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Sample records for induced tl characteristics

  1. Microstructural characteristics of the hydroxyapatite and its influence in the Tl signal induced by gamma radiation; Caracteristicas microestructurales de la hidroxiapatita y su influencia en la senal Tl inducida por la radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza A, D.; Gonzalez M, P.R.; Hernandez A, M. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Estrada G, R. [Depto. de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Santa Fe, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez L, V. [Centro Universitario de Vinculacion, BUAP, Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The analysis carried out on different materials has shown that the quantity and type of dopants play an important role in the behaviour thermoluminescent signal induced by the ionizing radiation. More recent studies have also shown that the grain size influences strongly in the thermoluminescent signal. Plus still, the crystal growth habit and the crystalline degree have an important effect in the type and intensity thermoluminescent signal. In this sense, we present this work on the analysis of the thermoluminescent signal induced by the gamma radiation in the hydroxyapatite ceramic. Depending the growth habit, a variation of the peak temperature location, signal intensity and linearity range was observed; in particular cases a lineal relationship between glow curve and radiation dose was in the range from 2 to 1000 Gray. These results are complemented with a microstructural and crystalline degree analysis through scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. The dose-response over the whole irradiation range opening up the possibility of employing this bio material as a dosimeter. (Author)

  2. Dielectric and baric characteristics of TlS single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafaeva, S.N., E-mail: solmust@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, ANAS, G. Javid prosp. 33, Az 1143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Asadov, M.M. [Institute of Chemical Problems, ANAS, G. Javid prosp. 29, Az 1143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Ismailov, A.A. [Institute of Physics, ANAS, G. Javid prosp. 33, Az 1143 Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2014-11-15

    The investigation of the frequency dependences of the dielectric coefficients and ac-conductivity of the TlS single crystals made it possible to elucidate the nature of dielectric loss and the charge transfer mechanism. Moreover, we evaluated the density and energy spread of localized states near the Fermi level, the average hopping time and the average hopping length. It was shown that the dc-conductivity of the TlS single crystals can be controlled by varying the hydrostatic pressure. This has opened up possibilities for using TlS single crystals as active elements of pressure detectors.

  3. Tl(+) induces both cationic and transition pore permeability in the inner membrane of rat heart mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, Sergey M; Nesterov, Vladimir P; Brailovskaya, Irina V; Furaev, Viktor V; Novozhilov, Artemy V

    2013-12-01

    Effects of Tl(+) were studied in experiments with isolated rat heart mitochondria (RHM) injected into 400 mOsm medium containing TlNO3 and a nitrate salt (KNO3 or NH4NO3) or TlNO3 and sucrose. Tl(+) increased permeability of the inner membrane of the RHM to K(+) and H(+). This manifested as an increase of the non-energized RHM swelling, in the order of sucrose Tl(+)-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability pore (MPTP) in Ca(2+)-loaded rat heart mitochondria increased both the swelling and the inner membrane potential dissipation, as well as decreased basal state and 2,4-dinitrophenol-stimulated respiration. These effects of Tl(+) were suppressed by the MPTP inhibitors (cyclosporine A, ADP, bongkrekic acid, and n-ethylmaleimide), activated in the presence of the MPTP inducer (carboxyatractyloside) or mitoKATP inhibitor (5-hydroxydecanoate), but were not altered in the presence of mitoKATP agonists (diazoxide or pinacidil). We suggest that the greater sensitivity of heart and striated muscles, versus liver, to thallium salts in vivo can result in more vigorous Tl(+) effects on muscle cell mitochondria.

  4. Thermoluminescent (TL) trap characteristics in irradiated oregano herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furetta, C.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

    The aim of this article is to investigate in a very simple way the trap characteristics of the irradiated oregano herb. The preparation of the polymineral dust obtained from the herb is described and then, through a fading experiment, the characteristics of the trapping levels responsible of the thermoluminescent emission are discussed.

  5. Characteristics of fabricated CsI(Tl)/PIN phtodiode radiation detetors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Soo; Ha, Jang Ho; Jeong, Man Hee; Kim, Young Soo; Oh, Joon Ho; Kim, Dong Jin; Cho, Woo Jin; Choi, Hyo Jeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Yeon [Environmental Health Center, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A photomultiplier tube (PMT) has the drawbacks of being bulky compared with a electro-opticsemiconductor and requiring a high voltage (HV) to operate it. Among the electro-optic semiconductors, an avalanche photodiode has better performance than a Si PIN photodiode. But the former also has draw backs of requiring a high voltage. PIN photodiodes, which have 3 mm X 3 mm2 , 5 mm X 5 mm2 , 10 mm X 10 mm2 active area, were fabricated and matched with CsI(Tl) scintillators. In this study, Characteristics of the fabricated PIN photodiodes were investigated and their performance, when they were matched with CsI(Tl) scintillators, were addressed. Silicon PIN Photodiodes were fabricated. Electrical characteristics shows better performance then the last fabricated detectors. Pulse height spectra shows similar performance to a commercial one.

  6. Thymus-leukemia (TL) antigens of the mouse. Analysis of TL mRNA and TL cDNA TL+ and TL- strains

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    A thymus-leukemia (TL)-specific probe, pTL1, has been generated from a TL-coding gene of BALB/c mice. Multiple species of TL mRNA were detected in TL+ cells by Northern blot analysis with pTL1, and different Tla haplotypes could be distinguished on the basis of characteristic patterns of TL mRNA. No TL-related message was found in normal or leukemic TL- cells, including thymocytes from Tlab mice. However, TL mRNA could be detected in TL+ leukemias occurring in Tlab mice. A cDNA library has be...

  7. Radiation damage mechanisms in CsI(Tl) studied by ion beam induced luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaranta, Alberto [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e delle Tecnologie Industriali - DIMTI, Universita di Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)], E-mail: quaranta@ing.unitn.it; Gramegna, Fabiana; Kravchuk, Vladimir [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Scian, Carlo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e delle Tecnologie Industriali - DIMTI, Universita di Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro - INFN, Via dell' Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) has been used to study the kinetics of defect production under ion beam irradiation in CsI(Tl) crystals with different Tl{sup +} concentrations (250, 560, 3250 and 6500 ppm). The crystals have been irradiated with H{sup +} and {sup 4}He{sup +} at 1.8 MeV. Both the scintillator spectra after irradiation and the intensity decrease at different wavelengths as a function of the fluence have been measured. The emission bands shift to higher wavelengths after irradiation, and the light decrease has been interpolated following a saturation model for the point defect concentration. Crystals with low Tl{sup +} concentrations present the UV emission peak of pure CsI at 300 nm whose intensity during H{sup +} irradiation and reaches a maximum under He{sup +} irradiation. At low Tl{sup +} concentrations the damage rate depends on the ion stopping power, while at higher concentrations it depends on the activator concentration. The results can be interpreted by assuming that the defects affecting the light emission are point defects nearby Tl{sup +} ions.

  8. Equilibrium and pre-equilibrium emissions in proton-induced reactions on 203,205Tl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Kaplan; A Aydin; E Tel; B Şarer

    2009-02-01

    In this study, the excitation functions for the reactions 203Tl(, )203Pb, 203Tl(, 3)203Pb, 203Tl(, 2)202Pb, 205Tl(, 4)202Pb, 203Tl(, 3)201Pb, 205Tl(, 5)201Pb, 203Tl(, 4)200Pb and 205Tl(, 6)200Pb have been calculated using pre-equilibrium and equilibrium reaction mechanisms. Calculated results based on hybrid model, geometry-dependent hybrid model and cascade-exciton model have been compared with the experimental data.

  9. TL-2 attenuates β-amyloid induced neuronal apoptosis through the AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Wang, Sulei; Yu, Linjie; Yang, Hui; Tan, Renxiang; Yin, Kailin; Jin, Jiali; Zhao, Hui; Guan, Dening; Xu, Yun

    2014-09-01

    β-amyloid (Aβ)-mediated neuronal apoptosis contributes to the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the exact mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether Dalesconol B (TL-2), a potent immunosuppressive agent with an unusual carbon skeleton, could inhibit Aβ-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Aβ(1-42) was injected to bilateral hippocampus of mice to make the AD models in vivo. TL-2 was able to cross the blood-brain barrier and attenuate memory deficits in the AD mice. TL-2 also inhibited Aβ(1-42)-induced neuronal apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, TL-2 could activate the AKT/GSK-3β pathway, and inhibition of AKT and activation of GSK-3β partially eliminated the neuroprotective effects of TL-2. Furthermore, TL-2 induced the nuclear translocation of β-catenin and enhanced its transcriptional activity through the AKT/GSK-3β pathway to promote neuronal survival. These results suggest that TL-2 might be a potential drug for AD treatment.

