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Sample records for induces somatotopically organized

  1. Pain Experience is Somatotopically Organized and Overlaps with Pain Anticipation in the Human Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Welman, F H S; Smit, Albertine E; Jongen, Joost L M; Tibboel, Dick; van der Geest, Jos N; Holstege, Jan C

    2018-02-26

    Many fMRI studies have shown activity in the cerebellum after peripheral nociceptive stimulation. We investigated whether the areas in the cerebellum that were activated after nociceptive thumb stimulation were separate from those after nociceptive toe stimulation. In an additional experiment, we investigated the same for the anticipation of a nociceptive stimulation on the thumb or toe. For his purpose, we used fMRI after an electrical stimulation of the thumb and toe in 19 adult healthy volunteers. Following nociceptive stimulation, different areas were activated by stimulation on the thumb (lobule VI ipsilaterally and Crus II mainly contralaterally) and toe (lobules VIII-IX and IV-V bilaterally and lobule VI contralaterally), i.e., were somatotopically organized. Cerebellar areas innervated non-somatotopically by both toe and thumb stimulation were the posterior vermis and Crus I, bilaterally. In the anticipation experiment, similar results were found. However, here, the somatotopically activated areas were relatively small for thumb and negligible for toe stimulation, while the largest area was innervated non-somatotopically and consisted mainly of Crus I and lobule VI bilaterally. These findings indicate that nociceptive stimulation and anticipation of nociceptive stimulation are at least partly processed by the same areas in the cerebellum. This was confirmed by an additional conjunction analysis. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that input that is organized in a somatotopical manner reflects direct input from the spinal cord, while non-somatotopically activated parts of the cerebellum receive their information indirectly through cortical and subcortical connections, possibly involved in processing contextual emotional states, like the expectation of pain.

  2. Somatotopic organization of cortical fields in the lateral sulcus of Homo sapiens: evidence for SII and PV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disbrow, E; Roberts, T; Krubitzer, L

    2000-02-28

    The human somatosensory cortex in the Sylvian fissure was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging to describe the number and internal organization of cortical fields present. Somatic stimuli were applied to the lips, face, hand, trunk, and foot of 18 human subjects. Activity patterns were transposed onto three-dimensional magnetic resonance images of the brain so that the location of activity associated with the different stimuli could be related to specific regions of the cortex. There were several consistent findings. First, there were three regions of activity in the lateral sulcus associated with stimulation of the contralateral body. The most consistent locus of activation was on the upper bank of the lateral sulcus, continuing onto the operculum. The other two areas, one rostral and one caudal to this large central area, were smaller and were activated less consistently. Second, when activity patterns in the large central area resulting from stimulation of all body parts were considered, this region appeared to contain two fields that corresponded in location and somatotopic organization to the second somatosensory area (SII) and the parietal ventral area (PV). Finally, patterns of activation within SII and PV were somewhat variable across subjects. Repeated within-subject stimulus presentation indicated that differences across subjects were not due to inconsistent stimulus presentation. Comparisons with other mammals suggest that some features of organization are found only in primates. It is hypothesized that these features may be associated with manual dexterity and coordination of the hands, a characteristic generally restricted to the primate lineage.

  3. Somatotopical feedback versus non-somatotopical feedback for phantom digit sensation on amputees using electrotactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dingguo; Xu, Heng; Shull, Peter B; Liu, Jianrong; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2015-05-02

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation can provide amputees with tactile feedback for better manipulating an advanced prosthesis. In general, there are two ways to transfer the stimulus to the skin: somatotopical feedback (SF) that stimulates the phantom digit somatotopy on the stump and non-somatotopical feedback (NF) that stimulates other positions on the human body. To investigate the difference between SF and NF, electrotactile experiments were conducted on seven amputees. Electrical stimulation was applied via a complete phantom map to the residual limb (SF) and to the upper arm (NF) separately. The behavior results of discrimination accuracy and response time were used to examine: 1) performance differences between SF and NF for discriminating position, type and strength of tactile feedback; 2) performance differences between SF and NF for one channel (1C), three channels (3C), and five channels (5C). NASA-TLX standardized testing was used to determine differences in mental workload between SF and NF. The grand-averaged discrimination accuracy for SF was 6% higher than NF, and the average response time for SF was 600 ms faster than NF. SF is better than NF for position, type, strength, and the overall modality regarding both accuracy and response time except for 1C modality (pNASA-TLX scores indicated that mental workload increased as the number of stimulation channels increased. We quantified the difference between SF and NF, and the influence of different number of stimulation channels. SF was better than NF in general, but the practical issues such as the limited area of stumps could constrain the use of SF. We found that more channels increased the amount and richness of information to the amputee while fewer channels resulted in higher performance, and thus the 3C/SF modality was a good compromise. Based on this study, we provide possible solutions to the practical problems involving the implementation of tactile feedback for amputees. These results are

  4. Somatotopic Map and Inter- and Intra-Digit Distance in Brodmann Area 2 by Pressure Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Phil; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Gim, Seon-Young; Kim, Woo-Ram; Mun, Kyung-Ryul; Lim, Dae-Woon; Lee, Bongsoo; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The somatotopic representation of the tactile stimulation on the finger in the brain is an essential part of understanding the human somatosensory system as well as rehabilitation and other clinical therapies. Many studies have used vibrotactile stimulations and reported finger somatotopic representations in the Brodmann area 3 (BA 3). On the contrary, few studies investigated finger somatotopic representation using pressure stimulations. Therefore, the present study aimed to find a comprehensive somatotopic representation (somatotopic map and inter- and intra-digit distance) within BA 2 of humans that could describe tactile stimulations on different joints across the fingers by applying pressure stimulation to three joints-the first (p1), second (p2), and third (p3) joints-of four fingers (index, middle, ring, and little finger). Significant differences were observed in the inter-digit distance between the first joints (p1) of the index and little fingers, and between the third joints (p3) of the index and little fingers. In addition, a significant difference was observed in the intra-digit distance between p1 and p3 of the little finger. This study suggests that a somatotopic map and inter- and intra-digit distance could be found in BA 2 in response to pressure stimulation on finger joints. PMID:27452859

  5. Somatotopic Semantic Priming and Prediction in the Motor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisoni, Luigi; Dreyer, Felix R.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of action-related sounds and words activates motor regions, reflecting the semantic grounding of these symbols in action information; in addition, motor cortex exerts causal influences on sound perception and language comprehension. However, proponents of classic symbolic theories still dispute the role of modality-preferential systems such as the motor cortex in the semantic processing of meaningful stimuli. To clarify whether the motor system carries semantic processes, we investigated neurophysiological indexes of semantic relationships between action-related sounds and words. Event-related potentials revealed that action-related words produced significantly larger stimulus-evoked (Mismatch Negativity-like) and predictive brain responses (Readiness Potentials) when presented in body-part-incongruent sound contexts (e.g., “kiss” in footstep sound context; “kick” in whistle context) than in body-part-congruent contexts, a pattern reminiscent of neurophysiological correlates of semantic priming. Cortical generators of the semantic relatedness effect were localized in areas traditionally associated with semantic memory, including left inferior frontal cortex and temporal pole, and, crucially, in motor areas, where body-part congruency of action sound–word relationships was indexed by a somatotopic pattern of activation. As our results show neurophysiological manifestations of action-semantic priming in the motor cortex, they prove semantic processing in the motor system and thus in a modality-preferential system of the human brain. PMID:26908635

  6. A somatotopic bidirectional hand prosthesis with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation based sensory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, Edoardo; Petrini, Francesco M; Artoni, Fiorenzo; Popovic, Igor; Simanić, Igor; Raspopovic, Stanisa; Micera, Silvestro

    2017-09-07

    According to amputees, sensory feedback is amongst the most important features lacking from commercial prostheses. Although restoration of touch by means of implantable neural interfaces has been achieved, these approaches require surgical interventions, and their long-term usability still needs to be fully investigated. Here, we developed a non-invasive alternative which maintains some of the advantages of invasive approaches, such as a somatotopic sensory restitution scheme. We used transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to induce referred sensations to the phantom hand of amputees. These sensations were characterized in four amputees over two weeks. Although the induced sensation was often paresthesia, the location corresponded to parts of the innervation regions of the median and ulnar nerves, and electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings confirmed the presence of appropriate responses in relevant cortical areas. Using these sensations as feedback during bidirectional prosthesis control, the patients were able to perform several functional tasks that would not be possible otherwise, such as applying one of three levels of force on an external sensor. Performance during these tasks was high, suggesting that this approach could be a viable alternative to the more invasive solutions, offering a trade-off between the quality of the sensation, and the invasiveness of the intervention.

  7. Sustained maintenance of somatotopic information in brain regions recruited by tactile working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Katus, Tobias; Muller, M.M.; Eimer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    To adaptively guide ongoing behavior, representations in working memory (WM) often have to be modified in line with changing task demands. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to demonstrate that tactile WM representations are stored in modality-specific cortical regions, that the goal-directed modulation of these representations is mediated through hemispheric-specific activation of somatosensory areas, and that the rehearsal of somatotopic coordinates in memory is accomplished by modalit...

  8. Somatotopic Arrangement and Location of the Corticospinal Tract in the Brainstem of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2011-01-01

    The corticospinal tract (CST) is the most important motor pathway in the human brain. Detailed knowledge of CST somatotopy is important in terms of rehabilitative management and invasive procedures for patients with brain injuries. In this study, I conducted a review of nine previous studies of the somatotopical location and arrangement at the brainstem in the human brain. The results of this review indicated that the hand and leg somatotopies of the CST are arranged medio-laterally in the mi...

  9. Somatotopic mapping of piano fingering errors in sensorimotor experts: TMS studies in pianists and visually trained musically naives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidi, Matteo; Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Mega, Ilaria; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2014-02-01

    Virtuosic musical performance requires fine sensorimotor skills and high predictive control of the fast finger movements that produce the intended sounds, and cannot be corrected once the notes have been played. The anticipatory nature of motor control in experts explains why musical performance is barely affected by auditory feedback. Using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, we provide evidence that, in expert pianists (Experiment 1), the observation of a mute piano fingering error induces 1) a time-locked facilitation of hand corticospinal representation which occurred 300 and 700 ms but not 100 ms after error onset, and 2) a somatotopic corticospinal facilitation of the very same finger that commits the error. In a second experiment, we show that no corticospinal modulation is found in non-pianist naïve individuals who were experimentally trained to visually detect the observed fingering errors (Experiment 2). This is the first evidence showing that the refined somatosensory and motor skills of musicians exceed the domain of individual motor control and may provide the brain with fine anticipatory, simulative error monitoring systems for the evaluation of others' movements.

  10. Representing tools as hand movements: early and somatotopic visuomotor transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Eleonora; Maffongelli, Laura; Jacono, Marco; D'Ausilio, Alessandro

    2014-08-01

    The term affordance defines a property of objects, which relates to the possible interactions that an agent can carry out on that object. In monkeys, canonical neurons encode both the visual and the motor properties of objects with high specificity. However, it is not clear if in humans exists a similarly fine-grained description of these visuomotor transformations. In particular, it has not yet been proven that the processing of visual features related to specific affordances induces both specific and early visuomotor transformations, given that complete specificity has been reported to emerge quite late (300-450ms). In this study, we applied an adaptation-stimulation paradigm to investigate early cortico-spinal facilitation and hand movements׳ synergies evoked by the observation of tools. We adapted, through passive observation of finger movements, neuronal populations coding either for precision or power grip actions. We then presented the picture of one tool affording one of the two grasps types and applied single-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to the hand primary motor cortex, 150ms after image onset. Cortico-spinal excitability of the Abductor Digiti Minimi and Abductor Pollicis Brevis showed a detailed pattern of modulations, matching tools׳ affordances. Similarly, TMS-induced hand movements showed a pattern of grip-specific whole hand synergies. These results offer a direct proof of the emergence of an early visuomotor transformation when tools are observed, that maintains the same amount of synergistic motor details as the actions we can perform on them. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. A functional MRI study of somatotopic representation of somatosensory stimulation in the cerebellum

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    Takanashi, M.; Abe, K.; Yanagihara, T.; Sakoda, S. [Dept. of Neurology D4, Osaka Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Suita City, Osaka (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Hirabuki, N.; Nakamura, H.; Fujita, N. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Suita City, Osaka (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Somatotopic representation in the cerebral cortex of somatosensory stimulation has been widely reported, but that in the cerebellum has not. We investigated the latter in the human cerebellum by functional MRI (fMRI). Using a 1.5 tesla imager, we obtained multislice blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI with single-shot gradient-echo echoplanar imaging in seven right-handed volunteers during electrical stimulation of the left index finger and big toe. In the anterior and posterior cerebellum, activated pixels for the index finger were separate from those for the toe. This suggests that somatosensory stimulation of different parts of the body may involve distinct areas of in the cerebellum as well as the cerebral cortex. (orig.)

  12. A functional MRI study of somatotopic representation of somatosensory stimulation in the cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takanashi, M.; Abe, K.; Yanagihara, T.; Sakoda, S.; Tanaka, H.; Hirabuki, N.; Nakamura, H.; Fujita, N.

    2003-01-01

    Somatotopic representation in the cerebral cortex of somatosensory stimulation has been widely reported, but that in the cerebellum has not. We investigated the latter in the human cerebellum by functional MRI (fMRI). Using a 1.5 tesla imager, we obtained multislice blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI with single-shot gradient-echo echoplanar imaging in seven right-handed volunteers during electrical stimulation of the left index finger and big toe. In the anterior and posterior cerebellum, activated pixels for the index finger were separate from those for the toe. This suggests that somatosensory stimulation of different parts of the body may involve distinct areas of in the cerebellum as well as the cerebral cortex. (orig.)

  13. Somatotopic arrangement and location of the corticospinal tract in the brainstem of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2011-07-01

    The corticospinal tract (CST) is the most important motor pathway in the human brain. Detailed knowledge of CST somatotopy is important in terms of rehabilitative management and invasive procedures for patients with brain injuries. In this study, I conducted a review of nine previous studies of the somatotopical location and arrangement at the brainstem in the human brain. The results of this review indicated that the hand and leg somatotopies of the CST are arranged medio-laterally in the mid to lateral portion of the cerebral peduncle, ventromedial-dorsolaterally in the pontine basis, and medio-laterally in the medullary pyramid. However, few diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have been conducted on this topic, and only nine have been reported: midbrain (2 studies), pons (4 studies), and medulla (1 study). Therefore, further DTI studies should be conducted in order to expand the literature on this topic. In particular, research on midbrain and medulla should be encouraged.

  14. Somatotopic location of corticospinal tract at pons in human brain: a diffusion tensor tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Heon; Son, Su Min; Jang, Sung Ho

    2010-07-01

    No diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) study has yet investigated the somatotopic location of the corticospinal tract (CST) at the pons. In the current study, we used DTT to investigate the somatotopic location of the CST at the pons in the human brain. We recruited 25 healthy volunteers for this study. Diffusion tensor images (DTIs) were scanned using 1.5-T; CSTs for the hand and leg were obtained using FMRIB software. Normalized DTT was reconstructed using the Montreal Neurological Institute echo-planar imaging template supplied with the SPM. Individual DTI data were calculated as a pixel unit at the upper and lower pons. Relative average location of the highest probability point of the CST for the hand was 47.70%, with the standard from the midline to the most lateral point of the upper pons, and 35.87% at the lower pons. For the leg, the CST was located at 56.82% at the upper pons and 40.63% at the lower pons. For the anteroposterior direction from the most anterior point of the pons to the most anterior point of the fourth ventricle, the CST for the hand was located at 42.30% at the upper pons and 36.18% at the lower pons. For the leg, the CST was located at 45.68% and 39.01%, respectively. We found that the hand somatotopy of the CST was located at the antero-medial portion at the pons and that the leg somatotopy of the CST was located postero-laterally to the hand somatotopy of the CST. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anatomic location and somatotopic arrangement of the corticospinal tract at the cerebral peduncle in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, H G; Hong, J H; Jang, S H

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the detailed anatomic location and somatotopic arrangement at the CP. Using DTT with FSL tools, we conducted an investigation of the anatomic location and somatotopic arrangement of the CST at the CP in the human brain. We recruited 43 healthy volunteers for this study. DTI was obtained by using 1.5T, and CSTs for the hand and leg were obtained by using the FSL tool. The somatotopic location of the CST was evaluated as the highest probabilistic location at the upper and lower midbrain. The posterior boundary was determined as the line between the interpeduncular fossa and the lateral sulcus; we then drew a rectangle on the basis of the boundary of the CP. In the mediolateral direction, the highest probabilistic locations for the hand and leg were an average of 60.46% and 69.98% from the medial boundary at the upper midbrain level and 53.44% and 62.76% at the lower midbrain level, respectively. As for the anteroposterior direction, the highest probabilistic locations for the hand and leg were an average of 28.26% and 32.03% from the anterior boundary at the upper midbrain level and 30.19% and 33.59% at the lower midbrain level, respectively. We found that the hand somatotopy for the CST is located at the middle portion of the CP and the leg somatotopy is located lateral to the hand somatotopy.

  16. Shock-induced chemistry in organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Engelke, Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manner, Virginia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoo, Choong - Shik [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV

    2011-01-20

    The combined 'extreme' environments of high pressure, temperature, and strain rates, encountered under shock loading, offer enormous potential for the discovery of new paradigms in chemical reactivity not possible under more benign conditions. All organic materials are expected to react under these conditions, yet we currently understand very little about the first bond-breaking steps behind the shock front, such as in the shock initiation of explosives, or shock-induced reactivity of other relevant materials. Here, I will present recent experimental results of shock-induced chemistry in a variety of organic materials under sustained shock conditions. A comparison between the reactivity of different structures is given, and a perspective on the kinetics of reaction completion under shock drives.

  17. Modality-Based Organization of Ascending Somatosensory Axons in the Direct Dorsal Column Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jingwen; Ding, Long; Li, Jian J.; Kim, Hyukmin; Liu, Jiakun; Li, Haipeng; Moberly, Andrew; Badea, Tudor C.; Duncan, Ian D.; Son, Young-Jin; Scherer, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    The long-standing doctrine regarding the functional organization of the direct dorsal column (DDC) pathway is the “somatotopic map” model, which suggests that somatosensory afferents are primarily organized by receptive field instead of modality. Using modality-specific genetic tracing, here we show that ascending mechanosensory and proprioceptive axons, two main types of the DDC afferents, are largely segregated into a medial–lateral pattern in the mouse dorsal column and medulla. In addition, we found that this modality-based organization is likely to be conserved in other mammalian species, including human. Furthermore, we identified key morphological differences between these two types of afferents, which explains how modality segregation is formed and why a rough “somatotopic map” was previously detected. Collectively, our results establish a new functional organization model for the mammalian direct dorsal column pathway and provide insight into how somatotopic and modality-based organization coexist in the central somatosensory pathway. PMID:24198362

  18. Bortezomib-Induced Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia

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    E. Vandeix

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor indicated for the treatment of multiple myeloma patients. The most frequent side effects are gastrointestinal and neurological. Serious pulmonary complications have been described rarely. Observation. This case involves a 74-year-old man suffering from IgG Kappa myeloma treated with bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone. After administering chemotherapy, the patient developed an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. A surgical pulmonary biopsy proved the existence of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP lesions. Systemic corticotherapy led to a rapid improvement in the patient’s condition. Conclusion. This is the first reported histologically confirmed case of bortezomid-induced BOOP. Faced with severe respiratory symptoms in the absence of other etiologies, complications due to bortezomid treatment should be evoked and corticotherapy considered.

  19. Rituximab-Induced Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia

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    Ahmet B. Ergin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rituximab-induced lung disease (R-ILD is a rare entity that should be considered in patients treated with rituximab who present with dyspnea, fever, and cough, but no clear evidence of infection. A variety of pathologic findings have been described in this setting. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP is the most common clinicopathologic diagnosis, followed by interstitial pneumonitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with corticosteroids are essential as discussed by Wagner et al. (2007. Here we present a case of an 82-year-old man who was treated with rituximab for recurrent marginal zone lymphoma. After the first infusion of rituximab, he reported fever, chills, and dyspnea. On computed tomography imaging, he was found to have bilateral patchy infiltrates, consistent with BOOP on biopsy. In our patient, BOOP was caused by single-agent rituximab, in the first week after the first infusion of rituximab. We reviewed the relevant literature to clarify the different presentations and characteristics of R-ILD and raise awareness of this relatively overlooked entity.

  20. EDITORIAL Light-induced material organization Light-induced material organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainos, Nikos; Rode, Andrei V.

    2010-12-01

    Light-induced material organization extends over a broad area of research, from photon momentum transfer to atoms, molecules and particles, serving the basis for optical trapping, and expands into the laser-induced changes of material properties through photopolymerization, photodarkening, and materials ablation. Relevant phenomena are observed over many orders of magnitude of light intensity, from a few kW cm-2 for the optical trapping of living cells to 1014 W cm-2 encountered in femtosecond laser micromachining and micro-explosion. Relevant interactions reveal a rich palette of novel phenomena in the solid state, from subtle excitations and material organization to phase transformations, non-equilibrium and transient states. The laser-induced material modifications relate to changes in the crystal structure and the molecular bonding, phase transitions in liquid state, ablation and plasma production associated with extreme pressure and temperature conditions towards entirely new states of matter. The underlying physical mechanisms form the foundations for micro-engineering photonic and other functional devices and lead the way to relevant applications. At the same time, they hold the potential for creating non-equilibrium material states and a range of fundamentally new products not available by other means. The fundamental understanding of both materials nature and functional behaviour will ultimately yield novel devices and improved performance in several fields. The far reaching goals of these studies relate to the development of new methods and technologies for micro- and nano-fabrication, not only offering a significant reduction of cost, but also expanding the fabrication capabilities into unexplored areas of biophotonics and nanotechnology. This special issue of Journal of Optics presents some very recent and exciting advances in the field of materials manipulation by laser beams, aiming to underline its current trends. In optical trapping research we

  1. Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.; Gordeev, A.V.; Bykov, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions was studied. It was found that γ-irradiation of solutions containing acetic and nitric acid and/or their salts gives nitromethane. Dependences of the product yield on the absorbed dose and the contents of components were established. The mechanism of radiation nitration involving radicals is discussed. (author)

  2. Multiple organ dysfunction caused by parathyroid adenoma‑induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a 27‑year‑old male with multiple organ dysfunction caused by parathyroid adenoma‑induced primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Initially, the patient experienced a sudden onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, polyuria, polydipsia, bone pain, renal dysfunction, nephrolithiasis, and acute pancreatitis, symptoms ...

  3. Quinine-induced bronchiolitis obliterans and organizing pneumonia

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    Masoodur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinine is a vital anti-malarial drug used in the management of resistant Falciparum malaria. There are previous reports of quinine-induced pulmonary edema and infiltrates. We report the first case of biopsy-proven bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP, confirmed by the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale (NADRS of 5 and a severity scale of 5, secondary to intravenous quinine, in a 15-year-old girl with Plasmodium falciparum infection after a visit to Kenya. Clinical course of the patient followed by review of the literature and appropriate medical interventions for quinine-induced BOOP are suggested.

  4. Analysis of organic vapors with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozari, Hadi; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan; Rezaei, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is utilized in the study of acetone, ethanol, methanol, cyclohexane, and nonane vapors. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atomic emission spectra have been recorded following laser-induced breakdown of the organic vapors that are mixed with air inside a quartz chamber at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is generated with focused, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The effects of ignition and vapor pressure are discussed in view of the appearance of the emission spectra. The recorded spectra are proportional to the vapor pressure in air. The hydrogen and oxygen contributions diminish gradually with consecutive laser-plasma events without gas flow. The results show that LIBS can be used to characterize organic vapor

  5. Analysis of organic vapors with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozari, Hadi; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C, 1983963113 Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemehrezaei@kntu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, 15875-4416 Shariati, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is utilized in the study of acetone, ethanol, methanol, cyclohexane, and nonane vapors. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atomic emission spectra have been recorded following laser-induced breakdown of the organic vapors that are mixed with air inside a quartz chamber at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is generated with focused, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The effects of ignition and vapor pressure are discussed in view of the appearance of the emission spectra. The recorded spectra are proportional to the vapor pressure in air. The hydrogen and oxygen contributions diminish gradually with consecutive laser-plasma events without gas flow. The results show that LIBS can be used to characterize organic vapor.

  6. Suppressing molecular vibrations in organic semiconductors by inducing strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takayoshi; Häusermann, Roger; Tsurumi, Junto; Soeda, Junshi; Okada, Yugo; Yamashita, Yu; Akamatsu, Norihisa; Shishido, Atsushi; Mitsui, Chikahiko; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Yanagisawa, Susumu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Takeya, Jun

    2016-04-04

    Organic molecular semiconductors are solution processable, enabling the growth of large-area single-crystal semiconductors. Improving the performance of organic semiconductor devices by increasing the charge mobility is an ongoing quest, which calls for novel molecular and material design, and improved processing conditions. Here we show a method to increase the charge mobility in organic single-crystal field-effect transistors, by taking advantage of the inherent softness of organic semiconductors. We compress the crystal lattice uniaxially by bending the flexible devices, leading to an improved charge transport. The mobility increases from 9.7 to 16.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) by 70% under 3% strain. In-depth analysis indicates that compressing the crystal structure directly restricts the vibration of the molecules, thus suppresses dynamic disorder, a unique mechanism in organic semiconductors. Since strain can be easily induced during the fabrication process, we expect our method to be exploited to build high-performance organic devices.

  7. Mixed organic solvents induce renal injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisong Qin

    Full Text Available To investigate the injury effects of organic solvents on kidney, an animal model of Sprague-Dawley (SD rats treated with mixed organic solvents via inhalation was generated and characterized. The mixed organic solvents consisted of gasoline, dimethylbenzene and formaldehyde (GDF in the ratio of 2:2:1, and were used at 12,000 PPM to treat the rats twice a day, each for 3 hours. Proteinuria appeared in the rats after exposure for 5-6 weeks. The incidences of proteinuria in male and female rats after exposure for 12 weeks were 43.8% (7/16 and 25% (4/16, respectively. Urinary N-Acetyl-β-(D-Glucosaminidase (NAG activity was increased significantly after exposure for 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed remarkable injuries in the proximal renal tubules, including tubular epithelial cell detachment, cloud swelling and vacuole formation in the proximal tubular cells, as well as proliferation of parietal epithelium and tubular reflux in glomeruli. Ultrastructural examination found that brush border and cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cell were dropped, that tubular epithelial cells were partially disintegrated, and that the mitochondria of tubular epithelial cells were degenerated and lost. In addition to tubular lesions, glomerular damages were also observed, including segmental foot process fusion and loss of foot process covering on glomerular basement membrane (GBM. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the expression of nephrin and podocin were both decreased after exposure of GDF. In contrast, increased expression of desmin, a marker of podocyte injury, was found in some areas of a glomerulus. TUNEL staining showed that GDF induced apoptosis in tubular cells and glomerular cells. These studies demonstrate that GDF can induce both severe proximal tubular damage and podocyte injury in rats, and the tubular lesions appear earlier than that of glomeruli.

  8. Mixed organic solvents induce renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Weisong; Xu, Zhongxiu; Lu, Yizhou; Zeng, Caihong; Zheng, Chunxia; Wang, Shengyu; Liu, Zhihong

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the injury effects of organic solvents on kidney, an animal model of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats treated with mixed organic solvents via inhalation was generated and characterized. The mixed organic solvents consisted of gasoline, dimethylbenzene and formaldehyde (GDF) in the ratio of 2:2:1, and were used at 12,000 PPM to treat the rats twice a day, each for 3 hours. Proteinuria appeared in the rats after exposure for 5-6 weeks. The incidences of proteinuria in male and female rats after exposure for 12 weeks were 43.8% (7/16) and 25% (4/16), respectively. Urinary N-Acetyl-β-(D)-Glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was increased significantly after exposure for 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed remarkable injuries in the proximal renal tubules, including tubular epithelial cell detachment, cloud swelling and vacuole formation in the proximal tubular cells, as well as proliferation of parietal epithelium and tubular reflux in glomeruli. Ultrastructural examination found that brush border and cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cell were dropped, that tubular epithelial cells were partially disintegrated, and that the mitochondria of tubular epithelial cells were degenerated and lost. In addition to tubular lesions, glomerular damages were also observed, including segmental foot process fusion and loss of foot process covering on glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the expression of nephrin and podocin were both decreased after exposure of GDF. In contrast, increased expression of desmin, a marker of podocyte injury, was found in some areas of a glomerulus. TUNEL staining showed that GDF induced apoptosis in tubular cells and glomerular cells. These studies demonstrate that GDF can induce both severe proximal tubular damage and podocyte injury in rats, and the tubular lesions appear earlier than that of glomeruli.

  9. Spin-flip induced magnetoresistance in positionally disordered organic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, N J; Flatté, M E

    2012-05-04

    A model for magnetoresistance in positionally disordered organic materials is presented and solved using percolation theory. The model describes the effects of spin dynamics on hopping transport by considering changes in the effective density of hopping sites, a key quantity determining the properties of percolative transport. Faster spin-flip transitions open up "spin-blocked" pathways to become viable conduction channels and hence produce magnetoresistance. Features of this percolative magnetoresistance can be found analytically in several regimes, and agree with previous measurements, including the sensitive dependence of the magnetic-field dependence of the magnetoresistance on the ratio of the carrier hopping time to the hyperfine-induced carrier spin precession time. Studies of magnetoresistance in known systems with controllable positional disorder would provide an additional stringent test of this theory.

  10. Molecular Organization Induced Anisotropic Properties of Perylene - Silica Hybrid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramulu, Deepa; Turaga, Shuvan Prashant; Bettiol, Andrew Anthony; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2017-08-10

    Optically active silica nanoparticles are interesting owing to high stability and easy accessibility. Unlike previous reports on dye loaded silica particles, here we address an important question on how optical properties are dependent on the aggregation-induced segregation of perylene molecules inside and outside the silica nanoparticles. Three differentially functionalized fluorescent perylene - silica hybrid nanoparticles are prepared from appropriate ratios of perylene derivatives and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and investigated the structure property correlation (P-ST, P-NP and P-SF). The particles differ from each other on the distribution, organization and intermolecular interaction of perylene inside or outside the silica matrix. Structure and morphology of all hybrid nanoparticles were characterized using a range of techniques such as electron microscope, optical spectroscopic measurements and thermal analysis. The organizations of perylene in three different silica nanoparticles were explored using steady-state fluorescence, fluorescence anisotropy, lifetime measurements and solid state polarized spectroscopic studies. The interactions and changes in optical properties of the silica nanoparticles in presence of different amines were tested and quantified both in solution and in vapor phase using fluorescence quenching studies. The synthesized materials can be regenerated after washing with water and reused for sensing of amines.

  11. Crisis-induced learning in public sector organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deverell, E.C.

    2010-01-01

    How do public organizations manage crises? How do public organizations learn from crises? These seemingly basic questions still pose virtual puzzles for crisis management researchers. This dissertation sheds light on the problems regarding the lack of knowledge on how public organizations manage and

  12. Innovative applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka; Sakakura, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    The nanostructure induced by the direct-writing of femtosecond-laser pulses can open a new opportunity to develop avant-garde devices such as a 5D optical storage, polarization imaging sensor, thermoelectric conversion elements. (author)

  13. Laser-induced charge separation in organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana; Behn, Dino; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    Organic semiconductors have unique properties that can be tailored via synthetic chemistry for specific applications, which combined with their low price and straight-forward processing over large areas make them interesting materials for future devices. Certain oligomers can self-assemble into c......Organic semiconductors have unique properties that can be tailored via synthetic chemistry for specific applications, which combined with their low price and straight-forward processing over large areas make them interesting materials for future devices. Certain oligomers can self......-assemble into crystalline nanofibers by vapor deposition onto muscovite mica substrates, and we have recently shown that such nanofibers can be transferred to different substrates by roll-printing and used as the active material in e.g. organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs......), and organic phototransistors (OPTs). However, several device-related issues incl. charge-separation and local band structure remain poorly understood. In this work, we use electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) combined with optical microscopy to study the local surface charge of an individual organic nanofiber...

  14. Desorption of large organic molecules by laser-induced plasmon excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I.; Callcott, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    Ejection of large organic molecules from surfaces by laser-induced electronic-excited desorption has attracted considerable interest in recent years. In addition to the importance of this effect for fundamental investigations of the ejection process, this desorption technique has been applied to the study of large, fragile molecules by mass spectrometry. In this paper, we present a new method to induce electronic excitation on the metal surface for the desorption of large organic molecules. 3 refs., 3 figs

  15. Background Noise Contributes to Organic Solvent Induced Brain Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’neil W. Guthrie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to complex blends of organic solvents is believed to alter brain functions among workers. However, work environments that contain organic solvents are also polluted with background noise which raises the issue of whether or not the noise contributed to brain alterations. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether or not repeated exposure to low intensity noise with and without exposure to a complex blend of organic solvents would alter brain activity. Female Fischer344 rats served as subjects in these experiments. Asynchronous volume conductance between the midbrain and cortex was evaluated with a slow vertex recording technique. Subtoxic solvent exposure, by itself, had no statistically significant effects. However, background noise significantly suppressed brain activity and this suppression was exacerbated with solvent exposure. Furthermore, combined exposure produced significantly slow neurotransmission. These abnormal neurophysiologic findings occurred in the absence of hearing loss and detectable damage to sensory cells. The observations from the current experiment raise concern for all occupations where workers are repeatedly exposed to background noise or noise combined with organic solvents. Noise levels and solvent concentrations that are currently considered safe may not actually be safe and existing safety regulations have failed to recognize the neurotoxic potential of combined exposures.

  16. Background Noise Contributes to Organic Solvent Induced Brain Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, O'neil W.; Wong, Brian A.; McInturf, Shawn M.; Reboulet, James E.; Ortiz, Pedro A.; Mattie, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to complex blends of organic solvents is believed to alter brain functions among workers. However, work environments that contain organic solvents are also polluted with background noise which raises the issue of whether or not the noise contributed to brain alterations. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether or not repeated exposure to low intensity noise with and without exposure to a complex blend of organic solvents would alter brain activity. Female Fischer344 rats served as subjects in these experiments. Asynchronous volume conductance between the midbrain and cortex was evaluated with a slow vertex recording technique. Subtoxic solvent exposure, by itself, had no statistically significant effects. However, background noise significantly suppressed brain activity and this suppression was exacerbated with solvent exposure. Furthermore, combined exposure produced significantly slow neurotransmission. These abnormal neurophysiologic findings occurred in the absence of hearing loss and detectable damage to sensory cells. The observations from the current experiment raise concern for all occupations where workers are repeatedly exposed to background noise or noise combined with organic solvents. Noise levels and solvent concentrations that are currently considered safe may not actually be safe and existing safety regulations have failed to recognize the neurotoxic potential of combined exposures. PMID:26885406

  17. Background Noise Contributes to Organic Solvent Induced Brain Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Wong, Brian A; McInturf, Shawn M; Reboulet, James E; Ortiz, Pedro A; Mattie, David R

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to complex blends of organic solvents is believed to alter brain functions among workers. However, work environments that contain organic solvents are also polluted with background noise which raises the issue of whether or not the noise contributed to brain alterations. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether or not repeated exposure to low intensity noise with and without exposure to a complex blend of organic solvents would alter brain activity. Female Fischer344 rats served as subjects in these experiments. Asynchronous volume conductance between the midbrain and cortex was evaluated with a slow vertex recording technique. Subtoxic solvent exposure, by itself, had no statistically significant effects. However, background noise significantly suppressed brain activity and this suppression was exacerbated with solvent exposure. Furthermore, combined exposure produced significantly slow neurotransmission. These abnormal neurophysiologic findings occurred in the absence of hearing loss and detectable damage to sensory cells. The observations from the current experiment raise concern for all occupations where workers are repeatedly exposed to background noise or noise combined with organic solvents. Noise levels and solvent concentrations that are currently considered safe may not actually be safe and existing safety regulations have failed to recognize the neurotoxic potential of combined exposures.

  18. Organic ligand-induced dissolution kinetics of antimony trioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingyun Hu; Mengchang He

    2017-01-01

    The influence of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (LMWDOM) on the dissolution rate of Sb2O3 was investigated.Some representative LMWDOMs with carboxyl,hydroxyl,hydrosulfuryl and amidogen groups occurring naturally in the solution were chosen,namely oxalic acid,citric acid,tartaric acid,EDTA,salicylic acid,phthalandione,glycine,thiolactic acid,xylitol,glucose and catechol.These LMWDOMs were dissolved in inert buffers at pH =3.7,6.6 and 8.6 and added to powdered Sb2O3 in a stirred,thermostatted reactor (25℃).The addition of EDTA,tartaric acid,thiolactic acid,citric acid and oxalic acid solutions at pH 3.7 and catechol at pH 8.6 increased the rate of release of antimony.In the 10 mmol/L thiolactic acid solution,up to 97% by mass of the antimony was released after 120 min reaction.There was no effect on the dissolution of Sb2O3 for the other ligands.A weak correlation between dissolution rate with the dissociation constant of ligands and the stability of the dissolved complex was also found.All the results showed that the extent of the promoting effect of ligands on the dissolution of Sb2O3 was not determined by the stability of the dissolved complex,but by the dissociation constant of ligands and detachment rate of surface chelates from the mineral surface.This study can not only help in further understanding the effect of individual low-molecular-weight organic ligands,but also provides a reference to deduce the effect of natural organic matters with oxygen-bearing functional groups on the dissolution of antimony oxide minerals.

  19. Organic ligand-induced dissolution kinetics of antimony trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingyun; He, Mengchang

    2017-06-01

    The influence of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (LMWDOM) on the dissolution rate of Sb 2 O 3 was investigated. Some representative LMWDOMs with carboxyl, hydroxyl, hydrosulfuryl and amidogen groups occurring naturally in the solution were chosen, namely oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, EDTA, salicylic acid, phthalandione, glycine, thiolactic acid, xylitol, glucose and catechol. These LMWDOMs were dissolved in inert buffers at pH=3.7, 6.6 and 8.6 and added to powdered Sb 2 O 3 in a stirred, thermostatted reactor (25°C). The addition of EDTA, tartaric acid, thiolactic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid solutions at pH3.7 and catechol at pH8.6 increased the rate of release of antimony. In the 10mmol/L thiolactic acid solution, up to 97% by mass of the antimony was released after 120min reaction. There was no effect on the dissolution of Sb 2 O 3 for the other ligands. A weak correlation between dissolution rate with the dissociation constant of ligands and the stability of the dissolved complex was also found. All the results showed that the extent of the promoting effect of ligands on the dissolution of Sb 2 O 3 was not determined by the stability of the dissolved complex, but by the dissociation constant of ligands and detachment rate of surface chelates from the mineral surface. This study can not only help in further understanding the effect of individual low-molecular-weight organic ligands, but also provides a reference to deduce the effect of natural organic matters with oxygen-bearing functional groups on the dissolution of antimony oxide minerals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Radiation-induced effects in organic systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    This project, which is of twenty-seven years duration, has been devoted to furthering our basic understanding of the processes involved in the absorption and distribution of high-energy radiation in organic molecules. The early phases of the work were concerned with the gross chemical effects of radiation and included studies in a number of important classes of organic compounds including alcohols, aliphatic acids, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Basic information was acquired through these studies that has led to a better understanding of the effects of high-energy radiation on condensed media. During this period the so-called protective effect of low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons was also studied. A contribution of lasting significance at this time was the development of a technique for the post-radiolysis analysis of trapped free radicals by photochemical means. A comprehensive series of papers on the reactions of thermal hydrogen atoms with frozen organic substrates represented the beginning of a new phase in the approach to the problems of radiation chemistry in this laboratory. Since that time the general philosophy guided the research has been to single out events or processes suspected of contributing to the gross-radiation effect and study them in isolation. Thus from 1970 on efforts were devoted to charge-exchange processes, ionization efficiencies (w-values), radical decay process in solids and ion-dissociation reactions. The first by means of a modified time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the second utilizing an ionization chamber constructed in the FSU shops, the third using electron spin resonance detection, and the last involving the use of a dual mass spectrometer, solid target system invented in our laboratory. The most productive of these efforts has been the radical decay work

  1. Self-organization in a diversity induced thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scirè, Alessandro; Annovazzi-Lodi, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    In this work we show how global self-organized patterns can come out of a disordered ensemble of point oscillators, as a result of a deterministic, and not of a random, cooperative process. The resulting system dynamics has many characteristics of classical thermodynamics. To this end, a modified Kuramoto model is introduced, by including Euclidean degrees of freedom and particle polarity. The standard deviation of the frequency distribution is the disorder parameter, diversity, acting as temperature, which is both a source of motion and of disorder. For zero and low diversity, robust static phase-synchronized patterns (crystals) appear, and the problem reverts to a generic dissipative many-body problem. From small to moderate diversity crystals display vibrations followed by structure disintegration in a competition of smaller dynamic patterns, internally synchronized, each of which is capable to manage its internal diversity. In this process a huge variety of self-organized dynamic shapes is formed. Such patterns can be seen again as (more complex) oscillators, where the same description can be applied in turn, renormalizing the problem to a bigger scale, opening the possibility of pattern evolution. The interaction functions are kept local because our idea is to build a system able to produce global patterns when its constituents only interact at the bond scale. By further increasing the oscillator diversity, the dynamics becomes erratic, dynamic patterns show short lifetime, and finally disappear for high diversity. Results are neither qualitatively dependent on the specific choice of the interaction functions nor on the shape of the probability function assumed for the frequencies. The system shows a phase transition and a critical behaviour for a specific value of diversity.

  2. TMS of the occipital cortex induces tactile sensations in the fingers of blind Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptito, M; Fumal, A; de Noordhout, A Martens; Schoenen, J; Gjedde, A; Kupers, R

    2008-01-01

    Various non-visual inputs produce cross-modal responses in the visual cortex of early blind subjects. In order to determine the qualitative experience associated with these occipital activations, we systematically stimulated the entire occipital cortex using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in early blind subjects and in blindfolded seeing controls. Whereas blindfolded seeing controls reported only phosphenes following occipital cortex stimulation, some of the blind subjects reported tactile sensations in the fingers that were somatotopically organized onto the visual cortex. The number of cortical sites inducing tactile sensations appeared to be related to the number of hours of Braille reading per day, Braille reading speed and dexterity. These data, taken in conjunction with previous anatomical, behavioural and functional imaging results, suggest the presence of a polysynaptic cortical pathway between the somatosensory cortex and the visual cortex in early blind subjects. These results also add new evidence that the activity of the occipital lobe in the blind takes its qualitative expression from the character of its new input source, therefore supporting the cortical deference hypothesis.

  3. Human induced impacts on soil organic carbon in southwest Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Erlendsson, Egill; Lal, Rattan

    2013-04-01

    The Icelandic environment has been strongly influenced by natural processes during the Holocene. Since settlement in AD 874, the introduction of grazing animals and other land use has drastically affected the natural environment. This includes the diminishing of vegetative cover, which has led to soil exposure and accelerated erosion over large areas, especially when in conjunction with harsh climate. This has specifically impacted processes and properties of volcanic soils (Andosols), which are subject to accelerated erosion by wind and water. While approximately 46% of the land surface in Iceland has sustained continuous vegetation cover, large areas have lost some or all of their soil cover formed during the postglacial era. Elsewhere, remaining soils have sparse or no vegetation cover, thus impairing soil carbon (C) sequestration. Among their multifunctional roles, soils support plant growth, increase soil biotic activity, enhance nutrient storage and strengthen the cycling of water and nutrients. In contrast, soil degradation by accelerated erosion and other processes impairs soil quality, reduces soil structure and depletes the soil organic matter (SOM) pool. Depletion of the SOM pool has also global implications because the terrestrial C pool is the third largest pool and strongly impacts the global C cycle. Erosional-depositional processes may deplete soil organic C (SOC) by erosion and increase by deposition. Some SOC-enriched sediments are redistributed over the landscape, while others are deposited in depression sites and transported into aquatic ecosystems. SOC decomposition processes are severely constrained in some environmental settings and any SOC buried under anaerobic conditions is protected against decomposition. Yet, the impact of the SOC transported by erosional processes and redistributed over the landscape is not fully understood because the variability in its turnover characteristics has not been widely studied. Thus, the fate of C

  4. Mixed chimerism to induce tolerance for solid organ transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, S.M.; Nalesnik, M.; Hronakes, M.L.; Oh, E.; Ildstad, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Chimerism, or the coexistence of tissue elements from more than one genetically different strain or species in an organism, is the only experimental state that results in the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance. Transplantation of a mixture of T-cell-depleted syngeneic (host-type) plus T-cell-depleted allogeneic (donor) bone marrow into a normal adult recipient mouse (A + B----A) results in mixed allogeneic chimerism. Recipient mice exhibit donor-specific transplantation tolerance, yet have full immunocompetence to recognize and respond to third-party transplantation antigens. After complete hematolymphopoietic repopulation at 28 days, animals accept a donor-specific skin graft but reject major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus-disparate third-party grafts. We now report that permanent graft acceptance can also be achieved when the graft is placed at the time of bone marrow transplantation. Histologically, grafts were viable and had only minimal inflammatory changes. This model may have potential future clinical application for the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance

  5. Crocin attenuates hemorrhagic shock-induced oxidative stress and organ injuries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Dong, Xiujuan

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of natural antioxidant crocin in alleviating hemorrhagic shock (HS)-induced organ damages. HS rats were treated with crocin during resuscitation. Mortality at 12h and 24h post resuscitation was documented. HS and resuscitation induced organ injuries, as characterized by elevated wet/dry ratio, quantitative assessment ratio, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, whereas rats received crocin treatment demonstrated improvements in all the above characteristics. This protective effect coincided with reduced malondialdehyde and increased glutathione in both serum and lung tissues, indicating attenuated oxidative stress in crocin-treated rats. Myeloperoxide levels in lung, kidney and liver were also reduced. Crocin can potentially be used to protect organs from HS-induced damages during resuscitation due to its anti-oxidative role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation-induced degradation of organic pollutants in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagyo, A.N.M.; Lindu, W.A.; Sadjirun, S.; Winarno, E.K.; Widayat, E.; Aryanti; Winarno, H.

    2001-01-01

    The degradation and decolouration of organic pollutants, i.e. dye stuffs and phenolic compounds, by gamma irradiation have been studied. First, samples from effluent of textile industry were taken to be irradiated at a certain condition. Irradiation was done after dissolving the samples five times with distilled water in laboratory scale, followed by upscaling those samples into 5 litre in volume. Irradiation was done at a dose of 0- 25 kGy, aerated and a dose rate of 5 kGy/h. The parameters examined were the change of absorption spectra. COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), the percentage of the degradation, the change of pH and degradation product using HPLC. It was demonstrated that the dilution of sample enhanced the degradation and decreased the COD values. The degradation product of textile wastewater is mainly oxalic acid. Second, the effects of radiation on aerated phenolic compounds mixture, i.e. resorcinol, o-cresol and m- cresol were done. Individual phenol was studied followed by mixture of the phenolic compounds. Irradiation was done in aerated condition with doses of 0-10 kGy, dose rate of 5 kGy/h and pH range from 3 to 12. The initial concentration of resorcinol, o-cresol and w-cresol were 50 ppm and 60 ppm for phenolic compounds mixture, respectively. Parameters examined were absorption spectrum, pH, and degradation products. The uv-vis absorption of the solution were observed before and after irradiation. HPLC was used to determine the products of degradation. Degradation of resorcinol, w-cresol and o-cresol could be achieved at dose of 6 kGy at pH 9, while o-cresol in acid condition (pH 3). The degree of degradation for resorcinol, w-cresol and o-cresol at above conditions were 90%, 88% and 45%, respectively. Degradation of phenolic compound mixture occurred at a dose of 7.5 kGy and pH 9', at this condition almost 99% of phenolic compounds degraded. Oxalic acid was the main degradation product. (author)

  7. The somatotopic localisation of the descending cortical tract in the cerebral peduncle: a study using MRI of changes following Wallerian degeneration in the cerebral peduncle after a supratentorial vascular lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waragai, M.; Watanabe, H.; Iwabuchi, S.

    1994-01-01

    We studied the effects of Wallerian degeneration in the cerebral peduncle shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following a supratentorial vascular lesion, to identify the somatotopic localisation of the descending cortical tracts. Patients with a lesion involving a large area of a cerebral hemisphere has an area of abnormal signal intensity in the whole cerebral peduncle, suggesting Wallerian degeneration of all the whole descending cortical tracts. With a small lesion confined to the precentral gyrus, corona radiata, or posterior limb of the internal capsule there was an abnormal signal at the centre of the peduncle, suggesting degeneration of the precentrospinal tract. Those with a small lesion confined to the paracentral gyrus had an abnormal area slightly lateral to the centre of the peduncle, suggesting degeneration of the parietospinal tract. Patients with a lesion of the parietal or temporal lobes, not including the paracentral or precentral gyri, corona radiata, or the posterior limb of the internal capsule, had an abnormal area laterally in the peduncle, suggesting degeneration of the parietopontine or temporopontine tract. (orig.)

  8. Self-organization of porphyrin units induced by magnetic field during sol-gel polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerouge, Frédéric; Cerveau, Geneviève; Corriu, Robert J P; Stern, Christine; Guilard, Roger

    2007-04-21

    The use of a magnetic field as a controlling factor during the hydrolysis-polycondensation of porphyrin precursors substituted by Si(OR)(3) groups, induces a self-organization of porphyrin moieties due to the stacking of these units in the hybrid material and this study also confirms the effect of the magnetic field in the nano- and micrometric organization during the kinetically controlled polycondensation process.

  9. Solar ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage in aquatic organisms: potential environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeder, Donat-P.; Sinha, Rajeshwar P.

    2005-01-01

    Continuing depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increases in deleterious ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth's surface have fueled the interest in its ecological consequences for aquatic ecosystems. The DNA is certainly one of the key targets for UV-induced damage in a variety of aquatic organisms. UV radiation induces two of the most abundant mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs) and their Dewar valence isomers. However, aquatic organisms have developed a number of repair and tolerance mechanisms to counteract the damaging effects of UV on DNA. Photoreactivation with the help of the enzyme photolyase is one of the most important and frequently occurring repair mechanisms in a variety of organisms. Excision repair, which can be distinguished into base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER), also play an important role in DNA repair in several organisms with the help of a number of glycosylases and polymerases, respectively. In addition, mechanisms such as mutagenic repair or dimer bypass, recombinational repair, cell-cycle checkpoints, apoptosis and certain alternative repair pathways are also operative in various organisms. This review deals with the UV-induced DNA damage and repair in a number of aquatic organisms as well as methods of detecting DNA damage

  10. A Transient Exposure to Symbiosis-Competent Bacteria Induces Light Organ Morphogenesis in the Host Squid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doino, J A; McFall-Ngai, M J

    1995-12-01

    Recent studies of the symbiotic association between the Hawaiian sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes and the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri have shown that colonization of juvenile squid with symbiosis-competent bacteria induces morphogenetic changes of the light organ. These changes occur over a 4-day period and include cell death and tissue regression of the external ciliated epithelium. In the absence of bacterial colonization, morphogenesis does not occur. To determine whether the bacteria must be present throughout the morphogenetic process, we used the antibiotic chloramphenicol to clear the light organ of bacteria at various times during the initial colonization. We provide evidence in this study that a transient, 12-hour exposure to symbiosis-competent bacteria is necessary and sufficient to induce tissue regression in the light organ over the next several days. Further, we show that successful entrance into the light organ is necessary to induce morphogenesis, suggesting that induction results from bacterial interaction with internal crypt cells and not with the external ciliated epithelium. Finally, no difference in development was observed when the light organ was colonized by a mutant strain of V. fischeri that did not produce autoinducer, a potential light organ morphogen.

  11. Detection of organic residues on poultry processing equipment surfaces by LED-induced fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic residues on equipment surfaces in poultry processing plants can generate cross- contamination and increase the risk of unsafe food for consumers. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of LED-induced fluorescence imaging technique for rapid inspection of stainless steel proces...

  12. Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máthé, Csaba; M-Hamvas, Márta; Vasas, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs), a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on cyanotoxin-induced changes of chromatin organization and their possible cellular mechanisms. The particularities of plant cells explain the importance of such studies. Preprophase bands (PPBs) are premitotic cytoskeletal structures important in the determination of plant cell division plane. Phragmoplasts are cytoskeletal structures involved in plant cytokinesis. Both cyanotoxins induce the formation of multipolar spindles and disrupted phragmoplasts, leading to abnormal sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. Thus, MCY and CYN are probably inducing alterations of chromosome number. MCY induces programmed cell death: chromatin condensation, nucleus fragmentation, necrosis, alterations of nuclease and protease enzyme activities and patterns. The above effects may be related to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or disfunctioning of microtubule associated proteins. Specific effects: MCY-LR induces histone H3 hyperphosphorylation leading to incomplete chromatid segregation and the formation of micronuclei. CYN induces the formation of split or double PPB directly related to protein synthesis inhibition. Cyanotoxins are powerful tools in the study of plant cell organization. PMID:24084787

  13. Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Vasas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs, a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN, an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on cyanotoxin-induced changes of chromatin organization and their possible cellular mechanisms. The particularities of plant cells explain the importance of such studies. Preprophase bands (PPBs are premitotic cytoskeletal structures important in the determination of plant cell division plane. Phragmoplasts are cytoskeletal structures involved in plant cytokinesis. Both cyanotoxins induce the formation of multipolar spindles and disrupted phragmoplasts, leading to abnormal sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. Thus, MCY and CYN are probably inducing alterations of chromosome number. MCY induces programmed cell death: chromatin condensation, nucleus fragmentation, necrosis, alterations of nuclease and protease enzyme activities and patterns. The above effects may be related to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS and/or disfunctioning of microtubule associated proteins. Specific effects: MCY-LR induces histone H3 hyperphosphorylation leading to incomplete chromatid segregation and the formation of micronuclei. CYN induces the formation of split or double PPB directly related to protein synthesis inhibition. Cyanotoxins are powerful tools in the study of plant cell organization.

  14. Measurement of full-field deformation induced by a dc electrical field in organic insulator films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudou L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital image correlation method (DIC using the correlation coefficient curve-fitting for full-field surface deformation measurements of organic insulator films is investigated in this work. First the validation of the technique was undertaken. The computer-generated speckle images and the measurement of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE of aluminium are used to evaluate the measurement accuracy of the technique. In a second part the technique is applied to measure the mechanical deformation induced by electrical field application to organic insulators. For that Poly(ethylene naphthalene 2,6-dicarboxylate (PEN thin films were subjected to DC voltage stress and DIC provides the full-field induced deformations of the test films. The obtained results show that the DIC is a practical and robust tool for better comprehension of mechanical behaviour of the organic insulator films under electrical stress.

  15. Site specific X-ray induced changes in organic and metal organic compounds and their influence on global radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintz, Desiree Ellen

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this work was to systematically investigate the effects of specific and global X-ray radiation damage to biological samples and obtain a conclusive model to describe the underlying principles. Based on the systematic studies performed in this work, it was possible to propose two conclusive mechanisms to describe X-ray induced photoreduction and global radiation damage. The influence of chemical composition, temperature and solvent on X-ray induced photoreduction was investigated by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction of two B12 cofactors - cyano- and methylcobalamin - as well as iron(II) and iron(III) complexes. The obtained results revealed that X-ray induced photoreduction is a ligand dependent process, with a redox reaction taking place within the complex. It could further be shown that selective hydrogen abstraction plays an important role in the process of X-ray induced photoreduction. Based on the experimental results of this work, a model to describe X-ray induced photoreduction of metal organic complexes could be proposed. The process of X-ray induced hydrogen abstraction was further investigated in a combined X-ray and neutron diffraction study on the amino acids L-serine and L-alanine, which were used as model compounds for proteins, and the nucleoside deoxythymidine (thymidine) as a model for DNA. A damage mechanism for L-serine could be found. It involves the abstraction of two hydrogen atoms, one from the hydroxyl group and one from the adjacent methylene group. Such a hydrogen abstraction results in the formation of a carbonyl group. X-ray diffraction measurements on cyano- and methylcobalamin as well as on three metal amino acid complexes, containing nickel(II) and copper(II), respectively, were conducted to investigate the contribution of X-ray induced photoreduction to global radiation damage. Results from these measurements combined with the results from L-serine, L-alanine and thymidine allowed

  16. Site specific X-ray induced changes in organic and metal organic compounds and their influence on global radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, Desiree Ellen

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this work was to systematically investigate the effects of specific and global X-ray radiation damage to biological samples and obtain a conclusive model to describe the underlying principles. Based on the systematic studies performed in this work, it was possible to propose two conclusive mechanisms to describe X-ray induced photoreduction and global radiation damage. The influence of chemical composition, temperature and solvent on X-ray induced photoreduction was investigated by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction of two B12 cofactors - cyano- and methylcobalamin - as well as iron(II) and iron(III) complexes. The obtained results revealed that X-ray induced photoreduction is a ligand dependent process, with a redox reaction taking place within the complex. It could further be shown that selective hydrogen abstraction plays an important role in the process of X-ray induced photoreduction. Based on the experimental results of this work, a model to describe X-ray induced photoreduction of metal organic complexes could be proposed. The process of X-ray induced hydrogen abstraction was further investigated in a combined X-ray and neutron diffraction study on the amino acids L-serine and L-alanine, which were used as model compounds for proteins, and the nucleoside deoxythymidine (thymidine) as a model for DNA. A damage mechanism for L-serine could be found. It involves the abstraction of two hydrogen atoms, one from the hydroxyl group and one from the adjacent methylene group. Such a hydrogen abstraction results in the formation of a carbonyl group. X-ray diffraction measurements on cyano- and methylcobalamin as well as on three metal amino acid complexes, containing nickel(II) and copper(II), respectively, were conducted to investigate the contribution of X-ray induced photoreduction to global radiation damage. Results from these measurements combined with the results from L-serine, L-alanine and thymidine allowed

  17. Neighbor Detection Induces Organ-Specific Transcriptomes, Revealing Patterns Underlying Hypocotyl-Specific Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Markus V; Schmid-Siegert, Emanuel; Trevisan, Martine; Petrolati, Laure Allenbach; Sénéchal, Fabien; Müller-Moulé, Patricia; Maloof, Julin; Xenarios, Ioannis; Fankhauser, Christian

    2016-12-01

    In response to neighbor proximity, plants increase the growth of specific organs (e.g., hypocotyls) to enhance access to sunlight. Shade enhances the activity of Phytochrome Interacting Factors (PIFs) by releasing these bHLH transcription factors from phytochrome B-mediated inhibition. PIFs promote elongation by inducing auxin production in cotyledons. In order to elucidate spatiotemporal aspects of the neighbor proximity response, we separately analyzed gene expression patterns in the major light-sensing organ (cotyledons) and in rapidly elongating hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana PIFs initiate transcriptional reprogramming in both organs within 15 min, comprising regulated expression of several early auxin response genes. This suggests that hypocotyl growth is elicited by both local and distal auxin signals. We show that cotyledon-derived auxin is both necessary and sufficient to initiate hypocotyl growth, but we also provide evidence for the functional importance of the local PIF-induced response. With time, the transcriptional response diverges increasingly between organs. We identify genes whose differential expression may underlie organ-specific elongation. Finally, we uncover a growth promotion gene expression signature shared between different developmentally regulated growth processes and responses to the environment in different organs. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of organic photovoltaic devices using femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. P.; Sarnet, Thierry; Siozos, Panayiotis; Loulakis, Michalis; Anglos, Demetrios; Sentis, Marc

    2017-10-01

    The potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a non-contact probe, for characterizing organic photovoltaic devices during selective laser scribing, was investigated. Samples from organic solar cells were studied, which consisted of several layers of materials including a top electrode (Al, Mg or Mo), organic layer, bottom electrode (indium tin oxide), silicon nitride barrier layer and substrate layer situated from the top consecutively. The thickness of individual layers varies from 115 to 250 nm. LIBS measurements were performed by use of a 40 femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser operated at very low pulse energy (solar cell structure, demonstrating the potential of LIBS for fast, non-contact characterization of organic photovoltaic coatings.

  19. Estimate of the damage in organs induced by neutrons in three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benites R, J. L.; Vega C, H. R.; Uribe, M. del R.

    2014-08-01

    By means of Monte Carlo methods was considered the damage in the organs, induced by neutrons, of patients with cancer that receive treatment in modality of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) with lineal accelerator Varian Ix. The objective of this work was to estimate the damage probability in radiotherapy patients, starting from the effective dose by neutrons in the organs and tissues out of the treatment region. For that a three-dimensional mannequin of equivalent tissue of 30 x 100 x 30 cm 3 was modeled and spherical cells were distributed to estimate the Kerma in equivalent tissue and the absorbed dose by neutrons. With the absorbed dose the effective dose was calculated using the weighting factors for the organ type and radiation type. With the effective dose and the damage factors, considered in the ICRP 103, was considered the probability of damage induction in organs. (Author)

  20. Time-resolved ultraviolet laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for organic material analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudelet, Matthieu; Boueri, Myriam [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Ionique et Moleculaire, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5579, 43, Bd. du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Yu Jin [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Ionique et Moleculaire, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5579, 43, Bd. du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)], E-mail: jin.yu@lasim.univ-lyon1.fr; Mao, Samuel S; Piscitelli, Vincent; Xianglei, Mao; Russo, Richard E [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Ultraviolet pulses (266 nm) delivered by a quadrupled Nd:YAG laser were used to analyze organic samples with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). We present characteristics of the spectra obtained from organic samples with special attentions on the emissions of organic elements, O and N, and molecular bonds CN. The choice of these atomic or molecular species is justified on one hand, by the importance of these species to specify organic or biological materials; and on the other hand by the possible interferences with ambient air when laser ablation takes place in the atmosphere. Time-resolved LIBS was used to determine the time-evolution of line intensity emitted from these species. We demonstrate different kinetic behaviors corresponding to different origins of emitters: native atomic or molecular species directly vaporized from the sample or those generated through dissociation or recombination due to interaction between laser-induced plasma and air molecules. Our results show the ability of time-resolved UV-LIBS for detection and identification of native atomic or molecular species from an organic sample.

  1. Radiation-Induced Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate for Recovery of Organic Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, M.; Al-Kassiri, H.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization of butyl acrylate using 60 Co gamma rays has been investigated under different conditions, such as irradiation dose (0-130 kGy), dose rate (10 kGy/h), and temperature (25-70 degree C). A linear relationship between conversion and temperature of irradiation was found. The activation energy (E) of 9.37 kJ/mol was obtained from kinetic analysis of the result from the polymerization at 10 kGy/h. Thermal properties were examined using differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis. Efficient extraction of organic solvents including chloroform, chlorobenzene, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, styrene was revealed by the swelling and releasing measurements. These results indicate the feasibility of applying this polymer, which was prepared by radiation-induced polymerization, to management of organic wastes in the field of environment. (author)

  2. Radiation-Induced Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate for Recovery of Organic Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, M.; Al-kassiri, H.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization of butyl acrylate (BAc) using 60 Co gamma rays has been investigated under different conditions such as irradiation dose (0-130 kGy), dose rate (10 kGy/h) and temperature (25-70 C). A linear relationship between conversion and temperature of irradiation was found. The activation energy (E) of 9.37 kJ/mol was obtained from kinetic analysis of the result from the polymerization at 10 kGy/h. Thermal properties. were examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Efficient extraction of organic solvents including chloroform, chlorobenzene, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, styrene was revealed by the swelling and releasing measurements. These results indicate the feasibility of applying this polymer, which was prepared by radiation-induced polymerization, to management of organic wastes in the field of environment. (author)

  3. Magnetic phase transition induced by electrostatic gating in two-dimensional square metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Xiang-Guo; Liu, Shuang-Long; Fry, James N.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2018-03-01

    We investigate theoretically magnetism and magnetic phase transitions induced by electrostatic gating of two-dimensional square metal-organic framework compounds. We find that electrostatic gating can induce phase transitions between homogeneous ferromagnetic and various spin-textured antiferromagnetic states. Electronic structure and Wannier function analysis can reveal hybridizations between transition-metal d orbitals and conjugated π orbitals in the organic framework. Mn-containing compounds exhibit a strong d -π hybridization that leads to partially occupied spin-minority bands, in contrast to compounds containing transition-metal ions other than Mn, for which electronic structure around the Fermi energy is only slightly spin split due to weak d -π hybridization and the magnetic interaction is of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida type. We use a ferromagnetic Kondo lattice model to understand the phase transition in Mn-containing compounds in terms of carrier density and illuminate the complexity and the potential to control two-dimensional magnetization.

  4. Molecular mechanisms of FK506-induced hypertension in solid organ transplantation patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianglin; Guo Ren; Liu Shikun; Chen Qingjie; Zuo Shanru; Yang Meng; Zuo Xiaocong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tacrolimus (FK506) is an immunosuppressive drug,which is widely used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs.However,chronic administration of FK506 leads to hypertension in solid organ transplantation patients,and its molecular mechanisms are much more complicated.In this review,we will discuss the above-mentioned molecular mechanisms of FK506-induced hypertension in solid organ transplantation subjects.Data sources The data analyzed in this review were mainly from relevant articles without restriction on the publication date reported in PubMed.The terms "FK506" or "tacrolimus" and "hypertension"were used for the literature search.Study selection Original articles with no limitation of research design and critical reviews containing data relevant to FK506-induced hypertension and its molecular mechanisms were retrieved,reviewed and analyzed.Results There are several molecular mechanisms attributed to FK506-induced hypertension in solid organ transplantation subjects.First,FK506 binds FK506 binding protein 12 and its related isoform 12.6 (FKBP12/12.6) and removes them from intracellular ryanodine receptors that induce a calcium ion leakage from the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum.The conventional protein kinase C beta II (cPKCβⅡ)-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase at Thr495,which reduces the production of NO,was activated by calcium ion leakage.Second,transforming growth factor receptor/SMAD2/3 signaling activation plays an important role in Treg/Th17 cell imbalance in T cells which toget converge to cause inflammation,endothelial dysfunction,and hypertension following tacrolimus treatment.Third,the activation of with-no-K(Lys) kinases/STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase/thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride co-transporter (WNKs/SPAK/NCC) pathway has a central role in tacrolimus-induced hypertension.Finally,the enhanced activity of renal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system seems to play a crucial role in

  5. Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Máthé, Csaba; Mikóné Hamvas, Márta; Vasas, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs), a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on cyanotoxin-induced changes of chromatin organization and their possible cellular mechanisms. The particularities of plant cells explain the importance of such studi...

