operate at continuous wave (CW) mode as required. For the CW normal conducting machine, the heat management will be one of the most important issues, since the temperature fluctuation may cause cavity deformation and leading to the resonant frequency shift. Therefor a detailed multi-physics analysis is necessary to ensure that the cavity can be stably worked at the required power level. The multi-physics analysis process includes RF Electromagnetic analysis, Thermal analysis, Mechnical analysis, and this process will be iterated for several cycles until the satisfied solution can be found. As one of the widely accepted measures, the cooling water system is used for frequency fine tunning, so the tunning capability of the cooling water system is also studied at different conditions. The results indicate that with the cooling water syst...

  19. Interim Scientific Report for the Induction Linac Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-30

    been investigacion . Figure ihows two if the generated using an inductively fed nagnoticallt insu- configurations used Ln the study. The upper part if...interest is it pro- turn on and the beam ieutralization ere -arzinal at .tides a practical Uemonstration of a way :o increase the operacional levels

  20. Transport of intense proton beams in an induction linac by solenoid lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, W.; Choe, J. Y.; Uhm, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    In the proposed proton induction linac at NSWC, a 100 A and 3 μs proton beam is accelerated to 5 MeV through a series of accelerating gaps. This beam can be effectively focused by solenoid lenses in this low energy regime and can be transported by adjusting the focusing strength in each period. For the transport channel design to reduce the number of independently controlled lenses, a theory of matched beams in the space-charge dominated regime has been developed. This study can be applied to cost efficient designs of induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion and free electron lasers.

  1. BEAM DYNAMICS STUDIES OF A HIGH-REPETITION RATE LINAC-DRIVER FOR A 4TH GENERATION LIGHT SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventturini, M.; Corlett, J.; Emma, P.; Papadopoulos, C.; Penn, G.; Placidi, M.; Qiang, J.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Steier, C.; Sun, C.; Wells, R.

    2012-05-18

    We present recent progress toward the design of a super-conducting linac driver for a high-repetition rate FEL-based soft x-ray light source. The machine is designed to accept beams generated by the APEX photo-cathode gun operating with MHz-range repetition rate and deliver them to an array of SASE and seeded FEL beamlines. We review the current baseline design and report results of beam dynamics studies.

  2. Advanced test accelerator: a high-current induction linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E.G.; Birx, D.L.; Reginato, L.L.

    1982-11-01

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a linear induction accelerator being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim of the ATA, together with its associated physics program is the research and development necessary to resolve whether particle-beam propagation is possible. Since the accelerator is the tool needed to do the basic propagation experiment, many of its design parameters are specified by the physics. The accelerator parameters are: 50 MeV, 10 kA, 70 ns pulse width (FWHM), and a 1 kHz rep-rate during a ten-pulse burst. In addition, beam quality and pulse-to-pulse repeatability must be excellent. The unique features of the accelerator are the 10 kA beam and the 1 kHz burst frequency.

  3. A Non-Interfering Beam Radius Diagnostic Suitable For Induction Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexsen, W E

    2005-06-07

    High current electron induction linacs operate in a parameter regime that allows the use of a diamagnetic loop (DML) to measure the beam magnetic moment. Under certain easily met conditions the beam radius can be derived from the moment measurement. The DML has the advantage over the present methods of measuring beam radius in that it is an electrical measurement with good time resolution that does not interfere with the beam transport. I describe experiments on the LLNL accelerators, ETA-II and FXR that give confidence in the use of a DML as a beam diagnostic.

  4. Elise: The next step in development of induction heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Bangerter, R. O.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.; Peters, C.; Pickrell, J.; Reginato, L.; Seidl, P.; Yu, S.

    1994-11-01

    LBL, with the participation of LLNL and industry, proposes to build Elise, an electric-focused accelerator as the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction linac powerful enough to implode or 'drive' inertial-confinement fusion targets. Elise will be at full driver scale in several important parameters-most notably line charge density (a function of beam size), which was not explored in earlier experiments. Elise will be capable of accelerating and electrostatically focusing four parallel, full-scale ion beams and will be designed to be extendible, by successive future construction projects, to meet the goal of the USA DOE Inertial Fusion Energy program (IFE). This goal is to address all remaining issues in heavy-ion IFE except target physics, which is currently the responsibility of DOE Defense Programs, and the target chamber. Thus Elise is the first step of a program that will provide a solid foundation of data for further progress toward a driver, as called for in the National Energy Strategy and National Energy Policy Act.

  5. Low-inductance gas switches for linear transformer drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Woodworth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We are investigating several alternate gas-switch designs for use in linear transformer drivers. To meet linear-transformer-driver (LTD requirements, these air-insulated switches must be DC charged to 200 kV, be triggerable with a jitter of 5 ns or less, have very low prefire and no-fire rates (∼1 in 10^{4} shots, and have a lifetime of at least several thousand shots. Since the switch inductance plays a significant role in limiting the rise time and peak current of the LTD circuit, the inductance needs to be as low as possible. The switches are required to conduct current pulses with ∼100-ns rise times and 20–80 kA peak currents, depending on the application. Our baseline switch, designed by the High Current Electronics Institute in Tomsk, Russia, is a six-stage switch with an inductance on the order of 115 nH that is insulated with 47–67 psia of air. We are also testing three smaller two-stage switches that have inductances on the order of 66–100 nH. The smaller switches are insulated with 92–252 psia of air.

  6. Development of heavy-ion accelerators as drivers for inertially confined fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-06-01

    The commercialization of inertial confinement fusion is discussed in terms of power costs. A chapter on heavy ion accelerators covers the prinicpal components, beam loss mechanisms, and theoretical considerations. Other tyopics discussed include the following: (1) heavy ion fusion implementation plan, (2) driver with accumulator rings fed by an rf LINAC, (3) single pass driver with an induction LINAC, and (4) implementation scenarios.

  7. An Rf-gun-driven recirculated linac as injector and FEL driver.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, A.; Biedron, S.; Eriksson, M.; Freund, H.; Werin, S.

    1999-08-23

    A new pre-injector for the MAX-Laboratory is under design and construction. A thermionic rf gun, designed to operate at medium currents with low back bombardment power, is under construction. The gun will, via a magnetic compressor and energy filter, feed a recirculated linac consisting of two SLED-equipped structures giving 125 MeV each. The first will be delivered in 1999. The system is aimed as a pre-injector for the existing storage rings at MAX-Lab, but will also open up possibilities for a SASE FEL in the UV reaching above 100 MW below 100 run.

  8. Civil-engineering work for Linac 4 and related roadworks - information for drivers

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    The civil-engineering work for the construction of the Linac 4 accelerator has started on 22 October on the Mont Citron, the mound just opposite Restaurant No. 2 between the Computer Centre and the PS complex. Initially the work will involve excavating the mound and transporting the spoil to the area in front of Building SM18. This first phase of work will last for about five months until April 2009. The large number of lorries will cause disruption to traffic on the Route Rutherford, part of the Route Einstein and in the transfer tunnel between the two sites. Traffic lights for alternating traffic will be in operation at each end of the tunnel since there is insufficient room for two lorries travelling in opposite directions to use it at the same time. Consequently, users are strongly recommended not to use the tunnel except for transporting equipment between the two sites. Users not transporting equipment are strongly recommended ...

  9. Civil-engineering work for Linac 4 and related roadworks - information for drivers

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    The civil-engineering work for the construction of the Linac 4 accelerator will start on 22 October on the Mont Citron, the mound just opposite Restaurant No. 2 between the Computer Centre and the PS complex. Initially the work will involve excavating the mound and transporting the spoil to the area in front of Building SM18. This first phase of work will last for about five months until April 2009. The large number of lorries will cause disruption to traffic on the Route Rutherford, part of the Route Einstein and in the transfer tunnel between the two sites. Traffic lights for alternating traffic will be in operation at each end of the tunnel since there is insufficient room for two lorries travelling in opposite directions to use it at the same time. Consequently, users are strongly recommended not to use the tunnel except for transporting equipment between the two sites. Users not transporting equipment are strongly recommended to use Gates A and B. In parallel, a temporary roundabout will be installed ...

  10. NDCX-II, an Induction Linac for HEDP and IFE Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, J.W.; Arbelaez, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Galvin, J.; Greenway, W.; Gilson, E. P.; Grote, D. P.; Jung, J.Y.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S.M.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S. M.; Reginato, L.L.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W. M.; Takakuwa, J.; Waldron, W.L.

    2011-04-20

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory in the USA is constructing a new Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX-II) at LBNL. This facility is being developed for high energy density physics and inertial fusion energy research. The 12 m long induction linac in NDCX-II will produce a Li{sup +} beam pulse, at energies of 1.2-3 MeV, to heat target material to the warm dense matter regime ({approx} 1 eV). By making use of special acceleration voltage waveforms, 2.5T solenoid focusing, and neutralized drift compression, 20 - 50 nC of beam charge from the ion source will be compressed longitudinally and radially to achieve a subnanosecond pulse length and mm-scale target spot size. The original Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-I) has successfully demonstrated simultaneous radial and longitudinal compression by imparting a velocity ramp to the ion beam, which then drifts in a neutralizing plasma to and through the final focussing solenoid and onto the target. At higher kinetic energy and current, NDCX-II will offer more than 100 times the peak energy fluence on target of NDCX-I. NDCX-II makes use of many parts from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL. It includes 27 lattice periods between the injector and the neutralized drift compression section (Figure 1). There are 12 energized induction cells, 9 inactive cells which provide drift space, and 6 diagnostic cells which provide beam diagnostics and pumping. Custom pulsed power systems generate ramped waveforms for the first 7 induction cells, so as to quickly compress the beam from 600 ns at the injector down to 70 ns. After this compression, the high voltages of the ATA Blumleins are then used to rapidly add energy to the beam. The Blumleins were designed to match the ferrite core volt-seconds with pulses up to 250 kV and a fixed FWHM of 70 ns. The machine is limited to a pulse repetition rate of once every 20 seconds due to cooling requirements. The NDCX

  11. Pulsed, Inductively Generated, Streaming Plasma Ion Source for Heavy Ion Fusion Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven C. Glidden; Howard D Sanders; John B. Greenly; Daniel L. Dongwoo

    2006-04-28

    This report describes a compact, high current density, pulsed ion source, based on electrodeless, inductively driven gas breakdown, developed to meet the requirements on normalized emittance, current density, uniformity and pulse duration for an ion injector in a heavy-ion fusion driver. The plasma source produces >10 μs pulse of Argon plasma with ion current densities >100 mA/cm2 at 30 cm from the source and with strongly axially directed ion energy of about 80 eV, and sub-eV transverse temperature. The source has good reproducibility and spatial uniformity. Control of the current density during the pulse has been demonstrated with a novel modulator coil method which allows attenuation of the ion current density without significantly affecting the beam quality. This project was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 used source configurations adapted from light ion sources to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. In Phase 2 the performance of the source was enhanced and quantified in greater detail, a modulator for controlling the pulse shape was developed, and experiments were conducted with the ions accelerated to >40 kV.

  12. LINAC 4

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 13 March, a beam of negative hydrogen ions was injected into the first accelerator module of Linac 4, the linear accelerator which will replace Linac 2. The beam was created in the new source built for Linac 4 and accelerated from 45 kEV to 3 MeV by a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module, the first link in the Linac 4 accelerator chain. This crucial phase went off without a hitch. The video above shows the new Linac 4 ion source, the low-energy transfer line and the RFQ, with running commentary by Giulia Bellodi and Carlo Rossi from the Beams Department.

  13. Environmental Assessment for the proposed Induction Linac System Experiments in Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), (DOE/EA-1087) evaluating the proposed action to modify existing Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to install and conduct experiments on a new Induction Linear Accelerator System. LBNL is located in Berkeley, California and operated by the University of California (UC). The project consists of placing a pre-fabricated building inside Building 51B to house a new 10 MeV heavy ion linear accelerator. A control room and other support areas would be provided within and directly adjacent to Building 51B. The accelerator system would be used to conduct tests, at reduced scale and cost, many features of a heavy-ion accelerator driver for the Department of Energy`s inertial fusion energy program. Based upon information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  14. An integrated systems model for heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangerter, R O; Faltens, A; Meier, W R

    1998-09-02

    A source-to-target computer model for an induction linac driver for heavy ion fusion has been developed and used to define a reference case driver that meets the requirements of one current target design. Key features of the model are discussed, and the design parameters of the reference case design are described. Examples of the systems analyses leading to the point design are given, and directions for future work are noted.

  15. LINAC4

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    The film illustrates CERN’s new linear accelerator for negative hydrogen ions (H-) Linac4. The klystron hall is shown. In the linac4 tunnel: the H- source, the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), Drift tube (DTL), CCDTL and Pi-mode accelerating structure are shown. The H- dump and transfer line gallery towards the PS-booster are shown. Eventually the bird’s eye view of the booster and PS ring accelerators are shown.

  16. Performance characteristics of an induction linac magnetic pulse compression modulator at multi-kilohertz pulse repetition frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampayan, S.E.; Chambers, F.W.; Deadrick, F.J. [and others

    1991-05-01

    The ETA-II linear induction accelerator utilizes four pulse power conditioning chains. Magnetic pulse compression modulators (MAG1-Ds) form the last stage of each chain. A single power conditioning chain is used to drive the injector; the remaining three are used to drive 60 accelerator cells. Nominal parameters of the MAG1-D are an output voltage of greater than 120 kV, pulse width of 70 ns, and an output impedance of 2 ohms. Our operations goal for ETA-II is stable high average power operation at 5 kHz PRF. We have begun upgrading and characterizing the power conditioning chain on our High Average Power Test Stand (HAPTS). On HAPTS, the pulse to pulse amplitude stability has been improved to less than 0.7% (one sigma) and of order 3-5 ns random jitter about a systematic timing variation. In this paper we describe the status of our work to achieve the this paper we describe the status of our work to achieve the average power operation of ETA-II

  17. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  18. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE).The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development. The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  19. LINAC4 Footage

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    Geneva, 9 May 2017. At a ceremony today, CERN inaugurated its linear accelerator, Linac 4, the newest accelerator acquisition since the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Linac 4 is due to feed the CERN accelerator complex with particle beams of higher energy, which will allow the LHC to reach higher luminosity by 2021. After an extensive testing period, Linac 4 will be connected to CERN’s accelerator complex during the upcoming long technical shut down in 2019-20. Linac 4 will replace Linac 2, which has been in service since 1978. It will become the first step in CERN’s accelerator chain, delivering proton beams to a wide range of experiments

  20. LINAC4 Footage (HD)

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    Geneva, 9 May 2017. At a ceremony today, CERN inaugurated its linear accelerator, Linac 4, the newest accelerator acquisition since the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Linac 4 is due to feed the CERN accelerator complex with particle beams of higher energy, which will allow the LHC to reach higher luminosity by 2021. After an extensive testing period, Linac 4 will be connected to CERN’s accelerator complex during the upcoming long technical shut down in 2019-20. Linac 4 will replace Linac 2, which has been in service since 1978. It will become the first step in CERN’s accelerator chain, delivering proton beams to a wide range of experiments

  1. Range of Possible Beam Current in Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, J-B; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    Linac4 is a new accelerator under construction at CERN. It is designed to accelerate H- ions to 160MeV, for injection into the existing Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). It is also the front-end of the SPL Linac, a high energy proton driver that will reach the energy of 5GeV. The Linac baseline design has been done for a nominal beam peak current of 70mA but it will certainly have to deal with different currents. 132 out of 155 quadrupoles in the Linac are permanent magnets, this choice of using PMQ having fixed gradient, mainly in the DTL and in the CCDTL may then entail issues concerning the beam transverse matching and quality from current different from the nominal one. In this paper, we present the beam dynamics performances in Linac4 obtained for different currents.

  2. Superconducting Hadron Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the main building blocks of a superconducting (SC) linac, the choice of SC resonators, their frequencies, accelerating gradients and apertures, focusing structures, practical aspects of cryomodule design, and concepts to minimize the heat load into the cryogenic system. It starts with an overview of design concepts for all types of hadron linacs differentiated by duty cycle (pulsed or continuous wave) or by the type of ion species (protons, H-, and ions) being accelerated. Design concepts are detailed for SC linacs in application to both light ion (proton, deuteron) and heavy ion linacs. The physics design of SC linacs, including transverse and longitudinal lattice designs, matching between different accelerating–focusing lattices, and transition from NC to SC sections, is detailed. Design of high-intensity SC linacs for light ions, methods for the reduction of beam losses, preventing beam halo formation, and the effect of HOMs and errors on beam quality are discussed. Examples are ta...

  3. Linac 1, inner structure

    CERN Multimedia

    1968-01-01

    This photo shows the inner structure of Linac 1. As injector to the PS, and later to the Booster, Linac 1 accelerated protons to 50 MeV, but it has also accelerated heavier ions. Fitted with a 520 keV RFQ pre-injector (instead of the original Cockcroft-Walton generator), it delivered protons and heavy ions to LEAR, from 1982 to 1992. After 33 years of faithful service, Linac 1 was dismantled in 1992 to make room for Linac 3 (Pb ions).

  4. Studies of Energy Recovery Linacs at Jefferson Laboratory: 1 GeV Demonstration of Energy Recovery at CEBAF and Studies of the Multibunch, Multipass Beam Breakup Instability in the 10 kW FEL Upgrade Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2006-10-01

    An energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. Two primary physics challenges exist in pushing the frontier of ERL performance. The first is energy recovering a high energy beam while demonstrating operational control of two coupled beams in a common transport channel. The second is controlling the high average current effects in ERLs, specifically a type of beam instability called multipass beam breakup (BBU). This work addresses both of these issues. A successful 1 GeV energy recovery demonstration with a maximum-to-injection energy ratio of 51:1 was carried out on the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Laboratory in an effort to address issues related to beam quality preservation in a large scale system. With a 1.3 km recirculation length and containing 312 superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, this experiment has demonstrated energy recovery on the largest scale, and through the largest SRF environment, to date. The BBU instability imposes a potentially severe limitation to the average current that can be accelerated in an ERL. Simulation results for Jefferson Laboratory's 10 kW free electron laser (FEL) Upgrade Driver predict the occurrence of BBU below the nominal operating current. Measurements of the threshold current are described and shown to agree to within 10% of predictions from BBU simulation codes. This represents the first time the codes have been benchmarked with experimental data. With BBU limiting the beam current, several suppression schemes were developed. These include direct damping of the higher-order mode using two different cavity-based feedbacks and modifying the electron beam optics to reduce the coupling between the beam and mode. Specifically the effect of implementing (1) point

  5. A Fast 650V Chopper Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Paoluzzi, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of Linac4 and the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) studies at CERN, the design for a beam chopper has been carried out . This paper describes a new chopper driver amplifier providing 650 V on 50 Ω with fronts of about 2 ns and a repetition frequency of up to 45 MHz.

  6. Heavy-ion LINAC development for the US RIA project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Ostroumov

    2002-12-01

    The Nuclear Science Community in the Unites States has unanimously concluded that developments in both nuclear science and its supporting technologies make building a world-leading Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility for production of radioactive beams the top priority. The RIA development effort involves several US Laboratories (ANL, JLAB, LBNL, MSU, ORNL). The RIA facility includes a CW 1.4 GeV driver LINAC and a 100 MV post-accelerator both based on superconducting (SC) cavities operating at frequencies from 48 MHz to 805 MHz. An initial acceleration in both LINACs is provided by room temperature RFQs. The driver LINAC is designed for acceleration of any ion species; from protons up to 900 MeV to uranium up to 400 MeV/u. The novel feature of the driver LINAC is an acceleration of multiple charge-state heavy-ion beams in order to achieve 400 kW beam power. Basic design concepts of the driver LINAC are given. Several new conceptual solutions in beam dynamics, room temperature and SC accelerating structures for heavy ion accelerator applications are discussed.

  7. Linac pre-injector

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    New accelerating column of the linac pre-injector, supporting frame and pumping system. This new system uses two mercury diffusion pumps (in the centre) and forms part of the modifications intended to increase the intensity of the linac. View taken during assembly in the workshop.

  8. Compendium of Scientific Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clendenin, James E

    2003-05-16

    The International Committee supported the proposal of the Chairman of the XVIII International Linac Conference to issue a new Compendium of linear accelerators. The last one was published in 1976. The Local Organizing Committee of Linac96 decided to set up a sub-committee for this purpose. Contrary to the catalogues of the High Energy Accelerators which compile accelerators with energies above 1 GeV, we have not defined a specific limit in energy. Microtrons and cyclotrons are not in this compendium. Also data from thousands of medical and industrial linacs has not been collected. Therefore, only scientific linacs are listed in the present compendium. Each linac found in this research and involved in a physics context was considered. It could be used, for example, either as an injector for high energy accelerators, or in nuclear physics, materials physics, free electron lasers or synchrotron light machines. Linear accelerators are developed in three continents only: America, Asia, and Europe. This geographical distribution is kept as a basis. The compendium contains the parameters and status of scientific linacs. Most of these linacs are operational. However, many facilities under construction or design studies are also included. A special mention has been made at the end for the studies of future linear colliders.

  9. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  10. HOM Dampers or not in Superconducting RF Proton Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by Coupled Bunch Instabilities, driven by impedance peaks, irrespectively of their frequency relation to machine lines; hence all cavity Higher Order Modes are possible drivers. This is the fundamental reason that all superconducting RF cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. This raises the question if HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current proton linacs where a mechanism akin to CBI might exist. To clarify this question we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in linacs, allowing bunch-to-bunch variations in time-of-arrival. Simulations were executed for a generic proton linac with properties close to SNS or the planned SPL at CERN. It was found that for monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter or even beam loss cannot be excluded. Therefore omitting HOM dampers on superconducting RF cavities in high current proton linacs, even pulsed ones, is a very risky decision.

  11. Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas; Elkjaer, Bente

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how induction of newcomers can be understood as both organizational renewal and the maintenance of status quo, and to develop ways of describing this in terms of learning.......The purpose of this paper is to explore how induction of newcomers can be understood as both organizational renewal and the maintenance of status quo, and to develop ways of describing this in terms of learning....

  12. Design and Development of RF Structures for Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M; Gerigk, F; Pasini, M; Wegner, R

    2006-01-01

    Linac4 is a new 160 MeV H− linac proposed at CERN to replace the 50 MeV Linac2 as injector to the PS Booster, with the goal of doubling its brightness and intensity. The present design foresees after RFQ and chopping line a sequence of three accelerating structures: a Drift Tube Linac (DTL) from 3 to 40 MeV, a Cell-Coupled DTL (CCDTL) to 90 MeV and a Side Coupled Linac (SCL) up to the final energy. The DTL and CCDTL operate at 352 MHz, while in the SCL the frequency is doubled to 704 MHz. Although the injection in the PS Booster requires only a low duty cycle, the accelerating structures are designed to operate at the high duty cycle required by a possible future extension to a high-power linac driver for a neutrino facility. This paper presents the different accelerating structures, underlining the progress in the design of critical resonator elements, like post-couplers in the DTL, coupling slots in the CCDTL and bridge couplers for the SCL. Prototyping progress for the different structures is reported...

  13. The ISS protontherapy LINAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vignati, A.

    1997-02-01

    The TERA foundation stimulated in the past years a comparative study of compact proton accelerators for therapy and at the end of 1995 the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS) decided for the construction of a proton linac for its TOP (Terapia Oncologica con Protoni) project. The TOP-LINAC will be composed of a 7 MeV RFQ+DTL injector followed by a 7-65 MeV section of the innovative 3 GHz SCDTL structure and a 65-200 MeV variable energy SCL 3 GHz structure. A 5-cavity model of the SCDTL has been built and measured on a RF test bench while a 11-cavities prototype (accelerating until 12.5 MeV) is under construction and will be assembled within few months. The TOP LINAC whose construction will start at the end of 1996, will be the first linear accelerator dedicated to proton therapy, and the first 3 GHz proton linac. In this paper the accelerator design and the construction schedule will be presented, and the SCDTL structure RF measurements will be discussed.

  14. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV PS Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows Linac 2 drift-tubes, suspended on stems coming from the top, in contrast to Linac 1, where the drift-tubes stood on stems coming from the bottom.

  15. Recirculated and Energy Recovered Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2003-05-01

    Linacs that are recirculated share many characteristics with ordinary linacs, including the ability to accelerate electron beams from an injector to high energy with relatively little (normalized) emittance growth and the ability to deliver ultrashort bunch duration pulses to users. When such linacs are energy recovered, the additional possibility of accelerating very high average beam current arises. Because this combination of beam properties is not possible from either a conventional linac, or from storage rings where emittance and pulse length are set by the equilibrium between radiation damping and quantum excitation of oscillations about the closed orbit, energy recovered linacs are being considered for an increasing variety of applications. These possibilities extend from high power free-electron lasers and recirculated linac light sources, to electron coolers for high energy colliders or actual electron-ion colliding- beam machines based on an energy recovered linac for the electrons.

  16. Recirculated and Energy Recovered Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Geoffr-Ey-Kraff

    2003-01-01

    Linacs that are recirculated share many characteristics with ordinary linacs, including the ability to accelerate electron beams FR-om an injector to high energy with relatively little (normalized) emittance growth and the ability to deliver ultrashort bunch duration pulses to users. When such linacs are energy recovered, the additional possibility of accelerating very high average beam current arises. Because this combination of beam properties is not possible FR-om either a conventional linac, or FR-om storage rings where emittance and pulse length are set by the equilibrium between radiation damping and quantum excitation of oscillations about the closed orbit, energy recovered linacs are being considered for an increasing variety of applications. These possibilities extend FR-om high power FR-ee-electron lasers and recirculated linac light sources, to electron coolers for high energy colliders or actual electron-ion colliding- beam machines based on an energy recovered linac for the electrons.

  17. Whole transcriptome responses among females of the filariasis and arbovirus vector mosquito Culex pipiens implicate TGF-β signaling and chromatin modification as key drivers of diapause induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickner, Paul V; Mori, Akio; Zeng, Erliang; Tan, John C; Severson, David W

    2015-07-01

    Culex pipiens mosquitoes are important disease vectors inhabiting temperate zones, worldwide. The seasonal reduction in temperature and photoperiod accompanying late summer and early fall prompts female mosquitoes to enter diapause, a stage of developmental arrest and physiological conditioning that enhances survival during the winter months. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying diapause induction, we used custom whole transcriptome microarrays to identify differences in gene expression following exposure to nondiapause (long days, 25 °C) and diapause-inducing (short days, 18 °C) environmental conditions. Using a two-way ANOVA, we identified 1130 genes that were differentially expressed. We used the expression of these genes across three time points to construct a gene co-expression network comprising five modules. Genes in modules 1, 2, and 3 were largely up-regulated, while genes in modules 4 and 5 were down-regulated when compared to nondiapause conditions. Pathway enrichment analysis of the network modules revealed some potential regulatory mechanisms driving diapause induction. Module 1 was enriched for genes in the TGF-ß and Wnt signaling pathways; module 2 was enriched for genes involved in insect hormone biosynthesis, specifically, ecdysone synthesis; module 3 was enriched for genes involved in chromatin modification; and module 5 was enriched for genes in the circadian rhythm pathway. Our results suggest that TGF-β signaling and chromatin modification are key drivers for the integration of environmental signals into the diapause induction phase in C. pipiens mosquitoes.

  18. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  19. Superconducting energy recovery linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2016-10-01

    High-average-power and high-brightness electron beams from a combination of laser photocathode electron guns and a superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) is an emerging accelerator science with applications in ERL light sources, high repetition rate free electron lasers , electron cooling, electron ion colliders and more. This paper reviews the accelerator physics issues of superconducting ERLs, discusses major subsystems and provides a few examples of superconducting ERLs.

  20. Linacs for Medical Isotope Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pramudita

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews efforts on using high energy (25-30 MeV and high power (10-20 kW electron linacs and lower energy (7 MeV proton linacs for medical radioisotope production. Using high energy x-rays from the electron linacs, PET (Positron Emission Tomography radioisotopes are produced through photonuclear reactions such as 19F(γ,n18F, which also allow production of other PET radionuclides 11C, 13N, and 15O. Other mostly used medical radionuclides 99mTc can also be obtained by using the electron linacs, through photofission or photonuclear reactions. Proton linacs for PET have also been recently developed and the product has been available in the market since 2005. The linacs have been tested for 18F production. As a proton accelerator, the target systems and nuclear reactions are similar to the ones used in PET cyclotrons

  1. Deliverable D3 - Low- and Medium-beta linac

    CERN Document Server

    A. Facco, A. Balabin, R. Paparella, D. Zenere, INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padova, Italy; D. Berkovits, J. Rodnizki, SOREQ, Yavne, Israel; J. L. Biarrotte, S. Bousson, A. Ponton, G. Olry, IPN Orsay, France; R. Duperrier, D. Uriot, CEA/Saclay, France; V. Zvyagintsev, TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada.

    The present document describes the Low- and Medium-beta section of the EURISOL DS Driver Accelerator. This section consists of a superconducting linac, based on Half-Wave (HWR) and SPOKE type resonators, preceded by a short, normal-conducting MEBT (Medium Energy Beam Transport) section that performs input beam matching. The scope of this linac is to bring the beams of H-, D+ and 3He++ produced by the Ion Injector (Deliverable D-5) to the energy and beam parameters required for injection in the superconducting High-beta linac (Deliverable D4-High beta linac). The present beam dynamics design reaches the goal of accelerating the required high current beams to the design energy (about 100 MeV/A, depending on the ion species), with minimum emittance growth and with low losses, using realistic and cost-effective, although innovative, technological solutions. The Low- and Medium-beta linac layout is described, together with the fundamental parameters and characteristics of its components and the system performanc...

  2. Deliverable D3 - Low- and Medium-beta linac

    CERN Document Server

    A. Facco, A. Balabin, R. Paparella, D. Zenere, INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padova, Italy; D. Berkovits, J. Rodnizki, SOREQ, Yavne, Israel; J. L. Biarrotte, S. Bousson, A. Ponton, G. Olry, IPN Orsay, France; R. Duperrier, D. Uriot, CEA/Saclay, France; V. Zvyagintsev, TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada.

    The present document describes the Low- and Medium-beta section of the EURISOL DS Driver Accelerator. This section consists of a superconducting linac, based on Half-Wave (HWR) and SPOKE type resonators, preceded by a short, normal-conducting MEBT (Medium Energy Beam Transport) section that performs input beam matching. The scope of this linac is to bring the beams of H-, D+ and 3He++ produced by the Ion Injector (Deliverable D-5) to the energy and beam parameters required for injection in the superconducting High-beta linac (Deliverable D4-High beta linac). The present beam dynamics design reaches the goal of accelerating the required high current beams to the design energy (about 100 MeV/A, depending on the ion species), with minimum emittance growth and with low losses, using realistic and cost-effective, although innovative, technological solutions. The Low- and Medium-beta linac layout is described, together with the fundamental parameters and characteristics of its components and the system performance.

  3. Status of the Argonne heavy-ion-fusion low-beta linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.M.; Bogaty, J.M.; Moretti, A.; Sacks, R.A.; Sesol, N.Q.; Wright, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The primary goal of the experimental program in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the next few years is to demonstrate many of the requirements of a RF linac driver for inertial-fusion power plants. So far, most of the construction effort has been applied to the front end. The ANL program has developed a high-intensity xenon source, a 1.5-MV preaccelerator, and the initial cavities of the low-beta linac. The design, initial tests, and status of the low-beta linac are described.

  4. Status of the Argonne heavy ion fusion low-beta linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.M.; Bogaty, J.M.; Moretti, A.; Sacks, R.A.; Sesol, N.Q.; Wright, A.J.

    1981-06-01

    The primary goal of the experimental program in heavy ion fusion (HIF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the next few years is to demonstrate many of the requirements of a RF linac driver for inertial fusion power plants. So far, most of the construction effort has been applied to the front end. The ANL program has developed a high intensity xenon source, a 1.5 MV preaccelerator, and the initial cavities of the low-beta linac. The design, initial tests and status of the low-beta linac are described. 8 refs.

  5. PROSPECTS FOR A VERY HIGH POWER CW SRF LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Rimmer

    2010-06-01

    Steady development in SRF accelerator technology combined with the success of large scale installations such as CEBAF at Jefferson Laboratory and the SNS Linac at ORNL gives credibility to the concept of very high average power CW machines for light sources or Proton drivers. Such machines would be powerful tools for discovery science in themselves but could also pave the way to reliable cost effective drivers for such applications as neutrino factories, an energy-frontier muon collider, nuclear waste transmutation or accelerator driven subcritical reactors for energy production. In contrast to machines such as ILC that need maximum accelerating gradient, the challenges in these machines are mainly in efficiency, reliability, beam stability, beam loss and of course cost. In this paper the present state of the art is briefly reviewed and options for a multi-GeV, multi-MW CW linac are discussed.

  6. Compact LINAC for deuterons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, J F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rybarcyk, L J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a compact deuteron-beam accelerator up to the deuteron energy of a few MeV based on room-temperature inter-digital H-mode (IH) accelerating structures with the transverse beam focusing using permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ). Combining electromagnetic 3-D modeling with beam dynamics simulations and thermal-stress analysis, we show that IHPMQ structures provide very efficient and practical accelerators for light-ion beams of considerable currents at the beam velocities around a few percent of the speed of light. IH-structures with PMQ focusing following a short RFQ can also be beneficial in the front end of ion linacs.

  7. Energy Recovery Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolitsa Merminga

    2007-06-01

    The success and continuing progress of the three operating FELs based on Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), the Jefferson Lab IR FEL Upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) FEL, and the Novosibirsk High Power THz FEL, have inspired multiple future applications of ERLs, which include higher power FELs, synchrotron radiation sources, electron cooling devices, and high luminosity electron-ion colliders. The benefits of using ERLs for these applications are presented. The key accelerator physics and technology challenges of realizing future ERL designs, and recent developments towards resolving these challenges are reviewed.

  8. Fermilab drift tube Linac revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milorad Popovic

    2004-05-12

    Using the PARMILA code running under PC-WINDOWS, the present performance of the Fermilab Drift Tube Linac has been analyzed in the light of new demands on the Linac/Booster complex (the Proton Source). The Fermilab Drift Tube Linac (DTL) was designed in the sixties as a proton linac with a final energy of 200 MeV and a peak current of 100mA. In the seventies, in order to enable multi-turn charge exchange injection into the Booster, the ion source was replaced by an H- source with a peak beam current of 25mA. Since then the peak beam current was steadily increased up to 55mA. In the early nineties, part of the drift tube structure was replaced with a side-coupled cavity structure in order to increase the final energy to 400 MeV. The original and still primary purpose of the linac is to serve as the injector for the Booster. As an added benefit, the Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF) was built in the middle seventies. It uses 66MeV protons from the Linac to produce neutrons for medical purposes. The Linac/Booster complex was designed to run at a fundamental cycling rate of 15Hz, but beam is accelerated on every cycle only when NTF is running. Until recently the demand from the High Energy Physics program resulted in an average linac beam repetition rate of order 1 Hz. With the MiniBoone experiment and the NuMI program, the demands on the Proton Source have changed, with emphasis on higher beam repetition rates up to 7.5Hz. Historically the beam losses in the linac were small, localized at one spot, so activation was not an important issue. With higher beam rate, this has the potential to become the dominant issue. Until today all tuning in the linac and Proton Source was governed by two goals: to maximize the peak beam current out of the linac and to minimize the beam losses in the linac. If maximal peak current from the linac is no longer a primary goal, then the linac quadrupoles can be adjusted differently to achieve different goals.

  9. Construction Status of Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, F; Garoby, R; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A M; MacCaferri, R; Maury, S; Rossi, C; Vretenar, M

    2010-01-01

    The civil engineering works of the Linac4 linear accelerator at CERN started in October 2008 and regular machine operation is foreseen for 2013. Linac4 will accelerate H−ions to an energy of 160 MeV for injection into the PS Booster (PSB). It will thus replace the ageing Linac2, which presently injects at 50 MeV into the PSB, and it will also represents the first step in the injector upgrade for the LHC aiming at increasing its luminosity. This paper reports on the status of the design and construction of the main machine elements, which will be installed in the linac tunnel from the beginning of 2012 onwards, on the progress of the civil engineering and on the ongoing activities at the Linac4 test stand.

  10. S波段1kW固态放大器%1kW S-Band RF Solid State Amplifier for BEPC Linac Microwave Driver System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵风利; 黄永清

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a 1kW S-Band RF Solid State Amplifier (SSA) for the BEPC Linac. 1kW peak power with a pulse width of 2-10μs under low voltage operation is achieved by combining eight 160W high power Solid State Amplifiers using a low-loss(0.3dB) combiner. Other key performance parameters are: RF phase drift during pulse≤±1 degree, RF rise time/fall time is 88ns/40ns, RF pulse flatness is 0.7%, and RF power stability is 0.1dB.%S波段1kW固态放大器用于北京正负电子对撞机直线加速器大功率速调管的微波激励. 阐述了其工作原理和性能指标,并对其核心部分--580W放大器模块作了重点介绍. 该放大器达到的主要技术指标如下:工作频率为2856MHz,输出最高脉冲功率为1030W(在放大器合成后输出端测量),脉冲宽度为2-10μs,脉冲前沿/脉冲后沿分别是88ns/40ns,脉内平顶为0.7%. 该放大器自2001年5月在加速器上运行到现在,运行状态良好.

  11. Status and Operation of the Linac4 Ion Source Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Andersson, P; Bertolo, S; Butterworth, A; Coutron, Y; Dallocchio, A; Chaudet, E; Gil-Flores, J; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Koszar, I; Mahner, E; Mastrostefano, C; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, O; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; O’Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Rochez, J; Sanchez Alvarez, J; Sanchez Arias, J; Scrivens, R; Steyaert, D; Thaus, N; Hatayama, A; Nishida, K; Shibata, T; Yamamot, T; Otha, M

    2014-01-01

    CERN’s Linac4 45 kV H- ion sources prototypes are installed at a dedicated ion source test stand and in the Linac4 tunnel. The operation of the pulsed hydrogen injection, RF sustained plasma and pulsed high voltages are described. The first experimental results of two prototypes relying on 2MHz RF- plasma heating are presented. The plasma is ignited via capacitive coupling, and sustained by inductive coupling. The light emitted from the plasma is collected by viewports pointing to the plasma chamber wall in the middle of the RF solenoid and to the plasma chamber axis. Preliminary measurements of optical emission spectroscopy and photometry of the plasma have been performed. The design of a cesiated ion source is presented. The volume source has produced a 45 keV H- beam of 16-22 mA which has successfully been used for the commissioning of the LEBT, RFQ and chopper of Linac4.

  12. Optimization of SRF Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Tom [JLAB

    2013-09-01

    This work describes preliminary results of a new software tool that allows one to vary parameters and understand the effects on the optimized costs of construction plus 10 year operations of an SRF linac, the associated cryogenic facility, and controls, where operations includes the cost of the electrical utilities but not the labor or other costs. It derives from collaborative work done with staff from Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, Daresbury, UK several years ago while they were in the process of developing a conceptual design for the New Light Source project.[1] The initial goal was to convert a spread sheet format to a graphical interface to allow the ability to sweep different parameter sets. The tools also allow one to compare the cost of the different facets of the machine design and operations so as to better understand the tradeoffs. The work was first published in an ICFA Beam Dynamics News Letter.[2] More recent additions to the software include the ability to save and restore input parameters as well as to adjust the Qo versus E parameters in order to explore the potential costs savings associated with doing so. Additionally, program changes now allow one to model the costs associated with a linac that makes use of energy recovery mode of operation.

  13. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  14. Linac Envelope Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Baartman, Rick

    2015-01-01

    I develop the formalism that allows calculation of beam envelopes through a linear accelerator given its on-axis electric field. Space charge can naturally be added using Sacherer formalism. A complicating feature is that the reference particle's energy-time coordinates are not known a priori. Since first order matrix formalism applies to deviations from the reference particle, this means the reference particle's time and energy must be calculated simultaneously with the beam envelope and transfer matrix. The code TRANSOPTR is used to track envelopes for general elements whose infinitesimal transfer matrices are known, and in the presence of space charge. Incorporation of the linac algorithm into TRANSOPTR is described, and some examples given.

  15. Installation of the Gbar LINAC

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien, Brice

    2017-01-01

    Installation of the GBAR linac in its shielding bunker. The electrons accelerated to 10 MeV toward a target will produce the positrons that are necessary to form anti hydrogen with the antiprotons coming from the ELENA decelerator.

  16. Comparison of LINAC-4 Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Crandall, K; Sargsyan, E; Lallement, J-B; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the expected performance of two drift tube linac (DTL) designs proposed for LINAC-4. The two designs use the same cell geometries but are characterized by different phase (φs) and accelerating field (E0) distributions. In addition we have investigated the expected performance of 3 different quadrupole focusing schemes in each design. The expected performance of these 6 variants is compared with respect to their stability and risk of beam loss with alignment errors.

  17. Testing begins on Linac4

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On 3 August 2012, the Linac4 radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module was installed at the accelerator test-stand in Building 152. The site will be the module’s home for almost a year, as the linear accelerator enters the assembly and testing stage.   Final module assembly is carried out before installation in Building 152.  Over the next Long Shutdown (LS2), Linac4 will replace the current Linac2 linear accelerator as the first link in CERN’s accelerator chain. It will deliver particles at 160 MeV to the PS Booster, more than triple the energy currently delivered by Linac2. But before the accelerator team can pop the champagne, the various elements of Linac4 will be tested and re-tested in facilities across CERN. “The first Linac4 tests are currently underway, starting with the CERN-built RFQ,” says Carlo Rossi, a physicist in the RF Group of the Beams (BE) Department and the RFQ project coordinator. “It’s an extremely impre...

  18. Inner structure of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows the inner structure of Linac 2, with drift-tubes hanging on stems under a rigid support structure, soon to be mounted inside tank 1 (750 keV to 10 MeV, the lowest-energy one of 3). Frank Malthouse is standing in the background.

  19. Waveguide-coupled cavities for energy recovery linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, S. S.; Nguyen, D. C.; Young, L. M.

    2004-08-01

    A novel scheme for energy recovery linacs used as FEL drivers is proposed. It consists of two parallel beam lines, one for electron beam acceleration and the other for the used beam that is bent after passing through a wiggler. The used beam is decelerated by the structure and feeds the cavity fields. The main feature of the scheme is that RF cavities are coupled with waveguides between these two linacs. The waveguide cut through the two beam pipes provides an efficient mechanism for energy transfer. The superconducting RF cavities in the two accelerators can be shaped differently, with an operating mode at the same frequency. This provides HOM detuning and therefore reduces the beam break-up effects. Another advantage of the proposed two-beam scheme is easy tuning of the cavity coupling by changing the waveguide length.

  20. Power Coupler Simulations for the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac

    CERN Document Server

    De Michele, G; Ramberger, S

    2011-01-01

    The power coupler is a crucial element in the design of an RF cavity. Power from an RF source is transported towards the cavity by a waveguide and transferred into the cavity by means of a power coupler that is adapted to both the transport mode in the waveguide and the principal resonant mode in the cavity. In the case of Linac4, a rectangular half-height waveguide (WG) WR2300 is used and the connection from this WG to the cavity is achieved by iris coupling through an interconnecting waveguide (IWG) in the tank wall. In this note simulations and measurements on a prototype and studies on Tank1 of the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) are discussed in order to define the dimensions of this IWG such that it optimises the power transfer into the cavity.

  1. High Frequency Linacs for Hadrontherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaldi, Ugo; Braccini, Saverio; Puggioni, Paolo

    The use of radiofrequency linacs for hadrontherapy was proposed about 20 years ago, but only recently has it been understood that the high repetition rate together with the possibility of very rapid energy variations offers an optimal solution to the present challenge of hadrontherapy: "paint" a moving tumor target in three dimensions with a pencil beam. Moreover, the fact that the energy, and thus the particle range, can be electronically adjusted implies that no absorber-based energy selection system is needed, which, in the case of cyclotron-based centers, is the cause of material activation. On the other side, a linac consumes less power than a synchrotron. The first part of this article describes the main advantages of high frequency linacs in hadrontherapy, the early design studies, and the construction and test of the first high-gradient prototype which accelerated protons. The second part illustrates some technical issues relevant to the design of copper standing wave accelerators, the present developments, and two designs of linac-based proton and carbon ion facilities. Superconductive linacs are not discussed, since nanoampere currents are sufficient for therapy. In the last two sections, a comparison with circular accelerators and an overview of future projects are presented.

  2. SRF LINAC for future extension of the PEFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Sung; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Seol, Kyoung Tae; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [Proton Engineering Frontier Project, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    A study on the superconducting RF linac is underway in order to increase the beam energy up to 1 GeV by extending the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 100-MeV linac. The operating frequency of the PEFP superconducting linac (SCL) is 700 MHz, which is determined by the fact that the frequency of the existing normal conducting linac is 350 MHz. A preliminary study on the beam dynamics showed that two types of cavities with geometrical betas of 0.50 and 0.74 could cover the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 1 GeV. An inductive output tube (IOT) based RF system is under consideration as a high-power RF source for the SCL due to its low operating voltage and high efficiency. As a prototyping activity for a reduced beta cavity, a five-cell cavity with a geometrical beta of 0.42 was designed and fabricated. A vertical test of the prototype cavity at low temperatures was performed to check the performance of the cavity. The design study and the prototyping activity for the PEFP SCL will be presented in this paper.

  3. Linac3 - 1992-1994

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN; A Van der Shueren; Jean-Claude Vialis

    1995-01-01

    This film reports the differents steps of the construction in differents places (Italy, Germany, France) from 29 October 1992 to 29 April 1994. This linac, commissioned in summer 1994, presently provides beams of 208Pb53+. A 14 GHz ECR ion source operating in the "afterglow" mode produces Pb 27+ ions at 2.5 keV/u. This beam is accelerated in an RFQ and a three tank IH linac to 4.2 MeV/u where stripping in a 1 um carbon foil to a charge state distribution centered around Pb53+ takes place. 53+ ions are selected from this mixture in a magnetic filter before being transported to the PS Booster and other circular machines. Linac3, the more common name for this machine, was built by a truly international collaboration involving France, Italy, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, India, the Czech Republic and CERN.

  4. Drift Tube Linac Conditioning of Tank1

    CERN Document Server

    Shafqat, N; Toor, W A

    2014-01-01

    Tank1 of the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) of the Linac4 has been conditioned at the Linac4 tunnel. The tank was tuned for resonance at 352.2 MHz, and stable operation has been achieved with 725 µs long RF pulses at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. The maximum RF level that has been reached is 810 kW with a pulse width of 600 µs. Since this was the first RF structure exclusively conditioned in the Linac4 tunnel with the operation and control software of Linac4, some related issues and limitations had to be taken into account.

  5. The new Linac moves mountains

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The civil engineering work has started for Linac 4, one of the major renovation projects for the CERN accelerator complex. The work will be completed at the end of 2010 and the new linear accelerator is scheduled to be commissioned in 2013.

  6. DRIVER INATTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TAY

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver inattention, especially driver distraction, is an extremely influential but generally neglected contributing factor of road crashes. This paper explores some of the common behaviours associated with several common forms of driver inattention, with respect to their perceived crash risks, rates of self-reported behaviours and whether drivers regulate such behaviours depending on the road and traffic environment, and provides some policy recommendations to address issues raised.