  10. ESTABLISHMENT OF A HUMAN T-LYMPHOMA CELL LINE(H-TL90) AND ANALYSIS OF ITS BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史历; 刘旭; 张月梅; 李有芳; 李殿俊; 王吾如

    1995-01-01

    We established a human T-lymphoma cell line from the cancerous ascites of a male patient with prostate cancer which was named H-TL90. This cell line was characterized by its histological features, and by chromosomal and immunological analysis. Immunophenotypic analysis revealed that the cells expressed surface antigen CD3- CD4- CD7+ CD8-. Biological analysis revealed that the cell can promote lymphocyte proliferation. This suggested that the cell line has an autosecretion function. Cytogenetic analysis revealed that H-TL90 was a hyperdlploid with 47 chromosomes and had characteristic translocation between chromosome 3 and 11, and the deletion of the long arm of chromosome 6. These results demonstrated the H-TL90 cell line can be a useful modal for the study of human T-lymphoma.

  11. TL glow curve analysis of UV, beta and gamma induced limestone collected from Amarnath holy cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Dubey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports themoluminescence glow curve analysis of UV (ultraviolet, β (beta and γ (gamma induced limestone collected from Amarnath holy cave. The collected natural sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD technique and crystallite size calculated by Scherer's formula. Surface morphology and particle size was calculated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM study. Effect of annealing temperature on collected lime stone examined by TL glow curve study. The limestone was irradiated by UV radiation (254 nm source and the TL glow curve recorded for different UV exposure time. For beta irradiation Sr90 source was used and is shows intense peak at 256 °C with a shoulder peak at higher temperature range. For gamma radiation Co60 source and TL glow curve recorded for different doses of gamma. The kinetic parameters calculation was performed for different glow curve by computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD technique. The chemical composition of natural limestone was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS.

  12. Tl+ induces the permeability transition pore in Ca2+-loaded rat liver mitochondria energized by glutamate and malate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, Sergey M; Emelyanova, Larisa V; Konovalova, Svetlana A; Brailovskaya, Irina V

    2015-08-01

    It is known that Ca2+ and heavy metals more actively induce MPTP opening in mitochondria, energized by the I complex substrates. Thus, a rise in a Tl+-induced MPTP was proposed in experiments on isolated rat liver mitochondria energized by the complex I substrate (glutamate and malate). Expose of the mitochondria to Ca2+ into a medium containing TlNO3, glutamate, and malate as well as sucrose or KNO3 resulted in a decrease in state 3, state 4, or DNP-stimulated respiration as well as an increase of both mitochondrial swelling and ΔΨmito dissipation. The MPTP inhibitors, CsA and ADP, almost completely eliminated the effect of Ca2+, which was more pronounced in the presence of the complex I substrates than the complex II substrate (succinate) and rotenone (Korotkov and Saris, 2011). The present study concludes that Tl+-induced MPTP opening is more appreciable in mitochondria energized by glutamate and malate but not succinate in the presence of rotenone. We assume that the Tl+-induced MPTP opening along with followed swelling and possible structural deformations of the complex I in Ca2+-loaded mitochondria may be a part of the thallium toxicity mechanism on mitochondria in living organisms. At the same time, oxidation of Tl+ to Tl3+ by mitochondrial oxygen reactive species is proposed for the mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. TL1A induces TCR independent IL-6 and TNF-α production and growth of PLZF+ leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichwald, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Tina Z.; Tougaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An elevated level of the cytokine TL1A is known to be associated with several autoimmune diseases, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the mode of action of TL1A remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of TL1A in a pro-inflammatory setting, using...... human leukocytes purified from healthy donors. We show that TL1A, together with IL-12, IL-15 and IL-18, directly induces the production of IL-6 and TNF-α from leukocytes. Interestingly, TL1A-induced IL-6 was not produced by CD14(+) monocytes. We further show that the produced IL-6 is fully functional......, as measured by its ability to signal through the IL-6 receptor, and that the induction of IL-6 is independent of TCR stimulation. Furthermore, the transcription factor PLZF was induced in stimulated cells. These results offer a substantial explanation for the role of TL1A, since TNF-α and IL-6 are directly...

  14. Preparation of Teflon pellets use of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy TL Material and Study of TL Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jeong Sun

    2000-02-15

    As the handling of radioactive materials is frequent, radiation protection which can be achieved through accurate measurements of the radiation exposure doses is of primary concern to the workers involved. Several types of dosimeters, such as the thermoluminescent dosimeter(TLD), film badge and pocket dosimeter, have been used to monitor personal exposure doses. Among these, TLD has been generally accepted as the most accurate and reliable method of personal dosimetry, because of its superior and long term stability. All of the TLDs currently used in Korea have been imported from abroad, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) is now developing new types of TLD which has more sensitivity and stability. One of the thermoluminescent material KAERI is presently investigating is CaSO{sub 4}:Dy, in which a small concentration of Dy is added as activator. This thesis presents a method of preparing the CaSO{sub 4}:Dy phosphor-embeded teflon powder which is then compressed to thin pellet form used as the TLD element. Investigations are made to determine optimum preparing conditions which are resulted the largest emission of the thermoluminescence. Also experimental investigations are conducted for the characteristics of the CaSO{sub 4}:Dy Teflon pellet such as the energy response, dose response, reusability, sensitivity, lowest level of detection, and fading. The optimum preparing conditions have been found as: the concentration of activator Dy is 0.1 mol%: the disolved temperature of Dy is 320 .deg. C: the sintering temperature of the CaSO{sub 4}:Dy phosphor is 750 .deg. C for 2 hours: the average grain sizes of the CaSO{sub 4}:Dy phosphor are 100-200{mu}m. Our investigation shows that the sensitivity of the CaSO{sub 4}:Dy pellet is 1.25-time higher than that of the commercial Teledyne CaSO{sub 4}:Dy pellet. A dose response is observed to linear in the range of 10{sup 4} to 10 Gy. The relative energy response(RER) in the low energy region is 9.6(for the {sup 137}Cs

  15. Downregulation of VEGF and upregulation of TL1A expression induce HUVEC apoptosis in response to high glucose stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Lu, Guihua; Zhu, Xun; Huang, Zhibin; Feng, Chong; Fang, Rong; Wang, Yesong; Gao, Xiuren

    2016-04-01

    High glucose‑induced endothelial cell apoptosis is considered to be the initiator of diabetes‑associated vascular complications. Experiments in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that high glucose levels contribute to the apoptosis of endothelial cells by mediating cellular dysfunction and metabolic disorder via the production of various cytokines. As the most important endogenous vascular regulators, the balance between pro‑proliferative effector vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and anti‑proliferative effector tumor necrosis factor‑like cytokine 1A (TL1A) is important in the modulation of endothelial cell survival and proliferation, and neovascularization. The present study aimed to explore whether the imbalance between VEGF and TL1A affected the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to high glucose conditions and then further investigated the potential mechanism. The results showed that the downregulation of VEGF in combination with the upregulation of TL1A in response to high glucose levels led to enhanced HUVEC apoptosis. Further experiments revealed that silencing high glucose‑induced TL1A expression using TL1A small interfering (si)RNA or the overexpression of VEGF by transfection with VEGF DNA resulted in a reduced HUVEC apoptosis rate compared with the controls. The effects occurred by attenuating and activating the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway, respectively. In addition, VEGF and TL1A inhibited each other in hyperglycemia. In conclusion, these findings provide theoretical support for the further investigation of novel therapeutic strategies designed to maintain the balance between VEGF and TL1A and, thus, to prevent the onset and progression of endothelial cell apoptosis in response to high glucose stimuli.