  6. Artesunate Protects Against the Organ Injury and Dysfunction Induced by Severe Hemorrhage and Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordi, Regina; Nandra, Kiran K; Chiazza, Fausto; Johnson, Florence L; Cabrera, Claudia P; Torrance, Hew D; Yamada, Noriaki; Patel, Nimesh S A; Barnes, Michael R; Brohi, Karim; Collino, Massimo; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of artesunate on organ injury and dysfunction associated with hemorrhagic shock (HS) in the rat. HS is still a common cause of death in severely injured patients and is characterized by impairment of organ perfusion, systemic inflammatory response, and multiple organ failure. There is no specific therapy that reduces organ injury/dysfunction. Artesunate exhibits pharmacological actions beyond its antimalarial activity, such as anticancer, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory effects. Rats were submitted to HS. Mean arterial pressure was reduced to 30 mm Hg for 90 minutes, followed by resuscitation. Rats were randomly treated with artesunate (2.4 or 4.8 mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle upon resuscitation. Four hours later, parameters of organ injury and dysfunction were assessed. Artesunate attenuated the multiple organ injury and dysfunction caused by HS. Pathway analysis of RNA sequencing provided good evidence to support an effect of artesunate on the Akt-survival pathway, leading to downregulation of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1. Using Western blot analysis, we confirmed that treatment of HS rats with artesunate enhanced the phosphorylation (activation) of Protein kinase B (Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the phosphorylation (inhibition) of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Moreover, artesunate attenuated the HS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B and reduced the expression of proinflammatory proteins (inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin 6). Artesunate attenuated the organ injury/dysfunction associated with HS by a mechanism that involves the activation of the Akt-endothelial nitric oxide synthase survival pathway, and the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and nuclear factor kappa B. A phase II clinical trial evaluating the effects of good manufacturing practice-artesunate in patients with trauma and severe hemorrhage is planned.

  7. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate Radiation-induced Oxidative Stress and Organ Dysfunctions in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Aziz, N.; Yacoub, S.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Aim of the present study was to determine the possible protective effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA) against radiation-induced oxidative stress associated with organ dysfunctions. Omega-3 PUFA was administered by oral gavages to male albino rats at a dose of 0.4 g/ kg body wt daily for 4 weeks before whole body γ-irradiation with 4Gy. Significant increase of serum lipid peroxidation end product as malondialdehyde (MDA) along with the reduction in blood glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) enzyme activities were recorded on 3rd and 8th days post-irradiation. Oxidative stress was associated with a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) enzyme activities, markers of heart damage, significant increases in uric acid, urea and creatinine levels, markers of kidney damage, significant increases of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and transaminases (ALT and AST) activities, markers of liver damage. Moreover significant increases in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels were recorded. Omega-3 PUFA administration pre-irradiation significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative stress and organ dysfunctions tested in this study. It could be concluded that oral supplementation of omega-3 PUFA before irradiation may afford protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress and might preserve the integrity of tissue functions of the organs under investigations.

  8. Role of microRNAs in Alcohol-Induced Multi-Organ Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Kumar Natarajan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption and its abuse is a major health problem resulting in significant healthcare cost in the United States. Chronic alcoholism results in damage to most of the vital organs in the human body. Among the alcohol-induced injuries, alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent in the United States. Remarkably, ethanol alters expression of a wide variety of microRNAs that can regulate alcohol-induced complications or dysfunctions. In this review, we will discuss the role of microRNAs in alcoholic pancreatitis, alcohol-induced liver damage, intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, and brain damage including altered hippocampus structure and function, and neuronal loss, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and muscle damage. Further, we have reviewed the role of altered microRNAs in the circulation, teratogenic effects of alcohol, and during maternal or paternal alcohol consumption.

  9. Sleep loss and acute drug abuse can induce DNA damage in multiple organs of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, T A; Ribeiro, D A; Araujo, P; Hirotsu, C; Mazaro-Costa, R; Costa, J L; Battisti, M C; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the genetic damage induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in combination with cocaine or ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) in multiple organs of male mice using the single cell gel (comet) assay. C57BL/6J mice were submitted to PSD by the platform technique for 72 hours, followed by drug administration and evaluation of DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver and brain tissues. Cocaine was able to induce genetic damage in the blood, brain and liver cells of sleep-deprived mice at the majority of the doses evaluated. Ecstasy also induced increased DNA migration in peripheral blood cells for all concentrations tested. Analysis of damaged cells by the tail moment data suggests that ecstasy is a genotoxic chemical at the highest concentrations tested, inducing damage in liver or brain cells after sleep deprivation in mice. Taken together, our results suggest that cocaine and ecstasy/MDMA act as potent genotoxins in multiple organs of mice when associated with sleep loss.

  10. Testosterone Depletion by Castration May Protect Mice from Heat-Induced Multiple Organ Damage and Lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruei-Tang Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When the vehicle-treated, sham-operated mice underwent heat stress, the fraction survival and core temperature at +4 h of body heating were found to be 5 of 15 and 34.4∘C±0.3∘C, respectively. Castration 2 weeks before the start of heat stress decreased the plasma levels of testosterone almost to zero, protected the mice from heat-induced death (fraction survival, 13/15 and reduced the hypothermia (core temperature, 37.3∘C. The beneficial effects of castration in ameliorating lethality and hypothermia can be significantly reduced by testosterone replacement. Heat-induced apoptosis, as indicated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl- transferase- mediatedαUDP-biotin nick end-labeling staining, were significantly prevented by castration. In addition, heat-induced neuronal damage, as indicated by cell shrinkage and pyknosis of nucleus, to the hypothalamus was also castration-prevented. Again, the beneficial effects of castration in reducing neuronal damage to the hypothalamus as well as apoptosis in multiple organs during heatstroke, were significantly reversed by testosterone replacement. The data indicate that testosterone depletion by castration may protect mice from heatstroke-induced multiple organ damage and lethality.

  11. Implantation of organic matter through water onto solid substrates by a laser induced molecular jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihosh, Y.; Goto, M.; Kasahara, A.; Tosa, M.

    2008-01-01

    Organic molecular dots were successfully produced by means of a nano second pulsed dye laser on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates, with sizes of several hundred nanometres. The method involves the transfer of organic molecules from the source Coumarin 6 (C6) and poly [2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene-venylene] (MEH-PPV) films onto a target material through a water filled space-gap using a laser induced molecular jet (LIMJ). In this way, the organic dots of Coumarin 6 and MEH-PPV molecules were successfully implanted onto the glass and ITO targets. The present results demonstrate the possibility to significantly improve photo electronic or photoelectric devices such as novel photonic crystal and molecular device sensors, and so on

  12. Ultrastructural Alterations in Lepocinclis acus (Euglenophyta Induced by Medium with High Organic Matter Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visitación T. Conforti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural changes induced by exposure to excess of organic matter were studied in Lepocinclis acus (ex Euglena acus. The cells isolated from the Matanza River, Buenos Aires, Argentina, were grown in soil water medium (SWM. When transferred to medium enriched with Bacteriological Peptone OXOID®, marked body deformation and a significant shortening and widening of the cells was observed. These changes were unexpected in a species with quite rigid cells, a condition previously shown in studies of the pellicle fine structure. Transmission electron microscopy observations suggest that cellular deformation might be facilitated by an increase in strip number, whereas in the original strips normal ultrastructure was maintained. An increase in number and volume of paramylon grains and vacuoles, as well as the presence of membrane whorls in vacuoles was observed. The fine structure of organisms grown in medium with and without organic matter enrichment was compared, and the systematic and ecological importance of morphological changes triggered by cell deformation was discussed.

  13. Cytogenetic methods for the detection of radiation-induced chromosome damage in aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kligerman, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    One means of evaluating the genetic effects of radiation on the genomes of aquatic organisms is to screen radiation-exposed cells for chromosome aberrations. A brief literature review of studies dealing with radiation-induced chromosome damage in aquatic organisms is presented, and reasons are given detailing why most previous studies are of little quantitative value. Suggestions are made for obtaining adequate qualitative and quantitative data through the use of modern cytogenetic methods and a model systems approach to the study of cytogenetic radiation damage in aquatic organisms. Detailed procedures for both in vivo and in vitro cytogenetic methods are described, and experimental considerations are discussed. Finally, suggestions for studies that could be of value in establishing protective guidelines for aquatic ecosystems are presented. (author)

  14. Potential for ion-induced nucleation of volatile organic compounds by radon decay in indoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    There is considerable interest in the ''unattached'' fraction of radon progeny in indoor air because of its significance to the estimation of the risks of radon exposure. Because of its high mobility in air, the unattached fraction is more efficiently deposited in the respiratory tract. Variation in the diameter of the ''unattached'' fraction and in its diffusion coefficient can be due to clustering of other atmospheric species around the 218 PoO 2 + ion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential for the formation of clusters of vapor phase organic compounds, found in indoor air, around the 218 PoO 2 + ion and to determine which were most likely to form clusters. A secondary purpose was to provide a compilation of measurements of indoor organic compounds for future experiments and theoretical calculations by the radon research community. The classical charged liquid droplet theory (Thomson equation) was used to estimate the Gibbs free energy of ion-induced nucleation and to provide an indication of the indoor organic compounds most likely to undergo ion-induced nucleation. Forty-four volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds out of the more than 300 which have been reported in indoor air were investigated. Water vapor was included for comparison. The results indicate that there is a potential for the formation of clusters of organic compounds around the 218 PoO 2 + ion. The compounds with the greatest potential for cluster formation are the volatile oxidized hydrocarbons (e.g., n-butanol, phenol, hexanal, nonanal, benzaldehyde, the ketones and the acetates) and the semi-volatile organic compounds (pentachlorophenol, nicotine, chlordane, chlorpyrifos)

  15. Organic honey supplementation reverses pesticide-induced genotoxicity by modulating DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Renata; Manzella, Nicola; Gaetani, Simona; Ciarapica, Veronica; Bracci, Massimo; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Pasini, Federica; Monaco, Federica; Amati, Monica; Borghi, Battista; Tomasetti, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Glyphosate (GLY) and organophosphorus insecticides such as chlorpyrifos (CPF) may cause DNA damage and cancer in exposed individuals through mitochondrial dysfunction. Polyphenols ubiquitously present in fruits and vegetables, have been viewed as antioxidant molecules, but also influence mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, honey containing polyphenol compounds was evaluated for its potential protective effect on pesticide-induced genotoxicity. Honey extracts from four floral organic sources were evaluated for their polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, and potential protective effects on pesticide-related mitochondrial destabilization, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species formation, and DNA damage response in human bronchial epithelial and neuronal cells. The protective effect of honey was, then evaluated in a residential population chronically exposed to pesticides. The four honey types showed a different polyphenol profile associated with a different antioxidant power. The pesticide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction parallels ROS formation from mitochondria (mtROS) and consequent DNA damage. Honey extracts efficiently inhibited pesticide-induced mtROS formation, and reduced DNA damage by upregulation of DNA repair through NFR2. Honey supplementation enhanced DNA repair activity in a residential population chronically exposed to pesticides, which resulted in a marked reduction of pesticide-induced DNA lesions. These results provide new insight regarding the effect of honey containing polyphenols on pesticide-induced DNA damage response. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Emergent spatial patterns of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic strengths drive somatotopic representational discontinuities and their plasticity in a computational model of primary sensory cortical area 3b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil A. Grajski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying the emergence and plasticity of representational discontinuities in the mammalian primary somatosensory cortical representation of the hand are investigated in a computational model. The model consists of an input lattice organized as a three-digit hand forward-connected to a lattice of cortical columns each of which contains a paired excitatory and inhibitory cell. Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity of feedforward and lateral connection weights is implemented as a simple covariance rule and competitive normalization. Receptive field properties are computed independently for excitatory and inhibitory cells and compared within and across columns. Within digit representational zones intracolumnar excitatory and inhibitory receptive field extents are concentric, single-digit, small, and unimodal. Exclusively in representational boundary-adjacent zones, intracolumnar excitatory and inhibitory receptive field properties diverge: excitatory cell receptive fields are single-digit, small, and unimodal; and the paired inhibitory cell receptive fields are bimodal, double-digit, and large. In simulated syndactyly (webbed fingers, boundary-adjacent intracolumnar receptive field properties reorganize to within-representation type; divergent properties are reacquired following syndactyly release. This study generates testable hypotheses for assessment of cortical laminar-dependent receptive field properties and plasticity within and between cortical representational zones. For computational studies, present results suggest that concurrent excitatory and inhibitory plasticity may underlie novel emergent properties.

  17. Using Enterprise Architecture for Analysis of a Complex Adaptive Organization's Risk Inducing Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salguero, Laura Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huff, Johnathon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matta, Anthony R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Collins, Sue S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is an organization with a wide range of research and development activities that include nuclear, explosives, and chemical hazards. In addition, Sandia has over 2000 labs and over 40 major test facilities, such as the Thermal Test Complex, the Lightning Test Facility, and the Rocket Sled Track. In order to support safe operations, Sandia has a diverse Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) organization that provides expertise to support engineers and scientists in performing work safely. With such a diverse organization to support, the ES&H program continuously seeks opportunities to improve the services provided for Sandia by using various methods as part of their risk management strategy. One of the methods being investigated is using enterprise architecture analysis to mitigate risk inducing characteristics such as normalization of deviance, organizational drift, and problems in information flow. This paper is a case study for how a Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) model of the ES&H enterprise, including information technology applications, can be analyzed to understand the level of risk associated with the risk inducing characteristics discussed above. While the analysis is not complete, we provide proposed analysis methods that will be used for future research as the project progresses.

  18. Effect of natural organic matter on the photo-induced toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Alexis M; Coral, Jason; Alloy, Matthew M; Delmarè, Carmen L; Mansfield, Charles M; Klaine, Stephen J; Bisesi, Joseph H; Roberts, Aaron P

    2017-06-01

    Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is the most widely used form of nanoparticles in commercial industry and comes in 2 main configurations: rutile and anatase. Rutile TiO 2 is used in ultraviolet (UV) screening applications, whereas anatase TiO 2 crystals have a surface defect that makes them photoreactive. There are numerous reports in the literature of photo-induced toxicity to aquatic organisms following coexposure to anatase nano-TiO 2 and UV. All natural freshwater contains varying amounts of natural organic matter (NOM), which can drive UV attenuation and quench reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aquatic ecosystems. The present research examined how NOM alters the photo-induced toxicity of anatase nano-TiO 2 . Daphnia magna neonates were coexposed to NOM and photoexcited anatase nano-TiO 2 for 48 h. Natural organic matter concentrations as low as 4 mg/L reduced anatase nano-TiO 2 toxicity by nearly 100%. These concentrations of NOM attenuated UV by <10% in the exposure system. However, ROS production measured using a fluorescence assay was significantly reduced in a NOM concentration--dependent manner. Taken together, these data suggest that NOM reduces anatase nano-TiO 2 toxicity via an ROS quenching mechanism and not by attenuation of UV. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1661-1666. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  19. Novel estimation of the humification degree of soil organic matter by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Edilene Cristina, E-mail: edilene@iq.unesp.br [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); São Paulo State University—UNESP, Analytical Chemistry Department, P.O. Box 355, 14801-970 Rua Prof. Francisco Degni, 55, CEP 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Ednaldo José, E-mail: ednaldo.ferreira@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Villas-Boas, Paulino Ribeiro, E-mail: paulino.villas-boas@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Senesi, Giorgio Saverio, E-mail: giorgio.senesi@ba.imip.cnr.it [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, CNR, Bari 70126 (Italy); Carvalho, Camila Miranda, E-mail: camilamc@gmail.com [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Physics Institute of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, IFSC-USP, Av. Trabalhador são-carlense, 400 Pq. Arnold Schimid, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Romano, Renan Arnon, E-mail: renan.romano@gmail.com [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Physics Institute of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, IFSC-USP, Av. Trabalhador são-carlense, 400 Pq. Arnold Schimid, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Martin-Neto, Ladislau, E-mail: ladislau.martin@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); and others

    2014-09-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) constitutes an important reservoir of terrestrial carbon and can be considered an alternative for atmospheric carbon storage, contributing to global warming mitigation. Soil management can favor atmospheric carbon incorporation into SOM or its release from SOM to atmosphere. Thus, the evaluation of the humification degree (HD), which is an indication of the recalcitrance of SOM, can provide an estimation of the capacity of carbon sequestration by soils under various managements. The HD of SOM can be estimated by using various analytical techniques including fluorescence spectroscopy. In the present work, the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to estimate the HD of SOM was evaluated for the first time. Intensities of emission lines of Al, Mg and Ca from LIBS spectra showing correlation with fluorescence emissions determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) reference technique were used to obtain a multivaried calibration model based on the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) method. The values predicted by the proposed model (A-LIBS) showed strong correlation with LIFS results with a Pearson's coefficient of 0.87. The HD of SOM obtained after normalizing A-LIBS by total carbon in the sample showed a strong correlation to that determined by LIFS (0.94), thus suggesting the great potential of LIBS for this novel application. - Highlights: • Humification degree of soil organic matter (HD) • Importance of soil organic matter HD in keeping carbon in soil • Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) for HD estimation (reference method) • New LIBS application to predict HD.

  20. Modelling the temperature induced degradation kinetics of the short circuit current in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conings, B.S.T.; Bertho, S.; Vandewal, K.; Senes, A.; D'Haen, J.; Manca, J.V.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    In organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, the nanoscale morphology of interpenetrating donor-acceptor materials and the resulting photovoltaic parameters alter as a consequence of prolonged operation at temperatures above the glass transition temperature. Thermal annealing induces clustering of

  1. Organization and logistics of drug-induced sleep endoscopy in a training hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, L B L; de Vries, N

    2015-09-01

    Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) is a rapidly growing method to evaluate airway collapse in patients receiving non-CPAP therapies for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). The growing number of DISEs has consequences for the organization of clinical protocols. In this paper we present our recent experiences with DISE, performed by an ENT resident, with sedation given by a nurse anesthetist, in an outpatient endoscopy setting, while the staff member/sleep surgeon discusses the findings and the recommended treatment proposal on the same day.

  2. Radiation-Induced Organizing Pneumonia: A Characteristic Disease that Requires Symptom-Oriented Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Keisuke; Seo, Yuji; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-27

    Radiation-induced organizing pneumonia (RIOP) is an inflammatory lung disease that is occasionally observed after irradiation to the breast. It is a type of secondary organizing pneumonia that is characterized by infiltrates outside the irradiated volume that are sometimes migratory. Corticosteroids work acutely, but relapse of pneumonia is often experienced. Management of RIOP should simply be symptom-oriented, and the use of corticosteroids should be limited to severe symptoms from the perspective not only of cost-effectiveness but also of cancer treatment. Once steroid therapy is started, it takes a long time to stop it due to frequent relapses. We review RIOP from the perspective of its diagnosis, epidemiology, molecular pathogenesis, and patient management.

  3. Role of coherence and delocalization in photo-induced electron transfer at organic interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramavicius, V.; Pranculis, V.; Melianas, A.; Inganäs, O.; Gulbinas, V.; Abramavicius, D.

    2016-09-01

    Photo-induced charge transfer at molecular heterojunctions has gained particular interest due to the development of organic solar cells (OSC) based on blends of electron donating and accepting materials. While charge transfer between donor and acceptor molecules can be described by Marcus theory, additional carrier delocalization and coherent propagation might play the dominant role. Here, we describe ultrafast charge separation at the interface of a conjugated polymer and an aggregate of the fullerene derivative PCBM using the stochastic Schrödinger equation (SSE) and reveal the complex time evolution of electron transfer, mediated by electronic coherence and delocalization. By fitting the model to ultrafast charge separation experiments, we estimate the extent of electron delocalization and establish the transition from coherent electron propagation to incoherent hopping. Our results indicate that even a relatively weak coupling between PCBM molecules is sufficient to facilitate electron delocalization and efficient charge separation at organic interfaces.

  4. Laser induced fluorescence technique for detecting organic matter in East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Wang, Tianyu; Pan, Delu; Huang, Haiqing

    2017-10-01

    A laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique for fast diagnosing chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in water is discussed. We have developed a new field-portable laser fluorometer for rapid fluorescence measurements. In addtion, the fluorescence spectral characteristics of fluorescent constituents (e.g., CDOM, chlorophyll-a) were analyzed with a spectral deconvolution method of bi-Gaussian peak function. In situ measurements by the LIF technique compared well with values measured by conventional spectrophotometer method in laboratory. A significant correlation (R2 = 0.93) was observed between fluorescence by the technique and absorption by laboratory spectrophotometer. Influence of temperature variation on LIF measurement was investigated in lab and a temperature coefficient was deduced for fluorescence correction. Distributions of CDOM fluorescence measured using this technique in the East China Sea coast were presented. The in situ result demonstrated the utility of the LIF technique for rapid detecting dissolved organic matter.

  5. Microwave-induced carbon nanotubes catalytic degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing; Xue, Shuang; Song, Youtao; Shen, Manli; Zhang, Zhaohong; Yuan, Tianxin; Tian, Fangyuan; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave-induced CNTs-based catalytic degradation technology is developed. • Microwave catalytic activities of CNTs with different diameters are compared. • Organic pollutants with different structure can be degraded in MW/CNTs system. • The 10–20 nm CNTs shows the higher catalytic activity under MW irradiation. - Abstract: In this study, a new catalytic degradation technology using microwave induced carbon nanotubes (MW/CNTs) was proposed and applied in the treatment of organic pollutants in aqueous solution. The catalytic activity of three CNTs of 10–20 nm, 20–40 nm, and 40–60 nm diameters were compared. The results showed that organic pollutants such as methyl orange (MO), methyl parathion (MP), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), bisphenol A (BPA), and methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution could be degraded effectively and rapidly in MW/CNTs system. CNTs with diameter of 10–20 nm exhibited the highest catalytic activity of the three CNTs under MW irradiation. Further, complete degradation was obtained using 10–20 nm CNTs within 7.0 min irradiation when 25 mL MO solution (25 mg/L), 1.2 g/L catalyst dose, 450 W, 2450 MHz, and pH = 6.0 were applied. The rate constants (k) for the degradation of SDBS, MB, MP, MO and BPA using 10–20 nm CNTs/MW system were 0.726, 0.679, 0.463, 0.334 and 0.168 min"−"1, respectively. Therefore, this technology may have potential application for the treatment of targeted organic pollutants in wastewaters.

  6. Microwave-induced carbon nanotubes catalytic degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; Xue, Shuang; Song, Youtao; Shen, Manli [School of Environment Science, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Zhang, Zhaohong, E-mail: lnuhjhx@163.com [School of Environment Science, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Yuan, Tianxin; Tian, Fangyuan [School of Environment Science, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States)

    2016-06-05

    Highlights: • Microwave-induced CNTs-based catalytic degradation technology is developed. • Microwave catalytic activities of CNTs with different diameters are compared. • Organic pollutants with different structure can be degraded in MW/CNTs system. • The 10–20 nm CNTs shows the higher catalytic activity under MW irradiation. - Abstract: In this study, a new catalytic degradation technology using microwave induced carbon nanotubes (MW/CNTs) was proposed and applied in the treatment of organic pollutants in aqueous solution. The catalytic activity of three CNTs of 10–20 nm, 20–40 nm, and 40–60 nm diameters were compared. The results showed that organic pollutants such as methyl orange (MO), methyl parathion (MP), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), bisphenol A (BPA), and methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution could be degraded effectively and rapidly in MW/CNTs system. CNTs with diameter of 10–20 nm exhibited the highest catalytic activity of the three CNTs under MW irradiation. Further, complete degradation was obtained using 10–20 nm CNTs within 7.0 min irradiation when 25 mL MO solution (25 mg/L), 1.2 g/L catalyst dose, 450 W, 2450 MHz, and pH = 6.0 were applied. The rate constants (k) for the degradation of SDBS, MB, MP, MO and BPA using 10–20 nm CNTs/MW system were 0.726, 0.679, 0.463, 0.334 and 0.168 min{sup −1}, respectively. Therefore, this technology may have potential application for the treatment of targeted organic pollutants in wastewaters.

  7. Decomposition of organic pollutants in industrial Effluent induced by advanced oxidation process with Electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Oikawa, H.; Silveira, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) by electron beam irradiation induce the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 Kew power. Experiments were conducted using samples from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of use the electrons beam technology to destroy the refractory organic pollutants. Samples from WTP main Industrial Receiver Unit influent (IRU), Coarse Bar Screens effluent (CBS), Medium Bar Screens effluent (MBS), Primary Sedimentation effluent (PS) and Final Effluent (FE), were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system. The delivered doses were 5.0kGy, 10.0kGy and 20.0kGy. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture were described by the destruction G value (Gd) that were obtained for those compounds in different initial concentration and compared with literature

  8. A magnesium-induced triplex pre-organizes the SAM-II riboswitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Roy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our 13C- and 1H-chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST experiments previously revealed a dynamic exchange between partially closed and open conformations of the SAM-II riboswitch in the absence of ligand. Here, all-atom structure-based molecular simulations, with the electrostatic effects of Manning counter-ion condensation and explicit magnesium ions are employed to calculate the folding free energy landscape of the SAM-II riboswitch. We use this analysis to predict that magnesium ions remodel the landscape, shifting the equilibrium away from the extended, partially unfolded state towards a compact, pre-organized conformation that resembles the ligand-bound state. Our CEST and SAXS experiments, at different magnesium ion concentrations, quantitatively confirm our simulation results, demonstrating that magnesium ions induce collapse and pre-organization. Agreement between theory and experiment bolsters microscopic interpretation of our simulations, which shows that triplex formation between helix P2b and loop L1 is highly sensitive to magnesium and plays a key role in pre-organization. Pre-organization of the SAM-II riboswitch allows rapid detection of ligand with high selectivity, which is important for biological function.

  9. Study of Organic Matter in Soils of the Amazon Region Employing Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadini, Amanda Maria; Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Mounier, Stéphane; Montes, Célia Regina; Marcondes Bastos Pereira Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    In the face of climate change and increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere, the global carbon cycle, soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration, and the role of different world biomes as potential sources and sinks of carbon are receiving increasing attention. Carbon quantification is an important environmental indicator, but the structure of organic matter is also important because is related to carbon stability. The synthesis of soil organic matter (SOM), as presented in soils of forest vegetation, can be originated from condensation polymeric polyphenols and quinones that are responsible for controlling the main physical-chemical properties of soils. These systems are present in humic substances, representing the major fluorophore of SOM[1-3]. Abiotic factors, such as soil texture, use and occupation of soil, can influence on the process of SOM formation, molecular structure and in its humification index[4]. Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) have become a promising technique for assessing humification index of SOM (HLIFS). In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze the humification index of the SOM in the region of Barcelos (Amazon) employing LIFS. The study area was the region of Barcelos, close the river Demeni. The whose vegetation distribution in this area, is two biomes the Dense Ombrophylous Forest (DPQD) and Campinarana (DPQT), with areas of edaphic contacts between these two phytophysiognomies, which ranged from Open field (FDE) to closed Depression (DPQ). Preliminary results showed that the area closed Depression (DPQ) there was a continuous gradient of humification with increasing soil depth. A similar behavior was verified for area Forest (DPQD), where the highest values of HLIFS were obtained between the four points analyzed, indicating the magnitude of the molecular recalcitrance this organic matter in this area. The results obtained for area Campinarana (DPQT) and Open field (FDE) showed an opposite behavior. These points there

  10. Strain-induced collagen organization at the micro-level in fibrin-based engineered tissue constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de N.; Kanters, F.M.W.; Baaijens, F.P.T.; Bouten, C.V.C.

    2013-01-01

    Full understanding of strain-induced collagen organization in complex tissue geometries to create tissues with predefined collagen architecture has not been achieved. This is mainly due to our limited knowledge of collagen remodeling in developing tissues. Here we investigate strain-induced collagen

  11. Degradation of lipids in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at the early phase of organic solvent-induced autolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida-Ichimasa, Michiko

    1978-01-01

    Initial stage of organic solvent-induced autolysis in yeast was studied with 14 C-acetate labeled cells. In the case of toluene-induced autolysis, primary cell injury which was estimated by leakage of UV absorbing substances from cell accompanied rapid deacylation of phospholipids. Lysophospholipids did not occur during autolysis. When autolysis was induced by addition of ethyl acetate, phospholipids of yeast cells were not degraded so much. Ethyl acetate rather inhibited yeast phospholipase activity under the condition tested. (auth.)

  12. Do insect repellents induce drift behaviour in aquatic non-target organisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick; Moelzner, Jana; Berghahn, Ruediger; von Elert, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic insect repellents are compounds applied to surfaces to discourage insects, mainly mosquitoes, from landing on those surfaces. As some of these repellents have repeatedly been detected in surface waters at significant concentrations, they may also exert repellent effects on aquatic non-target organisms. In running water systems, aquatic invertebrates actively enter downstream drift in order to avoid unfavourable environmental conditions. We thus tested the hypothesis that the widely used insect repellents DEET (N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide), EBAAP (3-[N-butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid ethyl ester) and Icaridin (1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-methylpropyl ester) induce downstream drift behaviour in the aquatic invertebrates Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) and Cloeon dipterum (Insecta, Ephemeroptera), using a laboratory-scale drift assay. We found no clear increase in the drift behaviour of both invertebrate species across a concentration gradient of eight orders of magnitude and even beyond maximum environmental concentrations for any of the three repellents. We found no evidence for a direct drift-inducing activity of insect repellents on aquatic non-target organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Classical swine fever virus induces pyroptosis in the peripheral lymphoid organs of infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin; Zhu, Mengjiao; Deng, Shaofeng; Fan, Shuangqi; Xu, Hailuan; Liao, Jiedan; Li, Peng; Zheng, Jingfang; Zhao, Mingqiu; Chen, Jinding

    2018-05-02

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly lethal disease in pigs, which is characterized by immunosuppression. Leukopenia is known to be a possible mechanism of immunosuppression during CSFV infection. As a new and specialized form of cell death, pyroptosis is the key response of the innate immune system to pathogens, and is widely involved in the occurrence and development of infectious diseases. However, the relationship between CSFV and pyroptosis has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of pyroptosis in pigs following CSFV infection. According to qRT-PCR assay results, the prevalence of this virus in peripheral lymphoid organs (tonsils, lymph nodes, and spleen) was much higher than that in other organs. Severe bleeding, necrosis, and a significant reduction in lymphocytes were found in the peripheral lymphoid organs of CSFV-infected pigs based on histological examination. In-depth studies showed that an increased ratio of deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were present in the peripheral lymphoid organs of the CSFV-infected group according to immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, the p10 subunit and activity of caspase-1, which is a regulator of pyroptosis, the N-terminal domain of gasdermin D, which is an executor of pyroptosis, and the cleavage and secretion of IL-1b, which is a product of pyroptosis were increased in the peripheral lymphoid organs of the CSFV-infected group. Together, these results demonstrated that pyroptosis is involved in CSFV-induced cell death in vivo, which provides a new understanding of the mechanism associated with lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression in pigs infected with this virus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation-induced destruction of organic compounds in aqueous solutions by dual oxidation/reduction mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaychiana, M.; Silverman, J.; Al-Sheikhly, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland (United States); Poster, D.; Neta, P.; Huie, R. [Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standard and Technology (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This research presents the feasibility and mechanisms of using high energy electrons for the dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in marine sediment, and hazardous organic compounds in waste water. The remediation of the organic contaminants by ionizing radiation is achieved by means of both reduction and oxidation processes. PCBs in marine sediment can be effectively dechlorinated by reduction, while toxic organic compounds in water are removed mainly by oxidation. Radiolytic degradation of aqueous suspensions of PCBs in marine sediments in the presence of isopropanol was also studied. Addition of isopropanol was necessary to enhance the radiolytic yield and the dechlorination of PCBs. Also presented are results from an examination of the oxidative and reductive effects of electron-beam irradiation on the concentrations of six organic solvents in water. The organic solvents in water were prepared to mimic a pharmaceutical waste stream. Radiation-induced destruction of benzene was also investigated using pulse radiolysis technique. Pulse radiolysis with spectrophotometric and conductometric detection was utilized to study the formation and reactions of radicals from benzene and dienes in aqueous solutions. The benzene OH adduct, {sup ●}C{sub 6}H{sub 6}OH, reacts with O{sub 2} (k = 3x10{sup 8} L mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}) in a reversible reaction. The peroxyl radical, HOC{sub 6}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}{sup ●}, undergoes O{sub 2}●- elimination, bimolecular decay, and reaction with benzene to initiate a chain reaction, depending on the dose rate, benzene concentration, and pH. The occurrence of the chain reaction is demonstrated in low-dose-rate gamma radiolysis experiments where the consumption of O{sub 2} was monitored. (author)

  15. Blood perfusion and pH monitoring in organs by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Pergadia, Vani R.; Stavridi, Marigo; Snyder, Wendy J.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Duffy, J. T.; Weiss, Andrew B.; Thomas, Reem; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1994-01-01

    Sensitivity of laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) in detecting a change in tissue pH, and blood perfusion was determined. Rabbits were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. The arterial and venous blood supplies of the kidney were isolated and ligated to alter the perfusion. The femoral artery was cannulated to extract samples for blood gas analysis. A 308-nm XeCl was used as an excitation source. A 600 micrometers core diameter fiber was used for fluorescence acquisition, and the spectra analyzed by an optical multichannel analyzer (EG & G, OMA III). the corresponding intensity ratio R equals INADH / ICOLL was used as an index for respiratory acidosis. Blood perfusion was assessed using the following algorithm: (IELAS minus ICOLL) divided by (INADH minus ICOLL). The intensity ratio linearly decreased with the reduction of blood perfusion. When we totally occluded the artery the ratio decreased tenfold when compared to the ratio of a fully perfused kidney. Results of monitoring blood acidosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy shows a significant trend between pH and intensity ratio. Since all the slopes were negative, there is an obvious significant correlation between the pH and NADH.COLLAGEN RATIO. Blue-light-induced fluorescence measurements and ratio fluorometry is a sensitive method for monitoring blood perfusion and acidity or alkalinity of an organ.

  16. Photobleaching-induced changes in photosensitizing properties of dissolved organic matter

    KAUST Repository

    Niu, Xi-Zhi; Liu, Chao; Gutié rrez, Leonardo A.; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Photosensitizing properties of different dissolved organic matter (DOM) were investigated according to their performance in singlet oxygen (1O2), triplet state of DOM (3DOM*), and hydroxyl radical (·OH) productions. The photobleaching of DOM solutions after irradiation was characterized by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photosensitizing properties of pre-irradiated DOM solutions were changed in a sunlight simulator. The performance of DOMs in photosensitized degradation of several contaminants was investigated. For a 20h exposure, the observed degradation rate constant (kobs) of some contaminants decreased as a function of exposure time, and highly depended on the properties of both DOM and contaminant. Degradation of contaminants with lower kobs was more susceptible to DOM photobleaching-induced decrease in kobs. Under the current experimental conditions, the photobleaching-induced decrease of DOM photo-reactivity in contaminant degradation was mainly attributed to indirect phototransformation of DOM caused by the interactions between photo-inductive DOM moieties and photochemically-produced reactive species. Reactive contaminants can inhibit DOM indirect photobleaching by scavenging reactive species, photosensitized degradation of these contaminants exhibited a stable kobs as a result. This is the first study to report DOM photobleaching-induced changes in the simultaneous DOM photosensitized degradation of contaminants and the inhibitory effect of reactive contaminants on DOM photobleaching.

  17. Photobleaching-induced changes in photosensitizing properties of dissolved organic matter

    KAUST Repository

    Niu, Xi-Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Photosensitizing properties of different dissolved organic matter (DOM) were investigated according to their performance in singlet oxygen (1O2), triplet state of DOM (3DOM*), and hydroxyl radical (·OH) productions. The photobleaching of DOM solutions after irradiation was characterized by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photosensitizing properties of pre-irradiated DOM solutions were changed in a sunlight simulator. The performance of DOMs in photosensitized degradation of several contaminants was investigated. For a 20h exposure, the observed degradation rate constant (kobs) of some contaminants decreased as a function of exposure time, and highly depended on the properties of both DOM and contaminant. Degradation of contaminants with lower kobs was more susceptible to DOM photobleaching-induced decrease in kobs. Under the current experimental conditions, the photobleaching-induced decrease of DOM photo-reactivity in contaminant degradation was mainly attributed to indirect phototransformation of DOM caused by the interactions between photo-inductive DOM moieties and photochemically-produced reactive species. Reactive contaminants can inhibit DOM indirect photobleaching by scavenging reactive species, photosensitized degradation of these contaminants exhibited a stable kobs as a result. This is the first study to report DOM photobleaching-induced changes in the simultaneous DOM photosensitized degradation of contaminants and the inhibitory effect of reactive contaminants on DOM photobleaching.

  18. Vibrational emission analysis of the CN molecules in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Bravo, Ángel; Delgado, Tomás; Lucena, Patricia; Laserna, J. Javier, E-mail: laserna@uma.es

    2013-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of organic materials is based on the analysis of atomic and ionic emission lines and on a few molecular bands, the most important being the CN violet system and the C{sub 2} Swan system. This paper is focused in molecular emission of LIBS plasmas based on the CN (B{sup 2}Σ–X{sup 2}Σ) band, one of the strongest emissions appearing in all carbon materials when analyzed in air atmosphere. An analysis of this band with sufficient spectral resolution provides a great deal of information on the molecule, which has revealed that valuable information can be obtained from the plume chemistry and dynamics affecting the excitation mechanisms of the molecules. The vibrational emission of this molecular band has been investigated to establish the dependence of this emission on the molecular structure of the materials. The paper shows that excitation/emission phenomena of molecular species observed in the plume depend strongly on the time interval selected and on the irradiance deposited on the sample surface. Precise time resolved LIBS measurements are needed for the observation of distinctive CN emission. For the organic compounds studied, larger differences in the behavior of the vibrational emission occur at early stages after plasma ignition. Since molecular emission is generally more complex than that involving atomic emission, local plasma conditions as well as plume chemistry may induce changes in vibrational emission of molecules. As a consequence, alterations in the distribution of the emissions occur in terms of relative intensities, being sensitive to the molecular structure of every single material. - Highlights: • Vibrational emission of CN species in laser-induced plasmas has been investigated. • Distribution of vibrational emission of CN has been found to be time dependent. • Laser irradiance affects the vibrational distribution of the CN molecules. • Plume chemistry controls the excitation mechanisms of CN

  19. Molecular signatures in femtosecond laser-induced organic plasmas: comparison with nanosecond laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Jorge; Moros, Javier; Laserna, J Javier

    2016-01-28

    During the last few years, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has evolved significantly in the molecular sensing area through the optical monitoring of emissions from organic plasmas. Large efforts have been made to study the formation pathways of diatomic radicals as well as their connections with the bonding framework of molecular solids. Together with the structural and chemical-physical properties of molecules, laser ablation parameters seem to be closely tied to the observed spectral signatures. This research focuses on evaluating the impact of laser pulse duration on the production of diatomic species that populate plasmas of organic materials. Differences in relative intensities of spectral signatures from the plasmas of several organic molecules induced in femtosecond (fs) and nanosecond (ns) ablation regimes have been studied. Beyond the abundance and origin of diatomic radicals that seed the plasma, findings reveal the crucial role of the ablation regime in the breakage pattern of the molecule. The laser pulse duration dictates the fragments and atoms resulting from the vaporized molecules, promoting some formation routes at the expense of other paths. The larger amount of fragments formed by fs pulses advocates a direct release of native bonds and a subsequent seeding of the plasma with diatomic species. In contrast, in the ns ablation regime, the atomic recombinations and single displacement processes dominate the contribution to diatomic radicals, as long as atomization of molecules prevails over their progressive decomposition. Consequently, fs-LIBS better reflects correlations between strengths of emissions from diatomic species and molecular structure as compared to ns-LIBS. These new results entail a further step towards the specificity in the analysis of molecular solids by fs-LIBS.

  20. The effect of organic contaminants on the spectral induced polarization response of porous media - mechanistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, N.; Huisman, J. A.; Furman, A.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there is a growing interest in using geophysical methods in general and spectral induced polarization (SIP) in particular as a tool to detect and monitor organic contaminants within the subsurface. The general idea of the SIP method is to inject alternating current through a soil volume and to measure the resultant potential in order to obtain the relevant soil electrical properties (e.g. complex impedance, complex conductivity/resistivity). Currently, a complete mechanistic understanding of the effect of organic contaminants on the SIP response of soil is still absent. In this work, we combine laboratory experiments with modeling to reveal the main processes affecting the SIP signature of soil contaminated with organic pollutant. In a first set of experiments, we investigate the effect of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) on the complex conductivity of unsaturated porous media. Our results show that addition of NAPL to the porous media increases the real component of the soil electrical conductivity and decreases the polarization of the soil (imaginary component of the complex conductivity). Furthermore, addition of NAPL to the soil resulted in an increase of the electrical conductivity of the soil solution. Based on these results, we suggest that adsorption of NAPL to the soil surface, and exchange process between polar organic compounds in the NAPL and inorganic ions in the soil are the main processes affecting the SIP signature of the contaminated soil. To further support our hypothesis, the temporal change of the SIP signature of a soil as function of a single organic cation concentration was measured. In addition to the measurements of the soil electrical properties, we also measured the effect of the organic cation on the chemical composition of both the bulk and the surface of the soil. The results of those experiments again showed that the electrical conductivity of the soil increased with increasing contaminant concentration. In addition

  1. Resistive Switching and Voltage Induced Modulation of Tunneling Magnetoresistance in Nanosized Perpendicular Organic Spin Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Georg; Goeckeritz, Robert; Homonnay, Nico; Mueller, Alexander; Fuhrmann, Bodo

    Resistive switching has already been reported in organic spin valves (OSV), however, its origin is still unclear. We have fabricated nanosized OSV based on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/Alq3/Co. These devices show fully reversible resistive switching of up to five orders of magnitude. The magnetoresistance (MR) is modulated during the switching process from negative (-70%) to positive values (+23%). The results are reminiscent of experiments claiming magnetoelectric coupling in LSMO based tunneling structures using ferroelectric barriers. By analyzing the I/V characteristics of the devices we can show that transport is dominated by tunneling through pinholes. The resistive switching is caused by voltage induced creation and motion of oxygen vacancies at the LSMO surface, however, the resulting tunnel barrier is complemented by a second adjacent barrier in the organic semiconductor. Our model shows that the barrier in the organic material is constant, causing the initial MR while the barrier in the LMSO can be modulated by the voltage resulting in the resistive switching and the modulation of the MR as the coupling to the states in the LSMO changes. A switching caused by LSMO only is also supported by the fact that replacing ALQ3 by H2PC yields almost identical results. Supported by the DFG in the SFB762.

  2. Effects of ozone oxidative preconditioning on radiation-induced organ damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultekin, Fatma Ayca; Bakkal, Bekir Hakan; Guven, Berrak; Tasdoven, Ilhan; Bektas, Sibel; Can, Murat; Comert, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Because radiation-induced cellular damage is attributed primarily to harmful effects of free radicals, molecules with direct free radical scavenging properties are particularly promising as radioprotectors. It has been demonstrated that controlled ozone administration may promote an adaptation to oxidative stress, preventing the damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Thus, we hypothesized that ozone would ameliorate oxidative damage caused by total body irradiation (TBI) with a single dose of 6 Gy in rat liver and ileum tissues. Rats were randomly divided into groups as follows: control group; saline-treated and irradiated (IR) groups; and ozone oxidative preconditioning (OOP) and IR groups. Animals were exposed to TBI after a 5-day intraperitoneal pretreatment with either saline or ozone (1 mg/kg/day). They were decapitated at either 6 h or 72 h after TBI. Plasma, liver and ileum samples were obtained. Serum AST, ALT and TNF-α levels were elevated in the IR groups compared with the control group and were decreased after treatment with OOP. TBI resulted in a significant increase in the levels of MDA in the liver and ileal tissues and a decrease of SOD activities. The results demonstrated that the levels of MDA liver and ileal tissues in irradiated rats that were pretreated with ozone were significantly decreased, while SOD activities were significantly increased. OOP reversed all histopathological alterations induced by irradiation. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that ozone could increase the endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism in rats and there by protect the animals from radiation-induced organ toxicity. (author)

  3. Lamarck rises from his grave: parental environment-induced epigenetic inheritance in model organisms and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Huijie; Sun, Zhongsheng

    2017-11-01

    Organisms can change their physiological/behavioural traits to adapt and survive in changed environments. However, whether these acquired traits can be inherited across generations through non-genetic alterations has been a topic of debate for over a century. Emerging evidence indicates that both ancestral and parental experiences, including nutrition, environmental toxins, nurturing behaviour, and social stress, can have powerful effects on the physiological, metabolic and cellular functions in an organism. In certain circumstances, these effects can be transmitted across several generations through epigenetic (i.e. non-DNA sequence-based rather than mutational) modifications. In this review, we summarize recent evidence on epigenetic inheritance from parental environment-induced developmental and physiological alterations in nematodes, fruit flies, zebrafish, rodents, and humans. The epigenetic modifications demonstrated to be both susceptible to modulation by environmental cues and heritable, including DNA methylation, histone modification, and small non-coding RNAs, are also summarized. We particularly focus on evidence that parental environment-induced epigenetic alterations are transmitted through both the maternal and paternal germlines and exert sex-specific effects. The thought-provoking data presented here raise fundamental questions about the mechanisms responsible for these phenomena. In particular, the means that define the specificity of the response to parental experience in the gamete epigenome and that direct the establishment of the specific epigenetic change in the developing embryos, as well as in specific tissues in the descendants, remain obscure and require elucidation. More precise epigenetic assessment at both the genome-wide level and single-cell resolution as well as strategies for breeding at relatively sensitive periods of development and manipulation aimed at specific epigenetic modification are imperative for identifying parental

  4. Analysis of explosive and other organic residues by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazic, V., E-mail: lazic@frascati.enea.i [ENEA, FIS-LAS, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Palucci, A. [ENEA, FIS-LAS, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Jovicevic, S. [Institute of Physics, 11080 Belgrade, Pregrevica 118 (Serbia); Poggi, C.; Buono, E. [ENEA, FIS-LAS, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    With the aim of realizing a compact instrument for detection of energetic materials at trace levels, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy was applied on residues from nine explosives in air surroundings. Different potentially interfering organic materials were also analyzed. The residues were not uniformly distributed on an aluminum support and single-shot discrimination was attempted. For a single residue type, large shot-to-shot fluctuations of the line intensity ratios characteristic for organic samples were observed, which made material classification difficult. It was found that both atomic and molecular emission intensities, as well as their ratios, are strongly affected by an amount of the ablated support material, which mainly determines the plasma temperature. With respect to the spectra from the clean support, emission intensities of atomic oxygen and nitrogen are always reduced in the presence of an organic material, even if its molecules contain these elements. This was attributed to chemical reactions in a plasma containing carbon or its fragments. Hydrogen atomic emission depends strongly on the local humidity above the sampled point and its line intensity shows shot to shot variations up to 50%, also on a homogeneous sample. It is argued that shock waves generated by previous spatially and/or temporally close laser pulses blow away a relatively heavy water aerosol, which later diffuses slowly back towards the sampled point. C{sub 2} and CN exhibit a peak emission behavior with atomic Al emission, and their variable ratio indicates an existence of different formation or removal mechanisms from the plasma, depending on the plasma parameters and on the composition of the organic residue. On the basis of these observations, an attempt is made to establish a suitable procedure for data analysis and to determine the optimal experimental conditions, which would allow for discrimination of explosives from other, potentially interfering, residues.

  5. Water and oxygen induced degradation of small molecule organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermenau, Martin; Riede, Moritz; Leo, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Small molecule organic solar cells were studied with respect to water and oxygen induced degradation by mapping the spatial distribution of reaction products in order to elucidate the degradation patterns and failure mechanisms. The active layers consist of a 30 nm bulk heterojunction formed......,4′-diamine p-doped with C60F36 (MeO-TPD:C60F36), which acted as hole transporting layer. Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and aluminum served as hole and electron collecting electrode, respectively. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in conjunction...... of aluminum oxide at the BPhen/Al interface, and diffusion of water into the ZnPc:C60 layer where ZnPc becomes oxidized. Finally, diffusion from the electrodes was found to have no or a negligible effect on the device lifetime....

  6. Attractive non-DLVO forces induced by adsorption of monovalent organic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexander M; Maroni, Plinio; Borkovec, Michal

    2017-12-20

    Direct force measurements between negatively charged colloidal particles were carried out using an atomic force microscope (AFM) in aqueous solutions containing monovalent organic cations, namely tetraphenylarsonium (Ph 4 As + ), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium (HMIM + ), and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium (OMIM + ). These ions adsorb to the particle surface, and induce a charge reversal. The forces become attractive at the charge neutralization point, but they are stronger than van der Waals forces. This additional and unexpected attraction decays exponentially with a decay length of a few nanometers, and is strikingly similar to the one previously observed in the presence of multivalent ions. This attractive force probably originates from coupled spontaneous charge fluctuations on the respective surfaces as initially suggested by Kirkwood and Shumaker.

  7. Thermally induced processes in mixtures of aluminum with organic acids after plastic deformations under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhorin, V. A.; Kiselev, M. R.; Roldugin, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    DSC is used to measure the thermal effects of processes in mixtures of solid organic dibasic acids with powdered aluminum, subjected to plastic deformation under pressures in the range of 0.5-4.0 GPa using an anvil-type high-pressure setup. Analysis of thermograms obtained for the samples after plastic deformation suggests a correlation between the exothermal peaks observed around the temperatures of degradation of the acids and the thermally induced chemical reactions between products of acid degradation and freshly formed surfaces of aluminum particles. The release of heat in the mixtures begins at 30-40°C. The thermal effects in the mixtures of different acids change according to the order of acid reactivity in solutions. The extreme baric dependences of enthalpies of thermal effects are associated with the rearrangement of the electron subsystem of aluminum upon plastic deformation at high pressures.

  8. Ordering of pentacene in organic thin film transistors induced by irradiation of infrared light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C. H.; Chen, S. W.; Hwang, J.

    2009-01-01

    The device performances of pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) were greatly improved by irradiation of infrared light. The field effect mobility and maximum drain current increase from 0.20±0.01 to 0.57±0.02 cm 2 /V s and 1.14x10 -5 to 4.91x10 -5 A, respectively. The (001) peak of the pentacene 'thin film' phase increases in intensity by 4.5 times after infrared irradiation at 50 W for 2 h. Two types of crystal orientations, i.e., 'crystal I' (2θ=5.91 deg.) and 'crystal II' (2θ=5.84 deg.), coexist in the pentacene. The improvement of the characteristics of OTFTs is attributed to crystallization and crystal reorientation induced by infrared light.

  9. Mechanisms of Alcohol-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Organ Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is readily distributed throughout the body in the blood stream and crosses biological membranes, which affect virtually all biological processes inside the cell. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathological stress responses, part of which is endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response. ER stress, a condition under which unfolded/misfolded protein accumulates in the ER, contributes to alcoholic disorders of major organs such as liver, pancreas, heart, and brain. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcoholic ER stress response are directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which includes toxic acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress, perturbations of calcium or iron homeostasis, alterations of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio, and abnormal epigenetic modifications. Interruption of the ER stress triggers is anticipated to have therapeutic benefits for alcoholic disorders.

  10. Formation of organic layer on femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumaru, Naoki, E-mail: yasuma@fukui-nct.ac.jp [National Institute of Technology, Fukui College, Sabae, Fukui 916-8507 (Japan); Sentoku, Eisuke [National Institute of Technology, Fukui College, Sabae, Fukui 916-8507 (Japan); Kiuchi, Junsuke [Eyetec Co., Ltd., Sabae, Fukui 916-0016 (Japan)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Surface analyses of two types of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on titanium were conducted. • The parallel-oriented ultrafine LIPSS showed the almost same roughness and chemical states as the non-irradiated Ti surface. • The well-known perpendicular-oriented LIPSS were typically covered with an organic layer similar to a cellulose derivative. - Abstract: Two types of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) formed on titanium by femtosecond (fs) laser pulses (λ = 800 nm, τ = 180 fs, ν = 1 kHz) in air were investigated experimentally. At a laser fluence F above the ablation threshold, LIPSS with a minimum mean spacing of D < λ⁄2 were observed perpendicular to the laser polarization direction. In contrast, for F slightly below than the ablation threshold, ultrafine LIPSS with a minimum value of D < λ/10 were formed parallel to the polarization direction. The surface roughness of the parallel-oriented LIPSS was almost the same as that of the non-irradiated surface, unlike the high roughness of the perpendicular-oriented LIPSS. In addition, although the surface state of the parallel-oriented LIPSS was the same as that of the non-irradiated surface, the perpendicular-oriented LIPSS were covered with an organic thin film similar to a cellulose derivative that cannot be easily formed by conventional chemical synthesis. The results of these surface analyses indicate that these two types of LIPSS are formed through different mechanisms. This fs-laser processing technique may become a new technology for the artificial synthesis of cellulose derivatives.

  11. Selectivity of radiation-induced processes in hydrocarbons, related polymers and organized polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, V.I.; Sukhov, F.F.; Zezin, A.A.; Orlov, A.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    was found that kinetics of radical decay was affected strongly by local molecular dynamics of polymeric chains in specific microphases. These features are especially important at low temperatures and for 'well-organized' polymeric systems, such as highly oriented and highly crystalline polymers or microheterogeneous bicomponent systems. The results obtained show that the radiation-induced chemical events in solid polymers are far more selective than it might be expected from formal energetic reasons. The localization of primary events is controlled by conformation, weak molecular interactions, and microstructure of polymeric system. Some important mechanisms of this selectivity could be understood taking into account the properties of prototype ionized molecules. Significance of the concept of 'selective radiation chemistry' for prediction and improvement of the radiation resistance of polymers and polymeric materials is discussed. (author)

  12. Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: A New Approach for Nanoparticle's Mapping and Quantification in Organ Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancey, Lucie; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Kotb, Shady; Wang, Xiaochun; Lux, François; Panczer, Gérard; Yu, Jin; Tillement, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Emission spectroscopy of laser-induced plasma was applied to elemental analysis of biological samples. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) performed on thin sections of rodent tissues: kidneys and tumor, allows the detection of inorganic elements such as (i) Na, Ca, Cu, Mg, P, and Fe, naturally present in the body and (ii) Si and Gd, detected after the injection of gadolinium-based nanoparticles. The animals were euthanized 1 to 24 hr after intravenous injection of particles. A two-dimensional scan of the sample, performed using a motorized micrometric 3D-stage, allowed the infrared laser beam exploring the surface with a lateral resolution less than 100 μm. Quantitative chemical images of Gd element inside the organ were obtained with sub-mM sensitivity. LIBS offers a simple and robust method to study the distribution of inorganic materials without any specific labeling. Moreover, the compatibility of the setup with standard optical microscopy emphasizes its potential to provide multiple images of the same biological tissue with different types of response: elemental, molecular, or cellular. PMID:24962015

  13. Advances and New Concepts in Alcohol-Induced Organelle Stress, Unfolded Protein Responses and Organ Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a simple and consumable biomolecule yet its excessive consumption disturbs numerous biological pathways damaging nearly all organs of the human body. One of the essential biological processes affected by the harmful effects of alcohol is proteostasis, which regulates the balance between biogenesis and turnover of proteins within and outside the cell. A significant amount of published evidence indicates that alcohol and its metabolites directly or indirectly interfere with protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER causing an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, which triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR leading to either restoration of homeostasis or cell death, inflammation and other pathologies under severe and chronic alcohol conditions. The UPR senses the abnormal protein accumulation and activates transcription factors that regulate nuclear transcription of genes related to ER function. Similarly, this kind of protein stress response can occur in other cellular organelles, which is an evolving field of interest. Here, I review recent advances in the alcohol-induced ER stress response as well as discuss new concepts on alcohol-induced mitochondrial, Golgi and lysosomal stress responses and injuries.

  14. Novel estimation of the humification degree of soil organic matter by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Edilene Cristina; Ferreira, Ednaldo José; Villas-Boas, Paulino Ribeiro; Senesi, Giorgio Saverio; Carvalho, Camila Miranda; Romano, Renan Arnon; Martin-Neto, Ladislau; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) constitutes an important reservoir of terrestrial carbon and can be considered an alternative for atmospheric carbon storage, contributing to global warming mitigation. Soil management can favor atmospheric carbon incorporation into SOM or its release from SOM to atmosphere. Thus, the evaluation of the humification degree (HD), which is an indication of the recalcitrance of SOM, can provide an estimation of the capacity of carbon sequestration by soils under various managements. The HD of SOM can be estimated by using various analytical techniques including fluorescence spectroscopy. In the present work, the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to estimate the HD of SOM was evaluated for the first time. Intensities of emission lines of Al, Mg and Ca from LIBS spectra showing correlation with fluorescence emissions determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) reference technique were used to obtain a multivaried calibration model based on the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) method. The values predicted by the proposed model (A-LIBS) showed strong correlation with LIFS results with a Pearson's coefficient of 0.87. The HD of SOM obtained after normalizing A-LIBS by total carbon in the sample showed a strong correlation to that determined by LIFS (0.94), thus suggesting the great potential of LIBS for this novel application.

  15. Atomic structure of self-organizing iridium induced nanowires on Ge(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabanov, N.S., E-mail: n.kabanov@utwente.nl [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, 119991 (Russian Federation); Physics of Interfaces and Nanomaterials, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P. O. Box 217, Enschede 7500 AE (Netherlands); Heimbuch, R.; Zandvliet, H.J.W. [Physics of Interfaces and Nanomaterials, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P. O. Box 217, Enschede 7500 AE (Netherlands); Saletsky, A.M.; Klavsyuk, A.L. [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Ir/Ge(001) structure has been studied with DFT calculations and scanning tunneling microscopy. • Ir/Ge(001) nanowires are composed of Ge atoms and Ir atoms are located in subsurface positions. • The regions in the vicinity of the nanowires are very dynamic, even at temperatures as low as 77 K. - Abstract: The atomic structure of self-organizing iridium (Ir) induced nanowires on Ge(001) is studied by density functional theory (DFT) calculations and variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The Ir induced nanowires are aligned in a direction perpendicular to the Ge(001) substrate dimer rows, have a width of two atoms and are completely kink-less. Density functional theory calculations show that the Ir atoms prefer to dive into the Ge(001) substrate and push up the neighboring Ge substrate atoms. The nanowires are composed of Ge atoms and not Ir atoms as previously assumed. The regions in the vicinity of the nanowires are very dynamic, even at temperatures as low as 77 K. Time-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy measurements reveal that this dynamics is caused by buckled Ge substrate dimers that flip back and forth between their two buckled configurations.

  16. Black phosphorus induced photo-doping for high-performance organic-silicon heterojunction photovoltaics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhouhui Xia; Pengfei Li; Yuqiang Liu; Tao Song; Qiaoliang Bao; Shuit-Tong Lee; Baoquan Sun

    2017-01-01

    In conventional crystalline silicon (Si) homojunction solar cells,a strategy of doping by transporting phosphorus or boron impurities into Si is commonly used to build Ohmic contacts at rear electrodes.However,this technique involves an energy intensive,high temperature (~ 800 ℃) process and toxic doping materials.Black phosphorus (BP) is a two-dimensional,narrow bandgap semiconductor with high carrier mobility that exhibits broad light harvesting properties.Here,we place BP:zinc oxide (ZnO) composite films between Si and aluminum (Al) to improve their contact.Once the BP harvests photons with energies below 1.1 eV from the crystalline Si,the ZnO carrier concentration increases dramatically due to charge injection.This photo-induced doping results in a high carrier concentration in the ZnO film,mimicking the modulated doping technique used in semiconductor heterojunctions.We show that photo-induced carriers dramatically increase the conductivities of the BP-modified ZnO films,thus reducing the contact resistance between Si and Al.A photovoltaic power conversion efficiency of 15.2% is achieved in organic-Si heterojunction solar cells that use a ZnO:BP layer.These findings demonstrate an effective way of improving Si/metal contact via a simple,low temperature process.

  17. Physiological type I collagen organization induces the formation of a novel class of linear invadosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juin, Amélie; Billottet, Clotilde; Moreau, Violaine; Destaing, Olivier; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Rosenbaum, Jean; Génot, Elisabeth; Saltel, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Invadosomes are F-actin structures capable of degrading the matrix through the activation of matrix metalloproteases. As fibrillar type I collagen promotes pro-matrix metalloproteinase 2 activation by membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase, we aimed at investigating the functional relationships between collagen I organization and invadosome induction. We found that fibrillar collagen I induced linear F-actin structures, distributed along the fibrils, on endothelial cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, and tumor cells. These structures share features with conventional invadosomes, as they express cortactin and N-WASP and accumulate the scaffold protein Tks5, which proved essential for their formation. On the basis of their ability to degrade extracellular matrix elements and their original architecture, we named these structures “linear invadosomes.” Interestingly, podosomes or invadopodia were replaced by linear invadosomes upon contact of the cells with fibrillar collagen I. However, linear invadosomes clearly differ from classical invadosomes, as they do not contain paxillin, vinculin, and β1/β3 integrins. Using knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts and RGD peptide, we demonstrate that linear invadosome formation and activity are independent of β1 and β3 integrins. Finally, linear invadosomes also formed in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. This study demonstrates that fibrillar collagen I is the physiological inducer of a novel class of invadosomes. PMID:22114353

  18. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase deficiency causes organ-specific autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Hase

    Full Text Available Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID expressed by germinal center B cells is a central regulator of somatic hypermutation (SHM and class switch recombination (CSR. Humans with AID mutations develop not only the autosomal recessive form of hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2 associated with B cell hyperplasia, but also autoimmune disorders by unknown mechanisms. We report here that AID-/- mice spontaneously develop tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs in non-lymphoid tissues including the stomach at around 6 months of age. At a later stage, AID-/- mice develop a severe gastritis characterized by loss of gastric glands and epithelial hyperplasia. The disease development was not attenuated even under germ-free (GF conditions. Gastric autoantigen -specific serum IgM was elevated in AID-/- mice, and the serum levels correlated with the gastritis pathological score. Adoptive transfer experiments suggest that autoimmune CD4+ T cells mediate gastritis development as terminal effector cells. These results suggest that abnormal B-cell expansion due to AID deficiency can drive B-cell autoimmunity, and in turn promote TLO formation, which ultimately leads to the propagation of organ-specific autoimmune effector CD4+ T cells. Thus, AID plays an important role in the containment of autoimmune diseases by negative regulation of autoreactive B cells.

  19. Electronic charge rearrangement at metal/organic interfaces induced by weak van der Waals interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Nicola; Ambrosetti, Alberto; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    Electronic charge rearrangements at interfaces between organic molecules and solid surfaces play a key role in a wide range of applications in catalysis, light-emitting diodes, single-molecule junctions, molecular sensors and switches, and photovoltaics. It is common to utilize electrostatics and Pauli pushback to control the interface electronic properties, while the ubiquitous van der Waals (vdW) interactions are often considered to have a negligible direct contribution (beyond the obvious structural relaxation). Here, we apply a fully self-consistent Tkatchenko-Scheffler vdW density functional to demonstrate that the weak vdW interactions can induce sizable charge rearrangements at hybrid metal/organic systems (HMOS). The complex vdW correlation potential smears out the interfacial electronic density, thereby reducing the charge transfer in HMOS, changes the interface work functions by up to 0.2 eV, and increases the interface dipole moment by up to 0.3 Debye. Our results suggest that vdW interactions should be considered as an additional control parameter in the design of hybrid interfaces with the desired electronic properties.

  20. Comparison of brass alloys composition by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and self-organizing maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnotta, Stefano; Grifoni, Emanuela; Legnaioli, Stefano [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, ICCOM-CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Lezzerini, Marco [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Pisa, Via S. Maria 53, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Lorenzetti, Giulia [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, ICCOM-CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Palleschi, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.palleschi@cnr.it [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, ICCOM-CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Department of Civilizations and Forms of Knowledge, University of Pisa, Via L. Galvani 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we face the problem of assessing similarities in the composition of different metallic alloys, using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. The possibility of determining the degree of similarity through the use of artificial neural networks and self-organizing maps is discussed. As an example, we present a case study involving the comparison of two historical brass samples, very similar in their composition. The results of the paper can be extended to many other situations, not necessarily associated with cultural heritage and archeological studies, where objects with similar composition have to be compared. - Highlights: • A method for assessing the similarity of materials analyzed by LIBS is proposed. • Two very similar fragments of historical brass were analyzed. • Using a simple artificial neural network the composition of the two alloys was determined. • The composition of the two brass alloys was the same within the experimental error. • Using self-organizing maps, the probability of the alloys to have the same composition was assessed.

  1. Laser-induced desorption of organic molecules from front- and back-irradiated metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinovev, Alexander V.; Veryovkin, Igor V.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption (LIAD) from thin metal foils is a promising technique for gentle and efficient volatilization of intact organic molecules from surfaces of solid substrates. Using the Single Photon Ionization (SPI) method combined with time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (TOF MS), desorbed flux in LIAD was examined and compared to that from direct laser desorption (LD). Molecules of various organic dyes were used in experiments. Translational velocities of the desorbed intact molecules did not depend on the desorbing laser intensity, which implies the presence of more sophisticated mechanism of energy transfer than the direct mechanical or thermal coupling between the laser pulse and the adsorbed molecules. The results of our experiments indicate that the LIAD phenomenon cannot be described in terms of a simple mechanical shake-off nor the direct laser desorption. Rather, they suggest that multi-step energy transfer processes are involved. Possible qualitative mechanism of LIAD that are based on formation of non-equilibrium energy states in the adsorbate-substrate system are proposed and discussed.