  7. first tank of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  8. Status of the RFD Linac Structure Developement

    CERN Document Server

    Swenson, D A

    2000-01-01

    The Proof-of-Principle (POP) prototype of the Rf-Focused Drift tube (RFD) linac structure is currently under test at Linac Systems, after years of delay due to a variety of technical problems. A discussion of these technical problems and their solutions will be presented. The status of these tests will be reported. Plans for future development of this linac structure will be revealed. Potential uses of this linac structure for a variety of scientific, medical, and industrial applications will be described, including: proton linac injectors for proton synchrotrons, compact proton linacs for PET isotope production, epithermal neutron sources for the BNCT application, energy boosters for proton therapy, compact portable neutron sources for thermal neutron radiography, and pulsed cold neutron sources for cold neutron physics and related applications.

  9. The LINAC4 Power Coupler

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, F; Montesinos, E; Riffaud, B; Ugena Tirado, P; Wegner, R

    2011-01-01

    Linac4 is employing three types of accelerating structures after the RFQ: a Drift Tube Linac (DTL), a Cell- Coupled DTL (CCDTL), and a Pi-Mode Structure (PIMS) to accelerate the beam up to 160 MeV at 352.2MHz. The structures are designed for a peak power of approximately 1 MW per power coupler, which is transported via rectangular waveguides from the klystron gallery to the RF cavities. The coupler itself consists of two parts: a ceramic window, which separates the cavity vacuum from the air in the waveguides, and a Tuner-adjustablewaveguide Coupler (TaCo), which couples the RF power through an iris to the cavity. In the frame of the Linac4 R&D both devices have been significantly improvedwith respect to their commonly used design. On the coupler side, the waveguide short circuit with its matched length has been replaced by a fixedlength /4 short circuit. The RF matching is done by a simple piston tuner, which allows a quick matching to different cavity quality factors. In the window part, which usually c...

  10. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The computer program LFSC (<Linac Feedback Simulation Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

  11. Status and operation of the Linac4 ion source prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J; Aguglia, D; Andersson, P; Bertolo, S; Butterworth, A; Coutron, Y; Dallocchio, A; Chaudet, E; Gil-Flores, J; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Hatayama, A; Koszar, I; Mahner, E; Mastrostefano, C; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, Ø; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; Nishida, K; O'Neil, M; Ohta, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Rochez, J; Sanchez Alvarez, J; Sanchez Arias, J; Scrivens, R; Shibata, T; Steyaert, D; Thaus, N; Yamamoto, T

    2014-02-01

    CERN's Linac4 45 kV H(-) ion sources prototypes are installed at a dedicated ion source test stand and in the Linac4 tunnel. The operation of the pulsed hydrogen injection, RF sustained plasma, and pulsed high voltages are described. The first experimental results of two prototypes relying on 2 MHz RF-plasma heating are presented. The plasma is ignited via capacitive coupling, and sustained by inductive coupling. The light emitted from the plasma is collected by viewports pointing to the plasma chamber wall in the middle of the RF solenoid and to the plasma chamber axis. Preliminary measurements of optical emission spectroscopy and photometry of the plasma have been performed. The design of a cesiated ion source is presented. The volume source has produced a 45 keV H(-) beam of 16-22 mA which has successfully been used for the commissioning of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and chopper of Linac4.

  12. Status and Operation of the Linac4 Ion Source Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Andersson, P; Bertolo, S; Butterworth, A; Coutron, Y; Dallocchio, A; Chaudet, E; Gil-Flores, J; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Hatayama, A; Koszar, I; Mahner, E; Mastrostefano, C; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, O; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; Nishida, K; O’Neil, M; Ohta, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Rochez, J; Sanchez Alvarez, J; Sanchez Arias, J; Scrivens, R; Shibata, T; Steyaert, D; Thaus, N; Yamamoto, T

    2014-01-01

    CERN’s Linac4 45 kV H- ion sources prototypes are installed at a dedicated ion source test stand and in the Linac4 tunnel. The operation of the pulsed hydrogen injection, RF sustained plasma and pulsed high voltages are described. The first experimental results of two prototypes relying on 2MHz RF- plasma heating are presented. The plasma is ignited via capacitive coupling, and sustained by inductive coupling. The light emitted from the plasma is collected by viewports pointing to the plasma chamber wall in the middle of the RF solenoid and to the plasma chamber axis. Preliminary measurements of optical emission spectroscopy and photometry of the plasma have been performed. The design of a cesiated ion source is presented. The volume source has produced a 45 keV H- beam of 16-22 mA which has successfully been used for the commissioning of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator and chopper of Linac4.

  13. Status and operation of the Linac4 ion source prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettry, J., E-mail: Jacques.lettry@cern.ch; Aguglia, D.; Andersson, P.; Bertolo, S.; Butterworth, A.; Coutron, Y.; Dallocchio, A.; Chaudet, E.; Gil-Flores, J.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Koszar, I.; Mahner, E.; Mastrostefano, C.; Mathot, S.; Mattei, S.; Midttun, Ø.; Moyret, P.; Nisbet, D.; O’Neil, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); and others

    2014-02-15

    CERN's Linac4 45 kV H{sup −} ion sources prototypes are installed at a dedicated ion source test stand and in the Linac4 tunnel. The operation of the pulsed hydrogen injection, RF sustained plasma, and pulsed high voltages are described. The first experimental results of two prototypes relying on 2 MHz RF-plasma heating are presented. The plasma is ignited via capacitive coupling, and sustained by inductive coupling. The light emitted from the plasma is collected by viewports pointing to the plasma chamber wall in the middle of the RF solenoid and to the plasma chamber axis. Preliminary measurements of optical emission spectroscopy and photometry of the plasma have been performed. The design of a cesiated ion source is presented. The volume source has produced a 45 keV H{sup −} beam of 16–22 mA which has successfully been used for the commissioning of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and chopper of Linac4.

  14. Status of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galayda, John N.; /SLAC

    2011-11-04

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a free electron laser facility in construction at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is designed to operate in the wavelength range 0.15-1.5 nanometers. At the time of this conference, civil construction of new tunnels and buildings is complete, the necessary modifications to the SLAC linac are complete, and the undulator system and x-ray optics/diagnostics are being installed. The electron gun, 135 MeV injector linac and 250 MeV bunch compressor were commissioned in 2007. Accelerator commissioning activities are presently devoted to the achievement of performance goals for the completed 14 GeV linac.

  15. Designs for a LINAC-Ring LHEC

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F; Ciapala, E; Haug, F; Osborne, J; Schulte, D; Tomas, R; Adolphsen, C; Sun, Y; Calaga, R; Litvinenko, V; Dainton, J; Klein, M; Chattopadhyay, S; Eide, A

    2010-01-01

    We consider three scenarios for the recirculating electron linear accelerator (RLA) of a linac-ring type electronproton collider based on the LHC (LHeC): i) a pulsed linac with a final beam energy of 60 GeV [“p-60”], ii) a higher luminosity configuration with two cw linacs and energyrecovery (ERL) also at 60 GeV [“erl”], and iii) a high energy option using a pulsed linac with 140-GeV final energy [“p-140”]. We discuss parameters, synchrotron radiation, footprints, and performance for the three scenarios.

  16. Status of the RFI Linac Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Swenson, D A

    2004-01-01

    A prototype of the Rf Focused Interdigital (RFI) linac structure is currently under construction at Linac Systems. The RFI linac structure is basically an interdigital (or Wideröe) linac structure with rf quadrupole focusing incorporated into each drift tube. The 200 MHz RFI prototype, consisting of a short RFQ linac followed by a short RFI linac, will accelerate a 20 mA beam of protons from an injection energy of 25 keV to an output energy of 2.50 MeV in a total linac structure length of 1.44 meters. The linac structures are designed for continuous (cw) operation, and will be tested initially at a 33% duty factor. The peak structure power of 66 kW and peak beam power of 50 kW will be supplied by a 144 kW, 33% duty rf power system. A microwave ion source will supply the proton beam and an articulated Einzel lens will steer and focus the beam into the RFQ aperture. The mechanical design of the linac structures will be presented, the calculated performance will be described, the status of the components will b...

  17. Preliminary study on the possible use of superconducting half-wave resonators in the IFMIF Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosnier, A.; Uriot, D

    2007-07-01

    The driver of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) consists of two 125 mA, 40 MeV cw deuteron linacs, providing a total of 10 MW beam power to the liquid lithium target. A superconducting (SC) solution for the 5 to 40 MeV accelerator portion could offer some advantages compared with the copper Alvarez-type Drift Tube Linac reference design: linac length reduction and significant plug power saving. A SC scheme, based on multi-gap CH-structures has been proposed by IAP in Frankfurt. Another SC scheme, using half-wave resonators (HWR), which are in an advanced stage of development at different places, would allow a shorter focusing lattice, resulting in a safe beam transportation with minimal beam loss. In order to investigate the feasibility of the superconducting HWR option, faced with the very high space charge regime of the IFMIF linac, beam dynamics calculations have been performed. This paper presents an optimized linac layout, together with extensive multi-particle simulations including various field and alignment errors. (authors)

  18. Design of a 120 MeV $H^{-}$ Linac for CERN High-Intensity Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, F

    2002-01-01

    The SPL (Superconducting Proton Linac) study at CERN foresees the construction of a 2.2 GeV linac as a high beam-power driver for applications such as a second-generation radioactive ion beam facility or a neutrino superbeam. At the same time such a high-performance injector would both modernize and improve the LHC injection chain. The 120 MeV normal-conducting section of the SPL could be used directly in a preliminary stage for H- charge-exchange injection into the PS Booster. This would increase the proton flux to the CERN experiments while also improving the quality and reliability of the beams for the LHC. The 120 MeV linac consists of a front-end, a conventional Drift Tube Linac (DTL) to 40 MeV and a Cell Coupled Drift Tube Linac (CCDTL) to the full energy. All the RF structures will operate at 352 MHz, using klystrons and RF equipment recovered from the LEP collider. This paper concentrates on the design of the 3 to 120 MeV section. It introduces the design criteria for high-stability beam optics and th...

  19. Linac design for intense hadron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chuan

    2009-12-14

    Based on the RFQ and H-type DTL structures, this dissertation is dedicated to study the beam dynamics in the presence of significantly strong space-charge effects while accelerating intense hadron beams in the low- and medium-{beta} region. Besides the 5 mA/30 mA, 17 MeV proton injector (RFQ+DTL) and the 125 mA, 40 MeV deuteron DTL of the EUROTRANS and IFMIF facilities, a 200 mA, 700 keV proton RFQ has been also intensively studied for a small-scale but ultra-intense neutron source FRANZ planned at Frankfurt University. The most remarkable properties of the FRANZ RFQ and the IFMIF DTL are the design beam intensities, 200 mA and 125 mA. A new design approach, which can provide a balanced and accelerated beam bunching at low energy, has been developed for intense beams. To design the IFMIF DTL and the injector DTL part of the EUROTRANS driver linac, which have been foreseen as the first real applications of the novel superconducting CH-DTL structure, intensive attempts have been made to fulfill the design goals under the new conditions. For the IFMIF DTL, the preliminary IAP design has been considerably improved with respect to the linac layout as well as the beam dynamics. By reserving sufficient drift spaces for the cryosystem, diagnostic devices, tuner and steerer, introducing SC solenoid lenses and adjusting the accelerating gradients and accordingly other configurations of the cavities, a more realistic, reliable and efficient linac system has been designed. On the other hand, the specifications and positions of the transverse focusing elements as well as the phase- and energy-differences between the bunch-center particle and the synchronous particle at the beginning of the {phi}{sub s}=0 sections have been totally redesigned. For the EUROTRANS injector DTL, in addition to the above-mentioned procedures, extra optimization concepts to coordinate the beam dynamics between two intensities have been applied. In the beam transport simulations for both DTL designs

  20. Phase control system for SSRF linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Chongxian; YU Luyang; LIU Dekang

    2008-01-01

    The design of phase control system in Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) linac is presented in this paper. And digital phase detecting algorithm, the key for phase control system, is fully described. The testing results for phase control system in 100MeV linac are discussed in detail.

  1. High gradient linac for proton therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benedetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Proposed for the first time almost 30 years ago, the research on radio frequency linacs for hadron therapy experienced a sparkling interest in the past decade. The different projects found a common ground on a relatively high rf operating frequency of 3 GHz, taking advantage of the availability of affordable and reliable commercial klystrons at this frequency. This article presents for the first time the design of a proton therapy linac, called TULIP all-linac, from the source up to 230 MeV. In the first part, we will review the rationale of linacs for hadron therapy. We then divided this paper in two main sections: first, we will discuss the rf design of the different accelerating structures that compose TULIP; second, we will present the beam dynamics design of the different linac sections.

  2. Large dynamic range diagnostics for high current electron LINACs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evtushenko, Pavel [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    The Jefferson Lab FEL driver accelerator - Energy Recovery Linac has provided a beam with average current of up to 9 mA and beam energy of 135 MeV. The high power beam operations have allowed developing and testing methods and approaches required to set up and tune such a facility simultaneously for the high beam power and high beam quality required for high performance FEL operations. In this contribution we briefly review this experience and outline problems that are specific to high current - high power non-equilibrium linac beams. While the original strategy for beam diagnostics and tuning have proven to be quite successful, some shortcomings and unresolved issues were also observed. The most important issues are the non-equilibrium (non-Gaussian) nature of the linac beam and the presence of small intensity - large amplitude fraction of the beam a.k.a. beam halo. Thus we also present a list of the possible beam halo sources and discuss possible mitigations means. We argue that for proper understanding and management of the beam halo large dynamic range (>10{sup 6}) transverse and longitudinal beam diagnostics can be used. We also present results of transverse beam profile measurements with the dynamic range approaching 10{sup 5} and demonstrate the effect the increased dynamic range has on the beam characterization, i.e., emittance and Twiss parameters measurements. We also discuss near future work planned in this field and where the JLab FEL facility will be used for beam tests of the developed of new diagnostics.

  3. Large dynamic range diagnostics for high current electron LINACs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evtushenko, P., E-mail: Pavel.Evtushenko@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    The Jefferson Lab FEL driver accelerator - Energy Recovery Linac has provided a beam with average current of up to 9 mA and beam energy of 135 MeV. The high power beam operations have allowed developing and testing methods and approaches required to set up and tune such a facility simultaneously for the high beam power and high beam quality required for high performance FEL operations. In this contribution we briefly review this experience and outline problems that are specific to high current - high power non-equilibrium linac beams. While the original strategy for beam diagnostics and tuning have proven to be quite successful, some shortcomings and unresolved issues were also observed. The most important issues are the non-equilibrium (non-Gaussian) nature of the linac beam and the presence of small intensity - large amplitude fraction of the beam a.k.a. beam halo. Thus we also present a list of the possible beam halo sources and discuss possible mitigations means. We argue that for proper understanding and management of the beam halo large dynamic range (>10{sup 6}) transverse and longitudinal beam diagnostics can be used. We also present results of transverse beam profile measurements with the dynamic range approaching 10{sup 5} and demonstrate the effect the increased dynamic range has on the beam characterization, i.e., emittance and Twiss parameters measurements. We also discuss near future work planned in this field and where the JLab FEL facility will be used for beam tests of the developed of new diagnostics.

  4. Installation and Commissioning of the Super Conducting RF Linac Cryomodules for the Erlp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulden, A. R.; Bate, R.; Buckley, R. K.; Pattalwar, S. M.

    2008-03-01

    An Energy Recovery Linac Prototype (ERLP) is currently being constructed at Daresbury Laboratory, (UK) to promote the necessary skills in science & technology, particularly in photocathode electron gun and Superconducting RF (SRF), to enable the construction of a fourth generation light source, based on energy recovery linacs-4GLS [1]. The ERLP uses two identical cryomodules, one as a booster Linac used to accelerate the beam to 8.5 MeV, the other as an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) module with an energy gain of 26.5 MeV. Each module consists of two 9- cell cavities operating at a frequency of 1.3 GHz and a temperature of 2 K. As there is no energy recovery in the booster it requires a peak power of 53 kW; whereas the linac module only requires 8 kW. The RF power is supplied by Inductive Output Tube (IOT) amplifiers. The maximum heat load (or the cooling power) required in the SRF system is 180 W at 2 K and is achieved in two stages: a LN2 pre-cooled Linde TCF50 liquefier produces liquid helium at 4.5 K, followed by a 2 K cold box consisting of a JT valve, recuperator and an external room temperature vacuum pumping system. This presentation reports the experience gained during, installation, commissioning and the initial operation of the cryomodules.

  5. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of an Induction Planar Actuator with Different Secondaries—A Planar Driver Application for Metallic Surface Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Treviso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on an induction planar actuator concept. The device uses the same principles as a linear induction motor in which the interaction between a travelling magnetic field and a conducting surface produces eddy currents that leads to the generation of a thrust force and can result in movement over a metallic surface. This can benefit the inspection of metallic surfaces based on the driving platform provided by the induction planar actuator. Equations of the magnetic and electric fields are presented and, by means of these equations, the forces involved were calculated. The behaviour of thrust and normal forces was analysed through the equations and by numerical models, and compared with the results obtained by measurements on a device prototype built in the laboratory as part of the study. With relation to the surface under inspection that forms the secondary, three cases were analysed: (1 a double-layered secondary formed by aluminium and ferromagnetic slabs; (2 a single aluminium layer and (3 a single ferromagnetic layer. Theoretical and measured values of thrust and normal forces showed good correlation.

  6. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of an Induction Planar Actuator with Different Secondaries--A Planar Driver Application for Metallic Surface Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviso, Felipe; Silveira, Marilia A; Flores Filho, Aly F; Dorrell, David G

    2016-03-19

    This paper presents a study on an induction planar actuator concept. The device uses the same principles as a linear induction motor in which the interaction between a travelling magnetic field and a conducting surface produces eddy currents that leads to the generation of a thrust force and can result in movement over a metallic surface. This can benefit the inspection of metallic surfaces based on the driving platform provided by the induction planar actuator. Equations of the magnetic and electric fields are presented and, by means of these equations, the forces involved were calculated. The behaviour of thrust and normal forces was analysed through the equations and by numerical models, and compared with the results obtained by measurements on a device prototype built in the laboratory as part of the study. With relation to the surface under inspection that forms the secondary, three cases were analysed: (1) a double-layered secondary formed by aluminium and ferromagnetic slabs; (2) a single aluminium layer and (3) a single ferromagnetic layer. Theoretical and measured values of thrust and normal forces showed good correlation.

  7. Status of the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) Cryo-Module

    CERN Document Server

    Parma, V; Capatina, O; Chambrillon, J; Montesinos, E; Schirm, K; Vande Craen, A; Vandoni, G; Van Weelderen, R

    2014-01-01

    The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) is an R&D effort conducted by CERN in partnership with other international laboratories, aimed at developing key technologies for the construction of a multi-megawatt proton linac based on state-of-the-art SRF technology. Such an accelerator could serve as a driver in new physics facilities for neutrinos and/or radioactive ion beams [1]. Amongst the main objectives of this effort, are the development of 704 MHz bulk niobium beta=1 elliptical cavities (operating at 2 K and providing an accelerating gradient of 25 MV/m) and the test of a string of cavities integrated in a machine-type cryo-module. In an initial phase, only four out of the eight cavities of the SPL cryo-module will be tested in a half-length cryo-module developed for this purpose, which nonetheless preserves the main features of the full size module. This paper presents the final design of the cryo-module and the status of the construction of the main cryostat parts. Preliminary plans for the assembly a...

  8. Spiral 2 Cryogenic System for The Superconducting LINAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghribi, A.; Bernaudin, P.-E.; Bert, Y.; Commeaux, C.; Houeto, M.; Lescalié, G.

    2017-02-01

    SPIRAL 21 is a rare isotope accelerator dedicated to the production of high intensity beams (E = 40 MeV, I = 5 mA). The driver is a linear accelerator (LINAC) that uses bulk Niobium made quarter wave RF cavities. 19 cryomodules inclose one or two cavities respectively for the low and the high energy sections. To supply the 1300 W at 4.2 K required to cool down the LINAC, a cryogenic system has been set up. The heart of the latter is a 3 turbines geared HELIAL®LF (ALAT2) cold box that delivers both the liquid helium for the cavities and the 60 K Helium gaz for the thermal screens. 19 valve-boxes insure cryogenic fluid distribution and management. Key issues like cool down speed or cavity RF frequency stability are closely linked to the cryogenic system management. To overcome these issues, modelling and simulation efforts are being undertaken prior to the first cool down trials. In this paper, we present a status update of the Spiral 2 cryogenic system and the cool down strategy considered for its commissioning.

  9. Development of high gradient IH linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isokawa, K.; Hattori, T.; Sasa, K.; Ito, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Majima, S.; Osvath, E.; Dudu, D.; Yamada, S.

    We have studied Interdigital-H (IH)-type structures for application in heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF) and other projects, at the Tokyo Institute of Technology (TIT). We have developed an IH linac with a high acceleration rate. It makes use of the fact that IH linacs have 5-10 times as high shunt impedance as Alvarez and RFQs in low and middle regions of energy [1-5]. We calculated trajectories of particles and made experiments by model cavities. Now an IH linac that we call high gradient IH linac is under construction. The calculated result of particle dynamics is that the transverse acceptance and an acceleration rate of this linac are 113π mm mrad and 5.5 MV/m, respectively. This linac is able to accelerate particles with a charge to mass ratio ( q/ A) greater than 1/16 from 219 keV/u up to 600 keV/u. The cavity length of this linac is 1120 mm. The frequency is 81 MHz.

  10. 25th anniversary for Linac-2

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On Friday, 3 October 2003, the Linac team celebrated a quarter century of successful operation of one of its linear accelerators: Linac-2, the proton workhorse of the CERN accelerator complex. Linac-2, CERN's linear proton accelerator, has now been running for 25 years - ample reason for a small celebration. About 30 members of the original team (10 of the initially more than 50 are still working at CERN), and other CERN personnel met on 3 October 2003. Linac-2 is the first link in the accelerator chain Linac-2 - PS Booster - PS - SPS and eventually LHC. Beams from Linac-2 are used after further acceleration in the CERN complex for SPS fixed target physics; for antiproton production for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD); for test beams in the East Experimental Hall and in the PS; for nuclear physics at ISOLDE; for LHC test beams and in the past for both ISR physics and Antiproton production (AA/AC) and test beams in LEAR. Linac-2 was built to obtain higher intensities and better stability than with ...

  11. Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in this topic was provided by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Topic last reviewed: March 2015 For ... see Traffic Safety Facts 2012: Older Population. (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration). Crashes Down Among Older Drivers Fortunately, ...

  12. Beam brightness in low-beta linacs: a sensitivity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, R.J.; Sacks, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy ion drivers for inertial-confinement fusion reactors depend on the ability to produce a high-intensity, high-quality beam with a minimum of in-machine loss. Deterioration of the beam quality, which subsequently leads also to beam loss, tends to occur in the early (low energy) stages of the acceleration process, since all nonlinear effects decrease with velocity. The current work does not directly address the specific causes for beam deterioration on a fundamental level. Rather, we present the results of a numerical study aimed at gaining an engineering characterization of the dependence of the accelerated beam quality and intensity on various parameters in the linac design, the initial beam configuration, and the initial current. A dramatic improvement is observed when injection energy is raised, and some tentative suggestions are offered for techniques of achieving this increase.

  13. High Power CW Superconducting Linacs for EURISOL and XADS

    CERN Document Server

    Biarrotte, J L

    2004-01-01

    A multi-MW superconducting proton linac is proposed as the baseline solution for the EURISOL and the XADS driver accelerators. In the EURISOL project, which studies the design of the next-generation European ISOL facility, it is used to produce both neutron-deficient and neutron-rich exotic nuclei far from the valley of stability. In the PDS-XADS project, which aims to the demonstration of the feasibility of an ADS system for nuclear waste transmutation, it is used to produce the neutron flux required by the associated sub-critical reactor. In this paper, we report the main results and conclusions reached within these preliminary design studies. A special emphasis is given on the on-going and future R&D to be done to accomplish the demonstration of the full technology.

  14. Superconducting LINAC booster for the Mumbai pelletron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Srinivasan; S K Singh; R G Pillay; M P Kurup; M K Pandey

    2001-08-01

    We are in the process of constructing a superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC), to boost the energy of heavy ion beams from the 14UD Pelletron accelerator, at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. The accelerating structures in the LINAC are quarter wave resonators (QWR) coated with lead which is superconducting at liquid helium temperature. With feasibility studies having been completed during the course of the 4th and 5th five-year plan periods, culminating with the demonstration of beam acceleration using one accelerating module, the construction of the LINAC is now under way.

  15. BEPCII Injector Linac Upgrade and Beam Instabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-Hong; GENG Zhe-Qiao; PEI Shi-Lun; DENG Bing-Lin; CHEN Zhi-Bi; PEI Guo-Xi; CHI Yun-Long; CHEN Yan-Wei; CAO Jian-She; KONG Xiang-Cheng; ZHAO Feng-Li; HOU Mi; LIU Wei-Bin

    2008-01-01

    The upgrade project of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) and its injector linac is working well.The linac upgrade aims at a higher injection rate of 50 mA/min into the storage ring,which requires an injected beam with low emittance,low energy spread and high beam orbit and energy stabilities. This goal is finally reached recently by upgrading the linac components and by dealing with rich and practical beam physics,which are described in this study.

  16. The solenoidal transport option: IFE drivers, near term research facilities, and beam dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.P. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Briggs, R.J. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Solenoidal magnets have been used as the beam transport system in all the high current electron induction accelerators that have been built in the past several decades. They have also been considered for the front end transport system for heavy ion accelerators for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) drivers, but this option has received very little attention in recent years. The analysis reported here was stimulated mainly by the recent effort to define an affordable {open_quotes}Integrated Research Experiment{close_quotes} (IRE) that can meet the near term needs of the IFE program. The 1996 FESAC IFE review panel agreed that an integrated experiment is needed to fully resolve IFE heavy ion driver science and technology issues; specifically, {open_quotes}the basic beam dynamics issues in the accelerator, the final focusing and transport issues in a reactor-relevant beam parameter regime, and the target heating phenomenology{close_quotes}. The development of concepts that can meet these technical objectives and still stay within the severe cost constraints all new fusion proposals will encounter is a formidable challenge. Solenoidal transport has a very favorable scaling as the particle mass is decreased (the main reason why it is preferred for electrons in the region below 50 MeV). This was recognized in a recent conceptual study of high intensity induction linac-based proton accelerators for Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technologies, where solenoidal transport was chosen for the front end. Reducing the ion mass is an obvious scaling to exploit in an IRE design, since the output beam voltage will necessarily be much lower than that of a full scale driver, so solenoids should certainly be considered as one option for this experiment as well.

  17. The invention that is shaping Linac4

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator experts are no strangers to innovative optimizations of existing techniques and to the development of novel solutions. Sometimes, they even come up with ideas that have the potential to revolutionize the field. This is the case with the Tolerance Aligned Cantilever Mounting (TACM) system, a completely new way of supporting the drift tubes, one of the core elements of linear accelerators. The new, patent-pending technique will be implemented at Linac4.   Drift tubes in a prototype for Linac4, assembled using the new TACM technology. “Assemble and adjust” – that was the technique used to build drift-tube linacs before the arrival of the TACM. Now, the inventors’ motto has become ‘adjust and assemble’. The inversion of these two words represents a real revolution for people working in the field. “The drift tubes are a critical element of Linac4 and they have to satisfy several requirements: they have to be mechanically ...

  18. Beam diagnostic suite for the SNS linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardekopf, R. A.; Kurennoy, S. S.; Power, J. F.; Shafer, R. E.; Stovall, J. E.

    2000-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the next-generation pulsed neutron source to be built in the United States. The accelerator chosen to produce the 2 MW beam power on the neutron-producing target is an H- linear accelerator (linac) to 1 GeV, followed by a proton accumulator ring. The ring compresses the 1 ms long beam bunches from the linac to less than 1 μs. The linac is pulsed at 60 Hz with a 6% duty factor. Stringent control of the pulse structure and stability of the high-intensity H- beam is needed to minimize beam loss in the linac and to optimize injection into the accumulator ring. This requires a set of beam diagnostics that can operate at high peak currents (˜52 mA) with high sensitivity and minimum beam interception.

  19. INR proton Linac operation and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchuk, Leonid V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 7a, 60th October Anniversary Pr., Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: kravchuk@inr.ru

    2006-06-23

    The INR Proton Linear Accelerator is presently under operation for about 2400 h per year with energy about 250 MeV and average current up to 150 {mu}A. The Linac applications are mainly as follows: neutron and condensed matter research at spallation neutron source and neutron spectrometers, isotope production for medicine and industry, beam therapy. The experimental area description and the Linac operational experience are given in the paper.

  20. Study of interference in power supply for induction motors by variable frequency drivers; Estudo de interferencias na alimentacao eletrica de motores de inducao por inversores de frequencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Andre Luis de Oliveira e; Silva, Marcos Morais da [Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte (UniBH), MG (Brazil)], e-mails: alosousa@gmail.com, marcosmoraisdasilva@hotmail.com; Pires, Igor Amariz [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (PPGEE/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Eletronica], e-mail: iap@ufmg.br

    2012-07-01

    First of all, this work went into an exploratory study which shows the variety of factors that the induction motors are submitted for being driven by frequency inverters. It's target was to address the leading technical aspects of the induction motors cage, and also, to discuss the influences of the inverters about the motor characteristics such as reflection voltage, common mode of noise, rise-time, and so on. On the top of it, this work have had a deep study about the interferences from installation and the distance between the frequency inverter and electric motor such as the aggravation of these factors for both the inverter-motor system and for electrical systems. They are magnetically linked to this system by a bunch of wires and cables. Also, some solutions about electric motor's manufacturers are also showed. Inverters, wire's suppliers and insulation materials have sought in order to get a great interaction between the electric motor and frequency inverter to avoid disturbing the system. Not only for themselves but also for the adjacent systems. Once we had faced it's subject, we can define that the factors here presented can directly interfere with the engine's life or lead it into problems with the electrical systems, if installed next to the drive by a frequency inverter. As it is a kind of trigger that only had got the confidence of the industries recently, regarding to the replacement of DC motors, many companies that provide it, are not technically ready to correctly specify the whole set, in order avoid the interference generated as it was well showed in this work. (author)

  1. The LINAC4 Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, L; Bertone, C; Body, Y; Broere, J; Brunner, O; Buzio, M; Carli, C; Caspers, F; Corso, JP; Coupard, J; Dallocchio, A; Dos Santos, N; Garoby, R; Gerigk, F; Hammouti, L; Hanke, K; Jones, M; Kozsar, I; Lettry, J; Lallement, JB; Lombardi, A; Lopez-Hernandez, LA; Maglioni, C; Mathot, S; Maury, S; Mikulec, B; Nisbet, D; Noels, C; Paoluzzi, M; Puccio, B; Raich, U; Ramberger, S; Rossi, C; Schwerg, N; Scrivens, R; Vandoni, G; Weisz, S; Vollaire, J; Vretenar, M; Zickler, T

    2011-01-01

    As the first step of a long-term programme aiming at an increase in the LHC luminosity, CERN is building a new 160 MeV H¯ linear accelerator, Linac4, to replace the ageing 50 MeV Linac2 as injector to the PS Booster (PSB). Linac4 is an 86-m long normal-conducting linac made of an H¯ source, a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), a chopping line and a sequence of three accelerating structures: a Drift-Tube Linac (DTL), a Cell-Coupled DTL (CCDTL) and a Pi-Mode Structure (PIMS). The civil engineering has been recently completed, and construction of the main accelerator components has started with the support of a network of international collaborations. The low-energy section up to 3 MeV including a 3-m long 352 MHz RFQ entirely built at CERN is in the final construction phase and is being installed on a dedicated test stand. The present schedule foresees beam commissioning of the accelerator in the new tunnel in 2013/14; the moment of connection of the new linac to the CERN accelerator chain will depend on the L...

  2. Simulation of large acceptance LINAC for muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyadera, H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kurennoy, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jason, A J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    There has been a recent need for muon accelerators not only for future Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders but also for other applications in industry and medical use. We carried out simulations on a large-acceptance muon linac with a new concept 'mixed buncher/acceleration'. The linac can accept pions/muons from a production target with large acceptance and accelerate muon without any beam cooling which makes the initial section of muon-linac system very compact. The linac has a high impact on Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider (NF/MC) scenario since the 300-m injector section can be replaced by the muon linac of only 10-m length. The current design of the linac consists of the following components: independent 805-MHz cavity structure with 6- or 8-cm-radius aperture window; injection of a broad range of pion/muon energies, 10-100 MeV, and acceleration to 150 - 200 MeV. Further acceleration of the muon beam are relatively easy since the beam is already bunched.

  3. Status of RF system for the JAERI energy-recovery linac FEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Masaru; Nagai, Ryoji

    2006-02-01

    The two types of the RF sources are used for the JAERI ERL-FEL. One is an all-solid state amplifier and the other is an inductive output tube (IOT). There are advantages of little failure and wide bandwidth for the all-solid state amplifier, low cost and high efficiency for IOT. The property of low cost with the IOT is suitable for a large machine like an energy recovery linac (ERL).

  4. IOT RF Power Sources for Pulsed and CW Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Bohlen, H P

    2004-01-01

    For many years, klystrons have been the preferred RF power amplifiers for both pulsed and CW linacs at UHF and higher frequencies. Their properties have earned them that position. But in recent years in UHF terrestrial television transmitters the earlier predominant klystron has been replaced the Inductive Output Tube (IOT) because the IOT provides higher efficiency and, due to its excellent linearity, can handle the simultaneous amplification of both the vision and the sound signal. Its robustness and life expectancy equals that of a klystron, and it more than compensates its lower gain by a lower price and a smaller size. For linac operation, derivates of UHF TV IOTs, capable of up to 80 kW CW output power, are already available and operating. In L-Band, they are presently joined by recently developed 15 to 30 kW CW IOTs. HOM-IOTs are expected to extend the CW range in UHF to 1 MW and beyond. Pulsed operation of an IOT can be achieved without a high-voltage modulator. Since the beam current is grid-controll...

  5. High-power proton linac for transmuting the long-lived fission products in nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    High power proton linacs are being considered at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux spallation neutron sources that can be used to transmute the troublesome long-lived fission products in defense nuclear waste. The transmutation scheme being studied provides a high flux (> 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}{minus}s) of thermal neutrons, which efficiently converts fission products to stable or short-lived isotopes. A medium-energy proton linac with an average beam power of about 110 MW can burn the accumulated Tc99 and I129 inventory at the DOE's Hanford Site within 30 years. Preliminary concepts for this machine are described. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Present and next steps of the JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minehara, E.J.; Yamauchi, T.; Sugimoto, M. [FEL Laboratory at Tokai, Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (JP)] (and others)

    2000-03-01

    The JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL has successfully been lased to produce a 0.3 kW FEL light and 100 kW or larger electron beam output in quasi continuous wave operation in 1999. The 1 kW class output as our present program goal will be achieved to improve the optical out coupling method in the FEL optical resonator, the electron gun, and the electron beam optics in the JAERI FEL driver. As our next 5 year program goal is the 100 kW class FEL light and a few tens MW class electron beam output in average, quasi continuous wave operation of the light and electron beam will be planned in the JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL facility. Conceptual design options needed for such a very high power operation and shorter wavelength light sources will be discussed to improve and to upgrade the exciting facility. (author)

  7. Beam simulations with initial bunch noise in superconducting RF proton linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, J

    2010-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by coupled bunch instabilities (CBI), driven by impedance peaks, where then all cavity higher order modes (HOMs) are possible drivers. Limiting the CBI growth rate is the fundamental reason that all superconducting rf cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. The question arises if for similar reasons HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current superconducting rf proton linacs. Therefore we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in such machines, also including charge and position noise on the injected bunches. Simulations were executed for a generic linac with properties close to the planned SPL at CERN, SNS, or Project X at FNAL. It was found that with strong bunch noise and monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter, possibly exceeding the admittance of a receiving machine, cannot be excluded. A transverse simulation shows similar requirements. Therefore including initial bunch noise in any beam dynamic study on superconducti...

  8. The Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galayda, John N

    2003-05-21

    A collaboration of scientists from SLAC, UCLA, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory have proposed to build the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) facility, a free-electron laser (FEL) on the SLAC site, spanning photon energies 0.8-8 keV. The laser output will be 8-10 GW with pulse lengths 230 fsec or less. The LCLS will offer unprecedented experimental opportunities in the areas of atomic physics, chemical dynamics, plasma physics, nanoscale dynamics, and biomolecular imaging. SLAC has proposed to begin engineering design of the laser in 2003, leading to project completion in 2008. The laser produces x-rays by the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process: an intense, highly collimated pulse of 14.5 GeV electrons, traveling through a 122 m-long undulator magnet system, is induced by its own synchrotron radiation to form sub-nanometer-scale bunches. The bunching process enhances the coherence and hence the intensity of the emitted synchrotron radiation. The process is analogous to the instability of a high-gain amplifier; the ''noise'' signal that seeds the instability is the shot noise in the electron beam.

  9. RNB-specific linac development

    CERN Document Server

    Ratzinger, U

    2002-01-01

    The acceleration of secondary, radioactive beams from primary beam driven ion sources provides many challenges when compared to the case of conventional ion beams. The clean separation of the specific ion species, the low beam current, the short life time of the ions as well as the needed energy variability have consequences on the layout of the accelerator. As also experiments with astrophysical relevance are performed, the energy range should go down below 1 MeV/u in some cases. Additionally, to investigate nuclear reactions around the Coulomb barrier, the beam energy should be flexible up to around 8 MeV/u. Short isotope life times below a few milliseconds do not allow for charge breeding. In these cases, low charged ions from 'simple' ion sources have to be accepted by the accelerator. Furthermore, stripping processes along the linac are excluded in case of low beam currents. Multicoincidence experiments profit a lot from cw operation of ion source and accelerators. During the last three decades, room tem...

  10. CERN Linac4. The space charge challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Lutz Matthias

    2013-08-06

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting H-ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to reconstruct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam is transported along a 180 m long transfer line to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PS-Booster). The transfer line optics was studied, optimised and sections were completely re-designed. The new transfer line optics is characterised by an improved preservation of the beam emittance, higher stability of the optical solution with respect to alignment errors and field jitters of the transfer line magnets and it is matched to each of the PS-Booster injection schemes. In a concluding ''Start-To-End'' simulation based on the measured beam characteristics at the LEBT exit the beam dynamics of the downstream Linac, including the transfer line, was calculated. To minimise particle losses within acceptable emittance preservation the beam optics of the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) was adapted to the measured beam parameters. This ''Start-To-End'' simulation was performed to identify critical sections of the Linac4 beam dynamics and

  11. RFI-Based Ion Linac Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Donald A.

    A new company, Ion Linac Systems, Inc., has been formed to promote the development, manufacture, and marketing of intense, RFI-based, Ion Linac Systems. The Rf Focused Interdigital (RFI) linac structure was invented by the author while at Linac Systems, LLC. The first step, for the new company, will be to correct a flaw in an existing RFI-based linac system and to demonstrate "good transmission" through the system. The existing system, aimed at the BNCT medical application, is designed to produce a beam of 2.5 MeV protons with an average beam current of 20 mA. In conjunction with a lithium target, it will produce an intense beam of epithermal neutrons. This system is very efficient, requiring only 180 kW of rf power to produce a 50 kW proton beam. In addition to the BNCT medical application, the RFI-based systems should represent a powerful neutron generator for homeland security, defence applications, cargo container inspection, and contraband detection. The timescale to the demonstration of "good transmission" is early fall of this year. Our website is www.ionlinacs.com.

  12. The Eindhoven linac-racetrack microtron combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theuws, W.H.C.; Botman, J.I.M.; Hagedoorn, H.L.; Timmermans, C.J. [Tech. Univ., Eindhoven (Netherlands). Cyclotron Lab.

    1998-04-01

    The Eindhoven linac-race track microtron (RTM) combination has been designed to serve as injector for an electron storage ring. The linac is a 10 MeV travelling-wave linac (type M.E.L. SL75/10). In the RTM a 5 MeV standing-wave cavity, which is synchronized with the linac, accelerates the electron beam 13 times, such that the extraction energy is 75 MeV. The RTM end magnets are two-sector magnets tilted in their median planes, to provide strong focusing forces for optimal electron-optical properties. Closed-orbit conditions are fulfilled with the help of small correction dipoles located in the RTM drift space; the magnetic-field strengths of these correction dipoles are adjusted on the basis of beam-position measurements. Isochronous acceleration is accomplished by position- and phase-measurements. A low-cost elaborate diagnostic system will be used for efficient commissioning of the combination of the 10 MeV linac and the 10-75 MeV RTM. (orig.) 10 refs.

  13. The Eindhoven linac-racetrack microtron combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuws, W. H. C.; Botman, J. I. M.; Hagedoorn, H. L.; Timmermans, C. J.

    1998-04-01

    The Eindhoven linac-race track microtron (RTM) combination has been designed to serve as injector for an electron storage ring. The linac is a 10 MeV travelling-wave linac (type M.E.L. SL75/10). In the RTM a 5 MeV standing-wave cavity, which is synchronized with the linac, accelerates the electron beam 13 times, such that the extraction energy is 75 MeV. The RTM end magnets are two-sector magnets tilted in their median planes, to provide strong focusing forces for optimal electron-optical properties. Closed-orbit conditions are fulfilled with the help of small correction dipoles located in the RTM drift space; the magnetic-field strengths of these correction dipoles are adjusted on the basis of beam-position measurements. Isochronous acceleration is accomplished by position- and phase-measurements. A low-cost elaborate diagnostic system will be used for efficient commissioning of the combination of the 10 MeV linac and the 10-75 MeV RTM.

  14. S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; /SLAC; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

    2012-08-28

    The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

  15. Wake field effects in APT linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S.S.

    1998-12-31

    The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. The high current leads to stringent restrictions on allowable beam losses (<1 nA/m), that requires analyzing carefully all possible loss sources. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, the author studies these effects for the APT to exclude potential problems at such a high current. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. Here he concentrates on two features specific to the APT linac: loss factors for the design {beta} < 1 and CW beam structure.

  16. Electro neutrons around a 12 MV Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Perez L, L. H., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Instituto Zacatecano del Tumor, A. C., Lago de la Encantada No. 294, Fracc. Lomas del Lago, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    Neutron contamination around Linacs for radiotherapy is a source of undesirable doses for the patient. The main source of these neutrons is the photonuclear reactions occurring in the Linac head and the patient body. Electrons also produce neutrons through (e, en) reactions. This reaction is known as electro disintegration and is carried out by the electron scattering that produce a virtual photon that is absorbed by the scattering nucleus producing the reaction e + A {yields} (A-1) + n + e'. In this work the electron-neutron spectrum to 100 cm from the isocenter of a 12 MV Linac has been measured using a passive Bonner spheres spectrometer in a novel procedure named Planetary mode. (Author)

  17. Stabilization Strategies for Drift Tube Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085420; Lamehi Rashti, Mohammad

    The average axial electric fields in drift tube linac cavities are known to be sensitive with respect to the perturbation errors. Postcoupler is a powerful stabilizer devices that is used to reduce this sensitivity of average axial field. Postcouplers are the cylindrical rod which is extended from cavity wall toward the drift tube without touching the drift tube surface. Postcouplers need to be adjusted to the right length to stabilize the average axial field. Although postcouplers are used successfully in many projects, there is no straightforward procedure for postcouplers adjustment and it has been done almost based on trial and errors. In this thesis, the physics and characteristics of postcouplers has been studied by using an equivalent circuit model and 3D finite element method calculations. Finally, a straightforward and accurate method to adjust postcouplers has been concluded. The method has been verified by using experimental measurements on CERN Linac4 drift tube linac cavities.

  18. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Amy [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  19. ILC Linac R&D at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolphsen, C.; /SLAC

    2006-08-09

    Since the ITRP recommendation in August 2004 to use superconducting rf technology for a next generation linear collider, the former NLC Group at SLAC has been actively pursuing a broad range of R&D for this collider (the ILC). In this paper, the programs concerning linac technology are reviewed. Current activities include the development of a Marx-style modulator and a 10 MW sheet-beam klystron, operation of an L-band (1.3 GHz) rf source using an SNS HVCM modulator and commercial klystrons, design of a more efficient and less costly rf distribution system, construction of a coupler component test stand, fabrication of a prototype positron capture cavity, beam tests of prototype S-band linac beam position monitors and preparations for magnetic center stability measurements of a prototype SC linac quad.

  20. Diagnostics For Recirculating And Energy Recovered Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey A. Krafft; Jean-Claude Denard

    2002-12-18

    In this paper, the electron beam diagnostics developed for recirculating electron accelerators will be reviewed. The main novelties in dealing with such accelerators are: to have sufficient information and control possibilities for the longitudinal phase space, to have means to accurately set the recirculation path length, and to have a means to distinguish the beam passes on measurements of position in the linac proper. The solutions to these problems obtained at Jefferson Laboratory and elsewhere will be discussed. In addition, more standard instrumentation (profiling and emittance measurements) will be reviewed in the context of recirculating linacs. Finally, and looking forward, electron beam diagnostics for applications to high current energy recovered linacs will be discussed.

  1. Neutron and photon spectra in LINACs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Carrillo, H R; Martínez-Ovalle, S A; Lallena, A M; Mercado, G A; Benites-Rengifo, J L

    2012-12-01

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10(-6) and 1 MeV. Neutron and the Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage.

  2. Status of the TOP Linac project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianfarani, Cesidio [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Cisbani, Evaristo [ISS, Viale Regina Elena 199, Rome (Italy); Orlandi, Gianluca [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Frullani, Salvatore [ISS, Viale Regina Elena 199, Rome (Italy); Picardi, Luigi [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascatim(Rome) (Italy)]. E-mail: picardi@frascati.enea.it; Concetta Ronsivalle [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy)

    2006-06-23

    The TOP Linac (Oncological Therapy with Protons), under development by ENEA and ISS is a sequence of three pulsed (5 {mu}s 300 Hz) linear accelerators: a 7 MeV, 425 MHz RFQ+DTL (AccSys Model PL-7), a 7-65 MeV, 2998 MHz Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) and a 65-200 MeV, variable energy 2998 MHz Side Coupled Linac (SCL). The status of the project will be presented. The 7 MeV injector is installed at ENEA-Frascati laboratories. The first SCDTL module structure, composed by nine DTL tanks coupled by eight side cavities, has been built and tested on RF bench, so that it is ready for proton acceleration. The results of the measurements done will be also shown.

  3. On the Feasibility of Accelerating Deuterons in Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, J; Garcia Tudela, M; Ramberger, S; Crandall, K

    2011-01-01

    The Linac4 normal-conducting linac is comprised of three sections, DTL, CCDTL and PIMS. It is designed to accelerate H-minus ions to a final energy of 160 MeV. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of accelerating deuterons in this linac for injection into the PS Booster.