  16. The characteristics of syndrome X based on {sup 201}Tl-SPECT, {sup 18} FDG-PET and histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satake, Osamichi [Kanazawa Medical Univ. (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Syndrome X is a microvascular disease. However, the relationship between microvascular ischemia and histopathological findings remains unknown. The present study was performed to evaluate the myocardial perfusion and metabolism of patients with Syndrome X using {sup 201}Tl-SPECT and {sup 18}FDG-PET, and to clarify the morphological characteristics with a ventricular myocardial biopsy. We examined 24 patients with Syndrome X and 5 patients with myocarditis as a control group. In the study using {sup 201}Tl-SPECT and {sup 18}FDG-PET, we evaluated the presence or absence of myocardial ischemia. We calculated the Standardized Uptake Value (SUV) (%dose/ml) of {sup 18}FDG, and analyzed quantitatively the degree of ischemia. For histopathologic study on coronary microcirculation, we performed a right ventricular myocardial biopsy. The biopsies were examined light and electron microscopically. The semithin sections, stained with toluidine blue, were projected onto a screen. Microvessels were counted and the ratio of microvascular luminal narrowing and the number of microvessels per unit area were determined. The study using {sup 201}Tl-SPECT and {sup 18}FDG-PET showed that hypoperfusion of {sup 201}Tl was found in 17 of 24 (71%) patients during {sup 201}Tl-loaded myocardial scanning together with redistribution of {sup 201}Tl at the same regions; {sup 18}FDG-uptake were found in all 24 patients during {sup 18}FDG-PET performed under resting and fasting conditions; the SUV of {sup 18}FDG in the Syndrome X group (0.025{+-}0.039 %dose/ml) was significantly different from that of the control group (0.003{+-}0.002 %dose/ml) (p<0.01). Histopathological observations under the both light and electron microscope showed that an increment in number of the endothelial cells with swelling, a marked luminal narrowing due to the hypertrophy of the arteriolar media and the capillary walls, and a compression of the capillaries were shown in all the patients; the ratio of luminal narrowing

  17. Synthesis and TL characteristics of MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Mn,Tb phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahare, P.D., E-mail: pdsahare@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics & Astrophysics University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Singh, Manveer [Department of Physics & Astrophysics University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kumar, Pratik [Medical Physics Unit, IRCH, AIIMS, New Delhi 110 029 (India)

    2015-04-15

    In the present paper optimized dosimetric characteristics of low-Z magnesium tetra-borate MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Mn,Tb using a thermoluminescence (TL) technique have been reported. The phosphor material was synthesized using a conventional high temperature solid-state diffusion reaction. The crystalline structure and phase purity of synthesized powder were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The material in the microcrystalline form was found to be in orthorhombic form. The comparative dosimetric properties of the phosphor material have been extensively investigated for its applications in personal and medical dosimetry. It has been found that the codoped MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Mn,Tb material, exposed to γ rays, shows better TL sensitivity and has an edge over the Mn and Tb doped samples as it is much more sensitive than the formers (550 and 40 times, respectively, more than the later ones). It has a simple glow curve structure (two well separated TL peaks centered at around 475 and 650 K). They are sufficiently above the room temperature (RT) to show low fading (~10% in a month after storing in dark at RT). However, the fading is much faster, if exposed to sunlight/room light/UV radiation. This has been a serious problem with many borate based phosphors. A detailed study on bleaching to UV–visible light of different wavelengths (energies) has been carried out and a new mechanism based on redox reactions is proposed. Low fading (~10% in a month) at room temperature on storing in dark, high TL sensitivity (3.5 times than that of TLD-100), tissue equivalence (Z{sub eff}≈8.23) and linear dose response up to wide range (0.1 Gy to ~5.0 kGy) of γ rays make it a suitable candidate for the radiation dosimetry and monitoring. However, it needs to be protected from sunlight/room light for fast fading. - Highlights: • Synthesized MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Tb,Mn by a very simple solid state reaction. • Optimized annealing temperature and dopant concentration for

  18. Temperature dependence of CsI(Tl) gamma-ray excited scintillation characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, John David [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Gamma-ray excited emission spectrum, absolute scintillation yield, rise and decay time constants, and thermoluminescence emissions of CsI(Tl) were measured at -100 to +50 C, for crystals from 4 different vendors. The thermoluminescence glow curves were the only property that varied significantly from crystal to crystal; room temperature operation in current mode could be susceptible to temperature fluctuations. The CsI(Tl) emission spectrum has emission bands peaking around 400 and 560 nm; the former band disappears between -50 and -75 C. The RT absolute scintillation yield was calculated to be 65,500{plus_minus}4,100 photons/MeV. The two primary decay time constants increases about exponentially with inverse temperature. An ultra-fast decay component was confirmed. Applications are discussed.

  19. Ethnobotany of Tl'azt'en Nation: Plant Use and Gathering Site Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leona R. Shaw

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people have intimate and venerable relationships with the environment, and plants were and still are important for food, medicine, and cultural purposes.  The present research is a collaborative project between Tl'azt'en Nation (located in northcentral British Columbia, just north of Fort St. James and the University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC.  The objectives of the study were to collect Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK to gain an understanding of the criteria for gathering individual plants for food or medicine use, and to understand why traditional plant gathering sites may fall out of use.  Multiple methods were used to gather information from knowledgeable Tl'azt'enne community members including focus groups, interviews, and field trips.  Community members possess deep understandings of plants and their gathering sites.  People’s concerns include the loss of TEK and changing landscapes due to the effects of disturbances on their lands.  The knowledge gathered and documented throughout the study can be used to promote the preservation of the culture and language of Tl'azt'en Nation

  20. Influence of temperature in TL signal induced by gamma radiation in zircon prepared by sol gel via; Influencia de la temperatura en la senal TL inducida por la radiacion gamma en zirconia preparada via solgel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, P.; Castano, V.M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Laboratorio Juriquilla, A.P. 1-1010, 76001 Queretaro (Mexico); Mendoza A, D.; Gonzalez M, P.R. [ININ, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rosa C, E. de la [Centro de Investigaciones en Optical, Leon, Gto. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work, it was realized a study of the temperature effects in thermoluminescent signal (Tl) induced by gamma radiation in zircon, which was prepared by the sol gel method. According to the obtained results, the zircon thermically treated at 500 C or over is sensitive to radiation. This sensitivity is increased when the temperature in study is augmented, moreover, the Tl spectra form also is modified with the temperature increment. The samples thermically treated at 750 C or over present a linear response in the dose interval 27 to 165 Gy; therefore, such materials result promissories for dosimetric purposes. (Author)

  1. Effect of laser irradiation on - characteristics of electrodeposited Ag/Tl-2223/CdSe hetero-nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P M Shirage; D D Shivagan; S H Pawar

    2002-05-01

    One of the innovative technological directions for the high-temperature superconductors has been persued by fabricating the heteroepitaxial multilayer structures such as superconductor–semiconductor heterostructures. In the present investigation, metal/superconductor/semiconductor (Ag/Tl-2223/CdSe) hetero-nanostructures have successfully been fabricated using dc electrodeposition technique and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. The measurement of junction capacitance as a function of biasing voltage was used for the estimation of junction built-in-potential (D) and to study the charge distribution in a heterojunction. The Mott–Schottky plots were measured for each junction in dark and under the photo-irradiation. The effect of laser irradiation on - characteristics of hetero-nanostructure has been studied.

  2. Millimeter-wave induced sloping step in Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} misaligned thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, P.; Xie, W.; Hu, L.; Liu, X.; Zhao, X.J.; Zhang, X.; Ji, L.; He, M., E-mail: heming@nankai.edu.cn; Yan, S.L.

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: •Sloping steps were observed under microwave irradiation. •The dV/dI–I curves showed the bump variation. •The dV/dI–V curves showed the step voltage variation. -- Abstract: The millimeter-wave responses of the intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) in misaligned Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} thin film have been experimentally studied. In the low voltage part on the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics, sloping steps are induced under different frequencies. By presenting the dV/dI–I curves, it shows that corresponding to the sloping steps on the I–V characteristics, resistive bumps appear. The dV/dI–I and dV/dI–V plots from 72 GHz to 80 GHz and at different power show the variation of the step voltage.