  2. Nanosecond pulsed laser induced self-organized nano-dots patterns on GaSb surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Yutaka, E-mail: yyoshida@cris.hokudai.ac.jp [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N8, W13, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Hokkaido (Japan); Creative Research Institution Sousei, Hokkaido University, N21, W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0021, Hokkaido (Japan); Oosawa, Kazuya; Wajima, Jyunya; Watanabe, Seiichi [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N8, W13, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Hokkaido (Japan); Matsuo, Yasutaka [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0020, Hokkaido (Japan); Kato, Takahiko [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., 7-1-1 Omika, Hitachi-shi 319-1292, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N8, W13, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We report a technique for formation of two-dimensional (2D) nanodot (ND) patterns on gaillium antimoide (GaSb) using a nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation with 532 nm wavelength. The patterns have formed because of the interference and the self-organization under energy deposition of the laser irradiation, which induced the growth of NDs on the local area. The NDs are grown and shrunken in the pattern by energy depositions. In the laser irradiation with average laser energy density of 35 mJ cm⁻², large and small NDs are formed on GaSb surface. The large NDs have grown average diameter from 160 to 200 nm with increase of laser pulses, and the small NDs have shrunken average diameter from 75 to 30 nm. The critical dot size is required about 107 nm for growth of the NDs in the patterns. Nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation can control the self-organized ND size on GaSb in air as a function of the laser pulses.

  3. Comparison of brass alloys composition by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and self-organizing maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnotta, Stefano; Grifoni, Emanuela; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lezzerini, Marco; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Palleschi, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we face the problem of assessing similarities in the composition of different metallic alloys, using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. The possibility of determining the degree of similarity through the use of artificial neural networks and self-organizing maps is discussed. As an example, we present a case study involving the comparison of two historical brass samples, very similar in their composition. The results of the paper can be extended to many other situations, not necessarily associated with cultural heritage and archeological studies, where objects with similar composition have to be compared. - Highlights: • A method for assessing the similarity of materials analyzed by LIBS is proposed. • Two very similar fragments of historical brass were analyzed. • Using a simple artificial neural network the composition of the two alloys was determined. • The composition of the two brass alloys was the same within the experimental error. • Using self-organizing maps, the probability of the alloys to have the same composition was assessed

  4. Friction-induced vibrations and self-organization mechanics and non-equilibrium thermodynamics of sliding contact

    CERN Document Server

    Nosonovsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Many scientists and engineers do not realize that, under certain conditions, friction can lead to the formation of new structures at the interface, including in situ tribofilms and various patterns. In turn, these structures-usually formed by destabilization of the stationary sliding regime-can lead to the reduction of friction and wear. Friction-Induced Vibrations and Self-Organization: Mechanics and Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Sliding Contact combines the mechanical and thermodynamic methods in tribology, thus extending the field of mechanical friction-induced vibrations to non-mechanical instabilities and self-organization processes at the frictional interface. The book also relates friction-induced self-organization to novel biomimetic materials, such as self-lubricating, self-cleaning, and self-healing materials. Explore Friction from a Different Angle-as a Fundamental Force of Nature The book begins with an exploration of friction as a fundamental force of nature throughout the history of science....

  5. Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Aluminium-Induced Organic Acid Anion Secretion from Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wei; Xu, Jia-Meng; Lou, He-Qiang; Xiao, Chuan; Chen, Wei-Wei; Yang, Jian-Li

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) is abundant in oxalate and can secrete oxalate under aluminium (Al) stress. However, the features of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions (OA) and potential genes responsible for OA secretion are poorly understood. Here, Al-induced OA secretion in grain amaranth roots was characterized by ion charomatography and enzymology methods, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) together with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used t...

  6. Ursolic acid inhibits superoxide production in activated neutrophils and attenuates trauma-hemorrhage shock-induced organ injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsong-Long Hwang

    Full Text Available Neutrophil activation is associated with the development of organ injury after trauma-hemorrhagic shock. In the present study, ursolic acid inhibited the superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils. Administration of ursolic acid attenuated trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced hepatic and lung injuries in rats. In addition, administration of ursolic acid attenuated the hepatic malondialdehyde levels and reduced the plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels after trauma-hemorrhagic shock. In conclusion, ursolic acid, a bioactive natural compound, inhibits superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils and ameliorates trauma-hemorrhagic shock-induced organ injury in rats.

  7. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  9. Role of IGF-1 in cortical plasticity and functional deficit induced by sensorimotor restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysoet, Julien; Dupont, Erwan; Bastide, Bruno; Canu, Marie-Hélène

    2015-09-01

    In the adult rat, sensorimotor restriction by hindlimb unloading (HU) is known to induce impairments in motor behavior as well as a disorganization of somatosensory cortex (shrinkage of the cortical representation of the hindpaw, enlargement of the cutaneous receptive fields, decreased cutaneous sensibility threshold). Recently, our team has demonstrated that IGF-1 level was decreased in the somatosensory cortex of rats submitted to a 14-day period of HU. To determine whether IGF-1 is involved in these plastic mechanisms, a chronic cortical infusion of this substance was performed by means of osmotic minipump. When administered in control rats, IGF-1 affects the size of receptive fields and the cutaneous threshold, but has no effect on the somatotopic map. In addition, when injected during the whole HU period, IGF-1 is interestingly implied in cortical changes due to hypoactivity: the shrinkage of somatotopic representation of hindlimb is prevented, whereas the enlargement of receptive fields is reduced. IGF-1 has no effect on the increase in neuronal response to peripheral stimulation. We also explored the functional consequences of IGF-1 level restoration on tactile sensory discrimination. In HU rats, the percentage of paw withdrawal after a light tactile stimulation was decreased, whereas it was similar to control level in HU-IGF-1 rats. Taken together, the data clearly indicate that IGF-1 plays a key-role in cortical plastic mechanisms and in behavioral alterations induced by a decrease in sensorimotor activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Three dimensional extrusion printing induces polymer molecule alignment and cell organization within engineered cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Ringel, Julia P; Lim, Casey G; Bracaglia, Laura G; Noshin, Maeesha; Baker, Hannah B; Powell, Douglas A; Fisher, John P

    2018-04-16

    Proper cell-material interactions are critical to remain cell function and thus successful tissue regeneration. Many fabrication processes have been developed to create microenvironments to control cell attachment and organization on a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold. However, these approaches often involve heavy engineering and only the surface layer can be patterned. We found that 3D extrusion based printing at high temperature and pressure will result an aligned effect on the polymer molecules, and this molecular arrangement will further induce the cell alignment and different differentiation capacities. In particular, articular cartilage tissue is known to have zonal collagen fiber and cell orientation to support different functions, where collagen fibers and chondrocytes align parallel, randomly, and perpendicular, respectively, to the surface of the joint. Therefore, cell alignment was evaluated in a cartilage model in this study. We used small angle X-ray scattering analysis to substantiate the polymer molecule alignment phenomenon. The cellular response was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Seeded mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) showed different morphology and orientation on scaffolds, as a combined result of polymer molecule alignment and printed scaffold patterns. Gene expression results showed improved superficial zonal chondrogenic marker expression in parallel-aligned group. The cell alignment was successfully maintained in the animal model after 7 days with distinct MSC morphology between the casted and parallel printed scaffolds. This 3D printing induced polymer and cell alignment will have a significant impact on developing scaffold with controlled cell-material interactions for complex tissue engineering while avoiding complicated surface treatment, and therefore provides new concept for effective tissue repairing in future clinical applications. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Stress-induced chemical detection using flexible metal-organic frameworks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Hesketh, Peter J. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Gall, Kenneth A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Choudhury, A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Pikarsky, J. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Andruszkiewicz, Leanne (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Houk, Ronald J. T.; Talin, Albert Alec (National Institute of Standards & Technology, Gaithersburg, MD)

    2009-09-01

    In this work we demonstrate the concept of stress-induced chemical detection using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by integrating a thin film of the MOF HKUST-1 with a microcantilever surface. The results show that the energy of molecular adsorption, which causes slight distortions in the MOF crystal structure, can be efficiently converted to mechanical energy to create a highly responsive, reversible, and selective sensor. This sensor responds to water, methanol, and ethanol vapors, but yields no response to either N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}. The magnitude of the signal, which is measured by a built-in piezoresistor, is correlated with the concentration and can be fitted to a Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, we show that the hydration state of the MOF layer can be used to impart selectivity to CO{sub 2}. We also report the first use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structure of a MOF film. We conclude that the synthetic versatility of these nanoporous materials holds great promise for creating recognition chemistries to enable selective detection of a wide range of analytes. A force field model is described that successfully predicts changes in MOF properties and the uptake of gases. This model is used to predict adsorption isotherms for a number of representative compounds, including explosives, nerve agents, volatile organic compounds, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The results show that, as a result of relatively large heats of adsorption (> 20 kcal mol{sup -1}) in most cases, we expect an onset of adsorption by MOF as low as 10{sup -6} kPa, suggesting the potential to detect compounds such as RDX at levels as low as 10 ppb at atmospheric pressure.

  12. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  13. Inhibitors of the 5-lipoxygenase arachidonic acid pathway induce ATP release and ATP-dependent organic cation transport in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Souza, Hercules Antônio; Lira, Maria Nathalia de; Costa-Junior, Helio Miranda; da Cruz, Cristiane Monteiro; Vasconcellos, Jorge Silvio Silva; Mendes, Anderson Nogueira; Pimenta-Reis, Gabriela; Alvarez, Cora Lilia; Faccioli, Lucia Helena; Serezani, Carlos Henrique; Schachter, Julieta; Persechini, Pedro Muanis

    2014-07-01

    We have previously described that arachidonic acid (AA)-5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolism inhibitors such as NDGA and MK886, inhibit cell death by apoptosis, but not by necrosis, induced by extracellular ATP (ATPe) binding to P2X7 receptors in macrophages. ATPe binding to P2X7 also induces large cationic and anionic organic molecules uptake in these cells, a process that involves at least two distinct transport mechanisms: one for cations and another for anions. Here we show that inhibitors of the AA-5-LO pathway do not inhibit P2X7 receptors, as judged by the maintenance of the ATPe-induced uptake of fluorescent anionic dyes. In addition, we describe two new transport phenomena induced by these inhibitors in macrophages: a cation-selective uptake of fluorescent dyes and the release of ATP. The cation uptake requires secreted ATPe, but, differently from the P2X7/ATPe-induced phenomena, it is also present in macrophages derived from mice deficient in the P2X7 gene. Inhibitors of phospholipase A2 and of the AA-cyclooxygenase pathway did not induce the cation uptake. The uptake of non-organic cations was investigated by measuring the free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) by Fura-2 fluorescence. NDGA, but not MK886, induced an increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Chelating Ca(2+) ions in the extracellular medium suppressed the intracellular Ca(2+) signal without interfering in the uptake of cationic dyes. We conclude that inhibitors of the AA-5-LO pathway do not block P2X7 receptors, trigger the release of ATP, and induce an ATP-dependent uptake of organic cations by a Ca(2+)- and P2X7-independent transport mechanism in macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization and role of p53 family members in the symbiont-induced morphogenesis of the Euprymna scolopes light organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Michael S; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J; Kimbell, Jennifer R; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J

    2006-08-01

    Within hours of hatching, the squid Euprymna scolopes forms a specific light organ symbiosis with the marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Interactions with the symbiont result in the loss of a complex ciliated epithelium dedicated to promoting colonization of host tissue, and some or all of this loss is due to widespread, symbiont-induced apoptosis. Members of the p53 family, including p53, p63, and p73, are conserved across broad phyletic lines and p63 is thought to be the ancestral gene. These proteins have been shown to induce apoptosis and developmental morphogenesis. In this study, we characterized p63-like transcripts from mRNA isolated from the symbiotic tissues of E. scolopes and described their role in symbiont-induced morphogenesis. Using degenerate RT-PCR and RACE PCR, we identified two p63-like transcripts encoding proteins of 431 and 567 amino acids. These transcripts shared identical nucleotides where they overlapped, suggesting that they are splice variants of the same gene. Immunocytochemistry and Western blots using an antibody specific for E. scolopes suggested that the p53 family members are activated in cells of the symbiont-harvesting structures of the symbiotic light organ. We propose that once the symbiosis is initiated, a symbiont-induced signal activates p53 family members, inducing apoptosis and developmental morphogenesis of the light organ.

  15. Stress-induced chemical detection using flexible metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, Mark D; Houk, Ronald J T; Andruszkiewicz, Leanne; Talin, A Alec; Pikarsky, Joel; Choudhury, Arnab; Gall, Kenneth A; Hesketh, Peter J

    2008-11-05

    In this work we demonstrate the concept of stress-induced chemical detection using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by integrating a thin film of the MOF HKUST-1 with a microcantilever surface. The results show that the energy of molecular adsorption, which causes slight distortions in the MOF crystal structure, can be converted to mechanical energy to create a highly responsive, reversible, and selective sensor. This sensor responds to water, methanol, and ethanol vapors, but yields no response to either N2 or O2. The magnitude of the signal, which is measured by a built-in piezoresistor, is correlated with the concentration and can be fitted to a Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, we show that the hydration state of the MOF layer can be used to impart selectivity to CO2. Finally, we report the first use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structure of a MOF film. We conclude that the synthetic versatility of these nanoporous materials holds great promise for creating recognition chemistries to enable selective detection of a wide range of analytes.

  16. Persistence of yellow fever vaccine-induced antibodies after solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyplosz, B; Burdet, C; François, H; Durrbach, A; Duclos-Vallée, J C; Mamzer-Bruneel, M-F; Poujol, P; Launay, O; Samuel, D; Vittecoq, D; Consigny, P H

    2013-09-01

    Immunization using live attenuated vaccines represents a contra-indication after solid organ transplantation (SOT): consequently, transplant candidates planning to travel in countries where yellow fever is endemic should be vaccinated prior to transplantation. The persistence of yellow fever vaccine-induced antibodies after transplantation has not been studied yet. We measured yellow-fever neutralizing antibodies in 53 SOT recipients vaccinated prior to transplantation (including 29 kidney recipients and 18 liver recipients). All but one (98%) had protective titers of antibodies after a median duration of 3 years (min.: 0.8, max.: 21) after transplantation. The median antibody level was 40 U/L (interquartile range: 40-80). For the 46 patients with a known or estimated date of vaccination, yellow-fever antibodies were still detectable after a median time of 13 years (range: 2-32 years) post-immunization. Our data suggest there is long-term persistence of antibodies to yellow fever in SOT recipients who have been vaccinated prior to transplantation. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Haplotype mapping of a diploid non-meiotic organism using existing and induced aneuploidies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Legrand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Haplotype maps (HapMaps reveal underlying sequence variation and facilitate the study of recombination and genetic diversity. In general, HapMaps are produced by analysis of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP segregation in large numbers of meiotic progeny. Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, is an obligate diploid that does not appear to undergo meiosis. Thus, standard methods for haplotype mapping cannot be used. We exploited naturally occurring aneuploid strains to determine the haplotypes of the eight chromosome pairs in the C. albicans laboratory strain SC5314 and in a clinical isolate. Comparison of the maps revealed that the clinical strain had undergone a significant amount of genome rearrangement, consisting primarily of crossover or gene conversion recombination events. SNP map haplotyping revealed that insertion and activation of the UAU1 cassette in essential and non-essential genes can result in whole chromosome aneuploidy. UAU1 is often used to construct homozygous deletions of targeted genes in C. albicans; the exact mechanism (trisomy followed by chromosome loss versus gene conversion has not been determined. UAU1 insertion into the essential ORC1 gene resulted in a large proportion of trisomic strains, while gene conversion events predominated when UAU1 was inserted into the non-essential LRO1 gene. Therefore, induced aneuploidies can be used to generate HapMaps, which are essential for analyzing genome alterations and mitotic recombination events in this clonal organism.

  18. Non-doped white organic light-emitting diodes based on aggregation-induced emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shuming; Kwok, Hoi Sing [Center for Display Research, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhao Zujin; Tang, Ben Zhong, E-mail: eekwok@ust.h [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-03-10

    Non-doped white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based on newly synthesized bluish-green light-emitting material 1,3,6,8-tetrakis [4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl]pyrene (TTPEPy) and red light-emitting material 4-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl)-7-(5-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl) phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (BTPETTD) have been demonstrated. A maximum efficiency of 7.4 cd A{sup -1}, 4 lm W{sup -1} and brightness of 18 000 cd m{sup -2} have been achieved by employing 3 nm thick 4, 4'-bis [N-(1-naphthyl-1-)-N-phenyl-amino]- biphenyl (NPB) as an electron-blocking layer. The WOLEDs exhibit a high colour rendering index of 90 and moderate colour stability with 1931 Commision International de L'Eclairage coordinates changing from (0.41, 0.41) to (0.38, 0.40) over a wide range of driving voltages. Moreover, the non-doped WOLEDs enjoy a reduced efficiency roll-off due to their nature of aggregation-induced emission.

  19. Non-doped white organic light-emitting diodes based on aggregation-induced emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuming; Kwok, Hoi Sing; Zhao Zujin; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Non-doped white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based on newly synthesized bluish-green light-emitting material 1,3,6,8-tetrakis [4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl]pyrene (TTPEPy) and red light-emitting material 4-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl)-7-(5-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl) phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (BTPETTD) have been demonstrated. A maximum efficiency of 7.4 cd A -1 , 4 lm W -1 and brightness of 18 000 cd m -2 have been achieved by employing 3 nm thick 4, 4'-bis [N-(1-naphthyl-1-)-N-phenyl-amino]- biphenyl (NPB) as an electron-blocking layer. The WOLEDs exhibit a high colour rendering index of 90 and moderate colour stability with 1931 Commision International de L'Eclairage coordinates changing from (0.41, 0.41) to (0.38, 0.40) over a wide range of driving voltages. Moreover, the non-doped WOLEDs enjoy a reduced efficiency roll-off due to their nature of aggregation-induced emission.

  20. A comparative study on the radiation induced degradation of chlorinated organics and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekboelet, M.; Balcioglu, A.I.; Getoff, N.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Radiation induced degradation of chlorinated benzaldehydes has been studied by the application of UV-photolysis, UV-assisted catalytic oxidation and gamma radiolysis processes. The degradation was followed in terms of the substrate removal and formation of the decomposition products such as chloride and formaldehyde. Formation of the acidic compounds were also determined by the pH decrease during irradiation periods. The below given table summarizes the obtained results in terms of photochemical G (G PH )values. The main idea of this paper was to evaluate the applied processes in relation to the end products rather and to compare the efficiency of the methods. Besides, chloride and formaldehyde formation, the substrate degradation and formation of the stable end products, were followed by HPLC analyses. Hydroxylated parent compounds chlorophenols, benzaldehyde were also detected. Formation of muconic acid through ring opening as well as the formation of lower molecular weight organic acids by decomposition such as oxalic, citric, tartaric and formic acids were observed with respect the applied oxidation process. Depending on the formed stable end products and the related probable reaction mechanisms, isomeric positions were found to be selective toward oxidative degradation

  1. Synthesis and bioimaging of biodegradable red fluorescent organic nanoparticles with aggregation-induced emission characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dazhuang; Zou, Hui; Liu, Meiying; Tian, Jianwen; Huang, Hongye; Wan, Qing; Dai, Yanfeng; Wen, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-12-15

    Fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) features have recently emerged as promising fluorescent probes for biomedical applications owing to their excellent optical properties, designability and biocompatibility. Significant progress has been made recently for synthesis and biomedical applications of these AIE-active FONs. However, only very limited reports have demonstrated the fabrication of biodegradable AIE-active FONs with red fluorescence emission. In this study, a novel strategy has been developed for the preparation of biodegradable AIE-active polyurethanes (PUs) through a two-step polymerization, in which the diisocyanate-terminated polyethylene glycol (NCO-PEG-NCO) was synthesized and subsequently conjugated with diamine-containing AIE dye (NH 2 -Phe-NH 2 ). The successful synthesis of AIE-active Phe-PEG 2000 PUs is evidenced by a series of characterization techniques. Because of the formation of AIE-active amphiphilic PUs, the final copolymers can self-assemble into spherical nanoparticles, which exhibit strong luminescence and high water dispersion. The biological evaluation results suggest that the AIE-active Phe-PEG 2000 FONs possess low toxicity and desirable cell permeability. Therefore, we anticipate that these AIE-active FONs with biodegradable potential will trigger much research enthusiasm and effort toward the creation of new AIE-active materials with improved properties for various biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Coping with a Self-Induced Shock: The Heterarchic Organization of the London Olympic Games 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Grabher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts from the assumption of a structural analogy between mega-events and large-scale disasters. Both imply forceful interruptions of everyday routines, and both involve imperatives for imminent action. Similar to the immovable deadline of an opening ceremony, a looming natural disaster triggers a complex set of precautions and preparations to cope with the inescapable forthcoming shock. In the case of mega-events, of course, this shock is self-induced. In fact, cities fiercely compete to host mega-events. In the face of the daunting challenges of hosting a mega-event—the immovable timeframe, the rigorous standards set by regulatory bodies, and the exceptional public visibility—the authorities and organizations in charge traditionally have resorted to strategies of a strict adaptation to the conditions imposed on them. Aligning all available resources and capabilities to match the foreseeable demands, however, undermines the adaptability to cope with unpredictable perturbations. This paper seeks to explore the strategies and practices to attain adaptability during the preparation, staging and implementation of legacy plans of a mega-event with an evidentially noteworthy record: the London Olympic Games 2012. The paper seeks to demonstrate that the project ecology in charge managed to enhance adaptability by implementing three key features of heterarchy: ambiguity, redundancy and loose coupling. By leveraging the principles of heterarchy, the project ecology was able to draw lessons from previous mega-events and both to anticipate and respond to unforeseen challenges.

  3. Cellular therapy by mesenchymal stem cells in the gamma radiation-induced multi organ dysfunction syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, S.; Mouiseddine, M.; Semont, A.; Frick, J.; Sache, A.; Thierry, D.; Voisin, P.; Gourmelon, P.; Chapel, A.; Gorin, N.C.

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (M.S.C.) have been shown to migrate to various tissues. There is little information on the fate and potential therapeutic efficacy of the re infusion of M.S.C. following total body irradiation (T.B.I.). We addressed this question using human M.S.C. (h.M.S.C.) infused to non obese diabetic/severe combined immuno-deficient (N.O.D./S.C.I.D.) mice submitted to T.B.I.. Further, we tested the impact of additional local irradiation (A.L.I.) superimposed to T.B.I., as a model of accidental irradiation. N.O.D./S.C.I.D. mice were transplanted with h.M.S.C.. Group 1 was not irradiated before receiving h.M.S.C. infusion. Group 2 received only T.B.I. at a dose of 3.5 Gy, group 3 received local irradiation to the abdomen at a dose of 4.5 Gy in addition to T.B.I., and group 4 received local irradiation to the leg at 26.5 Gy in addition to T.B.I.. Fifteen days after gamma irradiation, quantitative and spatial distribution of the h.M.S.C. were studied. Histological analysis of mouse tissues confirmed the presence of radio-induced lesions in the irradiated fields. Following their infusion into nonirradiated animals, h.M.S.C. homed at a very low level to various tissues (lung, bone marrow, and muscles) and no significant engraftment was found in other organs. T.B.I. induced an increase of engraftment levels of h.M.S.C. in the brain, heart, bone marrow, and muscles. Abdominal irradiation (A.I.) as compared with leg irradiation (L.I.) increased h.M.S.C. engraftment in the exposed area (the gut, liver, and spleen). Comparison of two local irradiations has shown that (L.I.) as compared with (A.I.) increased h.M.S.C. engraftment in the exposed area. An increase of h.M.S.C. engraftment in organs outside the fields of the A.L.I. was also observed. Conversely, following L.I., h.M.S.C. engraftment was increased in the brain as compared with A.I.. This study shows that engraftment of h.M.S.C. in N.O.D./ S.C.I.D. mice with significantly increased in response to tissue

  4. Comparative Study of Elemental Nutrients in Organic and Conventional Vegetables Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chet R; Alfarraj, Bader; Ghany, Charles T; Yueh, Fang Y; Singh, Jagdish P

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was used to identify and compare the presence of major nutrient elements in organic and conventional vegetables. Different parts of cauliflowers and broccolis were used as working samples. Laser-induced breakdown spectra from these samples were acquired at optimum values of laser energy, gate delay, and gate width. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for the comparison of these organic and conventional vegetable flowers. Principal component analysis (PCA) was taken into account for multivariate analysis while for univariate analysis, the intensity of selected atomic lines of different elements and their intensity ratio with some reference lines of organic cauliflower and broccoli samples were compared with those of conventional ones. In addition, different parts of the cauliflower and broccoli were compared in terms of intensity and intensity ratio of elemental lines.

  5. Infrared laser induced organic reactions. 2. Laser vs. thermal inducment of unimolecular and hydrogen bromide catalyzed bimolecular dehydration of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danen, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a mixture of reactant molecules can be induced by pulsed infrared laser radiation to react via a route which is totally different from the pathway resulting from heating the mixture at 300 0 C. The high-energy unimolecular elimination of H 2 O from ethanol in the presence of 2-propanol and HBr can be selectively induced with a pulsed CO 2 laser in preference to either a lower energy bimolecular HBr-catalyzed dehydration or the more facile dehydration of 2-propanol. Heating the mixture resulted in the almost exclusive reaction of 2-propanol to produce propylene. It was demonstrated that the bimolecular ethanol + HBr reaction cannot be effectively induced by the infrared laser radiation as evidenced by the detrimental effect on the yield of ethylene as the HBr pressure was increased. The selective, nonthermal inducement of H 2 O elimination from vibrationally excited ethanol in the presence of 2-propanol required relatively low reactant pressures. At higher pressures intermolecular V--V energy transfer allowed the thermally more facile dehydration from 2-propanol to become the predominant reaction channel

  6. Monitoring UV-induced signalling pathways in an ex vivo skin organ culture model using phospho-antibody array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenain, Christelle; Gamboa, Bastien; Perrin, Agnes; Séraïdaris, Alexia; Bertino, Béatrice; Rival, Yves; Bernardi, Mathieu; Piwnica, David; Méhul, Bruno

    2018-05-01

    We investigated UV-induced signalling in an ex vivo skin organ culture model using phospho-antibody array. Phosphorylation modulations were analysed in time-course experiments following exposure to solar-simulated UV and validated by Western blot analyses. We found that UV induced P-p38 and its substrates, P-ERK1/2 and P-AKT, which were previously shown to be upregulated by UV in cultured keratinocytes and in vivo human skin. This indicates that phospho-antibody array applied to ex vivo skin organ culture is a relevant experimental system to investigate signalling events following perturbations. As the identified proteins are components of pathways implicated in skin tumorigenesis, UV-exposed skin organ culture model could be used to investigate the effect on these pathways of NMSC cancer drug candidates. In addition, we found that phospho-HCK is induced upon UV exposure, producing a new candidate for future studies investigating its role in the skin response to UV and UV-induced carcinogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Carvedilol induces endogenous hydrogen sulfide tissue concentration changes in various mouse organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiliński, Bogdan; Wiliński, Jerzy; Somogyi, Eugeniusz; Piotrowska, Joanna; Góralska, Marta; Macura, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Carvedilol, a third generation non-selective adrenoreceptor blocker, is widely used in cardiology. Its action has been proven to reach beyond adrenergic antagonism and involves multiple biological mechanisms. The interaction between carvedilol and endogenous 'gasotransmitter' hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is unknown. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of carvedilol on the H2S tissue level in mouse brain, liver, heart and kidney. Twenty eight SJL strain female mice were administered intraperitoneal injections of 2.5 mg/kg b.w./d (group D1, n=7), 5 mg/kg b.w./d (group D2, n=7) or 10 mg/kg b.w./d of carvedilol (group D3, n=7). The control group (n=7) received physiological saline in portions of the same volume (0.2 ml). Measurements of the free tissue H2S concentrations were performed according to the modified method of Siegel. A progressive decline in H2S tissue concentration along with an increase in carvedilol dose was observed in the brain (12.5%, 13.7% and 19.6%, respectively). Only the highest carvedilol dose induced a change in H2S tissue level in the heart - an increase by 75.5%. In the liver medium and high doses of carvedilol increased the H2S level by 48.1% and 11.8%, respectively. In the kidney, group D2 showed a significant decrease of H2S tissue level (22.5%), while in the D3 group the H2S concentration increased by 12.9%. Our study has proven that carvedilol affects H2S tissue concentration in different mouse organs.

  8. Modeling of bias-induced changes of organic field-effect transistor characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, A.

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors offer exciting possibilities in developing new types of solar cells, photodetectors, light emitting diodes and field-effect transistors. Important advantages of organic semiconducting materials over their inorganic counterparts are their chemical tunability, their low weight,

  9. Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases in the murine zymosan-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volman, T.J.H.; Goris, R.J.A.; Lomme, R.M.L.M.; Groot, J. de; Verhofstad, A.A.J.; Hendriks, T.

    2004-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated as mediators of tissue damage in several inflammatory diseases. Since the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is thought to result from systemic inflammation, overactivation of MMPs could contribute to the organ damage observed. The

  10. A Computational Approach to Diagnosing Misfits, Inducing Requirements, and Delineating Transformations for Edge Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nissen, Mark E

    2005-01-01

    .... Our research stream employs methods and tools of Computational Organization Theory to investigate the design and efficacy of Edge organizations for current and future, military, mission-environmental contexts...

  11. Production of organic compounds in plasmas - A comparison among electric sparks, laser-induced plasmas, and UV light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, Thomas W.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Borucki, William J.; Giver, Lawrence P.; Van Ghyseghem, Hilde

    1989-01-01

    In order to ascertain the features of organic compound-production in planetary atmospheres under the effects of plasmas and shocks, various mixtures of N2, CH4, and H2 modeling the atmosphere of Titan were subjected to discrete sparks, laser-induced plasmas, and UV radiation. The experimental results obtained suggest that UV photolysis from the plasma is an important organic compound synthesis process, as confirmed by the photolysis of gas samples that were exposed to the light but not to the shock waves emitted by the sparks. The thermodynamic equilibrium theory is therefore incomplete in the absence of photolysis.

  12. On the stability of the CO adsorption-induced and self-organized CuPt surface alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Klas Jerker; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2010-01-01

    The stability of the recently discovered CO-induced and self-organized CuPt surface alloy was explored at near ambient pressures of O-2 (200 mbar) at room temperature, in a CO + H-2 mix (P-tot = 220 mbar, 4% CO) from room temperature to 573 K, as well as in a CO + H2O mix (P-tot = 17 mbar, 50% CO...

  13. Inacessible Andean sites reveal land-use induced stabilisation of soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkamp, Felix; Maqsood, Shafique; Sylvester, Steven; Kessler, Michael; Jungkunst, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Human activity affects properties and development of ecosystems across the globe to such a degree that it is challenging to get baseline values for undisturbed ecosystems. This is especially true for soils, which are affected by land-use history and hold a legacy of past human interventions. Therefore, it is still largely unknown how soil would have developed "naturally" and if processes of organic matter stabilisation would be different in comparison to managed soils. Here, we show undisturbed soil development, i.e., the processes of weathering and accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC), by comparing pristine with grazed sites in the high Andes (4500 m) of southern Peru. We located study plots on a large ledge (0.2 km²) that is only accessible with mountaineering equipment. Plots with pristine vegetation were compared to rangeland plots that were constantly under grazing management for at least four millennia. All "state factors"; climate, potential biota, topography, parent material and time; besides "land-use" were, therefore, identical. Vegetation change, induced by grazing management, led to lower vegetation cover of the soil, thereby increasing soil surface temperatures and soil acidification. Both factors increased weathering in rangeland soils, as indicated by the presence of pedogenic oxides, especially amorphous Al-(oxy)hydroxides (oxalate-extractable Al). Higher losses of base cations (K, Na, Ca) and lower pH-values were related to a low base saturation of exchange sites in rangelands. Therefore, rangeland soils were classified as Umbrisol, whereas soils under pristine vegetation were classified as Phaeozeme. All profiles were rich in SOC (100 to 126 g kg-1) with no significant differences in concentrations or stocks. SOC of rangeland soils was, however, less available for microorganisms (proportion of microbial C on SOC: 1.8 vs. 0.6% in pristine and rangeland soils, respectively) and showed higher stability against thermal degradation. Reasons for

  14. Clinical investigation of predictors of radiation-induced bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia syndrome after breast-conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Tomohiko; Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Yasunaga, Tadamasa; Nishimura, Reiki; Ohya, Natsuo

    2011-01-01

    We investigated 710 patients with breast cancer who received radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery at our institution to evaluate the incidence of radiation-induced bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) syndrome focusing on the interval from irradiation to onset and the clinical presentation. The predictive value of age (≤50 or >50), chemotherapy and hormone therapy was statistically analyzed to determine whether these are risk factors for BOOP syndrome. Radiation-induced BOOP syndrome was seen in 1.3% (9/710). In most cases, the symptoms were mild and none of the patients required hospitalization. Eight patients (88.9%) responded well to steroid administration, but 5 of these patients relapsed after or during tapering of steroids. Although we could not detect significant risk factors for BOOP syndrome, a higher patient age was associated with a higher incidence of radiation-induced BOOP syndrome after breast-conserving therapy. (author)

  15. Chemical inducible promoter used to obtain transgenic plants with a silent marker and organisms and cells and methods of using same for screening for mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jianru [New York, NY; Chua, Nam-Hai [Scarsdale, NY

    2007-06-12

    Disclosed is a chemically inducible promoter for transforming plants or plant cells with genes which are regulatable by adding the plants or cells to a medium containing an inducer or by removing them from such medium. The promoter is inducible by a glucocorticoid, estrogen or inducer not endogenous to plants. Such promoters may be used with any plant genes that can promote shoot regeneration and development to induce shoot formation in the presence of a glucocorticoid, estrogen or inducer. The promoter may be used with antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes or other genes which are regulatable by the presence or absence of a given inducer. Also presented are organisms or cells comprising a gene wherein the natural promoter of the gene is disrupted and the gene is placed under the control of a transgenic inducible promoter. These organisms and cells and their progeny are useful for screening for conditional gain of function and loss of function mutations.

  16. Fluid-induced organic synthesis in the solar nebula recorded in extraterrestrial dust from meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Christian; Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Leitner, Jan; Busemann, Henner; Spring, Nicole H; Ramasse, Quentin M; Hoppe, Peter; Nittler, Larry R

    2014-10-28

    Isotopically anomalous carbonaceous grains in extraterrestrial samples represent the most pristine organics that were delivered to the early Earth. Here we report on gentle aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy investigations of eight (15)N-rich or D-rich organic grains within two carbonaceous Renazzo-type (CR) chondrites and two interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) originating from comets. Organic matter in the IDP samples is less aromatic than that in the CR chondrites, and its functional group chemistry is mainly characterized by C-O bonding and aliphatic C. Organic grains in CR chondrites are associated with carbonates and elemental Ca, which originate either from aqueous fluids or possibly an indigenous organic source. One distinct grain from the CR chondrite NWA 852 exhibits a rim structure only visible in chemical maps. The outer part is nanoglobular in shape, highly aromatic, and enriched in anomalous nitrogen. Functional group chemistry of the inner part is similar to spectra from IDP organic grains and less aromatic with nitrogen below the detection limit. The boundary between these two areas is very sharp. The direct association of both IDP-like organic matter with dominant C-O bonding environments and nanoglobular organics with dominant aromatic and C-N functionality within one unique grain provides for the first time to our knowledge strong evidence for organic synthesis in the early solar system activated by an anomalous nitrogen-containing parent body fluid.

  17. HMGB1 and Histones Play a Significant Role in Inducing Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Dysfunctions in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runkuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP starts as a local inflammation of pancreatic tissue that induces the development of multiple extrapancreatic organs dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Ischemia-reperfusion, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and possible bile cytokines significantly contribute to gut mucosal injury and intestinal bacterial translocation (BT during SAP. Circulating HMGB1 level is significantly increased in SAP patients and HMGB1 is an important factor that mediates (at least partly gut BT during SAP. Gut BT plays a critical role in triggering/inducing systemic inflammation/sepsis in critical illness, and profound systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS during SAP, and systemic inflammation with multiorgan dysfunction is the cause of death in experimental SAP. Therefore, HMGB1 is an important factor that links gut BT and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, HMGB1 significantly contributes to multiple organ injuries. The SAP patients also have significantly increased circulating histones and cell-free DNAs levels, which can reflect the disease severity and contribute to multiple organ injuries in SAP. Hepatic Kupffer cells (KCs are the predominant source of circulating inflammatory cytokines in SAP, and new evidence indicates that hepatocyte is another important source of circulating HMGB1 in SAP; therefore, treating the liver injury is important in SAP.

  18. Electric fields and currents induced in organs of the human body when exposed to ELF and VLF electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronold W. P.; Sandler, Sheldon S.

    1996-09-01

    Formulas for the transverse components of the electric and magnetic fields of the traveling-wave currents of three different types of three-wire, three-phase high-voltage power lines and of a typical VLF transmitter are given. From them, exposure situations for the human body are chosen which permit the analytical determination of the total current induced in that body. With this, the fraction of the total axial current, the axial current density, and the axial electric field in each organ of the body are obtained at any desired cross section. The dimensions and conductivity of these organs must be known. The electric field so obtained is the average macroscopic field in which the cells in each organ are immersed when the whole body is exposed to a known incident field. It corresponds in vivo to the electric field used in vitro to expose cells in tissues.

  19. Laser-induced spectrometric techniques to investigate the speciation of Eu in organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couston, L.; Roudil, D.; Charbonnel, M.Ch.; Delage, J.; Flandin, J.L.; Mesmin, C.; Rivasseau, C.

    2000-01-01

    Laser-induced spectrometric techniques provide both selectivity and sensitivity. The extremely low detection limits are ideal for assessing the extraction mechanisms involved in enhanced reprocessing applications through detailed speciation studies. Although time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLIF) is one of the most sensitive spectroscopy techniques, with the optical spectrum and its lifetime constituting two sources of data, it is limited to a few fluorescing actinides and lanthanides. This drawback warrants the development of an additional, complementary spectroscopic system with greater sensitivity than UV-Visible-near IR absorptiometry, based on measuring the pressure wave caused by the deexcitation of non-fluorescing species. Laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LIPAS) is based on measuring the characteristics of the pressure wave emitted during non-radiative relaxation of the absorbed energy. This speciation technique should allow investigation of compounds that absorb in the UV-visible range and are present at low concentrations in solution. It provides data on the nature and concentration of the species, including its oxidation, complexation and even colloidal states. The two techniques with a common laser source OPO were recently installed at Marcoule. TRLIF speciation studies are generally based on analyzing modifications in the fluorescence spectrum following a short laser pulse. They are related to the characteristic spectral pattern and relaxation rate of each species in solution. In the particular case of fluorescent decay of trivalent Am, Cm, Sm, Eu, Tb and Dy ions, the metallic cation deexcitation constant is closely related to the number of water molecules in the primary coordination sphere. This property helps to obtain more information on the structure around the metal ion. The first study was an investigation of the complexation of Eu(III) by TEMA (N, N'-tetra-ethyl-malonamide (C 2 H 5 ) 2 NCO-CH 2 CON(C 2 H 5 ) 2 ) in

  20. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Infrared Emission From Inorganic and Organic Substances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, C.S; Brown, E; Hommerich, U; Trivedi, S. B; Snyder, A. P; Samuels, A. C

    2006-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been established as a powerful method for identifying trace elemental contaminants by analyzing the atomic spectral emission lines that result subsequent to plasmas generated by laser power...

  1. Radiation induced chemical changes in and disinfection of organic wastes suitable for supplemental feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groneman, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been found to disinfect organic wastes and simultaneously ease the separation of suspended solids from water. Because these effects can have important favourable impacts on the technology of upgrading organic wastes to animal feed or fertilizers, experimental studies are reported on the rationale of effects of gamma irradiation or disinfection and separation of the solid and the liquid phase of organic waste systems. The radiation inactivation of microorganisms occurs by direct and indirect action. Mechanisms of inactivation are discussed and measures are proposed how the indirect action of the radiation inactivation of microorganisms can be increased. Effects of gamma irradiation on dewatering properties of organic wastes were indirectly caused by the oxidizing OH radicals produced by the irradiation of water. OH radicals react with organic components of the solid phase which leads to their solubilisation resulting in an increase of the total organic carbon concentration in the liquid phase. Results of a mutagenicity test indicate that the solvated compounds exhibited no mutagenic activity. Microbiological case studies on the disinfection and upgrading of liquid and solid organic wastes to animal feed are discussed and the acceptance of radiation processing is evaluated. (Auth.)

  2. Radiation-induced transformations of isolated organic molecules in solid rare gas matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The studies of radiation-chemical behaviour of isolated organic molecules in rigid inert media are of considerable interest for radiation chemistry and general structural chemistry. Previous efforts were limited to the ESR studies of radicals resulting from some small hydrocarbon molecules in frozen rare gas solutions. Recently, we developed an approach to the radiation chemistry of isolated organic molecules using classic matrix isolation procedure for sample preparation and a combination of ESR and IR spectroscopy for characterization of paramagnetic and diamagnetic species resulting form electron irradiation or organic molecules in solid rare gas matrices at 10-15 K. The results obtained reveal high efficiency of energy transfer from rare gas matrix to organic molecules. The total radiation-chemical yields of degradation of organic molecules in argon and xenon matrices were measured directly by IR spectroscopy. The studies of the effect of electron scavengers on the radiolysis of organic molecules in solid rare gases show that the main primary process is positive hole transfer from matrix to additive molecule. ESR spectra of a number of radical cations (alkanes, ethers, arenes) were first characterized in a low-disturbing environment. It was found that the electronic characteristics (IP, polarizability) of the matrix used had crucial effect on trapping and degradation of primary organic radical cations. Using matrices with various IP provides an unique possibility to examine the chemical meaning of excess energy resulting from exothermic positive hole transfer, that is, to follow the fate of excited cations in condensed phase

  3. Fusicoccin-induced catalase inhibitor is produced independently of H+-ATPase activation and behaves as an organic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beffagna, Nicoletta; Riva, Marzia Alessandra

    2011-06-01

    The phytotoxin fusicoccin (FC) was found to induce an increase in apoplastic H₂O₂ content in Arabidopsis thaliana cells, apparently linked to the presence of an as yet unidentified catalase inhibitor detectable even in the external medium of FC-treated cells. This study, aimed to further characterize the inhibitor's features, shows that (1) FC-induced H₂O₂ accumulation increases as a function of FC concentration and correlates to the amount of inhibitor released at apoplastic level. The pattern of H+ efflux, conversely, does not fit with that of these two parameters, suggesting that neither the production nor the release of the catalase inhibitor is linked to the main role of FC in activating the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase; (2) treatment with 10 µM erythrosine B (EB) early and totally inhibits net H+ and K+ fluxes across the PM, indicative of the H+ pump activity; nevertheless, also in these conditions a huge FC-induced H₂O₂ accumulation occurs, confirming that this effect is not related to the FC-induced PM H+-ATPase activation; (3) the inhibitor's release increases with time in all conditions tested and is markedly affected by extracellular pH (a higher pH value being associated to a larger efflux), in agreement with a weak acid release; and (4) the inhibitor can be almost completely recovered in a CH₂C₂-soluble fraction extracted from the incubation medium by sequential acid-base partitioning which contains nearly all of the organic acids released. These final results strongly suggest that the metabolite responsible for the FC-induced catalase inhibition belongs to the organic acid class. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  4. Myelin-induced inhibition in a spiral ganglion organ culture - Approaching a natural environment in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Benedikt; Tropitzsch, Anke; Müller, Marcus; Löwenheim, Hubert

    2017-08-15

    The performance of a cochlear implant depends on the defined interaction between afferent neurons of the spiral ganglion and the inserted electrode. Neurite outgrowth can be induced by neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) via tropomyosin kinase receptor B (TrkB). However, neurotrophin signaling through the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75) inhibits neurite outgrowth in the presence of myelin. Organotypic cultures derived from postnatal (P3-5) mice were used to study myelin-induced inhibition in the cochlear spiral ganglion. Neurite outgrowth was analyzed and quantified utilizing an adapted Sholl analysis. Stimulation of neurite outgrowth was quantified after application of BDNF, the selective TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) and a selective inhibitor of the Rho-associated kinase (Y27632), which inhibits the p75 pathway. Myelin-induced inhibition was assessed by application of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG-Fc) to stimulate the inhibitory p75 pathway. Inhibition of neurite outgrowth was achieved by the selective TrkB inhibitor K252a. Stimulation of neurite outgrowth was observed after treatment with BDNF, 7,8 DHF and a combination of BDNF and Y27632. The 7,8-DHF-induced growth effects could be inhibited by K252a. Furthermore, inhibition of neurite outgrowth was observed after supplementation with MAG-Fc. Myelin-induced inhibition could be overcome by 7,8-DHF and the combination of BDNF and Y27632. In this study, myelin-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth was established in a spiral ganglion model. We reveal that 7,8-DHF is a viable novel compound for the stimulation of neurite outgrowth in a myelin-induced inhibitory environment. The combination of TrkB stimulation and ROCK inhibition can be used to overcome myelin inhibition. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential changes in functional activity of organic cation transporters in rats with uranyl nitrate-induced acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Han-Joo; Shim, Won-Sik; Ahn, Sun-Joo; Yu, Sang-Soo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Shim, Chang-Koo; Chung, Suk-Jae

    2012-08-01

    We studied the impact of experimental kidney failure on the pharmacokinetics of a model organic cation and investigated the underlying mechanism(s) of the organic cation transporters. The systemic pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of triethylmethylammonium (TEMA), a model organic cation, were characterized after intravenous doses of 0.3-30 μmol/kg in rats with or without uranyl nitrate-induced acute renal failure (UN-ARF). To study the effect of endogenous substrates in plasma from UN-ARF rats on organic cation transport, rOCT- or rOCT2-dependent uptake of tetraethylammonium (TEA) was studied in rOCT1-transfected or rOCT2-transfected LLC-PK1 cells, respectively. As a result, the AUC for TEMA was increased, probably because of decreased total clearance, and the tissue-to-plasma concentration ratio (T/P ratio) of TEMA was unchanged in the liver but decreased significantly in the kidneys of UN-ARF rats. In vitro, the uptake of TEA was decreased significantly by adding UN-ARF plasma, compared with control plasma, in rOCT2-overexpressing LLC-PK1 cells, but not in rOCT1-overexpressing LLC-PK1 cells. These observations suggest that the induction of UN-ARF leads to an accumulation of endogenous organic cation(s), probably rOCT2 substrate(s), in the plasma, thereby affecting the TEMA pharmacokinetics and distribution to the kidneys in rats.

  6. A mechanistic understanding of processing additive-induced efficiency enhancement in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Kristin; Tassone, Christopher J.; Niskala, Jeremy R.; Yiu, Alan T.; Lee, Olivia P.; Weiss, Thomas M.; Wang, Cheng; Frechet, Jean; Beaujuge, Pierre; Toney, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    The addition of processing additives is a widely used approach to increase power conversion efficiencies for many organic solar cells. We present how additives change the polymer conformation in the casting solution leading to a more intermixed

  7. Origin of heat-induced structural changes in dissolved organic matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drastík, M.; Novák, František; Kučerík, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2013), s. 789-795 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : dissolved organic matter * humic substances * hydration * hysteresis Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 3.499, year: 2013

  8. SITE - EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES: LASER INDUCED PHOTO- CHEMICAL OXIDATIVE DESTRUCTION OF TOXIC ORGANICS IN LEACHATES AND GROUNDWATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The technology described in this report has been developed under the Emerging Technology Program of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to photochemically oxidize organic compounds in wastewater by applying ultraviolet radiation using an excimer laser. T...

  9. Classification of Explosive Residues on Organic Substrates Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Army Research Laboratory (ARL), we have been using laser induced breakdown spectro - scopy (LIBS), an optical spectroscopic technique that determines the...LX200GPS) was fitted with UV -coated optics to provide full broadband ( UV - VIS-NIR) capability. A custom-made three-channel gated CCD spectrometer (Ocean...Chem. 82, 1389–1400 (2010). 8. F. C. De Lucia, Jr., R. S. Harmon, K. L. McNesby, R. J. Winkel, Jr., and A. W. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectro

  10. Targeted organ generation using Mixl1-inducible mouse pluripotent stem cells in blastocyst complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Kato-Itoh, Megumi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2015-01-15

    Generation of functional organs from patients' own cells is one of the ultimate goals of regenerative medicine. As a novel approach to creation of organs from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), we employed blastocyst complementation in organogenesis-disabled animals and successfully generated PSC-derived pancreas and kidneys. Blastocyst complementation, which exploits the capacity of PSCs to participate in forming chimeras, does not, however, exclude contribution of PSCs to the development of tissues-including neural cells or germ cells-other than those specifically targeted by disabling of organogenesis. This fact provokes ethical controversy if human PSCs are to be used. In this study, we demonstrated that forced expression of Mix-like protein 1 (encoded by Mixl1) can be used to guide contribution of mouse embryonic stem cells to endodermal organs after blastocyst injection. We then succeeded in applying this method to generate functional pancreas in pancreatogenesis-disabled Pdx1 knockout mice using a newly developed tetraploid-based organ-complementation method. These findings hold promise for targeted organ generation from patients' own PSCs in livestock animals.

  11. Polarization-induced transport in organic field-effect transistors: the role of ferroelectric dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Suchismita; Laudari, Amrit

    2017-08-01

    The ferroelectric nature of polymer ferroelectrics such as poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has been known for over 45 years. However, its role in interfacial transport in organic/polymeric field-effect transistors (FETs) is not that well understood. Dielectrics based on PVDF and its copolymers are a perfect test-bed for conducting transport studies where a systematic tuning of the dielectric constant with temperature may be achieved. The charge transport mechanism in an organic semiconductor often occurs at the intersection of band-like coherent motion and incoherent hopping through localized states. By choosing two small molecule organic semiconductors - pentacene and 6,13 bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) - along with a copolymer of PVDF (PVDF-TrFe) as the dielectric layer, the transistor characteristics are monitored as a function of temperature. A negative coefficient of carrier mobility is observed in TIPS-pentacene upwards of 200 K with the ferroelectric dielectric. In contrast, TIPS-pentacene FETs show an activated transport with non-ferroelectric dielectrics. Pentacene FETs, on the other hand, show a weak temperature dependence of the charge carrier mobility in the ferroelectric phase of PVDF-TrFE, which is attributed to polarization fluctuation driven transport resulting from a coupling of the charge carriers to the surface phonons of the dielectric layer. Further, we show that there is a strong correlation between the nature of traps in the organic semiconductor and interfacial transport in organic FETs, especially in the presence of a ferroelectric dielectric.

  12. Comparing predictive ability of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy to Near Infrared Spectroscopy for soil texture and organic carbon determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Peng, Yi; Gislum, René

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) and texture have a practical value for agronomy and the environment. Thus, alternative techniques to supplement or substitute for the expensive conventional analysis of soil are developed. Here the feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine SOC...... and texture was tested and compared with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique and traditional laboratory analysis. Calibration models were developed on 50 topsoil samples. For all properties except silt, higher predictive ability of LIBS than NIRS models was obtained. Successful calibrations indicate...... that LIBS can be used as a fast and reliable method for SOC and texture estimation....

  13. Exact matrix treatment of statistical mechanical lattice model of adsorption induced gate opening in metal-organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, Lawrence J; Manos, George

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a statistical mechanical lattice model which is exactly solvable using a matrix method and allows treatment of adsorption induced gate opening structural transformations of metal-organic frameworks which are nanoporous materials with exceptional adsorption properties. Modelling of these structural changes presents a serious theoretical challenge when the solid and gas species are treated in an even handed way. This exactly solvable model complements other simulation based approaches. The methodology presented here highlights the competition between the potential for adsorption and the energy required for structural transition as a driving force for the features in the adsorption isotherms. (paper)

  14. Selenium-induced autometallographic demonstration of endogenous zinc in organs of the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E

    1989-01-01

    of selenium obtained by each organ was determined by gamma-spectrometry, and compared with the autometallographic deposition of silver grains. The relative accumulation of selenium in the organs was: liver greater than spleen greater than kidney greater than intestine greater than gills greater than brain......, the intestine, and the gills, whereas, no such grains were found in preparations from fish having received 1 ppm Se. The use of selenium for the histochemical demonstration of endogenous zinc versus exogenous metals is discussed. Also, consideration is given to the question of which part of the total tissue...

  15. Pb-induced responses in Zygophyllum fabago plants are organ-dependent and modulated by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Orenes, Antonio; Martínez-Pérez, Ascensión; Calderón, Antonio A; Ferrer, María A

    2014-11-01

    Zygophyllum fabago is a promising species for restoring heavy metal (HM) polluted soils, although the mechanisms involved in HM tolerance in this non-model plant remain largely unknown. This paper analyses the extent to which redox-active compounds and enzymatic antioxidants in roots, stems and leaves are responsible for Pb tolerance in a metallicolous ecotype of Z. fabago and the possible influence of salicylic acid (SA) pretreatment (24 h, 0.5 mM SA) in the response to Pb stress. SA pretreatment reduced both the accumulation of Pb in roots and even more so the concentration of Pb in aerial parts of the plants, although a similar drop in the content of chlorophylls and in the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II was observed in both Pb- and SA-Pb-treated plants. Pb increased the endogenous free SA levels in all organs and this response was enhanced in root tissues upon SA pretreatment. Generally, Pb induced a reduction in catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase specific activities, whereas dehydroascorbate reductase was increased in all organs of control plants. SA pretreatment enhanced the Pb-induced H2O2 accumulation in roots by up-regulating Fe-superoxide dismutase isoenzymes. Under Pb stress, the GSH redox ratio remained highly reduced in all organs while the ascorbic acid redox ratio dropped in leaf tissues where a rise in lipid peroxidation products and electrolyte leakage was observed. Finally, an organ-dependent accumulation of proline and β-carboline alkaloids was found, suggesting these nitrogen-redox-active compounds could play a role in the adaptation strategies of this species to Pb stress. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Earthworm-induced distribution of organic matter in macro-aggregates from differently managed arable fields.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Hillenaar, S.I.

    1997-01-01

    To study the influence of soil structure on organic matter decomposition, and the possible role of earthworms therein, aggregates of the size of earthworm casts (3-4.8 mm) were sieved from air-dry soil of three arable fields. Due to different management histories (in terms of manuring and pesticide

  17. Anion-induced N-doping of naphthalenediimide polymer semiconductor in organic thin-film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yang

    2018-03-13

    Molecular doping is an important strategy to improve the charge transport properties of organic semiconductors in various electronic devices. Compared to p-type dopants, the development of n-type dopants is especially challenging due to poor dopant stability against atmospheric conditions. In this article, we report the n-doping of the milestone naphthalenediimide-based conjugated polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) in organic thin film transistor devices by soluble anion dopants. The addition of the dopants resulted in the formation of stable radical anions in thin films, as confirmed by EPR spectroscopy. By tuning the dopant concentration via simple solution mixing, the transistor parameters could be readily controlled. Hence the contact resistance between the electrodes and the semiconducting polymer could be significantly reduced, which resulted in the transistor behaviour approaching the desirable gate voltage-independent model. Reduced hysteresis was also observed, thanks to the trap filling by the dopant. Under optimal doping concentrations the channel on-current was increased several fold whilst the on/off ratio was simultaneously increased by around one order of magnitude. Hence doping with soluble organic salts appears to be a promising route to improve the charge transport properties of n-type organic semiconductors.

  18. Rainfall-induced fecal indicator organisms transport from animal waste applied fields: model sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial quality of surface waters warrants attention because of associated food- and waterborne-disease outbreaks, and fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used to evaluate levels of microbial pollution. Models that predict the fate and transport of FIOs are required for designing and...

  19. Field-induced detrapping in disordered organic semiconducting host-guest systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cottaar, J.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    In a disordered organic semiconducting host-guest material, containing a relatively small concentration of guest molecules acting as traps, the charge transport may be viewed as resulting from carriers that are detrapped from the guest to the host. Commonly used theories include only detrapping due

  20. Substrate morphology induced self-organization into carbon nanotube arrays, ropes, and agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Guang-Hui; Qian, Wei-Zhong; Wei, Fei

    2008-10-29

    In this paper, hydrophobic carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays, ropes, and agglomerates were synthesized through self-organization on quartz substrates with different micro-structures under the same growth condition. On a flat substrate, a uniform woven structure was formed which resulted in a synchronous growth into an array. When the substrate with 10 µm round concaves distributed on the surface was adopted, the woven structure was sporadic and a CNT cluster was grown in the concave. With further growth, CNT ropes were self-organized. Subsequently, when the substrate consisting of irregular ∼100 nm gaps was used, the initial woven structure was high density, thus resulting in the formation of CNT agglomerates. Study results showed that CNT arrays grown on the flat substrate were of the highest purity and had a contact angle of 153.8 ± 0.9°. Thus, the self-organization behavior among CNTs was in situ modulated by different substrate morphology without further treatments. This provides us with an additional understanding of the self-organization of CNTs during growth, as well as strategies for the controllable synthesis of CNTs with fixed properties.

  1. Substrate morphology induced self-organization into carbon nanotube arrays, ropes, and agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jiaqi; Zhang Qiang; Xu Guanghui; Qian Weizhong; Wei Fei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, hydrophobic carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays, ropes, and agglomerates were synthesized through self-organization on quartz substrates with different micro-structures under the same growth condition. On a flat substrate, a uniform woven structure was formed which resulted in a synchronous growth into an array. When the substrate with 10 μm round concaves distributed on the surface was adopted, the woven structure was sporadic and a CNT cluster was grown in the concave. With further growth, CNT ropes were self-organized. Subsequently, when the substrate consisting of irregular ∼100 nm gaps was used, the initial woven structure was high density, thus resulting in the formation of CNT agglomerates. Study results showed that CNT arrays grown on the flat substrate were of the highest purity and had a contact angle of 153.8 ± 0.9 0 . Thus, the self-organization behavior among CNTs was in situ modulated by different substrate morphology without further treatments. This provides us with an additional understanding of the self-organization of CNTs during growth, as well as strategies for the controllable synthesis of CNTs with fixed properties.

  2. Anion-induced N-doping of naphthalenediimide polymer semiconductor in organic thin-film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yang; Fei, Zhuping; Lin, Yen-Hung; Martin, Jaime; Tuna, Floriana; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Heeney, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Molecular doping is an important strategy to improve the charge transport properties of organic semiconductors in various electronic devices. Compared to p-type dopants, the development of n-type dopants is especially challenging due to poor dopant stability against atmospheric conditions. In this article, we report the n-doping of the milestone naphthalenediimide-based conjugated polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) in organic thin film transistor devices by soluble anion dopants. The addition of the dopants resulted in the formation of stable radical anions in thin films, as confirmed by EPR spectroscopy. By tuning the dopant concentration via simple solution mixing, the transistor parameters could be readily controlled. Hence the contact resistance between the electrodes and the semiconducting polymer could be significantly reduced, which resulted in the transistor behaviour approaching the desirable gate voltage-independent model. Reduced hysteresis was also observed, thanks to the trap filling by the dopant. Under optimal doping concentrations the channel on-current was increased several fold whilst the on/off ratio was simultaneously increased by around one order of magnitude. Hence doping with soluble organic salts appears to be a promising route to improve the charge transport properties of n-type organic semiconductors.

  3. Method for analyzing structural changes of flexible metal-organic frameworks induced by adsorbates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeldam, D.; Krishna, R.; Snurr, R.Q.

    2009-01-01

    Metal−organic frameworks (MOFs) have crystal structures that exhibit unusual flexibility. An extreme example is that of the "breathing MOF" MIL-53 that expands or shrinks to admit guest molecules like CO2 and water. We present a powerful simulation tool to quickly calculate unit cell shape and size

  4. A Computational Approach to Diagnosing Misfits, Inducing Requirements, and Delineating Transformations for Edge Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    of current military C2 organizations. The unit of analysis for organizational diagnosis is the Joint Task Force (JTF). It represents a multi-Service...Strategy as Structured Chaos Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press (1998). [5] Burton, R.M. and Obel, B., Strategic Organizational Diagnosis and

  5. Effects of hydroxylated benzaldehyde derivatives on radiation-induced reactions involving various organic radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksendzova, G. A.; Samovich, S. N.; Sorokin, V. L.; Shadyro, O. I.

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, the effects of hydroxylated benzaldehyde derivatives and gossypol - the known natural occurring compound - on formation of decomposition products resulting from radiolysis of ethanol and hexane in deaerated and oxygenated solutions were studied. The obtained data enabled the authors to make conclusions about the effects produced by the structure of the compounds under study on their reactivity towards oxygen- and carbon-centered radicals. It has been found that 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4,6-di-tert-butyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 4,6-di-tert-butyl-3-(1,3-dioxane-2-yl)-1,2-dihydroxybenzene are not inferior in efficiency to butylated hydroxytoluene - the industrial antioxidant - as regards suppression of the radiation-induced oxidation processes occurring in hexane. The derivatives of hydroxylated benzaldehydes were shown to have a significant influence on radiation-induced reactions involving α-hydroxyalkyl radicals.

  6. Activation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathway induces mouse organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Cheng, Xingguo; Dieter, Matthew Z; Tanaka, Yuji; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2007-04-01

    Rodent Oatp2 is a hepatic uptake transporter for such compounds as cardiac glycosides. In the present study, we found that fasting resulted in a 2-fold induction of Oatp2 expression in liver of mice. Because the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway is activated during fasting, the role of this pathway in Oatp2 induction during fasting was examined. In Hepa-1c1c7 cells, adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin as well as two cellular membrane-permeable cAMP analogs, dibutyryl cAMP and 8-bromo-cAMP, induced Oatp2 mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These three chemicals induced reporter gene activity in cells transfected with a luciferase reporter gene construct containing a 7.6-kilobase (kb) 5'-flanking region of mouse Oatp2. Transient transfection of cells with 5'-deletion constructs derived from the 7.6-kb Oatp2 promoter reporter gene construct, as well as 7.6-kb constructs in which a consensus cAMP response element (CRE) half-site CGTCA (-1808/-1804 bp) was mutated or deleted, confirms that this CRE site was required for the induction of luciferase activity by forskolin. Luciferase activity driven by the Oatp2 promoter containing this CRE site was induced in cells cotransfected with a plasmid encoding the protein kinase A catalytic subunit. Cotransfection of cells with a plasmid encoding the dominant-negative CRE binding protein (CREB) completely abolished the inducibility of the reporter gene activity by forskolin. In conclusion, induction of Oatp2 expression in liver of fasted mice may be caused by activation of the cAMP-dependent signaling pathway, with the CRE site (-1808/-1804) and CREB being the cis- and trans-acting factors mediating the induction, respectively.

  7. Cation-Dependent Light-Induced Halide Demixing in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter-Fella, CM; Ngo, QP; Cefarin, N; Gardener, K; Tamura, N; Stan, CV; Drisdell, WS; Javey, A; Toma, FM; Sharp, ID

    2018-01-01

    © 2018 American Chemical Society. Mixed cation metal halide perovskites with increased power conversion efficiency, negligible hysteresis, and improved long term stability under illumination, moisture, and thermal stressing have emerged as promising compounds for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we shed light on photo-induced halide demixing using in-situ photoluminescence spectroscopy and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) to directly compare the evolution of comp...

  8. Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced ototoxicity in organ of Corti explant cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perny, Michael; Solyga, Magdalena; Grandgirard, Denis; Roccio, Marta; Leib, Stephen L; Senn, Pascal

    2017-07-01

    Hearing loss remains the most common long-term complication of pneumococcal meningitis (PM) reported in up to 30% of survivors. Streptococcus pneumoniae have been shown to possess different ototoxic properties. Here we present a novel ex vivo experimental setup to examine in detail the pattern of hair cell loss upon exposure to different S. pneumoniae strains, therefore recapitulating pathogen derived aspects of PM-induced hearing loss. Our results show a higher susceptibility towards S. pneumoniae-induced cochlear damage for outer hair cells (OHC) compared to inner hair cells (IHC), which is consistent with in vivo data. S. pneumoniae-induced hair cell loss was both time and dose-dependent. Moreover, we have found significant differences in the level of cell damage between tissue from the basal and the apical turns. This shows that the higher vulnerability of hair cells located at high frequency regions observed in vivo cannot be explained solely by the spatial organisation and bacterial infiltration from the basal portion of the cochlea. Using a wild type D39 strain and a mutant defective for the pneumolysin (PLY) gene, we also have shown that the toxin PLY is an important factor involved in ototoxic damages. The obtained results indicate that PLY can cause both IHC and OHC loss. Finally, we are reporting here for the first time a higher vulnerability of HC located at the basal and middle cochlear region to pneumolysin-induced damage. The detailed description of the susceptibility of hair cells to Streptococcus pneumoniae provided in this report can in the future determine the choice and the development of novel otoprotective therapies during pneumococcal meningitis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Redox Active Transition Metal ions Make Melanin Susceptible to Chemical Degradation Induced by Organic Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadlo, Andrzej; Pilat, Anna; Sarna, Michal; Pawlak, Anna; Sarna, Tadeusz

    2017-12-01

    With aging, retinal pigment epithelium melanosomes, by fusion with the age pigment lipofuscin, form complex granules called melanolipofuscin. Lipofuscin granules may contain oxidized proteins and lipid hydroperoxides, which in melanolipofuscin could chemically modify melanin polymer, while transition metal ions present in melanin can accelerate such oxidative modifications. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of selected transition metal ions on melanin susceptibility to chemical modification induced by the water-soluble tert-butyl hydroperoxide used as an oxidizing agent. Synthetic melanin obtained by DOPA autooxidation and melanosomes isolated from bovine retinal pigment epithelium were analyzed. To monitor tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative changes of DMa and BMs, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry were employed. These measurements revealed that both copper and iron ions accelerated chemical degradation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide, while zinc ions had no effect. Strong prooxidant action was detected only in the case of melanosomes and melanin degraded in the presence of iron. It can be postulated that similar chemical processes, if they occur in situ in melanolipofuscin granules of the human retinal pigment epithelium, would modify antioxidant properties of melanin and its reactivity.