  4. Deuterons Acceleration in I-100 Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Antipov, Yu M; Batarin, V A; Gorin, Yu P; Davydov, V V; Maltsev, A P; Nizhegorodtsev, V V; Pilipenko, C I; Starodubrovsky, E K; Surenskii, A V; Taplyakov, V A; Troyanov, E F; Tyurin, N E

    2003-01-01

    High energy deuteron beams are of great interest for fundamental and applied researches. Creation of such beams on IHEP accelerator complex in energy range 0,1(plus-minus)35 GeV/u significantly widens the research possibili-ties with relativistic deuterons in our country. Accelerated deuterons are also à precondition for other light nuclei acceleration in IHEP. IHEP Alvarez type proton I-100 linac can be used as light ions injector. In this work the results of deuterons acceleration studies in I-100 linac are presented.

  5. 4-rod RFQ linac for ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka [Nisshin Electric Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A 34 MHz 4-rod RFQ linac system has been upgraded in both its rf power efficiency and beam intensity. The linac is able to accelerate in cw operation 0.83 mA of a B{sup +} ion beam from 0.03 to 0.91 MeV with transmission of 61 %. The rf power fed to the RFQ is 29 kW. The unloaded Q-value of the RFQ has been improved approximately 61 % to 5400 by copper-plating stainless steel cooling pipes in the RFQ cavity. (author)

  6. Preinjector for Linac 1, accelerating column

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. High up on the wall of the Faraday cage (7403073X) is this drum-shaped container of the ion source (7403083X). It is mounted at the HV end of the accelerating column through which the ions (usually protons; many other types of ions in the course of its long history) proceed through the Faraday cage wall to the low-energy end (at ground potential) of Linac 1. The 520 kV accelerating voltage was supplied by a SAMES generator (7403074X).

  7. The Linac Coherent Light Source Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galayda, John N

    2003-08-11

    The Linac Coherent Light Source Project will make use of the last kilometer of the SLAC Linac to create the world's first ''hard'' x-ray laser. A high-brightness photocathode gun and 150 MeV pre-accelerator will be installed in an alcove adjoining the main linac tunnel. It will provide 1 nanocoulomb electron bunches at 120 Hz. The main linac will be modified to incorporate two chicane bunch compressors. Electron bunches with 230 fsec FWHM duration and 3400 ampere peak current will be delivered to the enclosure presently housing the Final Focus Test Beam Facility. These electron bunches will pass through a 122-meter undulator channel, producing a burst of coherent x-rays with peak brightness ten orders of magnitude higher than is presently available from the brightest third-generation storage ring sources. This extraordinary brightness and coherence is the result of the ''self-amplified spontaneous emission'' (SASE) process. The LCLS Project will include x-ray optics, diagnostics and beamline facilities in two experiment halls, respectively located 40 meters and 322 meters from the source of x-rays. The LCLS will be constructed by a collaboration of US laboratories: Argonne National Labs, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and SLAC. A conceptual design has been completed and funds for a more complete design are expected in October 2002. The Project completion date is September 2008.

  8. Cyclotron and linac production of Ac-225.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Graeme; Allen, Barry J

    2009-04-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. The reduction of radium by photonuclear transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) has been investigated. A linac dose of 2800 Gy produced about 2.4 MBq (64 microCi) of Ra-225, which decays to Ac-225 and can then be used for 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' (TAT) of cancer. This result, while consistent with theoretical calculations, is far too low to be of practical use unless much larger quantities of radium are irradiated. The increasing application of Ac-225 for cancer therapy indicates the potential need for its increased production and availability. This paper investigates the possibility of producing of Ac-225 in commercial quantities, which could potentially reduce obsolete radioactive material and displace the need for expensive importation of Ac-225 from the USA and Russia in the years ahead. Scaled up production of Ac-225 could theoretically be achieved by the use of a high current cyclotron or linac. Production specifications are determined for a linac in terms of current, pulse length and frequency, as well as an examination of other factors such as radiation issues and radionuclei separation. Yields are compared with those calculated for the Australian National Cyclotron in Sydney.

  9. First beam in Linac4 DTL

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Following the installation of the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) earlier this summer (see here), the first DTL tank saw beams at 12 MeV on 5 August.   Transverse emittance measured at 12 MeV after the DTL tank1 using a temporary slit-and-grid emittance device. You never forget your first beam. That was especially true for the Linac4 DTL team, as it followed years of design, construction and vigorous testing. "We performed countless measurements of the geometry, vacuum and magnet polarisation of the DTL tanks while we were in the workshop," says Suitbert Ramberger, project engineer for the Linac4 DTL. "Add that preparation to the excellent RF conditioning that we carried out in the weeks before the beam tests and I was confident that the acceleration with beam would fully meet expectations!" Indeed it did. Beam commissioning tests ran until 21 August and found the DTL operating with nominal transmission. This successful run has confirmed the innovative design ...

  10. Preinjector for Linac 1, SAMES generator

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070x. When the original 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator broke down in 1973, it was replaced by this much smaller 520 kV SAMES generator, seen here sitting on the floor of the Faraday cage.

  11. Statistical simulations of machine errors for LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Baylac, M; Froidefond, E; Sargsyan, E

    2006-01-01

    LINAC 4 is a normal conducting H- linac proposed at CERN to provide a higher proton flux to the CERN accelerator chain. It should replace the existing LINAC 2 as injector to the Proton Synchrotron Booster and can also operate in the future as the front end of the SPL, a 3.5 GeV Superconductingg Proton Linac. LINAC 4 consists of a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole, a chopper line, a Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and a Cell Coupled DTL all operating at 352 MHz and finally a Side Coupled Linac at 704 MHz. Beam dynamics was studied and optimized performing end-to-end simulations. This paper presents statistical simulations of machine errors which were performed in order to validate the proposed design.

  12. X-ray Sources by Energy Recovered Linacs and Their Needed R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey Krafft, Stephen Benson, Michael Borland, David Douglas, David Dowell, Carlos Hernandez-Garcia, Dmitry Kayran, Robert Legg, Elizabeth Moog, Takashi Obina, Robert Rimmer, Vitaly Yakimenko

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we review the current state of research on energy recovered linacs as drivers for future X-ray sources. For many types of user experiments, such sources may have substantial advantages compared to the workhorse sources of the present: high energy storage rings. Energy recovered linacs need to be improved beyond present experience in both energy and average current to support this application. To build an energy recovered linac based X-ray user facility presents many interesting challenges. We present summaries on the Research and Development (R&D) topics needed for full development of such a source, including the discussion at the Future Light Sources Workshop held in Gaithersberg, Maryland on September 15-17, 2009. A first iteration of an R&D plan is presented that is founded on the notion of building a set of succeedingly larger test accelerators exploring cathode physics, high average current injector physics, and beam recirculation and beam energy recovery at high average current. Our basic conclusion is that a reviewable design of such a source can be developed after an R&D period of reasonably short duration.

  13. High Power Conditioning of the 202 MHz IH Tank 2 at the CERN LINAC3

    CERN Document Server

    Broere, J; Kugler, H; Ratzinger, U; Vretenar, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    High accelerating gradients are very interesting for future machines, and, in particular, for high-current heavy-ion linac projects like the "Inertial Fusion Driver". In order to explore the maximum field achievable in an Interdigital-H type structure (IH), an experiment has been carried out at CERN with the Lead Ion Linac (Linac3). After the 1997 run, the RF amplifiers were rearranged in order to allow the feeding of the IH Tank number 2 (1.54 m long, 28 gaps, frequency of 202.56 MHz) with up to 2 MW pulsed RF power. After two weeks of conditioning at pulse lengths varying between 200 ms and 1 ms with a constant pulse repetition rate of 0.8 Hz, the maximum effective accelerating gradient achieved was 10.7 MV/m. This corresponds to a local field maximum of 75 MV/m, and to fields in excess of 50 MV/m (3.5 times the Kilpatrick limit) on large portions of the drift tube surfaces. This paper reports the conditioning procedure used, the measurements of field emission current at different voltages and pulse lengths...

  14. Capacitive beam position monitors for the low-β beam of the Chinese ADS proton linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Wu, Jun-Xia; Zhu, Guang-Yu; Jia, Huan; Xue, Zong-Heng; Zheng, Hai; Xie, Hong-Ming; Kang, Xin-Cai; He, Yuan; Li, Lin; Denard, Jean Claude

    2016-02-01

    Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) for the low-β beam of the Chinese Accelerator Driven Subcritical system (CADS) Proton linac are of the capacitive pick-up type. They provide higher output signals than that of the inductive type. This paper will describe the design and tests of the capacitive BPM system for the low-β proton linac, including the pick-ups, the test bench and the read-out electronics. The tests done with an actual proton beam show a good agreement between the measurements and the simulations in the time domain. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11405240) and “Western Light” Talents Training Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences

  15. Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Benaroya, R.; Clifft, B.E.; Jaffey, A.H.; Johnson, K.W.; Khoe, T.K.; Scheibelhut, C.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, Y.Z.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is given of the status of a project to develop and build a small superconducting linac to boost the energy of heavy ions from an existing tandem electrostatic accelerator. The design of the system is well advanced, and construction of major components is expected to start in late 1976. The linac will consist of independently-phased resonators of the split-ring type made of niobium and operating at a temperature of 4.2/sup 0/K. The resonance frequency is 97 MHz. Tests on full-scale resonators lead one to expect accelerating fields of approximately 4 MV/m within the resonators. The linac will be long enough to provide a voltage gain of at least 13.5 MV, which will allow ions with A less than or approximately 80 to be accelerated above the Coulomb barrier of any target. The modular nature of the system will make future additions to the length relatively easy. A major design objective is to preserve the good quality of the tandem beam. This requires an exceedingly narrow beam pulse, which is achieved by bunching both before and after the tandem. Focusing by means of superconducting solenoids within the linac limit the radial size of the beam. An accelerating structure some 15 meters downstream from the linac will manipulate the longitudinal phase ellipse so as to provide the experimenter with either very good energy resolution (..delta..E/E approximately equal to 2 x 10/sup -4/) or very good time resolution (..delta.. t approximately equal to 30 psec).

  16. Solid-state pulse modulator using Marx generator for a medical linac electron-gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Heuijin; Hyeok Jeong, Dong; Lee, Manwoo; Lee, Mujin; Yi, Jungyu; Yang, Kwangmo; Ro, Sung Chae

    2016-04-01

    A medical linac is used for the cancer treatment and consists of an accelerating column, waveguide components, a magnetron, an electron-gun, a pulse modulator, and an irradiation system. The pulse modulator based on hydrogen thyratron-switched pulse-forming network is commonly used in linac. As the improvement of the high power semiconductors in switching speed, voltage rating, and current rating, an insulated gate bipolar transistor has become the more popular device used for pulsed power systems. We propose a solid-state pulse modulator to generator high voltage by multi-stacked storage-switch stages based on the Marx generator. The advantage of our modulator comes from the use of two semiconductors to control charging and discharging of the storage capacitor at each stage and it allows to generate the pulse with various amplitudes, widths, and shapes. In addition, a gate driver for two semiconductors is designed to reduce the control channels and to protect the circuits. It is developed for providing the pulsed power to a medical linac electron-gun that requires 25 kV and 1 A as the first application. In order to improve the power efficiency and achieve the compactness modulator, a capacitor charging power supply, a Marx pulse generator, and an electron-gun heater isolated transformer are constructed and integrated. This technology is also being developed to extend the high power pulsed system with > 1 MW and also other applications such as a plasma immersed ion implantation and a micro pulse electrostatic precipitator which especially require variable pulse shape and high repetition rate > 1 kHz. The paper describes the design features and the construction of this solid-state pulse modulator. Also shown are the performance results into the linac electron-gun.

  17. Wake Field Effects in the APT Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey

    1998-04-01

    The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, an analysis for the APT accelerator has been performed to exclude potential problems at such a high current leading to beam losses. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. The only noticeable effect is the HOM heating of the 5-cell superconducting cavities. However, it has an acceptable level and will be further reduced by HOM couplers.

  18. Electronics Platform of PS Linac 1 Preinjector

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For servicing during shutdowns, a draw-bridge from a door in the Faraday cage led to the "electronics platform" of the linac 1 preinjector (at 520 kV when in operation) and the top of the electronics platform was lifted on hydraulic jacks for easy access. Henry Charmot is busy with a service. The platform contained the electronics for the ion source, controlled from outside the Faraday cage via an infrared optical link. The ion source, also at 520 kV potential, is housed in the drum, visible in the background, on the insulator column, which at its right end is mounted at ground potential. Behind the wall, to the right, is the 50 MeV linac 1. See also 7403064X, 7403066X, 7403124.

  19. Accelerator Control System at KEKB and Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, Kazuro; Kadokura, Eiichi; Kurashina, Miho; Mikawa, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Odagiri, Jun-ichi; Satoh, Masanori; Suwada, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    KEKB completed all of the technical milestones, and had offered important insights into the flavor structure of elementary particles, especially the CP violation. The accelerator control system at KEKB and injector linac was initiated by a combination of scripting languages at the operation layer and EPICS at the equipment layer. During the project many features were implemented to achieve extreme performance out of the machine. Especially the online linkage to the accelerator simulation played an essential role. In order to further improve the reliability and flexibility two major concepts were additionally introduced later in the project, namely the channel access everywhere and the dual-tier controls. Based on the improved control system a concept of virtual accelerators were realized that enables the single injector linac serve as three separate injectors to KEKB HER, LER and Photon Factory, respectively. Those control technologies are indispensable for the future particle accelerators.

  20. Re-circulating linac vacuum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Russell P.; Corlett, John N.; Zholents, Alexander A.

    2003-05-09

    The vacuum system for a proposed 2.5 GeV, 10{Mu}A recirculating linac synchrotron light source [1] is readily achievable with conventional vacuum hardware and established fabrication processes. Some of the difficult technical challenges associated with synchrotron light source storage rings are sidestepped by the relatively low beam current and short beam lifetime requirements of a re-circulating linac. This minimal lifetime requirement leads directly to relatively high limits on the background gas pressure through much of the facility. The 10{Mu}A average beam current produces very little synchrotron radiation induced gas desorption and thus the need for an ante-chamber in the vacuum chamber is eliminated. In the arc bend magnets, and the insertion devices, the vacuum chamber dimensions can be selected to balance the coherent synchrotron radiation and resistive wall wakefield effects, while maintaining the modest limits on the gas pressure and minimal outgassing.

  1. RESONANCE CONTROL FOR THE COUPLED CAVITY LINAC AND DRIFT TUBE LINAC STRUCTURES OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE LINAC USING A CLOSED-LOOP WATER COOLING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, J. D. (John D.); Brown, R. L. (Richard L.); Brown, S. K. (Stanley K.); Bustos, G. R. (Gerald R.); Crow, M.L. (Martin L.); Gregory, W. S.; Hood, M. E. (Michael E.); Jurney, J. D. (James D.); Medalen, I. (Ivan); Owen, A. C. (Albert C.); Weiss, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a facility being designed for scientific and industrial research and development. SNS will generate and use neutrons as a diagnostic tool for medical purposes, material science, etc. The neutrons will be produced by bombarding a heavy metal target with a high-energy beam of protons, generated and accelerated with a linear particle accelerator, or linac. The low energy end of the linac consists of two room temperature copper structures, the drift tube linac (DTL), and the coupled cavity linac (CCL). Both of these accelerating structures use large amounts of electrical energy to accelerate the protons to an energy of 185 MeV. Approximately 60-80% of the electrical energy is dissipated in the copper structure and must be removed. This is done using specifically designed water cooling passages within the linac's copper structure. Cooling water is supplied to these cooling passages by specially designed resonance control and water cooling systems.

  2. Wake field effect analysis in APT linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S.S.

    1998-12-31

    The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. The APT linac comprises both the normal conducting (below 211 MeV) and superconducting (SC) sections. The high current leads to stringent restrictions on allowable beam losses (< 1 nA/m), that requires analyzing carefully all possible loss sources. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, the authors study these effects for the APT to exclude potential problems at such a high current. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. The main conclusion is that the only noticeable effect is the HOM heating of the 5-cell SC cavities. It, however, has an acceptable level and, in addition, will be taken care of by HOM couplers.

  3. Wake Field Effect Analysis in APT Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, S S

    1998-01-01

    The 1.7-GeV 100-mA CW proton linac is now under design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. The APT linac comprises both the normal conducting (below 211 MeV) and superconducting (SC) sections. The high current leads to stringent restrictions on allowable beam losses (<1 nA/m), that requires analyzing carefully all possible loss sources. While wake-field effects are usually considered negligible in proton linacs, we study these effects for the APT to exclude potential problems at such a high current. Loss factors and resonance frequency spectra of various discontinuities of the vacuum chamber are investigated, both analytically and using 2-D and 3-D simulation codes with a single bunch as well as with many bunches. Our main conclusion is that the only noticeable effect is the HOM heating of the 5-cell SC cavities. It, however, has an acceptable level and, in addition, will be taken care of by HOM couplers.

  4. LINAC4 takes a tour of Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Along the German Autobahnen, a truck carrying 20 tonnes of copper is on its way to Poland. The metal has already made a short tour of Europe, yet the drive across the high-speed highway is only the beginning of its transformation into CERN’s next linear accelerator, LINAC4.   Grzegorz Wrochna (left), director of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), and Rolf Heuer (right), CERN DG, sign the framework agreement between the two institutes. By the summer of 2012, the PI-Mode Structures (PIMS) will be constructed and completely installed in the LINAC4 tunnel. The PIMS cavities are the final accelerating structures needed for LINAC4, and have been designed to accelerate protons from 100 to 160MeV. While the first cavity was built entirely at CERN, construction of the remaining cavities has become a larger, multi-national operation. In a 1 million euro framework agreement signed on 11 February by the Director-General, the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in Swie...

  5. Status of Linac4 construction at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M

    2010-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV normal-conducting H¯ linear accelerator which is being built at CERN in the frame of a program for increasing the luminosity of the LHC. The project started in 2008 and delivery of beam to the CERN accelerator chain is foreseen from early 2015. The new linac will be housed in an underground tunnel close to the present Linac2; a surface building will house RF and other infrastructure. The civil engineering work started in October 2008 will be soon completed. Installation of the infrastructure will take place in 2011, and from 2012 will be installed the main machine elements. The ion source is presently operational on a test stand, where it will be followed in 2011 by a 3 MeV RFQ under construction in the CERN workshops. Prototypes of the three different types of accelerating structures have been tested; construction of the 22 accelerating cavities has started, supported by a network of agreements with external laboratories and institutions. Commissioning will take place in stages, starting...

  6. Prototype of linac BLM at NSRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Li, Yuxiong; Gong, Guanghua; Li, Juexin; Shao, Beibei; Zhao, Zhengguo

    2007-08-01

    A prototype of the Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System for the linac and transportation line has been built up in National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Different from the storage ring, the radiation field around linac and transportation line have a duty factor of 10 -6 and a dose rate of hundreds Gy/h. The Monte-Carlo calculation gave the dose, flux, energy and direction distributions of the radiation field. According to the simulation result, the proper type of detector was chosen and the installation positions were selected accordingly. The widely used ionization chamber is not suitable to give accurate and real-time information of beam loss due to its large dimension and slow respond speed. Several PIN silicon diode-based detectors were designed and tested, and a charge-balanced integrating amplifier circuit was applied to read out the charge. A distributed data acquisition system based on embedded Ethernet technology was implemented in the prototype, which can offer a web server from the microcontroller. From preliminary tests, this new prototype was proved to be sensitive to the change of the linac status, and is a useful tool for monitoring and adjusting machine parameters. Further analyses are required to achieve a more accurate measurement of the beam loss.

  7. Wake fields in SLAC Linac Collimators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novokhatski, Alexander [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Decker, F. -J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Smith, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Sullivan, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-12-02

    When a beam travels near collimator jaws, it gets an energy loss and a transverse kick due to the backreaction of the beam field diffracted from the jaws. The effect becomes very important for an intense short bunch when a tight collimation of the background beam halo is required. In the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC a collimation system is used to protect the undulators from radiation due to particles in the beam halo. The halo is most likely formed from gun dark current or dark current in some of the accelerating sections. However, collimators are also responsible for the generation of wake fields. The wake field effect from the collimators not only brings an additional energy jitter and change in the trajectory of the beam, but it also rotates the beam on the phase plane, which consequently leads to a degradation of the performance of the Free Electron Laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source. In this paper, we describe a model of the wake field radiation in the SLAC linac collimators. We use the results of a numerical simulation to illustrate the model. Based on the model, we derive simple formulas for the bunch energy loss and the average kick. In addition, we also present results from experimental measurements that confirm our model.

  8. Preinjector for Linac 1, Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The 50 MeV Linac 1 started up in 1958 as injector to the 26 GeV PS, with a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator as its preinjector, housed in a vast Faraday cage, visible here. When the Cockcroft-Walton broke down in 1973, it was replaced by a much smaller SAMES generator, of the kind used for electrostatic separators. From 1980 on, Linac 2 took over as injector for the 800 MeV Booster, and Linac 1 continued as injector for LEAR. In 1984, the electrostatic preinjector (i.e. the Faraday cage with its contents, SAMES generator and all) was replaced by a 520 keV RFQ. At the lower left corner we see the HV connectors to the SAMES generator, at the right edge part of the opened electronics-platform. Jean-Luc Vallet sees to it that all parts are properly grounded. See also 7403073X, 7403074X, 7403081X, 7403083X.

  9. S-band linac-based X-ray source with {pi}/2-mode electron linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Abhay, E-mail: abhay@post.kek.jp [Department of Accelerator Science, School of High Energy Accelerator Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan International Village, Hayama, Miura, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Society for Applied Microwave Electronic Engineering and Research (SAMEER), R and D Laboratory of the Government of India, IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Araki, Sakae [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Dixit, Tanuja [Society for Applied Microwave Electronic Engineering and Research (SAMEER), R and D Laboratory of the Government of India, IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Fukuda, Masafumi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Krishnan, R; Pethe, Sanjay [Society for Applied Microwave Electronic Engineering and Research (SAMEER), R and D Laboratory of the Government of India, IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Sakaue, Kazuyuki [Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Washio, Masakazu [Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2011-05-01

    The activities with the compact X-ray source are attracting more attention, particularly for the applications of the source in medical fields. We propose the fabrication of a compact X-ray source using the SAMEER electron linear accelerator and the KEK laser undulator X-ray source (LUCX) technologies. The linac developed at SAMEER is a standing wave side-coupled S-band linac operating in the {pi}/2 mode. In the proposed system, a photocathode RF gun will inject bunches of electrons in the linac to accelerate and achieve a high-energy, low-emittance beam. This beam will then interact with the laser in the laser cavity to produce X-rays of a type well suited for various applications. The side-coupled structure will make the system more compact, and the {pi}/2 mode of operation will enable a high repetition rate operation, which will help to increase the X-ray yield.

  10. Emittance coupling driven by space charge in the CSNS linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xue-Jun; FU Shi-Nian; PENG Jun

    2009-01-01

    In the conventional design of RF linacs, the bunched beams are not in thermal equilibrium. The space charge forces couple the particle motions between the transverse and the longitudinal directions. Fur-thermore it will cause the equipartitioning process which leads to emittance growth and halo formation. In the design of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) linac, three cases are investigated using the Hofmann stability charts. In this paper, we present the equipartitioning beam study of the CSNS Alvarez DTL linac.

  11. Linac4: the final assembly stage is under way

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    The Linac4 radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module was installed at the accelerator test-stand in Building 152 last August. After an assembly phase and tests that concluded last March with the acceleration of a hydrogen beam to 3 MeV, the module has just been permanently installed in the new Linac4 tunnel (Building 400). The installation of the MEBT (Medium Energy Beam Transport) will begin shortly, followed by the start of the first Linac4 commissioning phase.     To find out more about the Linac4 RFQ module, read the previous Bulletin articles published in Nos. 21-22/2010 and 35-36/2012.

  12. Evaluation of photoneutron production at high energy LINACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Z.W.

    1995-04-24

    This report describes an estimate of neutron production at a 9 MeV LINAC, and the potential for photoactivation of materials present at the LINAC facility. It was found that only isotopes of U, W, Ta, and Pb had daughters whose activities might be measurable. The LINAC was found to be capable of producing in the neighborhood of 10{sup 10} neutrons/second from these heavy metals, and that subsequent neutron activation might be more of a concern. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transport and capture in the concrete and steel found in the LINAC vault indicates that {sup 55}Fe may be produced in measurable quantities.

  13. Oxygen ion source and RFQ for Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    As injector to the PS Booster, Linac 1 was replaced by Linac 2 in 1980. It continued to be used for the acceleration of oxygen and sulfur ions. In 1984, its Cockcroft-Walton preinjector was replaced by an RFQ. In the foreground at the right is the oxygen ion source. A 90 deg bending magnet selects O6+ ions which are preaccelerated in an RFQ and enter Linac 1, at the far left. In the background is the proton and negative hydrogen ion source, followed by the 520 keV RFQ-1 and a bending magnet towards the entrance of Linac 1.

  14. A monitor unit "odometer" for measuring linac workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M D; Larkin, J J; Léger, P; Podgorsak, E B

    2001-12-01

    The annual linac workload is often required by regulatory agencies to assess compliance with license conditions. Summation of the monitor units produced by the machine is generally used for this purpose. Various methods of estimating this value have inherent inaccuracies. We have built an integrating Monitor Unit "odometer" that is able to automatically accumulate all MUs delivered by the linac and segregate the total by mode (photon or electron) and energy. The device has been used to record clinical linac MU workloads for 10 months, and was installed in a new dual-energy linac during the acceptance and commissioning process.

  15. Interdigital H -mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, M.; Mibe, T.; Yoshida, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Kondo, Y.; Hayashizaki, N.; Iwashita, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Kitamura, R.; Saito, N.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an interdigital H-mode (IH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The IH-DTL accelerates muons from β =v /c =0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The output beam emittances are calculated as 0.315 π and 0.195 π mm mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, which satisfies the experimental requirement.

  16. Driver beam-led EURISOL target design constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Noah, Etam; Catherall, Richard; Kadi, Yacine; Kharoua, Cyril; Lettry, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    The EURISOL (European Isotope Separation Online) Design Study is addressing new high power target design challenges. A three-step method [1] was proposed to split the high power linac proton driver beam into one $H^{-}$ branch for the 4 $MW_{b}$ [2] mercury target that produces radioactive ion beams (RIB) via spallation neutroninduced fission in a secondary actinide target and three 100 $kW_{b}$ $H^{+}$ branches for the direct targets producing RIBs via fragmentation and spallation reactions. This scheme minimises transient thermo-mechanical stresses on targets and preserves the cw nature of the driver beam in the four branches. The heat load for oxides, carbides, refractory metal foils and liquid metals is driven by the incident proton driver beam while for actinides, exothermic fission reactions are an additional contribution. This paper discusses the constraints that are specific to each class of material and the target design strategies.

  17. Beam dynamics studies on the EURISOL driver accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Facco, A; Paparella, R; Zenere, D; Biarrotte, J. L; Bousson, S; Ponton, A; Berkovits, D; Rodnizki, J; Duperrier, R; Uriot, D; Zvyagintsev, V

    A 1 GeV, 5 mA cw superconducting proton/H- linac, with the capability of supplying cw primary beam to up to four targets simultaneously by means of a new beam splitting scheme, is under study in the framework of the EURISOL DS project which aims to produce an engineering-oriented design of a next generation European Radioactive beam facility. The EURISOL driver accelerator would be able to accelerate also a 100 μA, 3He beam up to 2.2 GeV, and a 5 mA deuteron beam up to 264 MeV. The linac characteristics and the status of the beam dynamics studies will be presented.

  18. First operation of the rf-focused interdigital linac structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel Starling, W.; Swenson, Donald A.

    2007-08-01

    The new rf-focused interdigital (RFI) linac structure came into operation at the Linac Systems laboratory in May of 2006, after a multi-year development program supported by the US Department of Energy. The RFI linac structure is basically an interdigital (or Wideröe) linac structure with rf quadrupole focusing incorporated into each drift tube. The RFI prototype operates at 200-MHz and consists of an ECR ion source, an Einzel lens LEBT, a radial-strut, four-bar RFQ linac section to 0.75 MeV and an RFI linac section to a final energy of 2.5 MeV. The total length of the prototype is 2.2 m. The RFQ and RFI linac sections are resonantly coupled and require a total of 120 kW of rf power for cavity excitation. The energy of the accelerated beam was confirmed by requiring it to pass through a 2.25-MeV energy-degrading foil. The specifications for the RFI linac prototype were chosen to address the demanding Boron Neutron Capture Therapy medical application. There are, however, many other potential applications for the structure as it has efficiency and size advantages for both protons and heavy ions at a variety of energies and currents. To date, we have achieved a beam current of approximately 1 mA peak at a relatively low duty factor. We continue to improve the performance of the prototype structure on a daily basis as we better understand the optimal operational settings for the prototype system. Now that the first operational milestone for the RFI linac structure has been achieved, Linac Systems will vigorously pursue projects and partnerships for multiple applications such as compact and intense neutron sources, proton and carbon injector linacs for synchrotrons and PET isotope production.

  19. Optical emission spectroscopy of the Linac4 and superconducting proton Linac plasma generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettry, J.; Kronberger, M.; Mahner, E.; Schmitzer, C.; Sanchez, J.; Scrivens, R.; Midttun, O.; O' Neil, M.; Pereira, H.; Paoluzzi, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Fantz, U.; Wuenderlich, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Myllyperkioe, P.; Tarvainen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, 40500 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2012-02-15

    CERN's superconducting proton Linac (SPL) study investigates a 50 Hz high-energy, high-power Linac for H{sup -} ions. The SPL plasma generator is an evolution of the DESY ion source plasma generator currently operated at CERN's Linac4 test stand. The plasma generator is a step towards a particle source for the SPL, it is designed to handle 100 kW peak RF-power at a 6% duty factor. While the acquisition of an integrated hydrogen plasma optical spectrum is straightforward, the measurement of a time-resolved spectrum requires dedicated amplification schemes. The experimental setup for visible light based on photomultipliers and narrow bandwidth filters and the UV spectrometer setup are described. The H{sub {alpha}}, H{sub {beta}}, and H{sub {gamma}} Balmer line intensities, the Lyman band and alpha transition were measured. A parametric study of the optical emission from the Linac4 ion source and the SPL plasma generator as a function of RF-power and gas pressure is presented. The potential of optical emission spectrometry coupled to RF-power coupling measurements for on-line monitoring of short RF heated hydrogen plasma pulses is discussed.

  20. Commercial Superconducting Electron Linac for Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Terry Lee [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Boulware, Charles H. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Hollister, Jerry L. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Jecks, Randall W. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Mamtimin, Mayir [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Starovoitova, Valeriia [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-08-13

    The majority of radioisotopes used in the United States today come from foreign suppliers or are generated parasitically in large government accelerators and nuclear reactors. Both of these restrictions limit the availability of radioisotopes and discourage the development and evaluation of new isotopes and for nuclear medicine, science, and industry. Numerous studies have been recommending development of dedicated accelerators for production of radioisotopes for over 20 years (Institute of Medicine, 1995; Reba, et al, 2000; National Research Council, 2007; NSAC 2009). The 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan for Isotopes again identified electron accelerators as an area for continued research and development. Recommendation 1(c) from the 2015 NSAC Isotope report specifically identifies electron accelerators for continued funding for the purpose of producing medical and industrial radioisotopes. Recognizing the pressing need for new production methods of radioisotopes, the United States Congress passed the American Medical Isotope Production Act of 2012 to develop a domestic production of 99Mo and to eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the production of 99Mo. One of the advantages of high power electron linear accelerators (linacs) is they can create both proton- and neutron-rich isotopes by generating high energy x-rays that knock out protons or neutrons from stable atoms or by fission of uranium. This allows for production of isotopes not possible in nuclear reactors. Recent advances in superconducting electron linacs have decreased the size and complexity of these systems such that they are economically competitive with nuclear reactors and large, high energy accelerators. Niowave, Inc. has been developing a radioisotope production facility based on a superconducting electron linac with liquid metal converters.

  1. A Pencil Beam for the Linac4 commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB

    2010-01-01

    In order to characterize the different accelerating structures and transport lines of Linac4 and to proceed to its commissioning, we need to produce a low current, low emittance beam. This note describes the generation of two pencil beams and their dynamic through the Linac.

  2. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  3. Photonuclear reactions with zinc : A case for clinical linacs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boztosun, I.; Dapo, H.; Karakoc, M.; Ozmen, S. F.; Cecen, Y.; Coban, A.; Caner, T.; Bayram, E.; Saito, T. R.; Akdogan, T.; Bozkurt, V.; Kucuk, Y.; Kaya, D.; Harakeh, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    The use of bremsstrahlung photons produced by a linac to induce photonuclear reactions is wide spread. However, using a clinical linac to produce the photons is a new concept. We aimed to induce photonuclear reactions on zinc isotopes and measure the subsequent transition energies and half-lives. Fo

  4. Development of an Eddy Current Septum for LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M; Borburgh, J; Fowler, T; Goddard, B; Ueda, A; Weterings, W

    2008-01-01

    A linear accelerator (linac) is the first stage of the CERN accelerator complex. The linac defines the beam quality for subsequent stages of acceleration and the reliability has to be high as a fault of the linac shuts down all other machines. The existing linacs at CERN were designed 30 or more years ago: recent upgrades allowed the linacs to reach LHC requirements but also showed that they are at the limit of their brightness and intensity capabilities. A replacement Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) has been proposed; the initial part of the SPL is termed LINAC4. The LINAC4 injection bump would be made up of a set of four pulsed dipole magnets; the first of these magnets (BS1) must act as a septum with a thin element dividing the high-field region of the circulating beam from the field-free region through which injected $H^{-}$ beam must pass. The initial specifications for BS1 required; a deflection of 66 mrad at 160 MeV, achieved with a peak field of 628 mT and a length of 250 mm: the field fall time wa...

  5. Calibration of Super-Kamiokande Using an Electron Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Y; Ichihara, E; Inoue, K; Ishihara, K; Ishino, H; Itow, Y; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kasuga, S; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Koshio, Y; Martens, K; Miura, M; Nakayama, S; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Sakurai, N; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Totsuka, Y; Yamada, S; Earl, M; Habig, A; Kearns, E; Messier, M D; Scholberg, K; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Walter, C W; Goldhaber, M; Barszczak, T; Casper, D; Gajewski, W; Halverson, P G; Hsu, J; Kropp, W R; Price, L R; Reines, F; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Keig, W E; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Flanagan, J W; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Stenger, V J; Takemori, D; Ishii, T; Kanzaki, J; Kobayashi, T; Mine, S; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Oyama, Y; Sakai, A; Sakuda, M; Sasaki, O; Echigo, S; Kohama, M; Suzuki, A T; Haines, T J; Blaufuss, E; Kim, B K; Sanford, R; Svoboda, R; Chen, M L; Conner, Z; Goodman, J A; Sullivan, G W; Hill, J; Jung, C K; Mauger, C; McGrew, C; Sharkey, E; Viren, B; Yanagisawa, C; Doki, W; Miyano, K; Okazawa, H; Saji, C; Takahata, M; Nagashima, Y; Takita, M; Yamaguchi, T; Yoshida, M; Kim, S B; Etoh, M; Fujita, K; Hasegawa, A; Hasegawa, T; Hatakeyama, S; Iwamoto, T; Koga, M; Maruyama, T; Ogawa, H; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Tsushima, F; Koshiba, M; Nemoto, M; Nishijima, K; Futagami, T; Hayato, Y; Kanaya, Y; Kaneyuki, K; Watanabe, Y; Kielczewska, D; Doyle, R A; George, J S; Stachyra, A L; Wai, L L; Wilkes, R J; Young, K K; Kobayashi, H

    1999-01-01

    In order to calibrate the Super-Kamiokande experiment for solar neutrino measurements, a linear accelerator (LINAC) for electrons was installed at the detector. LINAC data were taken at various positions in the detector volume, tracking the detector response in the variables relevant to solar neutrino analysis. In particular, the absolute energy scale is now known with less than 1 percent uncertainty.

  6. Beam energy online measurement of BEPCII LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shao-Zhe; Chi, Yun-Long

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes beam energy online measurement of BEPCII linac, presents the calculation formula and some of the results. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring beam positions in the horizontal direction with three beam position monitors (BPM) eliminating the effect of orbit fluctuation, which is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in the end of this paper.

  7. RF Breakdown in Drift Tube Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, J; Lown, R

    2009-01-01

    The highest RF electric field in drift-tube linacs (DTLs) often occurs on the face of the first drift tube. Typically this drift tube contains a quadrupole focusing magnet whose fringing fields penetrate the face of the drift tube parallel to the RF electric fields in the accelerating gap. It has been shown that the threshold for RF breakdown in RF cavities may be reduced in the presence of a static magnetic field. This note offers a “rule of thumb” for picking the maximum “safe” surface electric field in DTLs based on these measurements.

  8. Photon and photoneutron spectra produced in radiotherapy Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Martinez O, S. A. [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada y Simulacion, Av. Central del Norte Km. 1, Via Paipa Tunja, Boyaca (Colombia); Benites R, J. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Postgrado CBAP, Carretera Tepic Compostela Km. 9, Xalisco, Nayarit (Mexico); Lallena, A. M., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universida de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10{sup -6} and 1 MeV. Neutron and Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. The amount of photons and neutrons produced by the 15 MV linac is smaller than that found for the 18 MV linac. As expected, Bremsstrahlung spectra ends according to the voltage used to accelerate the electrons. (Author)

  9. The Pre-Injector Linac for the Diamond Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, C

    2004-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source is a new medium-energy high brightness synchrotron light facility which is under construction on the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory site in the U.K. The accelerator facility can be divided into three major components; a 3 GeV 561 m circumference storage ring, a full-energy booster synchrotron and a 100 MeV pre-injector linac. This paper describes the linac design and plans for operation. The linac is supplied by ACCEL Instruments GmbH under a turn-key contract, with Diamond Light Source Ltd. providing linac beam diagnostics, control system hardware and standard vacuum components. Commissioning of the linac will take place in early 2005 and user operation of the facility will commence in 2007.

  10. Beam commissioning for a superconducting proton linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Jun; He, Yuan; Jia, Huan; Dou, Wei-ping; Chen, Wei-long; Zhang, X. L.; Liu, Shu-hui; Feng, Chi; Tao, Yue; Wang, Wang-sheng; Wu, Jian-qiang; Zhang, Sheng-hu; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2016-12-01

    To develop the next generation of safe and cleaner nuclear energy, the accelerator-driven subcritical (ADS) system emerges as one of the most attractive technologies. It will be able to transmute the long-lived transuranic radionuclides produced in the reactors of today's nuclear power plants into shorter-lived ones, and also it will provide positive energy output at the same time. The prototype of the Chinese ADS (C-ADS) proton accelerator comprises two injectors and a 1.5 GeV, 10 mA continuous wave (CW) superconducting main linac. The injector scheme II at the C-ADS demo facility inside the Institute of Modern Physics is a 10 MeV CW superconducting linac with a designed beam current of 10 mA, which includes an ECR ion source, a low-energy beam transport line, a 162.5 MHz radio frequency quadrupole accelerator, a medium-energy beam transport line, and a superconducting half wave resonator accelerator section. This demo facility has been successfully operating with an 11 mA, 2.7 MeV CW beam and a 3.9 mA, 4.3 MeV CW beam at different times and conditions since June 2014. The beam power has reached 28 kW, which is the highest record for the same type of linear accelerators. In this paper, the parameters of the test injector II and the progress of the beam commissioning are reported.

  11. Linac-driven spallation-neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason, A.J.

    1995-05-01

    Strong interest has arisen in accelerator-driven spallation-neutron sources that surpass existing facilities (such as ISIS at Rutherford or LANSCE at Los Alamos) by more than an order of magnitude in beam power delivered to the spallation target. The approach chosen by Los Alamos (as well as the European Spallation Source) provides the full beam energy by acceleration in a linac as opposed to primary acceleration in a synchrotron or other circular device. Two modes of neutron production are visualized for the source. A short-pulse mode produces 1 MW of beam power (at 60 pps) in pulses, of length less than 1 ms, by compression of the linac macropulse through multi-turn injection in an accumulator ring. A long-pulse mode produces a similar beam power with 1-ms-long pulses directly applied to a target. This latter mode rivals the performance of existing reactor facilities to very low neutron energies. Combination with the short-pulse mode addresses virtually all applications.

  12. Production of Medical Isotopes with Electron Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotsch, D A; Alford, K.; Bailey, J. L.; Bowers, D. L.; Brossard, T.; Brown, M. A.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Ehst, D.; Greene, J.; Gromov, R. G.; Grudzinski, J.J.; Hafenrichter, L.; Hebden, A. S.; Henning, W.; Heltemes, T. A.; Jerden, J.; Jonah, C. D.; Kalensky, M.; Krebs, J. F.; Makarashvili, V.; Micklich, B.; Nolen, J.; Quigley, K. J.; Schneider, J. F.; Smith, N. A.; Stepinski, D. C.; Sun, Z.; Tkac, P.; Vandegrift, G. F.; Virgo, M J; Wesolowski, K. A.; Youker, A. J.

    2017-06-01

    Radioisotopes play important roles in numerous areas ranging from medical treatments to national security and basic research. Radionuclide production technology for medical applications has been pursued since the early 1900s both commercially and in nuclear science centers. Many medical isotopes are now in routine production and are used in day-to-day medical procedures. Despite these advancements, research is accelerating around the world to improve the existing production methodologies as well as to develop novel radionuclides for new medical appli-cations. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) represent a unique method for the production of radioisotopes. Even though the basic technology has been around for decades, only recently have electron linacs capable of producing photons with sufficient energy and flux for radioisotope production become available. Housed in Argonne Nation-al Laboratory’s Low Energy Accelerator Facility (LEAF) is a newly upgraded 55 MeV/25-kW electron linear ac-celerator, capable of producing a wide range of radioiso-topes. This talk will focus on the work being performed for the production of the medical isotopes 99Mo (99Mo/99mTc generator), 67Cu, and 47Sc.

  13. Driver Behavior and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  14. PHYSICS RESULTS OF THE NSLS-II LINAC FRONT END TEST STAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliller R. P.; Gao, F.; Yang, X.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.; Piel, C

    2012-05-20

    The Linac Front End Test Stand (LFETS) was installed at the Source Development Laboratory (SDL) in the fall of 2011 in order to test the Linac Front End. The goal of these tests was to test the electron source against the specifications of the linac. In this report, we discuss the results of these measurements and the effect on linac performance.

  15. Computation of Normal Conducting and Superconducting Linear Accelerator (LINAC) Availabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, M.J.

    2000-07-11

    A brief study was conducted to roughly estimate the availability of a superconducting (SC) linear accelerator (LINAC) as compared to a normal conducting (NC) one. Potentially, SC radio frequency cavities have substantial reserve capability, which allows them to compensate for failed cavities, thus increasing the availability of the overall LINAC. In the initial SC design, there is a klystron and associated equipment (e.g., power supply) for every cavity of an SC LINAC. On the other hand, a single klystron may service eight cavities in the NC LINAC. This study modeled that portion of the Spallation Neutron Source LINAC (between 200 and 1,000 MeV) that is initially proposed for conversion from NC to SC technology. Equipment common to both designs was not evaluated. Tabular fault-tree calculations and computer-event-driven simulation (EDS) computer computations were performed. The estimated gain in availability when using the SC option ranges from 3 to 13% under certain equipment and conditions and spatial separation requirements. The availability of an NC LINAC is estimated to be 83%. Tabular fault-tree calculations and computer EDS modeling gave the same 83% answer to within one-tenth of a percent for the NC case. Tabular fault-tree calculations of the availability of the SC LINAC (where a klystron and associated equipment drive a single cavity) give 97%, whereas EDS computer calculations give 96%, a disagreement of only 1%. This result may be somewhat fortuitous because of limitations of tabular fault-tree calculations. For example, tabular fault-tree calculations can not handle spatial effects (separation distance between failures), equipment network configurations, and some failure combinations. EDS computer modeling of various equipment configurations were examined. When there is a klystron and associated equipment for every cavity and adjacent cavity, failure can be tolerated and the SC availability was estimated to be 96%. SC availability decreased as

  16. Update of the Linac4-PSB Transfer Line

    CERN Document Server

    HEIN, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    The installation of Linac4 represents the first step of the upgrade plans of the CERN accelerator complex for the future in order to raise the available proton flux to attain amongst others the LHC ultimate luminosity. This linac is capable to accelerate H--ions from 45keV to 160MeV, which will be injected into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). The increase of energy from 50MeV (Linac2) to 160MeV (Linac4) allows to overcome the space charge limitations at the PSB injection, which is the main bottleneck towards higher beam brightness in the downstream accelerator chain. In order to preserve beam quality from the outlet of Linac4 to PSB injection the design of the transfer line becomes crucial. As the location of Linac4 was chosen in view of upgrade scenarios, the construction of a new transfer line is foreseen, see ref.[1] and ref.[2]. Here part of the Linac2-PSB transfer line will be re-used. In the new part of the transfer line the beam is horizontally and vertically adjusted towards the bending magnet B...

  17. First Linac4 DTL & CCDTL cavities installed in tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On 5 June, the first Drift Tube Linac (DTL) was successfully transported to its forever home in the Linac4 tunnel. Similarly, the first Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac (CCDTL) was installed on 6 June. These moves marked the end of years of design and manufacturing by Linac4 teams.   Although it may seem like a relatively routine transport operation, the DTL's move was a landmark event for the entire Linac4 collaboration. "Along with the first four Cell-Coupled DTL modules, which were installed on the following two working days, these are the first accelerating structures after front-end commissioning to be installed in the tunnel," says Frank Gerigk, who is responsible for all Linac4 accelerating structures. "It is a major milestone, because work on all these structures started well over a decade ago." The transport operation was also quite a victory for the Linac4 DTL team, whose journey to a complete DTL structure has been a bit of a wild ride. &qu...

  18. Linac4 crosses the 100 MeV threshold

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    The new linear accelerator, which from 2020 will be the first link in the accelerator chain, has entered a new stage of its commissioning.   Members of the team in charge of the commissioning of Linac4 in the accelerator’s control room. A few hours earlier, Linac4 accelerated a beam to 107 MeV for the first time. We couldn’t have imagined a more appropriate date: on 1 July (1.07), Linac4 reached an energy of 107 MeV. Having crossed the 100 MeV barrier, the linear accelerator is now on the home straight of its commissioning. “This stage was very quick – it took less than two weeks,” says Alessandra Lombardi, deputy project leader of Linac4, in charge of the commissioning. In 2020, Linac4 will replace the existing Linac2 as the first link in the accelerator chain. It will accelerate beams of H- ions (protons surrounded by two electrons) to 160 MeV, compared to 50 MeV with Linac2. The new machine is particularly sophisticated as it comprises...

  19. Alignment and Field Error Tolerance in Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; Garcia Tudela, M; Hein, L; Lallement, J B; Lanzone, S; Lombardi, A M; Posocco, P; Sargsyan, E

    2011-01-01

    LINAC4 [1] is a linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H−), which will replace the 50 MeV proton LINAC (LINAC2) as linear injector for the CERN accelerators. The higher output energy (160 MeV) together with charge-exchange injection will allow increasing beam intensity in the following machines. LINAC4 is about 80 m long, normal-conducting, and will be housed in a tunnel 12 m below ground on the CERN Meyrin site. The location has been chosen to allow using LINAC4 as the first stage of acceleration for a Multi-MegaWatt superconducting LINAC (SPL [2]). A 60 m long transfer line brings the beam towards the present LINAC2-to-PS Booster transfer line, which is joined at the position of BHZ20. The new transfer line consists of 17 new quadrupoles, an RF cavity and 4 bending magnets to adjust both the direction and the level for injection into the PS Booster. End-to-end beam dynamics simulations have been carried out in parallel with the codes PATH [3] and TRACEWIN[4]. Following the definition of the layout...