  3. Investigation of activation cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on natTl up to 42 MeV: review, new data and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Tárkányi, F; Hermanne, A; Takács, S; Adam-Rebeles, R; Walravens, N; Cichelli, O; Ignatyuk, A V

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on natural thallium have been studied for investigation of the production of the medical important 201Tl diagnostic radioisotope. The excitation functions of 204mPb, 203Pb, 202mPb, 201Pb, 200Pb, 199Pb, 202Tl (direct, cumulative), 201Tl (direct, cumulative), 200Tl(direct), and 203Hg were measured up to 42 MeV proton energy by stacked foil technique and activation method. The experimental data were compared with the critically analyzed experimental data in the literature, with the IAEA recommended data and with the results of model calculations by using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-II and TALYS codes.

  4. Diamide accelerates opening of the Tl(+)-induced permeability transition pore in Ca(2+)-loaded rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, Sergey M; Konovalova, Svetlana A; Brailovskaya, Irina V

    Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in the inner membrane is due to matrix Ca(2+) overload and matrix glutathione loss. Fixing the 'm' conformation of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) by ADP or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) inhibits opening of the MPTP. Oxidants (diamide or tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP)) fix the ANT in 'c' conformation, and the ability of ADP to inhibit the MPTP is thus attenuated. Earlier we found (Korotkov and Saris, 2011) that calcium load of rat liver mitochondria resulted in Tl(+)-induced MPTP opening, which was accompanied by a decrease in state 3, state 4, and 2,4-dinitrophenol-uncoupled respiration, as well as increased swelling and membrane potential dissipation. These effects, which were increased by diamide and tBHP, were visibly reduced in the presence of the MPTP inhibitors (ADP, NEM, and cyclosporine A). Our data suggest that conformational changes of the ANT and matrix glutathione loss may be directly involved in opening the Tl(+)-induced MPTP in the inner membrane of Ca(2+)-loaded rat liver mitochondria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Possible pressure-induced valence changes in Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosin, B.; Venturini, E. L.

    1992-07-01

    The reported nonlinear pressure dependence of the superconducting critical temperature Tc in Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 can be explained by valence changes deduced from the annealing behavior under various environments for single crystals of several Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O structure types. The pressure data are consistent with partial conversion of Tl+ to Tl3+ with increasing pressure (decreasing c-axis length), resulting in electron transfer from the Tl-O layers to the Cu-O2 sheets.

  6. Synthesis, structural, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies and IR induced anisotropy of Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parasyuk, O.V. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, Voli Ave. 13, Lutsk, 43025 (Ukraine); Khyzhun, O.Y. [Frantsevych Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky St., 03142, Kyiv (Ukraine); Piasecki, M. [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University Częstochowa, Armii Krajowej 13/15, Częstochowa (Poland); Kityk, I.V., E-mail: iwank74@gmail.com [Electrical Engineering Department, Czestochowa University Technology, Armii Krajowej 17, PL-42-217, Czestochowa (Poland); Lakshminarayana, G. [Wireless and Photonic Networks Research Centre, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Luzhnyi, I. [Frantsevych Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky St., 03142, Kyiv (Ukraine); Fochuk, P.M. [Yuriy Fed’kovych Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotziubynskoho Str., 58012, Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Fedorchuk, A.O. [Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Pekarska Street 50, 79010, Lviv (Ukraine); Levkovets, S.I.; Yurchenko, O.M.; Piskach, L.V. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, Voli Ave. 13, Lutsk, 43025 (Ukraine)

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, we report on the synthesis and structural properties including X-ray protoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} crystals that were grown by Bridgman-Stockbarger method up to 80 mm in length and 18 mm in diameter. The existence of the ternary compound Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} that melts incongruently at 641 K was confirmed. Phase equilibria and structural properties for the TlI–HgI{sub 2} system were investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. X-ray photoelectron spectra were measured for both pristine and Ar{sup +} ion-bombarded Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} single crystal surfaces. The data reveal that the Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} single crystal is sensitive with respect to Ar{sup +} ion-bombardment as 3.0 keV Ar{sup +} irradiation over 5 min at an ion current density 14 μA/cm{sup 2} induces changes to the elemental stoichiometry of the Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} surface, leading to a decrease of the mercury content in the topmost surface layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements indicate very low hygroscopic nature of the Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} single crystal surface. The IR coherent bicolor laser treatment at wavelengths 10.6/5.3 μm has shown an occurrence of anisotropy at wavelengths 1540 nm of Er:glass laser. This may open the applications of Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} as a material for IR laser triggering. - Highlights: • Phase diagram of the HgI{sub 2}–TlI system was built. • Tl{sub 4}HgI{sub 6} single crystals were grown by Bridgman Stockbarger method. • XRD, XPS analysis was done. • Ir induced anisotropy was established. • The compounds may be proposed as Ir laser operated polarizers.

  7. Closure of mitochondrial potassium channels favors opening of the Tl(+)-induced permeability transition pore in Ca(2+)-loaded rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, Sergey M; Brailovskaya, Irina V; Shumakov, Anton R; Emelyanova, Larisa V

    2015-06-01

    It is known that a closure of ATP sensitive (mitoKATP) or BK-type Ca(2+) activated (mitoKCa) potassium channels triggers opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in cells and isolated mitochondria. We found earlier that the Tl(+)-induced MPTP opening in Ca(2+)-loaded rat liver mitochondria was accompanied by a decrease of 2,4-dinitrophenol-uncoupled respiration and increase of mitochondrial swelling and ΔΨmito dissipation in the medium containing TlNO3 and KNO3. On the other hand, our study showed that the mitoKATP inhibitor, 5-hydroxydecanoate favored the Tl(+)-induced MPTP opening in the inner membrane of Ca(2+)-loaded rat heart mitochondria (Korotkov et al. 2013). Here we showed that 5-hydroxydecanoate increased the Tl(+)-induced MPTP opening in the membrane of rat liver mitochondria regardless of the presence of mitoKATP modulators (diazoxide and pinacidil). This manifested in more pronounced decrease in the uncoupled respiration and acceleration of both the swelling and the ΔΨmito dissipation in isolated rat liver mitochondria, incubated in the medium containing TlNO3, KNO3, and Ca(2+). A slight delay in Ca(2+)-induced swelling of the mitochondria exposed to diazoxide could be result of an inhibition of succinate oxidation by the mitoKATP modulator. Mitochondrial calcium retention capacity (CRC) was markedly decreased in the presence of the mitoKATP inhibitor (5-hydroxydecanoate) or the mitoKCa inhibitor (paxilline). We suggest that the closure of mitoKATP or mitoKCa in calcium loaded mitochondria favors opening of the Tl(+)-induced MPTP in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

  8. The flavonoid TL-2-8 induces cell death and immature mitophagy in breast cancer cells via abrogating the function of the AHA1/Hsp90 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Juan; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Guo, Yi-Zhen; Sun, Fang-Hui; Kou, Xin-Hui; Bao, Yong; Zhang, Zhu-Qing; Lin, Zhao-Hu; Ding, Ting-Bo; Jiang, Lan; Lei, Xin-Sheng; Yang, Yong-Hua

    2017-10-01

    The flavonoid quercetin exhibits significant anticancer activities with few side effects. In the current study, we characterized TL-2-8, a quercetin derivative, as a novel anticancer agent in vitro and in vivo. Cell proliferation and viability were assessed using Cell Counting Kit-8 and CellTiter-Blue assay, respectively. Cell death was examined using PI staining or a TUNEL assay. Mitophagy was determined by measuring autophagic flux and by confocal imaging. Protein expression was examined by Western blotting. We found that TL-2-8 selectively inhibited the proliferation and decreased the viability of various cancer cells (the anti-proliferation IC50 values in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells at 72 h were 8.28, 8.56, and 9.58 μmol/L, respectively), and it displayed only slight cytotoxicity against normal MCF-10A and HEK-293 cells. In MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells, TL-2-8 treatment induced the degradation of multiple Hsp90 client proteins without inducing Hsp70. TL-2-8 (3, 6, 12 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the expression of AHA1, an activator of Hsp90 ATPase, and decreased Hsp90-AHA1 complex formation, leading to decreased Hsp90 chaperone function and reduced polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) signaling. Consequently, impaired mitophagy was induced via the downregulation of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2). The in vivo anticancer effects of TL-2-8 were evaluated in an MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model, which was treated with TL-2-8 (25, 50, 100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po). Administration of TL-2-8 resulted in tumor growth inhibition rates of 37.9%, 58.9% and 70.9%, respectively, whereas quercetin treatment (100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) produced only a lower tumor growth inhibition rate (49.5%). Furthermore, TL-2-8 treatment significantly extended the lifespan of mice bearing MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell xenografts. Our results demonstrate that TL-2-8 induces significant cell death and immature mitophagy in breast