  10. A genetically-based latitudinal cline in the emission of herbivore-induced plant volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wason, Elizabeth L; Agrawal, Anurag A; Hunter, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    The existence of predictable latitudinal variation in plant defense against herbivores remains controversial. A prevailing view holds that higher levels of plant defense evolve at low latitudes compared to high latitudes as an adaptive plant response to higher herbivore pressure on low-latitude plants. To date, this prediction has not been examined with respect to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that many plants emit, often thus attracting the natural enemies of herbivores. Here, we compared genetically-based constitutive and herbivore-induced aboveground vegetative VOC emissions from plants originating across a gradient of more than 10° of latitude (>1,500 km). We collected headspace VOCs from Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) originating from 20 populations across its natural range and grown in a common garden near the range center. Feeding by specialist Danaus plexippus (monarch) larvae induced VOCs, and field environmental conditions (temperature, light, and humidity) also influenced emissions. Monarch damage increased plant VOC concentrations and altered VOC blends. We found that genetically-based induced VOC emissions varied with the latitude of plant population origin, although the pattern followed the reverse of that predicted-induced VOC concentration increased with increasing latitude. This pattern appeared to be driven by a greater induction of sesquiterpenoids at higher latitudes. In contrast, constitutive VOC emission did not vary systematically with latitude, and the induction of green leafy volatiles declined with latitude. Our results do not support the prevailing view that plant defense is greater at lower than at higher latitudes. That the pattern holds only for herbivore-induced VOC emission, and not constitutive emission, suggests that latitudinal variation in VOCs is not a simple adaptive response to climatic factors.

  11. Acoustic and Petrophysical Evolution of Organic-Rich Chalk Following Maturation Induced by Unconfined Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitrit, Omri; Hatzor, Yossef H.; Feinstein, Shimon; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal maturation is known to influence the rock physics of organic-rich rocks. While most studies were performed on low-porosity organic-rich shales, here we examine the effect of thermal maturation on a high-porosity organic-rich chalk. We compare the physical properties of native state immature rock with the properties at two pyrolysis-simulated maturity levels: early-mature and over-mature. We further evaluate the applicability of results from unconfined pyrolysis experiments to naturally matured rock properties. Special attention is dedicated to the elastic properties of the organic phase and the influence of bitumen and kerogen contents. Rock physics is studied based on confined petrophysical measurements of porosity, density and permeability, and measurements of bedding-normal acoustic velocities at estimated field stresses. Geochemical parameters like total organic carbon (TOC), bitumen content and thermal maturation indicators are used to monitor variations in density and volume fraction of each phase. We find that porosity increases significantly upon pyrolysis and that P wave velocity decreases in accordance. Solids density versus TOC relationships indicate that the kerogen increases its density from 1.43 to 1.49 g/cc at the immature and early-mature stages to 2.98 g/cc at the over-mature stage. This density value is unusually high, although increase in S wave velocity and backscatter SEM images of the over-mature samples verify that the over-mature kerogen is significantly denser and stiffer. Using the petrophysical and acoustic properties, the elastic moduli of the rock are estimated by two Hashin-Shtrikman (HS)-based models: "HS + BAM" and "HS kerogen." The "HS + BAM" model is calibrated to the post-pyrolysis measurements to describe the mechanical effect of the unconfined pyrolysis on the rock. The absence of compaction in the pyrolysis process causes the post-pyrolysis samples to be extremely porous. The "HS kerogen" model, which simulates a

  12. Organization of the human motor system as studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattay, Venkata S.; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    1999-01-01

    Blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI), because of its superior resolution and unlimited repeatability, can be particularly useful in studying functional aspects of the human motor system, especially plasticity, and somatotopic and temporal organization. In this survey, while describing studies that have reliably used BOLD fMRI to examine these aspects of the motor system, we also discuss studies that investigate the neural substrates underlying motor skill acquisition, motor imagery, production of motor sequences; effect of rate and force of movement on brain activation and hemispheric control of motor function. In the clinical realm, in addition to the presurgical evaluation of neurosurgical patients, BOLD fMRI has been used to explore the mechanisms underlying motor abnormalities in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders and the mechanisms underlying reorganization or plasticity of the motor system following a cerebral insult

  13. Sparse genetic tracing reveals regionally specific functional organization of mammalian nociceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, William; Abdus-Saboor, Ishmail; Cui, Lian; Burdge, Justin; Raabe, Tobias; Ma, Minghong; Luo, Wenqin

    2017-10-12

    The human distal limbs have a high spatial acuity for noxious stimuli but a low density of pain-sensing neurites. To elucidate mechanisms underlying regional differences in processing nociception, we sparsely traced non-peptidergic nociceptors across the body using a newly generated Mrgprd CreERT2 mouse line. We found that mouse plantar paw skin is also innervated by a low density of Mrgprd + nociceptors, while individual arbors in different locations are comparable in size. Surprisingly, the central arbors of plantar paw and trunk innervating nociceptors have distinct morphologies in the spinal cord. This regional difference is well correlated with a heightened signal transmission for plantar paw circuits, as revealed by both spinal cord slice recordings and behavior assays. Taken together, our results elucidate a novel somatotopic functional organization of the mammalian pain system and suggest that regional central arbor structure could facilitate the "enlarged representation" of plantar paw regions in the CNS.

  14. Pressure-induced phase transitions and templating effect in three-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongjae; Mitzi, David; Barnes, Paris; Vogt, Thomas

    2003-07-01

    Pressure-induced structural changes of conducting halide perovskites (CH3NH3)SnI3, (CH3NH3)0.5(NH2CH=NH2)0.5SnI3, and (NH2CH=NH2)SnI3, have been investigated using synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction. In contrast to low-temperature structural changes, no evidence of an increased ordering of the organic cations was observed under pressure. Instead, increase in pressure results first in a ReO3-type doubling of the primitive cubic unit cell, followed by a symmetry distortion, and a subsequent amorphization above 4 GPa. This process is reversible and points towards a pressure-induced templating role of the organic cation. Bulk compressions are continuous across the phase boundaries. The compressibilities identify these hybrids as the most compressible perovskite system ever reported. However, the Sn-I bond compressibility in (CH3NH3)SnI3 shows a discontinuity within the supercell phase. This is possibly due to an electronic localization.

  15. Nanoscale investigation of moisture-induced degradation mechanisms of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium-based organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M S; Xu, J B; Chen, H Z; Wang, M

    2004-01-01

    By exploiting tapping mode atomic force microscopy, the moisture-induced degradation mechanisms of ITO (indium tin oxide)-coated glass/CuPc (copper phthalocyanine)/NPB (N, N'-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N, N'-diphthalbenzidine)/Alq 3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium)-based organic light-emitting diodes without cathode were investigated. It is found that three types of degradation mechanisms are associated with moisture-exposed Alq 3 films, when the device is exposed to moisture, namely, hydration of Alq 3 , crystallization of Alq 3 and reaction of the Alq 3 complex with H 2 O. Crystallization of the NPB layer of ITO/CuPc/NPB was observed on exposure to moisture, and de-wetting simultaneously takes place at the interface of CuPc/NPB. Indium and/or oxygen may diffuse from ITO into the organic layers. These observations provide a clear picture of the moisture-induced degradation mechanisms of the ITO/CuPc/NPB/Alq 3 -based OLEDs

  16. Direct Structural Identification of Gas Induced Gate-Opening Coupled with Commensurate Adsorption in a Microporous Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Wang, Hao; Plonka, Anna M; Emge, Thomas J; Parise, John B; Li, Jing

    2016-08-08

    Gate-opening is a unique and interesting phenomenon commonly observed in flexible porous frameworks, where the pore characteristics and/or crystal structures change in response to external stimuli such as adding or removing guest molecules. For gate-opening that is induced by gas adsorption, the pore-opening pressure often varies for different adsorbate molecules and, thus, can be applied to selectively separate a gas mixture. The detailed understanding of this phenomenon is of fundamental importance to the design of industrially applicable gas-selective sorbents, which remains under investigated due to the lack of direct structural evidence for such systems. We report a mechanistic study of gas-induced gate-opening process of a microporous metal-organic framework, [Mn(ina)2 ] (ina=isonicotinate) associated with commensurate adsorption, by a combination of several analytical techniques including single crystal X-ray diffraction, in situ powder X-ray diffraction coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (XRD-DSC), and gas adsorption-desorption methods. Our study reveals that the pronounced and reversible gate opening/closing phenomena observed in [Mn(ina)2 ] are coupled with a structural transition that involves rotation of the organic linker molecules as a result of interaction of the framework with adsorbed gas molecules including carbon dioxide and propane. The onset pressure to open the gate correlates with the extent of such interaction. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Characterization of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene organic thin film transistors fabricated using pattern-induced confined structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyohyeok; Kwon, Namyong; Chung, Ilsub

    2014-01-01

    Bottom gate organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) were fabricated on polyethersulphone substrate using an ink jet printing method. 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene and poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP) were used as an active material and as a gate insulator, respectively. In an attempt to reduce the coffee stain effect, TIPS pentacene active layer was printed onto the pattern-induced confined structure (PICS) which had been obtained by orthogonally printing Ag electrodes on the pre-printed PVP layer. The resolution of Ag patterns was obtained by modifying the surface energy using UV irradiation and substrate temperature. The channel lengths of the aforementioned PICS OTFTs were in the range of 10 μm to 50 μm. The average mobility and on/off ratio of PICS OTFTs were 0.034 cm 2 /Vs and 10 3 , respectively. - Highlights: • Ink-jet printed bottom gate organic thin film transistor on plastic substrate • Ag lines orthogonally printed on pre-printed poly-4-vinylphenol lines • Pattern-induced confined structures obtained • UV irradiation affects the surface energy and the resolution of the Ag patterns

  18. Characterization of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene organic thin film transistors fabricated using pattern-induced confined structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyohyeok; Kwon, Namyong [Sungkyunkwan University Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Ilsub, E-mail: ichung@skku.ac.kr [Sungkyunkwan University Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-01

    Bottom gate organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) were fabricated on polyethersulphone substrate using an ink jet printing method. 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene and poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP) were used as an active material and as a gate insulator, respectively. In an attempt to reduce the coffee stain effect, TIPS pentacene active layer was printed onto the pattern-induced confined structure (PICS) which had been obtained by orthogonally printing Ag electrodes on the pre-printed PVP layer. The resolution of Ag patterns was obtained by modifying the surface energy using UV irradiation and substrate temperature. The channel lengths of the aforementioned PICS OTFTs were in the range of 10 μm to 50 μm. The average mobility and on/off ratio of PICS OTFTs were 0.034 cm{sup 2}/Vs and 10{sup 3}, respectively. - Highlights: • Ink-jet printed bottom gate organic thin film transistor on plastic substrate • Ag lines orthogonally printed on pre-printed poly-4-vinylphenol lines • Pattern-induced confined structures obtained • UV irradiation affects the surface energy and the resolution of the Ag patterns.

  19. Resistive switching and voltage induced modulation of tunneling magnetoresistance in nanosized perpendicular organic spin valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Göckeritz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale multifunctional perpendicular organic spin valves have been fabricated. The devices based on an La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/Alq3/Co trilayer show resistive switching of up to 4-5 orders of magnitude and magnetoresistance as high as -70% the latter even changing sign when voltage pulses are applied. This combination of phenomena is typically observed in multiferroic tunnel junctions where it is attributed to magnetoelectric coupling between a ferromagnet and a ferroelectric material. Modeling indicates that here the switching originates from a modification of the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 surface. This modification influences the tunneling of charge carriers and thus both the electrical resistance and the tunneling magnetoresistance which occurs at pinholes in the organic layer.

  20. Thermophilic anaerobes in arctic marine sediments induced to mineralize complex organic matter at high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubert, Casey; Arnosti, Carol; Brüchert, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Marine sediments harbour diverse populations of dormant thermophilic bacterial spores that become active in sediment incubation experiments at much higher than in situ temperature. This response was investigated in the presence of natural complex organic matter in sediments of two Arctic fjords......, as well as with the addition of freeze-dried Spirulina or individual high-molecular-weight polysaccharides. During 50°C incubation experiments, Arctic thermophiles catalysed extensive mineralization of the organic matter via extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation and sulfate reduction. This high...... reactivity determined the extent of the thermophilic response. Fjord sediments with higher in situ SRR also supported higher SRR at 50°C. Amendment with Spirulina significantly increased volatile fatty acids production and SRR relative to unamended sediment in 50°C incubations. Spirulina amendment also...

  1. Nanostructure induced changes in lifetime and enhanced second-harmonic response of organic-plasmonic hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leißner, Till [NanoSYD, Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Alsion 2, 6400 Sønderborg (Denmark); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense (Denmark); Kostiučenko, Oksana; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Fiutowski, Jacek, E-mail: fiutowski@mci.sdu.dk [NanoSYD, Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Alsion 2, 6400 Sønderborg (Denmark); Brewer, Jonathan R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense (Denmark)

    2015-12-21

    In this letter we show that the optical response of organic nanofibers, grown from functionalized para-quaterphenylene molecules, can be controlled by forming organic-plasmonic hybrid systems. The interaction between nanofibers and supporting regular arrays of nanostructures leads to a strongly enhanced second harmonic response. At the same time, the fluorescence lifetime of the nanofibers is reduced from 0.32 ns for unstructured gold films to 0.22 ns for gold nanosquare arrays, demonstrating efficient organic–plasmonic interaction. To study the origin of these effects, we applied two-photon laser scanning microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. These findings provide an effective approach for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation at the nanoscale, which is attractive for nanophotonic circuitry.

  2. A mechanistic understanding of processing additive-induced efficiency enhancement in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Kristin

    2013-10-31

    The addition of processing additives is a widely used approach to increase power conversion efficiencies for many organic solar cells. We present how additives change the polymer conformation in the casting solution leading to a more intermixed phase-segregated network structure of the active layer which in turn results in a 5-fold enhancement in efficiency. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging correlates of bee sting induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sushant K; Zeng, Li-Chuan; Li, Bing; Niu, Xiang-Ke; Wang, Jing-Liang; Bhetuwal, Anup; Yang, Han-Feng

    2014-09-28

    Occasionally systemic complications with high risk of death, such as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), can occur following multiple bee stings. This case study reports a patient who presented with MODS, i.e., acute kidney injury, hepatic and cardiac dysfunction, after multiple bee stings. The standard clinical findings were then correlated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, which demonstrates that MRI may be utilized as a simpler tool to use than other multiple diagnostics.

  4. Cation-induced coagulation of aquatic plant-derived dissolved organic matter: Investigation by EEM-PARAFAC and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interaction and coagulation of plant-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) by metal cations are important biogeochemical processes of organic matter in lake systems. Thus, coagulation and fractionation of plant-derived DOM by di- and tri-valent Ca, Al, and Fe ions were investigated. Metal ion-induc...

  5. Three-dimensional distribution of organic matter in coastal-deltaic peat : Implications for subsidence and carbon dioxide emissions by human-induced peat oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, K.; Stafleu, J.; Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.; Busschers, Freek S.; Middelkoop, H.

    2018-01-01

    Human-induced groundwater level lowering in the Holocene coastal-deltaic plain of the Netherlands causes oxidation of peat organic matter, resulting in land subsidence and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Here, a three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the distribution of the remaining peat organic matter

  6. Human colon tissue in organ culture: calcium and multi-mineral-induced mucosal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, Michael K; Veerapaneni, Indiradevi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Naik, Madhav; Varani, James

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown that a multi-mineral extract from the marine red algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, suppresses colon polyp formation and inflammation in mice. In the present study, we used intact human colon tissue in organ culture to compare responses initiated by Ca(2+) supplementation versus the multi-mineral extract. Normal human colon tissue was treated for 2 d in culture with various concentrations of calcium or the mineral-rich extract. The tissue was then prepared for histology/immunohistochemistry, and the culture supernatants were assayed for levels of type I procollagen and type I collagen. At higher Ca(2+) concentrations or with the mineral-rich extract, proliferation of epithelial cells at the base and walls of the mucosal crypts was suppressed, as visualized by reduced Ki67 staining. E-cadherin, a marker of differentiation, was more strongly expressed at the upper third of the crypt and at the luminal surface. Treatment with Ca(2+) or with the multi-mineral extract influenced collagen turnover, with decreased procollagen and increased type I collagen. These data suggest that calcium or mineral-rich extract has the capacity to (1) promote differentiation in human colon tissue in organ culture and (2) modulate stromal function as assessed by increased levels of type I collagen. Taken together, these data suggest that human colon tissue in organ culture (supporting in vivo finding in mice) will provide a valuable model for the preclinical assessment of agents that regulate growth and differentiation in the colonic mucosa.

  7. The possible DNA damage induced by environmental organic compounds: The case of Nonylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorimotlagh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Seyyed Abbas; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat; Rahim, Fakher

    2018-08-30

    Human impact on the environment leads to the release of many pollutants that produce artificial compounds, which can have harmful effects on the body's endocrine system; these are known as endocrine disruptors (EDs). Nonylphenol (NP) is a chemical compound with a nonyl group that is attached to a phenol ring. NP-induced H 2 AX is a sensitive genotoxic biomarker for detecting possible DNA damage; it also causes male infertility and carcinogenesis. We attempt to comprehensively review all the available evidence about the different ways with descriptive mechanisms for explaining the possible DNA damage that is induced by NP. We systematically searched several databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and gray literature, such as Google Scholar by using medical subheading (MeSH) terms and various combinations of selected keywords from January 1970 to August 2017. The initial search identified 62,737 potentially eligible studies; of these studies, 33 were included according to the established inclusion criteria. Thirty-three selected studies, include the topics of animal model (n = 21), cell line (n = 6), human model (n = 4), microorganisms (n = 1), solid DNA (n = 1), infertility (n = 4), apoptosis (n = 6), and carcinogenesis (n = 3). This review highlighted the possible deleterious effects of NP on DNA damage through the ability to produce ROS/RNS. Finally, it is significant to observe caution at this stage with the continued use of environmental pollutants such as NP, which may induce DNA damage and apoptosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Organic Nitrate Therapy, Nitrate Tolerance, and Nitrate-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction: Emphasis on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin (GTN), isosorbide-5-mononitrate and isosorbide dinitrate, and pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN), when given acutely, have potent vasodilator effects improving symptoms in patients with acute and chronic congestive heart failure, stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndromes, or arterial hypertension. The mechanisms underlying vasodilation include the release of •NO or a related compound in response to intracellular bioactivation (for GTN, the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH-2]) and activation of the enzyme, soluble guanylyl cyclase. Increasing cyclic guanosine-3′,-5′-monophosphate (cGMP) levels lead to an activation of the cGMP-dependent kinase I, thereby causing the relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations. The hemodynamic and anti-ischemic effects of organic nitrates are rapidly lost upon long-term (low-dose) administration due to the rapid development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, which is in most cases linked to increased intracellular oxidative stress. Enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species under nitrate therapy include mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, and an uncoupled •NO synthase. Acute high-dose challenges with organic nitrates cause a similar loss of potency (tachyphylaxis), but with distinct pathomechanism. The differences among organic nitrates are highlighted regarding their potency to induce oxidative stress and subsequent tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. We also address pleiotropic effects of organic nitrates, for example, their capacity to stimulate antioxidant pathways like those demonstrated for PETN, all of which may prevent adverse effects in response to long-term therapy. Based on these considerations, we will discuss and present some preclinical data on how the nitrate of the future should be designed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 899–942. PMID:26261901

  9. Organic Nitrate Therapy, Nitrate Tolerance, and Nitrate-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction: Emphasis on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiber, Andreas; Münzel, Thomas

    2015-10-10

    Organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin (GTN), isosorbide-5-mononitrate and isosorbide dinitrate, and pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN), when given acutely, have potent vasodilator effects improving symptoms in patients with acute and chronic congestive heart failure, stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndromes, or arterial hypertension. The mechanisms underlying vasodilation include the release of •NO or a related compound in response to intracellular bioactivation (for GTN, the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH-2]) and activation of the enzyme, soluble guanylyl cyclase. Increasing cyclic guanosine-3',-5'-monophosphate (cGMP) levels lead to an activation of the cGMP-dependent kinase I, thereby causing the relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations. The hemodynamic and anti-ischemic effects of organic nitrates are rapidly lost upon long-term (low-dose) administration due to the rapid development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, which is in most cases linked to increased intracellular oxidative stress. Enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species under nitrate therapy include mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, and an uncoupled •NO synthase. Acute high-dose challenges with organic nitrates cause a similar loss of potency (tachyphylaxis), but with distinct pathomechanism. The differences among organic nitrates are highlighted regarding their potency to induce oxidative stress and subsequent tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. We also address pleiotropic effects of organic nitrates, for example, their capacity to stimulate antioxidant pathways like those demonstrated for PETN, all of which may prevent adverse effects in response to long-term therapy. Based on these considerations, we will discuss and present some preclinical data on how the nitrate of the future should be designed.

  10. Adaptive self-assembly and induced-fit transformations of anion-binding metal-organic macrocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Li-Peng; Guo, Xiao-Qing; Cai, Li-Xuan; Sun, Qing-Fu

    2017-06-01

    Container-molecules are attractive to chemists due to their unique structural characteristics comparable to enzymes and receptors in nature. We report here a family of artificial self-assembled macrocyclic containers that feature induced-fit transformations in response to different anionic guests. Five metal-organic macrocycles with empirical formula of MnL2n (M=Metal L=Ligand n=3, 4, 5, 6, 7) are selectively obtained starting from one simple benzimidazole-based ligand and square-planar palladium(II) ions, either by direct anion-adaptive self-assembly or induced-fit transformations. Hydrogen-bonding interactions between the inner surface of the macrocycles and the anionic guests dictate the shape and size of the product. A comprehensive induced-fit transformation map across all the MnL2n species is drawn, with a representative reconstitution process from Pd7L14 to Pd3L6 traced in detail, revealing a gradual ring-shrinking mechanism. We envisage that these macrocyclic molecules with adjustable well-defined hydrogen-bonding pockets will find wide applications in molecular sensing or catalysis.

  11. Symposium on fast atom and ion induced mass spectrometry of nonvolatile organic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeal, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms of molecular and fragment ion production and the various parameters affecting ion yields were discussed by 6 invited speakers from Europe, Canada, and the US at this symposium. The work reported was almost equally divided between that using low-energy (keV) primary ion (or atom) beams, e.g. fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and that using high energy (MeV) particles, e.g. heavy ion induced mass spectrometry (HIIDMS) and 252 Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry ( 252 Cf-PDMS). Both theoretical foundations and observed experimental results for both techniques are included

  12. AMP Kinase Activation Alters Oxidant-Induced Stress Granule Assembly by Modulating Cell Signaling and Microtubule Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Hicham; Koromilas, Antonis E; Stochaj, Ursula

    2016-10-01

    Eukaryotic cells assemble stress granules (SGs) when translation initiation is inhibited. Different cell signaling pathways regulate SG production. Particularly relevant to this process is 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which functions as a stress sensor and is transiently activated by adverse physiologic conditions. Here, we dissected the role of AMPK for oxidant-induced SG formation. Our studies identified multiple steps of de novo SG assembly that are controlled by the kinase. Single-cell analyses demonstrated that pharmacological AMPK activation prior to stress exposure changed SG properties, because the granules became more abundant and smaller in size. These altered SG characteristics correlated with specific changes in cell survival, cell signaling, cytoskeletal organization, and the abundance of translation initiation factors. Specifically, AMPK activation increased stress-induced eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2α phosphorylation and reduced the concentration of eIF4F complex subunits eIF4G and eIF4E. At the same time, the abundance of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) was diminished. This loss of HDAC6 was accompanied by increased acetylation of α-tubulin on Lys40. Pharmacological studies further confirmed this novel AMPK-HDAC6 interplay and its importance for SG biology. Taken together, we provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of SG formation. We propose that AMPK activation stimulates oxidant-induced SG formation but limits their fusion into larger granules. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. UV light induced photodegradation of organic dye by ZnO nanocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumesh, C. K.; Patel, Bhavin; Parekh, Kinnari

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet light induced photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanocatalyst prepared using a wet chemical precipitation route and mineralization of the methyl orange (MO) dye has been carried out in a photocatalytic reactor. The degradation of the MO was monitored spectrophotometrically and showed a decolorization efficiency of 92% after nine hours of irradiation in the MO-ZnO/UV light system. The blue shifting of maximum peak position of the MO and the formation of extra peak at 247 nm during irradiation time advances revealed that MO degrades in the form of intermediates during the photocatalytic process.

  14. Supplementation of Nigella sativa fixed and essential oil mediates potassium bromate induced oxidative stress and multiple organ toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Ahmad, Rabia Shabeer; Pasha, Imran; Ahmad, Atif Nisar; Qayyum, Mir Muhammad Nasir

    2012-01-01

    The plants and their functional ingredients hold potential to cure various maladies and number of plants hold therapeutic potential. The present research was designed study the health promoting potential of black cumin (Nigella sativa) fixed oil (BCFO) and essential oil (BCEO) against oxidative stress with special reference to multiple organ toxicity. For the purpose, thirty rats (Strain: Sprague Dawley) were procured and divided into three groups (10 rats/group). The groups were fed on their respective diets i.e. D1 (control), D2 (BCFO @ 4.0%) and D3 (BCEO @ 0.30%) for a period of 56 days. Mild oxidative stress was induced with the help of potassium bromate injection @ 45 mg/Kg body weight. Furthermore, the levels of cardiac and liver enzymes were assayed. The results indicated that oxidative stress increased the activities of cardiac and liver enzymes. However, supplementation of BCFO and BCEO was effective in reducing the abnormal values of enzymes. Elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), CPK and CPK-MB were reduced from 456 to 231, 176 to 122 and 45 to 36mg/dL, respectively. Similarly, liver enzymes were also reduced. However, the results revealed that BCEO supplementation @ 0.30% is more effectual in ameliorating the multiple organ toxicity in oxidative stressed animal modelling. In the nutshell, it can be assumed that black cumin essential oil is more effective in reducing the extent of potassium bromate induced multiple organ toxicity (cardiac and liver enzymes imbalance) that will ultimately helpful in reducing the extent of myocardial and liver necrosis.

  15. X-Ray-induced Deuterium Enrichment of N-rich Organics in Protoplanetary Disks: An Experimental Investigation Using Synchrotron Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilan, Lisseth; Carrasco, Nathalie [LATMOS, Université Versailles St Quentin, UPMC Université Paris 06, CNRS, 11 blvd d’Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France); Remusat, Laurent; Roskosz, Mathieu [IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, IRD, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, CP 52, 57 rue Cuvier, Paris F-75231 (France); Popescu, Horia; Jaouen, Nicolas [SEXTANTS beamline, SOLEIL synchrotron, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91190 Saint-Aubin (France); Sandt, Christophe [SMIS beamline, SOLEIL synchrotron, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91190 Saint-Aubin (France); Jäger, Cornelia [Laboratory Astrophysics and Cluster Physics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University and Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Henning, Thomas [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Simionovici, Alexandre [Institut des Sciences de la Terre, Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers de Grenoble, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Lemaire, Jean Louis [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay (ISMO), CNRS, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91405 Orsay (France); Mangin, Denis, E-mail: lisseth.gavilan@latmos.ipsl.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, F-54011 Nancy (France)

    2017-05-01

    The deuterium enrichment of organics in the interstellar medium, protoplanetary disks, and meteorites has been proposed to be the result of ionizing radiation. The goal of this study is to simulate and quantify the effects of soft X-rays (0.1–2 keV), an important component of stellar radiation fields illuminating protoplanetary disks, on the refractory organics present in the disks. We prepared tholins, nitrogen-rich organic analogs to solids found in several astrophysical environments, e.g., Titan’s atmosphere, cometary surfaces, and protoplanetary disks, via plasma deposition. Controlled irradiation experiments with soft X-rays at 0.5 and 1.3 keV were performed at the SEXTANTS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron, and were immediately followed by ex-situ infrared, Raman, and isotopic diagnostics. Infrared spectroscopy revealed the preferential loss of singly bonded groups (N–H, C–H, and R–N≡C) and the formation of sp{sup 3} carbon defects with signatures at ∼1250–1300 cm{sup −1}. Raman analysis revealed that, while the length of polyaromatic units is only slightly modified, the introduction of defects leads to structural amorphization. Finally, tholins were measured via secondary ion mass spectrometry to quantify the D, H, and C elemental abundances in the irradiated versus non-irradiated areas. Isotopic analysis revealed that significant D-enrichment is induced by X-ray irradiation. Our results are compared to previous experimental studies involving the thermal degradation and electron irradiation of organics. The penetration depth of soft X-rays in μ m-sized tholins leads to volume rather than surface modifications: lower-energy X-rays (0.5 keV) induce a larger D-enrichment than 1.3 keV X-rays, reaching a plateau for doses larger than 5 × 10{sup 27} eV cm{sup −3}. Synchrotron fluences fall within the expected soft X-ray fluences in protoplanetary disks, and thus provide evidence of a new non-thermal pathway to deuterium fractionation of

  16. X-Ray-induced Deuterium Enrichment of N-rich Organics in Protoplanetary Disks: An Experimental Investigation Using Synchrotron Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, Lisseth; Remusat, Laurent; Roskosz, Mathieu; Popescu, Horia; Jaouen, Nicolas; Sandt, Christophe; Jäger, Cornelia; Henning, Thomas; Simionovici, Alexandre; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Mangin, Denis; Carrasco, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    The deuterium enrichment of organics in the interstellar medium, protoplanetary disks, and meteorites has been proposed to be the result of ionizing radiation. The goal of this study is to simulate and quantify the effects of soft X-rays (0.1-2 keV), an important component of stellar radiation fields illuminating protoplanetary disks, on the refractory organics present in the disks. We prepared tholins, nitrogen-rich organic analogs to solids found in several astrophysical environments, e.g., Titan’s atmosphere, cometary surfaces, and protoplanetary disks, via plasma deposition. Controlled irradiation experiments with soft X-rays at 0.5 and 1.3 keV were performed at the SEXTANTS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron, and were immediately followed by ex-situ infrared, Raman, and isotopic diagnostics. Infrared spectroscopy revealed the preferential loss of singly bonded groups (N-H, C-H, and R-N≡C) and the formation of sp3 carbon defects with signatures at ˜1250-1300 cm-1. Raman analysis revealed that, while the length of polyaromatic units is only slightly modified, the introduction of defects leads to structural amorphization. Finally, tholins were measured via secondary ion mass spectrometry to quantify the D, H, and C elemental abundances in the irradiated versus non-irradiated areas. Isotopic analysis revealed that significant D-enrichment is induced by X-ray irradiation. Our results are compared to previous experimental studies involving the thermal degradation and electron irradiation of organics. The penetration depth of soft X-rays in μm-sized tholins leads to volume rather than surface modifications: lower-energy X-rays (0.5 keV) induce a larger D-enrichment than 1.3 keV X-rays, reaching a plateau for doses larger than 5 × 1027 eV cm-3. Synchrotron fluences fall within the expected soft X-ray fluences in protoplanetary disks, and thus provide evidence of a new non-thermal pathway to deuterium fractionation of organic matter.

  17. Organic UV filters exposure induces the production of inflammatory cytokines in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Junjie; Yuan, Tao; Gao, Li; Yu, Xiaodan; Zhao, Xiaodong; Tian, Ying; Ding, Wenjin; Ma, Yuning; Shen, Zhemin

    2018-09-01

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters, found in many personal care products, are considered emerging contaminants due to growing concerns about potential long-term deleterious effects. We investigated the immunomodulatory effects of four commonly used organic UV filters (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, BP-3; 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 4-MBC; 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, EHMC; and butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane, BDM) on human macrophages. Our results indicated that exposure to these four UV filters significantly increased the production of various inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, particular tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). After exposure to the UV filters, a significant 1.1-1.5 fold increase were found in TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression. In addition, both the p38 MAPK and the NF-κB signaling pathways were enhanced 2 to 10 times in terms of phosphorylation after exposure to the UV filters, suggesting that these pathways are involved in the release of TNF-α and IL-6. Molecular docking analysis predicted that all four UV filter molecules would efficiently bind transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), which is responsible for the activation of the p38 MAPK and NF-κB pathways. Our results therefore demonstrate that exposure to the four organic UV filters investigated may alter human immune system function. It provides new clue for the development of asthma or allergic diseases in terms of the environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Crossover from band-like to thermally activated charge transport in organic transistors due to strain-induced traps

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Yaochuan

    2017-08-02

    The temperature dependence of the charge-carrier mobility provides essential insight into the charge transport mechanisms in organic semiconductors. Such knowledge imparts critical understanding of the electrical properties of these materials, leading to better design of high-performance materials for consumer applications. Here, we present experimental results that suggest that the inhomogeneous strain induced in organic semiconductor layers by the mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of the consecutive device layers of field-effect transistors generates trapping states that localize charge carriers. We observe a universal scaling between the activation energy of the transistors and the interfacial thermal expansion mismatch, in which band-like transport is observed for similar CTEs, and activated transport otherwise. Our results provide evidence that a high-quality semiconductor layer is necessary, but not sufficient, to obtain efficient charge-carrier transport in devices, and underline the importance of holistic device design to achieve the intrinsic performance limits of a given organic semiconductor. We go on to show that insertion of an ultrathin CTE buffer layer mitigates this problem and can help achieve band-like transport on a wide range of substrate platforms.

  19. Estrogens induce rapid cytoskeleton re-organization in human dermal fibroblasts via the non-classical receptor GPR30.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carnesecchi

    Full Text Available The post-menopausal decrease in estrogen circulating levels results in rapid skin deterioration pointing out to a protective effect exerted by these hormones. The identity of the skin cell type responding to estrogens is unclear as are the cellular and molecular processes they elicit. Here, we reported that lack of estrogens induces rapid re-organization of the human dermal fibroblast cytoskeleton resulting in striking cell shape change. This morphological change was accompanied by a spatial re-organization of focal adhesion and a substantial reduction of their number as evidenced by vinculin and actin co-staining. Cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization was fully restored upon 17β-estradiol (E2 addition. Treatment with specific ER antagonists and cycloheximide respectively showed that the E2 acts independently of the classical Estrogen Receptors and that cell shape change is mediated by non-genomic mechanisms. E2 treatment resulted in a rapid and transient activation of ERK1/2 but not Src or PI3K. We show that human fibroblasts express the non-classical E2 receptor GPR30 and that its agonist G-1 phenocopies the effect of E2. Inhibiting GPR30 through treatment with the G-15 antagonist or specific shRNA impaired E2 effects. Altogether, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which estrogens act on skin fibroblast by regulating cell shape through the non-classical G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 and ERK1/2 activation.

  20. Estrogens induce rapid cytoskeleton re-organization in human dermal fibroblasts via the non-classical receptor GPR30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnesecchi, Julie; Malbouyres, Marilyne; de Mets, Richard; Balland, Martial; Beauchef, Gallic; Vié, Katell; Chamot, Christophe; Lionnet, Claire; Ruggiero, Florence; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    The post-menopausal decrease in estrogen circulating levels results in rapid skin deterioration pointing out to a protective effect exerted by these hormones. The identity of the skin cell type responding to estrogens is unclear as are the cellular and molecular processes they elicit. Here, we reported that lack of estrogens induces rapid re-organization of the human dermal fibroblast cytoskeleton resulting in striking cell shape change. This morphological change was accompanied by a spatial re-organization of focal adhesion and a substantial reduction of their number as evidenced by vinculin and actin co-staining. Cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization was fully restored upon 17β-estradiol (E2) addition. Treatment with specific ER antagonists and cycloheximide respectively showed that the E2 acts independently of the classical Estrogen Receptors and that cell shape change is mediated by non-genomic mechanisms. E2 treatment resulted in a rapid and transient activation of ERK1/2 but not Src or PI3K. We show that human fibroblasts express the non-classical E2 receptor GPR30 and that its agonist G-1 phenocopies the effect of E2. Inhibiting GPR30 through treatment with the G-15 antagonist or specific shRNA impaired E2 effects. Altogether, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which estrogens act on skin fibroblast by regulating cell shape through the non-classical G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 and ERK1/2 activation.

  1. Crossover from band-like to thermally activated charge transport in organic transistors due to strain-induced traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yaochuan; Diemer, Peter J; Niazi, Muhammad R; Hallani, Rawad K; Jarolimek, Karol; Day, Cynthia S; Risko, Chad; Anthony, John E; Amassian, Aram; Jurchescu, Oana D

    2017-08-15

    The temperature dependence of the charge-carrier mobility provides essential insight into the charge transport mechanisms in organic semiconductors. Such knowledge imparts critical understanding of the electrical properties of these materials, leading to better design of high-performance materials for consumer applications. Here, we present experimental results that suggest that the inhomogeneous strain induced in organic semiconductor layers by the mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of the consecutive device layers of field-effect transistors generates trapping states that localize charge carriers. We observe a universal scaling between the activation energy of the transistors and the interfacial thermal expansion mismatch, in which band-like transport is observed for similar CTEs, and activated transport otherwise. Our results provide evidence that a high-quality semiconductor layer is necessary, but not sufficient, to obtain efficient charge-carrier transport in devices, and underline the importance of holistic device design to achieve the intrinsic performance limits of a given organic semiconductor. We go on to show that insertion of an ultrathin CTE buffer layer mitigates this problem and can help achieve band-like transport on a wide range of substrate platforms.

  2. Radiation induced polymerization of MMA in imidazolium ionic liquids and their mixed solutions with organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Mingying [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu Guozhong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: wuguozhong@sinap.ac.cn; Sha Maolin; Liu Yusheng [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Considerably higher molecular weight (M{sub w}) and multi-modal molecular weight distribution (MWD) of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were observed in neat ionic liquids ([bmim][PF{sub 6}] and [bmim][BF{sub 4}]), as well as their mixed solutions with organic solvents, probably due to the high viscosity and inhomogeneity of ionic liquids. FTIR spectra for PMMA showed that a slight amount of ionic liquid remained in the resulting polymer, and DSC measurement indicated the increase of glass transition point of PMMA with increasing of ionic liquid fraction in mixed solutions.

  3. Selenium-induced autometallographic demonstration of endogenous zinc in organs of the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E

    1989-01-01

    , the intestine, and the gills, whereas, no such grains were found in preparations from fish having received 1 ppm Se. The use of selenium for the histochemical demonstration of endogenous zinc versus exogenous metals is discussed. Also, consideration is given to the question of which part of the total tissue......Autometallographic (AMG) silver enhancement of endogenous zinc was studied in seven organs of the rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri. Groups of trout were injected intraperitoneally with sodium selenite in doses ranging from 0.08 to 25 ppm, administered 1 h before being killed. The concentration...

  4. Electrical and Photo-Induced Degradation of ZnO Layers in Organic Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manor, Assaf; Katz, Eugene A.; Tromholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    minutes) does not affect the short-circuit current of the device. However, a significant degradation of V-OC and FF has been recorded by measurements of the cell current-voltage curves with a variation of light intensity, for the devices before and after the treatment. The same degradation was found......We present the case of degradation of organic solar cells by sunlight concentrated to a moderate level (similar to 4 suns). This concentration level is not enough for sufficient acceleration of the photobleaching or trap-generation in the photoactive layer and therefore such short treatment (100...

  5. Three-dimensional organization of micronuclei induced by colchicine in PtK sub 1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraud, G.; Laquerriere, F.; Masson, C.; Arnoult, J.; Labidi, B.; Hernandez-Verdun, D. (Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France))

    1989-03-01

    In PtK{sub 1} cells micronucleated by colchicine, the authors previously demonstrated that some micronuclei contain a single chromosome. Here, they investigated interphase chromosome organization in micronucleated PtK{sub 1} cells using conventional electron microscopy and three-dimensional computer reconstruction. The distribution of micronuclei was not always polarized, but in some cells they formed a ring. When this occurred, centrioles and Golgi apparatus were located inside the ring. On freeze-fracture replicas, they observed that nuclear pore distinction among the micronuclei was heterogeneous, and on thin sections some micronuclei displayed an incomplete nuclear envelope, with gaps in the double membrane and areas without lamina or condensed chromatin. By autoradiography, they showed that the fibrillar dots were not sites of active transcription. They applied three dimensional reconstruction to one micronucleated cell containing 22 micronuclei whose size indicated that each micronucleus probably contained one chromosome. In this cell they demonstrated that only the smallest micronuclei had an incomplete nuclear envelope. The presence in micronuclei of either nucleoli or fibrillar dots was found to be mutually exclusive. Taken together, these findings indicate that in the diploid nuclei of PtK{sub 1} cells, the three-dimensional organization of the nucleolar domain seems to be directly controlled by the X-chromosome.

  6. Multi-organ damage induced by anabolic steroid supplements: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaha Ali A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The use of anabolic supplements and other related drugs for body building and to enhance athletic performance is nowadays widespread and acutely pervasive all around the world. This alarming increase in the use of anabolic and amino acid supplements has been linked to a diverse array of pathologies. As previously reported, the abuse of androgenic steroids is not without severe physiological, psychiatric and physical costs. The case we report here describes multi-organ damage resulting from the abuse and uncontrolled use of anabolic steroid supplements, mainly testosterone. Case presentation A 24-year-old white man presented with abdominal pain concomitant with nausea and vomiting. Laboratory analysis revealed hypercalcemia, elevated liver enzymes and high levels of amylase, lipase and creatine protein kinase. Conclusion Amino acid as well as anabolic supplements may lead to abnormal functioning of many organs, which could be fatal in some instances. This mandates worldwide and concerted efforts to educate the public, especially the youth, about the dangers of these increasingly abused drugs.

  7. Desorption of large organic molecules induced by keV projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcorte, A.; Garrison, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    In order to understand the emission of organic molecules in sputtering, classical molecular dynamics (MD) is used to model the 5 keV Ar atom bombardment of polystyrene oligomers adsorbed on Ag{1 1 1}. The analysis of the results shows that a significant fraction of the trajectories generates high action events in the sample. These events are characterized by the simultaneous motion of several hundreds of substrate atoms and, oftentimes, by high emission yields of substrate atoms, clusters and polystyrene molecules. Collision trees representing the energetic part of the cascades confirm that high sputtering yields of molecules occur when a large portion of the primary particle energy is quickly dissipated in the upper layers of the silver substrate. This class of events where high action occurs in the surface region might explain the ejection of organic species with a mass of several kilodaltons such as biomolecules and synthetic polymers. In the simulation, these events are capable of desorbing polystyrene molecules of ∼2 kDa

  8. Review of reproductive and developmental toxicity induced by organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, A.; Takagi, A.; Nishimura, T.; Kanno, J.; Ema, M. [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Widespread use of organotins has caused increasing amounts to be released into the environment. The most important non-pesticidal route of entry of organotins into the environment is through leaching of organotin-stabilized PVC in water, and the use in antifouling agents, resulting in the introduction of organotin into the aquatic environment. Data are available regarding the detection of butyltins and phenyltins in aquatic marine organisms and marine products. Food chain bioamplification of butyltin in oysters, mud crabs, marine mussels, chinook salmons, dolphins, tunas, and sharks and of phenyltin in carps and horseshoe crabs has been reported. These findings indicate that organotins accumulate in the food chain and are bioconcentrated, and that humans can be exposed to organotins via seafood. The levels of organotin compounds in seafood are not considered to be sufficiently high to affect human health. However, Belfroid et al. (2000) noted that more research on residual TBT levels in seafood was needed before a definitive conclusion on possible health risks could be drawn. Although the toxicity of organotins has been extensively reviewed, the reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins is not well understood. We summarized the data of the studies on reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals.

  9. Electron beam induced strong organic/inorganic grafting for thermally stable lithium-ion battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunah; Kim, Jin Il; Moon, Jungjin; Jeong, Jongyeob; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2018-06-01

    A tailored interface between organic and inorganic materials is of great importance to maximize the synergistic effects from hybridization. Polyethylene separators over-coated with inorganic thin films are the state-of-the art technology for preparing various secondary batteries with high safety. Unfortunately, the organic/inorganic hybrid separators have the drawback of a non-ideal interface, thus causing poor thermal/dimensional stability. Here, we report a straightforward method to resolve the drawback of the non-ideal interface between vapor deposited SiO2 and polyethylene separators, to produce a highly stable lithium-ion battery separator through strong chemical linking generated by direct electron beam irradiation. The simple treatment with an electron beam with an optimized dose generates thermally stable polymer separators, which may enhance battery safety under high-temperature conditions. Additionally, the newly formed Si-O-C or Si-CH3 chemical bonding enhances electrolyte-separator compatibility and thus may provide a better environment for ionic transport between the cathode and anode, thereby leading to better charge/discharge behaviors.

  10. Effect of cationic/anionic organic surfactants on evaporation induced self assembled tin oxide nanostructured films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun Khun, Kamalpreet; Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Tin oxide nanostructures with well defined morphologies have been obtained through an evaporation induced self assembly process. The technique has been employed using an ultrasonic nebulizer for production of aersol and its subsequent deposition onto a heated glass substrate. The precursor used for aersol production was modified by introducing cationic and anionic surfactants namely cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate respectively. The effect of surfactants on the structural, electrical and optical properties of self assembled tin oxide nanostructures were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electroscope microscopy, two probe technique and photoluminiscence studies. The results reveal that high concentration of surfactants in the precursor solution leads to reduction in crystallite size with significant changes in the morphology of tin oxide nanostructures. Photoluminiscence studies of the nanostructures show emissions in the visible region which exhibit marked changes in the intensities upon variation of surfactants in the precursor solutions.

  11. Effect of cationic/anionic organic surfactants on evaporation induced self assembled tin oxide nanostructured films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun Khun, Kamalpreet [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Mahajan, Aman, E-mail: dramanmahajan@yahoo.co.in [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Bedi, R.K. [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Tin oxide nanostructures with well defined morphologies have been obtained through an evaporation induced self assembly process. The technique has been employed using an ultrasonic nebulizer for production of aersol and its subsequent deposition onto a heated glass substrate. The precursor used for aersol production was modified by introducing cationic and anionic surfactants namely cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate respectively. The effect of surfactants on the structural, electrical and optical properties of self assembled tin oxide nanostructures were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electroscope microscopy, two probe technique and photoluminiscence studies. The results reveal that high concentration of surfactants in the precursor solution leads to reduction in crystallite size with significant changes in the morphology of tin oxide nanostructures. Photoluminiscence studies of the nanostructures show emissions in the visible region which exhibit marked changes in the intensities upon variation of surfactants in the precursor solutions.

  12. Experimental investigations of laser-induced forward transfer process of organic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Benjamin; Alloncle, Anne Patricia; Delaporte, Philippe; Sentis, Marc; Sanaur, Sebastien; Barret, Michael; Collot, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with transfer induced by laser of thin layers of a conducting polymer, the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), for applications in plastic electronics. This relatively simple technique of direct writing offers the ability to make surface micro-patterning by localized deposits of material. The study of the various mechanisms (ablation, transfer and deposit) has been carried out according to different conditions of irradiation: wavelength (from ultraviolet to infrared radiation), pulse duration (nanosecond and sub-nanosecond) and fluence. The morphology of the transferred patterns has been analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. Our objective is to understand the different mechanisms involved in the process in order to optimize it in terms of geometrical resolution while preserving the properties of the transferred material

  13. Automated polarization control for the precise alignment of laser-induced self-organized nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermens, Ulrike; Pothen, Mario; Winands, Kai; Arntz, Kristian; Klocke, Fritz

    2018-02-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) found in particular applications in the fields of surface functionalization have been investigated since many years. The direction of these ripple structures with a periodicity in the nanoscale can be manipulated by changing the laser polarization. For industrial use, it is useful to manipulate the direction of these structures automatically and to obtain smooth changes of their orientation without any visible inhomogeneity. However, currently no system solution exists that is able to control the polarization direction completely automated in one software solution so far. In this paper, a system solution is presented that includes a liquid crystal polarizer to control the polarization direction. It is synchronized with a scanner, a dynamic beam expander and a five axis-system. It provides fast switching times and small step sizes. First results of fabricated structures are also presented. In a systematic study, the conjunction of LIPSS with different orientation in two parallel line scans has been investigated.

  14. Spatiotemporal characterization of ionizing radiation induced DNA damage foci and their relation to chromatin organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costes, Sylvain V; Chiolo, Irene; Pluth, Janice M.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Jakob, Burkhard

    2009-09-15

    DNA damage sensing proteins have been shown to localize to the sites of DSB within seconds to minutes following ionizing radiation (IR) exposure, resulting in the formation of microscopically visible nuclear domains referred to as radiation-induced foci (RIF). This review characterizes the spatio-temporal properties of RIF at physiological doses, minutes to hours following exposure to ionizing radiation, and it proposes a model describing RIF formation and resolution as a function of radiation quality and nuclear densities. Discussion is limited to RIF formed by three interrelated proteins ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated), 53BP1 (p53 binding protein 1) and ?H2AX (phosphorylated variant histone H2AX). Early post-IR, we propose that RIF mark chromatin reorganization, leading to a local nuclear scaffold rigid enough to keep broken DNA from diffusing away, but open enough to allow the repair machinery. We review data indicating clear kinetic and physical differences between RIF emerging from dense and uncondensed regions of the nucleus. At later time post-IR, we propose that persistent RIF observed days following exposure to ionizing radiation are nuclear ?scars? marking permanent disruption of the chromatin architecture. When DNA damage is resolved, such chromatin modifications should not necessarily lead to growth arrest and it has been shown that persistent RIF can replicate during mitosis. Thus, heritable persistent RIF spanning over tens of Mbp may affect the transcriptome of a large progeny of cells. This opens the door for a non DNA mutation-based mechanism of radiation-induced phenotypes.

  15. Unusual fatal multiple-organ dysfunction and pancreatitis induced by a single wasp sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Azad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS is a well-known complication following multiple wasp stings. However, MODS after a single wasp sting has been rarely reported in children and acute pancreatitis have probably never been observed before. Herein we describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who had urticaria and abdominal pain after a single wasp sting. The child gradually developed MODS while his abdominal complaints were worsening. Despite aggressive supportive management, the child did not survive. Afterward, the cause of the acute abdomen was finally diagnosed as acute pancreatitis. Both MODS and pancreatitis following a single wasp sting are very unusual. Thus, although pancreatitis is rarely manifested, it should be suspected after a wasp sting if there are predominant abdominal symptoms.

  16. Deuterium enrichment by selective photo-induced dissociation of an organic carbonyl compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marling, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    A deuterium-enriched material is produced by selective photoinduced dissociation of a gas phase organic carbonyl compound containing at least one hydrogen atom bonded to an atom adjacent to a carbonyl group. Alkyl carbonyl compounds such as acetone, acetaldehyde, trifluoroacetic acid, cyclobutanone, cyclopentanone, methyl acetate, 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone, 2,4-pentanedione, and 4-methyl-2-pentanone are preferred. The carbonyl compound is subjected to intense infrared radiation from one laser, or two lasers operating at different frequencies, to selectively dissociate the deuterated molecules into stable products. The undissociated compound may be redeuterated by direct aqueous liquid phase H/D exchange, or by indirect liquid phase exchange using an alkanol in an intermediate step

  17. Simulation of radiation-induced ozone decomposition in water in the presence of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, H.; Namba, H.; Miyata, T.; Arai, M.; Sakumoto, A.; Sunaga, H.

    1995-01-01

    Ozone decomposition in water by electron beam irradiation in the presence of acetic acid and t-butanol was studied by the direct measurement of ozone concentration using a spectroscopy equipped with optical fiber light guides and the computer simulation based on 80 reactions. The calculated data were in fair agreement with the observed data for acetic acid aq. solution. For t-butanol high concentration aq. solution, the calculated data became closer to the observed data when the decomposition of peroxide were assumed to occur to produce HO 2 or O 2 - . At low concentration of the organic solutes, the presence of HCO 3 - or CO 3 2- disturbs the ozone decomposition substantially. The concentrations of active species such as OH radicals during the irradiation were also estimated from the simulation. (author)

  18. The Simplest Flowchart Stating the Mechanisms for Organic Xenobiotics-induced Toxicity: Can it Possibly be Accepted as a "Central Dogma" for Toxic Mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeong-Chul; Lee, Sundong; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2014-09-01

    Xenobiotics causing a variety of toxicity in biological systems could be classified as two types, inorganic and organic chemicals. It is estimated that the organic xenobiotics are responsible for approximately 80~90% of chemical-induced toxicity in human population. In the class for toxicology, we have encountered some difficulties in explaining the mechanisms of toxicity caused especially by organic chemicals. Here, a simple flowchart was introduced for explaining the mechanism of toxicity caused by organic xenobiotics, as the central dogma of molecular biology. This flowchart, referred to as a central dogma, was described based on a view of various aspects as follows: direct-acting chemicals vs. indirect-acting chemicals, cytochrome P450-dependent vs. cytochrome P450-independent biotransformation, reactive intermediates, reactivation, toxicokinetics vs. toxicodynamics, and reversibility vs. irreversibility. Thus, the primary objective of this flowchart is to help better understanding of the organic xenobiotics-induced toxic mechanisms, providing a major pathway for toxicity occurring in biological systems.

  19. Liquid-Phase Laser Induced Forward Transfer for Complex Organic Inks and Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Alexander K; Narayan, Roger J

    2017-01-01

    Laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) acts as a novel alternative to incumbent plotting techniques such as inkjet printing due to its ability to precisely deposit and position picoliter-sized droplets while being gentle enough to preserve sensitive structures within the ink. Materials as simple as screen printing ink to complex eukaryotic cells have been printed with applications spanning from microelectronics to tissue engineering. Biotechnology can benefit from this technique due to the efficient use of low volumes of reagent and the compatibility with a wide range of rheological properties. In addition, LIFT can be performed in a simple lab environment, not requiring vacuum or other extreme conditions. Although the basic apparatus is simple, many strategies exist to optimize the performance considering the ink and the desired pattern. The basic mechanism is similar between studies so the large number of variants can be summarized into a couple of categories and reported on with respect to their specific applications. In particular, precise and gentle deposition of complex molecules and eukaryotic cells represent the unique abilities of this technology. LIFT has demonstrated not only marked improvements in the quality of sensors and related medical devices over those manufactured with incumbent technologies but also great applicability in tissue engineering due to the high viability of printed cells.

  20. An application of nitrogen microwave-induced plasma mass spectrometry to isotope dilution analysis of selenium in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirasaki, Toshihiro [Hitachi Instruments Engineering Co. Ltd., Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoshinaga, Jun; Morita, Masatoshi; Okumoto, Toyoharu; Oishi, Konosuke

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen microwave-induced plasma mass spectrometry was studied for its applicability to the isotope dilution analysis of selenium in biological samples. Spectroscopic interference by calcium, which is present in high concentrations in biological samples, was investigated. No detectable background spectrum was observed for the major selenium isotopes of {sup 78}Se and {sup 80}Se. No detectable interferences by sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus on the isotope ratio {sup 80}Se/{sup 78}Se were observed up to concentration of 200 mg/ml. The method was applied to the analysis of selenium in biological reference materials of marine organisms. The results showed good agreement between the certified and found values. (author).

  1. Selective observation of photo-induced electric fields inside different material components in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, S3-33 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-01-06

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement at two laser wavelengths of 1000 nm and 860 nm, we investigated carrier behavior inside the pentacene and C{sub 60} component of co-deposited pentacene:C{sub 60} bulk-heterojunctions (BHJs) organic solar cells (OSCs). The EFISHG experiments verified the presence of two carrier paths for electrons and holes in BHJs OSCs. That is, two kinds of electric fields pointing in opposite directions are identified as a result of the selectively probing of SHG activation from C{sub 60} and pentacene. Also, under open-circuit conditions, the transient process of the establishment of open-circuit voltage inside the co-deposited layer has been directly probed, in terms of photovoltaic effect. The EFISHG provides an additional promising method to study carrier path of electrons and holes as well as dissociation of excitons in BHJ OSCs.

  2. Tillage-induced changes to soil structure and organic carbon fractions in New Zealand soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, T. G.; Saggar, S.; Ross, C. W.; Dando, J. L.; Newman, R. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of increasing cropping and soil compaction on aggregate stability and dry-sieved aggregate-size distribution, and their relationship to total organic C (TOC) and the major functional groups of soil organic carbon, were investigated on 5 soils of contrasting mineralogy. All soils except the allophanic soil showed a significant decline in aggregate stability under medium- to long-term cropping. Mica-rich, fine-textured mineral and humic soils showed the greatest increase in the mean weight diameter (MWD) of dry aggregates, while the oxide-rich soils, and particularly the allophanic soils, showed only a slight increase in the MWD after long-term cropping. On conversion back to pasture, the aggregate stability of the mica-rich soils increased and the MWD of the aggregate-size distribution decreased, with the humic soil showing the greatest recovery. Aggregate stability and dry aggregate-size distribution patterns show that soil resistance to structural degradation and soil resilience increased from fine-textured to coarse-textured to humic mica-rich soils to oxide-rich soils to allophanic soils. Coarse- and fine-textured mica-rich and oxide-rich soils under pasture contained medium amounts of TOC, hot-water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), and acid hydrolysable carbohydrate (AHC), all of which declined significantly under cropping. The rate of decline varied with soil type in the initial years of cropping, but was similar under medium- and long-term cropping. TOC was high in the humic mica-rich and allophanic soils, and levels did not decline appreciably under medium- and long-term cropping. 13 C-nuclear magnetic resonance evidence also indicates that all major functional groups of soil organic carbon declined under cropping, with O-alkyl C and alkyl C showing the fastest and slowest rate of decline, respectively. On conversion back to pasture, both WSC and AHC returned to levels originally present under long-term pasture. TOC recovered to original pasture

  3. Japanese traditional miso soup attenuates salt-induced hypertension and its organ damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Mariko; Toda, Natsuko; Tamura, Yuki; Terakado, Shouko; Ueno, Mai; Otsuka, Kie; Numabe, Atsushi; Kawabata, Yukari; Uehara, Yoshio

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the effects of long-term miso soup drinking on salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rats. Dahl S rats were divided into four groups that consumed 1) water, 2) a 0.9% NaCl solution, 3) a 1.3% sodium NaCl solution, or 4) miso soup containing 1.3% NaCl. They were followed for 8 wk. Systolic blood pressure and hypertensive organ damage were determined. Systolic blood pressure increased in an age- and dose-dependent manner in Dahl S rats drinking salt solutions. The systolic blood pressure increase was significantly less in the Dahl S rats that drank miso soup, although the ultimate cumulative salt loading was greater than that in the Dahl S rats given the 1.3% NaCl solution. This blood pressure decrease was associated with a morphologic attenuation of glomerular sclerosis in the kidney and collagen infiltration in the heart. Urinary protein excretions were less in the miso group than in the rats given the 1.3% NaCl solution. The fractional excretion of sodium was increased and that of potassium was decreased in Dahl S rats given the 1.3% NaCl solution, and these effects were reversed in rats given miso soup toward the values of the control. We found that long-term miso soup drinking attenuates the blood pressure increase in salt-induced hypertension with organ damage. This may be caused by a possible retardation of sodium absorption in the gastrointestinal tract or by the direct effects of nutrients in the miso soup from soybeans. The decrease was associated with decreases in cardiovascular and renal damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of X-irradiation on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced multi-organ carcinogenesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Yukiko; Tanaka, Takuji; Mori, Hideki; Sasaki, Shunsaku.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of X-irradiation on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced multi-organ carcinogenesis were examined in both sexes of ACI/N rats. At 6 weeks of age, rats in groups 1 (25 males, 25 females) and 3 (24 males, 23 females) received a single intraperitoneal injection of MNU (25 mg/kg body weight), while those in groups 2 (25 males, 26 females) and 4 (25 males, 25 females) were administered the carcinogen at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. At 10 weeks of age, group 3 and group 4 were X-irradiated at dose of 3 Gy. Group 5 (24 males, 24 females) received X-irradiation alone. Group 6 (21 males, 21 females) served as an untreated control. As a result, neoplasms developed mainly in the digestive tract, kidney, uterus, and hematopoietic organ in groups 1-5. The incidences of adenocarcinoma in small and large intestines of male rats of group 4 (50 mg/kg MNU and X-irradiation) (small intestine: 48%, large intestine: 32%) were significantly higher than those of group 2 (50 mg/kg MNU) (small intestine: 17%, p<0.05; large intestine: 8%, p<0.05), and also the frequency of adenocarcinoma in the large intestine of males of group 3 (25 mg/kg MNU and X-irradiation) (22%) was significantly greater than that of group 1 (25 mg/kg MNU) (0%, p<0.05). These results indicated that X-irradiation enhanced the development of intestinal neoplasms induced by MNU in male ACI/N rats. (author)

  5. Effects of X-irradiation on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced multi-organ carcinogenesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Yukiko; Tanaka, Takuji; Mori, Hideki (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Sasaki, Shunsaku

    1993-01-01

    The effects of X-irradiation on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced multi-organ carcinogenesis were examined in both sexes of ACI/N rats. At 6 weeks of age, rats in groups 1 (25 males, 25 females) and 3 (24 males, 23 females) received a single intraperitoneal injection of MNU (25 mg/kg body weight), while those in groups 2 (25 males, 26 females) and 4 (25 males, 25 females) were administered the carcinogen at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. At 10 weeks of age, group 3 and group 4 were X-irradiated at dose of 3 Gy. Group 5 (24 males, 24 females) received X-irradiation alone. Group 6 (21 males, 21 females) served as an untreated control. As a result, neoplasms developed mainly in the digestive tract, kidney, uterus, and hematopoietic organ in groups 1-5. The incidences of adenocarcinoma in small and large intestines of male rats of group 4 (50 mg/kg MNU and X-irradiation) (small intestine: 48%, large intestine: 32%) were significantly higher than those of group 2 (50 mg/kg MNU) (small intestine: 17%, p<0.05; large intestine: 8%, p<0.05), and also the frequency of adenocarcinoma in the large intestine of males of group 3 (25 mg/kg MNU and X-irradiation) (22%) was significantly greater than that of group 1 (25 mg/kg MNU) (0%, p<0.05). These results indicated that X-irradiation enhanced the development of intestinal neoplasms induced by MNU in male ACI/N rats. (author).

  6. Drug-induced cellular death dynamics monitored by a highly sensitive organic electrochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Agostino; Tarabella, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Pasquale; Caffarra, Cristina; Cretella, Daniele; Alfieri, Roberta; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Iannotta, Salvatore

    2015-06-15

    We propose and demonstrate a sensitive diagnostic device based on an Organic Electrochemical Transistor (OECT) for direct in-vitro monitoring cell death. The system efficiently monitors cell death dynamics, being able to detect signals related to specific death mechanisms, namely necrosis or early/late apoptosis, demonstrating a reproducible correlation between the OECT electrical response and the trends of standard cell death assays. The innovative design of the Twell-OECT system has been modeled to better correlate electrical signals with cell death dynamics. To qualify the device, we used a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) that was cultivated on the micro-porous membrane of a Transwell (Twell) support, and exposed to the anticancer drug doxorubicin. Time-dependent and dose-dependent dynamics of A549 cells exposed to doxorubicin are evaluated by monitoring cell death upon exposure to a range of doses and times that fully covers the protocols used in cancer treatment. The demonstrated ability to directly monitor cell stress and death dynamics upon drug exposure using simple electronic devices and, possibly, achieving selectivity to different cell dynamics is of great interest for several application fields, including toxicology, pharmacology, and therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear calcium signaling induces expression of the synaptic organizers Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Stefanie N; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-02-27

    Calcium transients in the cell nucleus evoked by synaptic activity in hippocampal neurons function as a signaling end point in synapse-to-nucleus communication. As an important regulator of neuronal gene expression, nuclear calcium is involved in the conversion of synaptic stimuli into functional and structural changes of neurons. Here we identify two synaptic organizers, Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2, as targets of nuclear calcium signaling. Expression of both Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 increased in a synaptic NMDA receptor- and nuclear calcium-dependent manner in hippocampal neurons within 2-4 h after the induction of action potential bursting. Induction of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 occurred independently of the need for new protein synthesis and required calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and the nuclear calcium signaling target CREB-binding protein. Analysis of reporter gene constructs revealed a functional cAMP response element in the proximal promoter of Lrrtm2, indicating that at least Lrrtm2 is regulated by the classical nuclear Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV-CREB/CREB-binding protein pathway. These results suggest that one mechanism by which nuclear calcium signaling controls neuronal network function is by regulating the expression of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Nuclear Calcium Signaling Induces Expression of the Synaptic Organizers Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Stefanie N.; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-01-01

    Calcium transients in the cell nucleus evoked by synaptic activity in hippocampal neurons function as a signaling end point in synapse-to-nucleus communication. As an important regulator of neuronal gene expression, nuclear calcium is involved in the conversion of synaptic stimuli into functional and structural changes of neurons. Here we identify two synaptic organizers, Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2, as targets of nuclear calcium signaling. Expression of both Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 increased in a synaptic NMDA receptor- and nuclear calcium-dependent manner in hippocampal neurons within 2–4 h after the induction of action potential bursting. Induction of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 occurred independently of the need for new protein synthesis and required calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and the nuclear calcium signaling target CREB-binding protein. Analysis of reporter gene constructs revealed a functional cAMP response element in the proximal promoter of Lrrtm2, indicating that at least Lrrtm2 is regulated by the classical nuclear Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV-CREB/CREB-binding protein pathway. These results suggest that one mechanism by which nuclear calcium signaling controls neuronal network function is by regulating the expression of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2. PMID:25527504

  9. Field-induced exciton dissociation in PTB7-based organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Marina; Arndt, Andreas P.; Bilal, Mühenad; Lemmer, Uli; Koch, Martin; Howard, Ian A.

    2017-05-01

    The physics of charge separation in organic semiconductors is a topic of ongoing research of relevance to material and device engineering. Herein, we present experimental observations of the field and temperature dependence of charge separation from singlet excitons in PTB7 and PC71BM , and from charge-transfer states created across interfaces in PTB 7 /PC71BM bulk heterojunction solar cells. We obtain this experimental data by time-resolving the near infrared emission of the states from 10 K to room temperature and electric fields from 0 to 2.5 MVcm -1 . Examining how the luminescence is quenched by field and temperature gives direct insight into the underlying physics. We observe that singlet excitons can be split by high fields, and that disorder broadens the high threshold fields needed to split the excitons. Charge-transfer (CT) states, on the other hand, can be separated by both field and temperature. Also, the data imply a strong reduction of the activation barrier for charge splitting from the CT state relative to the exciton state. The observations provided herein of the field-dependent separation of CT states as a function of temperature offer a rich data set against which theoretical models of charge separation can be rigorously tested; it should be useful for developing the more advanced theoretical models of charge separation.