  20. Injection schemes for the TOP Linac; Schemi di iniezione per il TOP Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Bartolini, R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    In this report two schemes are studied for the injection in the SCDTL section of the TOP Linac of the proton beam produced by a 7 MeV linear accelerator. The project derives by an agreement between ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) and ISS. In these new versions of the design the constraint of a synchronization of the radio frequencies of the two accelerators is suppressed. [Italian] In questo rapporto sono studiati due schemi di iniezione nella sezione accelerante SCDTL a 3 GHz del TOP (terapia oncologica con protoni) linac del fascio di protoni generato da un acceleratore lineare di 7 MeV. L'acceleratore e' frutto di una convenzione tra L'ENEA e l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Rispetto a versioni precedenti del progetto, viene eliminato il vincolo della sincronizzazione delle radiofrequenze dei due acceleratori.

  1. JAERI superconducting RF linac-based free-electron laser-facility

    CERN Document Server

    Minehara, E J; Nagai, R; Kikuzawa, N; Sugimoto, M; Hajima, R; Shizuma, T; Yamauchi, T; Nishimori, N

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the JAERI superconducting RF linac based FEL has been successfully lased to produce 0.36 kW of FEL light using a 100 kW electron beam in quasi-continuous wave operation. A 1 kW class laser is our present program goal, and will be achieved by improving the optical out coupling in the FEL optical resonator, the electron gun, and the electron beam optics in the JAERI FEL driver. Our next 5-year program goal is to produce a 100 kW-class FEL laser and multi-MW class electron beam in average, quasi-continuous wave operation. Conceptual and engineering design options needed for such a very high-power operation will be discussed to improve and to upgrade the existing facility.

  2. Initial operation of the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    Initial operation and recent development of the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion linac are discussed. The linac has been developed in order to demonstrate a cost-effective means of extending the performance of electrostatic tandem accelerators. The results of beam acceleration tests which began in June 1978 are described. At present 7 of a planned array of 22 resonators are operating on-line, and the linac system provides an effective accelerating potential of 7.5 MV. Although some technical problems remain, the level of performance and reliability is sufficient that appreciable beam time is becoming available to users.

  3. Development of RF linac for high-current applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.C.D.; Lawrence, G.P.; Schneider, J.D.

    1997-12-31

    High-current proton linacs are promising sources of neutrons for material processing and research applications. Recently, a linac design that makes use of a combination of normal-conducting (NC) and superconducting (SC) linac technologies has been proposed for the US Accelerator Production of Tritium Project. As a result, a multi-year engineering development and demonstration (ED and D) program is underway. In this paper, the authors will describe the design and merits of the NC/SC hybrid approach. The scope, technology issues, and present status of the ED and D Program, and the participation of industry will also be described.

  4. R&D Energy Recovery Linac at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, Vladimir; Beavis, D.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Drees, K.A.; Ganetis, G.; Gamble, Michael; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.R.; Hershcovitch, A.; Hseuh, H.C.; Jain, A.K.; Kayran, A.; Kewisch, Jorg; Lambiase, R.F.; Lederle, D.L.; Mahler, G.J.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Nehring, T.C.; Oerter, B.; Pai, C.; Pate, D.; Phillips, Daniel; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Rao, Triveni; Reich, J.; Roser, Thomas; Russo, T.; Smith, K.; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Weiss, D.; Williams, N.W.W.; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, A.; Bluem, Hans; Cole, Michael; Favale, Anthony; Holmes, D.; Rathke, John; Schultheiss, Tom; Delayen, Jean; Funk, L.; Phillips, H.; Preble, Joseph

    2008-07-01

    Collider Accelerator Department at BNL is in the final stages of developing the 20-MeV R&D energy recovery linac with super-conducting 2.5 MeV RF gun and single-mode super-conducting 5-cell RF linac. This unique facility aims to address many outstanding questions relevant for high current (up to 0.5 A of average current), high brightness energy-recovery linacs with novel Zigzag-type merger. We present the performance of the R&D ERL elements and detailed commissioning plan.

  5. The Linac4 DTL Prototype: Low and High Power Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    De Michele, G; Marques-Balula, J; Ramberger, S

    2012-01-01

    The prototype of the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) has undergone low power measurements in order to verify the RF coupling and to adjust the post-coupler lengths based on bead-pull and spectrum measurements. Following the installation at the test stand, the cavity has been subjected to high power operation at Linac4 and SPL duty cycles. Saturation effects and multipacting have been observed and linked to X-ray emission. Voltage holding is reported in the presence of magnetic fields from permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQ) installed in the first drift tubes.

  6. Using basic electromagnetism to introduce LINAC4 (CERN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid-Vidal, Xabier; Cid, Ramon; Vretenar, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The LHC is the last element of CERN’s accelerator complex, which is a succession of machines with increasingly higher energies. Everything starts in the 50 MeV linear accelerator (LINAC2), but a new linear accelerator, the 160 MeV LINAC4, will replace LINAC2 in 2018, upgrading LHC injectors to higher intensity and eventually increasing the luminosity of LHC. The aim of this article is briefly introducing this new accelerator, and presenting a simple application of some fundamental laws of magnetism to be taken to the secondary school classrooms.

  7. Technology and teen drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John D

    2007-01-01

    The rapid evolution of computing, communication, and sensor technology is likely to affect young drivers more than others. The distraction potential of infotainment technology stresses the same vulnerabilities that already lead young drivers to crash more frequently than other drivers. Cell phones, text messaging, MP3 players, and other nomadic devices all present a threat because young drivers may lack the spare attentional capacity for vehicle control and the ability to anticipate and manage hazards. Moreover, young drivers are likely to be the first and most aggressive users of new technology. Fortunately, emerging technology can also support safe driving. Electronic stability control, collision avoidance systems, intelligent speed adaptation, and vehicle tracking systems can all help mitigate the threats to young drivers. However, technology alone is unlikely to make young drivers safer. One promising approach to tailoring technology to teen drivers is to extend proven methods for enhancing young driver safety. The success of graduated drivers license programs (GDL) and the impressive safety benefit of supervised driving suggest ways of tailoring technology to the needs of young drivers. To anticipate the effects of technology on teen driving it may be useful to draw an analogy between the effects of passengers and the effects of technology. Technology can act as a teen passenger and undermine safety or it can act as an adult passenger and enhance safety. Rapidly developing technology may have particularly large effects on teen drivers. To maximize the positive effects and minimize the negative effects will require a broad range of industries to work together. Ideally, vehicle manufacturers would work with infotainment providers, insurance companies, and policy makers to craft new technologies so that they accommodate the needs of young drivers. Without such collaboration young drivers will face even greater challenges to their safety as new technologies emerge.

  8. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  9. The invention that shapes Linac4: Tolerance Aligned Cantileaver Mounting (TACM) system to build drift tube linacs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator experts are no new to original optimizations of existing techniques and to the development of novel solutions. Sometimes, they even come up with ideas that have the potential to revolutionize the field. This was indeed the case for the Tolerance Aligned Cantilever Mounting (TACM) system, a completely new way of supporting the drift tubes, one of the core elements of linear accelerators. The new, patent-pending technique will be implemented at Linac4.Interview with Suitbert Ramberger, Project engineer for the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL).

  10. Photonuclear reactions with Zinc: A case for clinical linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Boztosun, I; Karakoç, M; Özmen, S F; Çeçen, Y; Çoban, A; Caner, T; Bayram, E; Saito, T R; Akdoğan, T; Bozkurt, V; Kuçuk, Y; Kaya, D; Harakeh, M N

    2015-01-01

    The use of bremsstrahlung photons produced by a linac to induce photonuclear reactions is wide spread. However, using a clinical linac to produce the photons is a new concept. We aimed to induce photonuclear reactions on zinc isotopes and measure the subsequent transition energies and half-lives. For this purpose, a bremsstrahlung photon beam of 18 MeV endpoint energy produced by the Philips SLI-25 linac has been used. The subsequent decay has been measured with a well-shielded single HPGe detector. The results obtained for transition energies are in good agreement with the literature data and in many cases surpass these in accuracy. For the half-lives, we are in agreement with the literature data, but do not achieve their precision. The obtained accuracy for the transition energies show what is achievable in an experiment such as ours. We demonstrate the usefulness and benefits of employing clinical linacs for nuclear physics experiments.

  11. Vacuum simulation of the LINAC4 H- source

    CERN Document Server

    Chiara Pasquino, CP; Jacques Lettry, JL

    2012-01-01

    The 160 MeV H- Linac4 will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac2. Linac4 H- source is the new ion source. In order to study its dynamic behaviour from the vacuum point of view, the electrical network – vacuum analogy have been used. This technique allows the evaluation of the hydrogen partial pressure profile as a function of time and position, giving important information about plasma chamber and LEBT pressures. Aiming at benchmarking the following simulations, several experimental calibration campaigns are foreseen in the near future: the H- source of Linac4 requires a pulsed injection of hydrogen to reach the typically 0.1 mbar pressure mandatory for plasma formation. First preliminary results show good agreement between the experimental and the simulated profiles.

  12. A Radiation shielding study for the Fermilab Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhno, I.; Johnstone, C.; /Fermilab

    2006-02-01

    Radiation shielding calculations are performed for the Fermilab Linac enclosure and gallery. The predicted dose rates around the access labyrinth at normal operation and a comparison to measured dose rates are presented. An accident scenario is considered as well.

  13. RLA and ERL Designs for a LINAC-RING LHEC

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F; Ciapala, E; Haug, F; Osborne, J; Schulte, D; Tomas, R; Adolphsen, C; Sun, Y; Litvinenko, V; Dainton, J; Klein, M; Chattopadhyay, S; Eide, A

    2010-01-01

    We consider three different scenarios for the recirculating electron linear accelerator (RLA) of a linac-ring type electron-proton collider based on the LHC (LHeC): i) a basic version consisting of a pulsed, 1.7 km long linac with a final beam energy of 60 GeV [“p-60”], ii) a higher luminosity configuration with a two cw linacs and energy-recovery (ERL) also at 60 GeV [“erl”], and iii) a high energy option using a pulsed linac of 3.9 km length with final energy of 140 GeV [“p-140”]. We discuss the parameters, synchrotron radiation, footprints, and the performance for the three scenarios.

  14. Post-accelerator LINAC design for the VECC RIB project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arup Bandyopadhyay

    2002-12-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) is presently developing an ISOL post-acclerator type of RIB facility. The scheme utilises the existing = 130 room temperature variable energy cyclotron machine as the primary accelerator for the production of RIBs and radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and LINAC modules for the post-acceleration. The design aspects of these postaccelerator LINAC modules will be discussed in this paper.

  15. High power operational experience with the LANSCE Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybarcyk, Lawrence J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The heart of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a pulsed linear accelerator that is used to simultaneously provide H+ and H- beams to several user facilities. This accelerator contains two Cockcroft-Walton style injectors, a 100-MeV drift tube linac and an 800-MeV coupled cavity linac. This presentation will touch on various aspects of the high power operation including performance, tune-up strategy, beam losses and machine protection.

  16. Linac 1 in the process of being pulled back

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab

    1985-01-01

    As injector to the PS Booster, Linac 1 was replaced by Linac 2 in 1980. It continued to be used for the acceleration of oxygen and sulfur ions and, from 1981 to 1996, of protons and negative hydrogen ions for LEAR. In 1984, its Cockcroft-Walton preinjector was replaced by a much smaller RFQ, which allowed it to be moved to a more convenient location.

  17. Quadrupole Law and Steering Options in the Linac4 DTL

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, J

    2009-01-01

    The Linac4 drift-tube linac (DTL) reference design has been modified to reduce the power consumption in tank 1 by adjusting the accelerating field and phase laws. In this note we investigate three options for the transverse focusing lattice, quadrupole law, and two options for beam steering. We use acceptance, sensitivity to alignment errors and the probabiity of beam loss as figures of merit for evaluating each option.

  18. Evolution of the 400 MeV linac design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLachlan, J.A.

    1987-11-09

    The basic premises of the conceptual design for the linac upgrade are pursued to establish lengths, gradients, power dissipation, etc., for the 400 MeV linac and matching section. The discussion is limited to accelerating and focusing components. Wherever values depend on the choice of the accelerating structure, the disk-and-washer structure is emphasized; the results are generally relevant to the side coupled cavity choice also.

  19. Effect of cooling water on stability of NLC linac components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Le Pimpec et al.

    2003-02-11

    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  20. Square Wave Driver for Piezoceramic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Jakiela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the circuit and performance of a square wave driver and power supply for piezoceramic actuators characterized by large capacitance, up to 3 μF. Capacitance of piezoceramic element is the key factor that limits the use of powerful actuators operating at high frequencies (kHz. It is thus important to build a driver that allows use of a possible wide set of actuators in the widest range of frequencies appropriate for the piezoelement. The driver that we report uses the properties of non-inductive resistors that allow for operation at high frequencies. Our report details the design, construction, tests and limitations of the device and its application to the control of a microfluidic valve.

  1. Status and plans for Linac4 installation and commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, M; Arnaudon, L; Baudrenghien, P; Bellodi, G; Broere, J; Brunner, O; Comblin, J F; Coupard, J; Dimov, V A; Fuchs, J F; Funken, A; Gerigk, F; Granemann Souza, E; Hanke, K; Hansen, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Kozsar, I; Lallement, J B; Lenardon, F; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A M; Maglioni, C; Midtun, O; Mikulec, B; Nisbet, D; Paoluzzi, M; Raich, U; Ramberger, S; Roncarolo, F; Rossi, C; Sanchez Alvarez, J L; Scrivens, R; Tan, J; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Vollaire, J; Wegner, R; Weisz, S; Zocca, F

    2014-01-01

    Linac4 is a normal conducting 160 MeV Hˉ linear accelerator presently being installed and progressively commissioned at CERN. It will replace the ageing 50 MeV Linac2 as injector of the PS Booster (PSB), increasing at the same time its brightness by a factor of two thanks to the higher injection energy. This will be the first step of a program to increase the beam brightness in the LHC injectors for the needs of the High-Luminosity LHC project. After a series of beam measurements on a dedicated test stand the 3 MeV Linac4 front-end, including ion source, RFQ and a beam chopping line, has been recommissioned at its final position in the Linac4 tunnel. Commissioning of the following section, the Drift Tube Linac, is starting. Beam commissioning will take place in steps of increasing energy, to reach the final 160 MeV in 2015. An extended beam measurement phase including testing of stripping equipment for the PSB and a year-long test run to assess and improve Linac4 reliability will take place in 2016, prior to...

  2. Beam lines from Linac 1 to PS and Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    View against the direction of the proton beams. The 50 MeV Linac 1 is behind the concrete wall. Its beam emerges from the hole near the centre of the picture. A switching magnet directs the beam either to the PS (to the right in the sense of the beam; original injection line), or lets it go straight on to the Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV). The huge drum in the line to the Booster is a "debuncher", driven by the 200 MHz RF of the linac. It reduces the beam's momentum spread. This was the last year of Linac 1 as provider of protons to the Booster. Linac 2, nearly completed at the time of this picture, took up trial delivery at the end of 1978, and routine delivery in 1979. The beam line from Linac 2, barely visible here, can be clearly seen on 7802260. Linac 1 had a second life as an ion accelerator.

  3. Beam dynamics studies of the HIE-LINAC at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, MA

    2008-01-01

    We present a beam dynamics study of the superconducting (SC) HIE-LINAC proposed to replace the existing normal conducting REX-ISOLDE accelerating infrastructure at CERN. The Linear Accelerator Numerical Analysis (LANA) code was used to run first-order simulations of the HIE-LINAC in order to study the beam quality during acceleration. A resonance in the transverse emittance growth at ejection from the HIE-LINAC was discovered and understood as a parametric coupling between the longitudinal and transverse dynamics. The dangerous effect of this resonance can be avoided for all mass-to-charge states in the range 2.5 ≤ A/q ≤ 4.5, if the linac is operated with a transverse phase advance higher than 70 degrees. The transverse emittance growth is minimised along the HIE-LINAC if operated above a transverse phase advance of 90 degrees per focusing period. Without a dedicated matching region between the two sections of the HIE-LINAC a solution for matching the beam was found by using the solenoids in the low-energ...

  4. Undulative induction electron accelerator for the waste and natural water purification systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kulish, Victor V; Gubanov, I V

    2001-01-01

    The project analysis of Undulative Induction Accelerator (EH - accelerator) for the waste and natural water purification systems is accomplished. It is shown that the use of the four-channel design of induction block and the standard set of auxiliary equipment (developed earlier for the Linear Induction Accelerators - LINACs) allow to construct commercially promising purification systems. A quality analysis of the accelerator is done and the optimal parameters are chosen taking into account the specific sphere of its usage.

  5. A novel electron gun for inline MRI-linac configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, Dragoş E., E-mail: dragos.constantin@varian.com; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Holloway, Lois [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Keall, Paul J. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: This work introduces a new electron gun geometry capable of robust functioning in the presence of a high strength external magnetic field for axisymmetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-linac configurations. This allows an inline MRI-linac to operate without the need to isolate the linear accelerator (linac) using a magnetic shield. This MRI-linac integration approach not only leaves the magnet homogeneity unchanged but also provides the linac flexibility to move along the magnet axis of symmetry if the source to target distance needs to be adjusted. Methods: Simple electron gun geometry modifications of a Varian 600C electron gun are considered and solved in the presence of an external magnetic field in order to determine a set of design principles for the new geometry. Based on these results, a new gun geometry is proposed and optimized in the fringe field of a 0.5 T open bore MRI magnet (GE Signa SP). A computer model for the 6 MeV Varian 600C linac is used to determine the capture efficiency of the new electron gun-linac system in the presence of the fringe field of the same MRI scanner. The behavior of the new electron gun plus the linac system is also studied in the fringe fields of two other magnets, a 1.0 T prototype open bore magnet and a 1.5 T GE Conquest scanner. Results: Simple geometrical modifications of the original electron gun geometry do not provide feasible solutions. However, these tests show that a smaller transverse cathode diameter with a flat surface and a slightly larger anode diameter could alleviate the current loss due to beam interactions with the anode in the presence of magnetic fields. Based on these findings, an initial geometry resembling a parallel plate capacitor with a hole in the anode is proposed. The optimization procedure finds a cathode-anode distance of 5 mm, a focusing electrode angle of 5°, and an anode drift tube length of 17.1 mm. Also, the linac can be displaced with ±15 cm along the axis of the 0.5 T

  6. National Driver Register (NDR) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Information regarding individuals who have had their driver licenses revoked, suspended or otherwise denied for cause, or who have been convicted of certain traffic...

  7. High frequency CARM driver for RF LINACS. Progess report, year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-30

    Progress during the second year of this program has been noteworthy in both theoretical and experimental areas. Two experiments on a CARM oscillator were performed and analysed. The first long-pulse operation of a CARM oscillator was carried out, with output powers of approximately 100 kW and operating efficiencies of approximately 2%. Much has been learned from the analysis of the first two experiments, and both the amplifier and oscillator experiments planned for the next year will benefit substantially from the knowledge gained during these oscillator experiments. We have installed and tested an new electron gun made by Thompson Tubes Electroniques of France. This gun has now operated at up to 580 kV on our modulator; use of this gun for the upcoming CARM experiments should result in a significant increase in performance due to a much better beam quality and the capability of operation at a much higher voltage. In the theoretical area, Year II has seen substantial improvements to the MIT CARM codes. The amplifier and oscillator codes have been successfully benchmarked against other codes, linear theory, aid experimental work. This includes the development of multimode CARM amplifier linear and nonlinear theory, the theory of harmonic CARMs, and the inclusion of TM modes in the nonlinear simulations. In addition, work this spring has centered on the effects of AC longitudinal space charge on CARM linear gain. CARM amplifier phase stability has been studied theoretically and found to be significantly better than that of free-electron lasers, relativistic klystrons, or gyroklystrons, provided the device is properly designed. Both multimode simulations and particle-in-cell simulations have been carried out to study mode competition effects between convectively unstable and absolutely unstable modes. Improvement of the Pierce-Wiggler code, named TRAJIK for modeling the beam formation prior to tie interaction region has been carried out.

  8. Linac4 chopper line commissioning strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; Lombardi, A M; Posocco, P A; Sargsyan, E

    2010-01-01

    The report outlines the strategy for beam-based commissioning of the Linac4 3 MeV chopper line as currently scheduled to start in the second half of 2011 in the Test Stand Area. A dedicated temporary diagnostics test bench will complement the measurement devices foreseen for permanent installation in the chopper line. A commissioning procedure is set out as a series of consecutive phases, each one supposed to meet a well- defined milestone in the path to fully characterise the beam-line. Specific set-ups for each stage are defined in terms of beam characteristics, machine settings and diagnostics used. Operational guidelines are given and expected results at the relative points of measurements are shown for simulated scenarios (on the basis of multi-particle tracking studies carried out with the codes PATH and TRACEWin). These are then interpreted in the light of the resolution limits of the available diagnostics instruments to assess the precision reach on individual measurements and the feasibility of techn...

  9. Linac4 chopper line commissioning strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; Lombardi, AM; Posocco, PA; Sargsyan, E

    2010-01-01

    The report outlines the strategy for beam-based commissioning of the Linac4 3 MeV chopper line as currently scheduled to start in the second half of 2011 in the Test Stand Area. A dedicated temporary diagnostics test bench will complement the measurement devices foreseen for permanent installation in the chopper line. A commissioning procedure is set out as a series of consecutive phases, each one supposed to meet a well- defined milestone in the path to fully characterise the beam-line. Specific set-ups for each stage are defined in terms of beam characteristics, machine settings and diagnostics used. Operational guidelines are given and expected results at the relative points of measurements are shown for simulated scenarios (on the basis of multi-particle tracking studies carried out with the codes PATH and TRACEWin). These are then interpreted in the light of the resolution limits of the available diagnostics instruments to assess the precision reach on individual measurements and the feasibility of techn...

  10. Setup verification in linac-based radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, T; Lachaine, M; Poffenbarger, B; Podgorsak, E B; Fallone, B G

    1999-09-01

    A semi-automatic technique for the direct setup alignment of radiosurgical circular fields from an isocentric linac to treatment room laser cross-hairs is described. Alignment is achieved by acquiring images of the treatment room positioning laser cross-hairs superimposed on the radiosurgical circular field image. An alignment algorithm calculates the center of the radiosurgical field image as well as the intersection of the laser cross-hairs. This determines any alignment deviations and the information is then used to translate the radiosurgical collimator to its correct aligned position. Two detectors, each being sensitive to the lasers and ionizing radiation, were used to acquire the radiation/laser images. The first detector consists of a 0.3-mm-thick layer of photoconducting a-Se deposited on a 1.5-mm-thick copper plate and the second is film. The algorithm and detector system can detect deviations with a precision of approximately 0.04 mm. A device with gyroscopic degrees of freedom was built in order to firmly hold the detector at any orientation perpendicular to the radiosurgical beam axis. This device was used in conjunction with our alignment algorithm to quantify the isocentric sphere relative to the treatment room lasers over all gantry and couch angles used in dynamic stereotactic radiosurgery.

  11. Frequency Control Loop for Drift Tube Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Song, Young Gi; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the preparation of the frequency tracking of the RCCS by connecting the RCCS to low level RF (LLRF) system is described. KOMAC 100-MeV proton accelerator is under operation and supply beam to users. We are developing frequency control function in the LLRF system to control the RCCS in frequency control mode. After the test in the test bench, the system will be applied to the 100-MeV DTL RCCS in order to supply better quality beam to users. A 100-MeV proton accelerator has been developed and the operation and beam service started at Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) in June 2013. The accelerator consists of a 50-keV proton injector, a 3-MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and 100-MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The resonance frequency of the DTL tanks are controlled by using the resonance frequency control cooling system (RCCS), which are installed at every each tank. Until now, the RCCS has been operating in constant temperature mode which means that the frequency was measured with respect to the RCCS supply temperature before the RF operation, and then the RCCS operates with that temperature throughout the whole operation. The constant temperature operation is simple but the RF stability is not good because many perturbations such as RCCS supply temperature error can cause a frequency change. To stabilize the system better, it is necessary to operate the RCCS in frequency tracking mode.

  12. Industrial RF Linac Experiences and Laboratory Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Peiniger, M

    2004-01-01

    Since more than two decades ACCEL Instruments GmbH at Bergisch Gladbach (formerly Siemens/Interatom) is supplying the worldwide accelerator labs with key components like rf cavities and power couplers, s.c. magnets, insertion devices, vacuum chambers and x-ray beamline equipment. Starting with the design and production of turn key SRF accelerating modules in the late 80th, meanwhile ACCEL is engineering, manufacturing, on site commissioning and servicing complete accelerators with guaranteed beam performance. Today, with a staff of more than 100 physicists and engineers and about the same number of manufacturing specialists in our dedicated production facilities, ACCEL's know how and sales volume in this field has accumulated to more than 2000 man years and several hundred Mio €, respectively. Basis of our steady development is a cooperative partnership with the world leading research labs in the respective fields. As an example, for the supply of a turn key 100 MeV injector linac for the Swiss Ligh...

  13. Delta undulator for Cornell energy recovery linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Temnykh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In anticipation of a new era of synchrotron radiation sources based on energy recovery linac techniques, we designed, built, and tested a short undulator magnet prototype whose features make optimum use of the unique conditions expected in these facilities. The prototype has pure permanent magnet (PPM structure with 24 mm period, 5 mm diameter round gap, and is 30 cm long. In comparison with conventional undulator magnets it has the following: (i full x-ray polarization control.—It may generate varying linear polarized as well as left and right circular polarized x rays with photon flux much higher than existing Apple-II–type devices. (ii 40% stronger magnetic field in linear and approximately 2 times stronger in circular polarization modes. This advantage translates into higher x-ray flux. (iii Compactness.—The prototype can be enclosed in a ∼20  cm diameter cylindrical vacuum vessel. These advantages were achieved through a number of unconventional approaches. Among them is control of the magnetic field strength via longitudinal motion of the magnet arrays. The moving mechanism is also used for x-ray polarization control. The compactness is achieved using a recently developed permanent magnet soldering technique for fastening PM blocks. We call this device a “Delta” undulator after the shape of its PM blocks. The presented article describes the design study, various aspects of the construction, and presents some test results.

  14. Young novice drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    In The Netherlands, young novice drivers (18-24 years of age) show a crash rate that is five times higher than that of experienced drivers (30-59 years of age). The rate of young males is even seven times as high. The main reasons are lack of driving experience and hazardous behaviour typical of ado

  15. A Simple Wave Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  16. Emittance and Phase Space Tomography for the Fermilab Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, F.G.G.; Johnstone, C.; Kobilarcik, T.; Koizumi, G.M.; Moore, C.D.; /Fermilab; Newhart, D.L.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    The Fermilab Linac delivers a variable intensity, 400-MeV beam to the MuCool Test Area experimental hall via a beam line specifically designed to facilitate measurements of the Linac beam emittance and properties. A 10 m, dispersion-free and magnet-free straight utilizes an upstream quadrupole focusing triplet in combination with the necessary in-straight beam diagnostics to fully characterize the transverse beam properties. Since the Linac does not produce a strictly elliptical phase space, tomography must be performed on the profile data to retrieve the actual particle distribution in phase space. This is achieved by rotating the phase space distribution using different waist focusing conditions of the upstream triplet and performing a deconvolution of the profile data. Preliminary measurements using this diagnostic section are reported here. These data represent a first-pass measurement of the Linac emittance based on various techniques. It is clear that the most accurate representation of the emittance is given by the 3-profile approach. Future work will entail minimizing the beam spot size on MW5 to test and possibly improve the accuracy of the 2-profile approach. The 95% emittance is {approx} 18{pi} in the vertical and {approx} 13{pi} in the horizontal, which is especially larger than anticipated - 8-10{pi} was expected. One possible explanation is that the entire Linac pulse is extracted into the MTA beamline and during the first few microseconds, the feed forward and RF regulation are not stable. This may result in a larger net emittance observed versus beam injected into Booster, where the leading part of the Linac beam pulse is chopped. Future studies will clearly entail a measurement of the emittance vs. pulse length. One additional concern is that the Linac phase space is most likely aperture-defined and non-elliptical in nature. A non-elliptical phase-space determination would require a more elaborate analysis and provide another explanation of the

  17. Study of injection of 50 MeV proton beam from Linac2 and from Linac4 into the PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Raginel, V; Carli, C; Benedetto, E

    2012-01-01

    The present note indicates the brightness that can be expected for a LHC beam (LHC-25ns) in the PS Booster after a multi-turn injection of 50 MeV protons from Linac4. The motivation for this study has been to know if Linac4 could be a reasonable backup for Linac2 in case of breakdown. The results of this study are derived from simulations of the current PS Booster multi-turn injection with the ORBIT code. First the PS Booster injection model is tested with the reference Linac2 beam injection parameters, and then injection of Linac4 50 MeV protons is simulated and optimized for the highest brightness according to the required LHC emittance. A comparison of the multi-turn injection of Linac2 and Linac4 50 MeV proton beam is presented in the last section.

  18. Production design of the drift tube Linac for the CERN Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Ramberger, S; Cuvet, Y; Dallocchio, A; De Michele, G; Gerigk, F; Giguet, J M; Lallement, J B; Lombardi, A M; Sargsyan, E; Vretenar, M

    2010-01-01

    The design of the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) for the new linear accelerator Linac4 at CERN has been made ready for production: H--ion beams of up to 40 mA average pulse current are to be accelerated from 3 to 50 MeV by three RF cavities operating at 352.2MHz and at duty cycles of up to 10%. In order to provide a margin for longitudinal matching from the chopper line, the longitudinal acceptance has been increased. The synchronous phase starts at -35 deg in Tank1 and ramps linearly to -24 deg over the tank while it went from -30 to -20 deg in the previous design. The accelerating gradient has been reduced to 3.1MV/m in Tank1 and increased to 3.3 MV/m in Tank2 and Tank3 for a better distribution of RF power between tanks that is compatible with a mechanical design. To make the transverse acceptance less sensitive to alignment and gradient errors, the focusing scheme is now FFDD over all 3 tanks. Design features that were demonstrated in earlier reports have been improved for series production. Results of high power...

  19. Plasma ignition and steady state simulations of the Linac4 H$^{-}$ ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, S; Yasumoto, M; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J; Grudiev, A

    2014-01-01

    The RF heating of the plasma in the Linac4 H- ion source has been simulated using an Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collision method (PIC-MCC). This model is applied to investigate the plasma formation starting from an initial low electron density of 1012 m-3 and its stabilization at 1018 m-3. The plasma discharge at low electron density is driven by the capacitive coupling with the electric field generated by the antenna, and as the electron density increases the capacitive electric field is shielded by the plasma and induction drives the plasma heating process. Plasma properties such as e-/ion densities and energies, sheath formation and shielding effect are presented and provide insight to the plasma properties of the hydrogen plasma.

  20. Emittance reconstruction technique for the Linac4 high energy commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB; Posocco, PA

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is a new 160 MeV linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H-) presently under construction which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac2 as injector for the CERN proton accelerator complex. Linac4 is 80 meters long and comprises a Low Energy Beam Transport line, a 3 MeV RFQ, a MEBT, a 50 MeV DTL, a 100 MeV CCDTL and a PIMS up to 160 MeV. The commissioning of the Linac is scheduled to start in 2013. It will be divided into several steps corresponding to the commissioning of the different accelerating structures. A temporary measurement bench will be dedicated to the high energy commissioning from 30 to 100 MeV (DTL tanks 2 and 3, and CCDTL). The commissioning of the PIMS will be done using the permanent equipment installed in between the end of the Linac and the main dump. This note describes the technique we will use for reconstructing the transverse emittances and the expected results.

  1. CERN Linac4 - The Space Charge Challenge Design and Commission

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, Lutz Matthias; Holzer, Bernhard

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting $H^-$ ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the low energy beam transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to re-construct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam...

  2. Mechanical Engineering of the Linac for the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bultman, N.K.; Chen, Z.; Collier, M.; Erickson, J.L.; Guthrie, A.; Hunter, W.T.; Ilg, T.; Meyer, R.K.; Snodgrass, N.L.

    1999-03-29

    The linac for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project will accelerate an average current of 1 mA of H{sup {minus}} ions from 20 MeV to 1GeV for injection into an accumulator ring. The linac will be an intense source of H{sup {minus}} ions and as such requires advanced design techniques to meet project technical goals as well as to minimize costs. The DTL, CCDTL and CCL are 466m long and operate at 805 MHz with a maximum H{sup {minus}} input current of 28 mA and 7% rf duty factor. The Drift Tube Linac is a copper-plated steel structure using permanent magnetic quadrupoles. The Coupled-Cavity portions are brazed copper structures and use electromagnetic quads. RF losses in the copper are 80 MW, with total rf power supplied by 52 klystrons. Additionally, the linac is to be upgraded to the 2- and 4-MW beam power levels with no increase in duty factor. The authors give an overview of the linac mechanical engineering effort and discuss the special challenges and status of the effort.

  3. High-Power Proton Linac Technology at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerigk, Frank

    The construction of Linac4, a 160 MeV H- linac started in 2008 and is now in the beam commissioning phase. The RFQ and MEBT line have been successfully commissioned; and installation and beam measurements of the 50 MeV DTL have started in 2014. Linac4 was conceived as the normal conducting front-end for a Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL), providing 5 GeV protons for a future neutrino facility at CERN. In the last 2 years the CERN infrastructure for the construction, surface treatment and testing of superconducting cavities has been upgraded to be compatible with the prototyping of a 4-cavity SPL type cryomodule. The 704 MHz 5-cell Niobium cavities, presently being built and tested at CERN are of interest also for other potential future projects at CERN and therefore the SPL R&D effort is well supported over the coming years. This paper reviews the context and status of Linac4 and SPL and highlights some of the technological developments, which have been done at CERN and which are foreseen within the next years.

  4. Finite Element Thermal Study of the Linac4 Plasma Generatora

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D; Kuchler, D; Lettry, L; Scrivens, R; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    The temperature distribution and heat flow at equilibrium of the plasma generator of the RF-powered non-cesiated Linac4 H- ion source have been studied with a finite element model. It is shown that the equilibrium temperatures obtained in the Linac4 nominal operation mode (100 kW RF power, 2 Hz, 0.4 ms pulse duration) are within material specifications except for the magnet cage, where a redesign may be necessary. To assess the upgrade of the Linac4 source for operation in the high-power operation mode of SPL, an extrapolation of the heat load towards 100 kW RF power, 50 Hz repetition rate and 0.4 ms pulse duration has been performed. The results indicate that a significant improvement of the source cooling is required to allow for operation in HP-SPL.

  5. A hot-spare injector for the APS linac.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewellen, J. W.

    1999-04-13

    Last year a second-generation SSRL-type thermionic cathode rf gun was installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. This gun (referred to as ''gun2'') has been successfully commissioned and now serves as the main injector for the APS linac, essentially replacing the Koontz-type DC gun. To help ensure injector availability, particularly with the advent of top-up mode operation at the APS, a second thermionic-cathode rf gun will be installed in the APS linac to act as a hot-spare beam source. The hot-spare installation includes several unique design features, including a deep-orbit Panofsky-style alpha magnet. Details of the hot-spare beamline design and projected performance are presented, along with some plans for future performance upgrades.

  6. 400-MeV upgrade for the Fermilab linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.E.; Noble, R.J.

    1989-09-01

    Fermilab plans to upgrade the Tevatron to expand the physics research program in both the fixed target and the collider operating modes. The first phase of this program is to increase the energy of the H{sup -} linac from 200 to 400 MeV in order to reduce the incoherent space change tuneshift at injection into the Booster which can limit either the brightness or the total intensity of the beam. The linac upgrade will be achieved by replacing the last four 201 MeV, with seven 805 MHz side-coupled cavity modules operating at an average axial field of about 8 MV/m. This will allow acceleration to 400 MeV in the existing Linac enclosure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Beam loading compensation for the NLC low frequency linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Miller, R.; Farkas, D.; Raubenheimer, T.; Tang, H.; Yeremian, D.

    1997-03-01

    The NLC low rf linacs are heavily loaded by a beam of about 130 ns in macropulse length (90 bunches) and a current up to 2.75 Amps. Beam loading voltage generates a large energy spread along the bunch train. This energy spread is critical for lattice design and, if not properly compensated, induces emittance growth and in turn lowers the luminosity of the machine. In this paper, the authors study the {Delta}F and {Delta}T beam loading compensation techniques for the NLC low rf linacs. They will apply these methods to the NLC low rf linacs to demonstrate the efficacy of these methods. Finally, they discuss a hybrid {Delta}T + {Delta}F method to improve the efficiency of beam loading compensation.

  8. Progress in the Development of the TOP Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Picardi, L

    2004-01-01

    The TOP Linac (Oncological Therapy with Protons), under development by ENEA and ISS is a sequence of three pulsed (5 msec, 300 Hz) linear accelerators: a 7 MeV, 425 MHz RFQ+DTL (AccSys Model PL-7), a 7–65 MeV, 2998 MHz Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) and a 65–200 MeV, variable energy 2998 MHz Side Coupled Linac (SCL). The first SCDTL module is composed by 11 DTL tanks coupled by 10 side cavities. The tanks has modified to overcome vacuum leakage that occurred during brazing, and now the module has been completed, and is ready to be tested with protons. The 7 MeV injector has been recently installed in the ENEA Frascati laboratories for preliminary test, before being transferred to the main Oncologycal Hospital in Rome, Istituto Regina Elena.

  9. High-Performance Beam Simulator for the LANSCE Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Xiaoying [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baily, Scott A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-14

    A high performance multiparticle tracking simulator is currently under development at Los Alamos. The heart of the simulator is based upon the beam dynamics simulation algorithms of the PARMILA code, but implemented in C++ on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) hardware using NVIDIA's CUDA platform. Linac operating set points are provided to the simulator via the EPICS control system so that changes of the real time linac parameters are tracked and the simulation results updated automatically. This simulator will provide valuable insight into the beam dynamics along a linac in pseudo real-time, especially where direct measurements of the beam properties do not exist. Details regarding the approach, benefits and performance are presented.

  10. Particle-In-Cell Simulation of RFQ in SSC - Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiao; You-Jin, Yuan; Yong, Liu; Jia-Wen, Xia; Yuan-Rong, Lu; Batygin, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    A 52MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator (linac) is designed to serve as an initial structure for the SSC-linac system (injector into Separated Sector Cyclotron). The designed injection and output energy are 3.5 keV/u and 143 keV/u, respectively. Beam dynamics study in RFQ was done using 3-dimensional particle-in-cell code BEAMPATH [1]. Simulation results show that this RFQ structure is characterized by stable value of beam transmission efficiency (at least 95%) for both zero-current mode and for space charge dominated regime. The beam accelerated in RFQ has good quality in both transversal and longitudinal directions, and could be easily accepted by Drift Tube Linac (DTL). Effects of vane errors and of the space charge on beam parameters are studied as well to define the engineering tolerance for RFQ vane machining and alignment.

  11. Beam Commissioning Plan and Result of KOMAC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jiho; Kwon, Hyeokjung; Kim, Hansung; Cho, Yongsub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    This work summarized the present status and near-future plan of the beam commissioning. The development and installation of the 100-MeV proton linac were finished. Beam commissioning is scheduled in May 2013. Hence we hope we can report the initial beam commissioning result in the spring meeting of Korea Nuclear Society. The beam commissioning of the KOMAC (Korea Multi-Purpose Accelerator Complex) 100-MeV proton linear accelerator is in progress. The linac includes a 50-keV ion source, a 3-MeV RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole), a 100-MeV DTL (drift tube linac). The final goal of the beam commissioning is accelerating 100-MeV proton beams to the beam dump in the accelerator tunnel and into a target room.

  12. Heavy-ion acceleration with a superconducting linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This year, 1988, is the tenth anniversary of the first use of RF superconductivity to accelerate heavy ions. In June 1978, the first two superconducting resonators of the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) were used to boost the energy of a /sup 19/F beam from the tandem, and by September 1978 a 5-resonator linac provided an /sup 16/O beam for a nuclear-physics experiment. Since then, the superconducting linac has grown steadily in size and capability until now there are 42 accelerating structures and 4 bunchers. Throughout this period, the system was used routinely for physics research, and by now the total time with beam on target is 35,000 hours. Lessons learned from this long running experience and some key technical developments that made it possible are reviewed in this paper. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Status and experiece with the alignment of Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Jean-Frederic

    2016-01-01

    LINAC4 (L4) is an H- linear accelerator that will deliver, for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project requirements, a beam of protons at 160 MeV energy to the PS complex and then to the LHC. Its connection to the PS booster will take place during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) in 2019-2020 or earlier if any major failure of the LINAC2. The Linac4 project requires the precise alignment with a tolerance of about +/- 0.2 mm in both the horizontal and vertical planes, of elements along approximately 150 m beam line. This paper will give a status, an overview of the challenges of the alignment, the issues solved by the survey section, the techniques and methodology used to realise the survey activities over the last five years.

  14. TLD determination of neutron dose contribution in medical linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, A.; Rivera, T.; Calderon A, J. A. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Villasenor N, L. F. [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis No. 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: azorin@xanum.uam.m [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    The increased use of Linacs with accelerating voltage higher than 10 MV in clinical radiotherapy is producing and increasing demand of accurate dosimetric measurements of the photon induced neutron contamination of the radiotherapy beams, due that the associated Bremsstrahlung X rays may produce neutrons as a result of subsequent photonuclear reactions with the different materials constituting the accelerator head. Thermal neutron fluences can be measured with TLD-600/TLD-700 pairs arranged in both a bare and a cadmium (Cd) foil covered methacry-late box. Neutron response of Tl dosemeters irradiated with two different neutron sources has been investigated. The shape of the glow curve of these TLDs after irradiation in a medical Linac and in a Pu Be neutron source has been studied to verify the contribution of neutrons to an additional dose to staff, patients and the general public, due to photonuclear reactions generating neutrons from medical Linacs. (Author)

  15. RF Operation for the 100MeV Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Dae Il; Kim, Han Sung; Song, Young Gi; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The RF systems for the 100MeV linac were constructed. The HPRF system including klystrons, circulators, high power dummy loads, and waveguide components was installed at the klystron gallery, and the LLRF control systems including a commercial FPGA module and a LLRF analog chassis were also installed. The phase stability of the RF reference line was measured with S11 phase under temperature control. The RF systems for 100MeV linac have been operated for a beam commissioning, and the 100MeV proton beam has been supplied to users currently. The RF systems of the 100MeV proton linac for the KOMAC (KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) were installed at the Gyeong-ju site. The 100MeV linac consists of a 3MeV RFQ, a 20MeV DTL with four tanks, two MEBT tanks, and seven 100MeV DTL tanks. For the 100MeV linac, nine sets of LLRF control systems and the HPRF systems including 1MW klystrons, circulators and waveguide components have been installed at the klystron gallery, and four high voltage converter modulators to drive nine klystrons have been installed at the modulator room. A RF reference system distributing 300MHz LO signal to each RF control system has also been installed with a temperature control system at the klystron gallery. The requirement of RF field control is within +/- 1% in RF amplitude and +/- 1 degree in RF phase. The RF systems have been operated for the beam commissioning. The installation and operation of the RF system for the 100MeV proton linac are presented in this paper.

  16. Application of electron linacs in medicine, food sterilization and synchrotron light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duc-Tien

    1989-04-01

    A review of the state of the art and new trends in electron linac technology is given with emphasis on three particular applications: radiotherapy, food sterilization and synchrotron light sources. The requirements on linac performances that these applications call for, namely energy variation flexibility, high power, high energy and low cost, will open linacs to new applications to come.

  17. Drivers 65 Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see, hear, and feel in relation to other cars and drivers, traffic signs and signals, conditions of the highway, and the performance of your car. These decisions are usually made close to other ...

  18. RF characteristics of IHQ linac for heavy ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, T.; Sasa, K.; Hayashizaki, N.; Isokawa, K.; Hattori, T. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors; Osvath, E. [Institute of Atomic Physics, Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania); Schubert, H. [HSI, Tuerkenstrasse 28, 80333 Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    At Tokyo institute of technology (TIT), an interdigital-H type quadrupole (IHQ) linac has been constructed for application in high energy heavy ion implantation. The linac can accelerate particles with charge to mass ratio greater than 1/16 from 0.24 MeV up to 1.6 MeV (for {sup 16}O{sup +}). As a result of the low power test, the resonant frequency is 36.26 MHz, the shunt impedance is 252 M{Omega}/m and therefore, the required power to accelerate {sup 16}O{sup +} ion is 39.5 kW. (orig.) 8 refs.

  19. Low power test of IHQ linac for heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Takashi; Sasa, Kimikazu; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Isokawa, Katsushi; Hattori, Toshiyuki [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors; Osvath, E.; Schubert, H.

    1997-12-31

    At Tokyo Institute of Technology (TIT), An Interdigital-H type Quadrupole (IHQ) linac has been constructed for application of high energy heavy ion implantation. The linac can accelerate the particles with charge to mass ratio grater than 1/16 from 0.48 MeV up to 1.6 MeV (for {sup 16}O{sup +}). As a result of the low power test, the resonant frequency is 36.26 MHz and the shunt impedance is 252 M{Omega}/m. Therefore, required power to accelerate {sup 16}O{sup +} ion is 39.5 kW. (author)

  20. RF characteristics of IHQ linac for heavy ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Osvath, E.; Sasa, Kimikazu; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Isokawa, Katsushi; Schubert, H.; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    1998-04-01

    At Tokyo Institute of Technology (TIT), an Interdigital-H type Quadrupole (IHQ) linac has been constructed for application in high energy heavy ion implantation. The linac can accelerate particles with charge to mass ratio greater than 1/16 from 0.24 MeV up to 1.6 MeV (for 16O +). As a result of the low power test, the resonant frequency is 36.26 MHz, the shunt impedance is 252 MΩ/m and therefore, the required power to accelerate 16O + ion is 39.5 kW.

  1. Micro-SHINE Uranyl Sulfate Irradiations at the Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youker, Amanda J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kalensky, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schneider, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Byrnes, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Peroxide formation due to water radiolysis in a uranyl sulfate solution is a concern for the SHINE Medical Technologies process in which Mo-99 is generated from the fission of dissolved low enriched uranium. To investigate the effects of power density and fission on peroxide formation and uranyl-peroxide precipitation, uranyl sulfate solutions were irradiated using a 50-MeV electron linac as part of the micro-SHINE experimental setup. Results are given for uranyl sulfate solutions with both high and low enriched uranium irradiated at different linac powers.