  9. Tl overlayers on Si(1-bar 0-bar 0) and their self-assembly induced by STM tip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishida, M. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: kishida@ele.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Saranin, A.A. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Institute of Automation and Control Processes, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Faculty of Physics and Engineering, Far Eastern State University, 690000 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zotov, A.V. [Faculty of Physics and Engineering, Far Eastern State University, 690000 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Kotlyar, V.G. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Nishida, A. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Murata, Y. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Okado, H. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Katayama, M. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Oura, K. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2004-10-15

    Formation of the thallium (Tl) overlayers on the Si(1-bar 0-bar 0) 2x1 surface has been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). It has been found that adsorption of Tl atom involves a charge transfer leading to the development of a static dipole which is responsible for the field-assisted migration of the Tl adsorbate on the surface. When the STM tip bias voltage is positive, Tl atoms are repelled out from the region underneath the tip apex. In the case of the negative bias voltage, Tl is accumulated underneath the tip. Thus, the observed structure of the surface is controlled not only by Tl coverage, but also by the STM bias voltage and tunneling current.

  10. Comparison of main thermoluminescent properties of some TL dosemeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokic, M.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1993-01-01

    Different types of TL dosemeters that are attractive for dosimetry practice were investigated and compared. The aim of this study was to evaluate the TL characteristics of different TL dosemeters using two basically different types of commercially available TL readers. The findings demonstrate...

  11. Structural and Chemical Diversity of Tl-Based Cuprate Superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    信赢

    2003-01-01

    The Tl-based cuprate superconductor family is the largest family in crystal structure and chemical composition among all high Tc cuprate superconductors. The Tl family can be divided into two sub-families, the Tl single layer family and the Tl double layer family, based on their crystal structural characteristics. The Tl single layer family is an ideal material for investigating the evolution of crystalline formation, charge carrier density, chemical composition, transport properties, superconductivity and their relationships. The Tl family contains almostall possible crystal structures discovered in high-Tc cuprate superconductors. Tl cuprate superconductors are of great importance not only in studying high-temperature superconductivity but also in commercial applications.

  12. To involvement the conformation of the adenine nucleotide translocase in opening the Tl(+)-induced permeability transition pore in Ca(2+)-loaded rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, Sergey M; Konovalova, Svetlana A; Brailovskaya, Irina V; Saris, Nils-Erik L

    2016-04-01

    The conformation of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) has a profound impact in opening the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in the inner membrane. Fixing the ANT in 'c' conformation by phenylarsine oxide (PAO), tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP), and carboxyatractyloside as well as the interaction of 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS) with mitochondrial thiols markedly attenuated the ability of ADP to inhibit the MPTP opening. We earlier found (Korotkov and Saris, 2011) that calcium load of rat liver mitochondria in medium containing TlNO3 and KNO3 stimulated the Tl(+)-induced MPTP opening in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The MPTP opening as well as followed increase in swelling, a drop in membrane potential (ΔΨmito), and a decrease in state 3, state 4, and 2,4-dinitrophenol-uncoupled respiration were visibly enhanced in the presence of PAO, tBHP, DIDS, and carboxyatractyloside. However, these effects were markedly inhibited by ADP and membrane-penetrant hydrophobic thiol reagent, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) which fix the ANT in 'm' conformation. Cyclosporine A additionally potentiated these effects of ADP and NEM. Our data suggest that conformational changes of the ANT may be directly involved in the opening of the Tl(+)-induced MPTP in the inner membrane of Ca(2+)-loaded rat liver mitochondria. Using the Tl(+)-induced MPTP model is discussed in terms finding new transition pore inhibitors and inducers among different chemical and natural compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fluctuation induced excess conductivity in Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R.; Krishnan, H.; Sankaranarayanan, V.; Gopalakrishnan, I. K.; Sastry, P. V. P. S. S.; Yakhmi, J. V.; Iyer, R. M.

    1989-08-01

    Two samples of single phase thallium-calcium-barium-copper-oxide were prepared using a precursor matrix technique. The resistivity of these samples was determined from 300 K to the temperature of zero resistance, Tzero, using the Montgomery technique. The room temperature resistivity of sample 2 was approximately seven times the room temperature resistivity of sample 1. From these measurements it was found that the temperature dependence of the fluctuation-induced excess conductivity in both the samples was in agreement with the Aslamazov-Larkin expression for three dimensional fluctuations.

  14. Single crystal growth and electronic structure of TlPbI{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khyzhun, O.Y., E-mail: khyzhun@ipms.kiev.ua [Frantsevych Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky Street, 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Fochuk, P.M. [Yuriy Fedkovich Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubynskogo Street, 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Kityk, I.V. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Armii Krajowej 17, PL-42-217 Czestochowa (Poland); Piasecki, M. [Institute of Physics, J.Dlugosz University Częstochowa, Armii Krajowej 13/15, Częstochowa (Poland); Levkovets, S.I. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Eastern European National University, 13 Voli Avenue, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine); Fedorchuk, A.O. [Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, 50 Pekarska Street, 79010 Lviv (Ukraine); Parasyuk, O.V. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Eastern European National University, 13 Voli Avenue, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine)

    2016-04-01

    High-quality inclusion-free TlPbI{sub 3} single crystals have been grown using Bridgman–Stockbarger method. The electronic structure of TlPbI{sub 3} is studied by using the possibilities of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the TlPbI{sub 3} crystal, XPS core-level and valence-band spectra for both pristine and Ar{sup +} ion-bombarded surfaces are recorded. The present XPS data indicate that the TlPbI{sub 3} single crystal surface is somewhat sensitive with respect to Ar{sup +} ion-bombardment. In particular, the XPS measurements reveal that thallium and lead atoms are in the formal valence +1 and +2, respectively, on the pristine TlPbI{sub 3} single crystal surface. Further, the 3.0 keV Ar{sup +} ion-bombardment of the surface induces partial transformation of lead ions to lower valence state, namely Pb{sup 0}; however, no partial loss of iodine atoms belonging to TlI{sub 8} polyhedra occurs due to the Ar{sup +} ion-bombardment of the TlPbI{sub 3} surface because after such a treatment thallium remains exclusively in the formal valence +1. The present XPS results indicate that low hygroscopicity is characteristic of the TlPbI{sub 3} single crystal surface. Photoinduced birefringence profiles in TlPbI{sub 3} are explored. - Highlights: • High-quality TlPbI{sub 3} single crystals have been grown by Bridgman–Stockbarger method. • Electronic structure of TlPbI{sub 3} is studied by the XPS method. • XPS data reveal low hygroscopicity of TlPbI{sub 3} surface. • TlPbI{sub 3} single crystal surface is sensitive with respect to Ar{sup +} ion-bombardment. • Photoinduced birefringence profiles in TlPbI{sub 3} are explored.