  10. Inducing self-organized criticality in a network toy model by neighborhood assortativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Perkins, Alfonso; Galeano, Javier; Pastor, Juan Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Complex networks are a recent type of framework used to study complex systems with many interacting elements, such as self-organized criticality (SOC). The network nodes' tendency to link to other nodes of similar type is characterized by assortative mixing. Real networks exhibit assortative mixing by vertex degree, however, typical random network models, such as the Erdős-Rényi or the Barabási-Albert model, show no assortative arrangements. In this paper we introduce the notion of neighborhood assortativity as the tendency of a node to belong to a community (its neighborhood) showing an average property similar to its own. Imposing neighborhood assortative mixing by degree in a network toy model, SOC dynamics can be found. These dynamics are driven only by the network topology. The long-range correlations resulting from criticality have been characterized by means of fluctuation analysis and show an anticorrelation in the node's activity. The model contains only one parameter and its statistics plots for different values of the parameter can be collapsed into a single curve. The simplicity of the model allows us to perform numerical simulations and also to study analytically the statistics for a specific value of the parameter, making use of the Markov chains.

  11. Metallothionein is induced and trace element balance changed in target organs of a common viral infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilbaeck, Nils-Gunnar; Glynn, Anders W.; Wikberg, Lotta; Netzel, Elvy; Lindh, Ulf

    2004-01-01

    In experimental studies on the common human coxsackievirus B type 3 (CB3) infection, administered cadmium (Cd) is known to accumulate in the liver and kidneys. CB3 adapted to Balb/c mice was used to study whether infection affects the Cd-binding protein, metallothionein (MT) and if this alters the normal physiological trace element balance in the liver, kidney, spleen and brain. On day 3 of infection, degradation of liver proteins (44%, P<0.01) occurred, whereas in the spleen, protein increased (63%, P<0.05). The infection increased MT five-fold (P<0.01) in liver and kidneys, and in spleen by 34% (P<0.05). A redistribution of Cd and copper (Cu) from the liver to the kidney was associated with this increase in MT, resulting in an increased (P<0.01) kidney/liver ratio for both elements. The infection increased the zinc (Zn) concentration more in the kidney than in the liver, but the kidney/liver ratio was not significantly affected. Results show that MT is increased in several organs during the early phase of infection and is associated with redistribution of both essential and non-essential trace elements. This may be a normal response in common infections that could adversely influence the pathogenesis when the host is concomitantly exposed to potentially toxic trace elements, even at levels in the physiological range

  12. Reduction in health risk induced by semi-volatile organic compounds and metals in a drinking water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, F.; Yin, J.; Zhang, X. X.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, B.; Li, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated health risk reduction in a drinking water treatment plant of Nanjing City (China) based on chemical detection of 22 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and 24 metallic elements in source water and drinking water during 2009–2011. Chemical analysis showed that 15 SVOCs and 9 metals were present in the water. Health risk assessment revealed that hazard quotient of each pollutant and hazard index (HI) of all the detectable pollutants were below 1.00, indicating that the chemicals posed negligible non-carcinogenic risk to local residents. Benzo(a)pyrene may induce carcinogenic risk since its risk index via both oral and dermal exposure exceeded the safety level (1.00E-6), but other SVOCs induced no carcinogenic risk. Total HI of the SVOCs was 1.08E-3 for the source water and 1.56E-3 for the drinking water, suggesting that the used conventional treatment processes (coagulation/sedimentation, sand filtration and chlorine disinfection) cannot effectively reduce the non-carcinogenic risk. The source water had higher carcinogenic risk than the drinking water, but risk index of the drinking water still exceeded 1.00E-6. This study might serve as a basis for health risk assessment of drinking water and also as a benchmark for the authorities to reduce health risk arising from trace-level hazardous pollutants.

  13. Fusarium oxysporum induces the production of proteins and volatile organic compounds by Trichoderma harzianum T-E5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengge; Yang, Xingming; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma species have been used widely as biocontrol agents for the suppression of soil-borne pathogens. However, some antagonistic mechanisms of Trichoderma are not well characterized. In this study, a series of laboratory experiments were designed to characterize the importance of mycoparasitism, exoenzymes, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 for the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). We further tested whether these mechanisms were inducible and upregulated in presence of FOC. The results were as follows: T-E5 heavily parasitized FOC by coiling and twisting the entire mycelium of the pathogen in dual cultures. T-E5 growing medium conditioned with deactivated FOC (T2) showed more proteins and higher cell wall-degrading enzyme activities than T1, suggesting that FOC could induce the upregulation of exoenzymes. The presence of deactivated FOC (T2') also resulted in the upregulation of VOCs that five and eight different types T-E5-derived VOCs were identified from T1' and T2', respectively. Further, the excreted VOCs in T2' showed significantly higher antifungal activities against FOC than T1'. In conclusion, mycoparasitism of T-E5 against FOC involved mycelium contact and the production of complex extracellular substances. Together, these data provide clues to help further clarify the interactions between these fungi. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The seleno-organic compound ebselen impairs mitochondrial physiology and induces cell death in AR42J cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santofimia-Castaño, Patricia; Garcia-Sanchez, Lourdes; Ruy, Deborah Clea; Fernandez-Bermejo, Miguel; Salido, Gines M; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2014-09-17

    Ebselen is a seleno-organic compound that causes cell death in several cancer cell types. The mechanisms underlying its deleterious effects have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the effects of ebselen (1 μM-40 μM) on AR42J tumor cells have been examined. Cell viability was studied using AlamarBlue(®) test. Cell cycle phase determination was carried out by flow cytometry. Changes in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration were followed by fluorimetry analysis of fura-2-loaded cells. Distribution of mitochondria, mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration and mitochondrial membrane potential were monitored by confocal microscopy of cells loaded with Mitotracker Green™ FM, rhod-2 or TMRM respectively. Caspase-3 activity was calculated following the luorogenic substrate ACDEVD-AMC signal with a spectrofluorimeter. Results show that cell viability decreased in the presence of ebselen. An increase in the number of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle was observed. Ebselen induced a concentration-dependent mobilization of Ca(2+) from agonist- and thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+) pools. Ebselen induced also a transient increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration, a progressive decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential and a disruption of the mitochondrial network. Finally, a concentration-dependent increase in caspase-3 activity was detected. We conclude that ebselen exerts deleterious actions on the cells that involve the impairment of mitochondrial physiology and the activation of caspase-3-mediated apoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Selol, an organic selenium donor, prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Agnieszka; Wilkaniec, Anna; Jęśko, Henryk; Czapski, Grzegorz A; Lenkiewicz, Anna M; Kurek, Eliza; Wroczyński, Piotr; Adamczyk, Agata

    2017-09-01

    Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are key intertwined pathological factors in many neurological, particularly neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disorders as well as autism. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of Selol, an organic selenium donor, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in rat brain. The results demonstrated that the peripheral administration of LPS in a dose of 100 μg/kg b.w. evoked typical pathological reaction known as systemic inflammatory response. Moreover, we observed elevated blood levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a marker of oxidative stress, as well as increased concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in LPS-treated animals. Selol significantly prevented these LPS-evoked changes. Subsequently, Selol protected against LPS-induced up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (Tnfa, Ifng, Il6) in rat brain cortex. The molecular mechanisms through which Selol prevented the neuroinflammation were associated with the inhibition of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) accumulation and with an increase of glutathione-associated enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) as well as thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity and expression. Finally, we observed that Selol administration effectively protected against LPS-induced changes in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). In conclusion, our studies indicated that Selol effectively protects against LPS-induced neuroinflammation by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine release, by boosting antioxidant systems, and by augmenting BDNF level. Therefore, Selol could be a multi-potent and effective drug useful in the treatment and prevention of brain disorders associated with neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioprinted 3D Primary Liver Tissues Allow Assessment of Organ-Level Response to Clinical Drug Induced Toxicity In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah G Nguyen

    Full Text Available Modeling clinically relevant tissue responses using cell models poses a significant challenge for drug development, in particular for drug induced liver injury (DILI. This is mainly because existing liver models lack longevity and tissue-level complexity which limits their utility in predictive toxicology. In this study, we established and characterized novel bioprinted human liver tissue mimetics comprised of patient-derived hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells in a defined architecture. Scaffold-free assembly of different cell types in an in vivo-relevant architecture allowed for histologic analysis that revealed distinct intercellular hepatocyte junctions, CD31+ endothelial networks, and desmin positive, smooth muscle actin negative quiescent stellates. Unlike what was seen in 2D hepatocyte cultures, the tissues maintained levels of ATP, Albumin as well as expression and drug-induced enzyme activity of Cytochrome P450s over 4 weeks in culture. To assess the ability of the 3D liver cultures to model tissue-level DILI, dose responses of Trovafloxacin, a drug whose hepatotoxic potential could not be assessed by standard pre-clinical models, were compared to the structurally related non-toxic drug Levofloxacin. Trovafloxacin induced significant, dose-dependent toxicity at clinically relevant doses (≤ 4uM. Interestingly, Trovafloxacin toxicity was observed without lipopolysaccharide stimulation and in the absence of resident macrophages in contrast to earlier reports. Together, these results demonstrate that 3D bioprinted liver tissues can both effectively model DILI and distinguish between highly related compounds with differential profile. Thus, the combination of patient-derived primary cells with bioprinting technology here for the first time demonstrates superior performance in terms of mimicking human drug response in a known target organ at the tissue level.

  17. Pairing experimentation and computational modelling to understand the role of tissue inducer cells in the development of lymphoid organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran eAlden

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of genetic tools, imaging technologies and ex vivo culture systems has provided significant insights into the role of tissue inducer cells and associated signalling pathways in the formation and function of lymphoid organs. Despite advances in experimental technologies, the molecular and cellular process orchestrating the formation of a complex 3-dimensional tissue is difficult to dissect using current approaches. Therefore, a robust set of simulation tools have been developed to model the processes involved in lymphoid tissue development. Specifically the role of different tissue inducer cell populations in the dynamic formation of Peyer's Patches has been examined. Utilising approaches from critical systems engineering an unbiased model of lymphoid tissue inducer cell function has been developed, that permits the development of emerging behaviours that are statistically not different from that observed in vivo. These results provide the confidence to utilise statistical methods to explore how the simulator predicts cellular behaviour and outcomes under different physiological conditions. Such methods, known as sensitivity analysis techniques, can provide insight into when a component part of the system (such as a particular cell type, adhesion molecule, or chemokine begins to have an influence on observed behaviour, and quantifies the effect a component part has on the end result: the formation of lymphoid tissue. Through use of such a principled approach in the design, calibration, and analysis of a computer simulation, a robust in silico tool can be developed which can both further the understanding of a biological system being explored, and act as a tool for the generation of hypotheses which can be tested utilising experimental approaches.

  18. Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Aluminium-Induced Organic Acid Anion Secretion from Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Xu, Jia-Meng; Lou, He-Qiang; Xiao, Chuan; Chen, Wei-Wei; Yang, Jian-Li

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) is abundant in oxalate and can secrete oxalate under aluminium (Al) stress. However, the features of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions (OA) and potential genes responsible for OA secretion are poorly understood. Here, Al-induced OA secretion in grain amaranth roots was characterized by ion charomatography and enzymology methods, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) together with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to identify up-regulated genes that are potentially involved in OA secretion. The results showed that grain amaranth roots secrete both oxalate and citrate in response to Al stress. The secretion pattern, however, differs between oxalate and citrate. Neither lanthanum chloride (La) nor cadmium chloride (Cd) induced OA secretion. A total of 84 genes were identified as up-regulated by Al, in which six genes were considered as being potentially involved in OA secretion. The expression pattern of a gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, AhMATE1, was in close agreement with that of citrate secretion. The expression of a gene encoding tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter and four genes encoding ATP-binding cassette transporters was differentially regulated by Al stress, but the expression pattern was not correlated well with that of oxalate secretion. Our results not only reveal the secretion pattern of oxalate and citrate from grain amaranth roots under Al stress, but also provide some genetic information that will be useful for further characterization of genes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. PMID:27144562

  19. Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Aluminium-Induced Organic Acid Anion Secretion from Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Xu, Jia-Meng; Lou, He-Qiang; Xiao, Chuan; Chen, Wei-Wei; Yang, Jian-Li

    2016-04-30

    Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) is abundant in oxalate and can secrete oxalate under aluminium (Al) stress. However, the features of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions (OA) and potential genes responsible for OA secretion are poorly understood. Here, Al-induced OA secretion in grain amaranth roots was characterized by ion charomatography and enzymology methods, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) together with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to identify up-regulated genes that are potentially involved in OA secretion. The results showed that grain amaranth roots secrete both oxalate and citrate in response to Al stress. The secretion pattern, however, differs between oxalate and citrate. Neither lanthanum chloride (La) nor cadmium chloride (Cd) induced OA secretion. A total of 84 genes were identified as up-regulated by Al, in which six genes were considered as being potentially involved in OA secretion. The expression pattern of a gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, AhMATE1, was in close agreement with that of citrate secretion. The expression of a gene encoding tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter and four genes encoding ATP-binding cassette transporters was differentially regulated by Al stress, but the expression pattern was not correlated well with that of oxalate secretion. Our results not only reveal the secretion pattern of oxalate and citrate from grain amaranth roots under Al stress, but also provide some genetic information that will be useful for further characterization of genes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms.

  20. Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Aluminium-Induced Organic Acid Anion Secretion from Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. is abundant in oxalate and can secrete oxalate under aluminium (Al stress. However, the features of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions (OA and potential genes responsible for OA secretion are poorly understood. Here, Al-induced OA secretion in grain amaranth roots was characterized by ion charomatography and enzymology methods, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH together with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR was used to identify up-regulated genes that are potentially involved in OA secretion. The results showed that grain amaranth roots secrete both oxalate and citrate in response to Al stress. The secretion pattern, however, differs between oxalate and citrate. Neither lanthanum chloride (La nor cadmium chloride (Cd induced OA secretion. A total of 84 genes were identified as up-regulated by Al, in which six genes were considered as being potentially involved in OA secretion. The expression pattern of a gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE family, AhMATE1, was in close agreement with that of citrate secretion. The expression of a gene encoding tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter and four genes encoding ATP-binding cassette transporters was differentially regulated by Al stress, but the expression pattern was not correlated well with that of oxalate secretion. Our results not only reveal the secretion pattern of oxalate and citrate from grain amaranth roots under Al stress, but also provide some genetic information that will be useful for further characterization of genes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms.

  1. Soil organic matter status in forest soils - possible indicators for climate change induced site shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Nadine; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören

    2010-05-01

    The quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) and SOM pools and thus the soil properties related to carbon sequestration and water retention are not constant but exhibit considerable variation through changing climate. In total changes in soil fertility and an increase in plant stress are expected. This is relevant for northwest Europe as well and may have economic and social impacts since functions of forests for wood production, groundwater recharge, soil protection and recreation might be affected. The study is done by comparative investigation of selected sites at four watersheds that represent typical forest stands in the region of Luxembourg and South West Germany. The aim is to identify SOM storage and stability in forest soils and its dependence on site properties and interaction with tree stand conditions. According to state of the art fractionation schemes functional C pools in forest soils and their stabilization mechanisms are investigated. In particular, distribution patterns are determined depending on location, tree stand and climatic conditions. Aim is to identify characteristics of SOM stability through fractionation of SOM according to density, particle size and chemical extractability and their subsequent analytical characterization. So far, reasons about the origin, composition and stabilization mechanisms underlying the different SOM pools are not fully understood. Presented are different patterns of distribution of SOM in relation to land use and site conditions, as well as similarities and differences between the different forest soils and results in addition to passive OM pool, which is mainly responsible for long-term stabilization of carbon in soils. These are aligned with selected general' soil properties such as pH, CEC and texture.

  2. Rainfall-induced fecal indicator organisms transport from manured fields: model sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gonzalo; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Whelan, Gene; Yakirevich, Alexander M; Guber, Andrey; Gish, Timothy J

    2014-02-01

    Microbial quality of surface waters attracts attention due to food- and waterborne disease outbreaks. Fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used for the microbial pollution level evaluation. Models predicting the fate and transport of FIOs are required to design and evaluate best management practices that reduce the microbial pollution in ecosystems and water sources and thus help to predict the risk of food and waterborne diseases. In this study we performed a sensitivity analysis for the KINEROS/STWIR model developed to predict the FIOs transport out of manured fields to other fields and water bodies in order to identify input variables that control the transport uncertainty. The distributions of model input parameters were set to encompass values found from three-year experiments at the USDA-ARS OPE3 experimental site in Beltsville and publicly available information. Sobol' indices and complementary regression trees were used to perform the global sensitivity analysis of the model and to explore the interactions between model input parameters on the proportion of FIO removed from fields. Regression trees provided a useful visualization of the differences in sensitivity of the model output in different parts of the input variable domain. Environmental controls such as soil saturation, rainfall duration and rainfall intensity had the largest influence in the model behavior, whereas soil and manure properties ranked lower. The field length had only moderate effect on the model output sensitivity to the model inputs. Among the manure-related properties the parameter determining the shape of the FIO release kinetic curve had the largest influence on the removal of FIOs from the fields. That underscored the need to better characterize the FIO release kinetics. Since the most sensitive model inputs are available in soil and weather databases or can be obtained using soil water models, results indicate the opportunity of obtaining large-scale estimates of FIO

  3. Xenotransplantation of a thyroid gland organ culture as the method of hormonal compensation of radiation-induced hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tron'ko, M.D.; Paster, Yi.P.; Vojtenko, L.M.; Donyich, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reestablishment of the thyroid function in rats with radiation-induced hypothyroidism. The serum total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) values in male Wistar rats, weighing of 100-150 g, fell to low levels by 2 weeks after 2.775 MBq 131-iodine administration. The values of serum TT4 in rats were generally in the euthyroid range by the 17th day after xenotransplantation (XTP) of 3-day old newborn pig thyroid organ culture by injection into the fat tissue of anterior abdominal wall. The serum TT3 values rose rapidly and reached normal levels by the 7th day after XTP. 7 days after XTP, all newborn pig thyroid xenografts showed 131-iodine uptake, and four of five xenografts were still functional bu the 17th day. These results indicate that the xenografted newborn pig thyroid organ culture allows a restoration of the thyroid function in rats with post radioiodine hypothyroidism

  4. The fabrication of small molecule organic light-emitting diode pixels by laser-induced forward transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Stewart, J. R. H.; Mattle, T.; Lippert, T. K.; Nagel, M.; Nüesch, F. A.; Wokaun, A.

    2013-01-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a versatile organic light-emitting diode (OLED) pixel deposition process, but has hitherto been applied exclusively to polymeric materials. Here, a modified LIFT process has been used to fabricate small molecule Alq3 organic light-emitting diodes (SMOLEDs). Small molecule thin films are considerably more mechanically brittle than polymeric thin films, which posed significant challenges for LIFT of these materials. The LIFT process presented here uses a polymeric dynamic release layer, a reduced environmental pressure, and a well-defined receiver-donor gap. The Alq3 pixels demonstrate good morphology and functionality, even when compared to conventionally fabricated OLEDs. The Alq3 SMOLED pixel performances show a significant amount of fluence dependence, not observed with polymerical OLED pixels made in previous studies. A layer of tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide has been deposited on top of the aluminium cathode, as part of the donor substrate, to improve electron injection to the Alq3, by over 600%. These results demonstrate that this variant of LIFT is applicable for the deposition of functional small molecule OLEDs as well as polymeric OLEDs.

  5. Production of organic compounds in plasmas: A comparison among electric sparks, laser-induced plasmas and UV light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T. W.; Mckay, C. P.; Borucki, W. J.; Giver, L. P.; Vanghyseghem, H.; Parris, J. E.; Miller, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    In order to study the production of organic compounds in plasmas (and shocks), various mixtures of N2, CH4, and H2, modeling the atmosphere of Titan, were exposed to discrete sparks, laser-induced plasmas (LIP) and ultraviolet light. The yields of HCN and simple hydrocarbons were measured and compared to those calculated from a simple quenched thermodynamic equilibrium model. The agreement between experiment and theory was fair for HCN and C2H2. However, the yields of C2H6 and other hydrocarbons were much higher than those predicted by the model. Our experiments suggest that photolysis by ultraviolet light from the plasma is an important process in the synthesis. This was confirmed by the photolysis of gas samples exposed to the light, but not to the plasma or shock waves. The results of these experiments demonstrate that, in addition to the well-known efficient synthesis of organic compounds in plasmas, the yields of saturated species, e.g., ethane, may be higher than predicted by theory and that LIP provide a convenient and clean way of simulating planetary lightning and impact plasmas in the laboratory.

  6. Study of interface layer effect in organic solar cells by electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Dai; Sumiyoshi, Ryota; Chen, Xiangyu; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp

    2014-03-03

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the effect of the use of bathocuproine (BCP) interface layer. The EFISHG measurements of indium–zinc–oxide (IZO)/C{sub 60}/Al diodes showed that the BCP layer inserted between C{sub 60} and Al formed an electrostatic field |E{sub i}| = 2.5 × 10{sup 4} V/cm in the C{sub 60} layer, pointing in a direction from the Al to the IZO. Accordingly, in the IZO/pentacene/C{sub 60}/BCP/Al organic solar cells (OSCs), holes (electrons) move to the IZO (Al) electrode, enhancing the short-circuit current. The EFISHG measurement is capable of directly probing internal fields in the layers used for OSCs, and is helpful for studying the contribution of the interface layer in OSCs. - Highlights: • Internal field in organic solar cells (OSCs) were directly probed. • Interface layer formed internal electric field, enhancing the OSC performance. • Maxwell–Wagner effect accounts for the internal electric field formation.

  7. Organ-specific radiation-induced cancer risk estimates due to radiotherapy for benign pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2016-09-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a benign disease affecting synovial membranes of young and middle-aged adults. The aggressive treatment of this disorder often involves external-beam irradiation. This study was motivated by the lack of data relating to the radiation exposure of healthy tissues and radiotherapy-induced cancer risk. Monte Carlo methodology was employed to simulate a patient’s irradiation for PVNS in the knee and hip joints with a 6 MV photon beam. The average radiation dose received by twenty-two out-of-field critical organs of the human body was calculated. These calculations were combined with the appropriate organ-, age- and gender-specific risk coefficients of the BEIR-VII model to estimate the lifetime probability of cancer development. The risk for carcinogenesis to colon, which was partly included in the treatment fields used for hip irradiation, was determined with a non-linear mechanistic model and differential dose-volume histograms obtained by CT-based 3D radiotherapy planning. Risk assessments were compared with the nominal lifetime intrinsic risk (LIR) values. Knee irradiation to 36 Gy resulted in out-of-field organ doses of 0.2-24.6 mGy. The corresponding range from hip radiotherapy was 1.2-455.1 mGy whereas the organ equivalent dose for the colon was up to 654.9 mGy. The organ-specific cancer risks from knee irradiation for PVNS were found to be inconsequential since they were at least 161.5 times lower than the LIRs irrespective of the patient’s age and gender. The bladder and colon cancer risk from radiotherapy in the hip joint was up to 3.2 and 6.6 times smaller than the LIR, respectively. These cancer risks may slightly elevate the nominal incidence rates and they should not be ignored during the patient’s treatment planning and follow-up. The probabilities for developing any other solid tumor were more than 20 times lower than the LIRs and, therefore, they may be considered as small.

  8. Nucleosome organizations in induced pluripotent stem cells reprogrammed from somatic cells belonging to three different germ layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Zheng, Weisheng; Jiang, Yonghua; Ding, Guitao; Hou, Xinfeng; Tang, Yitao; Li, Yueying; Gao, Shuai; Chang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaobai; Liu, Wenqiang; Kou, Xiaochen; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Cizhong; Gao, Shaorong

    2014-12-21

    Nucleosome organization determines the chromatin state, which in turn controls gene expression or silencing. Nucleosome remodeling occurs during somatic cell reprogramming, but it is still unclear to what degree the re-established nucleosome organization of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) resembles embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and whether the iPSCs inherit some residual gene expression from the parental fibroblast cells. We generated genome-wide nucleosome maps in mouse ESCs and in iPSCs reprogrammed from somatic cells belonging to three different germ layers using a secondary reprogramming system. Pairwise comparisons showed that the nucleosome organizations in the iPSCs, regardless of the iPSCs' tissue of origin, were nearly identical to the ESCs, but distinct from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). There is a canonical nucleosome arrangement of -1, nucleosome depletion region, +1, +2, +3, and so on nucleosomes around the transcription start sites of active genes whereas only a nucleosome occupies silent transcriptional units. Transcription factor binding sites possessed characteristic nucleosomal architecture, such that their access was governed by the rotational and translational settings of the nucleosome. Interestingly, the tissue-specific genes were highly expressed only in the parental somatic cells of the corresponding iPS cell line before reprogramming, but had a similar expression level in all the resultant iPSCs and ESCs. The re-established nucleosome landscape during nuclear reprogramming provides a conserved setting for accessibility of DNA sequences in mouse pluripotent stem cells. No persistent residual expression program or nucleosome positioning of the parental somatic cells that reflected their tissue of origin was passed on to the resulting mouse iPSCs.

  9. In vivo administration of interferon alpha and interleukin 2 induces proliferation of lymphoid cells in the organs of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, R.K.; Travis, W.D.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    We have previously shown that interleukin 2 (IL-2) synergizes with interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) in mediating the regression of established pulmonary and hepatic metastases and the reduction of intradermal tumor in various murine tumor models. To understand the mechanism of synergy, we have examined lymphoid cell proliferation in various organs of mice in response to IL-2 and IFN-alpha administration. We have utilized a technique for labeling newly synthesized DNA in vivo with 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine to examine proliferation of endogenous cells in response to IL-2 and IL-2 plus IFN-alpha. A proliferation index was calculated by dividing cpm in the tissues treated with cytokines by cpm obtained in corresponding tissues of control mice. After 4 days of IL-2 administration, a significant uptake of 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine was observed in the lungs, liver, kidneys, and spleen (proliferation index of 13, 10.3, 3.6, and 3.2, respectively). IFN-alpha alone mediated very little incorporation of radiolabel but when administered in combination with IL-2 a reduction of IL-2-induced proliferation was seen on day 4. For example 19,272 +/- 4,556 cpm (mean +/- SE) were obtained in the liver of IL-2-treated mice, compared to 8,103 +/- 2,111 cpm in livers of IL-2 plus IFN-alpha-treated mice (P less than 0.05). Similar inhibition of IL-2-induced proliferation was observed in the lungs, kidneys, and spleen. In contrast, on days 7 or 8, higher uptake of radiolabel was obtained in IFN-alpha plus IL-2-treated lungs, liver, and kidneys, compared to organs of mice treated with IL-2 alone or IFN-alpha alone. A proliferation index of 30.5, 9.8, and 10 was obtained in the lungs, liver, and kidneys of IL-2- plus IFN-alpha-treated animals, compared to 9.6, 3.6, and 5.5 in the corresponding organs of IL-2-treated mice

  10. Distortion of genetically modified organism quantification in processed foods: influence of particle size compositions and heat-induced DNA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreano, Francisco; Busch, Ulrich; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2005-12-28

    Milling fractions from conventional and transgenic corn were prepared at laboratory scale and used to study the influence of sample composition and heat-induced DNA degradation on the relative quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food products. Particle size distributions of the obtained fractions (coarse grits, regular grits, meal, and flour) were characterized using a laser diffraction system. The application of two DNA isolation protocols revealed a strong correlation between the degree of comminution of the milling fractions and the DNA yield in the extracts. Mixtures of milling fractions from conventional and transgenic material (1%) were prepared and analyzed via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Accurate quantification of the adjusted GMO content was only possible in mixtures containing conventional and transgenic material in the form of analogous milling fractions, whereas mixtures of fractions exhibiting different particle size distributions delivered significantly over- and underestimated GMO contents depending on their compositions. The process of heat-induced nucleic acid degradation was followed by applying two established quantitative assays showing differences between the lengths of the recombinant and reference target sequences (A, deltal(A) = -25 bp; B, deltal(B) = +16 bp; values related to the amplicon length of the reference gene). Data obtained by the application of method A resulted in underestimated recoveries of GMO contents in the samples of heat-treated products, reflecting the favored degradation of the longer target sequence used for the detection of the transgene. In contrast, data yielded by the application of method B resulted in increasingly overestimated recoveries of GMO contents. The results show how commonly used food technological processes may lead to distortions in the results of quantitative GMO analyses.

  11. DNA damage induced in mouse tissues by organic wood preserving waste extracts as assayed by {sup 32}P-postlabeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randerath, E. [Division of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Zhou, G.D. [Division of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Donnelly, K.C. [Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Safe, S.H. [Department of Veterinary Physiology/Pharmacology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Randerath, K. [Division of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    In the present study, a mouse bioassay was used in combination with {sup 32}P-postlabeling to determine DNA adduct formation induced by hexane/acetone extracts of two samples from a WPW site. Female ICR mice were treated dermally with extract corresponding to 3 mg residue or vehicle control once per day for 2 days and killed 24 h later. Skin, lung, liver, kidney, and heart DNA preparations were assayed by nuclease P1-enhanced postlabeling. Adduct profiles were tissue-specific and displayed a multitude of non-polar DNA adducts with levels amounting to one adduct in 1.6 x 10{sup 6} DNA nucleotides in skin (both extracts) and one adduct in 3.2 x 10{sup 7} or 1.2 x 10{sup 7} DNA nucleotides in liver (extract 1 or extract 2). Based on their chromatographic properties, these adducts appeared largely derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the extracts. One of the major adducts was identified as the {sup 32}P-labeled derivative of the reaction product of 7{beta}, 8{alpha}-dihydroxy-9{alpha}, 10{alpha}-epoxy-7, 8, 9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE I) with N{sup 2} of deoxyguanosine. Total non-polar DNA adduct levels were highest in skin and lung, amounting to 17.4 and 24.0% of the skin values for extracts 1 and 2, respectively, in lung while the corresponding levels in liver were 5.0 and 12.6%. These results were in accord with the carcinogenic potencies of PAHs in these organs. Extract 2 induced higher adduct levels in internal organs, although its PAH concentrations were lower than those of extract 1, i.e. lung, liver, kidney, and heart had 1.4, 2.5, 1.9, and 1.7 times higher total adduct levels and 1.6, 3.3, 1.6, and 1.9 times higher benzo[a]pyrene adduct levels. With the exception of total adducts in lung, the differences between the two extracts were all significant, suggestive of compound interactions. (orig.) (orig.). With 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. DNA damage induced in mouse tissues by organic wood preserving waste extracts as assayed by 32P-postlabeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randerath, E.; Zhou, G.D.; Donnelly, K.C.; Safe, S.H.; Randerath, K.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, a mouse bioassay was used in combination with 32 P-postlabeling to determine DNA adduct formation induced by hexane/acetone extracts of two samples from a WPW site. Female ICR mice were treated dermally with extract corresponding to 3 mg residue or vehicle control once per day for 2 days and killed 24 h later. Skin, lung, liver, kidney, and heart DNA preparations were assayed by nuclease P1-enhanced postlabeling. Adduct profiles were tissue-specific and displayed a multitude of non-polar DNA adducts with levels amounting to one adduct in 1.6 x 10 6 DNA nucleotides in skin (both extracts) and one adduct in 3.2 x 10 7 or 1.2 x 10 7 DNA nucleotides in liver (extract 1 or extract 2). Based on their chromatographic properties, these adducts appeared largely derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the extracts. One of the major adducts was identified as the 32 P-labeled derivative of the reaction product of 7β, 8α-dihydroxy-9α, 10α-epoxy-7, 8, 9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE I) with N 2 of deoxyguanosine. Total non-polar DNA adduct levels were highest in skin and lung, amounting to 17.4 and 24.0% of the skin values for extracts 1 and 2, respectively, in lung while the corresponding levels in liver were 5.0 and 12.6%. These results were in accord with the carcinogenic potencies of PAHs in these organs. Extract 2 induced higher adduct levels in internal organs, although its PAH concentrations were lower than those of extract 1, i.e. lung, liver, kidney, and heart had 1.4, 2.5, 1.9, and 1.7 times higher total adduct levels and 1.6, 3.3, 1.6, and 1.9 times higher benzo[a]pyrene adduct levels. With the exception of total adducts in lung, the differences between the two extracts were all significant, suggestive of compound interactions. (orig.) (orig.). With 5 figs., 6 tabs

  13. A 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR induces organ adhesion by regulating miR-199a* functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y Lee

    Full Text Available Mature microRNAs (miRNAs are single-stranded RNAs of 18-24 nucleotides that repress post-transcriptional gene expression. However, it is unknown whether the functions of mature miRNAs can be regulated. Here we report that expression of versican 3'UTR induces organ adhesion in transgenic mice by modulating miR-199a* activities. The study was initiated by the hypothesis that the non-coding 3'UTR plays a role in the regulation of miRNA function. Transgenic mice expressing a construct harboring the 3'UTR of versican exhibits the adhesion of organs. Computational analysis indicated that a large number of microRNAs could bind to this fragment potentially including miR-199a*. Expression of versican and fibronectin, two targets of miR-199a*, are up-regulated in transgenic mice, suggesting that the 3'UTR binds and modulates miR-199a* activities, freeing mRNAs of versican and fibronectin from being repressed by miR-199a*. Confirmation of the binding was performed by PCR using mature miR-199a* as a primer and the targeting was performed by luciferase assays. Enhanced adhesion by expression of the 3'UTR was confirmed by in vitro assays. Our results demonstrated that upon arrival in cytoplasm, miRNA activities can be modulated locally by the 3'UTR. Our assay may be developed as sophisticated approaches for studying the mutual regulation of miRNAs and mRNAs in vitro and in vivo. We anticipate that expression of the 3'UTR may be an approach in the development of gene therapy.

  14. A 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) induces organ adhesion by regulating miR-199a* functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel Y; Shatseva, Tatiana; Jeyapalan, Zina; Du, William W; Deng, Zhaoqun; Yang, Burton B

    2009-01-01

    Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs of 18-24 nucleotides that repress post-transcriptional gene expression. However, it is unknown whether the functions of mature miRNAs can be regulated. Here we report that expression of versican 3'UTR induces organ adhesion in transgenic mice by modulating miR-199a* activities. The study was initiated by the hypothesis that the non-coding 3'UTR plays a role in the regulation of miRNA function. Transgenic mice expressing a construct harboring the 3'UTR of versican exhibits the adhesion of organs. Computational analysis indicated that a large number of microRNAs could bind to this fragment potentially including miR-199a*. Expression of versican and fibronectin, two targets of miR-199a*, are up-regulated in transgenic mice, suggesting that the 3'UTR binds and modulates miR-199a* activities, freeing mRNAs of versican and fibronectin from being repressed by miR-199a*. Confirmation of the binding was performed by PCR using mature miR-199a* as a primer and the targeting was performed by luciferase assays. Enhanced adhesion by expression of the 3'UTR was confirmed by in vitro assays. Our results demonstrated that upon arrival in cytoplasm, miRNA activities can be modulated locally by the 3'UTR. Our assay may be developed as sophisticated approaches for studying the mutual regulation of miRNAs and mRNAs in vitro and in vivo. We anticipate that expression of the 3'UTR may be an approach in the development of gene therapy.

  15. Impaired activity of bile bile canalicular organic anion transporter (Mrp2/cmoat) is not the main cause of ethinylestradiol-induced cholestasis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopen, NR; Wolters, H; Havinga, R; Vonk, RJ; Jansen, PLM; Muller, M; Kuipers, F

    To test the hypothesis that impaired activity of the bile canalicular organic anion transporting system mrp2 (cmoat) is a key event in the etiology of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE)-induced intrahepatic cholestasis in rats, EE (5 mg/kg subcutaneously daily) was administered to male normal Wistar

  16. Panic-like defensive behavior but not fear-induced antinociception is differently organized by dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei of Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia, Muridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Biagioni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is a forebrain structure critically involved in the organization of defensive responses to aversive stimuli. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic dysfunction in dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei is implicated in the origin of panic-like defensive behavior, as well as in pain modulation. The present study was conducted to test the difference between these two hypothalamic nuclei regarding defensive and antinociceptive mechanisms. Thus, the GABA A antagonist bicuculline (40 ng/0.2 µL or saline (0.9% NaCl was microinjected into the dorsomedial or posterior hypothalamus in independent groups. Innate fear-induced responses characterized by defensive attention, defensive immobility and elaborate escape behavior were evoked by hypothalamic blockade of GABA A receptors. Fear-induced defensive behavior organized by the posterior hypothalamus was more intense than that organized by dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei. Escape behavior elicited by GABA A receptor blockade in both the dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamus was followed by an increase in nociceptive threshold. Interestingly, there was no difference in the intensity or in the duration of fear-induced antinociception shown by each hypothalamic division presently investigated. The present study showed that GABAergic dysfunction in nuclei of both the dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamus elicit panic attack-like defensive responses followed by fear-induced antinociception, although the innate fear-induced behavior originates differently in the posterior hypothalamus in comparison to the activity of medial hypothalamic subdivisions.

  17. Were volatile organic compounds the inducing factors for subjective symptoms of employees working in newly constructed hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, Tomoko; Horike, Tokushi; Ohashi, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Wang, Da-Hong; Kira, Shohei

    2004-08-01

    This study demonstrated possible relationships between environmental, personal, and occupational factors and changes in the subjective health symptoms of 214 employees after the relocation of a hospital in a region of Japan. Eight indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in at least one of the 19 rooms investigated, and total VOC (TVOC) concentrations in 8 rooms exceeded the advisable value (400 microg/m(3)) established by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Formaldehyde was detected in all the investigated rooms, but none of the results exceeded the guideline value (100 microg/m(3)). Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to select variables significantly associated with the subjective symptoms that can be induced by sick building syndrome. The results showed that subjective symptoms of deterioration in the skin, eye, ear, throat, chest, central nervous system, autonomic system, musculoskeletal system, and digestive system among employees were associated mainly with gender difference and high TVOC concentrations (>1200 microg/m(3)). Long work hours (>50 h per week) in females and smoking in males were to be blamed for the deterioration of their symptoms. The present findings suggest that to protect employees from indoor environment-related adverse health effects, it is necessary to reduce the concentration of indoor chemicals in new buildings, to decrease work hours, and to forbid smoking. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to measure quantitatively soil carbon with emphasis on soil organic carbon. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senesi, Giorgio S; Senesi, Nicola

    2016-09-28

    Soil organic carbon (OC) measurement is a crucial factor for quantifying soil C pools and inventories and monitoring the inherent temporal and spatial heterogeneity and changes of soil OC content. These are relevant issues in addressing sustainable management of terrestrial OC aiming to enhance C sequestration in soil, thus mitigating the impact of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and related effects on global climate change. Nowadays, dry combustion by an elemental analyzer or wet combustion by dichromate oxidation of the soil sample are the most recommended and commonly used methods for quantitative soil OC determination. However, the unanimously recognized uncertainties and limitations of these classical laboursome methods have prompted research efforts focusing on the development and application of more advanced and appealing techniques and methods for the measurement of soil OC in the laboratory and possibly in situ in the field. Among these laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has raised the highest interest for its unique advantages. After an introduction and a highlight of the LIBS basic principles, instrumentation, methodologies and supporting chemometric methods, the main body of this review provides an historical and critical overview of the developments and results obtained up-to-now by the application of LIBS to the quantitative measurement of soil C and especially OC content. A brief critical summary of LIBS advantages and limitations/drawbacks including some final remarks and future perspectives concludes this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The contribution of oxidative stress to drug-induced organ toxicity and its detection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Claudia V; Nadanaciva, Sashi; Oliveira, Paulo J; Will, Yvonne

    2012-02-01

    Nowadays the 'redox hypothesis' is based on the fact that thiol/disulfide couples such as glutathione (GSH/GSSG), cysteine (Cys/CySS) and thioredoxin ((Trx-(SH)2/Trx-SS)) are functionally organized in redox circuits controlled by glutathione pools, thioredoxins and other control nodes, and they are not in equilibrium relative to each other. Although ROS can be important intermediates of cellular signaling pathways, disturbances in the normal cellular redox can result in widespread damage to several cell components. Moreover, oxidative stress has been linked to a variety of age-related diseases. In recent years, oxidative stress has also been identified to contribute to drug-induced liver, heart, renal and brain toxicity. This review provides an overview of current in vitro and in vivo methods that can be deployed throughout the drug discovery process. In addition, animal models and noninvasive biomarkers are described. Reducing post-market drug withdrawals is essential for all pharmaceutical companies in a time of increased patient welfare and tight budgets. Predictive screens positioned early in the drug discovery process will help to reduce such liabilities. Although new and more efficient assays and models are being developed, the hunt for biomarkers and noninvasive techniques is still in progress.

  20. Effects of Extensive Beetle-Induced Forest Mortality on Aromatic Organic Carbon Loading and Disinfection Byproduct Formation Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillard, B.; Mikkelson, K. M.; Dickenson, E.; Sharp, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent drought and warmer temperatures associated with climate change have caused increased pest-induced forest mortality with impacts on biogeochemical and hydrologic processes. To better understand the seasonal impacts of bark beetle infestation on water quality, samples were collected regularly over two overlapping snow free seasons at surface water intakes of six water treatment facilities in the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado displaying varying levels of bark beetle infestation (high >40%, moderate 20-40%, and low <20%). Organic carbon concentrations were typically 3 to 6 times higher in waters sourced from high beetle-impacted watersheds compared to moderate and low impact watersheds, revealing elevated specific ultraviolet absorbance, fluorescence, and humic-like intensity indicative of elevated aromatic carbon signatures. Accordingly, an increase in disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potential of 400 to 600% was quantified when contrasted with watersheds containing less tree mortality. Beetle impact exasperated seasonal increases in carbon loading and DBP formation potential following both runoff and precipitation events indicating windows when enhanced water treatment may be utilized by water providers in highly infested regions. Additionally, elevated carbon concentrations throughout the summer and fall along with peaks following precipitation events provide evidence of shifting hydrologic flow paths in areas experiencing high forest mortality from decreased tree water uptake and interception. Collectively, these results demonstrate the need for continued watershed protection and monitoring with a changing climate as the resultant perturbations can have adverse effects on biogeochemistry and water quality in heavily impacted areas.

  1. One year monitoring of fire-induced effects on dissolved organic matter and nutrient dynamics under different land-use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthast, Karin; Meyer, Stefanie; Crecelius, Anna; Schubert, Ulrich; Michalzik, Beate

    2016-04-01

    It is supposed that the changing climate will promote extreme weather events that in turn will increase drought periods and the abundance of fire events in temperate climate regions such as Central Europe. The impact of fires on the nutrient budgets of ecosystems is highly diverse and seems to depend on the ecosystem type. For example, little is known about fire effects on water-bound organic matter (OM) and nutrient fluxes in temperate managed forest ecosystems. Fires can strongly alter the distribution (forest floor vs. mineral soil), binding forms (organic vs. inorganic) and availability (solubility by water) of OM and associated nutrients. To elucidate the effects and seasonality of low intensity fires on the mobilization of dissolved organic carbon and nutrients, an experimental ground fire was conducted in November 2014 in the Hainich region, Central Germany. In addition, differences in response patterns between two land-use types (pasture and beech forest) were investigated. Lysimeters (n=5 controls/ 5 fire-manipulated) with topsoil monoliths (0-4 cm), rainfall/throughfall samplers, littertraps as well as temperature and moisture sensors were installed on three sites of each land-use type. During the one year of monitoring (Sep14-Dec15) soil solution, rainfall, and throughfall samples were taken biweekly and analyzed for pH, dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC) and nitrogen (DN, PN) as well as for nutrients (e.g. K, Ca, Mg, P, S). Compared to the control sites, the ground fire immediately induced a short-run release peak of DOC in both land-use types. Within two weeks these differences were muted in the post-fire period. The effect of fire was land-use specific with annual DOC fluxes of 82 and 45 kg/(ha*a) for forest and pasture sites, respectively. In contrast, nitrogen fluxes responded differently to the fire event. In the forest, a significant increase in DN concentrations was notable five months after the fire, at the beginning of the

  2. Actin re-organization induced by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D--evidence for a critical role of the effector protein CT166 targeting Rac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Thalmann

    Full Text Available The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes infections of urogenital tract, eyes or lungs. Alignment reveals homology of CT166, a putative effector protein of urogenital C. trachomatis serovars, with the N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain of clostridial glucosylating toxins (CGTs. CGTs contain an essential DXD-motif and mono-glucosylate GTP-binding proteins of the Rho/Ras families, the master regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. CT166 is preformed in elementary bodies of C. trachomatis D and is detected in the host-cell shortly after infection. Infection with high MOI of C. trachomatis serovar D containing the CT166 ORF induces actin re-organization resulting in cell rounding and a decreased cell diameter. A comparable phenotype was observed in HeLa cells treated with the Rho-GTPase-glucosylating Toxin B from Clostridium difficile (TcdB or HeLa cells ectopically expressing CT166. CT166 with a mutated DXD-motif (CT166-mut exhibited almost unchanged actin dynamics, suggesting that CT166-induced actin re-organization depends on the glucosyltransferase motif of CT166. The cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1 from E. coli deamidates and thereby activates Rho-GTPases and transiently protects them against TcdB-induced glucosylation. CNF1-treated cells were found to be protected from TcdB- and CT166-induced actin re-organization. CNF1 treatment as well as ectopic expression of non-glucosylable Rac1-G12V, but not RhoA-G14A, reverted CT166-induced actin re-organization, suggesting that CT166-induced actin re-organization depends on the glucosylation of Rac1. In accordance, over-expression of CT166-mut diminished TcdB induced cell rounding, suggesting shared substrates. Cell rounding induced by high MOI infection with C. trachomatis D was reduced in cells expressing CT166-mut or Rac1-G12V, and in CNF1 treated cells. These observations indicate that the cytopathic effect of C. trachomatis D is mediated by CT166 induced Rac1 glucosylation

  3. Organic Solute Transporter α-β Protects Ileal Enterocytes From Bile Acid–Induced InjurySummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney B. Ferrebee

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Ileal bile acid absorption is mediated by uptake via the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT, and export via the basolateral heteromeric organic solute transporter α-β (OSTα-OSTβ. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of enterocyte bile acid stasis in Ostα-/- mice, including the temporal relationship between intestinal injury and initiation of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Methods: Ileal tissue morphometry, histology, markers of cell proliferation, gene, and protein expression were analyzed in male and female wild-type and Ostα-/- mice at postnatal days 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30. Ostα-/-Asbt-/- mice were generated and analyzed. Bile acid activation of intestinal Nrf2-activated pathways was investigated in Drosophila. Results: As early as day 5, Ostα-/- mice showed significantly increased ileal weight per length, decreased villus height, and increased epithelial cell proliferation. This correlated with premature expression of the Asbt and induction of bile acid–activated farnesoid X receptor target genes in neonatal Ostα-/- mice. Expression of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-1 and Nrf2–anti-oxidant responsive genes were increased significantly in neonatal Ostα-/- mice at these postnatal time points. Bile acids also activated Nrf2 in Drosophila enterocytes and enterocyte-specific knockdown of Nrf2 increased sensitivity of flies to bile acid–induced toxicity. Inactivation of the Asbt prevented the changes in ileal morphology and induction of anti-oxidant response genes in Ostα-/- mice. Conclusions: Early in postnatal development, loss of Ostα leads to bile acid accumulation, oxidative stress, and a restitution response in ileum. In addition to its essential role in maintaining bile acid homeostasis, Ostα-Ostβ functions to protect the ileal epithelium against bile acid–induced injury. NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus: GSE99579. Keywords: Ileum

  4. Characteristics of Soil and Organic Carbon Loss Induced by Water Erosion on the Loess Plateau in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwu; Nie, Xiaodong; Chang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Lin; Sun, Liying

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion has been a common environmental problem in the Loess Plateau in China. This study aims to better understand the losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) induced by water erosion. Laboratory-simulated rainfall experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of SOC loss induced by water erosion. The applied treatments included two rainfall intensities (90 and 120 mm h-1), four slope gradients (10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°), and two typical soil types- silty clay loam and silty loam. Results showed that the sediment OC enrichment ratios (ERoc) in all the events were relative stable with values ranged from 0.85 to1.21 and 0.64 to 1.52 and mean values of 0.98 and 1.01 for silty clay loam and silty loam, respectively. Similar to the ERoc, the proportions of different sized particles in sediment showed tiny variations during erosion processes. No significant correlation was observed between ERoc values and the proportions of sediment particles. Slope, rainfall intensity and soil type almost had no impact on ERoc. These results indicate that the transportation of SOC during erosion processes was nonselective. While the mean SOC loss rates for the events of silty clay loam and silty loam were 0.30 and 0.08 g m-2 min-1, respectively. Greater differences in SOC loss rates were found in events among different soil types. Meanwhile, significant correlations between SOC loss and soil loss for all the events were observed. These results indicated that the amount of SOC loss was influenced primarily by soil loss and the SOC content of the original soil. Erosion pattern and original SOC content are two main factors by which different soils can influence SOC loss. It seems that soil type has a greater impact on SOC loss than rainfall characteristics on the Loess Plateau of China. However, more kinds of soils should be further studied due to the special formation processes in the Loess Plateau.

  5. Anion-induced structural transformation of a sulfate-incorporated 2D Cd(II)–organic framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Li-Wei [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Luo, Tzuoo-Tsair [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Min [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China); Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Peng, Shie-Ming [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 107, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yen-Hsiang [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 242, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sheng-Long [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Lu, Kuang-Lieh [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-15

    A Cd(II)–organic framework {[Cd_2(tpim)_4(SO_4)(H_2O)_2]·(SO_4)·21H_2O}{sub n} (1) was synthesized by reacting CdSO{sub 4}·8/3H{sub 2}O and 2,4,5-tri(4-pyridyl)imidazole (tpim) under hydrothermal conditions. A structural analysis showed that compound 1 adopts a layered structure in which the [Cd(tpim){sub 2}]{sub n} chains are linked by sulfate anions. These 2D layers are further packed into a 3D supramolecular framework via π–π interactions. The structure contains two types of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions, i.e., bridging SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and free SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions, the latter of which are included in the large channels of the framework. Compound 1 exhibits interesting anion exchange behavior. In the presence of SCN{sup −} anions, both the bridging and free SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions in 1 were completely exchanged by SCN{sup −} ligands to form a 1D species [Cd(tpim){sub 2}(SCN){sub 2}] (1A), in which the SCN{sup –} moieties function as a monodentate ligand. On the other hand, when compound 1 was ion exchanged with N{sub 3}{sup −} anions in aqueous solution, the bridging SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} moieties remained intact, and only the free guest SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were replaced by N{sub 3}{sup −} anions. The gas adsorption behavior of the activated compound 1 was also investigated. - Highlights: • An interesting anion-induced structural transformation of a sulfate-incorporated 2D Cd(II)–organic framework is reported. • The sulfate-incorporated 2D layer compound exhibits very different anion exchange behavior with respect to SCN{sup −} and N{sub 3}{sup −}. • Both the bridging and free SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anions in the 2D structure were completely exchanged by SCN{sup −} ligands, resulting in the formation of a 1D species. However, in the case of N{sub 3}{sup −} anions, only the free guest SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} in the structure was replaced.

  6. Presentation of an experimental method to induce in vitro ("organ chambers") respiratory acidosis and its effect on vascular reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadai, Tales Rubens de; Silveira, Ana Paula Cassiano; Monteiro, Ariadne Santana e Neves; Campos, Debora Ribeiro; Carvalho, Marco Tulio Rezende de; Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite Sumarelli; Celotto, Andrea Carla; Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa

    2014-11-01

    To create in vitro a model to generate acidosis by CO2 bubbling "organ chambers", which would be useful for researchers that aim to study the effects of acid-base disturbs on the endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity. Eighteen male Wistar rats (230-280 g) were housed, before the experiments, under standard laboratory conditions (12h light/dark cycle at 21°C), with free access to food and water. The protocol for promoting in vitro respiratory acidosis was carried out by bubbling increased concentrations of CO2. The target was to achieve an ideal way to decrease the pH gradually to a value of approximately 6.6.It was used, initially, a gas blender varying concentrations of the carbogenic mixture (95% O2 + 5% CO2) and pure CO2. 1) 100% CO2, pH variation very fast, pH minimum 6.0; 2) 90%CO2 pH variation bit slower, pH minimum 6.31; 3) 70%CO2, pH variation slower, pH minimum 6.32; 4) 50% CO2, pH variation slower, pH minimum 6:42; 5) 40 %CO2, Adequate record, pH minimum 6.61, and; 6) 30 %CO2 could not reach values below pH minimum 7.03. Based on these data the gas mixture (O2 60% + CO2 40%) was adopted. This gas mixture (O2 60% + CO2 40%) was effective in inducing respiratory acidosis at a speed that made, possible the recording of isometric force.

  7. Climate change-induced vegetation change as a driver of increased subarctic biogenic volatile organic compound emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valolahti, Hanna; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Faubert, Patrick; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

    2015-09-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have been earlier shown to be highly temperature sensitive in subarctic ecosystems. As these ecosystems experience rapidly advancing pronounced climate warming, we aimed to investigate how warming affects the BVOC emissions in the long term (up to 13 treatment years). We also aimed to assess whether the increased litterfall resulting from the vegetation changes in the warming subarctic would affect the emissions. The study was conducted in a field experiment with factorial open-top chamber warming and annual litter addition treatments on subarctic heath in Abisko, northern Sweden. After 11 and 13 treatment years, BVOCs were sampled from plant communities in the experimental plots using a push-pull enclosure technique and collection into adsorbent cartridges during the growing season and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plant species coverage in the plots was analyzed by the point intercept method. Warming by 2 °C caused a 2-fold increase in monoterpene and 5-fold increase in sesquiterpene emissions, averaged over all measurements. When the momentary effect of temperature was diminished by standardization of emissions to a fixed temperature, warming still had a significant effect suggesting that emissions were also indirectly increased. This indirect increase appeared to result from increased plant coverage and changes in vegetation composition. The litter addition treatment also caused significant increases in the emission rates of some BVOC groups, especially when combined with warming. The combined treatment had both the largest vegetation changes and the highest BVOC emissions. The increased emissions under litter addition were probably a result of a changed vegetation composition due to alleviated nutrient limitation and stimulated microbial production of BVOCs. We suggest that the changes in the subarctic vegetation composition induced by climate warming will be the major factor

  8. Systemic resistance induced by volatile organic compounds emitted by plant growth-promoting fungi in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hushna Ara Naznin

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOC were extracted and identified from plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF, Phoma sp., Cladosporium sp. and Ampelomyces sp., using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the three VOC extracted, two VOC blends (emitted from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. significantly reduced disease severity in Arabidopsis plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst. Subsequently, m-cresol and methyl benzoate (MeBA were identified as major active volatile compounds from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp., respectively, and found to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR against the pathogen. Molecular signaling for disease suppression by the VOC were investigated by treating different mutants and transgenic Arabidopsis plants impaired in salicylic acid (SA or Jasmonic acid (JA/ethylene (ET signaling pathways with m-cresol and MeBA followed by challenge inoculation with Pst. Results show that the level of protection was significantly lower when JA/ET-impaired mutants were treated with MeBA, and in SA-, and JA/ET-disrupted mutants after m-cresol treatment, indicating the involvement of these signal transduction pathways in the ISR primed by the volatiles. Analysis of defense-related genes by real-time qRT-PCR showed that both the SA-and JA-signaling pathways combine in the m-cresol signaling of ISR, whereas MeBA is mainly involved in the JA-signaling pathway with partial recruitment of SA-signals. The ET-signaling pathway was not employed in ISR by the volatiles. Therefore, this study identified two novel volatile components capable of eliciting ISR that may be promising candidates in biological control strategy to protect plants from diseases.

  9. Reductions of plant cover induced by sheep grazing change the above-belowground partition and chemistry of organic C stocks in arid rangelands of Patagonian Monte, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larreguy, C; Carrera, A L; Bertiller, M B

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the size and chemical quality of the total organic C stock and its partition between above-belowground plant parts and soil at sites with different plant cover induced by sheep grazing in the arid Patagonian Monte. This study was conducted at six representative sites with increasing signs of canopy disturbance attributed to grazing pressure. We used faeces density as a proxy of grazing pressure at each site. We assessed the total plant cover, shrub and perennial grass cover, total standing aboveground biomass (AGB), litter mass and belowground biomass (BGB) at each site. We further estimated the content of organic C, lignin and soluble phenols in plant compartments and the content of organic C, organic C in humic substances (recalcitrant C) and water soluble C (labile C) in soil at each site. Total plant cover was significantly related to grazing pressure. Standing AGB and litter mass decreased with increasing canopy disturbance while BGB did not vary across sites. Total organic C stock and the organic C stock in standing AGB increased with increasing total plant, shrub, and perennial grass cover. The organic C stock in litter mass increased with increasing total plant and shrub cover, while the organic C stock in BGB did not vary across sites. Lignin content in plant compartments increased with increasing total and shrub cover, while soluble phenols content did not change across sites. The organic C stock and the water soluble C content in soil were positively associated with perennial grass cover. Changes in total plant cover induced by grazing pressure negatively affected the size of the total organic C stock, having minor impact on the size of belowground than aboveground components. The reduction of perennial grass cover was reflected in decreasing chemical quality of the organic C stock in soil. Accordingly, plant managerial strategies should not only be focused on the amount of organic C sequestered but also on the

  10. Isotopic Anomalies in Organic Nanoglobules from Comet 81P/Wild 2: Comparison to Murchison Nanoglobules and Isotopic Anomalies Induced in Terrestrial Organics by Electron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gregorio, B.; Stroud, R; Nittler, L; Alexander, C; Kilcoyne, A; Zega, T

    2010-01-01

    Nanoglobules are a form of organic matter found in interplanetary dust particles and primitive meteorites and are commonly associated with {sup 15}N and D isotopic anomalies that are suggestive of interstellar processes. We report the discovery of two isotopically-anomalous organic globules from the Stardust collection of particles from Comet 81P/Wild 2 and compare them with nanoglobules from the Murchison CM2 meteorite. One globule from Stardust Cometary Track 80 contains highly aromatic organic matter and a large {sup 15}N anomaly ({delta}{sup 15}N = 1120{per_thousand}). Associated, non-globular, organic matter from this track is less enriched in {sup 15}N and contains a mixture of aromatic and oxidized carbon similar to bulk insoluble organic material (IOM) from primitive meteorites. The second globule, from Cometary Track 2, contains non-aromatic organic matter with abundant nitrile ({single_bond}C{triple_bond}N) and carboxyl ({single_bond}COOH) functional groups. It is significantly enriched in D ({delta}D = 1000{per_thousand}) but has a terrestrial {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N ratio. Experiments indicate that similar D enrichments, unaccompanied by {sup 15}N fractionation, can be reproduced in the laboratory by electron irradiation of epoxy or cyanoacrylate. Thus, a terrestrial origin for this globule cannot be ruled out, and, conversely, exposure to high-energy electron irradiation in space may be an important factor in producing D anomalies in organic materials. For comparison, we report two Murchison globules: one with a large {sup 15}N enrichment and highly aromatic chemistry analogous to the Track 80 globule and the other only moderately enriched in {sup 15}N with IOM-like chemistry. The observation of organic globules in Comet 81P/Wild 2 indicates that comets likely sampled the same reservoirs of organic matter as did the chondrite parent bodies. The observed isotopic anomalies in the globules are most likely preserved signatures of low temperature (<10 K

  11. Isotopic anomalies in organic nanoglobules from Comet 81P/Wild 2: Comparison to Murchison nanoglobules and isotopic anomalies induced in terrestrial organics by electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio, Bradley T.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Zega, Thomas J.

    2010-08-01

    Nanoglobules are a form of organic matter found in interplanetary dust particles and primitive meteorites and are commonly associated with 15N and D isotopic anomalies that are suggestive of interstellar processes. We report the discovery of two isotopically-anomalous organic globules from the Stardust collection of particles from Comet 81P/Wild 2 and compare them with nanoglobules from the Murchison CM2 meteorite. One globule from Stardust Cometary Track 80 contains highly aromatic organic matter and a large 15N anomaly (δ 15N = 1120‰). Associated, non-globular, organic matter from this track is less enriched in 15N and contains a mixture of aromatic and oxidized carbon similar to bulk insoluble organic material (IOM) from primitive meteorites. The second globule, from Cometary Track 2, contains non-aromatic organic matter with abundant nitrile ( sbnd C tbnd N) and carboxyl ( sbnd COOH) functional groups. It is significantly enriched in D (δD = 1000‰) but has a terrestrial 15N/ 14N ratio. Experiments indicate that similar D enrichments, unaccompanied by 15N fractionation, can be reproduced in the laboratory by electron irradiation of epoxy or cyanoacrylate. Thus, a terrestrial origin for this globule cannot be ruled out, and, conversely, exposure to high-energy electron irradiation in space may be an important factor in producing D anomalies in organic materials. For comparison, we report two Murchison globules: one with a large 15N enrichment and highly aromatic chemistry analogous to the Track 80 globule and the other only moderately enriched in 15N with IOM-like chemistry. The observation of organic globules in Comet 81P/Wild 2 indicates that comets likely sampled the same reservoirs of organic matter as did the chondrite parent bodies. The observed isotopic anomalies in the globules are most likely preserved signatures of low temperature (<10 K) chemistry in the interstellar medium or perhaps the outer regions of the solar nebula. In other

  12. Empathy and the somatotopic auditory mirror system in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazzola, Valeria; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Keysers, Christian

    2006-01-01

    How do we understand the actions of other individuals if we can only hear them? Auditory mirror neurons respond both while monkeys perform hand or mouth actions and while they listen to sounds of similar actions [1, 2]. This system might be critical for auditory action understanding and language

  13. Transformations of dissolved organic matter induced by UV photolysis, Hydroxyl radicals, chlorine radicals, and sulfate radicals in aqueous-phase UV-Based advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanasi, Lathika; Coscarelli, Erica; Khaksari, Maryam; Mazzoleni, Lynn R; Minakata, Daisuke

    2018-05-15

    Considering the increasing identification of trace organic contaminants in natural aquatic environments, the removal of trace organic contaminants from water or wastewater discharge is an urgent task. Ultraviolet (UV) and UV-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H 2 O 2 ), UV/free chlorine and UV/persulfate, are attractive and promising approaches for the removal of these contaminants due to the high reactivity of active radical species produced in these UV-AOPs with a wide variety of organic contaminants. However, the removal efficiency of trace contaminants is greatly affected by the presence of background dissolved organic matter (DOM). In this study, we use ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to evaluate the transformation of a standard Suwanee River fulvic acid DOM isolate in UV photolysis and UV-AOPs. The use of probe compounds allows for the determination of the steady-state concentrations of active radical species in each UV-AOP. The changes in the H/C and O/C elemental ratios, double bond equivalents, and the low-molecular-weight transformation product concentrations of organic acids reveal that different DOM transformation patterns are induced by each UV-AOP. By comparison with the known reactivities of each radical species with specific organic compounds, we mechanistically and systematically elucidate the molecular-level DOM transformation pathways induced by hydroxyl, chlorine, and sulfate radicals in UV-AOPs. We find that there is a distinct transformation in the aliphatic components of DOM due to HO• in UV/H 2 O 2 and UV/free chlorine. Cl• induced transformation of olefinic species is also observed in the UV/free chlorine system. Transformation of aromatic and olefinic moieties by SO 4 •- are the predominant pathways in the UV/persulfate system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Simplest Flowchart Stating the Mechanisms for Organic Xenobiotics-induced Toxicity: Can it Possibly be Accepted as a “Central Dogma” for Toxic Mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sundong; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2014-01-01

    Xenobiotics causing a variety of toxicity in biological systems could be classified as two types, inorganic and organic chemicals. It is estimated that the organic xenobiotics are responsible for approximately 80~90% of chemical-induced toxicity in human population. In the class for toxicology, we have encountered some difficulties in explaining the mechanisms of toxicity caused especially by organic chemicals. Here, a simple flowchart was introduced for explaining the mechanism of toxicity caused by organic xenobiotics, as the central dogma of molecular biology. This flowchart, referred to as a central dogma, was described based on a view of various aspects as follows: direct-acting chemicals vs. indirect-acting chemicals, cytochrome P450-dependent vs. cytochrome P450-independent biotransformation, reactive intermediates, reactivation, toxicokinetics vs. toxicodynamics, and reversibility vs. irreversibility. Thus, the primary objective of this flowchart is to help better understanding of the organic xenobiotics-induced toxic mechanisms, providing a major pathway for toxicity occurring in biological systems. PMID:25343011

  15. Use of transgenic GFP reporter strains of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the patterns of stress responses induced by pesticides and by organic extracts from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbalagan, Charumathi; Lafayette, Ivan; Antoniou-Kourounioti, Melissa; Gutierrez, Carmen; Martin, Jose Rodriguez; Chowdhuri, Debapratim K; De Pomerai, David I

    2013-01-01

    As a free-living nematode, C. elegans is exposed to various pesticides used in agriculture, as well as to persistent organic residues which may contaminate the soil for long periods. Following on from our previous study of metal effects on 24 GFP-reporter strains representing four different stress-response pathways in C. elegans (Anbalagan et al. Ecotoxicology 21:439-455, 2012), we now present parallel data on the responses of these same strains to several commonly used pesticides. Some of these, like dichlorvos, induced multiple stress genes in a concentration-dependent manner. Unusually, endosulfan induced only one gene (cyp-34A9) to very high levels (8-10-fold) even at the lowest test concentration, with a clear plateau at higher doses. Other pesticides, like diuron, did not alter reporter gene expression detectably even at the highest test concentration attainable, while others (such as glyphosate) did so only at very high concentrations. We have also used five responsive GFP reporters to investigate the toxicity of soil pore water from two agricultural sites in south-east Spain, designated P74 (used for cauliflower production, but significantly metal contaminated) and P73 (used for growing lettuce, but with only background levels of metals). Both soil pore water samples induced all five test genes to varying extents, yet artificial mixtures containing all major metals present had essentially no effect on these same transgenes. Soluble organic contaminants present in the pore water were extracted with acetone and dichloromethane, then after evaporation of the solvents, the organic residues were redissolved in ultrapure water to reconstitute the soluble organic components of the original soil pore water. These organic extracts induced transgene expression at similar or higher levels than the original pore water. Addition of the corresponding metal mixtures had either no effect, or reduced transgene expression towards the levels seen with soil pore water only. We

  16. Intratracheal injection of adenovirus containing the human MNSOD transgene protects athymic nude mice from irradiation-induced organizing alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperly, Michael W.; Bray, Jenifer A.; Krager, Stephen; Berry, Luann M.; Gooding, William; Engelhardt, John F.; Zwacka, Ralf; Travis, Elizabeth L.; Greenberger, Joel S.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A dose and volume limiting factor in radiation treatment of thoracic cancer is the development of fibrosis in normal lung. The goal of the present study was to determine whether expression prior to irradiation of a transgene for human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) or human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) protects against irradiation-induced lung damage in mice. Methods and Materials: Athymic Nude (Nu/J) mice were intratracheally injected with 10 9 plaque-forming units (PFU) of a replication-incompetent mutant adenovirus construct containing the gene for either human MnSOD, human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) or LacZ. Four days later the mice were irradiated to the pulmonary cavity to doses of 850, 900, or 950 cGy. To demonstrate adenoviral infection, nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out with primers specific for either human MnSOD or Cu/ZnSOD transgene on freshly explanted lung, trachea, or alveolar type II cells, and immunohistochemistry was used to measure LacZ expression. RNA was extracted on day 0, 1, 4, or 7 after 850 cGy of irradiation from lungs of mice that had previously received adenovirus or had no treatment. Slot blot analysis was performed to quantitate RNA expression for IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TGF-β, MnSOD, or Cu/ZnSOD. Lung tissue was explanted and tested for biochemical activity of MnSOD or Cu/ZnSOD after adenovirus injection. Other mice were sacrificed 132 days after irradiation, lungs excised, frozen in OCT, (polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol mixture) sectioned, H and E stained, and evaluated for percent of the lung demonstrating organizing alveolitis. Results: Mice injected intratracheally with adenovirus containing the gene for human MnSOD had significantly reduced chronic lung irradiation damage following 950 cGy, compared to control mice or mice injected with adenovirus containing the gene for human Cu/ZnSOD or LacZ. Immunohistochemistry

  17. Genetic Tools for Self-Organizing Culture of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells via Small Regulatory RNA-Mediated Technologies, CRISPR/Cas9, and Inducible RNAi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Nozomu; Sakakura, Eriko; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Approaches to investigate gene functions in experimental biology are becoming more diverse and reliable. Furthermore, several kinds of tissues and organs that possess their original identities can be generated in petri dishes from stem cells including embryonic, adult and induced pluripotent stem cells. Researchers now have several choices of experimental methods and their combinations to analyze gene functions in various biological systems. Here, as an example we describe one of the better protocols, which combines three-dimensional embryonic stem cell culture with small regulatory RNA-mediated technologies, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), and inducible RNA interference (RNAi). This protocol allows investigation of genes of interest to better understand gene functions in target tissues (or organs) during in vitro development.