  2. Neutron distribution and induced activity inside a Linac treatment room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste, B; Miró, R; Verdú, G; Díez, S; Campayo, J M

    2015-01-01

    Induced radioactivity and photoneutron contamination inside a radiation therapy bunker of a medical linear accelerator (Linac) is investigated in this work. The Linac studied is an Elekta Precise electron accelerator which maximum treatment photon energy is 15 MeV. This energy exceeds the photonuclear reaction threshold (around 7 MeV for high atomic number metals). The Monte Carlo code MCNP6 has been used for quantifying the neutron contamination inside the treatment room for different gantry rotation configuration. Walls activation processes have also been simulated. The approach described in this paper is useful to prevent the overexposure of patients and medical staff.

  3. Equivalent circuit for postcoupler stabilization in a drift tube linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Grespan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Postcouplers (PCs are devices used in order to reduce the effect of perturbations on the operating mode of a drift tube linac (DTL, using the resonant coupling stabilization method. In this article an equivalent circuit for a DTL equipped with PCs is presented, together with a 3D simulation analysis, which can explain the principle of postcoupler stabilization and define a new tuning strategy for DTL cavities. The PC tuning procedure based on the equivalent circuit and on frequency measurements has been tested and validated with measurements on the Linac4 DTL aluminum model, present at CERN.

  4. Equivalent circuit for postcoupler stabilization in a drift tube linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grespan, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Postcouplers (PCs) are devices used in order to reduce the effect of perturbations on the operating mode of a drift tube linac (DTL), using the resonant coupling stabilization method. In this article an equivalent circuit for a DTL equipped with PCs is presented, together with a 3D simulation analysis, which can explain the principle of postcoupler stabilization and define a new tuning strategy for DTL cavities. The PC tuning procedure based on the equivalent circuit and on frequency measurements has been tested and validated with measurements on the Linac4 DTL aluminum model, present at CERN.

  5. Beam position monitor for energy recovered linac beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Thomas; Evtushenko, Pavel

    2017-06-06

    A method of determining the beam position in an energy recovered linac (ERL). The method makes use of in phase and quadrature (I/Q) demodulation techniques to separate the pickup signal generated by the electromagnetic fields generated by the first and second pass beam in the energy recovered linac. The method includes using analog or digital based I/Q demodulation techniques in order to measure the relative amplitude of the signals from a position sensitive beam pickup such as a button, strip line or microstripline beam position monitor.

  6. Proactive driver training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossler, W. [Kinetic Safety Consulting Inc., Grande Prairie, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Skid avoidance training is a recent approach to driver training and has been employed in various countries with a high degree of success. Among top ranked countries, motor vehicle incidents trends indicate higher incident rates among drivers are often due to lack of knowledge, experience and risk awareness. If lowered age limit experience is attained under direct supervision and in safe training conditions, it was suggested, incident frequency is reduced. A Norway study confirmed an increase in vehicle incident rates after drivers had received skid control training. The drivers were unable to maintain skill levels needed to react to critical driving tasks and had unrealistic expectations of skill after training. However, a skid avoidance training program launched in Sweden in 1999 has resulted in a 50 per cent reduction of vehicle incidents in the last 2 years. Details of the Skidcar System were presented, including details of the driving simulator, where simulation of actual driving situations is achieved by simply adjusting the amount of grip the vehicle has with the driving surface. Instructors modify driving behaviors based upon the driver's ability to maintain grip. There are over 200 units in North America. In addition, a Proactive Light Vehicle Driver Training/ Heavy Vehicle Assessment Program was initiated in 2003, with a motor vehicle incident rate reduction of 50 per cent at the end of 2004. Various examples of situations in which drivers have used their skid avoidance skills to avoid incidents were included. It was noted that the trend among driver training professionals has been towards decision-based rather than skills-based training, as skills-based training will diminish over time, and requires frequent re-training periods. Cognitive and perceptual skills were examined, as well as cognitive, associative and autonomous learning phases. It was concluded that skid avoidance is largely a decision-based skill. tabs, figs.

  7. Older drivers, crashes and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Bohensky, Megan; Langford, Jim; Taranto, David

    2011-10-01

    This article aimed to identify the main features of older driver casualty crashes, including detailed descriptions of injury outcomes. Data were obtained from the Transport Accident Commission insurance claims database for 2 groups of drivers: aged 41 to 55 years (middle-aged drivers) and aged 65 years and older (older drivers). In terms of crash circumstances, the majority of crashes involved a collision with another vehicle (70.0% of middle-aged drivers and 68.7% of older drivers). The 2 main maneuvers at the time of crash were driving straight ahead (44.6% of middle-aged drivers and 42.8% of older drivers) and turning right (equivalent of left turn in North America; 15.2% of middle-aged drivers and 17.6% of older drivers). In terms of injury outcomes, older drivers sustained a significantly higher proportion of injuries to the thorax (30.9% compared to 18.5% of middle-aged drivers). Conversely, a significantly higher proportion of middle-aged drivers sustained some form of injury to the neck (30.6% compared to 12.1% of older drivers). These findings highlight the situations that are particularly risky for older drivers and provide important insights for developing solutions to reduce older driver crash and injury risk.

  8. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus g

  9. Technology development for high power induction accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birx, D.L.; Reginato, L.L.

    1985-06-11

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability.

  10. Inductive Voltage Adder Network Analysis and Model Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, NY 11973 USA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING ... Kicker Pulser for DARHT-II”, Proceedings of the 20th International LINAC Conference, pp. 509-511, 2000. [4] Wang, G. J. Caporaso, E. G. Cook...Modeling of an Inductive Adder Kicker Pulser for a Proton Radiography System”, Digest of Technical Papers, Pulsed Power Plasma Science, 2001. PPPS-2001

  11. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    LI J

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.

  12. Gravitational induction

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Chicone, Carmen; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2008-01-01

    We study the linear post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity known as gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM); in particular, we examine the similarities and differences between GEM and electrodynamics. Notwithstanding some significant differences between them, we find that a special nonstationary metric in GEM can be employed to show {\\it explicitly} that it is possible to introduce gravitational induction within GEM in close analogy with Faraday's law of induction and Lenz's law in electrodynamics. Some of the physical implications of gravitational induction are briefly discussed.

  13. Inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan; Swendsen, Haruka

    2010-03-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge or observations to make predictions about novel cases. We review recent findings in research on category-based induction as well as theoretical models of these results, including similarity-based models, connectionist networks, an account based on relevance theory, Bayesian models, and other mathematical models. A number of touchstone empirical phenomena that involve taxonomic similarity are described. We also examine phenomena involving more complex background knowledge about premises and conclusions of inductive arguments and the properties referenced. Earlier models are shown to give a good account of similarity-based phenomena but not knowledge-based phenomena. Recent models that aim to account for both similarity-based and knowledge-based phenomena are reviewed and evaluated. Among the most important new directions in induction research are a focus on induction with uncertain premise categories, the modeling of the relationship between inductive and deductive reasoning, and examination of the neural substrates of induction. A common theme in both the well-established and emerging lines of induction research is the need to develop well-articulated and empirically testable formal models of induction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  14. Conceptual Design of the Low-Power and High-Power SPL A Superconducting H$^-$ Linac at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Atieh, S; Aviles Santillana, I; Bartmann, W; Borburgh, J; Brunner, O; Calatroni, S; Capatina, O; Chambrillon, J; Ciapala, E; Eshraqi, M; Ferreira, L; Garoby, R; Goddard, B; Hessler, C; Hofle, W; Horvath-Mikulas, S; Junginger, T; Kozlova, E; Lebbos, E; Lettry, J; Liao, K; Lombardi, A M; Macpherson, A; Montesinos, E; Nisbet, D; Otto, T; Paoluzzi, M; Papke, K; Parma, V; Pillon, F; Posocco, P; Ramberger, S; Rossi, C; Schirm, K; Schuh, M; Scrivens, R; Torres Sanchez, R; Valuch, D; Valverde Alonso, N; Wegner, R; Weingarten, W; Weisz, S

    2014-01-01

    The potential for a superconducting proton linac (SPL) at CERN started to be seriously considered at the end of the 1990s. In the first conceptual design report (CDR), published in 2000 [1], most of the 352 MHz RF equipment from LEP was re-used in an 800 m long linac, and the proton beam energy was limited to 2.2 GeV. During the following years, the design was revisited and optimized to better match the needs of a high-power proton driver for neutrino physics. The result was a more compact (470 m long) accelerator capable of delivering 5 MW of beam power at 3.5 GeV, using state-of-the-art superconducting RF cavities at 704 MHz. It was described in a second CDR, published in 2006 [2]. Soon afterwards, when preparation for increasing the luminosity of the LHC by an order of magnitude beyond nominal became an important concern, a low-power SPL (LP-SPL) was studied as a key component in the renovation of the LHC injector complex. The combination of a 4 GeV LP-SPL injecting into a new 50 GeV synchrotron (PS2) was ...

  15. Status of the 7 MeV/u, 217 MHz Injector Linac for the Heidelberg Cancer Therapy Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Schlitt, B; Hutter, G; Klos, F; Lu, Y; Minaev, S A; Mühle, C; Ratzinger, U; Schlitt, B; Tiede, R; Vinzenz, W; Will, C; Zurkan, O

    2004-01-01

    A clinical synchrotron facility for cancer therapy using energetic proton and ion beams (C, He and O) is under construction and will be installed at the Radiologische Universitätsklinik in Heidelberg, Germany, starting in 2005. The status of the ECR ion source systems, the beam line components of the low energy beam transport lines, the 400 keV/u RFQ and the 20 MV IH-cavity as well as the linac rf system will be reported. Two prototype magnets of the linac quadrupole magnets have been built at GSI and have been tested successfully. A test bench for the 1.4 MW, 217 MHz cavity amplifier built by industry has been installed at GSI including a 120 kW driver amplifier which will be used also for high power tests of the RFQ. A test bench for the RFQ using proton beams is presently being set up at the IAP. RF tuning of the 1:2 scaled IH-DTL model as well as Microwave Studio simulations of the model and the power cavity have been also performed at the IAP [1].

  16. Superconducting Resonators Development for the FRIB and ReA Linacs at MSU: Recent Achievements and Future Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facco, A; Binkowski, J; Compton, C; Crisp, J L; Dubbs, L J; Elliot, K; Harle, L L; Hodek, M; Johnson, M J; Leitner, D; Leitner, M; Malloch, I M; Miller, S J; Oweiss, R; Popielarski, J; Popielarski, L; Saito, K; Wei, J; Wlodarczak, J; Xu, Y; Zhang, Y; Zheng, Z; Burrill, A; Davis, G K; Macha, K

    2012-07-01

    The superconducting driver and post-accelerator linacs of the FRIB project, the large scale radioactive beam facility under construction at MSU, require the construction of about 400 low-{beta} Quarter-wave (QWR) and Half-wave resonators (HWR) with four different optimum velocities. 1st and 2nd generation prototypes of {beta}{sub 0} = 0.041 and 0.085 QWRs and {beta}{sub 0} = 0.53 HWRs have been built and tested, and have more than fulfilled the FRIB and ReA design goals. The present cavity surface preparation at MSU allowed production of low-{beta} cavities nearly free from field emission. The first two cryostats of {beta}{sub 0} = 0.041 QWRs are now in operation in the ReA3 linac. A 3rd generation design of the FRIB resonators allowed to further improve the cavity parameters, reducing the peak magnetic field in operation and increasing the possible operation gradient, with consequent reduction of the number of required resonators. The construction of the cavities for FRIB, which includes three phases for each cavity type (development, pre-production and production runs) has started. Cavity design, construction, treatment and performance will be described and discussed.

  17. Conceptual Design for the New RPI 2020 Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolphsen, C.; Bane, K.; Dolgashev, V.; Jensen, A.; Haase, A.; Jongewaard, E.; Kemp, M.; Krasnykh, A.; Lewandowski, J.; Li, Z.; Neilson, J.; Pearson, C.; Tantawi, S.; Wang, J.; Yeremian, A.D.; /SLAC; Brand, P.; Danon, Y.; /Rensselaer Polytech. Inst.; Epping, B.; Donovan, T.; Block, R.; Leinweber, G.; /Knolls Atomic Power Lab.

    2014-10-29

    The Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) spectrometer is an installation based on an L-band linear accelerator designed and installed many decades ago. While this installation has served many important experiments over the decades, a new more powerful and more flexible linac to serve a wider range of experiments is envisioned as an upgrade to the existing installation by 2020.

  18. Linac4: injecting new life into the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Construction work is nearing completion on the ion source for Linac4, the new linear accelerator that forms part of the LHC injector upgrade programme. Here we find out more about this essential component of the accelerator chain, designed and built at CERN.     The image shows the Linac4 H- source. The red light is the alpha line of the visible hydrogen emission spectrum. The ion source is a key component of Linac4, the linear accelerator that from 2018 will supply H- ions (hydrogen atoms with an extra electron) at 160 MeV for injection into the accelerator complex. As the only ion source at CERN, Linac4 must be highly reliable, which requires a full understanding of the production mechanisms, the simulation of physical processes and the validation of those processes through experimentation. “This source is the result of much fruitful collaboration,” says Jacques Lettry of the BE department. “Its design was inspired by the many sources of th...

  19. Progress on LINAC 4 : Civil engineering (28/07/2009)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2009-01-01

    The commissioning of the new Linac4 source – first element of the new acceleration chain for the upgrade of the LHC (sLHC) – has started beginning of July. After years of preparation but after only a few hours of fine-tuning of the numerous parameters involved, the source has delivered its first negative ions.

  20. Test Measurements with the REX-ISOLDE LINAC Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kester, O; Sieber, T; Emhofer, S; Rudolph, K; von Hahn, R; Podlech, H; Repnow, R; Schwalm, D; Ratzinger, U; Schempp, A

    2000-01-01

    The Radioactive Beam Experiment {REX-ISOLDE} [1,2] is a pilot experiment at ISOLDE (CERN) testing the new concept of post acceleration of radioactive ion beams by using charge breeding of the ions in a high charge state ion source and the efficient acceleration of the highly charged ions in a short LINAC using modern ion accelerator structures. In order to prepare the ions for the experiments singly charged radioactive ions from the on-line mass separator ISOLDE will be cooled and bunched in a Penning trap, charge bred in an electron beam ion source (EBIS) and finally accelerated in the LINAC. The LINAC consists of a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, which accelerates the ions up to 0.3 MeV/u, an 20 gap interdigital H-type (IH) structure with a final energy between 1.1 and 1.2 MeV/u and three seven gap resonators, which allow the variation of the final energy between 0.8-2.2 MeV/u. A variety of tests with REXTRAP, REXEBIS and the LINAC structures have been done, in order to study their capabilitie...

  1. Full power to the first Linac4 module

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    Since last week the first of a total of 23 accelerating structures for Linac4 has been undergoing high-power tests. Although still a prototype, this structure is destined to be the first of the 12 PIMS cavities to be installed in the Linac4 tunnel and it has been completely designed, developed and constructed at CERN.   The PIMS prototype. The new Linac4 has 4 different types of accelerating structures. The PI-Mode Structures (PIMS) are the last stage and are designed to accelerate protons up to 160 MeV. “PIMS have never before been used to accelerate protons”, explains Frank Gerigk, the project engineer responsible for the Linac4 accelerating structures. “In LEP, they were used to accelerate electrons, and now we have modified them and improved several design features to make them suitable for protons”. The first prototype was entirely manufactured in the CERN workshop. Due to the size of the pieces it was difficult to achieve and preserve the required to...

  2. Design and analysis of X-band femtosecond linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesaka, M.; Kozawa, T.; Takeshita, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Ueda, T.; Miya, K. [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

    1997-03-01

    Femtosecond quantum phenomena research project is proposed at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo. The research facility consists of an X-band (11.424GHz) femtosecond electron linac, a femtosecond wavelength tunable laser, two S-band (2.856GHz) picosecond electron linacs and measuring equipments. Especially, we aim to generate a 100 fs (FWHM) electron single bunch with more than 1 nC at the X-band femtosecond linac. Ultrafast processes in radiation physics, chemistry, material science and microscopic electromagnetic phenomena are going to be analyzed there. Here the design and analysis of an X-band femtosecond linac is presented. The simulation of electron dynamics is carried out including magnetic pulse compression by using PARMELA and SUPERFISH. It is found by the simulation that the 600 ps (tail-to-tail) electron emission from a 200 kV thermionic gun can be bunched and compressed to 110 fs (FWHM) with the charge of 0.8 nC which gives 7.3 kA. We plan to use one high power X-band klystron which can supply 60 MW with more than 200 ns pulse duration. The flatness of plateau of the pulse should be 0.2% for stable ultrashort bunch generation. (author)

  3. Electromagnetic propulsion alternatives. [in mass drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolm, H.; Fine, K.; Mongeau, P.; Williams, F.

    1979-01-01

    Mass drivers can serve to propel massive objects by expelling any available material as reaction mass, however, mass driver engines have several limitations such as relatively large payload size and dynamic stability problems. A number of alternative acceleration mechanisms exist which offer advantages for certain applications, such as higher acceleration at a sacrifice in efficiency, smaller possible size and decreased complexity at a sacrifice in service life, etc. The alternative concepts include several variants of the railgun, a family of superconducting slingshot oscillators, a momentum transformer, an impulse induction motor, and a family of hybrid synchronous accelerators. A potential application of considerable interest is the earth-based launching of space cargo or nuclear waste by using off-peak generating capacity to accelerate one ton cargo cylinders at intervals of several minutes.

  4. An Energy Recovery Electron Linac On Ring Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolitsa Merminga; Geoffrey Krafft; Valeri Lebedev; Ilan Ben-Zvi

    2001-09-01

    Electron-proton/ion colliders with center of mass energies between 14 GeV and 100 GeV (protons) or 63 GeV/A (ions) and luminosities at the 10{sup 33} (per nucleon) level have been proposed recently as a means for studying hadronic structure. Electron beam polarization appears to be crucial for many of the experiments. Two accelerator design scenarios have been examined in detail: colliding rings and recirculating linac-on-ring. Although the linac-on-ring scenario is not as well developed as the ring-ring scenario, comparable luminosities appear feasible. The linac-on-ring option presents significant advantages with respect to: (1) spin manipulations; (2) reduction of the synchrotron radiation load in the detectors; (3) a wide range of continuous energy variability. Rf power and beam dump considerations require that the electron linac recover the beam energy. This technology has been demonstrated at Jefferson Lab's IR FEL with cw current up to 5 mA and beam energy up to 50 MeV. Based on extrapolations from actual measurements and calculations, energy recovery is expected to be feasible at higher currents (a few hundred mA) and higher energies (a few GeV) as well. The report begins with a brief overview of Jefferson Lab's experience with energy recovery and summarize its benefits. Luminosity projections for the linac-ring scenario based on fundamental limitations are presented next. The feasibility of an energy recovery electron linac-on-proton ring collider is investigated and four conceptual point designs are shown corresponding to electron to proton energies of: 3 GeV on 15 GeV, 5 GeV on 50 GeV and 10 GeV on 250 GeV, and for gold ions with 100 GeV/A. The last two designs assume that the protons or ions are stored in the existing RHIC accelerator. Accelerator physics issues relevant to proton rings and energy recovery linacs are discussed next and a list of required R and D for the realization of such a design is presented.

  5. Frequency choice of eRHIC SRF linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-05

    eRHIC is a FFAG lattice based multipass ERL [1]. The eRHIC SRF linac has been decided to change from 422 MHz 5-cell cavity to 647 MHz 5-cell cavity. There are several considerations affecting the frequency choice for a high current multipass-ERL: the beam structure, bunch length, energy spread, beam-break-up (BBU) threshold, SRF loss considerations. Beyond the physics considerations, cost and complexity or risk is an important consideration for the frequency choice, especially when we are designing a machine to be built in a few years. Although there are some benefits of using a 422 MHz cavity for eRHIC ERL, however, there are some very critical drawbacks, including lack of facilities to fabricate a 422 MHz 5-cell cavity, very few facilities to process such a cavity and no existing facility to test the cavity anywhere. As the cavity size is big and its weight is large, it is difficult to handle it during fabrication, processing and testing and no one has experience in this area. As the cavity size is large, the cryomodule becomes big as well. All of these considerations drive the risk of building eRHIC ERL with 422 MHz cavities to a very high level. Therefore, a decision was made to change the frequency of main linac to be 647 MHz 5-cell cavities. This note will compare these two linacs: 422MHz 5-cell cavity linac and 647Mz 5-cell cavity SRF linac, from both practical point of view and physics point of view.

  6. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    Over the past few years, several laser systems have been considered as possible laser fusion drivers. Recently, there has been an increasing effort to evaluate these systems in terms of a reactor driver application. The specifications for such a system have become firmer and generally more restrictive. Several of the promising candidates such as the group VI laser, the metal vapor excimers and some solid state lasers can be eliminated on the basis of inefficiency. New solid state systems may impact the long range development of a fusion driver. Of the short wavelength gas lasers, the KrF laser used in conjunction with Raman compression and pulse stacking techniques is the most promising approach. Efficiencies approaching 10% may be possible with this system. While technically feasible, these approaches are complex and costly and are unsatisfying in an aethetic sense. A search for new lasers with more compelling features is still needed.

  7. Really Scary Drivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莲花

    2005-01-01

    A new wave of "road killers", or new drivers, on Beijing's streets has prompted traffic authorities to do something to make driving tests more difficult. This year, the move has targeted new drivers to keep them from posing a threat, the Beijing Traffic Management Bureau says. The new test has been adopted citywide and the average pass rate is down to 50 per cent from a previous 80 per cent, at the city's 22 test centers, said Jiang Jing, a bureau press officer. The test now has six mandatory items chosen r...

  8. Improving Driver Performance. A Curriculum for Licensed Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highway Users Federation for Safety and Mobility, Washington, DC.

    Curriculum material presented in this manual is for use in the development of an instructional program for drivers who either want or need to improve their driving performance. Three principal units are included: man and highway transportation, driver performance, and factors influencing driver behavior. Each unit is further divided into episodes…

  9. Design of a post linac for an energy upgrade of a heavy-ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Y., E-mail: y_iwata@nirs.go.jp; Noda, K.

    2014-07-15

    A post linac is being designed for an energy upgrade of a heavy-ion injector. This post linac is to be installed downstream of the formerly developed compact injector, consisting of an Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion-Source (ECRIS), the Radio-Frequency-Quadrupole (RFQ) linac and the Alternating-Phase-Focused Interdigital H-mode Drift-Tube-Linac (APF IH-DTL). It is aimed to increase the output energy of a heavy-ion injector. Carbon ions are initially accelerated with the compact injector to 4 MeV/u, and further accelerated with the post linac up to 8 MeV/u. The three linacs have the same operating frequency of 200 MHz. For beam focusing of the post linac, the APF method is used. Iterative simulations of beam dynamics were performed to determine the optimum array of synchronous phases in each gap. The results of the simulations provided that the calculated efficiency of beam transmission through the post linac is as high as 98.4%. The total length of this APF post linac is estimated to be approximately 3 m. A design overview of the injector system including the post linac is presented.

  10. Design of a post linac for an energy upgrade of a heavy-ion injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Y.; Noda, K.

    2014-07-01

    A post linac is being designed for an energy upgrade of a heavy-ion injector. This post linac is to be installed downstream of the formerly developed compact injector, consisting of an Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion-Source (ECRIS), the Radio-Frequency-Quadrupole (RFQ) linac and the Alternating-Phase-Focused Interdigital H-mode Drift-Tube-Linac (APF IH-DTL). It is aimed to increase the output energy of a heavy-ion injector. Carbon ions are initially accelerated with the compact injector to 4 MeV/u, and further accelerated with the post linac up to 8 MeV/u. The three linacs have the same operating frequency of 200 MHz. For beam focusing of the post linac, the APF method is used. Iterative simulations of beam dynamics were performed to determine the optimum array of synchronous phases in each gap. The results of the simulations provided that the calculated efficiency of beam transmission through the post linac is as high as 98.4%. The total length of this APF post linac is estimated to be approximately 3 m. A design overview of the injector system including the post linac is presented.

  11. Simulators in driver training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be

  12. Simulators in driver training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be adequ

  13. Seven Performance Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Recent work with automotive e-commerce clients led to the development of a performance analysis methodology called the Seven Performance Drivers, including: standards, incentives, capacity, knowledge and skill, measurement, feedback, and analysis. This methodology has been highly effective in introducing and implementing performance improvement.…

  14. Proton beam studies with a 1.25 MeV, cw radio frequency quadrupole linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolme, G.O.; Hardek, T.W.; Hansborough, L.D. [and others

    1998-12-31

    A high-current, cw linear accelerator has been proposed as a spallation neutron source driver for tritium production. Key features of this accelerator are high current (100 mA), low emittance-growth beam propagation, cw operation, high efficiency, and minimal maintenance downtime. A 268 MHz, cw radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) LINAC section and klystrode based rf system were obtained from the Chalk River Laboratories and were previously installed at LANL to support systems development and advanced studies in support of cw, proton accelerators. A variation of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) proton injector, modified to operate at 50 keV, was mated to the RFQ and was operated to support advance developments for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program. High current, proton beam studies were completed which focused on the details of injector-RFQ integration, development of beam diagnostics, development of operations procedures, and personnel and equipment safety systems integration. This development led to acceleration of up to 100 mA proton beam.

  15. The RF-System of the New Gsi High Current Linac Hsi

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, G; Hartmann, W; Kube, G; Pilz, M; Vinzenz, W

    2000-01-01

    The RF part of the new high current injector-linac HSI consists of five cavities with the new operating frequency of 36 MHz instead of 27 MHz of the removed Wideroe type injector. The calculated power requirements of the cavities including beam load in three structures were between 110 kW for a rebuncher and 1.75 MW pulse-power for the two IH-cavities. The beam load is up to 150 kW for the RFQ and up to 750 kW for the two drift tube tanks. An additional 36 MHz debuncher in the transfer line to the Synchrotron (SIS) will need 120 kW pulse power. We decided to fulfil these demands with amplifiers of only two power classes, namely three amplifiers with 2 MW and six amplifiers with 200 kW pulse output power. The latter ones are also used as drivers for the 2 MW stages. The 200 kW amplifiers were specified in detail by GSI and ordered in the industry. The three 2 MW final amplifiers were designed, constructed and built by GSI. The paper gives an overview of the complete RF system and the operating performance of a...

  16. Inductive Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴信东

    1993-01-01

    Machine learning(ML)is a major subfield of artificial intelligence(AI).It has been seen as a feasible way of avoiding the knowledge bottleneck problem in knowledge-based systems development.Research on ML has concentrated in the main on inductive learning,a paradigm for inducing rules from unordered sets of exmaples.AQ11 and ID3,the two most widespred algorithms in ML,are both inductive.This paper first summarizes AQ11,ID3 and the newly-developed extension matrix approach based HCV algorithm;and then reviews the recent development of inductive learing and automatic knowledge acquisition from data bases.

  17. Practicing induction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas; Rohde, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    We claim that induction potentially triggers both individual and organizational learning and by drawing on practice-based theory we discuss how the interplay between individual and organization, what we call a generative dance, ignites both kinds of learning....

  18. Gravitational induction

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Donato; Cherubini, Christian; Chicone, Carmen; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2008-01-01

    We study the linear post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity known as gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM); in particular, we examine the similarities and differences between GEM and electrodynamics. Notwithstanding some significant differences between them, we find that a special nonstationary metric in GEM can be employed to show {\\it explicitly} that it is possible to introduce gravitational induction within GEM in close analogy with Faraday's law of induction and Lenz's law in electrod...

  19. Measuring and Ranking Value Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis of the strength of value drivers is crucial to understand their influence in the process of free cash flow generation. The paper addresses the issue of value driver measurement and ranking. The research reveals that, value drivers have similar pattern across industries.

  20. Measuring and Ranking Value Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis of the strength of value drivers is crucial to understand their influence in the process of free cash flow generation. The paper addresses the issue of value driver measurement and ranking. The research reveals that, value drivers have similar pattern across industries. Furtherm

  1. The pros and cons of safe electronuclear station with accelerator as a driver

    CERN Document Server

    Svistunov, Y A; Gavrish, Y N; Kudinovich, I V; Struev, V P

    2001-01-01

    Creation of 200 MW compact safe energetic installation on a base of a high-temperature, gas-cooled,subcritical reactor was discussed in paper. Chain reaction was initiated by the outer neutron flow. It was proposed to obtain such a source by irradiation of different substances with an intensive proton beam from the linac. Now possibilities of such a scheme are considered in more details.Structure of the reactor active zone is discussed. The use of the cyclotron as a driver is considered as an alternative variant. Problems of reliability, radiation safety and cost of installation are taken into account too.

  2. Beam forming system modernization at the MMF linac proton injector

    CERN Document Server

    Derbilov, V I; Nikulin, E S; Frolov, O T

    2001-01-01

    The isolation improvements of the beam forming system (BFS) of the MMF linac proton injector ion source are reported. The mean beam current and,accordingly, BFS electrode heating were increased when the MMF linac has began to operate regularly in long beam sessions with 50 Hz pulse repetition rate. That is why the BFS electrode high-voltage isolation that was made previously as two consequently and rigidly glued solid cylinder insulators has lost mechanical and electric durability. The substitution of large (160 mm) diameter cylinder insulator for four small diameter (20 mm) tubular rods has improved vacuum conditions in the space of beam forming and has allowed to operate without failures when beam currents being up to 250 mA and extraction and focusing voltage being up to 25 and 40 kV respectively. Moreover,the construction provides the opportunity of electrode axial move. The insulators are free from electrode thermal expansion mechanical efforts in a transverse direction.

  3. Coupler design for an L-band electron linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; TANG Xiao; SHI Rong-Jian; HOU Mi

    2012-01-01

    The RF coupler is a key component for an accelerating structure which is the most important component for a linac.In order to feed microwave power into the accelerating cavities effectively,the coupler has to be well matched with the feeding waveguide.In this paper,an electron linac coupler was designed,constructed and tested.A numerical simulation method based on the Kyhl's method was employed to search for the optimal dimensions of the coupler.The frequency and the coupling coefficient as a function of the coupler dimensions were also calculated.The results fitted the Kyhl's method simulation results well and gave tolerances of the coupler.The coupler was brazed to the accelerating cavities and it was cold-tested and hot-tested.The experimental results were consistent with the numerical simulation results.

  4. High Voltage Installation of PS Linac 1 Preinjector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The high-voltage installation of the linac 1 preinjector in its house-sized Faraday cage. Originally driven by a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator, at the time of this picture the HV came from a 520 kV SAMES generator. The column in the front carries a capacitor. The cubicle in the right background is the electronics platform (see 7403120). The round structure at left houses the ion source, from where the protons (and sometimes other ions), electrostatically accelerated to 520 keV, enter the Alvarez structure of linac 1, to be accelerated to 50 MeV. Jean-Luc Vallet is busy with servicing the installation. See also 7403064X, 7403066X.

  5. Minimizing Energy Spread In The REX/HIE-ISOLDE Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Yucemoz, Mert

    2017-01-01

    This report tries to minimize the energy spread of the beam at the end of the REX-HIE-ISOLDE Linac using the last RF cavity as a buncher. Beams with very low energy spread are often required by the users of the facility In addition, one of the main reason to have minimum energy spread in longitudinal phase space is that higher beam energy spread translates in to a position spread after interacting with target. This causes an overlap in the position of different particles that makes it difficult to distinguish them. Hence, in order to find the operation settings for minimum energy spread at the end of the REX-HIE-ISOLDE linac and to inspect the ongoing physics, several functions on Matlab were created that runs beam dynamics program called “TRACKV39” that provides some graphs and values as a result for analysis.

  6. The CLIC Positron Capture and Acceleration in the Injector Linac.

    CERN Document Server

    Vivoli, Alessandro; Chehab, Robert; Dadoun, Olivier; Lepercq, Pierre; Poirier, Freddy; Rinolfi, Louis; Strakhovenko, Vladimir; Variola, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    The baseline of the CLIC study considers non-polarized e+ for the 3 TeV centre of mass energy. The e+ source is based on the hybrid targets scheme, where a crystal-radiator target is followed by an amorphous-converter target. Simulations have been performed from the exit of the amorphous target up to the entrance of the Pre-Damping Ring. Downstream the amorphous target, there is an Adiabatic Matching Device (AMD) followed by a Pre-Injector Linac accelerating the e+ beam up to around 200 MeV. Then a common Injector Linac (for both e+ and e-) accelerates the beams up to 2.86 GeV before being injected into the Pre-Damping Ring. In this note, the characteristics of the AMD and the other sections are described and the beam parameters at the entrance of the Pre-Damping Ring are given.

  7. Room-temperature LINAC structures for the spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billen, J. H. (James H.); Young, L. M. (Lloyd M.); Kurennoy, S. (Sergey); Crandall, K. R. (Kenneth R.)

    2001-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is building room-temperature rf accelerating structures for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). These structures, for H{sup -} ions, consist of six 402.5-MHz, 2-MW drift-tube linac (DTL) tanks from 2.5 to 87 MeV followed by four 805-MHz, 4-MW coupled-cavity linac (CCL) modules to 186 MeV. The DTL uses permanent magnet quadrupoles inside the drift tubes arranged in a 6{beta}{lambda} FFODDO lattice with every third drift tube available for diagnostics and steering. The CCL uses a 13{beta}{lambda} FODO electromagnetic quadrupole lattice. Diagnostics and magnets occupy the 2.5{beta}{lambda} spaces between 8-cavity segments. This paper discusses design of the rf cavities and low-power modeling work.

  8. Status of the Linac based positron source at Saclay

    CERN Document Server

    Rey, J -M; Debu, P; Dzitko, H; Hardy, P; Liszkay, L; Lotrus, P; Muranaka, T; Noel, C; Perez, P; Pierret, O; Ruiz, N; Sacquin, Y

    2013-01-01

    Low energy positron beams are of major interest for fundamental science and materials science. IRFU has developed and built a slow positron source based on a compact, low energy (4.3 MeV) electron linac. The linac-based source will provide positrons for a magnetic storage trap and represents the first step of the GBAR experiment (Gravitational Behavior of Antimatter in Rest) recently approved by CERN for an installation in the Antiproton Decelerator hall. The installation built in Saclay will be described with its main characteristics. The ultimate target of the GBAR experiment will be briefly presented as well as the foreseen development of an industrial positron source dedicated for materials science laboratories.

  9. ANU LINAC upgrade using multi-stub resonators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D C Weisser; N R Lobanov

    2002-11-01

    A proposal has been prepared to upgrade the LINAC at ANU, using re-plated PbSn split loop resonators performing at 3.6 MV/m, and the addition of two- and three-stub resonators. The system is designed to provide 6 MeV/a.m.u. 107Ag starting with gas-stripped beam from the 14 UD, which is then foil-stripped before the LINAC. No major changes to the beam optics components will be required other than addition of a large bore rebuncher in the middle of the 180° achromat. Models of the two- and three-stub resonators have been built and optimized for the goal frequency, for the separation of accelerating and other modes as well as for the minimization of the current in the demountable joints. A copper prototype has been constructed and is being plated with PbSn for cold testing.

  10. Linac4 low energy beam measurements with negative hydrogen ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivens, R; Bellodi, G; Crettiez, O; Dimov, V; Gerard, D; Granemann Souza, E; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Lallement, J-B; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A; Midttun, Ø; Pasquino, C; Raich, U; Riffaud, B; Roncarolo, F; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Wallner, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Zickler, T

    2014-02-01

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H(-) linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ (Radiofrequency Quadrupole) has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H(-) beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  11. SPLinac Computer Simulations of SC Linac RF Systems with Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    The beam in a proton linac is very sensitive to field perturbations in the cavities. Therefore a simulation program was written modeling longitudinal beam dynamics in a realistic composite linac RF system. Fast RF vector sum feedback loops control several cavities with b-dependent transit time factors driven by one transmitter. Modeling of feedback loops covers limited transmitter power and bandwidth and possible loop-delay. Vector sum calibration errors, power splitting errors and scatter in the coupling strength to the cavities are optional as well as beam loading of the pulsing beam. Different modes of mechanical cavity perturbations including Lorentz force detuning can be chosen. A multitude of phase-space representation of bunches as well as RF quantity plots are available, most of them can be assembled as a movie, showing the system dynamics in 'real time'.

  12. MODEL BENCHMARK WITH EXPERIMENT AT THE SNS LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL; Aleksandrov, Alexander V [ORNL; Liu, Yun [ORNL; Plum, Michael A [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The history of attempts to perform a transverse match-ing in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconduct-ing linac (SCL) is discussed. The SCL has 9 laser wire (LW) stations to perform non-destructive measurements of the transverse beam profiles. Any matching starts with the measurement of the initial Twiss parameters, which in the SNS case was done by using the first four LW stations at the beginning of the superconducting linac. For years the consistency between data from all LW stations could not be achieved. This problem was resolved only after significant improvements in accuracy of the phase scans of the SCL cavities, more precise analysis of all available scan data, better optics planning, and the initial longitudi-nal Twiss parameter measurements. The presented paper discusses in detail these developed procedures.

  13. Depolarization in the ILC Linac-to-Ring Positron Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Riemann, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    To achieve the physics goals of future Linear Colliders, it is important that electron and positron beams are polarized. The positron source planned for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is based on a helical undulator system and can deliver a polarised beam with positron polarization of 60%. To ensure that no significant polarization is lost during the transport of the electron and positron beams from the source to the interaction region, spin tracking has to be included in all transport elements which can contribute to a loss of polarization. These are the positron source, the damping ring, the spin rotators, the main linac and the beam delivery system. In particular, the dynamics of the polarized positron beam is required to be investigated. The results of positron spin tracking and depolarization study at the Positron-Linac-To-Ring (PLTR) beamline are presented.

  14. Development of RF System Model for CERN Linac2 Tanks

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, G; Vretenar, M; Kumar, G; Agarwal, V

    2010-01-01

    An RF system model has been created for the CERN Linac2 Tanks. RF systems in this linac have both single and double feed architectures. The main elements of these systems are: RF power amplifier, main resonator, feed-line and the amplitude and phase feedback loops. The model of the composite system is derived by suitably concatenating the models of these individual sub-systems. For computational efficiency the modeling has been carried out in the base band. The signals are expressed in in-phase - quadrature domain, where the response of the resonator is expressed using two linear differential equations, making it valid for large signal conditions. MATLAB/SIMULINK has been used for creating the model. The model has been found useful in predicting the system behaviour, especially during the transients. In the paper we present the details of the model, highlighting the methodology, which could be easily extended to multiple feed RF systems.

  15. Suppression of microbunching instability in the linac coherent light source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Huang

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A microbunching instability driven by longitudinal space charge, coherent synchrotron radiation, and linac wakefields is studied for the linac coherent light source (LCLS accelerator system. Since the uncorrelated (local energy spread of electron beams generated from a photocathode rf gun is very small, the microbunching gain may be large enough to significantly amplify rf-gun generated modulations or even shot-noise fluctuations of the electron beam. The uncorrelated energy spread can be increased by an order of magnitude to provide strong Landau damping against the instability without degrading the free-electron laser performance. We study different damping options in the LCLS and discuss an effective laser heater to minimize the impact of the instability on the quality of the electron beam.

  16. Accelerator control system at KEKB and the linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Atsuyoshi; Furukawa, Kazuro; Kadokura, Eiichi; Kurashina, Miho; Mikawa, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Odagiri, Jun-ichi; Satoh, Masanori; Suwada, Tsuyoshi

    2013-03-01

    KEKB has completed all of the technical milestones and has offered important insights into the flavor structure of elementary particles, especially CP violation. The accelerator control system at KEKB and the injector linac was initiated by a combination of scripting languages at the operation layer and EPICS (experimental physics and industrial control system) at the equipment layer. During the project, many features were implemented to achieve extreme performance from the machine. In particular, the online linkage to the accelerator simulation played an essential role. In order to further improve the reliability and flexibility, two major concepts were additionally introduced later in the project, namely, channel access everywhere and dual-tier controls. Based on the improved control system, a virtual accelerator concept was realized, allowing the single injector linac to serve as three separate injectors to KEKB's high-energy ring, low-energy ring, and Photon Factory, respectively. These control technologies are indispensable for future particle accelerators.

  17. Linac4 Low Energy Beam Measurements with Negative Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Scrivens, R; Crettiez, O; Dimov, V; Gerard, D; Granemann Souza, E; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Lallement, J B; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A; Midttun, O; Pasquino, C; Raich, U; Riffaud, B; Roncarolo, F; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Wallner, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Zickler, T

    2014-01-01

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H- linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H- beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  18. Control system by the technological electron Linac KUT-20

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, Y I; Gurin, V A; Demidov, N V

    2001-01-01

    The high-power technological electron linac KUT-20 was developed at the Science Research Complex 'Accelerator' of NSC KIPT. The linac consists of two 1.2 m length accelerating structures with a variable geometry and an injector. The latter comprises a diode electron gun,a klystron type buncher and an accelerating cavity.With a RF supply power at accelerating structure entries of 11 MW and with a current at the accelerator exit of 1A,the beam energy will be up to 20 MeV.An average beam power is planned to be 20 kW.All systems of the accelerator are controlled by a computerised control system. The program and technical complex consist of PC equipped with fast ADC control console, synchronization unit, microprocessor-operated complexes.

  19. Linac4 low energy beam measurements with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrivens, R., E-mail: richard.scrivens@cern.ch; Bellodi, G.; Crettiez, O.; Dimov, V.; Gerard, D.; Granemann Souza, E.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lettry, J.; Lombardi, A.; Midttun, Ø.; Pasquino, C.; Raich, U.; Riffaud, B.; Roncarolo, F.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.; Wallner, J.; Yarmohammadi Satri, M.; Zickler, T. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H{sup −} linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ (Radiofrequency Quadrupole) has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H{sup −} beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  20. Design of a Marx-Topology Modulator for FNAL Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Garcia, F. G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kufer, M. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pfeffer, H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wolff, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-04-28

    The Fermilab Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) was formed in late 2011 to address important and necessary upgrades to the Proton Source machines (Injector line, Linac and Booster). The goal is to increase the proton flux by doubling the Booster beam cycle rate while maintaining the same intensity per cycle, the same uptime, and the same residual activation in the enclosure. For the Linac, the main focus within PIP is to address reliability. One of the main tasks is to replace the present hard-tube modulator used on the 200 MHz RF system. Plans to replace this high power system with a Marx-topology modulator, capable of providing the required waveform shaping to stabilize the accelerating gradient and compensate for beam loading, will be presented, along with development data from the prototype unit.

  1. System design for the FAIR proton LINAC BPMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forck, Peter; Almalki, Mohammed; Clemente, Gianluigi; Groening, Lars; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Kowina, Piotr [GSI (Germany); Simon, Claire [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France). IRFU; Ackermann, Wolfgang [TU Darmstadt (Germany). TEMF

    2013-07-01

    The planned Proton LINAC at the FAIR facility will provide a beam current of 70 mA accelerated to 70 MeV by novel CH-type DTLs. Four-fold button Beam Position Monitor (BPM) will be installed at 14 locations along the LINAC. The specification for position measurement is 0.1 mm spatial resolution and for time-of-flight beam velocity determination the accuracy must be 8.5 ps corresponding to 1 degree with respect to the 325 MHz acceleration frequency. Finite element and finite integration technique calculations by CST Particle Studio for non-relativistic velocities were performed to determine the signal characteristic in time- and frequency domain. Most of these BPMs are mounted only about 40 mm upstream of the CH cavities and the BPM signal strength caused by the cavity residual rf-power was estimated. The technical layout of the BPM system is discussed.

  2. A development of BPM for P-LINAC at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almalki, Mohammed; Kester, Oliver; Forck, Peter; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Sieber, Thomas; Kowina, Piotr; Vinzenz, Wolfgang; Krueger, Christoph [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Simon, Claire [CEA/DSM/IRFU (France); Tinta, Dejan; Hrovatin, Rok; Lemut, Promoz [Instrumentation Technologies, Solkan (Slovenia)

    2014-07-01

    Four-fold button Beam Position Monitor (BPM) has been developed for the planned Proton LINAC at the FAIR facility. These monitors will be installed at 14 locations along the LINAC and four of them will be mounted only about 40 mm upstream of the CH cavities. A BPM prototype will be fabricated to evaluate the rf power at the BPM location as generated by cavity excitation as well as to test different options in the mechanical design. For the read-out electronics, the I/Q digital signal processing will be implemented to derive the transverse beam position and the beam phase. This contribution presents the status of the BPM development and focuses on the mechanical design and the optimization of the button pick-ups. The development progress of digital signal processing system is discussed as well.

  3. Suppression of Microbunching Instability in the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z

    2004-03-02

    A microbunching instability driven by longitudinal space charge, coherent synchrotron radiation, and linac wakefields is studied for the linac coherent light source (LCLS) accelerator system. Since the uncorrelated (local) energy spread of electron beams generated from a photocathode rf gun is very small, the microbunching gain may be large enough to significantly amplify rf-gun generated modulations or even shot-noise fluctuations of the electron beam. The uncorrelated energy spread can be increased by an order of magnitude to provide strong Landau damping against the instability without degrading the free-electron laser performance. We study different damping options in the LCLS and discuss an effective laser heater to minimize the impact of the instability on the quality of the electron beam.

  4. The Development of the Linac Coherent Light Source RF Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Dowell, David H; Lewandowski, James; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile; Li, Zenghai; Schmerge, John; Vlieks, Arnold; Wang, Juwen; Xiao, Liling

    2015-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is the first x-ray laser user facility based upon a free electron laser (FEL). In addition to many other stringent requirements, the LCLS XFEL requires extraordinary beam quality to saturate at 1.5 angstroms within a 100 meter undulator.[1] This new light source is using the last kilometer of the three kilometer linac at SLAC to accelerate the beam to an energy as high as 13.6 GeV and required a new electron gun and injector to produce a very bright beam for acceleration. At the outset of the project it was recognized that existing RF guns had the potential to produce the desired beam but none had demonstrated it. This paper describes the analysis and design improvements of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA s-band gun leading to achievement of the LCLS performance goals.

  5. Design of a Marx-Topology Modulator for FNAL Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, T A; Kufer, M R; Pfeffer, H; Wolff, D

    2015-01-01

    The Fermilab Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) was formed in late 2011 to address important and necessary upgrades to the Proton Source machines (Injector line, Linac and Booster). The goal is to increase the proton flux by doubling the Booster beam cycle rate while maintaining the same intensity per cycle, the same uptime, and the same residual activation in the enclosure. For the Linac, the main focus within PIP is to address reliability. One of the main tasks is to replace the present hard-tube modulator used on the 200 MHz RF system. Plans to replace this high power system with a Marx-topology modulator, capable of providing the required waveform shaping to stabilize the accelerating gradient and compensate for beam loading, will be presented, along with development data from the prototype unit.