  15. Neutron diffraction study of the pressure-induced magnetic ordering in the spin gap system TlCuCl sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Oosawa, A; Kakurai, K; Fujisawa, M; Tanaka, H

    2003-01-01

    Neutron elastic scattering measurements have been performed under a hydrostatic pressure in order to investigate the spin structure of the pressure-induced magnetic ordering in the spin gap system TlCuCl sub 3. Below the ordering temperature T sub N = 16.9 K for the hydrostatic pressure P = 1.48 GPa, magnetic Bragg reflections were observed at reciprocal lattice points Q = (h, 0, l) with integer h and odd l, which are equivalent to those points with the lowest magnetic excitation energy at ambient pressure. This indicates that the spin gap close due to the applied pressure. The spin structure of the pressure-induced magnetic ordered state for P = 1.48 GPa was determined. (author)

  16. Measurement of Muon Annual Modulation and Muon-Induced Phosphorescence in NaI(Tl) Crystals with DM-Ice17

    CERN Document Server

    Cherwinka, J; Halzen, F; Heeger, K M; Hsu, L; Hubbard, A J F; Karle, A; Kauer, M; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lim, K E; Macdonald, C; Maruyama, R H; Paling, S; Pettus, W; Pierpoint, Z P; Reilly, B N; Robinson, M; Sandstrom, P; Spooner, N J C; Telfer, S; Yang, L

    2015-01-01

    We report the measurement of muons and muon-induced phosphorescence in DM-Ice17, a NaI(Tl) direct detection dark matter experiment at the South Pole. Muons are identified by the observed pulse shape and large energy deposition of their interaction in the crystals. The measured muon rate in DM-Ice17 is 2.93 $\\pm$ 0.04 $\\mu$/crystal/day with a modulation amplitude of 12.3 $\\pm$ 1.7%, consistent with expectation. Following muon interactions, we observe long-lived phosphorescence in the NaI(Tl) crystals with a decay time of 5.5 $\\pm$ 0.5 s. The prompt energy deposited by a muon is correlated to the amount of delayed phosphorescence, the brightest of which consist of tens of millions of photons. As they are distributed over tens of seconds, the rate and timing structure of photon arrivals do not mimic a scintillation signal above 2 keV$_\\mathrm{ee}$. While the properties of phosphorescence vary between individual crystals, the annually-modulating signal observed by DAMA cannot be accounted for by phosphorescence w...

  17. Millimeter wave characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions with planar equiangular spiral antenna in misaligned Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Wang, P.; Xie, W.; Ma, L. J.; Zhao, X. J.; He, M.; Ji, L.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    An intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) microbridge with planar equiangular spiral antenna (PESA) is proposed and studied by simulation and experiment. This IJJs circuit is simulated firstly to obtain the minimum of reflection coefficient and pattern. Secondly, IJJs with PESA are fabricated on misaligned Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 superconducting film. The millimeter wave characteristics are investigated by a Febry-Pérot resonator, which consists of a spherical mirror antenna and a plane mirror. At 37.4 GHz, the IJJs and the millimeter wave show an optimum coupling, which deviate from the simulation for only 0.004 GHz. In addition, the extent of the coupling between IJJs and the resonator is discussed at different angle for the polarization direction of the spherical mirror antenna with the microbridge. The result shows that the strongest coupling is obtained at 0-30° angle. Good conformance of measurements and simulations illustrate the effectiveness of our design in strong coupling between sample and resonator.

  18. Data supporting the involvement of the adenine nucleotide translocase conformation in opening the Tl+-induced permeability transition pore in Ca2+-loaded rat liver mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Korotkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There we made available information about the effects of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT ‘c’ conformation fixers (phenylarsine oxide (PAO, tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP, and carboxyatractyloside as well as thiol reagent (4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate (DIDS on isolated rat liver mitochondria. We observed a decrease in A540 (mitochondrial swelling and respiratory control rates (RCRADP [state 3/state 4] and RCRDNP [2,4-dinitrophenol-uncoupled state/basal state or state 4], as well as an increase in Ca2+-induced safranin fluorescence (F485/590, arbitrary units, showed a dissipation in the inner membrane potential (ΔΨmito, in experiments with energized rat liver mitochondria, injected into the buffer containing 25–75 mM TlNO3, 125 mM KNO3, and 100 µM Ca2+. The fixers and DIDS, in comparison to Ca2+ alone, greatly increased A540 decline and the rate of Ca2+-induced ΔΨmito dissipation. These reagents also markedly decreased RCRADP and RCRDNP. The MPTP inhibitors (ADP, cyclosporin A, bongkrekic acid, and N-ethylmaleimide fixing the ANT in ‘m’ conformation significantly hindered the above-mentioned effects of the fixers and DIDS. A more complete scientific analysis of these findings may be obtained from the manuscript “To involvement the conformation of the adenine nucleotide translocase in opening the Tl+-induced permeability transition pore in Ca2+-loaded rat liver mitochondria” (Korotkov et al., 2016 [1].

  19. Thermoluminescent characteristics (TL) of K{sub 2}F{sub 5}: Y{sub 0.99} Tb{sub 0.01} irradiated with beta particles of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90} Y; Caracteristicas termoluminiscentes (TL) de K{sub 2}F{sub 5}: Y{sub 0.99} Tb{sub 0.01} irradiado con particulas beta de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90} Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillet, C.; Azorin, J.; Rivera, T. [Dep. de Fisica, UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work the results of studying the thermoluminescent characteristics of the K{sub 2}F{sub 5}: Y{sub 0.99} Tb{sub 0.01} are presented. The material was characterized irradiating samples of K{sub 2}F{sub 5}: Y{sub 0.99}Tb{sub 0.01} in powder with beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. The studied characteristics were TL curve, response reproducibility, TL response in function of the dose and fading of the information. The samples exhibited a thermoluminescent curve (TL) with two very defined peaks centered respectively in 167 and 307 C. The TL response of the samples under the action of the beta radiation after 10 cycles (thermal erased, irradiation and reading of the samples) presented a standard deviation of 3.09%. The TL response of K{sub 2}F{sub 5}: Y{sub 0.99} Tb{sub 0.01} in function of the absorbed dose of beta radiation resulted lineal in the interval of 3 mGy to 1.29 Gy. The fading of the information contained in the samples of K{sub 2}F{sub 5}: Y{sub 0.99} Tb{sub 0.01} was of 40% in the first 10 minutes, which is due to the first peak. The obtained results suggest that the TL material resulted as promissory for its possible use as thermoluminescent dosemeter of beta radiation using the second peak of its TL curve like dosimetric peak. (Author)

  20. Effect of cationic size in Hg(Tl/Bi)Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+ on superconducting and microstructural characteristics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajiv Giri; H K Singh; R S Tiwari; O N Srivastava

    2001-10-01

    In this paper we have reported investigations on the effect of simultaneous substitution of Bi and Tl at the H site in the oxygen deficient HO layer of HBa2Ca2Cu3O8+ cuprate superconductor. Bulk polycrystalline samples have been prepared by the two-step solid state reaction process (precursor route). It has been observed that the as grown HBi0.2–TlBa2Ca2Cu3O8+ (with = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) corresponds to the 1223 phase. It has been found that the c varies with the average cationic size $\\langle R_d \\rangle$ of the dopantcations. The optimum c of ∼ 131 K has been found for the composition HBi0.15Tl0.05Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+. This composition leads to the average dopant cation size of ∼ 1.108 Å which is very close to the size of H2+ (∼ 1.11 Å). The microstructure for HBi0.15Tl0.05Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+ has been found to be most dense and this phase exhibits the highest stability. The c of the optimum material HBi0.15Tl0.05Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+ is found to be ∼ 1.29 × 103 A/cm2 at 77 K.

  1. Effect of charge compensator/CO-dopant ions on the TL characteristics of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy and CaSO{sub 4}:Tm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, B.C.; Shinde, S.S.; Srivastava, J.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India); Gundu Rao, T.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Bombay (India)

    1996-12-31

    The effect of charge compensating ions (Na{sup +} or P{sup 5+}) has been studied in CaSO{sub 4}:Dy/Tm phosphors. For CaSO{sub 4}:Dy, Na, the thermoluminescence emission between 380 and 404 K seems to be well correlated with Na co-dopant which increases the formation and stabilisation of the SO{sub 4}{sup -} centre. ESR as well as fluorescence measurements also showed an enhanced signal for the SO{sub 4}{sup -} radical in CaSO{sub 4}:Dy, Na samples. Co-doping of phosphorus in CaSO{sub 4}:Dy/Tm resulted in increasing the TL sensitivity by about 40% when compared with that in the conventional CaSO{sub 4}:Dy/Tm TL phosphors. In CaSO{sub 4}:Dy,P and CaSO{sub 4}:Dy, while ESR measurements showed no change in ESR signal intensity. TL measurements showed higher intensity for CaSO{sub 4}:Dy,P samples. On the other hand, addition of Zr{sup 4+} to CaSO{sub 4}:Dy did not result in any enhancement in TL intensity of the dosimetric peak; however, ESR measurements showed enhanced intensity for the SO{sub 3}{sup -} radical (stable up to 300{sup o}C) in CaSO{sub 4}:Dy,Zr. These results tend to show that charge compensator ions such as Na{sup +} and P{sup 5+} when present in CaSO{sub 4}:Dy/Tm, result in higher luminescence efficiency either due to better incorporation of activator ions or due to improvement in energy transfer processes. On the other hand incorporation of co-dopant ions with higher effective charge such as Zr{sup 4+} would increase the concentration of cation vacancies but did not result in an increase in the luminescence efficiency. (Author).