  18. Geldanamycin induces production of heat shock protein 70 and partially attenuates ototoxicity caused by gentamicin in the organ of Corti explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haupt Heidemarie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 protects inner ear cells from damage and death induced by e.g. heat or toxins. Benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic geldanamycin (GA was demonstrated to induce the expression of HSP70 in various animal cell types. The aim of our study was to investigate whether GA induces HSP70 in the organ of Corti (OC, which contains the auditory sensory cells, and whether GA can protect these cells from toxicity caused by a common aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin. Methods To address these questions, we used the OC explants isolated from p3-p5 rats. As a read-out, we used RT-PCR, ELISA and immunofluorescence. Results We found that GA at the concentration of 2 μM efficiently induced HSP70 expression on mRNA and protein level in the OC explants. Confocal microscopy revealed that HSP70 induced by GA is expressed by hair cells and interdental cells of spiral limbus. Preincubation of explants with 2 μM GA prior to adding gentamicin (500 μM significantly reduced the loss of outer but not inner hair cells, suggesting different mechanisms of otoprotection needed for these two cell types. Conclusion GA induced HSP70 in the auditory sensory cells and partially protected them from toxicity of gentamicin. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of GA otoprotection may provide insights for preventative therapy of the hearing loss caused by aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  19. Assessment of radiation-induced second cancer risks in proton therapy and IMRT for organs inside the primary radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganetti, Harald; Athar, Basit S.; Moteabbed, Maryam; Adams, Judith A.; Schneider, Uwe; Yock, Torunn I.

    2012-10-01

    There is clinical evidence that second malignancies in radiation therapy occur mainly within the beam path, i.e. in the medium or high-dose region. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk for developing a radiation-induced tumor within the treated volume and to compare this risk for proton therapy and intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMRT). Instead of using data for specific patients we have created a representative scenario. Fully contoured age- and gender-specific whole body phantoms (4 year and 14 year old) were uploaded into a treatment planning system and tumor volumes were contoured based on patients treated for optic glioma and vertebral body Ewing's sarcoma. Treatment plans for IMRT and proton therapy treatments were generated. Lifetime attributable risks (LARs) for developing a second malignancy were calculated using a risk model considering cell kill, mutation, repopulation, as well as inhomogeneous organ doses. For standard fractionation schemes, the LAR for developing a second malignancy from radiation therapy alone was found to be up to 2.7% for a 4 year old optic glioma patient treated with IMRT considering a soft-tissue carcinoma risk model only. Sarcoma risks were found to be below 1% in all cases. For a 14 year old, risks were found to be about a factor of 2 lower. For Ewing's sarcoma cases the risks based on a sarcoma model were typically higher than the carcinoma risks, i.e. LAR up to 1.3% for soft-tissue sarcoma. In all cases, the risk from proton therapy turned out to be lower by at least a factor of 2 and up to a factor of 10. This is mainly due to lower total energy deposited in the patient when using proton beams. However, the comparison of a three-field and four-field proton plan also shows that the distribution of the dose, i.e. the particular treatment plan, plays a role. When using different fractionation schemes, the estimated risks roughly scale with the total dose difference in%. In conclusion, proton therapy can

  20. Photo-induced absorption spectroscopy on organic, photovoltaically active donor-acceptor heterojunctions; Photoinduzierte Absorptionsspektroskopie an organischen, photovoltaisch aktiven Donor-Akzeptor-Heterouebergaengen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueppel, Rico

    2007-07-01

    Starting from some general considerations about organic semiconductors first the foundations of molecular crystals, their spectroscopic properties, as well as the mechanisms, on which the exharge-carrier generation is based, are presented. The functionality of the organic solar cells is then explained. The applied experimental techniques are thereafter explained. Special regards gets the photo-induced and transient absorption. Thed the dicyanovinyl-oligothiophene studied in this thesis are presented, whereby the characteristics fitted to the heterojunction with the fullerene C{sub 60} are discussed. Then the photo-induced absorption in this system is presented. In these studies an indirect occupation of the triplet starte of the oligothiophene derivates at the heterojunction with C{sub 60} is observed. The application of the oligothiophene derivates in organic solar cells is thereafter described. Thereby especially the correlation between reached zero voltage and the fitting of the energy levels at the DCVnT:C{sub 60} junction is considered. Furthermore the data of the solar cells are discussed in view of the statements on the charge-carrier separation at the heterojunction with C{sub 60} obtained from the photo-induced absorption.

  1. Effect of L-cysteine on remote organ injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis induced by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Juan; Wan, Rong; Shen, Jia-Qing; Shen, Jie; Wang, Xing-Peng

    2013-08-01

    Remote organ failure occurs in cases of acute pancreatitis (AP); however, the reports on AP induced by pancreatic duct obstruction are rare. In this study we determined the effect of L-cysteine on pancreaticobiliary inflammation and remote organ damage in rats after pancreaticobiliary duct ligation (PBDL). AP was induced by PBDL in rats with 5/0 silk. Sixty rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Groups A and B were sham-operated groups that received injections of saline or L-cysteine (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (15 rats in each group). Groups C and D were PBDL groups that received injections of saline or L-cysteine (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (15 rats in each group). The tissue samples of the pancreas and remote organs such as the lung, liver, intestine and kidney were subsequently examined for pathological changes under a light microscope. The samples were also stored for the determination of malondialdehyde and glutathione levels. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma amylase, ALT and AST levels were determined spectrophotometrically using an automated analyzer. Also, we evaluated the effect of L-cysteine on remote organ injury in rats with AP induced by retrograde infusion of 3.5% sodium taurocholate (NaTc) into the bile-pancreatic duct. Varying degrees of injury in the pancreas, lung, liver, intestine and kidney were observed in the rats 24 hours after PBDL. The severity of injury to the lung, liver and intestine was attenuated, while injury status was not changed significantly in the pancreas and kidney after L-cysteine treatment. Oxidative stress was also affected by L-cysteine in PBDL-treated rats. The concentration of tissue malondialdehyde decreased in the pancreas and remote organs of PBDL and L-cysteine administrated rats, and the concentration of glutathione increased more significantly than that of the model control group. However, L-cysteine administration reduced the severity of injury in remote organs but not in the pancreas in rats with NaTc-induced

  2. Effect of Organic Solvents and Biologically Relevant Ions on the Light-Induced DNA Cleavage by Pyrene and Its Amino and Hydroxy Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are a class of carcinogenic compounds that are both naturally and artificially produced. Many PAHs are pro-carcinogens that require metabolic activation. Recently, it has been shown that PAH can induce DNA single strand cleavage and formation of PAH-DNA covalent adduct upon irradiation with UVA light. The light-induced DNA cleavage parallels phototoxicity in one instance. The DNA photocleavage efficiency depends on the structure of the PAHs. This article reports the effect of both organic solvents and the presence of biologically relevant ions, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Zn+2, Mn2+, and I-, on the light-induced DNA cleavage by pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-aminopyrene. Since both 1-hydroxypyrene (0.6 μM and 1-aminopyrene (6 μM dissolve well in the minimum organic solvents used (2% methanol, dimethylsulfoxide, and dimethylformamide, increasing the amount of the organic solvent resulted in the decrease of the amount of DNA single strand cleavage caused by the combination effect of 1-hydroxy or 1-aminopyrene and UVA light. The result with the less watersoluble pyrene shows that increase of the amount of the organic solvent can increase the amount of DNA single strand DNA photocleavage cause by the combination of pyrene and UVA light. Therefore, there are two effects by the organic solvents: (i to dissolve PAH and (ii to quench DNA photocleavage. The presence of Fe3+ and Zn2+ enhances, while the presence of Ca2+ and Mn2+ inhibits the DNA photocleavage caused by 1-aminopyrene and UVA light. Other metal ions have minimal effect. This means that the effect of ions on DNA photocleavage by PAHs is complex. The presence of KI enhances DNA photocleavage. This indicates that the triplet-excited state of 1-aminopyrene is involved in causing DNA cleavage

  3. Distinct steps of neural induction revealed by Asterix, Obelix and TrkC, genes induced by different signals from the organizer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pinho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The amniote organizer (Hensen's node can induce a complete nervous system when grafted into a peripheral region of a host embryo. Although BMP inhibition has been implicated in neural induction, non-neural cells cannot respond to BMP antagonists unless previously exposed to a node graft for at least 5 hours before BMP inhibitors. To define signals and responses during the first 5 hours of node signals, a differential screen was conducted. Here we describe three early response genes: two of them, Asterix and Obelix, encode previously undescribed proteins of unknown function but Obelix appears to be a nuclear RNA-binding protein. The third is TrkC, a neurotrophin receptor. All three genes are induced by a node graft within 4-5 hours but they differ in the extent to which they are inducible by FGF: FGF is both necessary and sufficient to induce Asterix, sufficient but not necessary to induce Obelix and neither sufficient nor necessary for induction of TrkC. These genes are also not induced by retinoic acid, Noggin, Chordin, Dkk1, Cerberus, HGF/SF, Somatostatin or ionomycin-mediated Calcium entry. Comparison of the expression and regulation of these genes with other early neural markers reveals three distinct "epochs", or temporal waves, of gene expression accompanying neural induction by a grafted organizer, which are mirrored by specific stages of normal neural plate development. The results are consistent with neural induction being a cascade of responses elicited by different signals, culminating in the formation of a patterned nervous system.

  4. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen signatures with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; the quest for organics under Mars-like conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dequaire, T.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Beck, P.; Jaber, M.; Cousin, A.; Rapin, W.; Lasne, J.; Gasnault, O.; Maurice, S.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Coll, P.

    2017-05-01

    Organic matter has been continuously delivered by meteorites and comets to Mars since its formation, and possibly formed in situ by abiogenic and/or biogenic processes. This organic matter may be preserved from the harsh oxidizing environment of Mars in specific locations. Together with water, organic molecules are necessary to the emergence of life as we know it. Since the first martian landers, scientists have been searching for organics and until today, only one positive detection has been made by a Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover. In this article we investigate a complementary approach to guide the search for organic matter using ChemCam, the first Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument on Mars. This experimental study focuses on the analysis of carbon and nitrogen LIBS signatures in organoclay samples and allows the determination of the critical level (Lc) and limit of detection (LoD) of these elements with LIBS under Mars-like conditions, giving new insights into the search of organic matter on Mars.

  5. Ion induced scintillation in organic solids: development of an average track model,degradation of the scintillation intensity and dosimetric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broggio, D.

    2004-12-01

    This work deals with a specific aspect of the ion-matter interaction: the scintillation induced by ions in organic materials. In the first chapter we tackle the issue in a theoretical way by proposing a method to compute the radial doses within the framework of the mean track model. We have developed a model based on the Lewis transport equation and on the Spencer distribution of the loss energy in order to take into account the transport of secondary electrons in a more realistic way. In the second chapter we study the physical mechanisms that trigger ion-induced scintillation. Ion-induced scintillation is featured by the dependence in charge number of the intensity of scintillation for ions with same energy loss and by the saturation of the scintillation efficiency for ions with high stopping-power. We have applied our model of radial doses to ion-induced scintillation. In the third chapter we study the gradual degradation of the scintillation intensity and ion-induced chemical damages. In the last chapter we propose a prototype of dosimeters based on the combination of scintillators and optical fibers that allows the real-time measurement of the dose delivered by a carbon ion beam in therapeutical use conditions. This dosimeter gives the relationship between the dose and the scintillation intensity but its accuracy is not yet sufficient for uses in radiotherapy. (A.C.)

  6. Reaction analogues in the radiation-induced deamination and dephosphorylation of bio-organic molecules 2: Oxygenated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, W.M.

    1988-02-01

    The OH-induced deamination and dephosphorylation of simple peptides and phosphate esters in oxygenated solutions involve the fomation and subsequent degradation of the perodyl radicals RCONHC(/dot O/)R 2 and /bigcirc P/ OC(/dot O/ 2 )R 2 respectively. Reaction analogues in the degradation of peroxyl and alkoxyl radicals in these two systems are evaluated with reference to the OH-induced main-chain cleavage of protein and DNA. 25 refs

  7. Bulk-Like Electrical Properties Induced by Contact-Limited Charge Transport in Organic Diodes: Revised Space Charge Limited Current

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Guangwei

    2018-02-22

    Charge transport governs the operation and performance of organic diodes. Illuminating the charge-transfer/transport processes across the interfaces and the bulk organic semiconductors is at the focus of intensive investigations. Traditionally, the charge transport properties of organic diodes are usually characterized by probing the current–voltage (I–V) curves of the devices. However, to unveil the landscape of the underlying potential/charge distribution, which essentially determines the I–V characteristics, still represents a major challenge. Here, the electrical potential distribution in planar organic diodes is investigated by using the scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy technique, a method that can clearly separate the contact and bulk regimes of charge transport. Interestingly, by applying to devices based on novel, high mobility organic materials, the space-charge-limited-current-like I–V curves, which are previously believed to be a result of the bulk transport, are surprisingly but unambiguously demonstrated to be caused by contact-limited conduction. A model accounting is developed for the transport properties of both the two metal/organic interfaces and the bulk. The results indicate that pure interface-dominated transport can indeed give rise to I–V curves similar to those caused by bulk transport. These findings provide a new insight into the charge injection and transport processes in organic diodes.

  8. Bulk-Like Electrical Properties Induced by Contact-Limited Charge Transport in Organic Diodes: Revised Space Charge Limited Current

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Guangwei; Gao, Nan; Lu, Congyan; Wang, Wei; Ji, Zhuoyu; Bi, Chong; Han, Zhiheng; Lu, Nianduan; Yang, Guanhua; Li, Yuan; Liu, Qi; Li, Ling; Liu, Ming

    2018-01-01

    , the charge transport properties of organic diodes are usually characterized by probing the current–voltage (I–V) curves of the devices. However, to unveil the landscape of the underlying potential/charge distribution, which essentially determines the I

  9. Crossover from band-like to thermally activated charge transport in organic transistors due to strain-induced traps

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Yaochuan; Diemer, Peter J.; Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan; Hallani, Rawad K.; Jarolimek, Karol; Day, Cynthia S.; Risko, Chad; Anthony, John E.; Amassian, Aram; Jurchescu, Oana D.

    2017-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the charge-carrier mobility provides essential insight into the charge transport mechanisms in organic semiconductors. Such knowledge imparts critical understanding of the electrical properties of these materials

  10. Self-Organized Patterns Induced by Neimark-Sacker, Flip and Turing Bifurcations in a Discrete Predator-Prey Model with Lesie-Gower Functional Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifan Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of self-organized patterns in predator-prey models has been a very hot topic recently. The dynamics of these models, bifurcations and pattern formations are so complex that studies are urgently needed. In this research, we transformed a continuous predator-prey model with Lesie-Gower functional response into a discrete model. Fixed points and stability analyses were studied. Around the stable fixed point, bifurcation analyses including: flip, Neimark-Sacker and Turing bifurcation were done and bifurcation conditions were obtained. Based on these bifurcation conditions, parameters values were selected to carry out numerical simulations on pattern formation. The simulation results showed that Neimark-Sacker bifurcation induced spots, spirals and transitional patterns from spots to spirals. Turing bifurcation induced labyrinth patterns and spirals coupled with mosaic patterns, while flip bifurcation induced many irregular complex patterns. Compared with former studies on continuous predator-prey model with Lesie-Gower functional response, our research on the discrete model demonstrated more complex dynamics and varieties of self-organized patterns.

  11. Soil aggregate stability and rainfall-induced sediment transport on field plots as affected by amendment with organic matter inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pu; Arter, Christian; Liu, Xingyu; Keller, Martin; Schulin, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Aggregate stability is an important factor in soil resistance against erosion, and, by influencing the extent of sediment transport associated with surface runoff, it is thus also one of the key factors which determine on- and off-site effects of water erosion. As it strongly depends on soil organic matter, many studies have explored how aggregate stability can be improved by organic matter inputs into the soil. However, the focus of these studies has been on the relationship between aggregate stability and soil organic matter dynamics. How the effects of organic matter inputs on aggregate stability translate into soil erodibility under rainfall impacts has received much less attention. In this study, we performed field plot experiments to examine how organic matter inputs affect aggregate breakdown and surface sediment transport under field conditions in artificial rainfall events. Three pairs of plots were prepared by adding a mixture of grass and wheat straw to one of plots in each pair but not to the other, while all plots were treated in the same way otherwise. The rainfall events were applied some weeks later so that the applied organic residues had sufficient time for decomposition and incorporation into the soil. Surface runoff rate and sediment concentration showed substantial differences between the treatments with and without organic matter inputs. The plots with organic inputs had coarser and more stable aggregates and a rougher surface than the control plots without organic inputs, resulting in a higher infiltration rate and lower transport capacity of the surface runoff. Consequently, sediments exported from the amended plots were less concentrated but more enriched in suspended particles (selective sediment transport. In contrast to the amended plots, there was an increase in the coarse particle fraction (> 250 µm) in the runoff from the plots with no organic matter inputs towards the end of the rainfall events due to emerging bed-load transport

  12. Investigation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for differentiating inorganic and organic C in a variety of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Mayes, Melanie A.; Heal, Katherine R.; Brice, Deanne J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2013-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) along with multivariate analysis was used to differentiate between the total carbon (C), inorganic C, and organic C in a set of 58 different soils from 5 soil orders. A 532 nm laser with 45 mJ of laser power was used to excite the 58 samples of soil and the emission of all the elements present in the soil samples was recorded in a single spectrum with a wide wavelength range of 200–800 nm. The results were compared to the laboratory standard technique, e.g., combustion on a LECO-CN analyzer, to determine the true values for total C, inorganic C, and organic C concentrations. Our objectives were: 1) to determine the characteristic spectra of soils containing different amounts of organic and inorganic C, and 2) to examine the viability of this technique for differentiating between soils that contain predominantly organic and/or inorganic C content for a range of diverse soils. Previous work has shown that LIBS is an accurate and reliable approach to measuring total carbon content of soils, but it remains uncertain whether inorganic and organic forms of carbon can be separated using this approach. Total C and inorganic C exhibited correlation with rock-forming elements such as Al, Si, Fe, Ti, Ca, and Sr, while organic C exhibited minor correlation with these elements and a major correlation with Mg. We calculated a figure of merit (Mg/Ca) based on our results to enable differentiation between inorganic versus organic C. We obtained the LIBS validation prediction for total, inorganic, and organic C to have a coefficient of regression, r 2 = 0.91, 0.87, and 0.91 respectively. These examples demonstrate an advance in LIBS-based techniques to distinguish between organic and inorganic C using the full wavelength spectra. - Highlights: • This research has successfully identified the organic and inorganic carbon in soil. • Multivariate analysis was used to show success in building a statistical model. • Can be used to

  13. Pressure-induced phase transitions in organic molecular crystals: a combination of x-ray single-crystal and powder diffraction, raman and IR-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldyreva, E V; Goryainov, S V; Seryotkin, Y V; Kolesnik, E N; Shakhtshneider, T P; Ivashevskaya, S N; Drebushchak, T N; Sowa, H; Ahsbahs, H; Chernyshev, V V; Dmitriev, V P

    2008-01-01

    The contribution summarizes the results of recent studies of phase transitions induced by high pressure in a number of molecular organic crystals, such as polymorphs of paracetamol, chlorpropamide, polymorphs of glycine, L- and DL-serine, β-alanine. The main attention is paid to the following topics: (1) Reversible / irreversible transformations; (2) Different behavior of single crystals / powders; (3) The role of pressure-transmitting liquid; (4) The role of the kinetic factors: phase transitions on decompression, or after a long storage at a selected pressure; (5) Isosymmetric phase transitions; (6) The role of the changes in the hydrogen bond networks / intramolecular conformational changes in the phase transitions; (7) Superstructures / nanostructures formed as a result of pressure-induced phase transitions

  14. Pressure-induced phase transitions in organic molecular crystals: a combination of x-ray single-crystal and powder diffraction, raman and IR-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldyreva, E V; Goryainov, S V; Seryotkin, Y V; Kolesnik, E N; Shakhtshneider, T P; Ivashevskaya, S N; Drebushchak, T N [Research and Education Center ' Molecular Design and Ecologically Safe Technologies' , REC-008, Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Sowa, H [Goettingen University (Germany); Ahsbahs, H; Chernyshev, V V [Marburg University (Germany); Dmitriev, V P [Swiss-Norwegian Beamline ESRF, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: boldyrev@nsu.ru

    2008-07-15

    The contribution summarizes the results of recent studies of phase transitions induced by high pressure in a number of molecular organic crystals, such as polymorphs of paracetamol, chlorpropamide, polymorphs of glycine, L- and DL-serine, {beta}-alanine. The main attention is paid to the following topics: (1) Reversible / irreversible transformations; (2) Different behavior of single crystals / powders; (3) The role of pressure-transmitting liquid; (4) The role of the kinetic factors: phase transitions on decompression, or after a long storage at a selected pressure; (5) Isosymmetric phase transitions; (6) The role of the changes in the hydrogen bond networks / intramolecular conformational changes in the phase transitions; (7) Superstructures / nanostructures formed as a result of pressure-induced phase transitions.

  15. The Functional Organization and Cortical Connections of Motor Cortex in Squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Dylan F.; Padberg, Jeffrey; Zahner, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Despite extraordinary diversity in the rodent order, studies of motor cortex have been limited to only 2 species, rats and mice. Here, we examine the topographic organization of motor cortex in the Eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) and cortical connections of motor cortex in the California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi). We distinguish a primary motor area, M1, based on intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), myeloarchitecture, and patterns of connectivity. A sensorimotor area between M1 and the primary somatosensory area, S1, was also distinguished based on connections, functional organization, and myeloarchitecture. We term this field 3a based on similarities with area 3a in nonrodent mammals. Movements are evoked with ICMS in both M1 and 3a in a roughly somatotopic pattern. Connections of 3a and M1 are distinct and suggest the presence of a third far rostral field, termed “F,” possibly involved in motor processing based on its connections. We hypothesize that 3a is homologous to the dysgranular zone (DZ) in S1 of rats and mice. Our results demonstrate that squirrels have both similar and unique features of M1 organization compared with those described in rats and mice, and that changes in 3a/DZ borders appear to have occurred in both lineages. PMID:22021916

  16. Evaluation of the oxidative stress induced by the electron beam radiation on various organs of Swiss Albino mice - in-vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishakh, R.; Moodithaya, Shailaja S.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Radiation is one of the important threats in the modern world. Though the radiation injuries by natural means is very less common, advancement in the nuclear warfare research had increased the threat of radiation induced damage to biological system. Since years researchers are in search of a novel radio-protector, but without complete success. The reason behind may be its toxicity in higher doses. All the above research challenges lead many researchers to investigate radiation induced damage. Most of the studies had been done to investigate radiation induced damage in the lethal dose of radiation. But less work had been done to study the effect of radiation on tissues at sublethal dose. Therefore this study aims to evaluate the effect of radiation on the various organs in mice model. Swiss albino mice of 6 to 8 weeks old were divided into 2 groups i.e., Control, Radiation control with 6 mice in each group. 6 Gy sub lethal dose of electron beam radiation was used as radiation source. The liver, kidney and brain were dissected and used for biochemical analysis. The significant decrease in total antioxidant levels were observed in Liver and Kidney of irradiated mice, Glutathione levels were found to be decreased in Liver, Kidney and Brain, Glutathione S - transferase levels were found to be significantly decreased in Liver and Brain, Catalase activity was found to be decreased in Liver, Super oxide dismutase activity was found to be significantly decreased in Liver, Kidney and Brain homogenates when compared with the tissue homogenates of control group. From the results we can conclude that the liver is the most sensitive organ for the electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress when compared with Kidney and Brain. (author)

  17. The problem of induced genomic instability in the child organism under conditions of long-term effect of small radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suskov, I.I.; Kuz'mina, N.S.

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenological aspects of the genomic instability induced in the descendants of the multi-divided cells having been exposed to the radiation are examined. It is demonstrated that the regularity of the genomic instability induction do not correspond to the classical conception of the radiation genetics (hit principle and target theory). The mechanisms and the biological significance of this new genetic phenomenon in the child organism under conditions of low-intensive effect of small-dose radiation and its connection with the state of health are discussed [ru

  18. Photoresponse and photo-induced memory effect in the organic field-effect transistor based on AlOX nanoparticles at the interface of semiconductor/dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunfei; Wang, Wu

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the photoresponse and photo-induced memory effect were demonstrated in an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with semiconductor pentacene and SiO2 as the active and gate dielectric layers, respectively. By inserting AlOX nanoparticles (NPs) at the interface of pentacene/SiO2, obvious enhancing photoresponse was obtained in the OFET with the maximum responsivity and photosensitivity of about 15 A/W and 100, respectively. Moreover, the stable photoinduced memory effect was achieved in the OFET, attributing to the photogenerated electrons captured by the interface traps of the AlOX NPs/SiO2.

  19. Noise-induced hearing loss in Korean workers: co-exposure to organic solvents and heavy metals in nationwide industries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Hyeong Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Noise exposure is a well-known contributor to work-related hearing loss. Recent biological evidence suggests that exposure to ototoxic chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals may be additional contributors to hearing loss. However, in industrial settings, it is difficult to determine the risks of hearing loss due to these chemicals in workplaces accompanied by excessive noise exposure. A few studies suggest that the effect of noise may be enhanced by ototoxic chemicals. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-exposure to organic solvents and/or heavy metals in the workplace modifies the risk of noise exposure on hearing loss in a background of excessive noise. METHODS: We examined 30,072 workers nationwide in a wide range of industries from the Korea National Occupational Health Surveillance 2009. Data on industry-based exposure (e.g., occupational noise, heavy metals, and organic solvents and subject-specific health outcomes (e.g., audiometric examination were collected. Noise was measured as the daily 8-h time-weighted average level. Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured from 0.5 to 6 kHz, and pure-tone averages (PTA (i.e., means of 2, 3, and 4 kHz were computed. RESULTS: In the multivariate linear model, PTA increment with occupational noise were 1.64-fold and 2.15-fold higher in individuals exposed to heavy metals and organic solvents than in unexposed individuals, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study provides nationwide evidence that co-exposure to heavy metals and/or organic solvents may exacerbate the effect of noise exposure on hearing loss in workplaces. These findings suggest that workers in industries dealing with heavy metals or organic solvents are susceptible to such risks.

  20. Noise-induced hearing loss in Korean workers: co-exposure to organic solvents and heavy metals in nationwide industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Kim, KyooSang

    2014-01-01

    Noise exposure is a well-known contributor to work-related hearing loss. Recent biological evidence suggests that exposure to ototoxic chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals may be additional contributors to hearing loss. However, in industrial settings, it is difficult to determine the risks of hearing loss due to these chemicals in workplaces accompanied by excessive noise exposure. A few studies suggest that the effect of noise may be enhanced by ototoxic chemicals. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-exposure to organic solvents and/or heavy metals in the workplace modifies the risk of noise exposure on hearing loss in a background of excessive noise. We examined 30,072 workers nationwide in a wide range of industries from the Korea National Occupational Health Surveillance 2009. Data on industry-based exposure (e.g., occupational noise, heavy metals, and organic solvents) and subject-specific health outcomes (e.g., audiometric examination) were collected. Noise was measured as the daily 8-h time-weighted average level. Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured from 0.5 to 6 kHz, and pure-tone averages (PTA) (i.e., means of 2, 3, and 4 kHz) were computed. In the multivariate linear model, PTA increment with occupational noise were 1.64-fold and 2.15-fold higher in individuals exposed to heavy metals and organic solvents than in unexposed individuals, respectively. This study provides nationwide evidence that co-exposure to heavy metals and/or organic solvents may exacerbate the effect of noise exposure on hearing loss in workplaces. These findings suggest that workers in industries dealing with heavy metals or organic solvents are susceptible to such risks.

  1. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Korean Workers: Co-Exposure to Organic Solvents and Heavy Metals in Nationwide Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Kim, KyooSang

    2014-01-01

    Background Noise exposure is a well-known contributor to work-related hearing loss. Recent biological evidence suggests that exposure to ototoxic chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals may be additional contributors to hearing loss. However, in industrial settings, it is difficult to determine the risks of hearing loss due to these chemicals in workplaces accompanied by excessive noise exposure. A few studies suggest that the effect of noise may be enhanced by ototoxic chemicals. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-exposure to organic solvents and/or heavy metals in the workplace modifies the risk of noise exposure on hearing loss in a background of excessive noise. Methods We examined 30,072 workers nationwide in a wide range of industries from the Korea National Occupational Health Surveillance 2009. Data on industry-based exposure (e.g., occupational noise, heavy metals, and organic solvents) and subject-specific health outcomes (e.g., audiometric examination) were collected. Noise was measured as the daily 8-h time-weighted average level. Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured from 0.5 to 6 kHz, and pure-tone averages (PTA) (i.e., means of 2, 3, and 4 kHz) were computed. Results In the multivariate linear model, PTA increment with occupational noise were 1.64-fold and 2.15-fold higher in individuals exposed to heavy metals and organic solvents than in unexposed individuals, respectively. Conclusion This study provides nationwide evidence that co-exposure to heavy metals and/or organic solvents may exacerbate the effect of noise exposure on hearing loss in workplaces. These findings suggest that workers in industries dealing with heavy metals or organic solvents are susceptible to such risks. PMID:24870407

  2. Induction of metallothionein(s) in organ-cultured duodenum: relationship to 1α,25-(OH)2-D3-induced CaBP synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradino, R.A.; Fullmer, C.S.; Frelier, E.; Maxwell, S.

    1979-01-01

    The embryonic chick duodenum contains no vitamin D-induced, calcium-binding protein (CaBP). However, when maintained in organ culture, the duodenum responds to 1α,25-(OH) 2 -D 3 in the culture medium by de novo synthesis of CaBP. Studies with this system have provided evidence that CaBP is directly involved in calcium transport at least at the mucosal surface. The present paper extends previous observations on the effects of the extremely toxic environmental pollutant, cadmium. Cadmium was found to inhibit 1α,25-(OH) 2 -D 3 -mediated responses in the organ-cultured duodenum, i.e., CaBP biosynthesis and 45 Ca uptake at the mucosal surface. Cadmium also stimulated concomitent production of a specific metallothionein (MT). Zinc had similar actions in inhibiting CaBP and stimulating Mt biosynthesis

  3. Antihyperglycaemic and organic protective effects on pancreas, liver and kidney by polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus SG-02 in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Juan; Hu, Chunlong; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jianjun; Ren, Zhenzhen; Song, Xinling; Jia, Le

    2017-09-07

    The present work was designed to investigate the antihyperglycaemic and protective effects of two Hericium erinaceus intracellular polysaccharide (HIPS) purified fractions (HIPS1 and HIPS2) from mycelia of H. erinaceus SG-02 on pancreas, liver and kidney in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The supplementation of HIPS1 and HIPS2 significantly decreased the blood glucose (GLU) levels; suppressed the abnormal elevations of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) levels in serum; improved the antioxidant enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT)) activities; and attenuated the pathological damage to these organs. The HIPS1 showed superior effects in antihyperglycaemia and organic protection than HIPS2 possible owing to the abundant functional groups (-NH 2 , -COOH and S=O) in HIPS1, indicating that H. erinaceus SG-02 could be used as a functional food and natural drug for the prevention of diabetes and its complications.

  4. Superconductivity induced by extremely high pressures in organic Mott-insulator β'-(BEDT-TTF)2IBrCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, M; Uchiyama, K; Taniguchi, H; Hedo, M; Matsubayashi, K; Uwatoko, Y

    2009-01-01

    Previous research revealed that, at a pressure of 8.2 GPa, β'-(BEDT-TTF)2ICl2 possesses the highest transition temperature (T C ) among the organic conductors[1]. In the present work, transport studies under extremely high pressure of up to 10.0 GPa, using a cubic anvil press are reported for a related material, β'-(BEDT-TTF)2IBrCl which is an organic Mott-insulator in ambient pressure. Superconductivity with the highest T c (8.5 K, onset) was observed at P = 8.6 GPa.

  5. Application of numerical modelling to scaling-up of electrically induced extraction from an organic mixture using an ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiński Kamil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction provides an environmentally friendly process as an alternative to azeotropic distillation, pervaporation and reverse osmosis because these techniques require the use of large amounts of energy, may involve volatile organic compounds, and operation at high pressure.

  6. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study photo - induced effects on self-organized TiO2 nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, P.; Cachet, H.; Sutter, E.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Two different morphologies of nano-structured titanium dioxide-a nanotubular layer and a compact layer - were obtained by anodization of titanium in fluoride-based baths, and the photo-induced effects of these layers were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The first layer showed long-lasting photo-induced modifications after UV illumination, whereas, in the case of the compact layer, no long-lasting UV-induced modifications were observed. Before light exposure, in the nanotubular layer, only the bottom of the tubes were electro-active and contributed to the conduction of the layer. Moreover an exponential distribution of surface states could be evidenced. After UV exposure, the surface states were filled by the photo-generated electrons, leading to activation of the walls of the tubes by inserted hydrogen, and to a hundred fold increase in the space charge layer capacitance. This capacitance increase was attributed to an increase in the active surface of the layer, but also to an increase in the charge carrier density.

  7. Anticonvulsant, neuroprotective and behavioral effects of organic and conventional yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Cátia Dos Santos; Scola, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Adriana Dalpicolli; Cesio, Verónica; Laprovitera, Mariajosé; Heinzen, Horacio; Dos Santos, Maitê Telles; Fank, Bruna; de Freitas, Suzana Cesa Vieira; Coitinho, Adriana Simon; Salvador, Mirian

    2013-03-01

    Epilepsy, which is one of the most common neurological disorders, involves the occurrence of spontaneous and recurrent seizures that alter the performance of the brain and affect several sensory and behavioral functions. Oxidative damage has been associated with post-seizure neuronal injury, thereby increasing an individual's susceptibility to the occurrence of neurodegenerative disorders. The present study investigated the possible anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects of organic and conventional yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a plant rich in polyphenols, on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in Wistar rats. The behavioral and polyphenolic profiles of the yerba mate samples were also evaluated. Infusions of yerba mate (50mg/kg) or distilled water were given to rats for fifteen days by oral gavage. On the 15th day the animals were subjected to open field test, and exploratory behavior was assessed. Subsequently, 60mg/kg PTZ (i.p.) was administered, and animals were observed for the appearance of convulsions for 30min. Latency for the first seizure, tonic-clonic and generalized seizures time, frequency of seizures and mortality induced by PTZ were recorded. The animals were then sacrificed, and the cerebellum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus were quickly removed and frozen to study the neuroprotective effects of yerba mate. The oxidative damage in lipids and proteins, nitric oxide levels, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (Sod) and catalase (Cat) and non-enzymatic cellular defense (sulfhydryl protein) were quantified in all the tissues. The results showed that organic and conventional yerba mate infusions were able to reduce the frequency of seizures when compared to the PTZ group. Besides, organic yerba mate infusion decreases the tonic-clonic seizures time in relation to the PTZ group. It was also shown that organic and conventional yerba mate infusions reduced the oxidative damage in lipids and proteins and nitric oxide

  8. Femtosecond pulse laser-induced self-organized nanostructures on the surface of ZnO crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Minjian; Guo Guanglei; Yang Junyi; Ma Ninghua; Ye Guo; Ma Hongliang; Guo Xiaodong; Li Ruxin

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports self-organized nanostructures observed on the surface of ZnO crystal after irradiation by a focused beam of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate of 250 kHz. For a linearly polarized femtosecond laser, the periodic nanograting structure on the ablation crater surface was promoted. The period of self-organization structures is about 180 nm. The grating orientation is adjusted by the laser polarization direction. A long range Bragg-like grating is formed by moving the sample at a speed of 10 μm/s. For a circularly polarized laser beam, uniform spherical nanoparticles were formed as a result of Coulomb explosion during the interaction of near-infrared laser with ZnO crystal

  9. Enhanced light trapping by focused ion beam (FIB) induced self-organized nanoripples on germanium (100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaliya, Bhaveshkumar; Mote, Rakesh G.; Aslam, Mohammed; Fu, Jing

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate enhanced light trapping by self-organized nanoripples on the germanium surface. The enhanced light trapping leading to high absorption of light is confirmed by the experimental studies as well as the numerical simulations using the finite-difference time-domain method. We used gallium ion (Ga+) focused ion beam to enable the formation of the self-organized nanoripples on the germanium (100) surface. During the fabrication, the overlap of the scanning beam is varied from zero to negative value and found to influence the orientation of the nanoripples. Evolution of nanostructures with the variation of beam overlap is investigated. Parallel, perpendicular, and randomly aligned nanoripples with respect to the scanning direction are obtained via manipulation of the scanning beam overlap. 95% broadband absorptance is measured in the visible electromagnetic region for the nanorippled germanium surface. The reported light absorption enhancement can significantly improve the efficiency of germanium-silicon based photovoltaic systems.

  10. Diverse and Tissue Specific Mitochondrial Respiratory Response in A Mouse Model of Sepsis-Induced Multiple Organ Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Michael; Hara, Naomi; Morata, Saori

    2016-01-01

    control ratio was also significantly increased. Maximal Protonophore-induced respiratory (uncoupled) capacity was similar between the two treatment groups.The present study suggests a diverse and tissue specific mitochondrial respiratory response to sepsis. The brain displayed an early impaired...... C57BL/6 mice were analyzed at either 6 hours or 24 hours. ROS-production was simultaneously measured in brain samples using fluorometry.Septic brain tissue exhibited an early increased uncoupling of respiration. Temporal changes between the two time points were diminutive and no difference in ROS...

  11. Mutagenicity and oxidative damage induced by an organic extract of the particulate emissions from a simulation of the deepwater horizon surface oil burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarini, David M; Warren, Sarah H; Lavrich, Katelyn; Flen, Alexis; Aurell, Johanna; Mitchell, William; Greenwell, Dale; Preston, William; Schmid, Judith E; Linak, William P; Hays, Michael D; Samet, James M; Gullett, Brian K

    2017-04-01

    Emissions from oil fires associated with the "Deepwater Horizon" explosion and oil discharge that began on April 20, 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed chemically to only a limited extent at the time but were shown to induce oxidative damage in vitro and in mice. To extend this work, we burned oil floating on sea water and performed extensive chemical analyses of the emissions (Gullett et al., Marine Pollut Bull, in press, ). Here, we examine the ability of a dichloromethane extract of the particulate material with an aerodynamic size ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) from those emissions to induce oxidative damage in human lung cells in vitro and mutagenicity in 6 strains of Salmonella. The extract had a percentage of extractable organic material (EOM) of 7.0% and increased expression of the heme oxygenase (HMOX1) gene in BEAS-2B cells after exposure for 4 hr at 20 µg of EOM/ml. However, the extract did not alter mitochondrial respiration rate as measured by extracellular flux analysis. The extract was most mutagenic in TA100 +S9, indicative of a role for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), reflective of the high concentrations of PAHs in the emissions (1 g/kg of oil consumed). The extract had a mutagenicity emission factor of 1.8 ± 0.1 × 10 5 revertants/megajoule thermal in TA98 +S9, which was greater than that of diesel exhaust and within an order of magnitude of open burning of wood and plastic. Thus, organics from PM 2.5 of burning oil can induce oxidative responses in human airway epithelial cells and are highly mutagenic. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:162-171, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pressure-induced organic topological nodal-line semimetal in the three-dimensional molecular crystal Pd (dddt) 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Wang, Haidi; Wang, Z. F.; Yang, Jinlong; Liu, Feng

    2018-04-01

    The nodal-line semimetal represents a class of topological materials characterized with highest band degeneracy. It is usually found in inorganic materials of high crystal symmetry or a minimum symmetry of inversion aided with accidental band degeneracy [Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 176402 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.176402]. Based on first-principles band structure, Wannier charge center, and topological surface state calculations, here we predict a pressure-induced topological nodal-line semimetal in the absence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in the synthesized single-component 3D molecular crystal Pd (dddt) 2 . We show a Γ -centered single nodal line undulating within a narrow energy window across the Fermi level. This intriguing nodal line is generated by pressure-induced accidental band degeneracy, without protection from any crystal symmetry. When SOC is included, the fourfold degenerated nodal line is gapped and Pd (dddt) 2 becomes a strong 3D topological metal with an Z2 index of (1;000). However, the tiny SOC gap makes it still possible to detect the nodal-line properties experimentally. Our findings afford an attractive route for designing and realizing topological states in 3D molecular crystals, as they are weakly bonded through van der Waals forces with a low crystal symmetry so that their electronic structures can be easily tuned by pressure.

  13. Influence of Beaver-Induced Complexity on Storage of Organic Carbon and Sediment in Colorado Mountain Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel, D.; Wohl, E.

    2016-12-01

    Beaver meadows (complexes of multiple different aged beaver dams and ponds) influence the storage of water, sediment, and nutrients. Although beaver meadows compose only a small fraction of catchment area, they provide a potentially large role in retaining these fluxes in mountain watersheds. Multiple dams and ponds in beaver meadows increase overbank flows leading to an anastomosing stream channel planform, and deposition of fine sediment along with particulate organic carbon. An earlier study estimated a range of cumulative carbon stored in 27 beaver meadows east of the continental divide in Rocky Mountain National Park. Storage ranged from 735,800 to 2.8 x 106 Mg carbon, with the high value estimating storage if all the meadows had active beaver (historic conditions pre-European settlement) and the lower value estimating current conditions where many of the meadows are abandoned. We combined geomorphic surveys, soil depth probing by rebar, and soil cores analyzed for carbon content to investigate the influence of beaver activity, meadow size, and meadow placement within the drainage on catchment-scale fluxes of fine sediment and organic carbon. We found carbon storage in floodplain soils to be highly variable across both active and abandoned meadows; however, active beaver meadows store more carbon on average than abandoned meadows. In addition, active meadows with high levels of beaver activity (multiple colonies) stored greater volumes of fine sediment behind dams and in ponds. These results have implications for the restoration potential of abandoned beaver meadows in mountain environments to store greater volumes of sediment and more organic carbon if beaver are successfully reintroduced.

  14. Respiration-induced movement of the upper abdominal organs: a pitfall for the three-dimensional conformal radiation treatment of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussels, Barbara; Goethals, Laurence; Feron, Michel; Bielen, Didier; Dymarkowski, Steven; Suetens, Paul; Haustermans, Karin

    2003-01-01

    Respiration-induced movement of the upper abdominal organs (pancreas, liver and kidneys) was assessed in 12 subjects using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. The movement of each organ in the cranio-caudal, the lateral and the anterior-posterior direction was deduced from the movement of the center of gravity on two-dimensional images. This center of gravity was computed from the volume delineated on sequential 8-mm slices of both sagittal and coronal dynamic series. The largest movements were noticed in the cranio-caudal direction for pancreas and liver (23.7±15.9 mm and 24.4±16.4 mm). The kidneys showed smaller movements in the cranio-caudal direction (left kidney 16.9±6.7 mm and right kidney 16.1±7.9 mm). The movements of the different organs in the anterior-posterior and lateral directions were less pronounced. It is of the greatest importance to be aware of these movements in the planning of a conformal radiation treatment for pancreatic cancer

  15. The NADPH organizers NoxO1 and p47phox are both mediators of diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Flávia; Moll, Franziska; Walter, Maria; Helfinger, Valeska; Hahner, Fabian; Janetzko, Patrick; Ringel, Christian; Weigert, Andreas; Fleming, Ingrid; Weissmann, Norbert; Kuenne, Carsten; Looso, Mario; Rieger, Michael A; Nawroth, Peter; Fleming, Thomas; Brandes, Ralf P; Schröder, Katrin

    2018-05-01

    NADPH oxidases are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several Nox homologues are present together in the vascular system but whether they exhibit crosstalk at the activity level is unknown. To address this, vessel function of knockout mice for the cytosolic Nox organizer proteins p47phox, NoxO1 and a p47phox-NoxO1-double knockout were studied under normal condition and during streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In the mouse aorta, mRNA expression for NoxO1 was predominant in smooth muscle and endothelial cells, whereas p47phox was markedly expressed in adventitial cells comprising leukocytes and tissue resident macrophages. Knockout of either NoxO1 or p47phox resulted in lower basal blood pressure. Deletion of any of the two subunits also prevented diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction. mRNA expression analysis by MACE (Massive Analysis of cDNA ends) identified substantial gene expression differences between the mouse lines and in response to diabetes. Deletion of p47phox induced inflammatory activation with increased markers of myeloid cells and cytokine and chemokine induction. In contrast, deletion of NoxO1 resulted in an attenuated interferon gamma signature and reduced expression of genes related to antigen presentation. This aspect was also reflected by a reduced number of circulating lymphocytes in NoxO1-/- mice. ROS production stimulated by NoxO1 and p47phox limit endothelium-dependent relaxation and maintain blood pressure in mice. However, NoxO1 and p47phox cannot substitute each other despite their similar effect on vascular function. Deletion of NoxO1 induced an anti-inflammatory phenotype, whereas p47phox deletion rather elicited a hyper-inflammatory response. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Acid tolerance in Salmonella typhimurium induced by culturing in the presence of organic acids at different growth temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; Bernardo, Ana; López, Mercedes

    2010-02-01

    The influence of growth temperature and acidification of the culture medium up to pH 4.25 with acetic, citric, lactic and hydrochloric acids on the growth and subsequent acid resistance at pH 3.0 of Salmonella typhimurium CECT 443 was studied. The minimum pH value which allowed for S. typhimurium growth within the temperature range of 25-37 degrees C was 4.5 when the pH was reduced using citric and hydrochloric acids, and 5.4 and 6.4 when lactic acid and acetic acid were used, respectively. At high (45 degrees C) or low (10 degrees C) temperatures, the growth pH boundary was increased about 1 pH unit. The growth temperature markedly modified the acid resistance of the resulting cells. In all cases, D-values were lower for cells grown at 10 degrees C and significantly increased with increasing growth temperature up to 37 degrees C, at which D-values obtained were up to 10 times higher. Cells grown at 45 degrees C showed D-values similar to those found for cells grown at 25 degrees C. The growth of cells in acidified media, regardless of the pH value, caused an increase in their acid resistance at the four incubation temperatures, although the magnitude of the Acid Tolerance Response (ATR) observed depended on the growth temperature. Acid adapted cultures at 10 degrees C showed D-values ranging from 5.75 to 6.91 min, which turned out to be about 2 times higher than those corresponding to non-acid adapted cultures, while higher temperatures induced an increase in D-values of at least 3.5 times. Another finding was that, while at 10 and 45 degrees C no significant differences among the effect of the different acids tested in inducing an ATR were observed, when cells were grown at 25 and 37 degrees C citric acid generally turned out to be the acid which induced the strongest ATR. Results obtained in this study show that growth temperature is an important factor affecting S. typhimurium acid resistance and could contribute to find new strategies based on intelligent

  17. STUDY ON EFFICACY OF DIATOMACEOUS EARTH TO AMELIORATE AFLATOXIN - INDUCED PATHO-MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN LYMPHOID ORGANS OF BROILER CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Lakkawar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Diatomaceous earth (DAE in reducing the detrimental effects of aflatoxin (AF in broiler diet was evaluated. DAE was supplemented 2000 mg/kg of feed along with 0.5 and 1 ppm of AF in feed. A total of 240 healthy day old broiler chicks were divided into 6 groups comprising of control and treatment groups. Feeding of AF resulted in reduction in size of the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. In addition, petechial haemorrhages were observed on the surface of the thymus. Histopathology revealed varying degree of lymphocytolysis and depletion of lymphoid cells in thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. In addition, the ceacal tonsils also revealed a mild to moderate degree of lymphoid depletion. The supplementation of DAE to aflatoxin-mixed feed revealed significant improvement characterised by decreased severity of lesions in lymphoid organs. The macroscopic and microscopic changes in the birds fed DAE in combination with AF included those that were observed in AF- alone fed birds, but of reduced magnitude and severity. The study concluded that 2% DAE in feed can be effectively used to reduce the the histotoxic effects of aflatoxin on lymphoid organs in broiler chicken.

  18. Diuron exposure induces systemic and organ-specific toxicity following acute and sub-chronic exposure in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Alexandre; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Martins, Priscila Raquel; Spinardi-Barbisan, Ana Lúcia Tozzi

    2011-05-01

    Diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] is a substitute urea herbicide widely used on agricultural crops with potential mutagenic, teratogenic, reproductive and carcinogenic effects. Nonetheless, its toxic potential on the immune system needs a detailed assessment. Thus, in order to evaluate the adverse effect of this herbicide on lymphohematopoietic organs and macrophage activity, male Wistar rats were orally treated with Diuron at 125, 1250 and 2500 ppm for 14, 28 or 90 days. General signs of toxicity were observed in Diuron-treated groups (1250 and 2500 ppm), including reduced food intake and body weight gain, as well as higher relative weights for spleen, kidneys and liver (28 and 90-day toxicity studies) and elevated serum levels of ALT, albumin, total protein, creatinine and urea (28-day toxicity study). Diuron exposure caused a severe depletion of splenic white pulp compartments and cellularity, followed by a decreased number of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, increased extramedullary hematopoiesis and deposition of hemosiderin in red pulp. Despite alteration in macrophage spreading, the macrophagic activity was not significantly affected by the herbicide. Under these experimental conditions, the results suggest that Diuron exerts systemic and target-organ toxicity, mainly at higher concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lung-Derived Mediators Induce Cytokine Production in Downstream Organs via an NF-κB-Dependent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Patterson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the setting of acute lung injury, levels of circulating inflammatory mediators have been correlated with adverse outcomes. Previous studies have demonstrated that injured, mechanically ventilated lungs represent the origin of the host inflammatory response; however, mechanisms which perpetuate systemic inflammation remain uncharacterized. We hypothesized that lung-derived mediators generated by mechanical ventilation (MV are amplified by peripheral organs in a “feed forward” mechanism of systemic inflammation. Herein, lung-derived mediators were collected from 129X1/SVJ mice after 2 hours of MV while connected to the isolated perfused mouse lung model setup. Exposure of liver endothelial cells to lung-derived mediators resulted in a significant increase in G-CSF, IL-6, CXCL-1, CXCL-2, and MCP-1 production compared to noncirculated control perfusate media (P<0.05. Furthermore, inhibition of the NF-κB pathway significantly mitigated this response. Changes in gene transcription were confirmed using qPCR for IL-6, CXCL-1, and CXCL-2. Additionally, liver tissue obtained from mice subjected to 2 hours of in vivo MV demonstrated significant increases in hepatic gene transcription of IL-6, CXCL-1, and CXCL-2 compared to nonventilated controls. Collectively, this data demonstrates that lung-derived mediators, generated in the setting of MV, are amplified by downstream organs in a feed forward mechanism of systemic inflammation.

  20. Modification by cystamine of radiation-induced free radical damages to biomolecules in tissues of mouse organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svistunenko, D.A.; Gudtsova, K.V.

    1989-01-01

    The method of low-temperature ESR-spectroscopy was used to study a modifying effect of cystamine on the yield of radiation-induced free radicals in different biomolecules of liver and spleen tissues of mice. Intraperitoneal administration of cystamine (150 mg/kg) 15 min before isolation and freezing of the tissues was shown to reduce by 11 per cent the yield of radicals of H-adducts of thymine DNA bases, to decrease by 23 per cent the yield of radicals of triacyglycerol and phospholipid radiolysis, and to increase by 24 per cent the yield of radicals of lipid fatty acid residues in splenic tissues. According to the criterion used, cystamine has no modyfying action on the yield of free-radical damages to liver biomolecules

  1. Derivation of transplantable 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced chicken fibrosarcoma lines: differences in metastasizing properties and organ specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galton, J.E.; Xue, B.; Hochwald, G.M.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Transplantable 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced SC chicken fibrosarcoma (CHCT-NYU) lines were studied for their ability to grow in internal organs after iv injection (artificial metastases) into 1- to 3-week-old chickens. Some tumor lines were recently derived, whereas others were studied after many serial subcutaneous transplantations. Artificial metastases were seen in the stomach, pancreas, lungs, heart, and muscle, and occasionally in the kidneys and liver. Agammaglobulinemic recipients showed more extensive organ involvement than normal recipients of the same age. Whole-body ν-irradiation enhanced the incidence of artificial metastases, particularly in lungs. Antibody from the serum of a primary tumor-bearing host reduced the growth of the corresponding tumor in many organs. The metastatic pattern of line CHCT-NYU4 was a relatively stable property. However, intravenous transplantation of tumor cells from line CHCT-NYU4 taken from the liver, lungs, and pancreas of a single recipient established sublines with changes in organ specificity. After a few such serial transplants of liver-derived tumor, a line was derived that grew virtually in the liver alone. A subline with preference for growth in lungs was also obtained, but its ability to grow in the pancreas persisted. A pancreas-derived tumor line also grew in the liver and lungs. Subcutaneous transplants of tissue fragments of the lung-derived tumor line caused the appearance of spontaneous metastases in lungs. The incidence of spontaneous metastases with the lung-derived line was much greater than that with the liver-derived line or with the original CHCT-NYU4 line

  2. Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: A potential tool for the analysis of contaminants and macro/micronutrients in organic mineral fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Senesi, Giorgio Saverio; de Oliveira Perazzoli, Ivan Luiz; Marangoni, Bruno Spolon; De Melo Benites, Vinícius; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira

    2016-09-15

    Organic fertilizers are obtained from waste of plant or animal origin. One of the advantages of organic fertilizers is that, from the composting, it recycles waste-organic of urban and agriculture origin, whose disposal would cause environmental impacts. Fast and accurate analysis of both major and minor/trace elements contained in organic mineral and inorganic fertilizers of new generation have promoted the application of modern analytical techniques. In particular, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is showing to be a very promising, quick and practical technique to detect and measure contaminants and nutrients in fertilizers. Although, this technique presents some limitations, such as a low sensitivity, if compared to other spectroscopic techniques, the use of double pulse (DP) LIBS is an alternative to the conventional LIBS in single pulse (SP). The macronutrients (Ca, Mg, K, P), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Na, Mn, Zn) and contaminant (Cr) in fertilizer using LIBS in SP and DP configurations were evaluated. A comparative study for both configurations was performed using optimized key parameters for improving LIBS performance. The limit of detection (LOD) values obtained by DP LIBS increased up to seven times as compared to SP LIBS. In general, the marked improvement obtained when using DP system in the simultaneous LIBS quantitative determination for fertilizers analysis could be ascribed to the larger ablated mass of the sample. The results presented in this study show the promising potential of the DP LIBS technique for a qualitative analysis in fertilizers, without requiring sample preparation with chemical reagents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dosimetric studies based on the radiation-induced bleaching of Sudan red and Sudan blue dyes in organic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souka, N.; Farag, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on the effect of γ-radiation on the absorption spectra of Sudan red and Sudan blue dyes in organic solutions. A continuous decrease in the absorbance values at the absorption bands was observed with an increase of absorbed dose. The radiation sensitivities of decoloration gave widely different radiation chemical reduction yields (G-values) for the bleaching of both dyes depending on whether xylene, ethyl acetate, or chloroform was used as the solvent. On the basis of experimental results, suggestions are made concerning the dye solutions as prospective dosimeters. The following absorbed dose ranges can be covered: 10 1 -10 2 Gy by 10 -5 M Sudan red or Sudan blue in chloroform; 4 x 10 2 -4 x 10 3 Gy by 10 -5 M Sudan red or Sudan Blue in ethyl acetate; 10 3 -3 x 10 4 Gy by 5 x 10 -6 M Sudan red in xylene. (author)

  4. Tracking senescence-induced patterns in leaf litter leachate using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) modeling and self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, K. I.; Levia, D. F.; Hudson, J. E.

    2017-09-01

    In autumn, the dissolved organic matter (DOM) contribution of leaf litter leachate to streams in forested watersheds changes as trees undergo resorption, senescence, and leaf abscission. Despite its biogeochemical importance, little work has investigated how leaf litter leachate DOM changes throughout autumn and how any changes might differ interspecifically and intraspecifically. Since climate change is expected to cause vegetation migration, it is necessary to learn how changes in forest composition could affect DOM inputs via leaf litter leachate. We examined changes in leaf litter leachate fluorescent DOM (FDOM) from American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) leaves in Maryland, Rhode Island, Vermont, and North Carolina and from yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) leaves from Maryland. FDOM in leachate samples was characterized by excitation-emission matrices (EEMs). A six-component parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model was created to identify components that accounted for the majority of the variation in the data set. Self-organizing maps (SOM) compared the PARAFAC component proportions of leachate samples. Phenophase and species exerted much stronger influence on the determination of a sample's SOM placement than geographic origin. As expected, FDOM from all trees transitioned from more protein-like components to more humic-like components with senescence. Percent greenness of sampled leaves and the proportion of tyrosine-like component 1 were found to be significantly different between the two genetic beech clusters, suggesting differences in photosynthesis and resorption. Our results highlight the need to account for interspecific and intraspecific variations in leaf litter leachate FDOM throughout autumn when examining the influence of allochthonous inputs to streams.

  5. Polyvinylpyrrolidone and arsenic-induced changes in biological responses of model aquatic organisms exposed to iron-based nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llaneza, Verónica [University of Florida, Engineering School of Sustainable Infrastructure and Environment, Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences (United States); Rodea-Palomares, Ismael [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Dept. de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Zhou, Zuo [University of Florida, Engineering School of Sustainable Infrastructure and Environment, Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences (United States); Rosal, Roberto [Univ. de Alcalá, Dept. de Ingeniería Química (Spain); Fernández-Pina, Francisca [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Dept. de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J., E-mail: bonzongo@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Engineering School of Sustainable Infrastructure and Environment, Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The efficiency of zero-valent iron particles used in the remediation of contaminated groundwater has, with the emergence of nanotechnology, stimulated interest on the use of nano-size particles to take advantage of high-specific surface area and reactivity characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs). Accordingly, engineered iron-NPs are among the most widely used nanomaterials for in situ remediation. However, while several ecotoxicity studies have been conducted to investigate the adverse impacts of these NPs on aquatic organisms, research on the implications of spent iron-based NPs is lacking. In this study, a comparative approach is used, in which the biological effects of three iron-based NPs (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs with particle sizes ranging from 20 to 50 nm, and Fe{sup 0}-NPs with an average particle size of 40 nm) on Raphidocelis subcapitata (formely known as Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and Daphnia magna were investigated using both as-prepared and pollutant-doped Fe-based NPs. For the latter, arsenic (As) was used as example sorbed pollutant. The results show that improved degree of NP dispersion by use of polyvinylpyrrolidone overlapped with both increased arsenic adsorption capacity and toxicity to the tested organisms. For R. subcapitata, Fe-oxide NPs were more toxic than Fe{sup 0}-NPs, due primarily to differences in the degree of NPs aggregation and ability to produce reactive oxygen species. For the invertebrate D. magna, a similar trend of biological responses was observed, except that sorption of As to Fe{sup 0}-NPs significantly increased the toxic response when compared to R. subcapitata. Overall, these findings point to the need for research on downstream implications of NP-pollutant complexes generated during water treatment by injection of NPs into aquatic systems.

  6. Polyvinylpyrrolidone and arsenic-induced changes in biological responses of model aquatic organisms exposed to iron-based nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llaneza, Verónica; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Zhou, Zuo; Rosal, Roberto; Fernández-Pina, Francisca; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J.

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of zero-valent iron particles used in the remediation of contaminated groundwater has, with the emergence of nanotechnology, stimulated interest on the use of nano-size particles to take advantage of high-specific surface area and reactivity characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs). Accordingly, engineered iron-NPs are among the most widely used nanomaterials for in situ remediation. However, while several ecotoxicity studies have been conducted to investigate the adverse impacts of these NPs on aquatic organisms, research on the implications of spent iron-based NPs is lacking. In this study, a comparative approach is used, in which the biological effects of three iron-based NPs (Fe_3O_4 and γ-Fe_2O_3 NPs with particle sizes ranging from 20 to 50 nm, and Fe"0-NPs with an average particle size of 40 nm) on Raphidocelis subcapitata (formely known as Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and Daphnia magna were investigated using both as-prepared and pollutant-doped Fe-based NPs. For the latter, arsenic (As) was used as example sorbed pollutant. The results show that improved degree of NP dispersion by use of polyvinylpyrrolidone overlapped with both increased arsenic adsorption capacity and toxicity to the tested organisms. For R. subcapitata, Fe-oxide NPs were more toxic than Fe"0-NPs, due primarily to differences in the degree of NPs aggregation and ability to produce reactive oxygen species. For the invertebrate D. magna, a similar trend of biological responses was observed, except that sorption of As to Fe"0-NPs significantly increased the toxic response when compared to R. subcapitata. Overall, these findings point to the need for research on downstream implications of NP-pollutant complexes generated during water treatment by injection of NPs into aquatic systems.

  7. Polyvinylpyrrolidone and arsenic-induced changes in biological responses of model aquatic organisms exposed to iron-based nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza, Verónica; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Zhou, Zuo; Rosal, Roberto; Fernández-Pina, Francisca; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J.

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency of zero-valent iron particles used in the remediation of contaminated groundwater has, with the emergence of nanotechnology, stimulated interest on the use of nano-size particles to take advantage of high-specific surface area and reactivity characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs). Accordingly, engineered iron-NPs are among the most widely used nanomaterials for in situ remediation. However, while several ecotoxicity studies have been conducted to investigate the adverse impacts of these NPs on aquatic organisms, research on the implications of spent iron-based NPs is lacking. In this study, a comparative approach is used, in which the biological effects of three iron-based NPs (Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 NPs with particle sizes ranging from 20 to 50 nm, and Fe0-NPs with an average particle size of 40 nm) on Raphidocelis subcapitata (formely known as Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and Daphnia magna were investigated using both as-prepared and pollutant-doped Fe-based NPs. For the latter, arsenic (As) was used as example sorbed pollutant. The results show that improved degree of NP dispersion by use of polyvinylpyrrolidone overlapped with both increased arsenic adsorption capacity and toxicity to the tested organisms. For R. subcapitata, Fe-oxide NPs were more toxic than Fe0-NPs, due primarily to differences in the degree of NPs aggregation and ability to produce reactive oxygen species. For the invertebrate D. magna, a similar trend of biological responses was observed, except that sorption of As to Fe0-NPs significantly increased the toxic response when compared to R. subcapitata. Overall, these findings point to the need for research on downstream implications of NP-pollutant complexes generated during water treatment by injection of NPs into aquatic systems.