  6. Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Design Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornacchia, Massimo

    1998-12-04

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the University of California at Los Angeles, is proposing to build a Free-Electron-Laser (FEL) R and D facility operating in the wavelength range 1.5-15 {angstrom}. This FEL, called the ''Linac Coherent Light Source'' (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC linac and produces sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength x-rays with very high peak brightness and full transverse coherence. Starting in FY 1998, the first two-thirds of the SLAC linac will be used for injection into the B factory. This leaves the last one-third free for acceleration to 15 GeV. The LCLS takes advantage of this opportunity, opening the way for the next generation of synchrotron light sources with largely proven technology and cost effective methods. This proposal is consistent with the recommendations of the Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (Synchrotron Radiation Light Source Working Group, October 18-19, 1997). The report recognizes that ''fourth-generation x-ray sources...will in all likelihood be based on the free electron laser concepts. If successful, this technology could yield improvements in brightness by many orders of magnitude.'' This Design Study, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of constructing an x-ray FEL based on the SLAC linac. Although this design is based on a consistent and feasible set of parameters, some components require more research and development to guarantee the performance. Given appropriate funding, this R and D phase can be completed in 2 years.

  7. Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    2002-11-25

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the University of California at Los Angeles, have collaborated to create a conceptual design for a Free-Electron-Laser (FEL) R&D facility operating in the wavelength range 1.5-15 {angstrom}. This FEL, called the ''Linac Coherent Light Source'' (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC linac and produces sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength x-rays with very high peak brightness and full transverse coherence. The first two-thirds of the SLAC linac are used for injection into the PEP-II storage rings. The last one-third will be converted to a source of electrons for the LCLS. The electrons will be transported to the SLAC Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) Facility, which will be extended to house a 122-m undulator system. In passing through the undulators, the electrons will be bunched by the force of their own synchrotron radiation to produce an intense, spatially coherent beam of x-rays, tunable in energy from 0.8 keV to 8 keV. The LCLS will include two experiment halls as well as x-ray optics and infrastructure necessary to make use of this x-ray beam for research in a variety of disciplines such as atomic physics, materials science, plasma physics and biosciences. This Conceptual Design Report, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of constructing an x-ray FEL based on the SLAC linac.

  8. delta. t tuneup procedure for the LAMPF 805-MHz linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, K.R.

    1976-05-01

    An important part of tuning the LAMPF accelerator is the adjustment of the phases and amplitudes in the 805-MHz linac. The technique used is called the ..delta..t procedure because of the time-of-flight measurements that are required. The theory behind the ..delta..t procedure, a brief description of the hardware, and a description of the many computer programs that have been written to implement the procedure are presented.

  9. BEAM POSITION AND PHASE MONITORS FOR THE LANSCE LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrady, Rodney C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Watkins, Heath A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-11

    New beam-position and phase monitors are under development for the linac at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE.) Transducers have been designed and are being installed. We are considering many options for the electronic instrumentation to process the signals and provide position and phase data with the necessary precision and flexibility to serve the various required functions. We'll present the various options under consideration for instrumentation along with the advantages and shortcomings of these options.

  10. Literature Review on LINACs and FFAGs for Hadron Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú-Andrés, Silvia; Amaldi, Ugo; Faus-Golfe, Ángeles

    The document summarizes the recent papers, presentations and other public information on Radio-Frequency (RF) Linear Accelerators (linacs) and Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators for hadron therapy. The main focus is on technical aspects of these accelerators. This report intends to provide a general overview of the state-of-the-art in those accelerators which could be used in short and middle-term for treating cancer.

  11. High duty factor plasma generator for CERN's Superconducting Proton Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J; Kronberger, M; Scrivens, R; Chaudet, E; Faircloth, D; Favre, G; Geisser, J-M; Küchler, D; Mathot, S; Midttun, O; Paoluzzi, M; Schmitzer, C; Steyaert, D

    2010-02-01

    CERN's Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator currently under construction. It will inject negatively charged hydrogen ions into CERN's PS-Booster. Its ion source is a noncesiated rf driven H(-) volume source directly inspired from the one of DESY and is aimed to deliver pulses of 80 mA of H(-) during 0.4 ms at a 2 Hz repetition rate. The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) project is part of the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. It consists of an extension of Linac4 up to 5 GeV and is foreseen to deliver protons to a future 50 GeV synchrotron (PS2). For the SPL high power option (HP-SPL), the ion source would deliver pulses of 80 mA of H(-) during 1.2 ms and operate at a 50 Hz repetition rate. This significant upgrade motivates the design of the new water cooled plasma generator presented in this paper. Its engineering is based on the results of a finite element thermal study of the Linac4 H(-) plasma generator that identified critical components and thermal barriers. A cooling system is proposed which achieves the required heat dissipation and maintains the original functionality. Materials with higher thermal conductivity are selected and, wherever possible, thermal barriers resulting from low pressure contacts are removed by brazing metals on insulators. The AlN plasma chamber cooling circuit is inspired from the approach chosen for the cesiated high duty factor rf H(-) source operating at SNS.

  12. Design and Construction of the Linac4 Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, F; Dallocchio, A; Favre, G; Vretenar, M; Wegner, R; Tirado, P Ugena; Rossi, C; Riffaud, B; Ramberger, S; Polini, M; Gentini, L; Geisser, JM; Giguet, JM; Mathot, S; Naumenko, M; Kendjebulatov, E; Tribendis, A; Kryuchkov, Ya

    2013-01-01

    The Linac4 project at CERN is at an advanced state of construction. Prototypes and/or operational modules of the different types of accelerating structures (RFQ, buncher, DTL, CCDTL, and PIMS) have been built and are presently tested. This paper gives the status of the cavity production and reviews the RF and mechanical design of the various structure types. Furthermore the production experience and the first test results shall be presented.

  13. Temperature Regulation of the Accelerating Section in CANDLE Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Tunyan, Sergey; Grigoryan, Bagrat

    2005-01-01

    The temperature of the CANDLE S-Band Linac high-power RF components will be regulated by stand-alone closed loop (SACL) water system. The RF components are made of oxygen-free high conductivity copper and respond quickly to temperature changes. Temperature stabilization better than ± 0.1 C is required to achieve a good RF phase and energy stability. The temperature regulation and control philosophy along with the simulation results are discussed.

  14. Modeling of the RF system for the normal conducting linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Zhe-Qiao; HOU Mi; PEI Guo-Xi

    2008-01-01

    To study the new RF control methods, a mathematic model of the RF system for the normal conducting linac is built and implemented with the software of Matlab. The model contains some typical units of the RF system, such as the klystron, the SLED and the traveling wave accelerating tube. Finally, the model is used to study the working point of the SLED and the adaptive feed forward algorithm for the RF control system. Simulation shows that the model works well as expected.

  15. HIGH DYNAMIC-RANGE HIGH SPEED LINAC CURRENT MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibele, Craig Edmond [ORNL; Curry, Douglas E [ORNL; Dickson, Richard W [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    It is desired to measure the linac current of a charged particle beam with a consistent accuracy over a dynamic range of over 120 dB. Conventional current transformers suffer from droop, can be susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and can be bandwidth limited. A novel detector and electronics were designed to maximize dynamic range of about 120 dB and measure rise-times on the order of 10 nanoseconds.

  16. Design of heavy-ion APF-IH type linac for atomic physics and medical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, T.; Hattori, T.; Kashiwagi, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Matsui, S.; Dudu, D.; Osvath, E.; Vata, I.; Yamada, S.

    2002-04-01

    We have studied a compact heavy-ion linac for atomic physics and medical use. The design of the linac was based on using alternating-phase-focus (APF) and interdigital-H (IH) structures which give sufficient electric power efficiency. Thereby, it will be possible to design a small and high efficiency linac. The APF-IH linac was designed to accelerate ions from C 2+ to U 40+, from 30 to 300 keV/u and an operating frequency of 100 MHz. We made a half-scale cold model of this linac using orbit calculation and measured its RF characteristics. Then, we designed a APF-IH type linac using the results of the measurement.

  17. Design of heavy-ion APF-IH type linac for atomic physics and medical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, T. E-mail: hata@es.titech.ac.jp; Hattori, T.; Kashiwagi, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Matsui, S.; Dudu, D.; Osvath, E.; Vata, I.; Yamada, S

    2002-04-01

    We have studied a compact heavy-ion linac for atomic physics and medical use. The design of the linac was based on using alternating-phase-focus (APF) and interdigital-H (IH) structures which give sufficient electric power efficiency. Thereby, it will be possible to design a small and high efficiency linac. The APF-IH linac was designed to accelerate ions from C{sup 2+} to U{sup 40+}, from 30 to 300 keV/u and an operating frequency of 100 MHz. We made a half-scale cold model of this linac using orbit calculation and measured its RF characteristics. Then, we designed a APF-IH type linac using the results of the measurement.0.

  18. Recent improvements to software used for optimization of SRF linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Tom J. [JLAB

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a software tool that allows one to vary parameters and understand the effects on the optimized costs of construction plus 10 year operations of an SRF linac, where operation costs includes the cost of the electrical utilities but not the labor or other costs. The program includes estimates for the associated cryogenic facility, and controls hardware. The software interface provides the ability to vary the cost of the different aspects of the machine as well as to change the cryomodule and cavity types. Additionally, this work will describe the recent improvements to the software that allow one to estimate the costs of energy-recovery based linacs and to enter arbitrary values of the low field Q0 and Q0 slope. The initial goal when developing the software was to convert a spreadsheet format to a graphical interface and to allow the ability to sweep different parameter sets. The tools also allow one to compare the cost of the different facets of the machine design and operations so as to better understand tradeoffs. An example of how it was used to independently investigate cost optimization tradeoffs for the LCLS-II linac will also be presented.

  19. A High Intensity Linac for the National Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, A.; Bhatia, T.; Billen, J.; Schrage, D.; Kurennoy, S.; Krawczyk, F.; Lynch, M.; Nath, S.; Shafer, R.; Takeda, H.; Tallerico, P.; Wangler, T.; Wood, R.; Young, L.; Grand, P.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.

    1997-05-01

    The National Spallation Neutron Source to be constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, requires a linac capable of delivering up to 5 MW of beam power to an accumulator ring with a nominal 6.2% duty factor and an energy of 1 GeV. Los Alamos, responsible for the linac design, has developed an appropriate room-temperature linac that consists of a drift-tube section from 2.5 to 20 MeV, a coupled-cavity drift-tube section to 100 MeV, and a coupled-cavity section to 1 GeV. The initial scenario requires an average 1.1-mA beam current with a corresponding 28 mA peak current and a 1.2-Mhz chopped time structure corresponding to the ring period. Upgrade to a 4.4 mA average current requires funneling with a peak current of 112 mA in the high-energy sections. Further parameters are presented along with beam dynamics and structure choices and mechanical and rf engineering considerations.

  20. Beam dynamics simulations for linacs driving short-wavelength FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrario, M.; Tazzioli, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori nazionali di Frascati; Serafini, L. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    The fast code HOMDYN has been recently developed, in the framework of the TTF (Tesla test facility) collaboration, in order to study the beam dynamics of linacs delivering high brightness beams as those needed for short wavelength Fel experiments. These linacs are typically driven by radio-frequency photo-injectors, where correlated time dependent space charge effects are of great relevance: these effects cannot be studied by standard beam optics codes (TRACE3D, etc.) and they have been modeled so far by means of multi-particle (Pic or quasistatic) codes requiring heavy cpu time and memory allocations. HOMDYN is able to describe the beam generation at the photo-cathode and the emittance compensation process in the injector even running on a laptop with very modest running rimes (less than a minute). In this paper it is showed how this capability of the code is exploited so to model a whole linac up to the point where the space charge dominated regime is of relevance (200 MeV).

  1. Design development of the SCDTL structure for the TOP linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Spataro, B.

    1999-04-01

    The Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) is an attractive 3 GHz accelerating structure composed of short DTL tanks coupled together by side coupling cavities, in the course of development of the 200 MeV proton linear accelerator for proton therapy planned for the Terapia Oncologica con Protoni (TOP) program of the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS). The TOP Linac will be used to boost to 70 MeV the 7 MeV proton beam from a linac injector. Our main concern is to investigate in detail the characteristics of the structure in terms of RF properties of the accelerating mode, like longitudinal and transverse shunt impedance and quality factor, and of the other modes that cause the origin of the tank dispersion curve, in order to stabilize the behaviour under operating conditions. Calculations performed with the computer three-dimensional (3D) codes MAFIA and SOPRANO on the smallest unit of the system (a single DTL tank without coupling cavities) and experimental measurements made on a prototype have shown good agreement. Two possible supporting stem configurations (single stem and two stems 180° apart for each drift tube) were examined and a comparison of the results in both cases are discussed.

  2. Design development of the SCDTL structure for the TOP linac

    CERN Document Server

    Picardi, L; Spataro, B

    1999-01-01

    The Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) is an attractive 3 GHz accelerating structure composed of short DTL tanks coupled together by side coupling cavities, in the course of development of the 200 MeV proton linear accelerator for proton therapy planned for the Terapia Oncologica con Protoni (TOP) program of the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita, ISS). The TOP Linac will be used to boost to 70 MeV the 7 MeV proton beam from a linac injector. Our main concern is to investigate in detail the characteristics of the structure in terms of RF properties of the accelerating mode, like longitudinal and transverse shunt impedance and quality factor, and of the other modes that cause the origin of the tank dispersion curve, in order to stabilize the behaviour under operating conditions. Calculations performed with the computer three-dimensional (3D) codes MAFIA and SOPRANO on the smallest unit of the system (a single DTL tank without coupling cavities) and experimental measurements m...

  3. Design of the SNS Normal Conducting Linac RF Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Regan, A; Rohlev, T S; Wang, Y M; Prokop, M S; Thomson, D W; Regan, Amy; Kwon, Sung-il; Rohlev, Tony S.; Wang, Yi-Ming; Prokop, Mark S.; Thomson, David W.

    2000-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is being designed for operation in 2004. The SNS is a 1 GeV machine consisting of a combination normal-conducting and super-conducting linac as well as a ring and target area. The linac front end is a 402.5 MHz RFQ being developed by Lawrence Berkeley Lab. The DTL (at 402.5 MHz) and the CCL (at 805 MHz) stages are being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The expected output energy of the DTL is 87 MeV and that of the CCL is 185 MeV. The RF control system under development for the linac is based on the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) control system with some new features. This paper will discuss the new design approach and its benefits. Block diagrams and circuit specifics will be addressed. The normal conducting RF control system will be described in detail with references to the super-conducting control system where appropriate.

  4. H- Ion Sources For CERN’s Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Coutron, Y; Chaudeta, E; Dallocchio, A; Gil Flores, J; Hansen, J; Mahner, E; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, O; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; O’Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Sanchez Arias, J; Schmitzer, C; Scrivens, R; Steyaert, D

    2013-01-01

    The specifications set to the Linac4 ion source are: H- ion pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 80 mA intensity and 45 keV energy within a normalized emittance of 0.25 mmmrad RMS at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. In 2010, during the commissioning of a prototype based on H- production from the plasma volume, it was observed that the powerful co-extracted electron beam inherent to this type of ion source could destroy its electron beam dump well before reaching nominal parameters. However, the same source was able to provide 80 mA of protons mixed with a small fraction of H2+ and H3+ molecular ions. The commissioning of the radio frequency quadrupole accelerator (RFQ), beam chopper and H- beam diagnostics of the Linac4 are scheduled for 2012 and its final installation in the underground building is to start in 2013. Therefore, a crash program was launched in 2010 and reviewed in 2011 aiming at keeping the original Linac4 schedule with the following deliverables: Design and production of a volume ion source prototype suitabl...

  5. Effects Of Field Distortions In Ih-apf Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, Valery; Yamada, S

    2004-01-01

    The project on developing compact medical accelera-tors for the tumor therapy using carbon ions has been started at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Alternating-phase-focused (APF) linac using an interdigital H-mode (IH) cavity has been proposed for the injector linac. The IH-cavity is doubly ridged circular resonator loaded by the drift-tubes mounted on ridges with supporting stems. The effects of intrinsic and random field distortions in a practical design of the 4-MeV/u 200 MHz IH-APF linac are considered. The intrinsic field distortions in IH-cavity are caused by the asymmetry of the gap field due to presence of the drift-tube supporting stems and pair of ridges. The random field distortions are caused by drift-tube misalignments and non-regular deviations of the voltage distribution from programmed law. The RF fields in IH-cavity have been calculated using Microwave Studio (MWS) code. The effects of field distortions on beam dynamics have been simulated numerically.

  6. Multiple-linac approach for tritium production and other applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1995-01-10

    This report describes an approach to tritium production based on the use of multiple proton linear accelerators. Features of a single APTT Linac as proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory are presented and discussed. An alternative approach to the attainment of the same total proton beam power of 200 MW with several lower-performance superconducting Linacs is proposed and discussed. Although each of these accelerators are considerable extrapolations of present technology, the latter can nevertheless be built at less technical risk when compared to the single high-current APT Linac, particularly concerning the design and the performance of the low-energy front-end. The use of superconducting cavities is also proposed as a way of optimizing the accelerating gradient, the overall length, and the operational costs. The superconducting technology has already been successfully demonstrated in a number of large-size projects and should be seriously considered for the acceleration of intense low-energy beams of protons. Finally, each linear accelerator would represent an ideal source of very intense beams of protons for a variety of applications, such as: weapons and waste actinide transmutation processes, isotopes for medical application, spallation neutron sources, and the generation of intense beams of neutrinos and muons for nuclear and high-energy physics research. The research community at large has obviously an interest in providing expertise for, and in having access to, the demonstration, the construction, the operation, and the exploitation of these top-performance accelerators.

  7. H$^{-}$ ion source for CERN's Linac4 accelerator: simulation, experimental validation and optimization of the hydrogen plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, Stefano; Lettry, Jacques

    2017-07-25

    Linac4 is the new negative hydrogen ion (H$^-$) linear accelerator of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Its ion source operates on the principle of Radio-Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma (RF-ICP) and it is required to provide 50~mA of H$^-$ beam in pulses of 600~$\\mu$s with a repetition rate up to 2 Hz and within an RMS emittance of 0.25~$\\pi$~mm~mrad in order to fullfil the requirements of the accelerator. This thesis is dedicated to the characterization of the hydrogen plasma in the Linac4 H$^-$ ion source. We have developed a Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collision (PIC-MCC) code to simulate the RF-ICP heating mechanism and performed measurements to benchmark the fraction of the simulation outputs that can be experimentally accessed. The code solves self-consistently the interaction between the electromagnetic field generated by the RF coil and the resulting plasma response, including a kinetic description of charged and neutral species. A fully-implicit implementation allowed to si...

  8. Circuital Model for Post Coupler Stabilization in a Drift Tube Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Grespan, F; Ramberger, S; Vretenar, M

    2010-01-01

    Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) cavities will be equipped with Post Couplers (PCs) for field stabilization. The study presented in this paper starts with the analysis of 2D and 3D simulations of post couplers in order to develop an equivalent circuit model which can explain the post coupler stabilization working principle and define a tuning strategy for DTL cavities. Simulations and equivalent circuit results have been verified by measurements on the Linac4 DTL prototypes at CERN.

  9. ACCELERATORS: Emittance coupling driven by space charge in the CSNS linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xue-Jun; Fu, Shi-Nian; Peng, Jun

    2009-09-01

    In the conventional design of RF linacs, the bunched beams are not in thermal equilibrium. The space charge forces couple the particle motions between the transverse and the longitudinal directions. Furthermore it will cause the equipartitioning process which leads to emittance growth and halo formation. In the design of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) linac, three cases are investigated using the Hofmann stability charts. In this paper, we present the equipartitioning beam study of the CSNS Alvarez DTL linac.

  10. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  11. Stereotactic LINAC radiosurgery for the treatment of brainstem cavernomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuetsch, M.; El Majdoub, F.; Hoevels, M.; Sturm, V.; Maarouf, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery; Mueller, R.P. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-04-15

    Background: The management of deep-seated cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) is still controversial. Although surgery remains the treatment of choice in patients with recurrent hemorrhage, patients with CCMs located in the brainstem are in many cases not eligible for resection due to high procedure-related morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the long-term outcome of LINAC radiosurgery (LINAC-RS) for the treatment of brainstem CCMs. Patients and methods: Between December 1992 and March 2008, 14 patients (6 men, 8 women) harboring brainstem CCMs underwent LINAC-RS. Pretreatment neuroimaging showed no associated developmental venous angiomas (DVAs) in any of our patients. Prior to treatment, all patients suffered at least from one symptomatic hemorrhage (median 1.8, range 1-3). A median follow-up of 7.1 years (range 2.0-16.8 years) could be obtained in 12 patients. We applied a median tumor surface dose of 13.9 Gy (range 11-18 Gy; median tumor volume 1.6 ml, range 0.4-4.3 ml). Results: Following LINAC-RS, neurological outcome improved in 4 (33.3%) and remained unchanged in 8 patients (66.7%). Rebleeding with subsequent transient neurological status deterioration occurred in 4 patients (33.3%), leading to additional surgical resection in 2 patients (16.7%). The corresponding annual hemorrhage rate was 4.8% (4/82.8 patient-years). Adverse radiation effects (ARE, defined by perilesional hyperintensity on T{sub 2}-weighted MR images) were revealed in 3 patients (25%), leading to transient neurological deficits in 2 patients (16.7%). There were no procedure-related complications leading to either permanent morbidity or mortality. Conclusion: Our results support the role of LINAC-RS as an efficient and safe treatment to significantly reduce the annual hemorrhage rate in patients suffering from brainstem CCMs not eligible to microsurgery. Compared with radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the intervention-related morbidity is higher. (orig.)

  12. High-Power Linac for the Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rej, D. J.

    2002-04-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be the world’s most intense source of neutrons for fundamental science and industrial applications. Design and construction of this facility, located at Oak Ridge, is a joint venture between six DOE laboratories. Construction began in 1999 and is currently ahead of the scheduled 2006 completion date. Injecting a high-power, pulsed proton beam into a mercury target produces neutrons. In this talk, we review the physics requirements, design, and status of the construction of the 1-GeV, 1.4-MW average power RF linac for SNS. The accelerator consists of a drift tube linac (DTL), a coupled-cavity linac (CCL), and a superconducting rf (SRF) linac. The phase and quadrupole settings are set to avoid structure and parametric resonances, with coherent resonances posing minimal risk for emittance growth. The DTL is 37 m long and accelerates the ions to 87 MeV. The CCL is 55 m long and accelerates the ions to 186 MeV. The rf structure design and stability for both the DTL and CCL have been validated with scale models. The SRF linac has a modular design to accelerate ions to 1000 MeV, with a straightforward upgrade to 1.3 GeV at a later date. 3D particle-in-cell simulations of beam dynamics are performed to validate performance. The accelerator utilizes 93 MW of pulsed power operating continuously at 60-Hz with an 8factor. Approximately one hundred 402.5 or 805-MHz klystrons, with outputs between 0.55 and 5 MW, are used. The klystrons are powered by a novel converter-modulator that takes advantage of recent advances in IGBT switch plate assemblies and low-loss material cores for boost transformer. Beam diagnostics include position, phase, profile, and current monitors. They are designed to enable accurate beam steering and matching, and to minimize beam loss that would lead to activation and prevent hands-on maintenance.

  13. Square pulse linear transformer driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The linear transformer driver (LTD technological approach can result in relatively compact devices that can deliver fast, high current, and high-voltage pulses straight out of the LTD cavity without any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The usual LTD architecture [A. A. Kim, M. G. Mazarakis, V. A. Sinebryukhov, B. M. Kovalchuk, V. A. Vizir, S. N Volkov, F. Bayol, A. N. Bastrikov, V. G. Durakov, S. V. Frolov, V. M. Alexeenko, D. H. McDaniel, W. E. Fowler, K. LeCheen, C. Olson, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, J. Porter, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402; M. G. Mazarakis, W. E. Fowler, A. A. Kim, V. A. Sinebryukhov, S. T. Rogowski, R. A. Sharpe, D. H. McDaniel, C. L. Olson, J. L. Porter, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, and J. R. Woodworth, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050401 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050401] provides sine shaped output pulses that may not be well suited for some applications like z-pinch drivers, flash radiography, high power microwaves, etc. A more suitable power pulse would have a flat or trapezoidal (rising or falling top. In this paper, we present the design and first test results of an LTD cavity that generates such a type of output pulse by including within its circular array a number of third harmonic bricks in addition to the main bricks. A voltage adder made out of a square pulse cavity linear array will produce the same shape output pulses provided that the timing of each cavity is synchronized with the propagation of the electromagnetic pulse.

  14. Induction Brazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul

    . The method has proven to give successful results in brazing tube-plate joints of copper-brass, copper-stainless steel, stainless steel-brass, and stainless steel-stainless steel. A new design of an adjustable flux concentrator for induction heating tube-to-plate joints is proposed and tested on a variety......Induction brazing is a fast and appropriate method for industrial joining of complex geometries and metal combinations. In all types of brazing processes it is important to heat the joint interface of the two materials to the same, high temperature. If one of the specimens is warmer than the other...... materials has large influence on the heating time and temperature distribution in induction heating. In order to ensure high and uniform temperature distribution near the interface of a joint between dissimilar materials the precise coil geometry and position is of great importance. The present report...

  15. Preliminary design studies of a 100 MeV H-/H+ LINAC as injector for SNS synchrotron/ADS LINAC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S A Pande; Moonooku Prasad; Nita Kulkarni; P R Hannurkar

    2002-11-01

    It is proposed to construct a spallation neutron source (SNS) at Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT) based on a 1 GeV proton synchrotron with 100 MeV H- LINAC as injector. Additionally, the LINAC can form the first 100 MeV part of a 1 GeV proton LINAC to be built in future for accelerator driven system (ADS) applications. We are exploring a configuration of the 100 MeV LINAC which will consist of an H- ion source, a 4–6 MeV RFQ followed either by a 20 MeV drift tube LINAC (DTL) and 100 MeV separated function drift tube LINAC (SDTL) or a coupled cavity drift tube LINAC (CCDTL) structure. In this paper, we present the results of our preliminary physics design studies of the RFQ–SDTL, RFQ–CCDTL and RFQ–DTL–SDTL configurations. The design of the 4.5 MeV RFQ is discussed along with the matching sections between the RFQ–SDTL/DTL and RFQ–CCDTL. The choice of the accelerator configuration and that of various parameters of the individual accelerator structures under consideration are discussed. The design objectives are to arrive at a configuration which eases heat removal for CW operation and which is less prone to halo formation in order to reduce the beam loss at higher energies.

  16. Vacuum arc plasma thrusters with inductive energy storage driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A plasma thruster with a cylindrical inner and cylindrical outer electrode generates plasma particles from the application of energy stored in an inductor to a surface suitable for the formation of a plasma and expansion of plasma particles. The plasma production results in the generation of charged particles suitable for generating a reaction force, and the charged particles are guided by a magnetic field produced by the same inductor used to store the energy used to form the plasma.

  17. An Improved SF6 System for the FXR Induction Linac Blumlein Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHope, W; Kihara, R; Griffin, K L; Ong, M; Ross, T

    2007-06-16

    The now-mature FXR (Flash X-Ray) radiographic facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will be briefly described with emphasis on its pulsed power system. The heart of each accelerating cell's pulse forming Blumlein is it's sulfur hexafluoride-based triggered closing switch. FXR's recent upgrade to a recirculating SF{sub 6} gas reclamation system will be described and the resulting accelerator performance and reliability improvements documented. This was accompanied by a detailed switch breakdown study on FXR's Test Stand and the recent analysis of the resulting statistics will be shown.

  18. JLAMP: AN AMPLIFIER-BASED FEL IN THE JLAB SRF ERL DRIVER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Jordan; Stephen V. Benson; David Douglas; Pavel Evtushenko; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; George R. Neil

    2007-06-13

    Notional designs for energy-recovering linac (“ERL”) -driven high average power free electron lasers (“FEL”s) often invoke amplifier-based architectures. To date, however, amplifier FELs have been limited in average power output to values several orders of magnitude lower than those demonstrated in optical-resonator based systems; this is due at least in part to the limited electron beam powers available from their driver accelerators. In order to directly contrast the performance available from amplifiers to that provided by high-power cavity-based resonators, we have developed a scheme to test an amplifier FEL in the JLab SRF ERL driver. We describe an accelerator system design that can seamlessly and non-invasively integrate a 10 m wiggler into the existing system and which provides, at least in principle, performance that would support high-efficiency lasing in an amplifier configuration. Details of the design and an accelerator performance analysis will be presented

  19. TRIUMF ARIEL e-linac design study%TRIUMF ARIEL 电子直线加速器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫芳; R.E.Laxdal

    2011-01-01

    TRIUMF的三期升级工程(ARIEL)计划建造一个50 MeV平均流强为10 mA的电子直线加速器作为注入器,通过光裂反应生成放射性核素.电子直线加速器包括两个主要部分:注入器和后加速器,注入器完成电子能量从100 keV到10MeV的转换,随后的后加速器将电子能量从10 MeV加速到50 MeV.电子源拟采用重复频率为650 MHz的热电子枪提供初始能量为100 keV,束长为171 ps的电子束.束流动力学模拟了几种不同的设计方案以获得最优化的设计,模拟显示通过对腔体以及聚焦元件的仔细设计以及电子枪出射电子的参数选择,电子束能量在达到50 MeV时束长可以被聚焦到11.75 ps(对应于1.3 GHz频率下5.5°),并且可以使电子束在超导低温柜中的尺寸保持在1.26 cm以下.%The proposed TRIUMF ARIEL project plans to build a 50 MeV electron linac at 10 mA to produce radioactive ion beams through photo-fission.The electron linac includes two major parts: injector section and driver linac.The injector section is required to accelerate electron beams from 100 kev to 10 MeV, and the following driver linac boosts the energy from 10 MeV to 50 MeV.The electron initial energy from the thermionic gun is 100 kev and 171 ps bunch length with a repetition rate of 650 MHz.Several variants of configurations have been proposed and studied to get an optimized solution.Simulations show that with careful design and specific input parameters after the gun, the beam at 50 MeV can be bunched into 11.75 ps (5.5° at 1.3 GHz) with the maximum beam size inside the superconducting cryomodule less than 1.26 cm.

  20. Treatment of intracranial meningioma with linac based radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Chul Seung; Yoon, Sei Chul; Chung, Su Mi; Ryu, Mi Ryung; Kim, Yeon Sil; Suh, Tae Suk; Choi, Kyu Ho; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Moon Chan [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    To evaluate the role of linac based radiosurgery (RS) in the treatment of meningiomas, we retrospectively analyzed the results of clinical and follow up CT/MRI studies. From the 1988 July to 1998 April, twenty patients of meningioma had been treated with 6 MV linear accelerator based radiosurgery. Of the 20 patients, four (20%) were male and 16 (80%) were female. Mean age was 51 years old (22-78 years old). Majority of intracranial location of tumor for RS were parasagittal and sphenoid wing area. RS was done for primary treatment in 6 (30%), postoperative residual lesions in 11 (55%) and regrowth after surgery in 3 (15%). Mean tumor volume was 5.72 cm{sup 3} (0.78 - 15.1 cm{sup 3}) and secondary collimator size was 2.04 cm (1-3 cm). The periphery of tumor margin was prescribed with the mean dose of 19.6 Gy (9-30 Gy) which was 40-90% of the tumor center dose. The follow up duration ranged from 2.5 to 109 months (median 53 months). Annual CT/MRI scan was checked. By the follow up imaging studies, the tumor volume was reduced in 5 cases (25%), arrested growth in 14 cases (70%), and increased size in 1 case (15%). Among these responsive and stable 19 patients by imaging studies, there showed loss of contrast enhancement after CT/MRI in four patients. In clinical response, nine (45%) patients were considered improved condition, 10 (50%) patients were stable and one (5%) was worsened to be operated. This partly resulted in necrosis after surgery.The overall control rate of meningiomas with linac based RS was 95% by both imaging follow-up and clinical evaluation. With this results, linac based RS is considered safe and effective treatment method for meningioma.

  1. Counter-driver shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamba, T.; Nguyen, T. M.; Takeya, K.; Harasaki, T.; Iwakawa, A.; Sasoh, A.

    2015-11-01

    A "counter-driver" shock tube was developed. In this device, two counter drivers are actuated with an appropriate delay time to generate the interaction between a shock wave and a flow in the opposite direction which is induced by another shock wave. The conditions for the counter drivers can be set independently. Each driver is activated by a separate electrically controlled diaphragm rupture device, in which a pneumatic piston drives a rupture needle with a temporal jitter of better than 1.1 ms. Operation demonstrations were conducted to evaluate the practical performance.

  2. Reducing the beam current in Linac4 in pulse to pulse mode.

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    In order to deliver different beam intensities to users, we studied the possibility of varying the Linac4 beam current at PS Booster injection in pulse to pulse mode. This report gives the possible configurations of Linac4 Low and Medium Energy Beam Transport lines (LEBT and MEBT) that lead to a consistent current reduction.

  3. Dedicated Linac for Radioneurosurgery at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-López, Miguel A.; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José M.

    2003-09-01

    The objective is to present a description and the main clinical applications of this dedicated Linac for benign and malignant tumors in the central nervous system. The Novalis (BrainLab, Germany) is a 6 MV dedicated linac for a single high dose Radiosurgery (RS) and for fractionated doses in Stereotactic Radiotherapy with a high level of precision at the isocenter.

  4. Release the beams! - Linac4 ready to hit the 50 MeV mark

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The Linac4 accelerator is now prepared to reach 50 MeV. This milestone energy - expected in the coming weeks - will allow the machine to act as a replacement for the ageing Linac2, four years before it takes over at the head of the accelerator chain in 2020.    Inside the Linac4 tunnel, the final DTL cavities will guide beams to 50 MeV.  (Image: Stephan Russenschuck.) The Linac4 accelerator will bring H- ion beams (hydrogen atoms with an extra electron) up to 160 MeV for injection into the PS Booster. As a key part of the LHC injector upgrade programme, Linac4 will allow the PS Booster to double its beam brightness, which will contribute to increasing the LHC’s luminosity. Linac4 will soon bring beams up to 50 MeV - the current energy delivered by the Linac2 accelerator. This milestone follows on from another recent accomplishment: the installation and commissioning of the final Drift Tube Linac (DTL) tank. Using an innovati...

  5. Application of electron linacs in medicine, food sterilization and synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, D.T. (General Electric - CGR MeV, 78 - Buc (France))

    1989-04-01

    A review of the state of the art and new trends in electron linac technology is given with emphasis on three particular applications: radiotherapy, food sterilization and synchrotron light sources. The requirements on linac performances that these applications call for, namely energy variation flexibility, high power, high energy and lost cost, will open lincas to new applications to come. (orig.).

  6. WE-D-BRD-01: Innovation in Radiation Therapy Delivery: Advanced Digital Linac Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, L [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Wong, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Li, R [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Last few years has witnessed significant advances in linac technology and therapeutic dose delivery method. Digital linacs equipped with high dose rate FFF beams have been clinically implemented in a number of hospitals. Gated VMAT is becoming increasingly popular in treating tumors affected by respiratory motion. This session is devoted to update the audience with these technical advances and to present our experience in clinically implementing the new linacs and dose delivery methods. Topics to be covered include, technical features of new generation of linacs from different vendors, dosimetric characteristics and clinical need for FFF-beam based IMRT and VMAT, respiration-gated VMAT, the concept and implementation of station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT), beam level imaging and onboard image guidance tools. Emphasis will be on providing fundamental understanding of the new treatment delivery and image guidance strategies, control systems, and the associated dosimetric characteristics. Commissioning and acceptance experience on these new treatment delivery technologies will be reported. Clinical experience and challenges encountered during the process of implementation of the new treatment techniques and future applications of the systems will also be highlighted. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of emerging digital linacs and summarize their key geometric and dosimetric features. SPORT as an emerging radiation therapy modality specifically designed to take advantage of digital linacs. Discuss issues related to the acceptance and commissioning of the digital linacs and FFF beams. Describe clinical utility of the new generation of digital linacs and their future applications.

  7. Design of APhF-IH Linac for a Compact Medical Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, V; Iwata, Y

    2003-01-01

    The design of a small injection linac for a compact medical synchrotron is discussed. The linac design is based on interdigital H-type (IH) drift-tube structure with alternative phase focusing (APhF). A high acceleration rate and an absence of magnetic lenses inside drift-tubes reduce the cost and length of APhF-IH linac in comparison with HIMAC linac based on Alvarez structure with magnet quadrupoles inside drift-tubes. To reduce effects of emittance growth, the RFQ structure is used in front of the APhF linac. In such linac layout, the current transmission of a carbon beam can reach up to 90-100%. In this report, the basic parameters of whole linac are presented, while the design of APhF structure is considered in details. Two reference designs of 4 MeV/u 200 MHz APhF linacs with different voltage distributions along the whole tank have been generated and analyzed numerically. For the first design, a constant voltage distribution along the tank is assumed. The total length of the structure is about 4.2 m. F...

  8. Driver Fatigue Features Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengtian Niu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver fatigue is the main cause of traffic accidents. How to extract the effective features of fatigue is important for recognition accuracy and traffic safety. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new method of driver fatigue features extraction based on the facial image sequence. In this method, first, each facial image in the sequence is divided into nonoverlapping blocks of the same size, and Gabor wavelets are employed to extract multiscale and multiorientation features. Then the mean value and standard deviation of each block’s features are calculated, respectively. Considering the facial performance of human fatigue is a dynamic process that developed over time, each block’s features are analyzed in the sequence. Finally, Adaboost algorithm is applied to select the most discriminating fatigue features. The proposed method was tested on a self-built database which includes a wide range of human subjects of different genders, poses, and illuminations in real-life fatigue conditions. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Fast SCR Thyratron Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, M.N.; /SLAC

    2007-06-18

    As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 {Omega} load with pulse duration of 1.5 {mu}s FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred.

  10. Dextromethorphan in Wisconsin drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochems, Amy; Harding, Patrick; Liddicoat, Laura

    2007-05-01

    Dextromethorphan is a synthetic analogue of codeine used in hundreds of over-the-counter medications for its antitussive effects. There have been numerous reports of dextromethorphan abuse by young adults. Dextromethorphan can produce psychoactive effects similar to that of marijuana, and higher doses will produce dissociative effects, including sensory enhancement and hallucinations. The Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene examined data from blood samples submitted from January 1999 through December 2004 to determine the incidence of dextromethorphan in suspected impaired drivers. A total of 108 samples were found to be positive for dextromethorphan during this time. Dextromethorphan concentrations in these cases ranged from less than 5 to 1800 ng/mL (mean 207 ng/mL), compared to an expected therapeutic concentration range of 0.5-5.9 ng/mL. Overall, the highest dextromethorphan concentrations observed were in males aged 16-20 years. Ninety-six percent of the specimens included in this study were also found to be positive for drugs other than dextromethorphan. A review of police and drug recognition expert reports from several of these cases showed that dextromethorphan-impaired drivers exhibited poor psychomotor performance on standardized field sobriety tests, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus, and overall signs of central nervous system depression.

  11. Driver behaviour at roadworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves.

  12. On structure design for the CLIC Booster Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Darvish, Esmat

    2015-01-01

    Using the SUPERFISH code we present a design for a traveling wave (TW) structure of the Booster Linac for CLIC. The structure, consisting of thirty asymmetric cells attached to the beam pipes at two ends, works in 2π/3 operating mode at working frequency 2 GHz. For the corresponding operating mode and frequency, the RF field configuration transmitted through the cavity is obtained. The results are prepared in an RF field data file to be used in the PARMELA code for further beam dynamic study.

  13. An application of the RFQ Linac: Nuclear waste assay characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, K.; Schultz, F.; Womble, P.; Humphrey, D.; Vourvopoulos, G.

    1997-02-01

    A collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Western Kentucky University examines the problem of characterization and assay of nuclear waste with high intrinsic neutron and gamma-ray fields. This waste is defined as Remote Handled-Transuranic waste (RH-TRU). A Radiofrequency Quadrupole Linac is used to produce pulses of neutrons, which impinge on the drum that contains the nuclear waste. The neutrons, after being thermalized in the matrix of the drum, are captured by the fissile material (239Pu or 235U), which releases fast neutrons upon fission. Experimental results will be presented to show the versatility of employing the RFQ with the Differential Die-away Technique.

  14. Beam loss control in the LINAC4 design

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, J; Crandall, K

    2010-01-01

    The Linac4 DTL reference design has been modified to reduce the power consumption in tank 1 by modifying the accelerating field and phase law. In addition we have adopted an FFDD focusing lattice throughout to minimize expected losses resulting from alignment errors. We have observed, however, that this design suffers from decreasing transverse acceptance and a sensitivity to misalignments that causes any expected beam loss to occcur at the high energy end of the DTL. In this note we investigate two solutions to increase the acceptance, decrease its sensitivity to misalignments and eliminate the potential for a beam-loss “bottleneck” at 50 MeV.

  15. RADIATION PROTECTION OF LINAC BUNKERS. A USER-FRIENDLY APPROACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Sørensen, Thyge; Olsen, Kjeld Jørgen; Behrens, Claus Flensted

    2015-01-01

    A well-known but complex formalism for the calculation of the leakage dose at the entrance of the linac maze was considered and simplified. These simplifications were based partly on the literature and partly on the authors' own measurements. The authors have included photon scatter originating f...... from the irradiated patient in the formalism. A formalism for two different types of bunkers was developed, and the authors have obtained simple formulas to calculate the dose at the maze entrance for both bunker types....

  16. Past, Present and Future of Linac 2 Vacuum System

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E

    2011-01-01

    This note aims to review the past, present, and future operation of CERN's Linac 2 vacuum system. The machine vacuum system layout with its major components is summarized. Operational problems arising in 2006 yielded to a leak test campaign of the whole machine, which detected a new, major leak on tank 3. Details about the mitigation of this leak are described as well as additional diagnostics installed during shutdown 2006/07. The pressure evolution of the most critical vacuum sector is analyzed. A statistics of vacuum system faults observed since 2000 is presented and compared with other systems. Finally, a perspective for the vacuum system operation until 2017/18 is outlined.

  17. Monitoring of the Stanford Linac microbunches' position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denard, J.C.; Oxoby, G.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Williams, S.

    1983-01-01

    A new hardware has been developed to measure the trajectory of microbunches along the Stanford Linac. To be suitable for the operation of the SLAC Single Pass Collider, the bunches absolute position must be kept within +-100 microns of the accelerator center, and the acquisition of this measurement must be made along the machine in a snapshot fashion. Typically, the position of three bunches will be monitored during subsequent shots; we expect a minimum charge of 10/sup 9/ particles per bunch and a time spacing between bunches of 50 nanoseconds. The mechanics of the position detectors is described as well as the general system organization and the calibration of various components.

  18. Accelerators for hadrontherapy: From Lawrence cyclotrons to linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaldi, U.; Bonomi, R.; Braccini, S.; Crescenti, M.; Degiovanni, A.; Garlasché, M.; Garonna, A.; Magrin, G.; Mellace, C.; Pearce, P.; Pittà, G.; Puggioni, P.; Rosso, E.; Verdú Andrés, S.; Wegner, R.; Weiss, M.; Zennaro, R.

    2010-08-01

    Hadrontherapy with protons and carbon ions is a fast developing methodology in radiation oncology. The accelerators used and planned for this purpose are reviewed starting from the cyclotrons used in the thirties. As discussed in the first part of this paper, normal and superconducting cyclotrons are still employed, together with synchrotrons, for proton therapy while for carbon ion therapy synchrotrons have been till now the only option. The latest developments concern a superconducting cyclotron for carbon ion therapy, fast-cycling high frequency linacs and 'single room' proton therapy facilities. These issues are discussed in the second part of the paper by underlining the present challenges, in particular the treatment of moving organs.

  19. Design of a Cavity of Drift Tube Linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiu-long; LV; Wei-xing; LI; Jin-hai; HUANG; Jun; WU; Qing-feng

    2013-01-01

    The drift tube Linac(DTL)is used as accelerating of low energy proton beam with high intensity.Its operating frequency is 325 MHz with handling power of 2.5 kW.The cavity of DTL consists of circularwaveguide,drift tube,post coupler and tuner.First,the beam parameters of the cavity of DTL is calculated by using beam dynamic codes,and then the electromagnetic field distribution and RF parameters of the cavity of DTL is calculated by using

  20. Digital RF phase detector for Linac in FEL accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lu-Yang; YIN Chong-Xian; LIU De-Kang

    2005-01-01

    The digital RF (Radio Frequency) phase detector based on commercial PXI (PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation) modules for the Linac is fully described in the paper. The DBM (Double Balance Mixer) is used as the phase detector and its control and data acquisition system is based on the PXI bus. The software adopts a curve fitting algorithm. The prototype has been tested in the laboratory and the good resolution, accuracy, reproducibility and reliability are expected. The system does not present the problems of analog solution.

  1. Tools to Predict Beam Breakup in Recirculating Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Beard; Nikolitsa Merminga; Byung Yunn

    2003-05-01

    An important limitation on the maximum beam current in a recirculating linac is due to beam breakup caused by higher order modes (HOM) excited in the RF cavities. A HOM delivers a transverse kick to a beam bunch, the bunch on the next pass can then drive the HOM and cause it to grow until the beam is lost. Two codes, MATBBU1 and TDBBU2, have been written to estimate the threshold current for a set of HOMs and accelerator optics. The relative merits and limitations of each is discussed in detail.

  2. Future Possibilities of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornacchia, M

    2003-12-02

    A study of the potential for the development of the Linac Coherent Light Source beyond the specifications of the baseline design is presented. These future developments include delivery of x-ray pulses in the one femtosecond regime, extension of the spectral range, increase of the FEL power, exploitation of the spontaneous emission, and a more flexible time structure. As this potential is exploited, the LCLS can maintain its role as a world leading instrument for many years beyond its commissioning in 2008 and initial operation as the world's first x-ray free-electron laser.

  3. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul [Muplus, Inc., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-19

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently, a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  4. Preinjector for Linac 1, inside the Faraday cage

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. Here, the view is towards the upper level of the Faraday cage. Far to the right, a technician is peering through the service door. The huge box-shaped cubicle is the electronics platform, at 520 kV potential during operation. The "bull eye" at the left back sits at the top end of the accelerating column (see 7403081X) and houses the ion source with its electronics (see 7403083X). The SAMES generator, providing the 520 kV HV (7403074) sits on the floor and is not visible here.

  5. Driver style and driver skills – clustering drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ......, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...... and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic, as well as to test for heterogeneity across the population, namely whether the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender...

  6. Compact Electron-Linac Design Concept for a Gamma Ray Source

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, K C D; Dale, G; Garnett, R; Kirbie, C; Krawczyk, F L; Russell, S J; Wangler, T P

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray sources, particularly sources that are easily transportable, are in high demand for different homeland security applications. We have carried out a review of commercially available electron-linac-based sources, and have investigated alternative compact electron-linac systems that use updated technologies compared with sources that are available commercially. As the results, we propose to develop a new source using an electron linac operating at 17 GHz. It uses a klystron, instead of a magnetron, and a IGBT-switched HV power supply. The source design takes advantages of the advances in X-band linac technology and solid-state HV technology. The higher frequency and upgraded technologies offer smaller size, lighter weight, better efficiency, easier operation, and higher reliability, compared with commercially-available linacs. In this paper, we will describe the source design and our choice of technologies.