  2. Fabrication of TlBr Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO; Xiao-yong

    2015-01-01

    1 Introduction Thallium bromide(TlBr)is an attractive compound semiconductor material for fabrication of room temperature radiation detectors due to its characteristics of wide band-gap energy,high density,high atomic numbers.It can be used in the fields of security detection,imaging and radiation protection.

  3. Effects on 5-ASA on the Expressions of TL1A and Nuclear Factor-Kappa B in TNBS-Induced Rat Colitis%5-氨基水杨酸对TNBS结肠炎大鼠中TL1A、NF-KB表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董渊; 朱瑞平; 夏冰

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过检测三硝基环磺酸(TNBS)诱导的结肠炎大鼠结肠组织中TL1A、NF-kB的表达及5-氨基水杨酸(5-ASA)干预后的表达,探讨它们和克罗恩病(CD)之间的关系及5-ASA干预后的影响.方法:选用雌性健康Wistar大鼠30只,均分为A、B、C组.A为正常对照组,B、C两组大鼠采用TNBS/乙醇灌肠制作大鼠结肠炎模型.造模后,B组每天给予0.9%氯化钠溶液1 ml灌肠;C组每天给予5-ASA l ml灌肠(100 mg/kg).于造模后第7天处死所有大鼠,按疾病活动指数(DAI)的评分标准进行大体损伤评分,HE染色进行组织损伤评分.同时取结肠病变部位组织,生化法检测MPO活性,应用荧光定量PCR检测TL1A、NF-kB的表达的变化.结果:与A组比较,B组和C组的DAI评分、大体损伤形态和组织学损伤评分及MPO活性均升高(P<0.05),但B组高于C组(P<0.05).与A组相比,B、C组的TL1A、NF-kB水平升高(P<0.05),分别为0.09±0.51比0.91±0.17和0.35±0.05、0.11±0.06比0.82±0.17和0.33±0.14,且B组高于C组.结论:在TNBS诱导的大鼠炎性肠病模型中TL1A、NF-kB的表达增高,5-ASA对肠道炎症的治疗作用可能是通过抑制TL1A、NF-kB实现的.%Objective: To investigate the relationship among TL1A, NFkB, and colitis, and the therapeutic effects of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) on colitis by investigating the expression of TL1A and NF-Kb in TNBS-induced rat colitis. Methods: Thirty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rats in each. Group A was served as normal control. The rats in group B and C were infused with TNBS/alcohol per rectum. After the induction of colitis, the rats in group C were treated daily with 1 ml of 5-ASA (100 mg/kg) per rectum, and those in group B were treated daily with 1 ml normal saline. All the animals were sacrificed at day 7 after induction of colitis. The macroscopic changes of the colon were evaluated according to disease activity index (DAI) scoring and histological

  4. OSL and TL techniques combined in a beryllium oxide detector to evaluate simultaneously accumulated and single doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malthez, Anna L M C; Freitas, Marcelo B; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M; Umisedo, Nancy K; Button, Vera L S N

    2016-04-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) are similar techniques widely used in radiation dosimetry. The main difference between these techniques is the stimulus to induce luminescence emission: TL technique uses thermal stimulation, whereas OSL uses optical stimulation. One of the main intrinsic characteristics of the OSL technique is the possibility of reading several times the dosimetric materials with a negligible loss of signal. In the case of BeO, recent studies have shown that TL stimulation up to 250°C does not affect its OSL signal. Taking the advantages of dosimetric characteristics of BeO combined with both techniques, in this study, we demonstrated the possibility of measuring accumulated and single doses in the same BeO-based detector in order to use it to improve individual monitoring of radiation workers exposed to X-ray or gamma-ray fields. Single doses were measured using TL technique by heating the detector up to 250°C, whereas accumulated doses were estimated using OSL technique in the same detector in a relatively short time of optical stimulation. The detectors were exposed to two energies: 28keV X-rays and 1.25MeV Co-60 gamma rays. The doses estimated by OSL and TL of BeO (Thermalox 995) were compared with those obtained with LiF (TLD-100) and recorded with a calibrated ionization chamber. The results indicate that combined OSL and TL signals of BeO detectors can provide additional information of accumulated dose, with additional exploration of the advantages of both techniques, such as speed in readouts with OSL, and double-check the doses using TL and OSL intensities from BeO.

  5. Stress-induced myocardial ischemia is associated with early post-stress left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony as assessed by phase analysis of {sup 201}Tl gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Shen, Thau-Yun [Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Changhua (China); Chang, Ming-Che [Changhua Christian Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Hung, Guang-Uei [Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, Taichung (China); Chen, Wan-Chen [Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Kao, Chia-Hung [China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, Taichung (China); Chen, Ji [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    In {sup 201}Tl SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) data are acquired shortly after the stress injection to assess early post-stress left ventricle (LV) function. The purpose of this study was to use {sup 201}Tl SPECT MPI to investigate whether stress-induced myocardial ischemia is associated with LV mechanical dyssynchrony. Enrolled in the study were 75 patients who were referred for dipyridamole stress and rest {sup 201}Tl gated SPECT MPI. The early post-stress scan was started 5 min after injection, and followed by the rest scan 4 h later. The patients were divided into three groups: ischemia group (N = 25, summed stress score, SSS, {>=}5, summed rest score, SRS, <5), infarct group (N = 16, SSS {>=}5, SRS {>=}5) and normal group (N = 34, SSS <5, SRS <5). LV dyssynchrony parameters were calculated by phase analysis, and compared between the stress and rest images. In the ischemia group, LV dyssynchrony was significantly larger during stress than during rest. On the contrary, LV dyssynchrony during stress was significantly smaller than during rest in the normal and infarct groups. LV dyssynchrony during rest was significantly larger in the infarct group than in the normal and ischemia groups. There were no significant differences in LV dyssynchrony during rest between the normal and ischemia groups. Stress-induced myocardial ischemia caused dyssynchronous contraction in the ischemic region, leading to a deterioration in LV synchrony. Normal myocardium had more synchronous contraction during stress. The different dyssynchrony pattern between ischemic and normal myocardium early post-stress may aid the diagnosis of coronary artery disease using {sup 201}Tl gated SPECT MPI. (orig.)

  6. IBD-associated TL1A gene (TNFSF15 haplotypes determine increased expression of TL1A protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin S Michelsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The recently identified member of the TNF superfamily TL1A (TNFSF15 increases IFN-gamma production by T cells in peripheral and mucosal CCR9+ T cells. TL1A and its receptor DR3 are up-regulated during chronic intestinal inflammation in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (CD. TL1A gene haplotypes increase CD susceptibility in Japanese, European, and US cohorts. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that the presence of TL1A gene haplotype B increases risk in Jewish CD patients with antibody titers for the E. coli outer membrane porin C (OmpC+ (Haplotype B frequency in Jewish CD patients: 24.9% for OmpC negative and 41.9% for OmpC positive patients, respectively, P< or =0.001. CD14+ monocytes isolated from Jewish OmpC+ patients homozygous for TL1A gene haplotype B express higher levels of TL1A in response to FcgammaR stimulation, a known inducing pathway of TL1A, as measured by ELISA. Furthermore, the membrane expression of TL1A is increased on peripheral monocytes from Jewish but not non-Jewish CD patients with the risk haplotype. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that TL1A gene variation exacerbates induction of TL1A in response to FcgammaR stimulation in Jewish CD patients and this may lead to chronic intestinal inflammation via overwhelming T cell responses. Thus, TL1A may provide an important target for therapeutic intervention in this subgroup of IBD patients.

  7. Mechanisms of TL for production of the 230 {sup o}C peak in natural sodalite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, Nilo F., E-mail: nilocano@dfn.if.usp.b [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Professional School of Physics, University of San Agustin of Arequipa, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Blak, Ana R. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ayala-Arenas, Jorge S. [Professional School of Physics, University of San Agustin of Arequipa, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Watanabe, Shigueo [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    The thermoluminescence (TL) peak in natural sodalite near 230 {sup o}C, which appears only after submitted to thermal treatments and to gamma irradiation, has been studied in parallel with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum appearing under the same procedure. This study revealed a full correlation between the 230 {sup o}C TL peak and the eleven hyperfine lines from EPR spectrum. In both case, the centers disappear at the same temperature and are restored after gamma irradiation. A complete model for the 230 {sup o}C TL peak is presented and discussed. In addition to the correlation and TL model, specific characteristics of the TL peaks are described.