  8. Investigation of optically-induced DFB lasing in organic scintillators in order to achieve active ionizing radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Maugan

    2014-01-01

    Transducers used for nuclear measurements are divided into two groups. The first one is made of detectors based on the movement of charged carriers created during the interaction of ionizing radiation with materials (ionization chambers, semiconductors, etc.). The second comprises scintillating materials which emit light following such interaction. The present work aims at shifting the current paradigm in order to achieve an active measurement of the interactions between particles and sensor. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the response of nano-structured scintillators when excited by a primary laser beam while in the presence of ionizing radiations. It consists more precisely in optically inducing a laser emission in scintillators so as to benefit from the inherent sensitivity of this kind of wave to any kind of change in its environment. This study is at first focused on controlling the propagation of the electromagnetic waves in nano-structured media. This nano-structuration allows the channeling of the electromagnetic energy in a particular direction and at a precise wavelength and thus to amplify the transduction signal. The second part of this study is dedicated to the attempts at observing any change in the emission in an amplified regime while exposed to ionizing radiations (alpha, beta). The limitation of these sources requires the use of an electron accelerator. The conclusion of this part lays the foundation for future work and provides hypotheses regarding the effects that could be expected from the irradiation with high electron fluxes. (author) [fr

  9. Persistent Organic Pollutants Induced Protein Expression and Immunocrossreactivity by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PM102: A Prospective Bioremediating Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyali Mukherjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel bacterium capable of growth on trichloroethylene as the sole carbon source was identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PM102 by 16S rDNA sequencing (accession number of NCBI GenBank: JQ797560. In this paper, we report the growth pattern, TCE degradation, and total proteome of this bacterium in presence of various other carbon sources: toluene, phenol, glucose, chloroform, and benzene. TCE degradation was comparatively enhanced in presence of benzene. Densitometric analysis of the intracellular protein profile revealed four proteins of 78.6, 35.14, 26.2, and 20.47 kDa while the extracellular protein profile revealed two distinct bands at 14 kDa and 11 kDa that were induced by TCE, benzene, toluene, and chloroform but absent in the glucose lane. A rabbit was immunised with the total protein extracted from the bacteria grown in 0.2% TCE + 0.2% peptone. Antibody preadsorbed on proteins from peptone grown PM102 cells reacted with a single protein of 35.14 kDa (analysed by MALDI-TOF-mass-spectrometry from TCE, benzene, toluene, or chloroform grown cells. No reaction was seen for proteins of PM102 grown with glucose. The PM102 strain was immobilised in calcium alginate beads, and TCE degradation by immobilised cells was almost double of that by free cells. The beads could be reused 8 times.

  10. Pre-treatment with Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 modulates Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic inflammation and organ specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Akin, Ali R; Kosta, Artemis; Zhang, Ning; Tangney, Mark; Francis, Kevin P; Frankel, Gad

    2012-11-01

    Citrobacter rodentium, which colonizes the gut mucosa via formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions, causes transmissible colonic hyperplasia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether prophylactic treatment with Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 can improve the outcome of C. rodentium infection. Six-week-old albino C57BL/6 mice were pre-treated for 3 days with B. breve, challenged with bioluminescent C. rodentium and administered B. breve or PBS-C for 8 days post-infection; control mice were either administered B. breve and mock-infected with PBS, or mock-treated with PBS-C and mock-infected with PBS. C. rodentium colonization was monitored by bacterial enumeration from faeces and by a combination of both 2D bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and composite 3D diffuse light imaging tomography with µCT imaging (DLIT-µCT). At day 8 post-infection, colons were removed and assessed for crypt hyperplasia, histology by light microscopy, bacterial colonization by immunofluorescence, and A/E lesion formation by electron microscopy. Prophylactic administration of B. breve did not prevent C. rodentium colonization or A/E lesion formation. However, this treatment did alter C. rodentium distribution within the large intestine and significantly reduced colonic crypt hyperplasia at the peak of bacterial infection. These results show that B. breve could not competitively exclude C. rodentium, but reduced pathogen-induced colonic inflammation.

  11. Growth dynamics and cytoskeleton organization during stem maturation and gravity-induced stem bending in Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, D. A.; Winter, H.; Wyatt, S. E.; Allen, N. S.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Characterization of gravitropic bending in the maize stem pulvinus, a tissue that functions specifically in gravity responses, demonstrates that the pulvinus is an ideal system for studying gravitropism. Gravistimulation during the second of three developmental phases of the pulvinus induces a gradient of cell elongation across the non-growing cells of the pulvinus, with the most elongation occurring on the lower side. This cell elongation is spatially and temporally separated from normal internodal cell elongation. The three characterized growth phases in the pulvinus correspond closely to a specialized developmental sequence in which structural features typical of cells not fully matured are retained while cell maturation occurs in surrounding internodal and nodal tissue. For example, the lignification of supporting tissue and rearrangement of transverse microtubules to oblique that occur in the internode when cell elongation ceases are delayed for up to 10 d in the adjacent cells of the pulvinus, and only occurs as a pulvinus loses its capacity to respond to gravistimulation. Gravistimulation does not modify this developmental sequence. Neither wall lignification nor rearrangement of transverse microtubules occurs in the rapidly elongating lower side or non-responsive upper side of the pulvinus until the pulvinus loses the capacity to bend further. Gravistimulation does, however, lead to the formation of putative pit fields within the expanding cells of the pulvinus.

  12. Histopathological changes induced by acute toxicity of mercuric chloride on the air-breathing organ (branchial diverticulum) of the life-fish Heteropneustes (= Saccobranchus) fossilis (BLOCH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, M.T. (Histochemistry and Histopathology Lab., Dept. of Zoology, Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India)); Banerjee, T.K. (Histochemistry and Histopathology Lab., Dept. of Zoology, Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1993-01-01

    Toxicity induced by 0.3 ppm (96 h LC[sub 50] value) mercuric chloride solution on the histomorphology of the innerlining of the air breathing organ (branchial diverticulum) of Heteropneustes fossilis has been described. The outer cell layers of the epithelial lining show cyclic necrosis leading to shedding with ultimate haemorrhage and drainage of blood into the lumen causing decrease in the number of blood islets. Simultaneously the epithelium regenerates causing hyperplasia of its cells and increased gas diffusion distance impairing normal aerial respiration. Also the number of foldings decreases and the secondary lamella like structures fuse together. This results in smoothening of the inner lining of the air sac. Later reappearance of the blood islets, secondary lamellae and foldings of the inner lining are observed along with the repair of the epithelium. Damage of the repaired inner lining follows again. (orig.)

  13. Transgelin is a TGFβ-inducible gene that regulates osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of human skeletal stem cells through actin cytoskeleston organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsafadi, E; Manikandan, M; Dawud, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is a novel approach for treating conditions in which enhanced bone regeneration is required. We identified transgelin (TAGLN), a transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-inducible gene, as an upregulated gene during in vitro osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation of human......MSC by regulating cytoskeleton organization. Targeting TAGLN is a plausible approach to enrich for committed hMSC cells needed for regenerative medicine application....... bone marrow-derived stromal (skeletal) stem cells (hMSC). siRNA-mediated gene silencing of TAGLN impaired lineage differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes but enhanced cell proliferation. Additional functional studies revealed that TAGLN deficiency impaired hMSC cell motility and in vitro...... transwell cell migration. On the other hand, TAGLN overexpression reduced hMSC cell proliferation, but enhanced cell migration, osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation, and in vivo bone formation. In addition, deficiency or overexpression of TAGLN in hMSC was associated with significant changes...

  14. Global gene expression changes in human embryonic lung fibroblasts induced by organic extracts from respirable air particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Líbalová Helena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, we used cell-free assays to demonstrate the toxic effects of complex mixtures of organic extracts from urban air particles (PM2.5 collected in four localities of the Czech Republic (Ostrava-Bartovice, Ostrava-Poruba, Karvina and Trebon which differed in the extent and sources of air pollution. To obtain further insight into the biological mechanisms of action of the extractable organic matter (EOM from ambient air particles, human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HEL12469 were treated with the same four EOMs to assess changes in the genome-wide expression profiles compared to DMSO treated controls. Method For this purpose, HEL cells were incubated with subtoxic EOM concentrations of 10, 30, and 60 μg EOM/ml for 24 hours and global gene expression changes were analyzed using human whole genome microarrays (Illumina. The expression of selected genes was verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Results Dose-dependent increases in the number of significantly deregulated transcripts as well as dose-response relationships in the levels of individual transcripts were observed. The transcriptomic data did not differ substantially between the localities, suggesting that the air pollution originating mainly from various sources may have similar biological effects. This was further confirmed by the analysis of deregulated pathways and by identification of the most contributing gene modulations. The number of significantly deregulated KEGG pathways, as identified by Goeman's global test, varied, depending on the locality, between 12 to 29. The Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 exhibited the strongest upregulation in all 4 localities and CYP1B1 had a major contribution to the upregulation of this pathway. Other important deregulated pathways in all 4 localities were ABC transporters (involved in the translocation of exogenous and endogenous metabolites across membranes and DNA repair, the Wnt and TGF-β signaling pathways

  15. Dissolved Organic Carbon and Mercury Exports during Extreme Flooding in South Carolina induced by Hurricane Joaquin, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, A. T.; Bao, S.; Zhang, H.; Tsui, M. T. K.; Ruecker, A.; Uzun, H.; Karanfil, T.

    2016-12-01

    Seasonally flooded, freshwater cypress-tupelo wetlands are commonly found in coastal regions of the southeastern United States, from Texas to North Carolina. These wetlands are the main sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) causing yellowish tea-color like water in the coastal blackwater rivers such as Waccamaw River in South Carolina (SC). Similar to rivers in other regions, concentration of DOC is highly correlated with concentrations of total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) in the Waccamaw River. On October 1-4, 2015, the torrential rain caused extensive flooding in a short period in the coast of SC, resulting in a large volume of water exported from the forested wetlands into the coastal blackwater rivers. To estimate the total loadings of C and Hg mobilized and exported by floodwater, we applied a hydrological model, WRF-Hydro, to simulate the flooding event. Precipitation rate derived from radar reflectivity was used as the main meteorological forcing input, along with near surface air temperature, humidity, and wind speed, pressure and incoming shortwave and longwave radiations data from NASA's Land Data Assimilation Systems (NLDAS). A high-resolution terrain routing grid was created using the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). Surface flow due to surface runoff, baseflow due to underground runoff, and the stream flow rate on the routing grid along rivers were modeled. We also collected water samples along the hydrograph of the flooding event in Waccamaw river and the first water samples were collected on Oct 4, 2015, representing the rising limb of the hydrograph. Since then, samples were collected daily for the first week and several times per week in the following weeks. Samples were promptly analyzed for general water chemistry, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and total Hg (THg). We observed that concentrations of DOC and THg started to rise with the river discharge in an unsynchronized pattern, reaching the highest (32 mg/L and 7.5 ng/L, respectively

  16. Assessing the potential for trace organic contaminants commonly found in Australian rivers to induce vitellogenin in the native rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) and the introduced mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Philip D. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia); Coleman, Heather M. [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, Ulster University, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Colville, Anne; Lim, Richard [School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales, 2007 (Australia); Matthews, Benjamin [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia); McDonald, James A. [School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, New South Wales, 2052 (Australia); Miranda, Ana [School of Applied Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria, 3083 (Australia); Neale, Peta A. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria, 3083 (Australia); Tremblay, Louis A. [Cawthron Institute, 98 Halifax St. East, Nelson 7042 (New Zealand); School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, PO Box 92019, Auckland, 1142 (New Zealand); Leusch, Frederic D.L., E-mail: f.leusch@griffith.edu.au [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Mosquitofish and rainbowfish exposed in the lab to trace organic compounds. • Vitellogenin protein and mRNA monitored as biomarker of estrogenicity. • Minimal response in both species to environmentally relevant concentrations. • Native rainbowfish was slightly more sensitive than the invasive mosquitofish. • Results suggest that risk of estrogenic disruption in Australian rivers is low. - Abstract: In Australia, trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) and endocrine active compounds (EACs) have been detected in rivers impacted by sewage effluent, urban stormwater, agricultural and industrial inputs. It is unclear whether these chemicals are at concentrations that can elicit endocrine disruption in Australian fish species. In this study, native rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) and introduced invasive (but prevalent) mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were exposed to the individual compounds atrazine, estrone, bisphenol A, propylparaben and pyrimethanil, and mixtures of compounds including hormones and personal care products, industrial compounds, and pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations. Vitellogenin (Vtg) protein and liver Vtg mRNA induction were used to assess the estrogenic potential of these compounds. Vtg expression was significantly affected in both species exposed to estrone at concentrations that leave little margin for safety (p < 0.001). Propylparaben caused a small but statistically significant 3× increase in Vtg protein levels (p = 0.035) in rainbowfish but at a concentration 40× higher than that measured in the environment, therefore propylparaben poses a low risk of inducing endocrine disruption in fish. Mixtures of pesticides and a mixture of hormones, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds and pesticides induced a small but statistically significant increase in plasma Vtg in rainbowfish, but did not affect mosquitofish Vtg protein or mRNA expression. These results suggest that estrogenic activity represents a

  17. Application of an immunoperoxidase staining method for detection of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine as a biomarker of chemical-induced oxidative stress in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machella, Nicola; Regoli, Francesco; Cambria, Antonio; Santella, Regina M.

    2004-01-01

    7,8-Dihydro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) is a typical modification of DNA caused by oxygen free radicals and can be an useful biomarker for pollutants inducing oxidative stress. An immunoperoxidase method using monoclonal antibody 1F7 toward 8-oxo-dG was applied to tissues and smeared cells of marine organisms for detection and quantification of oxidative DNA damage in such models. The assay, previously employed on human cells, was assessed for the first time on Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and European eels (Anguilla anguilla), exposed to model pro-oxidant chemicals, namely benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and copper. Quantification of 8-oxo-dG was microscopically carried out and expressed as relative nuclear staining intensity. Higher levels of oxidative DNA damage were detected in the digestive glands of treated mussels compared to controls, while the effect was less pronounced in haemocytes, characterized by more elevated basal levels of 8-oxo-dG. The assay was suitable for detection of 8-oxo-dG also in fish liver sections indicating consistent damage after B[a]P exposure. The main advantage of the immunohistochemical approach is the elimination of DNA extraction which considerably reduces the processing of biological samples. In addition, the assay requires small amounts of frozen tissues or fixed cells for detection of 8-oxo-dG and is potentially able to discriminate variable susceptibility to oxidative stress in different cell types. Although further investigations are required for the improvement and the validation of the assay in field conditions, laboratory exposures provided useful indications on the consistency of the approach and the efficacy of antibody 1F7 in marine organisms for a rapid assessment of pollutant-induced oxidative DNA damage

  18. Three-decade long fertilization-induced soil organic carbon sequestration depends on edaphic characteristics in six typical croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feng; Li, Jianwei; Yang, Xueyun; Huang, Shaomin; Cai, Zejiang; Gao, Hongjun; Ma, Junyong; Cui, Xian; Xu, Minggang

    2016-08-01

    Fertilizations affect soil organic carbon (SOC) content but the relative influences of the edaphic and climate factors on SOC storage are rarely studied across wide spatiotemporal scales. This study synthesized long-term datasets of fertilization experiments in six typical Chinese croplands, and calculated annual C input from crops and manure amendments, changes in SOC storage (ΔSOC) and C sequestration efficiency (i.e. the percentage of soil C change per unit of C input, hereafter referred as CSE) in 0-20 cm soil over three decades. Three fertilization treatments include no fertilization (CK), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK) and combined chemical fertilizers and manure (NPKM). Results showed significant fertilization effects on C input and ΔSOC (NPKM>NPK>CK), and significantly higher CSE in Qiyang at Hunan than Zhengzhou at Henan and Heihe at Heilongjiang. The variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed more variance of CSE can be explained by edaphic factors (up to 39.7%) than other factors. Furthermore, soil available N content and pH were identified as the major soil properties explaining CSE variance. This study demonstrated key controls of soil fertility factors on SOC sequestration and informs the need to develop strategic soil management plan to promote soil carbon sequestration under long-term intensive fertilization.

  19. Functional consequences of inducible genetic elements from the p53 SOS response in a mammalian organ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, O'neil W

    2017-10-01

    In response to DNA damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation, bacteria deploy the SOS response in order to limit cell death. This bacterial SOS response is characterized by an increase in the recA gene that transactivates expression of multiple DNA repair genes. The current series of experiments demonstrate that a mammalian organ system (the cochlea) that is not evolutionarily conditioned to UV radiation can elicit SOS responses that are reminiscent of that of bacteria. This mammalian SOS response is characterized by an increase in the p53 gene with activation of multiple DNA repair genes that harbor p53 response elements in their promoters. Furthermore, the experimental results provide support for the notion of a convergent trigger paradox, where independent SOS triggers facilitate disparate physiologic sequelae (loss vs. recovery of function). Therefore, it is proposed that the mammalian SOS response is multifunctional and manipulation of this endogenous response could be exploited in future biomedical interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Applications of organic and inorganic amendments induce changes in the mobility of mercury and macro- and micronutrients of soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Sípková, Adéla; Száková, Jiřina; Kaplan, Lukáš; Ochecová, Pavla; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Both soil organic matter and sulfur (S) can reduce or even suppress mercury (Hg) mobility and bioavailability in soil. A batch incubation experiment was conducted with a Chernozem and a Luvisol artificially contaminated by 440 mg · kg(-1) Hg showing wide differences in their physicochemical properties and available nutrients. The individual treatments were (i) digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of biowaste; (ii) fly ash from wood chip combustion; and (iii) ammonium sulfate, and every treatment was added with the same amount of S. The mobile Hg portion in Chernozem was highly reduced by adding digestate, even after 1 day of incubation, compared to control. Meanwhile, the outcome of these treatments was a decrease of mobile Hg forms as a function of incubation time whereas the contents of magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and phosphorus (P) were stimulated by the addition of digestate in both soils. The available calcium (Ca) contents were not affected by the digestate addition. The experiment proved digestate application as the efficient measure for fast reduction of mobile Hg at extremely contaminated soils. Moreover, the decrease of the mobile mercury portion was followed by improvement of the nutrient status of the soils.

  1. Detection of explosives in traces by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: Differences from organic interferents and conditions for a correct classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazic, V.; Palucci, A.; Jovicevic, S.; Carpanese, M.

    2011-01-01

    With the aim to study and to improve LIBS capability for detecting residues of energetic compounds in air surrounding, nine types of explosives and some potential interferents, placed in small quantities on a metallic support, were interrogated by a laser. Shot-to-shot behavior of the line intensities relative to the sample constituents was studied. The detected plasma was not stoichiometric and the line intensities, as well as their ratios, were changing even for an order of magnitude from one sampling point to another, particularly in the case of aromatic compounds. We explained some sources of such LIBS signal's behavior and this allowed us to establish a data processing procedure, which leads to a good linearization among the data sets. In this way, it was possible to determine some real differences between the LIBS spectra from explosives and interferents, and to correlate them with molecular formulas, with some known pathways for the molecule's decomposition and with successive chemical reactions in the plasma. Number spectral parameters, which distinguish the each studied explosive from other organic materials, were also determined and compared with previously published results relative to percentages of correct classifications for the same explosives. Experimental conditions for reliable recognition of the explosives by LIBS in air are also suggested, together with the parameters that should be considered or discarded from the classification procedure.

  2. Assessment of DNA degradation induced by thermal and UV radiation processing: implications for quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballari, Rajashekhar V; Martin, Asha

    2013-12-01

    DNA quality is an important parameter for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMO's) using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Food processing leads to degradation of DNA, which may impair GMO detection and quantification. This study evaluated the effect of various processing treatments such as heating, baking, microwaving, autoclaving and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the relative transgenic content of MON 810 maize using pRSETMON-02, a dual target plasmid as a model system. Amongst all the processing treatments examined, autoclaving and UV irradiation resulted in the least recovery of the transgenic (CaMV 35S promoter) and taxon-specific (zein) target DNA sequences. Although a profound impact on DNA degradation was seen during the processing, DNA could still be reliably quantified by Real-time PCR. The measured mean DNA copy number ratios of the processed samples were in agreement with the expected values. Our study confirms the premise that the final analytical value assigned to a particular sample is independent of the degree of DNA degradation since the transgenic and the taxon-specific target sequences possessing approximately similar lengths degrade in parallel. The results of our study demonstrate that food processing does not alter the relative quantification of the transgenic content provided the quantitative assays target shorter amplicons and the difference in the amplicon size between the transgenic and taxon-specific genes is minimal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA, a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA. We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA.

  4. Rapid bacterial mineralization of organic carbon produced during a phytoplankton bloom induced by natural iron fertilization in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obernosterer, Ingrid; Christaki, Urania; Lefèvre, Dominique; Catala, Philippe; Van Wambeke, France; Lebaron, Philippe

    2008-03-01

    The response of heterotrophic bacteria ( Bacteria and Archaea) to the spring phytoplankton bloom that occurs annually above the Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean) due to natural iron fertilization was investigated during the KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study (KEOPS) cruise in January-February 2005. In surface waters (upper 100 m) in the core of the phytoplankton bloom, heterotrophic bacteria were, on an average, 3-fold more abundant and revealed rates of production ([ 3H] leucine incorporation) and respiration (bacterial metabolic activities were attributable to high-nucleic-acid-containing cells that dominated (≈80% of total cell abundance) the heterotrophic bacterial community associated with the phytoplankton bloom. Bacterial growth efficiencies varied between 14% and 20% inside the bloom and were bacterial activity, due to the stimulation by phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter. Within the Kerguelen bloom, bacterial carbon demand accounted for roughly 45% of gross community production. These results indicate that heterotrophic bacteria processed a significant portion of primary production, with most of it being rapidly respired.

  5. Curcumin attenuates sepsis-induced acute organ dysfunction by preventing inflammation and enhancing the suppressive function of Tregs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longwang; Lu, Yang; Zhao, Linjun; Hu, Lili; Qiu, Qiaomeng; Zhang, Zhuoling; Li, Mengfang; Hong, Guangliang; Wu, Bing; Zhao, Guangju; Lu, Zhongqiu

    2018-05-17

    Sepsis is characterized by the extensive release of cytokines and other mediators. It results in a dysregulated immune response and can lead to organ damage and death. Curcumin has anti-inflammatory properties and immunoregulation functions in various disorders such as sepsis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, lung fibrosis, gallstone formation, and diabetes. This paper investigates the effects of curcumin on immune status and inflammatory response in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Inflammatory tissue injury was evaluated by histological observation. Magnetic microbeads were used to isolate splenic CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells (Tregs), and phenotypes were then analyzed by flow cytometry. The levels of Foxp3 were detected by Western blot and real-time PCR and cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that the administration of curcumin significantly alleviated inflammatory injury of the lung and kidney in septic mice. The suppressive function of Treg cells was enhanced and the plasma levels of IL-10 increased after treatment with curcumin. Furthermore, the secretion of plasma TNF-α and IL-6 was notably inhibited in septic mice treated with curcumin and administration with curcumin could improve survival after CLP. These data suggest that curcumin could be used as a potential therapeutic agent for sepsis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Exhaled volatile organic compounds in individuals with a history of high altitude pulmonary edema and varying hypoxia-induced responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Jennifer A; Mansoor, Jim K; Allen, Roblee P; Davis, Cristina E; Walby, William F; Aksenov, Alexander A; Zhao, Weixiang; Lewis, William R; Schelegle, Edward S

    2015-04-20

    With ascent to altitude, certain individuals are susceptible to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), which in turn can cause disability and even death. The ability to identify individuals at risk of HAPE prior to ascent is poor. The present study examined the profile of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and pulmonary artery systolic pressures (PASP) before and after exposure to normobaric hypoxia (12% O2) in healthy males with and without a history of HAPE (Hx HAPE, n = 5; Control, n = 11). In addition, hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), and PASP response to normoxic exercise were also measured. Auto-regression/partial least square regression of whole gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) data and binary logistic regression (BLR) of individual GC peaks and physiologic parameters resulted in models that separate individual subjects into their groups with variable success. The result of BLR analysis highlights HVR, PASP response to hypoxia and the amount of benzyl alcohol and dimethylbenzaldehyde dimethyl in expired breath as markers of HAPE history. These findings indicate the utility of EBC VOC analysis to discriminate between individuals with and without a history of HAPE and identified potential novel biomarkers that correlated with physiological responses to hypoxia.

  7. Confinement of Aggregation-Induced Emission Molecular Rotors in Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Porous Organic Nanosheets for Enhanced Molecular Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jinqiao; Li, Xu; Zhang, Kang; Di Yuan, Yi; Wang, Yuxiang; Zhai, Linzhi; Liu, Guoliang; Yuan, Daqiang; Jiang, Jianwen; Zhao, Dan

    2018-03-21

    Despite the rapid development of molecular rotors over the past decade, it still remains a huge challenge to understand their confined behavior in ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials for molecular recognition. Here, we report an all-carbon, 2D π-conjugated aromatic polymer, named NUS-25, containing flexible tetraphenylethylene (TPE) units as aggregation-induced emission (AIE) molecular rotors. NUS-25 bulk powder can be easily exfoliated into micrometer-sized lamellar freestanding nanosheets with a thickness of 2-5 nm. The dynamic behavior of the TPE rotors is partially restricted through noncovalent interactions in the ultrathin 2D nanosheets, which is proved by comparative experimental studies including AIE characteristics, size-selective molecular recognition, and theoretical calculations of rotary energy barrier. Because of the partially restricted TPE rotors, NUS-25 nanosheets are highly fluorescent. This property allows NUS-25 nanosheets to be used as a chemical sensor for the specific detection of acenaphthylene among a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via fluorescent quenching mechanism. Further investigations show that NUS-25 nanosheets have much higher sensitivity and selectivity than their stacked bulk powder and other similar polymers containing dynamic TPE rotors. The highly efficient molecular recognition can be attributed to the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from NUS-25 nanosheets to acenaphthylene, which is investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence measurements (TRPL), excitation and emission spectra, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our findings demonstrate that confinement of AIE molecular rotors in 2D nanomaterials can enhance the molecular recognition. We anticipate that the material design strategy demonstrated in this study will inspire the development of other ultrathin 2D nanomaterials equipped with smart molecular machines for various applications.

  8. Volatile Organic Compounds Induced by Herbivory of the Soybean Looper Chrysodeixis includens in Transgenic Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean and the Behavioral Effect on the Parasitoid, Meteorus rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapasson, Priscila; Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Da Silva Gomes, Sandra M; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2016-08-01

    Transgenic soybean plants (RR) engineered to express resistance to glyphosate harbor a variant of the enzyme EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) involved in the shikimic acid pathway, the biosynthetic route of three aromatic amino acids: phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. The insertion of the variant enzyme CP4 EPSPS confers resistance to glyphosate. During the process of genetic engineering, unintended secondary effects are likely to occur. In the present study, we quantified volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted constitutively or induced in response to herbivory by the soybean looper Chrysodeixis includens in transgenic soybean and its isogenic (untransformed) line. Since herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are known to play a role in the recruitment of natural enemies, we assessed whether changes in VOC profiles alter the foraging behavior of the generalist endoparasitic larval parasitoid, Meteorus rubens in the transgenic line. Additionally, we assessed whether there was a difference in plant quality by measuring the weight gain of the soybean looper. In response to herbivory, several VOCs were induced in both the conventional and the transgenic line; however, larger quantities of a few compounds were emitted by transgenic plants. Meteorus rubens females were able to discriminate between the odors of undamaged and C. includens-damaged plants in both lines, but preferred the odors emitted by herbivore-damaged transgenic plants over those emitted by herbivore-damaged conventional soybean plants. No differences were observed in the weight gain of the soybean looper. Our results suggest that VOC-mediated tritrophic interactions in this model system are not negatively affected. However, as the preference of the wasps shifted towards damaged transgenic plants, the results also suggest that genetic modification affects that tritrophic interactions in multiple ways in this model system.

  9. Detection of irradiation induced changes on the activity and diversity of soil organisms: the effect of soil type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parekh, N.R.; Beresford, N.A.; Black, H.I.J.; Potter, E.D.; Poskitt, J.M.; Dodd, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Whilst non-radiological environmental impact assessments consider impacts on ecosystem function by assessing soil health the techniques of doing so have rarely been applied to radiological studies. Our aim in the study described was to measure the effects of irradiation treatments on soil communities from three different soils. Undisturbed soil cores from two temperate woodland sites (deciduous and coniferous) and a grassland site were irradiated to give a range of cumulative doses from 0 160 Gy. All cores were incubated at 15 deg C and three cores from each treatment sampled after <1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Soil samples were analysed for the presence and abundance of fauna, fungi and heterotrophic bacteria. The activity and functional diversity of soil microbial communities was also assessed in terms of their potential to utilise a range of carbon sources. There was a small impact on Oribatid mites at the highest dose but no significant effect on other soil faunal groups. Although significant changes in the numbers of cultivable fungi or fast growing heterotrophic bacteria were not observed at any of the treatment doses, the numbers of cultivable Pseudomonas spp. declined in all three soil types after irradiation at 80 and 160 Gy. This decline was greatest in the coniferous forest soil. Microbial communities from this soil also showed a dramatic decrease in metabolic activity and in the number of substrates utilised after irradiation at 160 Gy as compared with control non-irradiated samples. Our results show that the affects of gamma irradiation on soil microorganisms are more pronounced in the two organic forest soils as compared to the mineral grassland soil. These differences can be related to two factors; variations in the physico-chemical shielding properties of the soils and differences in the indigenous communities in terms of radioresistant species. (author)

  10. Maternal exposure to a mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) affects testis histology, epididymal sperm count and induces sperm DNA fragmentation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezri, Abdolrahman; Lindeman, Birgitte; Krogenæs, Anette K; Berntsen, Hanne F; Zimmer, Karin E; Ropstad, Erik

    2017-08-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widespread throughout the environment and some are suspected to induce reproductive toxicity. As animals and humans are exposed to complex mixtures of POPs, it is reasonable to assess how such mixtures could interact with the reproductive system. Our aim is to investigate how maternal exposure to a mixture of 29 different persistent organic pollutants, formulated to mimic the relative POP levels in the food basket of the Scandinavian population, could alter reproductive endpoints. Female mice were exposed via feed from weaning, during pregnancy and lactation in 3 exposure groups (control (C), low (L) and high (H)). Testicular morphometric endpoints, epididymal sperm concentration and sperm DNA integrity were assessed in adult male offspring. We found that the number of tubules, proportion of tubule compartments and epididymal sperm concentration significantly decreased in both POP exposed groups. Epididymal sperm from both POP exposed groups showed increased DNA fragmentation. It is concluded that maternal exposure to a defined POP mixture relevant to human exposure can affect testicular development, sperm production and sperm chromatin integrity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Space confinement and rotation stress induced self-organization of double-helix nanostructure: a nanotube twist with a moving catalyst head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Huang, Jia-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2012-05-22

    Inorganic materials with double-helix structure have attracted intensive attention due to not only their elegant morphology but also their amazing morphology-related potential applications. The investigation on the formation mechanism of the inorganic double-helix nanostructure is the first step for the fundamental studies of their materials or physical properties. Herein, we demonstrated the space confinement and rotation stress induced self-organization mechanism of the carbon nanotube (CNT)-array double helices under scanning electron microscopy by directly observing their formation process from individual layered double hydroxide flakes, which is a kind of hydrotalcite-like material composed of positively charged layers and charge-balancing interlayer anions. Space confinement is considered to be the most important extrinsic factor for the formation of CNT-array double helices. Synchronous growth of the CNT arrays oppositely from LDH flakes with space confinement on both sides at the same time is essential for the growth of CNT-array double helices. Coiling of the as-grown CNT arrays into double helices will proceed by self-organization, tending to the most stable morphology in order to release their internal rotation stress. Based on the demonstrated mechanism, effective routes were carried out to improve the selectivity for CNT-array double helices. The work provides a promising method for the fabrication of double-helix nanostructures with their two helices connected at the end by self-assembly.

  12. Guest Induced Strong Cooperative One- and Two-Step Spin Transitions in Highly Porous Iron(II) Hofmann-Type Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro-López, Lucı A; Valverde-Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Seredyuk, Maksym; Muñoz, M Carmen; Haukka, Matti; Real, José Antonio

    2017-06-19

    The synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic, calorimetric, and Mössbauer studies of a series of new Hofmann-type spin crossover (SCO) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is reported. The new SCO-MOFs arise from self-assembly of Fe II , bis(4-pyridyl)butadiyne (bpb), and [Ag(CN) 2 ] - or [M II (CN) 4 ] 2- (M II = Ni, Pd). Interpenetration of four identical 3D networks with α-Po topology are obtained for {Fe(bpb)[Ag I (CN) 2 ] 2 } due to the length of the rod-like bismonodentate bpb and [Ag(CN) 2 ] - ligands. The four networks are tightly packed and organized in two subsets orthogonally interpenetrated, while the networks in each subset display parallel interpenetration. This nonporous material undergoes a very incomplete SCO, which is rationalized from its intricate structure. In contrast, the single network Hofmann-type MOFs {Fe(bpb)[M II (CN) 4 ]}·nGuest (M II = Ni, Pd) feature enhanced porosity and display complete one-step or two-step cooperative SCO behaviors when the pores are filled with two molecules of nitrobenzene or naphthalene that interact strongly with the pyridyl and cyano moieties of the bpb ligands via π-π stacking. The lack of these guest molecules favors stabilization of the high-spin state in the whole range of temperatures. However, application of hydrostatic pressure induces one- and two-step SCO.

  13. Chemical-based risk assessment and in vitro models of human health effects induced by organic pollutants in soils from the Olona valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baderna, Diego, E-mail: diego.baderna@marionegri.it; Colombo, Andrea; Amodei, Giorgia; Cantù, Stefano; Teoldi, Federico; Cambria, Felice; Rotella, Giuseppe; Natolino, Fabrizio; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2013-10-01

    Risk assessment of soils is usually based on chemical measurements and assuming accidental soil ingestion and evaluating induced toxic and carcinogenic effects. Recently biological tools have been coupled to chemical-based risk assessment since they integrate the biological effects of all xenobiotics in soils. We employed integrated monitoring of soils based on chemical analyses, risk assessment and in vitro models in the highly urbanized semirural area of the Olona Valley in northern Italy. Chemical characterization of the soils indicated low levels of toxic and carcinogenic pollutants such as PAHs, PCDD/Fs, PCBs and HCB and human risk assessment did not give any significant alerts. HepG2 and BALB/c 3T3 cells were used as a model for the human liver and as a tool for the evaluation of carcinogenic potential. Cells were treated with soil extractable organic matters (EOMs) and the MTS assay, LDH release and morphological transformation were selected as endpoints for toxicity and carcinogenicity. Soil EOMs induced dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth at low doses and cytotoxicity after exposure to higher doses. This might be the result of block of cell cycle progression to repair DNA damage caused by oxidative stress; if this DNA damage cannot be repaired, cells die. No significant inductions of foci were recorded after exposure to EOMs. These results indicate that, although the extracts contain compounds with proven carcinogenic potential, the levels of these pollutants in the analyzed soils were too low to induce carcinogenesis in our experimental conditions. In this proposed case study, HepG2 cells were found an appropriate tool to assess the potential harm caused by the ingestion of contaminated soil as they were able to detect differences in the toxicity of soil EOMs. Moreover, the cell transformation assay strengthened the combined approach giving useful information on carcinogenic potential of mixtures. Highlights: • A combined approach for risk

  14. Immunothrombotic Activity of Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns and Extracellular Vesicles in Secondary Organ Failure Induced by Trauma and Sterile Insults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Eppensteiner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in injury prevention and emergency response, injury-related death and morbidity continues to increase in the US and worldwide. Patients with trauma, invasive operations, anti-cancer treatment, and organ transplantation produce a host of danger signals and high levels of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic mediators, such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs and extracellular vesicles (EVs. DAMPs (e.g., nucleic acids, histone, high-mobility group box 1 protein, and S100 are molecules released from injured, stressed, or activated cells that act as endogenous ligands of innate immune receptors, whereas EVs (e.g., microparticle and exosome are membranous vesicles budding off from plasma membranes and act as messengers between cells. DAMPs and EVs can stimulate multiple innate immune signaling pathways and coagulation cascades, and uncontrolled DAMP and EV production causes systemic inflammatory and thrombotic complications and secondary organ failure (SOF. Thus, DAMPs and EVs represent potential therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers for SOF. High plasma levels of DAMPs and EVs have been positively correlated with mortality and morbidity of patients or animals with trauma or surgical insults. Blocking or neutralizing DAMPs using antibodies or small molecules has been demonstrated to ameliorate sepsis and SOF in animal models. Furthermore, a membrane immobilized with nucleic acid-binding polymers captured and removed multiple DAMPs and EVs from extracellular fluids, thereby preventing the onset of DAMP- and EV-induced inflammatory and thrombotic complications in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge of DAMPs, EVs, and SOF and discuss potential therapeutics and preventive intervention for organ failure secondary to trauma, surgery, anti-cancer therapy, and allogeneic transplantation.

  15. 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene is associated with multiple organ dysfunction and septic shock in pneumonia induced severe sepsis: prospective, observational, genetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Activation of inflammation and coagulation are closely related and mutually interdependent in sepsis. The acute-phase protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a key element in the inhibition of fibrinolysis. Elevated levels of PAI-1 have been related to worse outcome in pneumonia. We aimed to evaluate the effect of functionally relevant 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene in pneumonia induced sepsis. Methods We enrolled 208 Caucasian patients with severe sepsis due to pneumonia admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Patients were followed up until ICU discharge or death. Clinical data were collected prospectively and the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Patients were stratified according to the occurrence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, septic shock or death. Results We found that carriers of the PAI-1 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes have a 2.74-fold higher risk for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.335 - 5.604; p = 0.006) and a 2.57-fold higher risk for septic shock (OR 95%CI = 1.180 - 5.615; p = 0.018) than 5G/5G carriers. The multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for independent predictors, such as age, nosocomial pneumonia and positive microbiological culture also supported that carriers of the 4G allele have a higher prevalence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.957; 95%CI = 1.306 -6.698; p = 0.009) and septic shock (aOR = 2.603; 95%CI = 1.137 - 5.959; p = 0.024). However, genotype and allele analyses have not shown any significant difference regarding mortality in models non-adjusted or adjusted for acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II. Patients bearing the 4G allele had higher disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score at admission (p = 0.007) than 5G/5G carriers. Moreover, in 4G allele carriers the length of ICU stay

  16. 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene is associated with multiple organ dysfunction and septic shock in pneumonia induced severe sepsis: prospective, observational, genetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madách, Krisztina; Aladzsity, István; Szilágyi, Agnes; Fust, George; Gál, János; Pénzes, István; Prohászka, Zoltán

    2010-01-01

    Activation of inflammation and coagulation are closely related and mutually interdependent in sepsis. The acute-phase protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a key element in the inhibition of fibrinolysis. Elevated levels of PAI-1 have been related to worse outcome in pneumonia. We aimed to evaluate the effect of functionally relevant 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene in pneumonia induced sepsis. We enrolled 208 Caucasian patients with severe sepsis due to pneumonia admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Patients were followed up until ICU discharge or death. Clinical data were collected prospectively and the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Patients were stratified according to the occurrence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, septic shock or death. We found that carriers of the PAI-1 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes have a 2.74-fold higher risk for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.335 - 5.604; p = 0.006) and a 2.57-fold higher risk for septic shock (OR 95%CI = 1.180 - 5.615; p = 0.018) than 5G/5G carriers. The multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for independent predictors, such as age, nosocomial pneumonia and positive microbiological culture also supported that carriers of the 4G allele have a higher prevalence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.957; 95%CI = 1.306 -6.698; p = 0.009) and septic shock (aOR = 2.603; 95%CI = 1.137 - 5.959; p = 0.024). However, genotype and allele analyses have not shown any significant difference regarding mortality in models non-adjusted or adjusted for acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II. Patients bearing the 4G allele had higher disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score at admission (p = 0.007) than 5G/5G carriers. Moreover, in 4G allele carriers the length of ICU stay of non-survivors was longer

  17. Arachidonic Acid-Induced Expression of the Organic Solute and Steroid Transporter-beta (Ost-beta) in a Cartilaginous Fish Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Ho; Parton, Angela; Czechanski, Anne; Ballatori, Nazzareno; Barnes, David

    2008-01-01

    The organic solute and steroid transporter (OST/Ost) is a unique membrane transport protein heterodimer composed of subunits designated alpha and beta, that transports conjugated steroids and prostaglandin E2 across the plasma membrane. Ost was first identified in the liver of the cartilaginous fish Leucoraja erinacea, the little skate, and subsequently was found in many other species, including humans and rodents. The present study describes the isolation of a new cell line, LEE-1, derived from an early embryo of L. erinacea, and characterizes the expression of Ost in these cells. The mRNA size and amino acid sequence of Ost-beta in LEE-1 was identical to that previously reported for Ost-beta from skate liver, and the primary structure was identical to that of the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) with the exception of a single amino acid. Ost-beta was found both on the plasma membrane and intracellularly in LEE-1 cells, consistent with its localization in other cell types. Interestingly, arachidonic acid, the precursor to eiconsanoids, strongly induced Ost-beta expression in LEE-1 cells and a lipid mixture containing arachidonic acid also induced Ost-alpha. Overall, the present study describes the isolation of a novel marine cell line, and shows that this cell line expresses relatively high levels of Ost when cultured in the presence of arachidonic acid. Although the function of this transport protein in embryo-derived cells is unknown, it may play a role in the disposition of eicosanoids or steroid-derived molecules. PMID:18407792

  18. Dynamics of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic phosphorus during the peak and declining phase of an iron-induced phytoplankton bloom in the eastern subarctic Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Takeshi; Nishioka, Jun; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for all organisms and thus the P cycle plays a key role in determining the dynamics of lower trophic levels in marine ecosystems. P in seawater occurs conceptually in particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic (POP, PIP, DOP, and DIP, respectively) pools and clarification of the dynamics in these P pools is the basis to assess the biogeochemical cycle of P. Despite its importance, behaviors of each P pool with phytoplankton dynamics have not been fully examined. We measured the four operationally defined P pools (POPop, PIPop, DOPop, and SRP) during an iron-induced phytoplankton bloom (as part of the subarctic ecosystem response to iron enrichment study (SERIES)) in the eastern subarctic Pacific in summer 2002. During our observations of the iron-enriched patch from day 15 to day 26 after the iron infusion, chlorophyll-a concentration in the surface layer decreased from 6.3 to 1.2 μg L- 1, indicating the peak through decline phase of the phytoplankton bloom. At the bloom peak, P was partitioned into POPop, PIPop, and DOPop in proportions of 60, 27, and 13%, respectively. While chlorophyll-a and POPop showed similar temporal variations during the declining phase, PIPop showed a different peak timing with a 2 day delay compared to POPop, resulting in a rapid change in the relative proportion of PIPop to total particulate P (TPP = POPop + PIPop) at the peak (25%) and during the declining phase of the bloom (50%). A part of POPop was replaced by PIPop just after slowing down of phytoplankton growth. This process may have a significant role in the subsequent regeneration of P. We conclude that measurement of TPP alone is insufficient to show the interaction between P and phytoplankton dynamics and fractionation of TPP into POPop and PIPop provides useful insights to clarify the biogeochemical cycle of P.

  19. Biochars induced modification of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil and its impact on mobility and bioaccumulation of arsenic and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Khan, Sardar; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Sun, Tian-Ran; Tang, Jian-Feng; Cotner, James B; Xu, Yao-Yang

    2018-04-15

    Biochar application has attracted great attention due to its diverse uses and benefits in the fields of environmental management and agriculture. Biochar modifies the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil, which directly or indirectly controls the mobility of metal contaminants and their bioaccumulation. In this study, ten different hydrothermal biochars pyrolysed from mushroom waste (MSBC), soybean straw (SBBC), sewage sludge (SSBC), peanut shells (PNBC) and rice straw (RSBC) at two pyrolysis temperatures (200 °C and 350 °C) were used to investigate DOM changes in soil solution and their effects on metal availability and bioaccumulation. Biochar induced modification of soil DOM which was characterized by spectroscopic analysis of water soluble organic carbon, specific absorbance (SUVA 254 ), UV-vis absorption, spectral slope (S R ) and the absorption coefficient. Regarding rice plant growth, the biochar effects on biomass were greatly varied. Biochars (except for RSBC and MSBC) prepared at high temperature significantly (P ≤ 0.05) suppressed the availability of As and Cd in soil and their subsequent bioaccumulation in rice plants. The highest reduction (88%) in bioaccumulated As was observed in rice grown on soil amended with SBBC prepared at 350 °C (the highest temperature for hydrothermal technique). The addition of biochars (except RSBC and MSBC) prepared at high temperature markedly (p < 0.05) decreased AsIII (30-92%), while the effects on dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) and arsenate (AsV) concentrations were not significant except for SSBC350 (prepared at 350 °C) treatment. These results highlight the potential of biochar-DOM interactions as an important mechanism for suppressing the mobility and bioaccumulation of As and Cd in biochar-amended paddy agricultural systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A 3′-Untranslated Region (3′UTR) Induces Organ Adhesion by Regulating miR-199a* Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel Y.; Shatseva, Tatiana; Jeyapalan, Zina; Du, William W.; Deng, Zhaoqun; Yang, Burton B.

    2009-01-01

    Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs of 18–24 nucleotides that repress post-transcriptional gene expression. However, it is unknown whether the functions of mature miRNAs can be regulated. Here we report that expression of versican 3′UTR induces organ adhesion in transgenic mice by modulating miR-199a* activities. The study was initiated by the hypothesis that the non-coding 3′UTR plays a role in the regulation of miRNA function. Transgenic mice expressing a construct harboring the 3′UTR of versican exhibits the adhesion of organs. Computational analysis indicated that a large number of microRNAs could bind to this fragment potentially including miR-199a*. Expression of versican and fibronectin, two targets of miR-199a*, are up-regulated in transgenic mice, suggesting that the 3′UTR binds and modulates miR-199a* activities, freeing mRNAs of versican and fibronectin from being repressed by miR-199a*. Confirmation of the binding was performed by PCR using mature miR-199a* as a primer and the targeting was performed by luciferase assays. Enhanced adhesion by expression of the 3′UTR was confirmed by in vitro assays. Our results demonstrated that upon arrival in cytoplasm, miRNA activities can be modulated locally by the 3′UTR. Our assay may be developed as sophisticated approaches for studying the mutual regulation of miRNAs and mRNAs in vitro and in vivo. We anticipate that expression of the 3′UTR may be an approach in the development of gene therapy. PMID:19223980

  1. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Emission (L.I.F.E.): searching for Mars organics with a UV-enhanced PanCam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C; Muller, Jan-Peter; Fisk, Martin R; Cousins, Claire; Sattler, Birgit; Griffiths, Andrew D; Coates, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    The European Space Agency will launch the ExoMars mission in 2016 with a primary goal of surveying the martian subsurface for evidence of organic material. We have recently investigated the utility of including either a 365 nm light-emitting diode or a 375 nm laser light source in the ExoMars rover panoramic camera (PanCam). Such a modification would make it feasible to monitor rover drill cuttings optically for the fluorescence signatures of aromatic organic molecules and map the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as a function of depth to the 2 m limit of the ExoMars drill. The technique described requires no sample preparation, does not consume irreplaceable resources, and would allow mission control to prioritize deployment of organic detection experiments that require sample destruction, expenditure of non-replaceable consumables, or both. We report here for the first time laser-induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.) imaging detection limits for anthracene, pyrene, and perylene targets doped onto a Mars analog granular peridotite with a 375 nm Nichia laser diode in optically uncorrected wide-angle mode. Data were collected via the Beagle 2 PanCam backup filter wheel fitted with original blue (440 nm), green (530 nm), and red (670 nm) filters. All three PAH species can be detected with the PanCam green (530 nm) filter. Detection limits in the green band for signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) > 10 are 49 parts per million (ppm) for anthracene, 145 ppm for pyrene, and 20 ppm for perylene. The anthracene detection limit improves to 7 ppm with use of the PanCam blue filter. We discuss soil-dependent detection limit constraints; use of UV excitation with other rover cameras, which provides higher spatial resolution; and the advantages of focused and wide-angle laser modes. Finally, we discuss application of L.I.F.E. techniques at multiple wavelengths for exploration of Mars analog extreme environments on Earth, including Icelandic hydrothermally

  2. Leakage Current Induced by Energetic Disorder in Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: Comprehending the Ultrahigh Loss of Open-Circuit Voltage at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Luo, Yongsong; Guo, Pengfei; Sun, Haibin; Yao, Yao

    2017-04-01

    The open-circuit voltage (Voc ) of organic solar cells generally approaches its maximum obtainable values as the temperature decreases. However, recent experiments have revealed that the Voc may suffer from an ultrahigh loss at low temperatures. In order to verify this explanation and investigate the impacts of energetic disorder on the temperature-dependent behaviors of the Voc in general, we calculate the Voc-T plots with the drift-diffusion method under various device working parameters. With the disorder being incorporated into the device model by considering the disorder-suppressed (temperature-dependent) charge-carrier mobilities, it is found that the ultrahigh Voc losses cannot be reproduced under the Onsager-Braun-type charge generation rate. With the charge generation rate being constant or weakly dependent on temperature, for nonselective contacts, the Voc reduces drastically at low temperatures, while for selective contacts, the Voc increases monotonically with decreasing temperature. With higher carrier mobilities or smaller device thicknesses, the ultrahigh loss occurs at lower temperatures. The mechanism is that, since the disorder-suppressed charge mobilities give rise to both low charge-extraction efficiency and small bimolecular recombination rate, plenty of charge carriers can be extracted from the wrong electrode and can form a large leakage current, which counteracts the majority-carrier current and reduces the Voc at low temperatures. Our results thus highlight the essential role of charge-carrier kinetics, except for the charge-filling effect, on dominating the disorder-induced Voc losses.

  3. Changes in olive oil volatile organic compounds induced by water status and light environment in canopies of Olea europaea L. trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Caruso, Giovanni; Giunti, Giulia; Cuzzola, Angela; Saba, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Andrea; Gucci, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Light and water are major factors in fruit development and quality. In this study, the effect of water and light in Olea europaea trees on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in olive oil was studied over 2 years. Mature fruits were harvested from three zones of the canopy with different light exposure (64%, 42% and 30% of incident light) of trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation. VOCs were determined by SPME GC-MS and analysed by principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to partition treatment effects. Fruit fresh weight and mesocarp oil content decreased in zones where intercepted light was less. Low light levels significantly slowed down fruit maturation, whereas conditions of water deficit accelerated the maturation process. The presence of cyclosativene and α-muurulene was associated with water deficit, nonanal, valencene with full irrigation; α-muurulene, (E)-2-hexanal were related to low light conditions, while trans-β-ocimene, α-copaene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, hexanal and nonanal to well exposed zones. The year strongly affected the VOC profile of olive oil. This is the first report on qualitative changes in VOCs induced by light environment and/or water status. This information is valuable to better understand the role of environmental factors on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. A New Route for High-Purity Organic Materials: High-Pressure-Ramp-Induced Ultrafast Polymerization of 2-(Hydroxyethyl)Methacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evlyukhin, E.; Museur, L.; Traore, M.; Perruchot, C.; Zerr, A.; Kanaev, A.

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis of highly biocompatible polymers is important for modern biotechnologies and medicine. Here, we report a unique process based on a two-step high-pressure ramp (HPR) for the ultrafast and efficient bulk polymerization of 2-(hydroxyethyl)methacrylate (HEMA) at room temperature without photo- and thermal activation or addition of initiator. The HEMA monomers are first activated during the compression step but their reactivity is hindered by the dense glass-like environment. The rapid polymerization occurs in only the second step upon decompression to the liquid state. The conversion yield was found to exceed 90% in the recovered samples. The gel permeation chromatography evidences the overriding role of HEMA2•• biradicals in the polymerization mechanism. The HPR process extends the application field of HP-induced polymerization, beyond the family of crystallized monomers considered up today. It is also an appealing alternative to typical photo- or thermal activation, allowing the efficient synthesis of highly pure organic materials.

  5. The optimisation of the laser-induced forward transfer process for fabrication of polyfluorene-based organic light-emitting diode pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Stewart, James; Mattle, Thomas; Lippert, Thomas; Nagel, Matthias; Nüesch, Frank; Wokaun, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) has already been used to fabricate various types of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and the process itself has been optimised and refined considerably since OLED pixels were first demonstrated. In particular, a dynamic release layer (DRL) of triazene polymer has been used, the environmental pressure has been reduced down to a medium vacuum, and the donor receiver gap has been controlled with the use of spacers. Insight into the LIFT process's effect upon OLED pixel performance is presented here, obtained through optimisation of three-colour polyfluorene-based OLEDs. A marked dependence of the pixel morphology quality on the cathode metal is observed, and the laser transfer fluence dependence is also analysed. The pixel device performances are compared to conventionally fabricated devices, and cathode effects have been looked at in detail. The silver cathode pixels show more heterogeneous pixel morphologies, and a correspondingly poorer efficiency characteristics. The aluminium cathode pixels have greater green electroluminescent emission than both the silver cathode pixels and the conventionally fabricated aluminium devices, and the green emission has a fluence dependence for silver cathode pixels.

  6. The optimisation of the laser-induced forward transfer process for fabrication of polyfluorene-based organic light-emitting diode pixels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw-Stewart, James, E-mail: james.shaw-stewart@ed.ac.uk [Materials Group, General Energies Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Laboratory for Functional Polymers, Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Mattle, Thomas [Materials Group, General Energies Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Lippert, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.lippert@psi.ch [Materials Group, General Energies Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Nagel, Matthias [Laboratory for Functional Polymers, Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Nüesch, Frank, E-mail: frank.nueesch@empa.ch [Laboratory for Functional Polymers, Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Section de science et génie des matériaux, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Wokaun, Alexander [Materials Group, General Energies Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2013-08-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) has already been used to fabricate various types of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and the process itself has been optimised and refined considerably since OLED pixels were first demonstrated. In particular, a dynamic release layer (DRL) of triazene polymer has been used, the environmental pressure has been reduced down to a medium vacuum, and the donor receiver gap has been controlled with the use of spacers. Insight into the LIFT process's effect upon OLED pixel performance is presented here, obtained through optimisation of three-colour polyfluorene-based OLEDs. A marked dependence of the pixel morphology quality on the cathode metal is observed, and the laser transfer fluence dependence is also analysed. The pixel device performances are compared to conventionally fabricated devices, and cathode effects have been looked at in detail. The silver cathode pixels show more heterogeneous pixel morphologies, and a correspondingly poorer efficiency characteristics. The aluminium cathode pixels have greater green electroluminescent emission than both the silver cathode pixels and the conventionally fabricated aluminium devices, and the green emission has a fluence dependence for silver cathode pixels.

  7. Formation of organobromine and organoiodine compounds by engineered TiO2 nanoparticle-induced photohalogenation of dissolved organic matter in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhineng; Yin, Yongguang; Wang, Juan; Cao, Dong; Liu, Jingfu

    2018-08-01

    There are increasing concerns about the adverse effects of released engineered nanoparticles and photochemically formed organohalogen compounds (OHCs) on human health and the environment. Herein, we report that titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) can photocatalytically halogenate dissolved organic matter (DOM) to form a large number of organobromine compounds (OBCs) and organoiodine compounds (OICs), as characterized by negative ion electrospray ionization coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Compared with no OHCs produced in control samples in darkness and/or without TiO 2 NPs under sunlight irradiation, various OBCs and OICs were detected in freshwater and seawater under sunlight irradiation for 12h and 24h even in the presence of 1mgL -1 TiO 2 NPs, indicating the photocatalytic roles TiO 2 NPs played in DOM halogenation. Furthermore, TiO 2 NPs could result in the photodegradation of newly formed OHCs, as evidenced by the intensity and the number of some OHCs decreased with reaction time. In addition, many TiO 2 NP-induced OBCs contained two or three bromine atoms, and/or nitrogen and sulfur elements, belonging to lignin-like, tannin-like, unsaturated hydrocarbon and aliphatic compounds. While the OICs were primarily contained one iodine, and very few consisted of nitrogen and sulfur elements, most were lignin-like and tannin-like compounds. Finally, the OBCs in freshwater were found to be formed mainly via a substitution reaction or addition reaction and were accompanied by other reactions such as photooxidation, while the OBCs in seawater and OICs were formed primarily via substitution reactions. Given the abundance of produced OHCs and their toxicity, our findings call for further studies on the exact structure and toxicity of the formed OHCs, taking account the TiO 2 NP-induced DOM photohalogenation in aquatic environments during the evaluation of the environmental effects of engineered TiO 2 NPs. Copyright © 2018

  8. Genotoxic effects and oxidative stress induced by organic extracts of particulate matter(PM 10)collected from a subway tunnel in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi Hyun; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Park, Duck Shin; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Oh, Seung Min

    2012-12-12

    Particulate matter (PM) has become an important health risk factor in our society. PM can easily deposit in the bronchi and lungs, causing diverse diseases such as respiratory infections, lung cancers and cardiovascular diseases. In recent days, more and more toxicological studies have been dealing with air particles in distinctive areas including industrial areas, transportation sites, or indoors. Studies on subway PM in particular, have been recognizing PM as an important health risk factor because many people use subways as a major mode of public transportation (4 million people a day in Korea). The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of organic extract (OE) of subway PM10 and potential attribution of PAHs to these effects. Particles were collected in the subway tunnel at Kil-eum station(Line 4) for one month and then extracted with Dichloromethane (DCM). Chinese Hamster Ovary cells(CHO-K1) and human normal bronchial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to OE, and MN and Comet assays were conducted to analyze the genotoxicity. The results showed that OE increased DNA or chromosome damages in both cell lines. In the modified Comet assay and MN assay with free radical scavengers, we confirmed that the genotoxic effect of OE was partially due to the oxidative damage on DNA. DCFHD Aassay also indicated that OE induced ROS generation in BEAS-2B cells. PAHs [benzo(a)anthracene,benzo(k)fluoranthrene, etc.], the most well-known carcinogens in polluted air, were detected in Kil-eum PM10. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that OE of subway PM10 has genotoxic effects on normal human lung cells, and oxidative stress could be one of the major mechanisms of these genotoxic effects.In addition, some genotoxic and carcinogenic PAHs were detected in OE by GC/MS/MS, even though PAHs level was not enough to increase CYP1A1 gene. Therefore, we suggest that additive or synergistic effects by unidentified chemicals as well as PAHs contained in OE of subway

  9. IN-SITU PROBING OF RADIATION-INDUCED PROCESSING OF ORGANICS IN ASTROPHYSICAL ICE ANALOGS—NOVEL LASER DESORPTION LASER IONIZATION TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Yang Rui

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of organic molecules in ice grains in the interstellar medium (ISM) under cosmic rays, stellar radiation, and local electrons and ions is critical to our understanding of the connection between ISM and solar systems. Our study is aimed at reaching this goal of looking directly into radiation-induced processing in these ice grains. We developed a two-color laser-desorption laser-ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopic method (2C-MALDI-TOF), similar to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy. Results presented here with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) probe molecules embedded in water-ice at 5 K show for the first time that hydrogenation and oxygenation are the primary chemical reactions that occur in astrophysical ice analogs when subjected to Lyα radiation. We found that hydrogenation can occur over several unsaturated bonds and the product distribution corresponds to their stabilities. Multiple hydrogenation efficiency is found to be higher at higher temperatures (100 K) compared to 5 K—close to the interstellar ice temperatures. Hydroxylation is shown to have similar efficiencies at 5 K or 100 K, indicating that addition of O atoms or OH radicals to pre-ionized PAHs is a barrierless process. These studies—the first glimpses into interstellar ice chemistry through analog studies—show that once accreted onto ice grains PAHs lose their PAH spectroscopic signatures through radiation chemistry, which could be one of the reason for the lack of PAH detection in interstellar ice grains, particularly the outer regions of cold, dense clouds or the upper molecular layers of protoplanetary disks.

  10. Protocol to assess the impact of tobacco-induced volatile organic compounds on cardiovascular risk in a cross- sectional cohort: Cardiovascular Injury due to Tobacco Use study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Rachel J; Fetterman, Jessica L; Riggs, Daniel W; O'Toole, Timothy; Nystoriak, Jessica L; Holbrook, Monika; Lorkiewicz, Pawel; Bhatnagar, Aruni; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Hamburg, Naomi M

    2018-03-30

    Tobacco use leads to increased mortality, the majority of which is attributed to cardiovascular disease. Despite this knowledge, the early cardiovascular impact of tobacco product use is not well understood. Tobacco use increases exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acrolein and crotonaldehyde, which may contribute to cardiovascular risk. The link between exposure patterns, risk profiles and demographic distribution of tobacco product users, particularly users of new and emerging products, are not well known. Therefore, we designed the Cardiovascular Injury due to Tobacco Use (CITU) study to assess population characteristics, demographic features, exposure patterns and cardiovascular risk in relation to tobacco. We present the design and methodology of the CITU study, a cross-sectional observational tobacco study conducted in Boston, Massachusetts and Louisville, Kentucky starting in 2014. Healthy participants 21-45 years of age who use tobacco products, including electronic nicotine devices, or who never used tobacco are being recruited. The study aims to recruit an evenly split cohort of African-Americans and Caucasians, that is, sex balanced for evaluation of self-reported tobacco exposure, VOC exposure and tobacco-induced injury profiling. Detailed information about participant's demographics, health status and lifestyle is also collected. The study protocol was approved institutional review boards at both participating universities. All study protocols will protect participant confidentiality. Results from the study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific conferences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Estimate of the damage in organs induced by neutrons in three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy; Estimacion del dano en organos inducido por neutrones en radioterapia conformada en 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benites R, J. L. [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Servicio de Seguridad Radiologica, Calzada de la Cruz 118 sur, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Uribe, M. del R., E-mail: jlbenitesr@prodigy.net.mx [Instituto Tecnico Superior de Radiologia, Calle Leon No. 129, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    By means of Monte Carlo methods was considered the damage in the organs, induced by neutrons, of patients with cancer that receive treatment in modality of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) with lineal accelerator Varian Ix. The objective of this work was to estimate the damage probability in radiotherapy patients, starting from the effective dose by neutrons in the organs and tissues out of the treatment region. For that a three-dimensional mannequin of equivalent tissue of 30 x 100 x 30 cm{sup 3} was modeled and spherical cells were distributed to estimate the Kerma in equivalent tissue and the absorbed dose by neutrons. With the absorbed dose the effective dose was calculated using the weighting factors for the organ type and radiation type. With the effective dose and the damage factors, considered in the ICRP 103, was considered the probability of damage induction in organs. (Author)

  12. The interfacial-organized monolayer water film (MWF) induced ``two-step'' aggregation of nanographene: both in stacking and sliding assembly pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenping; Wu, Ren'an

    2013-03-01

    A computational investigation was carried out to understand the aggregation of nanoscale graphene with two typical pathways of stacking assembly and sliding assembly in water. The interfacial-organized monolayer water film (MWF) induced ``two-step'' aggregation of nanographene in both stacking and sliding assembly pathways was reported for the first time. By means of potential mean forces (PMFs) calculation, no energy barrier was observed during the sliding assembly of two graphene nanosheets, while the PMF profiles could be impacted by the contact forms of nanographene and the MWF within the interplate of two graphene nanosheets. To explore the potential physical basis of the ``hindering role'' of self-organized interfacial water, the dynamical and structural properties as well as the status of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) for interfacial water were investigated. We found that the compact, ordered structure and abundant H-bonds of the MWF could be taken as the fundamental aspects of the ``hindering role'' of interfacial water for the hydrophobic assembly of nanographene. These findings are displaying a potential to further understand the hydrophobic assembly which mostly dominate the behaviors of nanomaterials, proteins etc. in aqueous solutions.A computational investigation was carried out to understand the aggregation of nanoscale graphene with two typical pathways of stacking assembly and sliding assembly in water. The interfacial-organized monolayer water film (MWF) induced ``two-step'' aggregation of nanographene in both stacking and sliding assembly pathways was reported for the first time. By means of potential mean forces (PMFs) calculation, no energy barrier was observed during the sliding assembly of two graphene nanosheets, while the PMF profiles could be impacted by the contact forms of nanographene and the MWF within the interplate of two graphene nanosheets. To explore the potential physical basis of the ``hindering role'' of self-organized interfacial

  13. Experimental study of heterogeneous organic chemistry induced by far ultraviolet light: Implications for growth of organic aerosols by CH3 addition in the atmospheres of Titan and early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Peng; Sekine, Yasuhito; Sasamori, Tsutoni; Sugita, Seiji

    2018-06-01

    Formation of organic aerosols driven by photochemical reactions has been observed and suggested in CH4-containing atmospheres, including Titan and early Earth. However, the detailed production and growth mechanisms of organic aerosols driven by solar far ultraviolet (FUV) light remain poorly constrained. We conducted laboratory experiments simulating photochemical reactions in a CH4sbnd CO2 atmosphere driven by the FUV radiations dominated by the Lyman-α line. In the experiments, we analyzed time variations in thickness and infrared spectra of solid organic film formed on an optical window in a reaction cell. Gas species formed by FUV irradiation were also analyzed and compared with photochemical model calculations. Our experimental results show that the growth rate of the organic film decreases as the CH4/CO2 ratio of reactant gas mixture decreases, and that the decrease becomes very steep for CH4/CO2 organic film but that the addition reaction of CH3 radicals onto the organic film with the reaction probability around 10-2 can explain the growth rate. At CH4/CO2 organic film. Our results suggest that organic aerosols would grow through CH3 addition onto the surface during the precipitation of aerosol particles in the middle atmosphere of Titan and early Earth. On Titan, effective CH3 addition would reduce C2H6 production in the atmosphere. On early Earth, growth of aerosol particles would be less efficient than those on Titan, possibly resulting in small-sized monomers and influencing UV shielding.

  14. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia resulting from this history has been implicated in dismantling organizations, and in making OS progressively irrelevant to a wider public....