  7. Beam Dynamics Based Design of Solenoid Channel for TAC Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kisoglu, H F

    2014-01-01

    Today a linear particle accelerator (linac), in which electric and magnetic fields are of vital importance, is one of the popular energy generation sources like Accelerator Driven System (ADS). A multipurpose, including primarily ADS, proton linac with energy of ~2 GeV is planned to constitute within the Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) project collaborated by more than 10 Turkish universities. A Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) channel with two solenoids is a subcomponent of this linac. It transports the proton beam ejected by an ion source, and matches it with the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) that is an important part of the linac. The LEBT channel would be consisted of two focusing solenoids and some diagnostic elements such as faraday cup, BC transformers, etc. This paper includes a beam dynamical design and optimization study of LEBT channel for TAC proton linac done by using a beam dynamics simulation code PATH MANAGER and comparing of the simulation results with the theoretical expectations.

  8. Induction practice -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Nicolas; Sprogøe, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    that induction potentially triggers both individual and organizational learning and by drawing on practice-based theory we discuss how the interplay between individual and the organization, what we call agenerative dance, ignites both kinds of learning. We focus on and describe the interplay , ignites both kinds...... of learning. We focus on and describe the interplay that takes place in particular induction events and analyze the "dance" through the lens of learning. The paper concludes with a brief discussion about the implications for practitioners and the challenges and future research prospects we have encountered....... We draw on an empirical enquiry in two organizational settings, a Danish management consulting company and a German retail bank....

  9. Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) design study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the University of California at Los Angeles, is proposing to build a Free-Electron-Laser (FEL) R and D facility operating in the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode in the wavelength range 1.5--15 {angstrom}. This FEL, called Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC linac and produces sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength x-rays with very high peak brightness and full transverse coherence. In this report, the Design Team has established performance parameters for all the major components of the LCLS and developed a layout of the entire system. Chapter 1 is the Executive Summary. Chapter 2 (Overview) provides a brief description of each of the major sections of the LCLS, from the rf photocathode gun, through the experimental stations and electron beam dump. Chapter 3 describes the scientific case for the LCLS. Chapter 4 provides a review of the principles of the FEL physics that the LCLS is based on, and Chapter 5 discusses the choice of the system's physical parameters. Chapters 6 through 10 describe in detail each major element of the system. Chapters 11 through 13 respectively cover undulator controls, mechanical alignment, and radiation issues.

  10. Beam Position-Phase Monitors for SNS Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey

    Electromagnetic modeling with MAFIA of the combined beam position-phase monitors (BPPMs) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac has been performed. Time-domain 3-D simulations are used to compute the signal amplitudes and phases on the BPPM electrodes for a given processing frequency, 402.5 MHz or 805 MHz, as functions of the beam transverse position. Working with a summed signal from all the BPPM electrodes provides a good way to measure accurately the beam phase. While for an off-axis beam the signal phases on the individual electrodes can differ from those for a centered beam by a few degrees, the phase of the summed signal is found to be independent of the beam transverse position inside the device. Based on the analysis results, an optimal BPPM design with 4 one-end-shorted 60-degree electrodes has been chosen. It provides a good linearity and sufficient signal power for both position and phase measurements, while satisfying the linac geometrical constrains and mechanical requirements.

  11. Beam Position-Phase Monitors for SNS Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, S S

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic modeling with MAFIA of the combined beam position-phase monitors (BPPMs) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac has been performed. Time-domain 3-D simulations are used to compute the signal amplitudes and phases on the BPPM electrodes for a given processing frequency, 402.5 MHz or 805 MHz, as functions of the beam transverse position. Working with a summed signal from all the BPPM electrodes provides a good way to measure accurately the beam phase. While for an off-axis beam the signal phases on the individual electrodes can differ from those for a centered beam by a few degrees, the phase of the summed signal is found to be independent of the beam transverse position inside the device. Based on the analysis results, an optimal BPPM design with 4 one-end-shorted 60-degree electrodes has been chosen. It provides a good linearity and sufficient signal power for both position and phase measurements, while satisfying the linac geometrical constrains and mechanical requirements.

  12. Modulators for the S-band test linac at DESY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, M.; Choroba, S.; Hameister, J.; Lewin, H.-Ch.

    1995-07-01

    The development of adequate modulators for high peak power klystrons is one of the focus points for linear collider R&D programs. For the DESY/THD S-band linear collider study 150 MW rf-pulse power at 50 Hz repetition rate and 3 μs pulse duration is required [1]. Two different modulator schemes are under investigation. One is the conventional line type pulser, using a pulse forming network and a step up transformer, the other one is a hard tube pulser, using a dc power source at the full klystron voltage and a switch tube. This paper is focused on the modulator development for the S-band Test Linac at DESY. After a short overview over the test linac and a brief description of the 150 MW S-band klystron the circuitry of the line type pulse (LTP) is given. A hard tube pulser (HTP), which switches the high voltage directly from a storage capacitor to the klystron, has been built up at DESY. Circuitry and the results of the commissioning of the switch tube are reported.

  13. Beam tests on a proton linac booster for hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    De Martinis, C; Berra, P; Birattari, C; Calabretta, L; Crandall, K; Giove, D; Masullo, M R; Mauri, M; Rosso, E; Rovelli, A; Serafini, L; Szeless, Balázs; Toet, D Z; Vaccaro, Vittorio G; Weiss, M; Zennaro, R

    2002-01-01

    LIBO is a 3 GHz modular side-coupled proton linac booster designed to deliver beam energies up to 200 MeV, as required for the therapy of deep seated tumours. The injected beam of 50 to 70 MeV is produced by a cyclotron like those in several hospitals and research institutes. A full-scale prototype of the first module with an input/output energy of 62/74 MeV, respectively, was designed and built in 1999 and 2000. Full power RF tests were carried out successfully at CERN using a test facility at LIL at the end of the year 2000. In order to prove the feasibility of the acceleration process, an experimental setup with this module was installed at the INFN Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud (LNS) in Catania during 2001. The superconducting cyclotron provided the 62 MeV test beam. A compact solid-state RF modulator with a 4 MW klystron, made available by IBA-Scanditronix, was put into operation to power the linac. In this paper the main features of the accelerator are reviewed and the experimental results obtained duri...

  14. Dosimetric Algorithm to Reproduce Isodose Curves Obtained from a LINAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo. PMID:25045398

  15. Energy-Spread-Feedback System for the KEKB Injector Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Satoh, Masanori; Suwada, Tsuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    New energy-spread feedback system using nondestructive energy-spread monitors have been developed in order to control and stabilize the energy spreads of single-bunch electron and positron beams in the KEKB injector linac. The well-controlled feedback systems of the injector linac are successfully working in dairy operation not only for keeping the injection rate higher along with the beam-orbit and energy feedback systems but also for reducing a background level to the high-energy B-factory experiment. The energy spreads of the injection beams are well stabilized within 0.2%, 0.5% and 0.3% for the electron beam, the positron beam, and the high-current primary electron beam for positron production, respectively, through the energy-spread feedback system under the nominal operation condition. In this paper, we will report in detail the energy-spread feedback system using the nondestructive energy-spread monitors with multi-strip-line electrodes and their performance in the KEKB operation.

  16. High-Current Energy-Recovering Electron Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolitsa Merminga; David Douglas; Geoffrey Krafft

    2003-12-01

    The use of energy recovery provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices, electron-ion colliders, and other applications in photon science and nuclear and high-energy physics. Energy-recovering electron linear accelerators (called energy-recovering linacs, or ERLs) share many characteristics with ordinary linacs, as their six-dimensional beam phase space is largely determined by electron source properties. However, in common with classic storage rings, ERLs possess a high average-current-carrying capability enabled by the energy recovery process, and thus promise similar efficiencies. The authors discuss the concept of energy recovery and its technical challenges and describe the Jefferson Lab (JLab) Infrared Demonstration Free-Electron Laser (IR Demo FEL), originally driven by a 3548-MeV, 5-mA superconducting radiofrequency (srf) ERL, which provided the most substantial demonstration of energy recovery to date: a beam of 250 kW average power. They present an overview of envisioned ERL applications and a development path to achieving the required performance. They use experimental data obtained at the JLab IR Demo FEL and recent experimental results from CEBAF-ERL GeV-scale, comparatively low-current energy-recovery demonstration at JLab to evaluate the feasibility of the new applications of high-current ERLs, as well as ERLs' limitations and ultimate performance.

  17. Dosimetric algorithm to reproduce isodose curves obtained from a LINAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo.

  18. Dosimetric Algorithm to Reproduce Isodose Curves Obtained from a LINAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Estrada Espinosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel’s size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel’s size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo.

  19. CABOTO, a high-gradient linac for hadrontherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú-Andrés, Silvia; Amaldi, Ugo; Faus-Golfe, Angeles

    2013-07-01

    The field of hadrontherapy has grown rapidly in recent years. At present the therapeutic beam is provided by a cyclotron or a synchrotron, but neither cyclotrons nor synchrotrons present the best performances for hadrontherapy. The new generation of accelerators for hadrontherapy should allow fast active energy modulation and have a high repetition rate, so that moving organs can be appropriately treated in a reasonable time. In addition, a reduction of the dimensions and cost of the accelerators for hadrontherapy would make the acquisition and operation of a hadrontherapy facility more affordable, which would translate into great benefits for the potential hadrontherapy patients. The 'cyclinac', an accelerator concept that combines a cyclotron with a high-frequency linear accelerator (linac), is a fast-cycling machine specifically conceived to allow for fast active energy modulation. The present paper focuses on CABOTO (CArbon BOoster for Therapy in Oncology), a compact, efficient high-frequency linac that can accelerate C(6+) ions and H2 molecules from 150-410 MeV/u in ∼24 m. The paper presents the latest design of CABOTO and discusses its performances.

  20. F-18 production with the TOP linac injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianfarani, Cesidio [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Cisbani, Evaristo [ISS, Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome (Italy); Orlandi, Gianluca [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Frullani, Salvatore [ISS, Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: salvatore.frullani@iss.infn.it; Picardi, Luigi [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Ronsivalle, Concetta [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy)

    2006-06-23

    ENEA and ISS (Italian National Institute of Health), are collaborating to develop a dedicated proton medical accelerator, TOP (Oncological Therapy with Protons) linac, consisting of a sequence of three pulsed linear accelerators. The 7 MeV injector can be used in three operating modes: Protontherapy and Radiobiology Mode-injecting low current proton beam into the TOP linac accelerating sections; Radioisotope Mode-generating an intense proton beam (8-10 mA, 50-100 {mu}s, 30-100 Hz) to produce the positron-emitting radionuclide F18 for PET analyses. In the high current mode, at the exit of the injector the beam is guided through a magnetic quadrupoles channel to a target composed by a thin chamber (0.5 mm thick and 1 in. diameter) containing water enriched with O18. Production yield as well as total activity similar to these achieved with higher energy cyclotrons have been obtained. Environmental doses measured give indications on the shielding required for operation under current radioprotection regulations. Improvements are foreseen to optimize the production yield, the useful beam current and to better characterize gamma and neutron dose rates in the different operational modes.

  1. Beam instrumentation for the HIE Isolde linac at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Sosa, A; Fraser, MA; Kadi, Y; Voulot, D; Wenander, F; Zocca, F; Sosa, A; Welsch, CP; Larman, A; Galipienzo, J

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the High Intensity and Energy (HIE)-ISOLDE project at CERN, a beam instrumentation R&amp;amp;D program is on-going for the superconducting upgrade of the REX-ISOLDE heavy-ion post-accelerator. An overview of the foreseen beam diagnostics system is presented, focusing on the challenging specifications required by the HIE-ISOLDE linac. Due to the low beam intensities, the beam instrumentation will be based on high-sensitivity intercepting devices. The project includes intensity, position and transverse profile monitors to be installed in the very narrow space available in between the superconducting cryomodules. In addition, spectroscopy and time of flight (ToF) monitors are foreseen downstream of the linac to measure the energy and time distribution of the beams and to allow for a fast phase tuning of the superconducting cavities. An emittance meter will finally provide transverse emittance measurements based on the phase space sampling technique. The design status of the differ...

  2. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    Drawing upon extant alliance literature, this article substantiates the argument that we need to look beyond mere structural and formative aspects of cooperation in order to fully understand the performance antecedents of public-private partnerships. Currently, scholarly work on operational...... processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...

  3. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...... on the empirical material, the paper proposes a ‘driver’ model for context sensitive research of innovation in welfare workplaces. The model involves three elements which can be regarded as drivers for innovation: i) craft (i.e. professional skills and knowledge), ii) levers (i.e. experiments and adjustment...... that are not necessarily perceived, performed, and changed in phases. A pragmatic and situated perspective on welfare innovation suggests a conception of welfare innovation which is not translated from firm innovation, but derived directly from welfare contexts....

  4. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X

    2015-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  5. Induction Brazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul

    , or if the hottest area is located outside the joint interface, a number of defects may appear: the braze metal may flow away from the joint, the flux may burn off, poor binding of the braze metal may appear or the braze metal may be overheated. Joint geometry as well as electro-magnetic properties of the work piece......Induction brazing is a fast and appropriate method for industrial joining of complex geometries and metal combinations. In all types of brazing processes it is important to heat the joint interface of the two materials to the same, high temperature. If one of the specimens is warmer than the other...

  6. Radiological safety around a Linac of 18 MV; Seguridad radiologica alrededor de un LINAC de 18 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceron R, P.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Calz. Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Paredes G, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Sanchez, A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Edif. 9, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: victceronr@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 09868 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    There are now several neutron detection systems, such as proportional counters based on BF{sub 3}, He{sub 3} and Bonner sphere spectrometers. However, the cost and complexity of the implementation of such systems makes them inaccessible for dosimetry purposes in radiotherapy rooms (Rt) and other facilities with this type of radiation fields. For these reasons the use of a neutron detection system is proposed composed by a paraffin moderator media forming an array 4π (spheres) and several pairs of thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD 600/TLD 700 inside, in order to make useful measurements for radiation protection around high-energy lineal accelerators (Linacs). In the first part of this work the system response when irradiated with a source of Pu Be and their corresponding calibration factor is displayed. In the second part are presented the ambient dose equivalent (H(10)) due to neutrons at various points of a living of Rt with a Linac of 18 MV, which are in the order mSv/Gy by X-ray treatment. The measurements made are similar to those taken in the memories of the accelerator and in previous work for this type of facility. (Author)

  7. Spatial and temporal beam profile monitor with nanosecond resolution for CERN's Linac4 and Superconducting Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, M

    2008-01-01

    The Linac4, now being developed at CERN, will provide 160-MeV H- beams of high intensity . Before this beam can be injected into the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster or future Superconducting Proton Linac for further acceleration, some sequences of 500-ps-long micro-bunches must be removed from it, using a beam chopper. These bunches, if left in the beam, would fall outside the longitudinal acceptance of the accelerators and make them radioactive. We developed a monitor to measure the time structure and spatial profile of this chopped beam, with respective resolutions and . Its large active area and dynamic range also allows investigations of beam halos. The ion beam first struck a carbon foil, and secondary electrons emerging from the foil were accelerated by a series of parallel grid electrodes. These electrons struck a phosphor screen, and the resulting image of the scintillation light was guided to a thermoelectrically cooled, charge-coupled device camera. The time resolution was attained by applying high-...

  8. Analysis of the LSC microbunching instability in MaRIE linac reference design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yampolsky, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    In this report we estimate the effect of the microbunching instability in the MaRIE XFEL linac. The reference design for the linac is described in a separate report. The parameters of the L1, L2, and L3 linacs as well as BC1 and BC2 bunch compressors were the same as in the referenced report. The beam dynamics was assumed to be linear along the accelerator (which is a reasonable assumption for estimating the effect of the microbunching instability). The parameters of the bunch also match the parameters described in the referenced report. Additionally, it was assumed that the beam radius is equal to R = 100 m and does not change along linac. This assumption needs to be revisited at later studies. The beam dynamics during acceleration was accounted in the matrix formalism using a Matlab code. The input parameters for the linacs are: RF peak gradient, RF frequency, RF phase, linac length, and initial beam energy. The energy gain and the imposed chirp are calculated based on the RF parameters self-consistently. The bunch compressors are accounted in the matrix formalism as well. Each chicane is characterized by the beam energy and the R56 matrix element. It was confirmed that the linac and beam parameters described previously provide two-stage bunch compression with compression ratios of 10 and 20 resulting in the bunch of 3kA peak current.

  9. Analysis of the LSC microbunching instability in MaRIE linac reference design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yampolsky, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    In this report we estimate the effect of the microbunching instability in the MaRIE XFEL linac. The reference design for the linac is described in a separate report [1]. The parameters of the L1, L2, and L3 linacs as well as BC1 and BC2 bunch compressors were the same as in the referenced report. The beam dynamics was assumed to be linear along the accelerator (which is a reasonable assumption for estimating the effect of the microbunching instability). The parameters of the bunch also match the parameters described in [1]. Additionally it was assumed that the beam radius is equal to R = 100 m and does not change along linac. This assumption needs to be revisited at later studies. The beam dynamics during acceleration was accounted in the matrix formalism using a Matlab code. The input parameters for the linacs are: RF peak gradient, RF frequency, RF phase, linac length, and initial beam energy. The energy gain and the imposed chirp are calculated based on the RF parameters self-consistently. The bunch compressors are accounted in the matrix formalism as well. Each chicane is characterized by the beam energy and the R56 matrix element. It was confirmed that the linac and beam parameters described in [1] provide two-stage bunch compression with compression ratios of 10 and 20 resulting in the bunch of 3kA peak current.

  10. An Overview of the MaRIE X-FEL and Electron Radiography LINAC RF Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Joseph Thomas III [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rees, Daniel Earl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scheinker, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sheffield, Richard L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-04

    The purpose of the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to investigate the performance limits of materials in extreme environments. The MaRIE facility will utilize a 12 GeV linac to drive an X-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL). Most of the same linac will also be used to perform electron radiography. The main linac is driven by two shorter linacs; one short linac optimized for X-FEL pulses and one for electron radiography. The RF systems have historically been the one of the largest single component costs of a linac. We will describe the details of the different types of RF systems required by each part of the linacs. Starting with the High Power RF system, we will present our methodology for the choice of RF system peak power and pulselength with respect to klystron parameters, modulator parameters, performance requirements and relative costs. We will also present an overview of the Low Level RF systems that are proposed for MaRIE and briefly describe their use with some proposed control schemes.

  11. Development drivers for waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David C

    2007-06-01

    This paper identifies six broad groups of drivers for development in waste management. Public health led to the emergence of formalized waste collection systems in the nineteenth century, and remains a key driver in developing countries. Environmental protection came to the forefront in the 1970s, with an initial focus on eliminating uncontrolled disposal, followed by the systematic increasing of technical standards. Today, developing countries seem still to be struggling with these first steps; while climate change is also emerging as a key driver. The resource value of waste, which allows people to make a living from discarded materials, was an important driver historically, and remains so in developing countries today. A current trend in developed countries is closing the loop, moving from the concept of 'end-of-pipe' waste management towards a more holistic resource management. Two underpinning groups of drivers are institutional and responsibility issues, and public awareness. There is no, one single driver for development in waste management: the balance between these six groups of drivers has varied over time, and will vary between countries depending on local circumstances, and between stakeholders depending on their perspective. The next appropriate steps towards developing a sustainable, integrated waste management system will also vary in each local situation.

  12. Pulsed-focusing recirculating linacs for muon acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Since the muon has a short lifetime, fast acceleration is essential for high-energy applications such as muon colliders, Higgs factories, or neutrino factories. The best one can do is to make a linear accelerator with the highest possible accelerating gradient to make the accelerating time as short as possible. However, the cost of such a single linear accelerator is prohibitively large due to expensive power sources, cavities, tunnels, and related infrastructure. As was demonstrated in the Thomas Jefferson Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), an elegant solution to reduce cost is to use magnetic return arcs to recirculate the beam through the accelerating RF cavities many times, where they gain energy on each pass. In such a Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA), the magnetic focusing strength diminishes as the beam energy increases in a conventional linac that has constant strength quadrupoles. After some number of passes the focusing strength is insufficient to keep the beam from going unstable and being lost. In this project, the use of fast pulsed quadrupoles in the linac sections was considered for stronger focusing as a function of time to allow more successive passes of a muon beam in a recirculating linear accelerator. In one simulation, it was shown that the number of passes could be increased from 8 to 12 using pulsed magnet designs that have been developed and tested. This could reduce the cost of linac sections of a muon RLA by 8/12, where more improvement is still possible. The expense of a greater number of passes and corresponding number of return arcs was also addressed in this project by exploring the use of ramped or FFAG-style magnets in the return arcs. A better solution, invented in this project, is to use combined-function dipole-quadrupole magnets to simultaneously transport two beams of different energies through one magnet string to reduce costs of return arcs by almost a factor of

  13. PULSED-FOCUSING RECIRCULATING LINACS FOR MUON ACCELERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland PAUL

    2014-12-31

    Since the muon has a short lifetime, fast acceleration is essential for high-energy applications such as muon colliders, Higgs factories, or neutrino factories. The best one can do is to make a linear accelerator with the highest possible accelerating gradient to make the accelerating time as short as possible. However, the cost of such a single linear accelerator is prohibitively large due to expensive power sources, cavities, tunnels, and related infrastructure. As was demonstrated in the Thomas Jefferson Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), an elegant solution to reduce cost is to use magnetic return arcs to recirculate the beam through the accelerating RF cavities many times, where they gain energy on each pass. In such a Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA), the magnetic focusing strength diminishes as the beam energy increases in a conventional linac that has constant strength quadrupoles. After some number of passes the focusing strength is insufficient to keep the beam from going unstable and being lost. In this project, the use of fast pulsed quadrupoles in the linac sections was considered for stronger focusing as a function of time to allow more successive passes of a muon beam in a recirculating linear accelerator. In one simulation, it was shown that the number of passes could be increased from 8 to 12 using pulsed magnet designs that have been developed and tested. This could reduce the cost of linac sections of a muon RLA by 8/12, where more improvement is still possible. The expense of a greater number of passes and corresponding number of return arcs was also addressed in this project by exploring the use of ramped or FFAG-style magnets in the return arcs. A better solution, invented in this project, is to use combined-function dipole-quadrupole magnets to simultaneously transport two beams of different energies through one magnet string to reduce costs of return arcs by almost a factor of

  14. Design and development of a focusing electromagnet for RF linac of a cargo scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, B., E-mail: biswaranjan.nayak1@gmail.com; Acharya, S.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Chandan, Shiv; Choudhury, N.; Sharma, V.; Mittal, K.C.; Gantayet, L.M.

    2014-11-11

    Cargo scanning of contraband objects by high energetic X-rays requires compact and self-contained RF linacs. To achieve this goal, a 6 MeV, 700 W standing wave RF electron linac has been developed at Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, BARC. To obtain the image of scanned objects with good resolution requires a focused electron beam at the target. This paper presents the design, development and integration of a solenoid magnet with a compact RF linac and its performance with electron beam for cargo scanning applications.

  15. Coherent Effects of High Current Beam in Project-X Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, Alexander; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav; Gonin, Ivan; Khabiboulline, Timergali; Lunin, Andrei; Saini, Arun; Solyak, Nikolay; Vostrikov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Resonance excitation of longitudinal high order modes in superconducting RF structures of Project-X continuous wave linac is studied. We analyze regimes of operation of the linac with high beam current, which can be used to provide an intense muon source for the future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider, and also important for the Accelerator-Driven Subcritical systems. We calculate power loss and associated heat load to the cryogenic system. Longitudinal emittance growth is estimated. We consider an alternative design of the elliptical cavity for the high energy part of the linac, which is more suitable for high current operation.

  16. Beam dynamics design of the main accelerating section with KONUS in the CSR-LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao-Hu, Zhang; Jia-Wen, Xia; Xue-Jun, Yin; Heng, Du

    2013-01-01

    The CSR-LINAC injector has been proposed in Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The linac mainly consists of two parts, the RFQ and the IH-DTL. The KONUS (Kombinierte Null Grad Struktur) concept has been introduced into the DTL section. In this paper, the re-matching of the main accelerating section will be finished in the 3.7 MeV/u scheme and the new beam dynamics design up to 7 MeV/u will be also shown. Through the beam re-matching, the relative emittance growth has been suppressed greatly along the linac.

  17. Basis for low beam loss in the high-current APT linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangler, T.P.; Gray, E.R.; Krawczyk, F.L.; Kurennoy, S.S.; Lawrence, G.P.; Ryne, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Crandall, K.R. [TECHSOURCE, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The present evidence that the APT proton linac design will meet its goal of low beam loss operation. The conclusion has three main bases: (1) extrapolation from the understanding of the performance of the 800-MeV LANSCE proton linac at Los Alamos, (2) the theoretical understanding of the dominant halo-forming mechanism in the APT accelerator from physics models and multiparticle simulations, and (3) the conservative approach and key principles underlying the design of the APT linac, which are aimed at minimizing beam halo and providing large apertures to reduce beam loss to a very low value.

  18. Status of the Argonne superconducting-linac heavy-ion energy booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aron, J.; Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Henning, W.; Johnson, K.W.; Nixon, J.M.; Markovich, P.; Shepard, K.W.

    1979-01-01

    A superconducting linac is being constructed to provide an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem. By late 1980 the linac will consist of 24 independently-phased superconducting resonators, and will provide an effective accelerating potential of more than 25 MV. While the linac is under construction, completed sections are being used to provide useful beam for nuclear physics experiments. In the most recent run with beam (June 1979), an eight resonator array provided an effective accelerating potential of 9.3 MV. Operation of a 12 resonator array is scheduled to begin in October 1979.

  19. Linac4 RFQ assembly is carried out before installation in Building 152

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2012-01-01

    This series of pictures documents the assembly phase of the Linac4 RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole), performed at the end of July 2012. The Linac4 RFQ is made of 3 modules, 1 meter each, assembled together to accelerate the H- or proton beam from the ion source extraction at 45 kV to the energy of 3 MeV. The RFQ is the first of the Linac4 accelerating structures, which will increase to 160 MeV the beam injection energy into the PS Booster as from the end of LS2.

  20. Simultaneous optimization of the cavity heat load and trip rates in linacs using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balša Terzić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a genetic algorithm-based optimization is used to simultaneously minimize two competing objectives guiding the operation of the Jefferson Lab’s Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility linacs: cavity heat load and radio frequency cavity trip rates. The results represent a significant improvement to the standard linac energy management tool and thereby could lead to a more efficient Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility configuration. This study also serves as a proof of principle of how a genetic algorithm can be used for optimizing other linac-based machines.

  1. Rosalind Driver studentships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The School of Education at King's College London can now offer funded studentships to those wishing to undertake research in science education. These studentships, which are funded through the generous benefaction of the late Rosalind Driver, can be for a full-time student (over a maximum of three years) or several part-time students (a maximum of six years). Applications from anyone working in science education are welcome but preference will be given to those originating from practising science teachers. Applicants will be expected to register for the award of a MPhil/PhD or EdD and are normally expected to have a first degree. Preliminary ideas about a topic for investigation would also be helpful. Further details and application forms are obtainable from Chiz Dube, School of Education, King's College London, Franklin - Wilkins Building, Waterloo Road, London SE1 8WA (tel: 020-7848-3089, e-mail: chiz.dube@kcl.ac.uk). The deadline for the first round of applications was the middle of October, but preliminary informal enquiries may be made to Dr Jonathan Osborne at the School of Education (tel: 020-7848-3094, e-mail: jonathan.osborne@kcl.ac.uk).

  2. Tutorial on beam-based feedback systems for linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, L.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Grossberg, P.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; MacKenzie, R.; Ross, M.; Sass, R.; Shoaee, H.

    1994-08-01

    A generalized fast feedback system stabilizes beams in the SLC. It performs measurements and modifies actuator settings to control beam states such as position, angle, energy and intensity on a pulse to pulse basis. An adaptive cascade feature allows communication between a series of linac loops, avoiding overcorrection problems. The system is based on the state space formalism of digital control theory. Due to the database-driven design, new loops are added without requiring software modifications. Recent enhancements support the monitoring and control of nonlinear states such as beam phase using excitation techniques. In over three years of operation, the feedback system has grown from its original eight loops to more than fifty loops, and it has been invaluable in stabilizing the machine.

  3. Ampere Average Current Photoinjector and Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Calaga, R; Cameron, P; Chang, X; Gassner, D M; Hahn, H; Hershcovitch, A; Hseuh, H C; Johnson, P; Kayran, D; Kewisch, J; Lambiase, R F; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; McIntyre, G; Nicoletti, A; Rank, J; Roser, T; Scaduto, J; Smith, K; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Wu, K C; Zaltsman, A; Zhao, Y

    2004-01-01

    High-power Free-Electron Lasers were made possible by advances in superconducting linac operated in an energy-recovery mode, as demonstrated by the spectacular success of the Jefferson Laboratory IR-Demo. In order to get to much higher power levels, say a fraction of a megawatt average power, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL’s Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for a different application, that of electron cooling of high-energy hadron beams. I will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun employing a new secondary-emission multiplying cathode and an accelerator cavity, both capable of producing of the order of one ampere average current.

  4. X-ray detectors at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaj, Gabriel; Caragiulo, Pietro; Carini, Gabriella; Carron, Sebastian; Dragone, Angelo; Freytag, Dietrich; Haller, Gunther; Hart, Philip; Hasi, Jasmine; Herbst, Ryan; Herrmann, Sven; Kenney, Chris; Markovic, Bojan; Nishimura, Kurtis; Osier, Shawn; Pines, Jack; Reese, Benjamin; Segal, Julie; Tomada, Astrid; Weaver, Matt

    2015-05-01

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) present new challenges for camera development compared with conventional light sources. At SLAC a variety of technologies are being used to match the demands of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and to support a wide range of scientific applications. In this paper an overview of X-ray detector design requirements at FELs is presented and the various cameras in use at SLAC are described for the benefit of users planning experiments or analysts looking at data. Features and operation of the CSPAD camera, which is currently deployed at LCLS, are discussed, and the ePix family, a new generation of cameras under development at SLAC, is introduced.

  5. Development of a very-low-velocity superconducting linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    Four types of superconducting accelerator structures are being developed for use in a low velocity positive-ion injector linac for the ATLAS heavy-ion accelerator. Prototypes of the first two of these have been tested. The structures are all variants of a quarter-wave line terminated with a four-gap interdigital drift-tube array. The two structure types so far tested operate at 48.5 mHz and have an active length of 10 cm (for the particle velocity - .008c type) and 16.5 cm (for the velocity - .014c type). Effective accelerating fields of 10 MV/m have been achieved with the 10 cm structure, corresponding to an effective accelerating potential of 1 MV. The 16.5 cm structure has been operated at field levels of 6 MV/m, also giving an effective potential of 1 MV. Prototypes of the remaining two resonant geometries are under construction.

  6. SRF and RF systems for LEReC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belomestnykh, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Brutus, J. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fedotov, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); McIntyre, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Polizzo, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tuozzolo, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Veshcherevich, V. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Wu, Q. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xiao, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xu, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zaltsman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The Low Energy RHIC electron Cooling (LEReC) is under development at BNL to improve RHIC luminosity at low energies. It will consist of a short electron linac and two cooling sections, one for blue and one for yellow rings. For the first stage of the project, LEReC-I, we will install a 704 MHz superconducting RF cavity and three normal conducting cavities operating at 9 MHz, 704 MHz and 2.1 GHz. The SRF cavity will boost the electron beam energy up to 2 MeV. The warm cavities will be used to correct the energy spread introduced in the SRF cavity. The paper describes layouts of the SRF and RF systems, their parameters and status.

  7. Beam Emittance Measurement for PLS-II Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Byung-Joon; Park, Chong do; Chunjarean, SomJai; Kim, Changbum

    2016-01-01

    The PLS-II has a 100 MeV pre-injector for the 3 GeV Linac. A thermionic gun produces electron charge of 200 pC with a bunch duration of 500 ps by a 250 ps triggering pulser. At the pre-injector, one of the most important beam parameters to identify the beam quality is a transverse emittance of electron bunches. Therefore we measure the beam emittance and twiss functions at 100 MeV in order to match the beam optics to beam transport line and go through it to the storage ring. To get the transverse emittance measurement, well-known technique, quadrupole scan, is used at the pre-injector. The emittance were 0.591 mm-mrad in horizontal and 0.774 mm-mrad in vertical direction.

  8. A Newly Designed and Optimized CLIC Main Linac Accelerating Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Grudiev, A

    2004-01-01

    A new CLIC main-linac accelerating-structure design, HDS (Hybrid Damped Structure), with improved high-gradient performance, efficiency and simplicity of fabrication is presented. The gains are achieved in part through a new cell design which includes fully-profiled rf surfaces optimized to minimize surface fields and hybrid damping using both iris slots and radial waveguides. The slotted irises allow a simple structure fabrication in quadrants with no rf currents across joints. Further gains are achieved through a new structure optimization procedure, which simultaneously balances surface fields, power flow, short and long-range transverse wakefields, rf-to-beam efficiency and the ratio of luminosity to input power. The optimization of a 30 GHz structure with a loaded accelerating gradient of 150 MV/m results in a bunch spacing of seven rf cycles and 32 % rf-to-beam efficiency.

  9. The new control system of HLS linac and transport line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gong-Fa; LI Wei-Min; LI Jing-Yi; LI Chuan; CHEN Li-Ping; BAO Xun; WANG Ji-Gang; XUAN Ke

    2005-01-01

    The new linac and transport line control system of Hefei Light Source (HLS) is a distributed control system based on EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System). Industrial PC (IPC) is widely used as not only Input/Output Controller (IOC) but also device controller. Besides industrial PC, PLC and microcontroller are also used as device controllers. The software for industrial PC based device controller is developed based on VxWorks real-time operating system. The software for PLC and microcontroller are written with ladder software package and assemble language, respectively. PC with Linux and SUN workstation with Solaris are used as operator interfaces (OPI). High level control is made up of some EPICS tools and Tcl/Tk scripts.

  10. Linac Coherent Light Source: The first five years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostedt, Christoph; Boutet, Sébastien; Fritz, David M.; Huang, Zhirong; Lee, Hae Ja; Lemke, Henrik T.; Robert, Aymeric; Schlotter, William F.; Turner, Joshua J.; Williams, Garth J.

    2016-01-01

    A new scientific frontier opened in 2009 with the start of operations of the world's first x-ray free-electron laser (FEL), the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. LCLS provides femtosecond pulses of x rays (270 eV to 11.2 keV) with very high peak brightness to access new domains of ultrafast x-ray science. This article presents the fundamental FEL physics and outlines the LCLS source characteristics along with the experimental challenges, strategies, and instrumentation that accompany this novel type of x-ray source. The main part of the article reviews the scientific achievements since the inception of LCLS in the five primary areas it serves: atomic, molecular, and optical physics; condensed matter physics; matter in extreme conditions; chemistry and soft matter, and biology.

  11. RF Plasma modeling of the Linac4 H− ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, S; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J; Kawamura, Y; Yasumoto, M; Schmitzer, C

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the modelling of the ICP RF-plasma in the Linac4 H− ion source currently being constructed at CERN. A self-consistent model of the plasma dynamics with the RF electromagnetic field has been developed by a PIC-MCC method. In this paper, the model is applied to the analysis of a low density plasma discharge initiation, with particular interest on the effect of the external magnetic field on the plasma properties, such as wall loss, electron density and electron energy. The use of a multi-cusp magnetic field effectively limits the wall losses, particularly in the radial direction. Preliminary results however indicate that a reduced heating efficiency results in such a configuration. The effect is possibly due to trapping of electrons in the multi-cusp magnetic field, preventing their continuous acceleration in the azimuthal direction.

  12. Bunch shape monitor development in J-PARC linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, A.; Tamura, J.; Liu, Y.; Miyao, T.

    2017-07-01

    In the linac at the Japan accelerator research complex (J-PARC), we decided to use bunch shape monitors (BSMs) as phase-width monitors. Both centroid-phase set point at the frequency jump from SDTL (324 MHz) to ACS (972 MHz) and phase-width control are key issues for suppressing excess beam loss. BSM was designed and developed at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia. Because the BSM was first used between acceleration cavities, we need to improve it to protect it from the leakage-magnetic field of the quadrupole magnets and from outgassing impacts on the cavities. In this paper, we introduce these improvements to the BSM for the adoption of the location nearby the acceleration cavities.

  13. Accelerators for hadrontherapy: From Lawrence cyclotrons to linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaldi, U.; Bonomi, R.; Braccini, S., E-mail: Saverio.Braccini@cern.ch; Crescenti, M.; Degiovanni, A.; Garlasche, M.; Garonna, A.; Magrin, G.; Mellace, C.; Pearce, P.; Pitta, G.; Puggioni, P.; Rosso, E.; Verdu Andres, S.; Wegner, R.; Weiss, M.; Zennaro, R.

    2010-08-21

    Hadrontherapy with protons and carbon ions is a fast developing methodology in radiation oncology. The accelerators used and planned for this purpose are reviewed starting from the cyclotrons used in the thirties. As discussed in the first part of this paper, normal and superconducting cyclotrons are still employed, together with synchrotrons, for proton therapy while for carbon ion therapy synchrotrons have been till now the only option. The latest developments concern a superconducting cyclotron for carbon ion therapy, fast-cycling high frequency linacs and 'single room' proton therapy facilities. These issues are discussed in the second part of the paper by underlining the present challenges, in particular the treatment of moving organs.

  14. Accelerators for hadrontherapy: From Lawrence cyclotrons to linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Braccini, S; Garlasche, M; Weiss, M; Crescenti, M; Pearce, P; Rosso, E; Wegner, R; Magrin, G; Pitta, G; Amaldi, U; Puggioni, P; Degiovanni, A; Mellace, C; Zennaro, R; Bonomi, R; Garonna, A

    2010-01-01

    Hadrontherapy with protons and carbon ions is a fast developing methodology in radiation oncology. The accelerators used and planned for this purpose are reviewed starting from the cyclotrons used in the thirties. As discussed in the first part of this paper, normal and superconducting cyclotrons are still employed, together with synchrotrons, for proton therapy while for carbon ion therapy synchrotrons have been till now the only option. The latest developments concern a superconducting cyclotron for carbon ion therapy, fast-cycling high frequency linacs and `single room' proton therapy facilities. These issues are discussed in the second part of the paper by underlining the present challenges, in particular the treatment of moving organs. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal analysis of DTL in the SSC-LINAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi; Yuan, Ping; He, Yuan; Ma, Li-Zhen; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Wu, Wei; Yang, Ya-Qing

    2011-10-01

    A linear accelerator as a new injector for the Separated Sector Cyclotron at the Heavy Ion Research Facility of LAN Zhou is being designed. The Drift-Tube-Linac (DTL) has been designed to accelerate 238U34+ from 0.140 MeV/u to 0.97 MeV/u [1]. The 3D finite element analysis of thermal behavior is presented in this paper. During operation, the cavity will produce Joule heat. The cavity will not work normally due to the high temperature and thermal deformation will lead to frequency drift. So it is necessary to perform thermal analysis to ensure the correct working temperature is used. The result of the analysis shows that after the water cooling system is put into the cavity the temperature rise is about 20 degrees and the frequency drift is about 0.15%.

  16. Design study of the SSC-LINAC re-buncher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lie-Peng; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Sun, Zhou-Ping; He, Yuan; Shi, Ai-Min; Xiao, Chen; Du, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Zhou-Li

    2013-02-01

    A re-buncher with spiral arms for a heavy ion linear accelerator named as SSC-LINAC at HIRFL (the heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou) has been constructed. The re-buncher, which is used for beam longitudinal modulation and matching between the RFQ and DTL, is designed to be operated in continuous wave (CW) mode at the Medium-Energy Beam-Transport (MEBT) line to maintain the beam intensity and quality. Because of the longitudinal space limitation, the re-buncher has to be very compact and will be built with four gaps. We determined the key parameters of the re-buncher cavity from the simulations using Microwave Studio software, such as the resonant frequency, the quality factor Q and the shunt impedance. The detailed design of a 53.667 MHz spiral cavity and measurement results of its prototype will be presented.

  17. RF Field Distribution Tuning of Drift Tube Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Sung; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    To make a design field profile, we performed the RF tuning process for a 100-MeV drift tube linac (DTL) of Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). The tuning process includes the field flatness tuning by using the slug tuners and the tilt sensitivity tuning by using the post couplers. The target values of the tuning process are like followings; - Field uniformity: better than 2% - Tilt sensitivity: less than 150%/MHz. During the tilt sensitivity tuning, we found that the slug tuners prevented the field stabilization if they were inserted too much. However, if the slug tuner positions were limited, then it was not possible to tune the DTL tank to the right resonant frequency. To solve the problem, we attached the tuning rings around each post couplers, which compensate the frequency gap caused by the slug tuner position limitations. We present the tuning process and results in this paper.

  18. High intensity ion beams in rf undulator linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Masunov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using a radio frequency undulator field to accelerate a high intensity ion beam in a linac is discussed. Such an accelerator can be realized using the periodical interdigital H-type resonator structure. The accelerating force is produced by an electric field which is a combination of two or more spatial harmonics, none of them being synchronous with the ion beam. The value of this force is proportional to the squared charge. The equations of motion in Hamiltonian form are derived by means of smooth approximation. The analysis of the 3D effective potential function allows finding the conditions of the beam focusing and acceleration. Two ways to increase ion beam intensity are considered: (i to enlarge beam cross section; (ii to neutralize the beam space charge by accelerating ions with opposite charge signs within the same bunch. The basic results are confirmed by a numerical simulation.

  19. Thermal analysis of DTL in the SSC-LINAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xi; YUAN Ping; HE Yuan; MA Li-Zhen; ZHANG Xiao-Qi; WU Wei; YANG Ya-Qing

    2011-01-01

    A linear accelerator as a new injector for the Separated Sector Cyclotron at the Heavy Ion Research Facility of LAN Zhou is being designed.The Drift-Tube-Linac (DTL) has been designed to accelerate 238U34+ from 0.140 MeV/u to 0.97 MeV/u [1].The 3D finite element analysis of thermal behavior is presented in this paper.During operation,the cavity will produce Joule heat.The cavity will not work normally due to the high temperature and thermal deformation will lead to frequency drift.So it is necessary to perform thermal analysis to ensure the correct working temperature is used.The result of the analysis shows that after the water cooling system is put into the cavity the temperature rise is about 20 degrees and the frequency drift is about 0.15%.

  20. A 300-nm compact mm-wave linac FEL design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassiri, A.; Kustom, R.L.; Kang, Y.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Microfabrication technology offers an alternative method for fabricating precision, miniature-size components suitable for use in accelerator physics and commercial applications. The original R&D work at Argonne, in collaboration with the University of Illinois at Chicago, has produced encouraging results in the area of rf accelerating structure design, optical and x-ray masks production, deep x-ray lithography (LIGA exposures), and precision structural alignments. In this paper we will present a design study for a compact single pass mm-linac FEL to produce short wavelength radiation. This system will consists of a photocathode rf gun operated at 30 GHz, a 50-MeV superconducting constant gradient structure operated at 60 GHz, and a microundulator with 1-mm period. Initial experimental results on a scale model rf gun and microundulator will be presented.

  1. Capacitor blocks for linear transformer driver stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Kumpyak, E V; Smorudov, G V; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2014-01-01

    In the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology, the low inductance energy storage components and switches are directly incorporated into the individual cavities (named stages) to generate a fast output voltage pulse, which is added along a vacuum coaxial line like in an inductive voltage adder. LTD stages with air insulation were recently developed, where air is used both as insulation in a primary side of the stages and as working gas in the LTD spark gap switches. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. The capacitor block incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and multichannel multigap gas switch. Several modifications of the capacitor blocks were developed and tested on the life time and self breakdown probability. Blocks were tested both as separate units and in an assembly of capacitive module, consisting of five capacitor blocks. This paper presents detailed design of capacitor blocks, description of operation regimes, numerical simulation of electric field in the switches, and test results.

  2. Autopilot regulation for the Linac4 H- ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgarakis, G.; Lettry, J.; Mattei, S.; Lefort, B.; Costa, V. J. Correia

    2017-08-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV H- linear accelerator part of the upgrade of the LHC injector chain. Its cesiated surface H- source is designed to provide a beam intensity of 40-50mA. It is operated with periodical Cs-injection at typically 30 days intervals [1] and this implies that the beam parameters will slowly evolve during operation. Autopilot is a control software package extending CERN developed Inspector framework. The aim of Autopilot is to automatize the mandatory optimization and cesiation processes and to derive performance indicators, thus keeping human intervention minimal. Autopilot has been developed by capitalizing on the experience from manually operating the source. It comprises various algorithms running in real-time, which have been devised to: • Optimize the ion source performance by regulation of H2 injection, RF power and frequency. • Describe the performance of the source with performance indicators, which can be easily understood by operators. • Identify failures, try to recover the nominal operation and send warning in case of deviation from nominal operation. • Make the performance indicators remotely available through Web pages.Autopilot is at the same level of hierarchy as an operator, in the CERN infrastructure. This allows the combination of all ion source devices, providing the required flexibility. Autopilot is executed in a dedicated server, ensuring unique and centralized control, yet allowing multiple operators to interact at runtime, always coordinating between them. Autopilot aims at flexibility, adaptability, portability and scalability, and can be extended to other components of CERN's accelerators. In this paper, a detailed description of the Autopilot algorithms is presented, along with first results of operating the Linac4 H- Ion Source with Autopilot.

  3. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF THE BEAM POSITION MONITOR FOR THE PEFP LINAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HYEOK-JUNG KWON

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The beam position monitor (BPM is an essential component for the PEFP 100-MeV linac's commissioning. A prototype stripline-type linac BPM was designed for this purpose. The electrode aperture is 20 mm in diameter, and the electrode is 25 mm long, so it can be installed between Drift Tube Linac (DTL101 and DTL102, which is the shortest distance. One end of the electrode is connected to the Sub Miniature Type A (SMA feed through for signal measurement, and the other end is terminated as a short. The signal amplitude of the fundamental component was calculated and compared with that of the second harmonic component. The designed BPM was fabricated and a low-power RF test was conducted. In this paper, the design, fabrication and low power test of the BPM for the PEFP linac are presented.

  4. Choice of Frequency, Gradient and Temperature for a Superconducting Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, F; Calatroni, S; Ciapala, Edmond; Eshraqi, M; Garoby, R; Lombardi, A M; Losito, R; Parma, V; Tückmantel, Joachim; Vretenar, M; Wagner, U; Weingarten, W

    2008-01-01

    The construction of a Superconducting Proton Linac is planned at CERN during the next decade. It is foreseen to be constructed in two stages: a low duty cycle, low-power linac (LPSPL) as an injector for a new 50 GeV synchrotron (PS2) replacing the present PS, which could be upgraded to a high-duty cycle, high-power linac (HPSPL), for the needs of future facility(ies) requiring a multi-MW beam power. In this paper we present the criteria which were used to choose the frequency, gradient, and cryogenic temperature of the SPL. Since these questions are common to other proposed high-power proton linacs, they may also be of use for other projects with similar specifications. The various design options are discussed as well as their impact on beam dynamics, cavity performance, power consumption, cryogenics,and overall efficiency.

  5. First Considerations Concerning an Optimized Cavity Design for the Main Linac of BERLinPro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Riemann, T. Weis, W. Anders, J. Knobloch, A. Neumann, H.-W. Glock, C. Potratz, U. van Rienen, F. Marhauser

    2011-09-01

    The Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project (BERLinPro) is designed to develop and demonstrate CW linac technology and expertise required to drive next-generation Energy Recovery Linacs. Strongly HOM-damped multicell 1.3 GHz cavities are required for the main linac. The optimization of the cavities presented here is primarily based on the CEBAF 1.5 GHz 5-cell high-current cavity design, including HOM waveguide couplers. The cavity was scaled to 1.3 GHz and extended to 7 cells. Modifications to the end group design have also been studied. An effort was also made to reduce the ratio Epk/Eacc while still permitting HOMs to propagate.

  6. Calculation of acceptance of high intensity superconducting proton linac for Project X

    CERN Document Server

    Saini, A; Solyak, N; Mishra, S; Yakovlev, V

    2011-01-01

    Project-X is the proposed high intensity proton facility to be built at Fermilab, US. Its Superconducting Linac, to be used at first stage of acceleration, will be operated in continuous wave (CW) mode. The Linac is divided into three sections on the basis of operating frequencies & six sections on the basis of family of RF cavities to be used for the acceleration of beam from 2.5 MeV to 3 GeV. The transition from one section to another can limit the acceptance of the Linac if these are not matched properly. We performed a study to calculate the acceptance of the Linac in both longitudinal and transverse plane. Investigation of most sensitive area which limits longitudinal acceptance and study of influence of failure of beam line elements at critical position, on acceptance are also performed.

  7. Design and Fabrication of the Beam Position Monitor for the PEFP Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyeokjung; Kim, Hansung; Seol, Kyungtae; Ryu, Jinyeong; Jang, Jiho; Cho, Yongsub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The beam position monitor (BPM) is an essential component for the PEFP 100-MeV linac's commissioning. A prototype stripline-type linac BPM was designed for this purpose. The electrode aperture is 20 mm in diameter, and the electrode is 25 mm long, so it can be installed between Drift Tube Linac (DTL)101 and DTL102, which is the shortest distance. One end of the electrode is connected to the Sub Miniature Type A (SMA) feed through for signal measurement, and the other end is terminated as a short. The signal amplitude of the fundamental component was calculated and compared with that of the second harmonic component. The designed BPM was fabricated and a low-power RF test was conducted. In this paper, the design, fabrication and low power test of the BPM for the PEFP linac are presented.

  8. Control system of HLS transport line and Linac focusing power supplies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The control system of transport line and Linac focusing power supplies of Hefei Light Source was built upon Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System. The hardware construction, software design and performance test of the control system are described.

  9. X-band Linac for a 6 MeV dual-head radiation therapy gantry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Shin, Seung-Wook; Lee, Jongchul; Kim, Hui-Su; Lee, Byeong-No; Lee, Byung-Chul; Park, Hyung-dal; Song, Ki-back; Song, Ho-seung; Mun, Sangchul; Ha, Donghyup; Chai, Jong-Seo

    2017-04-01

    We developed a design for a 6 MeV X-band linear accelerator for radiation therapy in a dual-head gantry layout. The dual-head gantry has two linacs that can be operated independently. Each X-band linac accelerates electron bunches using high-power RF and generates X-rays for radiation therapy. It requires a versatile RF system and pulse sequence to accomplish various radiation therapy procedures. The RF system consists of 9.3 GHz, 2 MW X-band magnetron and associated RF transmission components. A test linac was assembled and operated to characterize its RF performance without beam. This paper presents these results along with a description of the gantry linacs and their operational requirements.

  10. The KONUS IH-DTL proposal for the GSI UNILAC poststripper linac replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähnel, H.; Ratzinger, U.; Tiede, R.

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the necessary replacement of the GSI UNILAC poststripper linac, a compact and efficient linac design based on IH-type cavities has been developed. Using KONUS beam dynamics, it was possible to design a linac consisting of only five cavities that can be operated by the existing UNILAC RF amplifier structure. The transversal focusing scheme is based on magnetic quadrupole triplet lenses. The optimized design provides full transmission and low emittance growth for the design current of 15 emA U28+, accelerating the beam from 1.4 MeV/u to 11.4 MeV/u. Extensive error studies were performed to define tolerances and verify the stability of the design with respect to misalignment and injection parameters. The design provides a compact and cost effective alternative to a new Alvarez linac. With a total length of just 22.8 meters it will leave room for future energy upgrades in the UNILAC tunnel.

  11. Beam diagnostics measurements at 3 MeV of the LINAC4 H- beam at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Zocca, F; Duraffourg, M; Focker, G J; Gerard, D; Kolad, B; Lenardon, F; Ludwig, M; Raich, U; Roncarolo, F; Sordet, M; Tan, J; Tassan-Viol, J; Vuitton, C; Feshenko, A

    2014-01-01

    As part of the CERN LHC injector chain upgrade, LINAC4 [1, 2] will accelerate H- ions to 160 MeV, replacing the old 50 MeV proton linac. The ion source, the Low Energy Beam Transfer (LEBT) line, the 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole and the Medium Energy Beam Transfer (MEBT) line hosting a chopper, have been commissioned in the LINAC4 tunnel. Diagnostic devices are installed in the LEBT and MEBT line and in a movable diagnostics test bench which is temporarily added to the MEBT exit. The paper gives an overview of all the instruments used, including beam current transformers, beam position monitors, wire scanners and wire grids for transverse profile measurements, a longitudinal bunch shape monitor and a slit-and-grid emittance meter. The instrumentation performance is discussed and the measurement results that allowed characterizing the 3 MeV beam in the LINAC4 tunnel are summarized.

  12. Driver style and driver skills – clustering drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic, as well as to test for heterogeneity across the population, namely whether the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender......, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...... distinct clusters that differed in the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and driving skills, as well as individual characteristics and driving related factors such as annual mileage, accident frequency and number of tickets and fines. Thus, two sub-groups were identified as more unsafe than the two...

  13. HOM Consideration of 704 MHz and 2.1 GHz Cavities for LEReC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Binping [RIKEN BNL; Belomestnykh, Sergey [SUNY, Stony Brook; Ben-Zvi, Ilan [RIKEN BNL; Blaskiewicz, Michael [RIKEN BNL; Brennan, Joseph [RIKEN BNL; Brutus, Jean Clifford [RIKEN BNL; Fedotov, Alexei [RIKEN BNL; Hahn, Harald [RIKEN BNL; McIntyre, Gary [RIKEN BNL; Pai, Chien [RIKEN BNL; Smith, Kevin [RIKEN BNL; Tuozzolo, Joseph [RIKEN BNL; Veshcherevich, Vadim [Cornell U., CLASSE; Wu, Qiong [RIKEN BNL; Xin, Tianmu [RIKEN BNL; Xu, Wencan [RIKEN BNL; Zaltsman, Alex [RIKEN BNL

    2016-06-01

    To improve RHIC luminosity for heavy ion beam energies below 10 GeV/nucleon, the Low Energy RHIC electron Cooler (LEReC) is currently under development at BNL. The Linac of LEReC is designed to deliver 2 MV to 5 MV electron beam, with rms dp/p less than 5·10⁻⁴. The HOM in this Linac is carefully studied to ensure this specification.

  14. Simulations and cold-test results of a prototype plane wave transformer linac structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available We have built a 4-cell prototype plane wave transformer (PWT linac structure. We discuss here details of the design and fabrication of the PWT linac structure. We present results from superfish and gdfidl simulations as well as cold tests, which are in good agreement with each other. We also present detailed tolerance maps for the PWT structure. We discuss beam dynamics simulation studies performed using parmela.

  15. Radiation Protection Study for the Shielding Design of the LINAC4 Beam Dump at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine an optimal shielding of the LINAC4 beam dump fulfilling the radiation protection requirements. Therefore a detailed Monte-Carlo calculation using FLUKA particle transport and interaction code has been performed and the relevant physics quantities, such as particle fluences, neutron energy spectra, residual and prompt dose rates, air and water activation have been evaluated for different LINAC4 operation phases.

  16. Longitudinal Space Charge Effects in the JLAB IR FEL SRF Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Behre, Chris; Benson, S V; Herman-Biallas, George; Boyce, James; Douglas, David; Dylla, Fred; Evans, Richard; Grippo, A; Gubeli, Joe; Hardy, David; Jordan, Kevin; Merminga, Lia; Neil, George; Preble, Joe; Shinn, Michelle D; Siggins, Tim; Walker, Richard; Williams, Gwyn; Yunn, Byung; Zhang, Shukui

    2004-01-01

    Observations of energy spread asymmetry when operating the Linac on either side of crest and longitudinal emittance growth have been confirmed by extending PARMELA simulations from the injector to the end of the first SRF Linac module. The asymmetry can be explained by the interaction of the accelerating electric field with that from longitudinal space charge effects within the electron bunch. This can be a major limitation to performance in FEL accelerators.

  17. Linac Twins with Flatness Filter Free Option in a Radiotherapy Department

    OpenAIRE

    Treutwein, Marius; Härtl, Petra; Gröger, Christian; Katsilieri, Zaira; Dobler, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Having two (or more) equal treatment machines (linac twins) enables a radiotherapy department to facilitate the workflow. The major part of the German standards (DIN) regarding quality assurance of medical linear accelerators has been reworked or has been published for the first time in the recent years due to technical developments. The aim of this study is to setup a commissioning procedure and a quality assurance program for linac twins with flattening filter free option a...

  18. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  19. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  20. Beam dynamics and commissioning of low and medium energy H- beam at Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Satri, Masoomeh Yarmohammadi; Lamehi-Rachti , Mohammad

    The First step of the CERN Large Hadron Collider injectors upgrade (LIU) project is Linac4. It accelerates H- ions to 160 MeV in an 80 m long accelerator housed in a tunnel 12 m underground, presently under construction. It will replace the present 50 MeV proton Linac2 as injector of the proton accelerator complex to increase the LHC luminosity. It consists of a 45 keV RF volume source, a twosolenoid Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 352.2 MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerating the beam to 3 MeV, a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line. The MEBT houses a fast chopper to selectively remove unwanted micro-bunches in the 352 MHz sequence and avoid losses at capture in the CERN PSB (1 MHz). After chopping, the beam acceleration continues by a 50 MeV Drift Tube Linac (DTL), a 100 MeV Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac and a Pi-Mode Structure bringing the beam to the final energy of 160 MeV. Linac4 has been commissioned with a temporary source up to 12 MeV. The beam commissioning stages of Linac4 in LEBT...

  1. WE-D-BRD-01: New Linac Designs for MR-Guided Therapy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillie, D.

    2015-06-15

    The advantages that make MR highly desirable for in-room treatment guidance, i.e. soft-tissue visualization and physiological assessment of healthy/tumor tissues, are largely recognized in the research community. However, the MR absorption in practical clinical workflows is still hindered by lack of sufficient technological infrastructure. Recent advances have been made towards filling that gap such as the development of integrated therapy systems relying on an MR scanner and a radiation source (linac, Co-60) and/or brachytherapy. The session is intended to present new efforts and methods aimed at facilitating the adoption of MR guidance for treatment delivery. Specifically, the discussion will focus on a) linac designs for reduced footprint and seamless integration with MR/linac systems, b) tracking coils for brachytherapy applications, and c) procedures for the commissioning and monitoring of MR and MR/linac performance. Learning Objectives: Understand limitations and proposed solutions for linac designs and associated integration with MR/linac systems; Understand current issues with MR-guided brachytherapy procedures Understand the issues and needs for new MR commissioning and QC. License agreement with Modus Medical Devices to develop a phantom for the quantification of MR image distortions.

  2. A study of a test APF-IH type linac as an injector for cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, T. E-mail: thattori@nr.titech.ac.jp; Yamamoto, K.; Hayashizaki, N.; Kashiwagi, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Hata, T.; Okada, S.; Sugita, T.; Aoki, M.; Okamura, M.; Yamada, S.; Osvath, E.; Dudu, D.; Vata, I

    2002-04-01

    We are studying a heavy-ion interdigital H (IH) type linear accelerator as an injector for a cancer therapy synchrotron. The compact IH linac accelerates C{sup 4+} ions from 65 keV/u up to 6 MeV/u with an alternating phase focus (APF) structure. The linac cavity is 3.1 m in length and operates at a frequency of 100 MHz. A test APF-IH linac was designed to accelerate C{sup 4+} ions from 40 keV/u to 2 MeV/u with an operating frequency of 100 MHz. From particle orbit calculations, using an energy width of {+-}0.2%, this linac can accept a transverse emittance of 100 {pi} mm mrad, a longitudinal phase of 35 deg. and a beam intensity of several 100 {mu}A. The test cavity has 1.4 m in length and 56 cm in diameter. We made a basic, half-scale model cavity of this linac and plan to measure its RF characteristics. Using the results of these measurements, a final design of this linac will be determined.

  3. A study of a test APF-IH type linac as an injector for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Hayashizaki, N.; Kashiwagi, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Hata, T.; Okada, S.; Sugita, T.; Aoki, M.; Okamura, M.; Yamada, S.; Osvath, E.; Dudu, D.; Vata, I.

    2002-04-01

    We are studying a heavy-ion interdigital H (IH) type linear accelerator as an injector for a cancer therapy synchrotron. The compact IH linac accelerates C 4+ ions from 65 keV/u up to 6 MeV/u with an alternating phase focus (APF) structure. The linac cavity is 3.1 m in length and operates at a frequency of 100 MHz. A test APF-IH linac was designed to accelerate C 4+ ions from 40 keV/u to 2 MeV/u with an operating frequency of 100 MHz. From particle orbit calculations, using an energy width of ±0.2%, this linac can accept a transverse emittance of 100 π mm mrad, a longitudinal phase of 35° and a beam intensity of several 100 μA. The test cavity has 1.4 m in length and 56 cm in diameter. We made a basic, half-scale model cavity of this linac and plan to measure its RF characteristics. Using the results of these measurements, a final design of this linac will be determined.

  4. Superconducting resonator used as a phase and energy detector for linac setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, Nikolai R.

    2016-07-01

    Booster linacs for tandem accelerators and positive ion superconducting injectors have matured into standard features of many accelerator laboratories. Both types of linac are formed as an array of independently-phased resonators operating at room temperature or in a superconducting state. Each accelerating resonator needs to be individually set in phase and amplitude for optimum acceleration efficiency. The modularity of the linac allows the velocity profile along the structure to be tailored to accommodate a wide range charge to mass ratio. The linac setup procedure, described in this paper, utilizes a superconducting resonator operating in a beam bunch phase detection mode. The main objective was to derive the full set of phase distributions for quick and efficient tuning of the entire accelerator. The phase detector was operated in overcoupling mode in order to minimize de-tuning effects of microphonic background. A mathematical expression was derived to set a limit on resonator maximum accelerating field during the crossover search to enable extracting unambiguous beam phase data. A set of equations was obtained to calculate the values of beam phase advance and energy gain produced by accelerating resonators. An extensive range of linac setting up configurations was conducted to validate experimental procedures and analytical models. The main application of a superconducting phase detector is for fast tuning for beams of ultralow intensities, in particular in the straight section of linac facilities.

  5. Design of the NSLS-II Linac Front End Test Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliller III, R.; Johanson, M.; Lucas, M.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS-II operational parameters place very stringent requirements on the injection system. Among these are the charge per bunch train at low emittance that is required from the linac along with the uniformity of the charge per bunch along the train. The NSLS-II linac is a 200 MeV linac produced by Research Instruments Gmbh. Part of the strategy for understanding to operation of the injectors is to test the front end of the linac prior to its installation in the facility. The linac front end consists of a 100 kV electron gun, 500 MHz subharmonic prebuncher, focusing solenoids and a suite of diagnostics. The diagnostics in the front end need to be supplemented with an additional suite of diagnostics to fully characterize the beam. In this paper we discuss the design of a test stand to measure the various properties of the beam generated from this section. In particular, the test stand will measure the charge, transverse emittance, energy, energy spread, and bunching performance of the linac front end under all operating conditions of the front end.

  6. Radiation protection studies for a high-power 160 MeV proton linac

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, Egidio

    2009-01-01

    CERN is presently designing a new chain of accelerators to replace the present Proton Synchrotron (PS) complex: a 160 MeV room-temperature H− linac (Linac4) to replace the present 50 MeV proton linac injector, a 3.5 GeV Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) to replace the 1.4 GeV PS Booster (PSB) and a 50 GeV synchrotron (named PS2) to replace the 26 GeV PS. Linac4 has been funded and the civil engineering work started in October 2008, whilst the SPL is in an advanced stage of design. Beyond injecting into the future 50 GeV PS, the ultimate goal of the SPL is to generate a 4 MW beam for the production of intense neutrino beams. The radiation protection design is driven by the latter requirement. This work summarizes the radiation protection studies conducted for Linac4. FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, complemented by analytical estimates, were performed to evaluate the propagation of neutrons through the waveguide, ventilation and cable ducts placed along the accelerator, to estimate the radiological impact of ...

  7. submitter Radiation Protection Studies for CERN LINAC4/SPL Accelerator Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, Egidio; Silari, Marco

    2009-01-01

    CERN is presently designing a new chain of accelerators to replace the present Proton Synchrotron (PS) complex: a 160 MeV room-temperature H$^-$ linac (Linac4) to replace the present 50 MeV proton linac injector, a 3.5 GeV Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) to replace the 1.4 GeV PS booster (PSB) and a 50 GeV synchrotron (named PS2) to replace the 26 GeV PS. Linac4 has been funded and the civil engineering work started in October 2008, whilst the SPL is in an advanced stage of design. Beyond injecting into the future 50 GeV PS, the ultimate goal of the SPL is to generate a 4 MW beam for the production of intense neutrino beams. The radiation protection design is driven by the latter requirement. This thesis summarizes the radiation protection studies conducted for Linac4. FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, complemented by analytical estimates, were performed 1) to evaluate the propagation of neutrons through the waveguide, ventilation and cable ducts placed along the accelerator, 2) to estimate the radiological i...

  8. Proposal for Reduction of Transverse Emittance of BNL 200 MeV Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Alessi, J; Raparia, D; Weng, W T

    2004-01-01

    BNL plans to upgrade the AGS proton beam from the current 0.14 MW to higher than 1.0 MW and beyond for such a neutrino facility which consists of two major subsystems. First is a 1.2 GeV super-conducting linac (SCL) to replace the booster as injector for the AGS. Second is the performance upgrade for the AGS itself for the higher intensity and repetition rate. For high intensity proton accelerators, such as the upgraded AGS, there are very stringent limitations on uncontrolled beam losses. A direct effect of linac beam emittance is the halo/tail generation in the circulating beam. Studies show the estimated halo/tail generation in the beam for present normalized RMS emittance of linac beam is unacceptable. To reduce the transverse emittance of 200 MeV linac, the existing radio frequency quadrupole linac (RFQ) has to be relocated closer to drift tube linac (DTL) tank 1 to meet emittance requirement for the AGS injection with low loss. This paper will present the various options of matching between RFQ and DTL,...

  9. Initial Emittance Measurements of the Fermilab Linac Beam Using the MTA Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Johnstone, C

    2012-01-01

    The MTA beam line has been specifically designed to facilitate measurements of the Fermilab Linac beam emittance and properties utilizing a long, 10m, element-free straight. Linac beam is extracted downstream of the 400-MeV electrostatic chopper located in the Booster injection line. This chopper cannot be utilized for MTA beam, and therefore the entire Linac beam pulse is directed into the MTA beamline. Pulse length manipulation is provided by the 750-keV electrostatic chopper at the upstream end of the Linac and, using this device, beam can be delivered from 8 {\\mu}sec up to the full 50 {\\mu}sec Linac pulse length. The 10 m emittance measurement straight exploits and begins at the 12' shield wall that separates the MTA Experimental Hall and beamline stub from the Linac enclosure. A quadrupole triplet has been installed upstream of the shield wall in order to focus a large, 1.5-2" (~95% width) beam through the shield wall and onto a profile monitor located at the exit of the shielding. Another profile monito...

  10. Sexual behavior among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Joshi, Hari Shankar

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6%) drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8%) were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8%) who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), 146 (83.9%) used a condom. 38 (12.8%) visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  11. Reproducible and controllable induction voltage adder for scaled beam experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasuo; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    A reproducible and controllable induction adder was developed using solid-state switching devices and Finemet cores for scaled beam compression experiments. A gate controlled MOSFET circuit was developed for the controllable voltage driver. The MOSFET circuit drove the induction adder at low magnetization levels of the cores which enabled us to form reproducible modulation voltages with jitter less than 0.3 ns. Preliminary beam compression experiments indicated that the induction adder can improve the reproducibility of modulation voltages and advance the beam physics experiments.

  12. Key drivers of airline loyalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty. PMID:27064618

  13. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  14. LINAC4 - Views of the 3 MeV Front-end (H- Source, LEBT, RFQ, MEBT) with Test Bench.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    The Linac4 is the new linear accelerator that will replace Linac2 as proton low energy injector in the LHC accelerator chain. On 14 November, members of the Linac4 collaboration and the CERN Operation Group were brought together for their first “real day” in the Linac4 Control Room. Together, they successfully accelerated their first hydrogen ion beam to 3 MeV. It was an exciting moment for everyone involved marked the start of one of the most critical commissioning phases for the new accelerator.

  15. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mapes, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raparia, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  16. Linac4 H{sup −} ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettry, J., E-mail: Jacques.lettry@cern.ch; Aguglia, D.; Andersson, P.; Bertolo, S.; Butterworth, A.; Coutron, Y.; Dallocchio, A.; David, N.; Chaudet, E.; Fink, D. A.; Garlasche, M.; Grudiev, A.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Haase, M.; Jones, A.; Koszar, I.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lombardi, A. M.; Machado, C. [CERN-ABP, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); and others

    2016-02-15

    CERN’s 160 MeV H{sup −} linear accelerator (Linac4) is a key constituent of the injector chain upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider that is being installed and commissioned. A cesiated surface ion source prototype is being tested and has delivered a beam intensity of 45 mA within an emittance of 0.3 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad. The optimum ratio of the co-extracted electron- to ion-current is below 1 and the best production efficiency, defined as the ratio of the beam current to the 2 MHz RF-power transmitted to the plasma, reached 1.1 mA/kW. The H{sup −} source prototype and the first tests of the new ion source optics, electron-dump, and front end developed to minimize the beam emittance are presented. A temperature regulated magnetron H{sup −} source developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory was built at CERN. The first tests of the magnetron operated at 0.8 Hz repetition rate are described.

  17. MARS15 Simulation of Radiation Environment at the ESS Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Eidelman, Yu. I. [Euclid Techlabs, Solon; Rakhno, I. L. [Fermilab; Tchelidze, L. [ESS, Lund; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive studies with the MARS15(2016) Monte-Carlo code are described on evaluation of prompt and residual radiation levels induced by nominal and accidental beam losses in the 5-MW, 2-GeV European Spallation Source (ESS) Linac. These are to provide a basis for radiation shielding design verification through the accelerator complex. The calculation model is based on the latest engineering design and includes a sophisticated algorithm for particle tracking in the machine RF cavities as well as a well-established model of the beam loss. Substantial efforts were put in solving the deep-penetration problem for the thick shielding around the tunnel with numerous complex penetrations. It allowed us to study in detail not only the prompt dose, but also component and air activation, radiation loads on the soil outside the tunnel, and skyshine studies for the complicated 3-D surface above the machine. Among the other things, the newest features in MARS15 (2016), such as a ROOT-based beamline builder and a TENDL-based event generator for nuclear interactions below 100 MeV, were very useful in this challenging application

  18. RFQ Drift-Tube Proton Linacs in IHEP

    CERN Document Server

    Budanov, Yu; Ivanov, S V; Maltsev, A P; Maltsev, I G; Stepanov, V B; Strekalovskyh, S A; Teplyakov, V A; Zenin, V

    2004-01-01

    A linac with drift tubes and RF quadrupoles (alias, an RFQ DTL) constitutes a natural extension of the RFQ concept towards higher beam energies. Complementing an RFQ with drift tubes intermitted by spacer electrodes separates functions of focusing and acceleration. Such a structure allows for an increased accelerating rate and upgrades shunt impedance to values competitive against those inherent in the other common accelerator types. Various accelerating/focusing structures for the RFQ DTLs were implemented in IHEP. Their succession is marked by a progress in performance, which is due to efforts in design, manufacturing technology and calculation technique advances that facilitated R&D of such the structures. A sound practical expertise in the field is accumulated. The 30 MeV RFQ DTL is in service as an injector for a 1.5 GeV PS of IHEP since 1985. An upgraded successor – the RFQ DTL, employing a cavity loaded by a novel accelerating/focusing structure with an increased accelerating rate, is now ...

  19. Production of platinum radioisotopes at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Suzanne V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accelerator production of platinum isotopes was investigated at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP. In this study high purity natural platinum foils were irradiated at 53.2, 65.7, 105.2, 151.9, 162.9 and 173.3.MeV. The irradiated foils were digested in aqua regia and then converted to their hydrochloride salt with concentrated hydrochloric acid before analyzing by gamma spectrometry periodically for at least 10 days post end of bombardment. A wide range of platinum (Pt, gold (Au and iridium (Ir isotopes were identified. Effective cross sections at BLIP for Pt-188, Pt-189, Pt-191 and Pt-195m were compared to literature and theoretical cross sections determined using Empire-3.2. The majority of the effective cross sections (<70 MeV confirm those reported in the literature. While the absolute values of the theoretical cross sections were up to a factor of 3 lower, Empire 3.2 modeled thresholds and maxima correlated well with experimental values. Preliminary evaluation into a rapid separation of Pt isotopes from high levels of Ir and Au isotopes proved to be a promising approach for large scale production. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that with the use of isotopically enriched target material accelerator production of selected platinum isotopes is feasible over a wide proton energy range.

  20. RF Design for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Dowell, D H; Boyce, Richard F; Hodgson, J A; Li, Zenghai; Limborg-Deprey, C; Xiao, Liling; Yu, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world’s first free electron laser, and the successful operation of this very short-wavelength FEL will require excellent beam quality from its electron source. Therefore a critical component is the RF photocathode injector. This paper describes the design issues of the LCLS RF gun and accelerator structures. The injector consists of a 1.6 cell s-band gun followed by two 3-meter SLAC sections. The gun and the first RF section will have dual RF feeds both to eliminate transverse RF kicks and to reduce the pulsed heating of the coupling ports. In addition, the input coupler cavity of the first accelerator section will be specially shaped to greatly reduce the RF quadrupole fields. The design for the accelerator section is now complete, and the RF design of the gun’s dual coupler and the full cell shape is in progress. These and other aspects of the gun and structure designs will be discussed.

  1. The RF Design of the Linac4 RFQ

    CERN Document Server

    Piquet, Olivier; Desmons, Michel; France, Alain; Lombardi, Alessandra; Rossi, Carlo; Vretenar, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    In the Linac 4 and the SPL, a 3 MeV RFQ is required to accelerate the Hbeam from the ion source to the DTL input energy. While the 6-meter long IPHI RFQ was initially chosen for this application, a CERN study suggested that a dedicated, shorter 3-meter RFQ might present several advantages. The 2D cross-section is optimized for lower power dissipation, while featuring simple geometrical shape suitable for easy machining. RF stability is evaluated using a 4-wire transmission model and 3D simulations, taking electrode modulation into account. The resulting RFQ is intrinsically stable and does not require rod stabilizers. End circuits are tuned with dedicated rods. RF power is fed via a ridged waveguide and a slot iris. Vacuum port assemblies are positioned prior to brazing to minimize RF perturbation. The 32 tuning slugs form a set of stable sampling, able to tune 9 modes. Tuner parameters are derived from beadpull accuracy specification and fabrication tolerances. Signals delivered by pickup loops inserted in 1...

  2. THE LINAC LASER NOTCHER FOR THE FERMILAB BOOSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David E, [Fermilab; Duel, Kevin [Fermilab; Gardner, Matthew [Fermilab; Johnson, Todd [Fermilab; Slimmer, David [Fermilab; Patil, Screenvias [PriTel, Inc; Tafoya, Jason [Optical Engines, Inc

    2016-09-27

    In synchrotron machines, the beam extraction is accomplished by a combination of septa and kicker magnets which deflect the beam from an accelerator into another. Ideally the kicker field must rise/fall in between the beam bunches. However, in reality, an intentional beam-free time region (aka "notch") is created on the beam pulse to assure that the beam can be extracted with minimal losses. In the case of the Fermilab Booster, the notch is created in the ring near injection energy by the use of fast kickers which deposit the beam in a shielded collimation region within the accelerator tunnel. With increasing beam power it is desirable to create this notch at the lowest possible energy to minimize activation. The Fermilab Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) initiated an R&D project to build a laser system to create the notch within a linac beam pulse at 750 keV. This talk will describe the concept for the laser notcher and discuss our current status, commissioning results, and future plans.

  3. A Multi-MW Proton/Electron Linac at KEK

    CERN Document Server

    Belusevic, Radoje

    2014-01-01

    It is proposed that a multi-MW superconducting proton/electron linac (SCL) and a proton injector (PI) be built at KEK. The 3 GeV PI would serve both as an injector to the SCL and a source of proton beams that could be used to copiously produce neutrons and muons. Protons accelerated by the SCL to 20 GeV would be transferred through the KEK Tristan ring in order to create neutrino, kaon and muon beams for fixed-target experiments. At a later stage, a 60 GeV proton synchrotron could be installed inside the Tristan ring. The SCL, comprising 1.3 GHZ superconducting ILC-type rf cavities, could also accelerate polarized or unpolarized electron beams. After acceleration, electrons may traverse an XFEL undulator, or could be used to produce polarized positrons. An SCL-based synchrotron light source for applications in materials science and medicine is also envisaged. The proposed facility would be constructed using the existing KEK accelerator infrastructure.

  4. Comparative analyses of linac and Gamma Knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L.; Kwok, Y.; Chin, L. S.; Yu, C.; Regine, W. F.

    2005-11-01

    Dedicated linac-based radiosurgery has been reported for trigeminal neuralgia treatments. In this study, we investigated the dose fall-off characteristics and setup error tolerance of linac-based radiosurgery as compared with standard Gamma Knife radiosurgery. In order to minimize the errors from different treatment planning calculations, consistent imaging registration, dose calculation and dose volume analysis methods were developed and implemented for both Gamma Knife and linac-based treatments. Intra-arc setup errors were incorporated into the treatment planning process of linac-based deliveries. The effects of intra-arc setup errors with increasing number of arcs were studied and benchmarked against Gamma Knife deliveries with and without plugging patterns. Our studies found equivalent dose fall-off properties between Gamma Knife and linac-based radiosurgery given a sufficient number of arcs (>7) and small intra-arc errors (<0.5 mm) were satisfied for linac-based deliveries. Increasing the number of arcs significantly decreased the variations in the dose fall-off curve at the low isodose region (e.g. from 40% to 10%) and also improved dose uniformity at the high isodose region (e.g. from 70% to 90%). As the number of arcs increased, the effects of intra-arc setup errors on the dose fall-off curves decreased. Increasing the number of arcs also reduced the integral dose to the distal normal brain tissues. In conclusion, linac-based radiosurgery produces equivalent dose fall-off characteristics to Gamma Knife radiosurgery with a high number of arcs. However, one must note the increased treatment time for a large number of arcs and isocentre accuracies.

  5. Comparative analyses of linac and Gamma Knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, L; Kwok, Y; Chin, L S; Yu, C; Regine, W F [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2005-11-21

    Dedicated linac-based radiosurgery has been reported for trigeminal neuralgia treatments. In this study, we investigated the dose fall-off characteristics and setup error tolerance of linac-based radiosurgery as compared with standard Gamma Knife radiosurgery. In order to minimize the errors from different treatment planning calculations, consistent imaging registration, dose calculation and dose volume analysis methods were developed and implemented for both Gamma Knife and linac-based treatments. Intra-arc setup errors were incorporated into the treatment planning process of linac-based deliveries. The effects of intra-arc setup errors with increasing number of arcs were studied and benchmarked against Gamma Knife deliveries with and without plugging patterns. Our studies found equivalent dose fall-off properties between Gamma Knife and linac-based radiosurgery given a sufficient number of arcs (>7) and small intra-arc errors (<0.5 mm) were satisfied for linac-based deliveries. Increasing the number of arcs significantly decreased the variations in the dose fall-off curve at the low isodose region (e.g. from 40% to 10%) and also improved dose uniformity at the high isodose region (e.g. from 70% to 90%). As the number of arcs increased, the effects of intra-arc setup errors on the dose fall-off curves decreased. Increasing the number of arcs also reduced the integral dose to the distal normal brain tissues. In conclusion, linac-based radiosurgery produces equivalent dose fall-off characteristics to Gamma Knife radiosurgery with a high number of arcs. However, one must note the increased treatment time for a large number of arcs and isocentre accuracies.

  6. Conceptional design of a heavy ion linac injector for HIRFL-CSRm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hu; Yuan, You-Jin; Xia, Jia-Wen; Yin, Xue-Jun; Du, Heng; Li, Zhong-Shan

    2014-10-01

    A room temperature heavy ion linac has been proposed as a new injector of the main Cooler Storage Ring (CSRm) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), which is expected to improve the performance of HIRFL. The linac injector can supply heavy ions with a maximum mass to charge ratio of 7 and an injection kinetic energy of 7.272 MeV/u for CSRm; the pulsed beam intensity is 3 emA with the duty factor of 3%. Compared with the present cyclotron injector, the Sector Focusing Cyclotron (SFC), the beam current from linac can be improved by 10-100 times. As the pre-accelerator of the linac, the 108.48 MHz 4-rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerates the ion beam from 4 keV/u to 300 keV/u, which achieves the transmission efficiency of 95.3% with a 3.07 m long vane. The phase advance has been taken into account in the analysis of the error tolerance, and parametric resonances have been carefully avoided by adjusting the structure parameters. Kombinierte Null Grad Struktur Interdigital H-mode Drift Tube Linacs (KONUS IH-DTLs), which follow the RFQ, accelerate ions up to the energy of 7.272 MeV/u for CSRm. The resonance frequency is 108.48 MHz for the first two cavities and 216.96 MHz for the last 5 Drift Tube Linacs (DTLs). The maximum accelerating gradient can reach 4.95 MV/m in a DTL section with the length of 17.066 m, and the total pulsed RF power is 2.8 MW. A new strategy, for the determination of resonance frequency, RFQ vane voltage and DTL effective accelerating voltage, is described in detail. The beam dynamics design of the linac will be presented in this paper.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Multibunch, Multipass Beam Breakup in the Jefferson Laboratory Free Electron Laser Upgrade Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Tennant; David Douglas; Kevin Jordan; Nikolitsa Merminga; Eduard Pozdeyev; Haipeng Wang; Todd I. Smith; Stefan Simrock; Ivan Bazarov; Georg Hoffstaetter

    2006-03-24

    In recirculating accelerators, and in particular energy recovery linacs (ERLs), the maximum current can be limited by multipass, multibunch beam breakup (BBU), which occurs when the electron beam interacts with the higher-order modes (HOMs) of an accelerating cavity on the accelerating pass and again on the energy recovering pass. This effect is of particular concern in the design of modern high average current energy recovery accelerators utilizing superconducting RF technology. Experimental characterization and observations of the instability at the Jefferson Laboratory 10 kW Free Electron Laser (FEL) are presented. Measurements of the threshold current for the instability are made under a variety of beam conditions and compared to the predictions of several BBU simulation codes. This represents the first time in which the codes have been experimentally benchmarked. With BBU posing a threat to high current beam operation in the FEL Driver, several suppression schemes were developed.

  8. Experimental investigation of the effects of the car driver`s postures on sleepiness; Chakuza shisei ga nemuke ni oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsudani, M.; Okamura, C. [Toyo Seat Co. Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan); Nishiyama, S. [Hiroshima City Industrial Technology Institute, Hiroshima (Japan); Nozawa, T.; Nishikawa, K. [Matsuda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Hori, T.; Hayashi, M. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Effects of car driver`s postures on sleepiness were experimentally investigated. For the measurement method of EEG (electroencephalogram), bipolar induction was adopted, to record Cz and Pz using those at left ear as standard by international 10-20 electrode method. In addition, differential potential was recorded between locations of Cz and Pz. The time constant of EEG was set in 0.3 sec. Brain waves were measured for one minute under open and close eye conditions before and after each test as EEG at the rest. For the measurement of EOG (electro-oculograph), vertical and horizontal eye motions were observed. Induced potential change was measured by attaching silver-silver chloride electrode at the time constant 1.5 sec. For the measurement of SPL (skin potential level), the palm of left hand was used as a measuring point and the left front arm was used as a reference point for attaching electrodes. The danger of sleepiness was provided by the boring driving conditions independent of driver`s postures. There was a difference of relaxation time due to the driver`s postures. It was difficult to avoid sleepiness by adjusting the relative angle between seat and seat back. However, it was found that the angle 110deg was most suitable for avoiding sleepiness. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Technical Note: Development and performance of a software tool for quality assurance of online replanning with a conventional Linac or MR-Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Pei; Ahunbay, Ergun; Li, X Allen

    2016-04-01

    To develop an integrated quality assurance (QA) software tool for online replanning capable of efficiently and automatically checking radiation treatment (RT) planning parameters and gross plan quality, verifying treatment plan data transfer from treatment planning system (TPS) to record and verify (R&V) system, performing a secondary monitor unit (MU) calculation with or without a presence of a magnetic field from MR-Linac, and validating the delivery record consistency with the plan. The software tool, named ArtQA, was developed to obtain and compare plan and treatment parameters from both the TPS and the R&V system database. The TPS data are accessed via direct file reading and the R&V data are retrieved via open database connectivity and structured query language. Plan quality is evaluated with both the logical consistency of planning parameters and the achieved dose-volume histograms. Beams in between the TPS and R&V system are matched based on geometry configurations. To consider the effect of a 1.5 T transverse magnetic field from MR-Linac in the secondary MU calculation, a method based on modified Clarkson integration algorithm was developed and tested for a series of clinical situations. ArtQA has been used in their clinic and can quickly detect inconsistencies and deviations in the entire RT planning process. With the use of the ArtQA tool, the efficiency for plan check including plan quality, data transfer, and delivery check can be improved by at least 60%. The newly developed independent MU calculation tool for MR-Linac reduces the difference between the plan and calculated MUs by 10%. The software tool ArtQA can be used to perform a comprehensive QA check from planning to delivery with conventional Linac or MR-Linac and is an essential tool for online replanning where the QA check needs to be performed rapidly.

  10. TwinDrivers: Semi-Automatic Derivation of Fast and Safe Hypervisor Network Drivers from Guest OS Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In a virtualized environment, device drivers are often run inside a virtual machine (VM) rather than in the hypervisor. Doing so protects the hypervisor from bugs in the driver, and also allows the reuse of the device driver and its support infrastructure in the VM. Unfortunately, this approach results in poor performance for I/O intensive devices such as network cards. The alternative approach is to run device drivers directly in the hypervisor. Although this approach results in better perfo...

  11. Fuel-Cell Drivers Wanted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Todd; Jones, Rick

    2004-01-01

    While the political climate seems favorable for the development of fuel-cell vehicles for personal transportation, the market's demand may not be so favorable. Nonetheless, middle level students will be the next generation of drivers and voters, and they need to be able to make informed decisions regarding the nation's energy and transportation…

  12. Drivers and Limits for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick; Gudmundsson, Henrik;

    This report summarizes key outcomes of the study ’Drivers and Limits’ that was supported for the period 2009-2013 by a research grant from the Danish Strategic Research Council. The project investigated - for the empirical context of Denmark - key driving forces behind transport growth, as well...

  13. SLEEPINESS AMONG IRANIAN LORRY DRIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sadeghniiat Y. Labbafinejad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS denotes a propensity to doze off or fall asleep unintentionally during the day, particularly in passive situations. There is cumulative evidence pointing to an association between sleepiness and probability of involvement in motor vehicle crashes. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of sleepiness in a group of Iranian lorry drivers and its association with accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out in lorry drivers of Tehran goods transportation terminal in 2005. This study used a questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. The questionnaire included questions regarding demographic features, professional data, sleep habits and excessive daytime sleepiness. A total of 386 male drivers, aged 43.23 ± 9.72 years were included in the study. ESS was higher than 10 points in 9.1% of the interviewees; 50.8% never have driven drowsy, although 36% rarely, 7.3% half of the times, 4.9% almost always and 1% always have driven drowsy. Logistic regression analysis indicated that EDS, age and job satisfaction were associated with an increased risk of accidents. Sleepiness is a prevailing symptom in lorry drivers and is probably related to accidents.

  14. 1974 view into the cage of the 520 keV electrostatic preaccelerator of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The condenser of the high voltage circuit (column in the foreground) is being serviced by Jean Luc Vallet. Standing on the electronics platform (the big, open metallic structure on insulating pillars, for details see 7403120) is Bob Nettelton. The column at the right edge of the photo is part of the bouncer (see also 7403066X) which compensated the voltage drop during acceleration of a proton pulse. In the background is the source (open pill box structure) attached to the accelerating column, barely visible) behind. The "old" 50 MeV Linac 1, the original PS injector built in the 1950s, was (since 1976) replaced by a new 50 MeV linac (Linac 2) with a 750 keV "Cockcroft-Walton" pre-injector(see 7602012X), later replaced by a 750 keV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) preaccelerator. Linac 1 co-existed until mid 1992 (from 1982 onwards it was mainly used to inject "test-particles" into the Low Energy Antiproton ring LEAR). In 1984 the electrostatic preaccelerator of linac 1 was replaced by a 520 keV RFQ ( 8303511X...

  15. Physics design of a CW high-power proton Linac for accelerator-driven system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajni Pande; Shweta Roy; S V L S Rao; P Singh; S Kailas

    2012-02-01

    Accelerator-driven systems (ADS) have evoked lot of interest the world over because of their capability to incinerate the MA (minor actinides) and LLFP (long-lived fission products) radiotoxic waste and their ability to utilize thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel. One of the main subsystems of ADS is a high energy (∼1 GeV) and high current (∼30 mA) CW proton Linac. The accelerator for ADS should have high efficiency and reliability and very low beam losses to allow hands-on maintenance. With these criteria, the beam dynamics simulations for a 1 GeV, 30 mA proton Linac has been done. The Linac consists of normal-conducting radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), drift tube linac (DTL) and coupled cavity drift tube Linac (CCDTL) structures that accelerate the beam to about 100 MeV followed by superconducting (SC) elliptical cavities, which accelerate the beam from 100 MeV to 1 GeV. The details of the design are presented in this paper.

  16. CLUSTER: A high-frequency H-mode coupled cavity linac for low and medium energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaldi, Ugo [TERA Foundation, Via Puccini 11, 28100 Novara (Italy); University of Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: Ugo.Amaldi@cern.ch; Citterio, Alessandro; Crescenti, Massimo; Giuliacci, Arianna; Tronci, Cesare; Zennaro, Riccardo [TERA Foundation, Via Puccini 11, 28100 Novara (Italy)

    2007-09-11

    An innovative linear accelerating structure is proposed which is particularly suited for low-current hadrontherapy applications but can also conveniently substitute the conventional proton linacs at present considered for Accelerator Driven Systems and neutrino and muon factories. Its two main features are compactness and good power efficiency at low-medium beam velocities (0.05{<=}{beta}{<=}0.5). The first is achieved through a high working frequency and a consequent high accelerating gradient, the second is obtained by coupling several H-mode cavities together. The structure was dubbed CLUSTER for 'Coupled-cavity Linac USing Transverse Electric Radial field'. To compare the performance of this structure with other hadrontherapy linac designs involving high frequencies, a conceptual study has been performed for an operating frequency of 3 GHz. Moreover, a proof of principle has been obtained through RF measurements on a prototype operating at 1 GHz. An accelerator complex using a CLUSTER linac is also considered for protontherapy purposes. This total accelerator complex, called 'cyclinac', uses a commercial cyclotron as an injector to a high-frequency and high-gradient linac.

  17. Performance Results of the Modulator for the 100MeV Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Il; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The modulator for the 100MeV proton linac has been installed at KOMAC (Korea of Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) site. The specification of modulator is 5.8MW peak power with 1.5ms pulse width, 60Hz repetition rate. There are total 4 sets of modulator for 100-MeV proton linac including 3-MeV RFQ, 20-MeV DTL and 100-MeV DTL. A modulator drives two or three sets of the klystrons simultaneously. After installation and du mmy test of 4 modulators, it has been operated for 100MeV proton linac. In this paper, the performance results of modulators for the 100MeV proton linac are presented. 4 modulators were installed and tested for the 100MeV proton linac. The modulator was measured to have about less than 1% droops at flat top for 500 us pulse by using pulse frequency modulation droop compensation method. The long term voltage variation measurement showed that the voltage increased up to 0.05% for 8 hours. In future, the voltage droop and variation of modulator should be continuously checked in the high repetition rate.

  18. Driver ASICs for Advanced Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the SBIR program is to develop a new Application Specified Integrated Circuit (ASIC) driver to be used in driver electronics of a deformable...

  19. Anthropogenic Drivers of Ecosystem Change: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald C. Nelson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of what the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA calls "indirect and direct drivers" of change in ecosystem services at a global level. The MA definition of a driver is any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem. A direct driver unequivocally influences ecosystem processes. An indirect driver operates more diffusely by altering one or more direct drivers. Global driving forces are categorized as demographic, economic, sociopolitical, cultural and religious, scientific and technological, and physical and biological. Drivers in all categories other than physical and biological are considered indirect. Important direct drivers include changes in climate, plant nutrient use, land conversion, and diseases and invasive species. This paper does not discuss natural drivers such as climate variability, extreme weather events, or volcanic eruptions.

  20. Linac based photofission inspection system employing novel detection concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, John; Gozani, Tsahi; Elsalim, Mashal; Condron, Cathie; Brown, Craig

    2011-10-01

    Rapiscan Systems is developing a LINAC based cargo inspection system for detection of special nuclear material (SNM) in cargo containers. The system, called Photofission Based Alarm Resolution (PBAR) is being developed under a DHD/DNDO Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) program. The PBAR system is based on the Rapiscan Eagle P9000 X-ray system, which is a portal system with a commercial 9 MeV LINAC X-ray source. For the purposes of the DNDO ATD program, a conveyor system was installed in the portal to allow scanning and precise positioning of 20 ft ISO cargo containers. The system uses a two step inspection process. In the first step, the basic scan, the container is quickly and completely inspected using two independent radiography arrays: the conventional primary array with high spatial resolution and a lower resolution spectroscopic array employing the novel Z-Spec method. The primary array uses cadmium tungstate (CdWO 4) detectors with conventional current mode readouts using photodiodes. The Z-Spec array uses small plastic scintillators capable of performing very fast (up to 10 8 cps) gamma-ray spectroscopy. The two radiography arrays are used to locate high-Z objects in the image such as lead, tungsten, uranium, which could be potential shielding materials as well as SNM itself. In the current system, the Z-Spec works by measuring the energy spectrum of transmitted X-rays. For high-Z materials the higher end of the energy spectrum is more attenuated than for low-Z materials and thus has a lower mean energy and a narrower width than low- and medium-Z materials. The second step in the inspection process is the direct scan or alarm clearing scan. In this step, areas of the container image, which were identified as high Z, are re-inspected. This is done by precisely repositioning the container to the location of the high-Z object and performing a stationary irradiation of the area with X-ray beam. Since there are a large number of photons in the 9 MV