  15. Growth, structural, physical and computational perspectives of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline: a promising organic nonlinear optical material with large laser-induced damage threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurugan, Ramaiah; Anitha, Kandasamy

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a systematic study of an organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material, trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (THP), C5H9NO3 is reported. An optical quality single crystals of THP have been successfully grown by using slow evaporation solution growth technique (SEST). The single crystal x-ray diffraction (SXRD) analysis reveals that grown crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system with non-centrosymmetric space group (NCS), P212121. Powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis shows relatively a good crystalline nature. The molecular structure of THP was recognized by NMR (1H and 13C) studies and its vibrational modes were confirmed by FTIR and FT-Raman vibrational studies. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum of grown crystal shows high optical transparency in the visible and near-IR region with low near-UV cut-off wavelength at 218 nm. Photoluminescence study confirms ultraviolet wavelength emission of THP crystal. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of grown crystal is 1.6 times greater with respect to standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Nonlinear refractive index (n 2) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) were determined using the Z-scan technique. The title compound owns high thermal stability of 294 °C and specific heat capacity (C P) of 1.21 J g-1 K-1 at 300 K and 11.33 J g-1 K-1 at 539 K (melting point). The laser-induced damage threshold (LDT) value of grown crystal was measured as 7.25 GW cm-2. The crystal growth mechanism and defects of grown crystal were studied by chemical etching technique. Mechanical strength was extensively studied by Vickers microhardness test and crystal void percentage analysis. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out to probe the Mulliken charge distribution, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and first order hyperpolarizability (β) of the optimized molecular structure to get a better insight of the molecular properties. These characterization results endorse that grown THP crystal as a

  16. Effects of Revegetation on Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Erosion-Induced Carbon Loss under Extreme Rainstorms in the Hill and Gully Region of the Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Loess Plateau, an ecologically vulnerable region, has long been suffering from serious soil erosion. Revegetation has been implemented to control soil erosion and improve ecosystems in the Loess Plateau region through a series of ecological recovery programs. However, the increasing atmospheric CO2 as a result of human intervention is affecting the climate by global warming, resulting in the greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as storms that may weaken the effectiveness of revegetation and cause severe soil erosion. Most research to date has evaluated the effectiveness of revegetation on soil properties and soil erosion of different land use or vegetation types. Here, we study the effect of revegetation on soil organic carbon (SOC storage and erosion-induced carbon loss related to different plant communities, particularly under extreme rainstorm events. Materials and methods: The erosion-pin method was used to quantify soil erosion, and soil samples were taken at soil depths of 0–5 cm, 5–10 cm and 10–20 cm to determine the SOC content for 13 typical hillside revegetation communities in the year of 2013, which had the highest rainfall with broad range, long duration and high intensity since 1945, in the Yanhe watershed. Results and discussion: The SOC concentrations of all plant communities increased with soil depth when compared with slope cropland, and significant increases (p < 0.05 were observed for most shrub and forest communities, particularly for natural ones. Taking the natural secondary forest community as reference (i.e., soil loss and SOC loss were both 1.0, the relative soil loss and SOC loss of the other 12 plant communities in 2013 ranged from 1.5 to 9.4 and 0.30 to 1.73, respectively. Natural shrub and forest communities showed greater resistance to rainstorm erosion than grassland communities. The natural grassland communities with lower SOC content produced lower SOC loss even

  17. Effects of Revegetation on Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Erosion-Induced Carbon Loss under Extreme Rainstorms in the Hill and Gully Region of the Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujin; Jiao, Juying; Wang, Zhijie; Cao, Binting; Wei, Yanhong; Hu, Shu

    2016-04-29

    The Loess Plateau, an ecologically vulnerable region, has long been suffering from serious soil erosion. Revegetation has been implemented to control soil erosion and improve ecosystems in the Loess Plateau region through a series of ecological recovery programs. However, the increasing atmospheric CO₂ as a result of human intervention is affecting the climate by global warming, resulting in the greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as storms that may weaken the effectiveness of revegetation and cause severe soil erosion. Most research to date has evaluated the effectiveness of revegetation on soil properties and soil erosion of different land use or vegetation types. Here, we study the effect of revegetation on soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and erosion-induced carbon loss related to different plant communities, particularly under extreme rainstorm events. The erosion-pin method was used to quantify soil erosion, and soil samples were taken at soil depths of 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm to determine the SOC content for 13 typical hillside revegetation communities in the year of 2013, which had the highest rainfall with broad range, long duration and high intensity since 1945, in the Yanhe watershed. The SOC concentrations of all plant communities increased with soil depth when compared with slope cropland, and significant increases (p soil loss and SOC loss were both 1.0), the relative soil loss and SOC loss of the other 12 plant communities in 2013 ranged from 1.5 to 9.4 and 0.30 to 1.73, respectively. Natural shrub and forest communities showed greater resistance to rainstorm erosion than grassland communities. The natural grassland communities with lower SOC content produced lower SOC loss even with higher soil loss, natural secondary forest communities produced higher SOC loss, primarily because of their higher SOC content, and the artificial R. pseudoacacia community with greater soil loss produced higher SOC loss. These results

  18. Ca2+ influx insensitive to organic Ca2+ entry blockers contributes to noradrenaline-induced contractions of the isolated guinea pig aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, M. A.; Wilffert, B.; Wermelskirchen, D.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    We determined the contribution of intracellular Ca2+ to the noradrenaline (NA, 3 X 10(-5) mmol/l)-induced contraction of the isolated guinea pig aorta. Since only about 55% of the NA-induced contraction could be attributed to intracellular Ca2+ release, we assumed that a Ca2+ influx component

  19. Ca2+influx insensitive to organic Ca2+entry blockers contributes to noradrenaline-induced contractions of the isolated guinea pig aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, M.A.M.; Wilffert, B.; Wermelskirchen, D.; Van Zwieten, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    We determined the contribution of intracellular Ca2+to the noradrenaline (NA, 3 x 10-5mmol/l)-induced contraction of the isolated guinea pig aorta. Since only about 55% of the NA-induced contraction could be attributed to intracellular Ca2+release, we assumed that a Ca2+influx component contributes

  20. Disentangling overlapping high-field EPR spectra of organic radicals: Identification of light-induced polarons in the record fullerene-free solar cell blend PBDB-T:ITIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landeghem, Melissa; Maes, Wouter; Goovaerts, Etienne; Van Doorslaer, Sabine

    2018-03-01

    We present a combined high-field EPR and DFT study of light-induced radicals in the bulk heterojunction blend of PBDB-T:ITIC, currently one of the highest efficiency non-fullerene donor:acceptor combinations in organic photovoltaics. We demonstrate two different approaches for disentangling the strongly overlapping high-field EPR spectra of the positive and negative polarons after charge separation: (1) relaxation-filtered field-swept EPR based on the difference in T1 spin-relaxation times and (2) field-swept EDNMR-induced EPR by exploiting the presence of 14N hyperfine couplings in only one of the radical species, the small molecule acceptor radical. The approach is validated by light-induced EPR spectra on related blends and the spectral assignment is underpinned by DFT computations. The broader applicability of the spectral disentangling methods is discussed.

  1. Disentangling overlapping high-field EPR spectra of organic radicals: Identification of light-induced polarons in the record fullerene-free solar cell blend PBDB-T:ITIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landeghem, Melissa; Maes, Wouter; Goovaerts, Etienne; Van Doorslaer, Sabine

    2018-03-01

    We present a combined high-field EPR and DFT study of light-induced radicals in the bulk heterojunction blend of PBDB-T:ITIC, currently one of the highest efficiency non-fullerene donor:acceptor combinations in organic photovoltaics. We demonstrate two different approaches for disentangling the strongly overlapping high-field EPR spectra of the positive and negative polarons after charge separation: (1) relaxation-filtered field-swept EPR based on the difference in T 1 spin-relaxation times and (2) field-swept EDNMR-induced EPR by exploiting the presence of 14 N hyperfine couplings in only one of the radical species, the small molecule acceptor radical. The approach is validated by light-induced EPR spectra on related blends and the spectral assignment is underpinned by DFT computations. The broader applicability of the spectral disentangling methods is discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Novel Model on DST-Induced Transplantation Tolerance by the Transfer of Self-Specific Donor tTregs to a Haplotype-Matched Organ Recipient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoriussen, Angelica Maria Mohr; Bohr, Henrik Georg

    2017-01-01

    Donor-specific blood transfusion (DST) can lead to significant prolongation of allograft survival in experimental animal models and sometimes human recipients of solid organs. The mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effect on graft survival have been a topic of research and debate for decad...... that this biological process, here termed MHC-II recruitment, is a vital survival mechanism for organs (or the organism in general) when attacked by an immune system....

  3. Laser Induced Fluorescence Imaging: Searching for Organics from the Dry Valleys of Queen Maud Land Antarctica to the Regolith and Ices of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie-Lombardi, M. C.; Sattler, B.; Muller, J.-P.; Fisk, M.; Cousins, C.; Dartnell, L.

    2009-04-01

    Laser induced fluorescence imaging using excitation in ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths has been proposed as a nondestructive astrobiological rapid survey tool to search for amino and nucleic acids [1], microbial life [2], and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) deep in the Mars regolith [3, 4]. However, the technique is easily adapted to search for complex biomolecular targets using longer wavelength sources [5]. Of particular interest is the ability of excitation at 532 nm to detect photosynthetic pigments in cyanobacteria-dominated microbial communities populating the ice of alpine, Arctic, and Antarctic lakes, glaciers, and ice sheets [6-8]. During the months of November and December 2008 we tested the technique as part of an extended international, interdisciplinary field campaign in the Dry Valleys of Schirmacher Oasis and Lake Untersee, Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. In this paper we review our recent laboratory experiments on the use of UV excitation for detection of PAHs doped on Mars analogue soils [9] and chasmo- and epilithic lichen communities within basaltic Iceland lavas. We present for the first time the results of our field experiments conducted during the Tawani 2008 International Antarctic Expedition for in situ detection and quantification of photosynthetic biomass in the ice caps of annual and perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes. We discuss the advantages of using a nondestructive rapid survey photonic tools such as laser induced fluorescence imaging that can be easily implemented from lander, rover, airborne, or orbital platforms. The techniques presented can be utilized to monitor the microbial potential of large, critical ecosystems on Earth, or to facilitate the remote or manned search for organics and photosynthetic life on any terrestrial planet. References 1. Storrie-Lombardi, M.C., Hug, W.F., McDonald, G.D., Tsapin, A.I., and Nealson, K.H. 2001. Hollow cathode ion lasers for deep ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging

  4. transplanted organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Szadujkis-Szadurski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rho-kinase and GTP-ase Rho are important regulators of vascular tone and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Rho-kinase in artery reactions induced by angiotensin II (ANG II and the effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as the function of intra- and extracellular calcium in these reactions. Experiments were performed on mesenteric superior arteries procured from cadaveric organ donors and conserved under the same conditions as transplanted kidneys. The vascular contraction in reaction to ANG II was measured in the presence of Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632, after ischemia and reperfusion, in Ca2+ and Ca2+-free solution. The maximal response to ANG II was reduced after ischemia, while an increase was observed after reperfusion. Vascular contraction induced by ANG II was decreased by Y-27632. Y-27632 reduced vascular contraction after reperfusion, both in Ca2+ and Ca2+-free solution. Reperfusion augments vascular contraction in reaction to ANG II. The Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 reduces the hypersensitivity to ANG II after reperfusion mediated by both intra- and extracellular calcium. These results confirm the role of Rho-kinase in receptor-independent function of ANG II and in reperfusion-induced hypersensitivity.

  5. RhoA/Rho kinase signaling regulates transforming growth factor-β1-induced chondrogenesis and actin organization of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells through interaction with the Smad pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Wu, Mengjie; Feng, Jianying; Lin, Xinping; Gu, Zhiyuan

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) may be promising candidates for tissue engineering and play an important role in cartilage regeneration. However, the mechanisms of SMSC chondrogenesis remain to be identified and characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway, as well as the manner by which it may contribute to chondrogenesis and the actin cytoskeletal organization of rat temporomandibular SMSCs in response to transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Primary isolated SMSCs were treated with TGF-β1, and their actin organization was examined by fluorescein isothiocyanate-phalloidin staining. The specific biochemical inhibitors, C3 transferase, Y27632 and SB431542, were employed to evaluate the function of RhoA/ROCK and Smads. The effect of C3 transferase and Y27632 on the gene expression of chondrocyte-specific markers was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. To examine the effect of Y27632 on Smad2/3 phosphorylation induced by TGF-β1, western blot analysis was also performed. The stimulation of TGF-β1 in SMSCs resulted in the activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway and concomitantly induced cytoskeletal reorganization, which was specifically blocked by C3 transferase and Y27632. The TGF-β-induced gene expression of Sox9, type I collagen, type II collagen and aggrecan was also inhibited by both C3 transferase and Y27632, at different levels. Y27632 treatment reduced the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate the RhoA/ROCK activation regulates chondrocyte-specific gene transcription and cytoskeletal organization induced by TGF-β1 by interacting with the Smad pathway. This may have significant implications for the successful utilization of SMSCs as a cell source for articular cartilage tissue engineering.

  6. 甲氨蝶呤排泄延迟致多器官损伤%Delayed elimination of methotrexate induced multiple organ dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晶晶; 高杰

    2016-01-01

    ,the patient presented with high temperature(39. 5 ℃), white blood cell count 0. 36 × 109/L,neutrophil 0. 22 × 109/L,serum creatinine 151 μmol/L and positive fecal occult blood test. It was suspected that MTX induced allergy and delayed elimination of MTX induced multiple organ injuries. IV infusion of leucovorin was given at a dose of 100 mg every 6 h. Meanwhile,anti-allergy,anti-infection,and nutritional supportive treatments were given. On the 14th day after MTX withdrawal,erythema disappeared and serum creatinine was 96 μmol/L. On the 26th day after MTX withdrawal,white blood cell count was 6. 34 × 109/L,neutrophil was 4. 77 × 109/L,and fecal occult blood test was negative.

  7. Casting of organic glass by radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomers at low temperature. II. Optical strain of remaining stress type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kaetsu, I.; Honda, S.

    1978-01-01

    Previously it was found that casting could be carried out efficiently without strain formation by radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomers. Two types of strain were observed in casting: thermal stream type, which was studied previously, and remained stress type. In this report, the effect of various factors on the formation of remaining stress-type strain in radiation-induced casting polymerization was studied. It was found that the molecular weight of prepolymer did not affect strain formation, while prepolymer concentration and viscosity of the system had a serious influence on strain formation. It could be deduced that this type of strain formed as a result of remaining inner stress due to poor relaxation of the shrinking stress. It was realized that less volume shrinkage of glass-forming monomers accompanying casting polymerization reduced the strain formation of this type in radiation-induced casting polymerization at low temperatures

  8. Climate-induced forest dieback as an emergent global phenomenon: Organized oral session at the Ecological Society of America/Society of Ecological Restoration Joint Meeting; San Jose, California, 5-10 August 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig D.; Breshears, David D.

    2007-01-01

    An organized oral session at the annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America in San Jose, Calif., posed this question: Is climate-induced drought stress triggering increasing rates and unusual patterns of forest die-off at a global scale? Twenty-nine researchers representing five continents reported on patterns, mechanisms, and projections of forest mortality.Observations include widespread forest dieback or reductions in tree cover and biodiversity in response to drought and warmer temperatures in the African Sahel (Patrick Gonzalez, The Nature Conservancy), Mediterranean and alpine Europe (Jorge Castro, Universidad de Granada), and Argentinean Patagonia (Thomas Kitzberger, Universidad Nacional del Comahue). In contrast, although much Eucalyptus mortality has resulted from recent droughts in Australia, warming trends have been less pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere and it is unclear if contemporary climate-induced tree mortality differs from previous historical drought impacts (Rod Fensham, Queensland Herbarium).

  9. Synthesis of new N-heteroaromatic attached tetraphenylethene based luminogens having aggregation induced emission and their applications in organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odabas, Serhat [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Marmara Research Center, Institute of Chemical Technology, P.K. 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Tekin, Emine [The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Marmara Research Center, Material Institute, P.K. 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Turksoy, Figen, E-mail: figen.turksoy@tubitak.gov.tr [The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Marmara Research Center, Institute of Chemical Technology, P.K. 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Tanyeli, Cihangir, E-mail: tanyeli@metu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-08-15

    Aggregation induced emission is an auxiliary property that can eliminate the aggregation caused quenching effect. It is a common undesired emission characteristic of most bulky aromatic molecules. Tetraphenylethene, with its unique features, is the most commonly studied molecule having aggregation induced emission property. In this work four N heteroaromatic attached tetraphenylethene derivatives were synthesized via inexpensive C–N bond formation reactions. The synthesized luminogens showed good thermal properties, having high Td values between 366 °C and 505 °C. All four tetraphenylethene derivatives exhibited excellent aggregation induced emission properties and there was an up to 200-fold increase in their fluorescence intensities. According to the time-resolved emission decay experimental analyses, all four luminogens showed two relaxation pathways in a THF – water mixture (10–90%). Non-doped turquoise and light green OLED devices using the synthesized luminogens as a light emitting layer exhibited a maximum brightness up to 2600 cd/m{sup 2}, a maximum current efficiency up to 3.6 cd/A, turn-on voltages between 7.0 and 10.0 V, and external quantum efficiencies up to 1.5%. - Highlights: • A series of N-heterocyclic attached tetraphenylethene cored luminogens are synthesized and characterized. • Excellent thermal and aggregation induced emission properties are observed. • OLEDs are fabricated using synthesized luminogens as non-doped emitting layers.

  10. Inducing a health-promoting change process within an organization the Effectiveness of a Large-Scale Intervention on Social Capital, Openness, and Autonomous Motivation Toward Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheppingen, A.R. van; Vroome, E.M.M. de; Have, K.C.J.M. ten; Bos, E.H.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effectiveness of an organizational large-scale intervention applied to induce a health-promoting organizational change process. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental, "as-treated" design was used. Regression analyses on data of employees of a Dutch dairy company (n =324)

  11. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...... shows that these terms should not be considered synonyms because each of the terms IO, OI, IA and KO produce a different set of high ranked authors, journals and papers. In many cases the terms are, however, used interchangeably (and thus indicating synonymity) and it is argued that the underlying...

  12. Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  13. Organic solvent-induced changes in membrane geometry in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells - a common narcotic effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, C.J.W.; de Groot, A.; Westerink, R.H.S.; Vijverberg, H.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to organic solvents may cause narcotic effects. At the cellular level, these narcotic effects have been associated with a reduction in neuronal excitability caused by changes in membrane structure and function. In order to critically test whether changes in membrane geometry contribute to

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Levels and its Correlation to Size of Marine Organisms Harvested from a War-Induced Oil Spill Zone of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K. BARBOUR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first work establishing a base-line data of the level of total Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB contaminants in selected marine organisms (Siganus rivulatus, Mullet spp., and oysters and its relationship to organism size and the harvest distance from the oil spill source. Six locations across the Lebanese Mediterranean were included for sampling. Oysters and the two fish types were collected after 72 days of the spill. The length, maximum width, and whole weight of individual organisms were recorded. Methanol extracts of the samples were analyzed for total PCB using a Competitive Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA based Spectrophotometry.All means of PCB in the three selected marine organisms were below the guidance level set by USFDA (2 ppm. A total of 6 significant regression equations were established between the total PCB level and certain size dimensions of specific selected marine species, with values of R2 ranging between 0.719 – 0.909 and P values ranging from 0.038 – 0.099.In addition, the total PCB level in Siganus rivulatus correlated with the harvest distance north of the oil spill source, signifying a drop in total PCB level with an increase in harvest distance from the oil spill source.

  15. Real-Time Observation of Order-Disorder Transformation of Organic Cations Induced Phase Transition and Anomalous Photoluminescence in Hybrid Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Ming, Wenmei; Du, Mao-Hua; Keum, Jong K; Puretzky, Alexander A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Huang, Jinsong; Geohegan, David B; Wang, Xiaoping; Xiao, Kai

    2018-05-01

    A fundamental understanding of the interplay between the microscopic structure and macroscopic optoelectronic properties of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials is essential to design new materials and improve device performance. However, how exactly the organic cations affect the structural phase transition and optoelectronic properties of the materials is not well understood. Here, real-time, in situ temperature-dependent neutron/X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) measurements reveal a transformation of the organic cation CH 3 NH 3 + from order to disorder with increasing temperature in CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 perovskites. The molecular-level order-to-disorder transformation of CH 3 NH 3 + not only leads to an anomalous increase in PL intensity, but also results in a multidomain to single-domain structural transition. This discovery establishes the important role that organic cation ordering has in dictating structural order and anomalous optoelectronic phenomenon in hybrid perovskites. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Chromatin organization regulated by EZH2-mediated H3K27me3 is required for OPN-induced migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingling; Luo, Qing; Sun, Jinghui; Ju, Yang; Morita, Yasuyuki; Song, Guanbin

    2018-03-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a chemokine-like extracellular matrix-associated protein involved in the migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). An increasing number of studies have found that chromatin organization may affect cellular migration. However, whether OPN regulates chromatin organization is not understood, nor are the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the link between chromatin organization and BMSC migration and demonstrated that OPN-mediated BMSC migration leads to elevated levels of heterochromatin marker histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) through the methyltransferase EZH2. The expression of EZH2 reorganizes the chromatin structure of BMSCs. Pharmacological inhibition or depletion of EZH2 blocks BMSC migration. Moreover, using an atomic force microscope (AFM), we found that chromatin decondensation alters the mechanical properties of the nucleus. In addition, inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signals represses OPN-promoted chromatin condensation and cell migration. Thus, our results identify a mechanism by which ERK1/2 signalling drives specific chromatin modifications in BMSCs, which alters chromatin organization and thereby enables OPN-mediated BMSC migration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist decreases ventilator-induced lung injury and non-pulmonary organ dysfunction in rabbits with acute lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brander, Lukas; Sinderby, Christer; Lecomte, François; Leong-Poi, Howard; Bell, David; Beck, Jennifer; Tsoporis, James N.; Vaschetto, Rosanna; Schultz, Marcus J.; Parker, Thomas G.; Villar, Jesús; Zhang, Haibo; Slutsky, Arthur S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) that delivers pressure in proportion to diaphragm electrical activity is as protective to acutely injured lungs (ALI) and non-pulmonary organs as volume controlled (VC), low tidal volume (Vt), high positive end-expiratory

  18. The NADPH organizers NoxO1 and p47phox are both mediators of diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rezende

    2018-05-01

    Innovation and conclusion: ROS production stimulated by NoxO1 and p47phox limit endothelium-dependent relaxation and maintain blood pressure in mice. However, NoxO1 and p47phox cannot substitute each other despite their similar effect on vascular function. Deletion of NoxO1 induced an anti-inflammatory phenotype, whereas p47phox deletion rather elicited a hyper-inflammatory response.

  19. [Influence of delta-sleep inducing peptide on the state of lysosomal membranes and intensity of lysosomal proteolysis in different rat tissues during physiological aging of the organism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutilin, D S; Bondarenko, T I; Mikhaleva, I I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that subcutaneous injection of exogenous delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) to rats aged 2-24 months in a dose of 100 μg/kg animal body weight by courses of 5 consecutive days per month has a stabilizing effect on the state of lysosomal membranes in rat tissues (brain, heart muscle and liver) at different ontogenetic stages, and this effect is accompanied by increasing intensity of lysosomal proteolysis in these tissues.

  20. Electric Field Induce Blue Shift and Intensity Enhancement in 2D Exciplex Organic Light Emitting Diodes; Controlling Electron-Hole Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, Hameed A; Monkman, Andy P

    2016-09-01

    A simple but novel method is designed to study the characteristics of the exciplex state pinned at a donor-acceptor abrupt interface and the effect an external electric field has on these excited states. The reverse Onsager process, where the field induces blue-shifted emission and increases the efficiency of the exciplex emission as the e-h separation reduces, is discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Organizers in Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Claire; Stern, Claudio D

    2016-01-01

    An "organizer" is formally defined as a region, or group of cells in an embryo that can both induce (change the fate) and pattern (generate an organized set of structures) adjacent embryonic cells. To date, about four such regions have been demonstrated: the primary or Spemann organizer (Hensen's node in amniotes), the notochord, the zone of polarizing activity of the limb bud, and the mid-hindbrain boundary. Here we review the evidence for these and compare them with a few other regions which have been proposed to represent other organizers and we speculate on why so few such regions have been discovered. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential Role of the Fas/Fas Ligand Apoptotic Pathway in Inflammation and Lung Fibrosis Associated with Reovirus 1/L-Induced Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Andrea D.; Avasarala, Sreedevi; Grewal, Suman; Murali, Anuradha K.; London, Lucille

    2010-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are two clinically and histologically distinct syndromes sharing the presence of an inflammatory and fibrotic component. Apoptosis via the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) pathway plays an important role in the development of acute lung injury and fibrosis characteristic of these and other pulmonary inflammatory and fibrotic syndromes. We evaluated the role of apoptosis via the Fas/FasL pathway in the development of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in reovirus 1/L-induced BOOP and ARDS. CBA/J mice were intranasally inoculated with saline, 1 × 106 (BOOP), or 1 × 107 (ARDS) PFU reovirus 1/L, and evaluated at various days postinoculation for in situ apoptosis by TUNEL analysis and Fas/FasL expression. Our results demonstrate the presence of apoptotic cells and up-regulation of Fas/FasL expression in alveolar epithelium and in infiltrating cells during the inflammatory and fibrotic stages of both reovirus 1/L-induced ARDS and BOOP. Treatment of mice with the caspase 8 inhibitor, zIETD-fmk, inhibited apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrotic lesion development in reovirus 1/L-induced BOOP and ARDS. However, CBA/KlJms-Faslpr-cg/J mice, which carry a point mutation in the Fas cytoplasmic region that abolishes the ability of Fas to transduce an apoptotic signal, do not develop pulmonary inflammation and fibrotic lesions associated with reovirus 1/L-induced BOOP, but still develop inflammation and fibrotic lesions associated with reovirus 1/L-induced ARDS. These results suggest a differential role for the Fas/FasL apoptotic pathway in the development of inflammation and fibrotic lesions associated with BOOP and ARDS. PMID:20007588

  3. Differential role of the Fas/Fas ligand apoptotic pathway in inflammation and lung fibrosis associated with reovirus 1/L-induced bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Andrea D; Avasarala, Sreedevi; Grewal, Suman; Murali, Anuradha K; London, Lucille

    2009-12-15

    Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are two clinically and histologically distinct syndromes sharing the presence of an inflammatory and fibrotic component. Apoptosis via the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) pathway plays an important role in the development of acute lung injury and fibrosis characteristic of these and other pulmonary inflammatory and fibrotic syndromes. We evaluated the role of apoptosis via the Fas/FasL pathway in the development of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in reovirus 1/L-induced BOOP and ARDS. CBA/J mice were intranasally inoculated with saline, 1 x 10(6) (BOOP), or 1 x 10(7) (ARDS) PFU reovirus 1/L, and evaluated at various days postinoculation for in situ apoptosis by TUNEL analysis and Fas/FasL expression. Our results demonstrate the presence of apoptotic cells and up-regulation of Fas/FasL expression in alveolar epithelium and in infiltrating cells during the inflammatory and fibrotic stages of both reovirus 1/L-induced ARDS and BOOP. Treatment of mice with the caspase 8 inhibitor, zIETD-fmk, inhibited apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrotic lesion development in reovirus 1/L-induced BOOP and ARDS. However, CBA/KlJms-Fas(lpr-cg)/J mice, which carry a point mutation in the Fas cytoplasmic region that abolishes the ability of Fas to transduce an apoptotic signal, do not develop pulmonary inflammation and fibrotic lesions associated with reovirus 1/L-induced BOOP, but still develop inflammation and fibrotic lesions associated with reovirus 1/L-induced ARDS. These results suggest a differential role for the Fas/FasL apoptotic pathway in the development of inflammation and fibrotic lesions associated with BOOP and ARDS.

  4. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industry Students and teachers Media Organization Fermilab Organization Organization Fermilab Org Chart Accelerator Division Accelerator Physics Center CMS Center Core Computing Division ESH&Q FESS Finance Section LBNF Project Line Organization LBNF Project Director LCLS-II

  5. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  6. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  7. Nanoscale charge localization induced by random orientations of organic molecules in hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2015-03-01

    Perovskite-based solar cells have achieved high solar-energy conversion efficiencies and attracted wide attentions nowadays. Despite the rapid progress in solar-cell devices, many fundamental issues of the hybrid perovskites have not been fully understood. Experimentally, it is well known that in CH3NH3PbI3, the organic molecules CH3NH3 are randomly orientated at the room temperature, but the impact of the random molecular orientation has not been investigated. Using linear-scaling ab-initiomethods, we have calculated the electronic structures of the tetragonal phase of CH3NH3PbI3 with randomly orientated organic molecules in large supercells up to ~20,000 atoms. Due to the dipole moment of the organic molecule, the random orientation creates a novel system with long-range potential fluctuations unlike alloys or other conventional disordered systems. We find that the charge densities of the conduction-band minimum and the valence-band maximum are localized separately in nanoscales due to the potential fluctuations. The charge localization causes electron-hole separation and reduces carrier recombination rates, which may contribute to the long carrier lifetime observed in experiments. We have also proposed a model to explain the charge localization.

  8. Plasma emission induced by an Nd-YAG laser at low pressure on solid organic sample, its mechanism, and analytical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha; Sardy, Sar; Kusnowo, Anung; Hedwig, Rinda; Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Lie, T.J.; Pardede, Marincan; Kagawa, Kiichiro; Tjia, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    An Nd-YAG laser (1064 nm, 120 mJ, 8 ns) was focused on various types of solid organic samples such as a black acrylic plate, a black polyvinyl chloride plastic sheet, and a methoxy polyaniline film coated on the surface of a glass substrate, under a surrounding air pressure of 2 Torr. A modulated plasma technique was used to study the mechanism of excitation of the emission of the organic material. As a result, we conclude that ablated atoms and molecules are excited by a shock-wave mechanism, similar to the case of hard samples such as metal. The ablation speed of hydrogen emission (H I 656.2 nm) was examined and the results show that the release speed of the ablated atoms is relatively low (less than Mach 10) and persists for a longer period of time (around 1 μs); this phenomenon can be understood by assuming that the soft target absorbs recoil energy, causing a low release speed of ablated atoms which would form the shock wave. This was overcome by placing a subtarget on the back of the soft sample so as to enhance the repelling force, thus increasing the release speed of the atoms. A possible application of the low-pressure plasma on an organic solid was demonstrated in the detection of chlorine in a black polyvinyl chloride plastic sheet

  9. Toxicity of two imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], to standard aquatic test organisms: Role of acetone in the induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10 cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  11. FY1995 new technology of artificial organ materials which can induce host biocompatibility; 1995 nendo jinko zokiyo seitai kino fukatsukagata sozai no kaihatsu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this project is to produce a highly biocompatible materials for next generation's artificial organs using the following methods: 1, Micromodification of polymer materials. 2, Biocompatible treatment for biological materials. 3, Application of bioabsorbable materials. 4, Bioactive substance immobilization. and 5, Use of autologous tissue as artificial organ materials. As a synthetic polymer material, microporous polyurethane was used for a small diameter vascular prosthesis. The graft with this technology was successfully implanted in rat abdomical aortic position. The graft of 1.5 mm in internal diameter and 10 cm in length showed excellent patency with nice endothelialisation. As a biological material, microfibers of collagen was used for a sealing substance of vascular prothesis. The microfibers absorbed a large amount of water, which could prevent blood leakage from the graft wall. The graft showed non-thrombogenic property and excellent host cell affinity, resulted in rapid neointima formation. As to autologous tissue, bone marrow was used, since marrow cells can differentiate into any mesenchimal cells with synthesis of growth factors. Marrow cell transplanted vascular prothesis showed rapid capillary ingrowth. These results indicated that the newly designed materials had suitable properties for materials of next generation's artificial organs. (NEDO)

  12. N-acylated peptides derived from human lactoferricin perturb organization of cardiolipin and phosphatidylethanolamine in cell membranes and induce defects in Escherichia coli cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Zweytick

    Full Text Available Two types of recently described antibacterial peptides derived from human lactoferricin, either nonacylated or N-acylated, were studied for their different interaction with membranes of Escherichia coli in vivo and in model systems. Electron microscopy revealed striking effects on the bacterial membrane as both peptide types induced formation of large membrane blebs. Electron and fluorescence microscopy, however demonstrated that only the N-acylated peptides partially induced the generation of oversized cells, which might reflect defects in cell-division. Further a different distribution of cardiolipin domains on the E. coli membrane was shown only in the presence of the N-acylated peptides. The lipid was distributed over the whole bacterial cell surface, whereas cardiolipin in untreated and nonacylated peptide-treated cells was mainly located at the septum and poles. Studies with bacterial membrane mimics, such as cardiolipin or phosphatidylethanolamine revealed that both types of peptides interacted with the negatively charged lipid cardiolipin. The nonacylated peptides however induced segregation of cardiolipin into peptide-enriched and peptide-poor lipid domains, while the N-acylated peptides promoted formation of many small heterogeneous domains. Only N-acylated peptides caused additional severe effects on the main phase transition of liposomes composed of pure phosphatidylethanolamine, while both peptide types inhibited the lamellar to hexagonal phase transition. Lipid mixtures of phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin revealed anionic clustering by all peptide types. However additional strong perturbation of the neutral lipids was only seen with the N-acylated peptides. Nuclear magnetic resonance demonstrated different conformational arrangement of the N-acylated peptide in anionic and zwitterionic micelles revealing possible mechanistic differences in their action on different membrane lipids. We hypothesized that both peptides kill

  13. A Rice CaMBP Gene is Induced in Organ-Specific Manner by Both Chilling and Heat-Shock Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia WAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A rice CaMBP gene, OsCaMBP (AB363406, was isolated from a chilling treated rice using the fluorescent differential display (FDD screening method. Its cDNA sequence (2094 bp contains an opening reading frame (ORF encoding a 569 amino acids protein (63.2 kD. OsCaMBP has the typical structural features of the CaMBP family, including the conserved IQ calmodulin-binding motif at the N-terminus. Homology analysis revealed 38.25%–47.28% identities of OsCaMBP with other CaMBPs in plants. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of OsCaMBP was remarkably inducible under the chilling (8°C and heat-shock (42°C treatments. OsCaMBP was undetectable under the normal conditions, and induced under the chilling treatment for 1 h, as well as the heat-shock treatment for 15 min, suggesting that the gene plays important roles in the signaling pathway in rice under both chilling and heat-shock stresses.

  14. Biocompatible Materials Based on Self-Assembling Peptides on Ti25Nb10Zr Alloy: Molecular Structure and Organization Investigated by Synchrotron Radiation Induced Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Secchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we applied advanced Synchrotron Radiation (SR induced techniques to the study of the chemisorption of the Self Assembling Peptide EAbuK16, i.e., H-Abu-Glu-Abu-Glu-Abu-Lys-Abu-Lys-Abu-Glu-Abu-Glu-Abu-Lys-Abu-Lys-NH2 that is able to spontaneously aggregate in anti-parallel β-sheet conformation, onto annealed Ti25Nb10Zr alloy surfaces. This synthetic amphiphilic oligopeptide is a good candidate to mimic extracellular matrix for bone prosthesis, since its β-sheets stack onto each other in a multilayer oriented nanostructure with internal pores of 5–200 nm size. To prepare the biomimetic material, Ti25Nb10Zr discs were treated with aqueous solutions of EAbuK16 at different pH values. Here we present the results achieved by performing SR-induced X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SR-XPS, angle-dependent Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS spectroscopy, FESEM and AFM imaging on Ti25Nb10Zr discs after incubation with self-assembling peptide solution at five different pH values, selected deliberately to investigate the best conditions for peptide immobilization.

  15. Changes in the organics metabolism in the hepatopancreas induced by eyestalk ablation of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis determined via transcriptome and DGE analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To understand the regulation mechanism of eyestalk ablation on the activities of hepatopancreas, Illumina RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE analyses were performed to investigate the transcriptome of the eyestalk, Y-organ, and hepatopancreas of E. sinensis and to identify the genes associated with the hepatopancreas metabolism that are differentially expressed under eyestalk ablation conditions. RESULTS: A total of 58,582 unigenes were constructed from 157,168 contigs with SOAPdenovo. A BlastX search against the NCBI Nr database identified 21,678 unigenes with an E-value higher than 10⁻⁵. Using the BLAST2Go and BlastAll software programs, 6,883 unigenes (11.75% of the total were annotated to the Gene Ontology (GO database, 7,386 (12.6% unigenes were classified into 25 Clusters of Orthologous Groups of Proteins (COGs, 16,200 (27.7% unigenes were assigned to 242 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, and 1,846 unigenes were matched to "metabolism pathways". The DGE analysis revealed that 1,416 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the hepatopancreas, of which 890 unigenes were up-regulated and 526 unigenes were down-regulated. Of the differentially expressed genes, 382 unigenes were annotated and 63 were classified into metabolism pathways. The results of the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis of four unigenes related to carbohydrate metabolism were consistent with those obtained from the DGE analysis, which demonstrates that the sequencing data were satisfactory for further gene expression analyses. CONCLUSION: This paper reported the transcriptom of the eyestalk, Y-organ, and hepatopancreas from E. sinensis. DGE analysis provided the different expressed genes of the metabolism processes in hepatopancreas that are affected by eyestalk ablation. These findings will facilitate further investigations on the mechanisms of the metabolism of organic substances during development

  16. Arsenic-induced stress activates sulfur metabolism in different organs of garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants accompanied by a general decline of the NADPH-generating systems in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Torres, Carmelo; Feriche-Linares, Rafael; Rodríguez-Ruíz, Marta; Palma, José M; Corpas, Francisco J

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination is a major environmental problem which affects most living organisms from plants to animals. This metalloid poses a health risk for humans through its accumulation in crops and water. Using garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants as model crop exposed to 200μM arsenate, a comparative study among their main organs (roots and shoots) was made. The analysis of arsenic, glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins (PCs) and lipid peroxidation contents with the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate-glutathione cycle), and the main components of the NADPH-generating system, including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) was carried out. Data showed a correlation among arsenic accumulation in the different organs, PCs content and the antioxidative response, with a general decline of the NADPH-generating systems in roots. Overall, our results demonstrate that there are clear connections between arsenic uptake, increase of their As-chelating capacity in roots and a decline of antioxidative enzyme activities (catalase and the ascorbate peroxidase) whose alteration provoked As-induced oxidative stress. Thus, the data suggest that roots act as barrier of arsenic mediated by a prominent sulfur metabolism which is characterized by the biosynthesis of high amount of PCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous detection of genetically modified organisms by multiplex ligation-dependent genome amplification and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cañas, Virginia; Mondello, Monica; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2010-07-01

    In this work, an innovative method useful to simultaneously analyze multiple genetically modified organisms is described. The developed method consists in the combination of multiplex ligation-dependent genome dependent amplification (MLGA) with CGE and LIF detection using bare-fused silica capillaries. The MLGA process is based on oligonucleotide constructs, formed by a universal sequence (vector) and long specific oligonucleotides (selectors) that facilitate the circularization of specific DNA target regions. Subsequently, the circularized target sequences are simultaneously amplified with the same couple of primers and analyzed by CGE-LIF using a bare-fused silica capillary and a run electrolyte containing 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose acting as both sieving matrix and dynamic capillary coating. CGE-LIF is shown to be very useful and informative for optimizing MLGA parameters such as annealing temperature, number of ligation cycles, and selector probes concentration. We demonstrate the specificity of the method in detecting the presence of transgenic DNA in certified reference and raw commercial samples. The method developed is sensitive and allows the simultaneous detection in a single run of percentages of transgenic maize as low as 1% of GA21, 1% of MON863, and 1% of MON810 in maize samples with signal-to-noise ratios for the corresponding DNA peaks of 15, 12, and 26, respectively. These results demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, the great possibilities of MLGA techniques for genetically modified organisms analysis.

  18. Fe II/Fe III mixed-valence state induced by Li-insertion into the metal-organic-framework Mil53(Fe): A DFT+U study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combelles, C.; Ben Yahia, M.; Pedesseau, L.; Doublet, M.-L.

    The iron-based metal-organic-framework MIL53(Fe) has recently been tested as a cathode materials for Li-Ion batteries, leading to promising cycling life and rate capability. Despite a poor capacity of 70 mAh g -1 associated with the exchange of almost 0.5Li/Fe, this result is the first evidence of a reversible lithium insertion never observed in a MOF system. In the present study, the MIL53(Fe) redox mechanism is investigated through first-principles DFT+U calculations. The results show that MIL53(Fe) is a weak antiferromagnetic charge transfer insulator at T = 0 K, with iron ions in the high-spin S = 5/2 state. Its reactivity vs elemental lithium is then investigated as a function of lithium composition and distribution over the most probable Li-sites of the MOF structure. The redox mechanism is fully interpreted as a two-step insertion/conversion mechanism, associated with the stabilization of the Fe 3+/Fe 2+ mixed-valence state prior to the complete decomposition of the inorganic-organic interactions within the porous MOF architecture.

  19. Investigations on Substrate Temperature-Induced Growth Modes of Organic Semiconductors at Dielectric/semiconductor Interface and Their Correlation with Threshold Voltage Stability in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, Narayanan; Maheshwari, Priya; Bhattacharya, Debarati; Tokas, Raj B; Sen, Shashwati; Honda, Yoshihide; Basu, Saibal; Pujari, Pradeep Kumar; Rao, T V Chandrasekhar

    2016-02-10

    Influence of substrate temperature on growth modes of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin films at the dielectric/semiconductor interface in organic field effect transistors (OFETs) is investigated. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging at the interface reveals a change from 'layer+island' to "island" growth mode with increasing substrate temperatures, further confirmed by probing the buried interfaces using X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and positron annihilation spectroscopic (PAS) techniques. PAS depth profiling provides insight into the details of molecular ordering while positron lifetime measurements reveal the difference in packing modes of CuPc molecules at the interface. XRR measurements show systematic increase in interface width and electron density correlating well with the change from layer + island to coalesced huge 3D islands at higher substrate temperatures. Study demonstrates the usefulness of XRR and PAS techniques to study growth modes at buried interfaces and reveals the influence of growth modes of semiconductor at the interface on hole and electron trap concentrations individually, thereby affecting hysteresis and threshold voltage stability. Minimum hole trapping is correlated to near layer by layer formation close to the interface at 100 °C and maximum to the island formation with large voids between the grains at 225 °C.

  20. Managing Phytophthora crown and root rot on tomato by pre-plant treatments with biocontrol agents, resistance inducers, organic and mineral fertilizers under nursery conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna GILARDI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to test the efficacy of spray programmes based on biocontrol agents, phosphite-based fertilizers and a chemical inducer of resistance (acibenzolar-S-methyl, phosethyl-Al to control crown and root rot of tomato incited by Phytophthora nicotianae. The best disease control, under high disease pressure resulting from artificial inoculation, was obtained with three pre-plant leaf sprays at 7 d intervals with acibenzolar-S-methyl and with two mineral phosphite-based fertilizers. The disease reduction achieved was similar to that obtained with a single application of azoxystrobin and metalaxyl-M. Phosetyl-Al and the biocontrol agents Glomus spp. + Bacillus megaterium + Trichoderma, B. subtilis QST713, B. velezensis IT45 and the mixture T. asperellum ICC012 + T. gamsii ICC080 provided a partial disease control. Brassica carinata pellets did not control the disease.

  1. Inducing a health-promoting change process within an organization: the effectiveness of a large-scale intervention on social capital, openness, and autonomous motivation toward health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Scheppingen, Arjella R; de Vroome, Ernest M M; Ten Have, Kristin C J M; Bos, Ellen H; Zwetsloot, Gerard I J M; van Mechelen, W

    2014-11-01

    To examine the effectiveness of an organizational large-scale intervention applied to induce a health-promoting organizational change process. A quasi-experimental, "as-treated" design was used. Regression analyses on data of employees of a Dutch dairy company (n = 324) were used to examine the effects on bonding social capital, openness, and autonomous motivation toward health and on employees' lifestyle, health, vitality, and sustainable employability. Also, the sensitivity of the intervention components was examined. Intervention effects were found for bonding social capital, openness toward health, smoking, healthy eating, and sustainable employability. The effects were primarily attributable to the intervention's dialogue component. The change process initiated by the large-scale intervention contributed to a social climate in the workplace that promoted health and ownership toward health. The study confirms the relevance of collective change processes for health promotion.

  2. Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins of the innate immune response act as membrane organizers by influencing clathrin and v-ATPase localization and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Yin Shen; Roundy, Kirstin M; Weis, Janis J; Weis, John H

    2012-12-01

    The innate response interferon-inducible transmembrane (Ifitm) proteins have been characterized as influencing proliferation, signaling complexes and restricting virus infections. Treatment of cells lacking these proteins (IfitmDel) with IFN-β resulted in the loss of clathrin from membrane compartments and the inhibition of clathrin-mediated phagocytosis, suggesting a molecular interaction between clathrin and Ifitm proteins. The pH of endosomes of IfitmDel cells, with or without IFN activation, was neutralized, suggesting the function of the vacular ATPase proton pumps in such cells was compromised. Co-immunoprecipitation of Ifitm3 with Atp6v0b demonstrated a direct interaction between the Ifitm proteins and the v-ATPase. These data suggest that the Ifitm proteins help stabilize v-ATPase complexes in cellular membranes which, in turn, facilitates the appropriate subcellular localization of clathrin.

  3. Qualitative analysis of mouse specific-locus mutations: information on genetic organization, gene expression, and the chromosomal nature of induced lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, L.B.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of mouse specific-locus (SL) mutations at three loci has identified over 33 distinct complementation groups - most of which are probably overlapping deficiencies - and 13 to 14 new functional units. The complementation maps that have been generated for the d-se and c regions include numerous vital functions; however, some of the genes in these regions are non-vital. At such loci, hypomorphic mutants must represent intragenic alterations, and some viable nulls could conceivably be intragenic lesions also. Analysis of SL mutations has provided information on genetic expression. Homozygous deficiencies can be completely viable or can kill at any one of a range of developmental stages. Heterozygonus deficiencies of up to 6 cM or more in genetic length have been recovered and propagated. The time of death of homozygous and the degree of inviability of heterozygous deficiencies are related more to specific content of the missing segment than to its length. Combinations of deficiencies with x-autosome translocations that inactivate the homologous region in a mosaic fashion have shown that organismic lethals are not necessarily cell lethal. The spectrum of mutations induced depends on the nature of the mutagen and the type of germ cell exposed. Radiation of spermatogonia produces intragenic as well as null mutations. Spontaneous mutations have an admixture of types not present in populations of mutations induced in germ cells, and this raises doubts concerning the accuracy of doubling-dose calculations in genetic risk estimation. The analysis of SL mutations has yielded genetic tools for the construction of detailed gene-dosage series, cis-trans comparisons, the mapping of known genes and identification of new genes, genetic rescue of various types, and the identification and isolation of DNA sequences

  4. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Akitoshi; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  5. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Akitoshi, E-mail: akitoshi-tamura@ds-pharma.co.jp; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  6. Silver-induced reconstruction of an adeninate-based metal-organic framework for encapsulation of luminescent adenine-stabilized silver clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Dries; Coutino-Gonzalez, Eduardo; Baekelant, Wouter; Bueken, Bart; Reinsch, Helge; Stassen, Ivo; Fenwick, Oliver; Richard, Fanny; Samorì, Paolo; Ameloot, Rob; Hofkens, Johan; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; De Vos, Dirk E

    2016-05-21

    Bright luminescent silver-adenine species were successfully stabilized in the pores of the MOF-69A (zinc biphenyldicarboxylate) metal-organic framework, starting from the intrinsically blue luminescent bio-MOF-1 (zinc adeninate 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylate). Bio-MOF-1 is transformed to the MOF-69A framework by selectively leaching structural adenine linkers from the original framework using silver nitrate solutions in aqueous ethanol. Simultaneously, bright blue-green luminescent silver-adenine clusters are formed inside the pores of the recrystallized MOF-69A matrix in high local concentrations. The structural transition and concurrent changes in optical properties were characterized using a range of structural, physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques (steady-state and time-resolved luminescence, quantum yield determination, fluorescence microscopy). The presented results open new avenues for exploring the use of MOFs containing luminescent silver clusters for solid-state lighting and sensor applications.

  7. The pressure-temperature phase diagram of pressure induced organic superconductors β-(BDA-TTP){2}MCl{4} (M = Ga, Fe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, E. S.; Graf, D.; Brooks, J. S.; Yamada, J.; Tokumoto, M.

    2004-04-01

    We investigate the pressure-temperature phase diagram of β -(BDA-TTP){2}MCl{4} (M=Ga, Fe), which shows a metal-insulator (MI) transition around 120 K at ambient pressure. By applying pressure, the insulating phase is suppressed. When the pressure is higher than 5.5 kbar, the superconducting phase appears in both salts with Tc ˜ 3 K for M=Ga and 2.2 K for M=Fe. We also observed Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations at high magnetic field in both salts, where the SdH frequencies are found to be very similar each other. Key words. organic superconductor, pressure, phase diagram.

  8. Hole-exciton interaction induced high field decay of magneto-electroluminescence in Alq{sub 3}-based organic light-emitting diodes at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tingting; Holford, D. F.; Gu, Hang; Kreouzis, T. [Materials Research Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Zhang, Sijie, E-mail: Sijie.zhang@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: w.gillin@qmul.ac.uk [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Gillin, W. P., E-mail: Sijie.zhang@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: w.gillin@qmul.ac.uk [Materials Research Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2016-01-11

    The magnetic field effects on the electroluminescence of aluminium tris-(8-hydroxyqinoline) (Alq{sub 3}) based organic light emitting diodes have been investigated by varying the electron/hole ratio in the emissive layer. Experimental results reveal that a negative high field effect in the magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) can be found in devices with very low triplet exciton concentration at room temperature. This suggests triplet-triplet annihilation cannot be used to explain the negative high field MEL in the Alq{sub 3} system. Our results suggest that hole-exciton interaction may be the origin of the negative high field MEL and also, in parallel with this interaction, there is also the more common positive high field process occurring which has been tentatively attributed to electron-exciton interactions. The competition between these different processes decides the final shape of the MEL at high fields.

  9. Impacts of dissolved organic matter on aqueous behavior of nano/micron-titanium nitride and their induced enzymatic/non-enzymatic antioxidant activities in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Wang, Zhuang; Wang, Se; Fang, Hao; Zhang, Fan; Wang, De-Gao

    2017-01-02

    Freshwater dispersion stability and ecotoxicological effects of titanium nitride (TiN) with particle size of 20 nm, 50 nm, and 2-10 μm in the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) at various concentrations were studied. The TiN particles that had a more negative zeta potential and smaller hydrodynamic size showed more stable dispersion in an aqueous medium when DOM was present than when DOM was absent. Biochemical assays indicated that relative to the control, the TiN particles in the presence of DOM alleviated to some extent the antioxidative stress enzyme activity in Scenedesmus obliquus. In addition, it was found that the TiN with a primary size of 50 nm at a high concentration presented a significant impact on non-enzymatic antioxidant defense in algal cells.

  10. Hole-exciton interaction induced high field decay of magneto-electroluminescence in Alq3-based organic light-emitting diodes at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Holford, D. F.; Gu, Hang; Kreouzis, T.; Zhang, Sijie; Gillin, W. P.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic field effects on the electroluminescence of aluminium tris-(8-hydroxyqinoline) (Alq3) based organic light emitting diodes have been investigated by varying the electron/hole ratio in the emissive layer. Experimental results reveal that a negative high field effect in the magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) can be found in devices with very low triplet exciton concentration at room temperature. This suggests triplet-triplet annihilation cannot be used to explain the negative high field MEL in the Alq3 system. Our results suggest that hole-exciton interaction may be the origin of the negative high field MEL and also, in parallel with this interaction, there is also the more common positive high field process occurring which has been tentatively attributed to electron-exciton interactions. The competition between these different processes decides the final shape of the MEL at high fields.

  11. In vivo experimental stroke and in vitro organ culture induce similar changes in vasoconstrictor receptors and intracellular calcium handling in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Waldsee, Roya; Ahnstedt, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral arteries subjected to different types of experimental stroke upregulate their expression of certain G-protein-coupled vasoconstrictor receptors, a phenomenon that worsens the ischemic brain damage. Upregulation of contractile endothelin B (ET(B)) and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B (5-HT(1B......)) receptors has been demonstrated after subarachnoid hemorrhage and global ischemic stroke, but the situation is less clear after focal ischemic stroke. Changes in smooth muscle calcium handling have been implicated in different vascular diseases but have not hitherto been investigated in cerebral arteries...... and extracellular sources, whereas 5-HT(1B) receptor-mediated contraction was solely dependent on extracellular calcium. Organ culture and stroke increased basal intracellular calcium levels in MCA smooth muscle cells and decreased the expression of inositol triphosphate receptor and transient receptor potential...

  12. Using parallel factor analysis modeling (PARAFAC) and self-organizing maps to track senescence-induced patterns in leaf litter leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, K. I.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Hudson, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    As trees undergo autumnal processes such as resorption, senescence, and leaf abscission, the dissolved organic matter (DOM) contribution of leaf litter leachate to streams changes. However, little research has investigated how the fluorescent DOM (FDOM) changes throughout the autumn and how this differs inter- and intraspecifically. Two of the major impacts of global climate change on forested ecosystems include altering phenology and causing forest community species and subspecies composition restructuring. We examined changes in FDOM in leachate from American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) leaves in Maryland, Rhode Island, Vermont, and North Carolina and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) leaves from Maryland throughout three different phenophases: green, senescing, and freshly abscissed. Beech leaves from Maryland and Rhode Island have previously been identified as belonging to the same distinct genetic cluster and beech trees from Vermont and the study site in North Carolina from the other. FDOM in samples was characterized using excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) and a six-component parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model was created to identify components. Self-organizing maps (SOMs) were used to visualize variation and patterns in the PARAFAC component proportions of the leachate samples. Phenophase and species had the greatest influence on determining where a sample mapped on the SOM when compared to genetic clusters and geographic origin. Throughout senescence, FDOM from all the trees transitioned from more protein-like components to more humic-like ones. Percent greenness of the sampled leaves and the proportion of the tyrosine-like component 1 were found to significantly differ between the two genetic beech clusters. This suggests possible differences in photosynthesis and resorption between the two genetic clusters of beech. The use of SOMs to visualize differences in patterns of senescence between the different species and genetic

  13. A novel copper complex induces ROS generation in doxorubicin resistant Ehrlich ascitis carcinoma cells and increases activity of antioxidant enzymes in vital organs in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, Ananda; Roy, Syamal; Choudhuri, Soumitra K; Basu, Jayati Mookerjee; Majumder, Surajit; Chatterjee, Shilpak; Panda, Gouri S; Dutta, Pranabananda; Pal, Smarajit; Mukherjee, Pratima; Efferth, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In search of a suitable GSH-depleting agent, a novel copper complex viz., copper N-(2-hydroxyacetophenone) glycinate (CuNG) has been synthesized, which was initially found to be a potential resistance modifying agent and later found to be an immunomodulator in mice model in different doses. The objective of the present work was to decipher the effect of CuNG on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and antioxidant enzymes in normal and doxorubicin-resistant Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC/Dox)-bearing Swiss albino mice. The effect of CuNG has been studied on ROS generation, multidrug resistance-associated protein1 (MRP1) expression and on activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). CuNG increased ROS generation and reduced MRP1 expression in EAC/Dox cells while only temporarily depleted glutathione (GSH) within 2 h in heart, kidney, liver and lung of EAC/Dox bearing mice, which were restored within 24 h. The level of liver Cu was observed to be inversely proportional to the level of GSH. Moreover, CuNG modulated SOD, CAT and GPx in different organs and thereby reduced oxidative stress. Thus nontoxic dose of CuNG may be utilized to reduce MRP1 expression and thus sensitize EAC/Dox cells to standard chemotherapy. Moreover, CuNG modulated SOD, CAT and and GPx activities to reduce oxidative stress in some vital organs of EAC/Dox bearing mice. CuNG treatment also helped to recover liver and renal function in EAC/Dox bearing mice. Based on our studies, we conclude that CuNG may be a promising candidate to sensitize drug resistant cancers in the clinic

  14. Deep 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing Reveals a Bacterial Community Associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease Suppression Induced by Bio-Organic Fertilizer Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319

  15. Precise Somatotopic Thalamocortical Axon Guidance Depends on LPA-Mediated PRG-2/Radixin Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Jin; Sahani, Sadhna; Hausrat, Torben Johann

    2016-01-01

    Precise connection of thalamic barreloids with their corresponding cortical barrels is critical for processing of vibrissal sensory information. Here, we show that PRG-2, a phospholipid-interacting molecule, is important for thalamocortical axon guidance. Developing thalamocortical fibers both...

  16. Habituation of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus to Origanum vulgare L. essential oil does not induce direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to salts and organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adassa Gama Tavares

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains that were isolated from foods were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to sodium chloride (NaCl, potassium chloride (KCl, lactic acid (LA and acetic acid (AA after habituation in sublethal amounts (1/2 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/2 MIC and 1/4 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/4 MIC of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO. The habituation of S. aureus to 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC of OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by modulation of MIC values. Otherwise, exposing the strains to OVEO at sublethal concentrations maintained or increased the sensitivity of the cells to the tested stressing agents because the MIC values of OVEO, NaCl, KCl, LA and AA against the cells that were previously habituated to OVEO remained the same or decreased when compared with non-habituated cells. These data indicate that OVEO does not have an inductive effect on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents that are typically used in food preservation.

  17. Magnetic vs. non-magnetic colloids - A comparative adsorption study to quantify the effect of dye-induced aggregation on the binding affinity of an organic dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tyler A; Lee, Jenny; Diemler, Cory A; Subir, Mahamud

    2016-11-01

    Due to attractive magnetic forces, magnetic particles (MPs) can exhibit colloidal instability upon molecular adsorption. Thus, by comparing the dye adsorption isotherms of MPs and non-magnetic particles of the same size, shape and functional group it should be possible to characterize the influence of magnetic attraction on MP aggregation. For a range of particle densities, a comparative adsorption study of malachite green (MG(+)) onto magnetic and non-magnetic colloids was carried out using a combination of a separation technique coupled with UV-vis spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and polarization dependent second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy. Significant MP aggregation occurs in aqueous solution due to MG(+) adsorption. This alters the adsorption isotherm and challenges the determination of the adsorption equilibrium constant, Kads. The dye-induced aggregation is directly related to the MG(+) concentration, [MG(+)]. A modified Langmuir equation, which incorporates loss of surface sites due to this aggregation, accurately describes the resulting adsorption isotherms. The Kads of 1.1 (±0.3)×10(7) and a loss of maximum MP surface capacity of 2.8 (±0.7)×10(3)M(-1) per [MG(+)] has been obtained. Additionally, SHG has been established as an effective tool to detect aggregation in nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Solvent-induced controllable synthesis, single-crystal to single-crystal transformation and encapsulation of Alq3 for modulated luminescence in (4,8)-connected metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ya-Qian; Jiang, Hai-Long; Li, Shun-Li; Xu, Qiang

    2012-07-16

    In this work, for the first time, we have systematically demonstrated that solvent plays crucial roles in both controllable synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and their structural transformation process. With solvent as the only variable, five new MOFs with different structures have been constructed, in which one MOF undergoes solvent-induced single-crystal to single-crystal (SCSC) transformation that involves not only solvent exchange but also the cleavage and formation of coordination bonds. Particularly, a significant crystallographic change has been realized through an unprecedented three-step SCSC transformation process. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the obtained MOF could be an excellent host for chromophores such as Alq3 for modulated luminescent properties.

  19. Oxygen vacancy induced fast lithium storage and efficient organics photodegradation over ultrathin TiO{sub 2} nanolayers grafted graphene sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu, E-mail: xieyu_121@163.com [Nanchang Hangkong University, Department of Material Chemistry, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province (China); Hu, Dongsheng [Nanchang Hangkong University, Department of Material Chemistry, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province (China); Liu, Lianjun, E-mail: liul@uwm.edu [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Mechanical Engineering Department, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Zhou, Panpan; Xu, Jiangwei; Ling, Yun [Nanchang Hangkong University, Department of Material Chemistry, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Oxygen vacancy is tailored by adjusting the treatment conditions. • Unltrathin TiO{sub 2} nanolayers are grafted on the graphene sheets. • Oxygen vacancy is located on the surface of TiO{sub 2}/graphene treated by H{sub 2}. • Improved lithium storage and organic pollutants removal efficiency. - Abstract: In this work we have developed a unique structure of ultrathin (5 nm) TiO{sub 2} nanolayers grafted graphene nanosheets (TiO{sub 2}/G) and integrated oxygen vacancy (V{sub O}) into TiO{sub 2} to enhance its lithium storage and photocatalytic performances. The defective TiO{sub 2}/G was synthesized by a solvothermal and subsequent thermal treatment method. When treated in a H{sub 2} atmosphere, the resulting TiO{sub 2-x}/G(H{sub 2}) has lower crystallinity, smaller crystal size, richer surface V{sub O}, higher surface area, larger pore volume, and lower charge transfer resistance than that reduced by NaBH{sub 4} solid, i.e., TiO{sub 2-x}/G(NaBH{sub 4}). More importantly, the surface V{sub O} in the TiO{sub 2-x}/G(H{sub 2}) could remarkably inhibit the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs compared with the bulk Vo in the TiO{sub 2-x}/G(NaBH{sub 4}). As a result, the combination of all the factors contributed to the superiority of TiO{sub 2-x}/G(H{sub 2}), which demonstrated not only 70% higher specific capacity, longer cycling performance (1000 cycles) and better rate capability for lithium-ion battery, but also higher photocatalytic activity and 1.5 times faster degradation rate for organic pollutants removal than TiO{sub 2-x}/G(NaBH{sub 4}). The findings in this work will benefit the fundamental understanding of TiO{sub 2}/G surface chemistry and advance the design and preparation of functional materials for energy storage and water treatment.

  20. Organic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulaevskij, L.N.; Shchegolev, I.F.

    1986-01-01

    Main achievements in creating new organic conducting materials - synthetic metals and superconductors, are considered. The processes of superconductivity occurrence in organic materials are discussed. It is shown that conjugated bonds between C and H atoms in organic molecules play an important role in this case. At present ''crystal direction'' in organic superconductor synthesis is mainly developed. Later on, organic superconductor crystals are supposed to be introduced into usual polymers, e.g. polyethylene

  1. Continuous high and low temperature induced a decrease of photosynthetic activity and changes in the diurnal fluctuations of organic acids in Opuntia streptacantha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Zarely Ojeda-Pérez

    Full Text Available Opuntia plants grow naturally in areas where temperatures are extreme and highly variable in the day during the entire year. These plants survive through different adaptations to respond to adverse environmental conditions. Despite this capability, it is unknown how CAM photosynthetic activity and growth in Opuntia plantlets is affected by constant heat or cold. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to evaluate the short-term effect of high (40°C and low (4°C continuous temperatures on the photosynthetic efficiency, the organic acid content (malic acid and the relative growth rate (RGR in seven-month-old Opuntia streptacantha plantlets during 5, 10, and 15 days. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis allowed us to determine that high temperatures negatively impact the photosynthetic efficiency of O. streptacantha plantlets, which exhibited the lowest values of maximum quantum efficiency of the photosystem II (Fv/Fm = 52%, Fv/F0 = 85%, operational quantum yield of PS (ΦPSII = 65% and relative electron transport rate (rETR = 65%, as well as highest values of basal fluorescence (F0 = 226% during 15 days of treatment. Similarly, low temperatures decreased Fv/Fm (16%, Fv/F0 (50%, ΦPSII and rETR (16%. High temperatures also decreased nocturnal acidification in approximately 34-50%, whereas low temperatures increased it by 30-36%. Additionally, both continuous temperatures affected drastically diurnal consumption of malic acid, which was related to a significant RGR inhibition, where the specific photosynthetic structure area component was the most affected. Our results allowed determining that, despite the high tolerance to extreme temperatures described for Opuntia plants, young individuals of O. streptacantha suffered photosynthetic impairment that led to the inhibition of their growth. Thus, the main findings reported in this study can help to predict the potential impact of climatic change on the establishment and survival of succulent

  2. Induced Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  3. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    . This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  4. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  5. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  6. Green synthesis of the reduced graphene oxide–CuI quasi-shell–core nanocomposite: A highly efficient and stable solar-light-induced catalyst for organic dye degradation in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jiha; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Islam, M. Jahurul [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Bora [Department of Chemistry, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Sang Hoon [Department of Chemistry, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Kyu, E-mail: tkkim@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green synthesis of RGO–CuI quasi-shell–core nanocomposites without any surfactant. • Promising candidates as solar light active photocatalyst for dye degradation. • Significant improvement of the photocatalytic activity in RGO wrapped composites. • The best photocatalytic activity to RhB has been attained for CuI–RGO (2 mg mL{sup −1}). - Abstract: Surfactant-free, reduced graphene oxide (RGO)–CuI quasi-shell−core nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using ultra-sonication assisted chemical method at room temperature. The morphologies, structures and optical properties of the CuI and CuI–RGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Morphological and structural analyses indicated that the CuI–RGO core–shell nanocomposites comprise single-crystalline face-centered cubic phase CuI nanostructures, coated with a thin RGO quasi-shell. Photocatalysis experiments revealed that the as-synthesized CuI–RGO nanocomposites exhibit remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities and stabilities for photo degradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) organic dye under simulated solar light irradiation. The photo degradation ability is strongly affected by the concentration of RGO in the nanocomposites; the highest photodegradation rate was obtained at a graphene loading content of 2 mg mL{sup −1} nanocomposite. The remarkable photocatalytic performance of the CuI–RGO nanocomposites mainly originates from their unique adsorption and electron-accepting and electron-transporting properties of RGO. The present work provides a novel green synthetic route to producing CuI–RGO nanocomposites without toxic solvents or reducing agents, thereby providing highly efficient and stable solar light-induced

  7. Green synthesis of the reduced graphene oxide–CuI quasi-shell–core nanocomposite: A highly efficient and stable solar-light-induced catalyst for organic dye degradation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jiha; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Islam, M. Jahurul; Seo, Bora; Joo, Sang Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green synthesis of RGO–CuI quasi-shell–core nanocomposites without any surfactant. • Promising candidates as solar light active photocatalyst for dye degradation. • Significant improvement of the photocatalytic activity in RGO wrapped composites. • The best photocatalytic activity to RhB has been attained for CuI–RGO (2 mg mL −1 ). - Abstract: Surfactant-free, reduced graphene oxide (RGO)–CuI quasi-shell−core nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using ultra-sonication assisted chemical method at room temperature. The morphologies, structures and optical properties of the CuI and CuI–RGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Morphological and structural analyses indicated that the CuI–RGO core–shell nanocomposites comprise single-crystalline face-centered cubic phase CuI nanostructures, coated with a thin RGO quasi-shell. Photocatalysis experiments revealed that the as-synthesized CuI–RGO nanocomposites exhibit remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities and stabilities for photo degradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) organic dye under simulated solar light irradiation. The photo degradation ability is strongly affected by the concentration of RGO in the nanocomposites; the highest photodegradation rate was obtained at a graphene loading content of 2 mg mL −1 nanocomposite. The remarkable photocatalytic performance of the CuI–RGO nanocomposites mainly originates from their unique adsorption and electron-accepting and electron-transporting properties of RGO. The prese