  8. Characteristics of Vibration Induced by Cavitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-yu; TAO Lei; LIU Shu-yan; QIAN Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    Cavitation-induced vibration characteristics and the relations between the vibration and cavitation are studied. Cavitation vibrations are measured around a model hollow-jet valve by an accelerometer under cavitating and non-cavitating conditions. The measurement data is analyzed by FFT method. The corresponding cavitating flow patterns are photographed by a high-speed camera with an xenon flash lamp. The frequency band of the vibration induced by cavitation is determined. To compare the vibration intensities under different cavitation conditions, a definition of vibration acceleration level is introduced based on power spectral density of the vibration. By the analysis of vibration, the definitions of characteristic cavitation number are suggested. According to these cavitation numbers, the cavitation process is divided into three stages, that is, incipient cavitation, subcavitation and supercavitation.

  9. Timing characteristics of Ce doped Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 12} single crystals in comparison with CsI(Tl) scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, M.; Singh, A.K.; Singh, S.G.; Sen, S.; Gadkari, S.C. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Desai, V.V.; Nayak, B.K. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Single crystals of Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 12}:Ce with B codopants were successfully grown using the Czochralski technique. The timing characteristics of the crystal was measured by coupling the crystal to photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or silicon photodiodes [Si(PIN)]. The two prompt γ-rays emitted in a cascade from {sup 60}Co or {sup 22}Na source were detected in coincidence using Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 12}:Ce,B crystal detectors and a BaF{sub 2} detector. The time resolution of these crystals are observed to be better than that measured for CsI:Tl crystal coupled to PMT or Si(PIN) in an identical measurement setup. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Spontaneous Tl(I)-to-Tl(III) oxidation in dynamic heterobimetallic Hg(II)/Tl(I) porphyrin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoyom, Victoria; Fusaro, Luca; Roisnel, Thierry; Le Gac, Stéphane; Boitrel, Bernard

    2016-01-11

    Strapped heterobimetallic Hg(II)/Tl(I) porphyrin complexes, with both metal ions bridged by the N-core in a dynamic way, undergo spontaneous Tl(I)-to-Tl(III) oxidation leading to a mono-Tl(III) complex and a mixed valence Tl(I)/Tl(III) bimetallic complex. It provides a new opportunity to tune metal ion translocations in bimetallic porphyrin systems.

  11. Characteristics and Feasibility of Trans-Free Plastic Fats through Lipozyme TL IM-Catalyzed Interesterification of Palm Stearin and Akebia trifoliata Variety Australis Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shi-Qiang; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Bai, Chun-Qing; Peng, Hai-Long; Xiong, Hua; Hu, Ju-Wu; Zhao, Qiang

    2014-03-31

    Akebia trifoliata var. australis seed oil (ASO) was used as an edible oil in China. However, in-depth research studies on ASO have yet to be conducted for production of plastic fats in food industry. In this work, an immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL IM) was employed to catalyze palm stearin (PS) with different ratios of ASO in a laboratory-scale operation at 60 °C. The physical properties [e.g., fatty acid profile, slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), polymorphic form, and microstructure] of physical blends (PBs) were analyzed and compared with those of the interesterified products (IPs). Results showed that SMPs of IPs (33.20-37.60 °C) decreased compared with those of PBs (48.03-49.30 °C). Meanwhile, IPs showed a good SFC range from 16.11% to 28.29% at 25 °C with mostly β' polymorphic forms determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. It should be mentioned that no trans fatty acids (TFAs) were detected in any products, suggesting much more health-benefits of IPs. Texture tests showed that PBs (3318.19 ± 86.67 g) were markedly harder than IPs (557.02 ± 12.75 g). Conclusively, our study demonstrated that ASO can be utilized to produce trans-free plastic fats with good qualities through lipase-catalyzed interesterification.

  12. Main: TL1ATSAR [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TL1ATSAR S000473 13-August-2005 (last modified) kehi TL1, a consensus sequence over...or of pathogenesis-related genes 1, also known as NIM1; SAR; ER; PR; NIM1; Arabidopsis thaliana CTGAAGAAGAA ...

  13. Millimeter wave inducing subharmonic steps in the Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 thin film bicrystal Josephson junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Hu, L.; Xie, W.; Wang, P.; Ma, L. J.; Zhao, X. J.; He, M.; Zhang, X.; Ji, L.

    2015-04-01

    The bicrystal Josephson junction (BJJ) was fabricated by patterning microbridge into Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 (Tl-2212) thin film grown epitaxially on the bicrystal SrTiO3 (STO) substrate. The millimeter wave responses of BJJ were researched by experiment and numerical simulation. Shapiro steps and subharmonic steps were both observed in the current-voltage (I-V) curve at the liquid nitrogen temperature. In the resistive-capacitive-inductive shunted junction (RCLSJ) model, both of the Shapiro steps and subharmonic steps were reproduced with varying capacitances and inductances. The result of simulation has a good agreement with the experiment. The relative large capacitance and inductance correspond to distinct subharmonic steps.

  14. TL1A increases expression of CD25, LFA-1, CD134 and CD154, and induces IL-22 and GM-CSF production from effector CD4 T-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichwald, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Tina Z.; Skov, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Elevated levels of the cytokine TL1A is associated with several autoimmune diseases e.g. rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the exact role of TL1A remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the function of TL1A in a pro-inflammatory setting. We show that TL1A toget...... to the explanation of TL1A's role in inflammation. Our results suggest that TL1A should be considered as a target for immunotherapeutic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease....

  15. Early response of glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent antioxidant defense systems to Tl(I)- and Tl(III)-mediated oxidative stress in adherent pheochromocytoma (PC12adh) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga Molina, Lis C; Salvatierra Fréchou, Damiana M; Verstraeten, Sandra V

    2017-09-02

    Thallium (Tl) is a toxic heavy metal that causes oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we evaluated the production of oxygen (ROS)- and nitrogen (RNS)-reactive species in adherent PC12 (PC12adh) cells exposed for 0.5-6 h to Tl(I) or Tl(III) (10-100 µM). In this system, Tl(I) induced mostly H2O2 generation while Tl(III) induced H2O2 and ONOO(·-) generation. Both cations enhanced iNOS expression and activity, and decreased CuZnSOD expression but without affecting its activity. Tl(I) increased MnSOD expression and activity but Tl(III) decreased them. NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity remained unaffected throughout the period assessed. Oxidant levels returned to baseline values after 6 h of incubation, suggesting a response of the antioxidant defense system to the oxidative insult imposed by the cations. Tl also affected the glutathione-dependent system: while Tl(III) increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) expression and activity, Tl(I) and Tl(III) decreased glutathione reductase (GR) expression. However, GR activity was mildly enhanced by Tl(III). Finally, thioredoxin-dependent system was evaluated. Only Tl(I) increased 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prx) expression, although both cations increased their activity. Tl(I) increased cytosolic thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) and decreased mitochondrial (TrxR2) expression. Tl(III) had a biphasic effect on TrxR1 expression and slightly increased TrxR2 expression. Despite of this, both cations increased total TrxR activity. Obtained results suggest that in Tl(I)-exposed PC12adh cells, there is an early response to oxidative stress mainly by GSH-dependent system while in Tl(III)-treated cells both GSH- and Trx-dependent systems are involved.

  16. Millimeter wave characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions with planar equiangular spiral antenna in misaligned Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X. [Department of Electronics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang, P. [Beijing Institute of Radio Measurement, Beijing 100854 (China); Xie, W.; Ma, L.J.; Zhao, X.J.; He, M.; Ji, L. [Department of Electronics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang, X., E-mail: nkzhangxu@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Electronics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • An intrinsic Josephson junction microbridge with planar equiangular spiral antenna is fabricated. • The millimeter wave characteristics of IJJ in Febry–Pérot resonator is investigated. • The strong-coupling condition is presented by simulation and experiment. - Abstract: An intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) microbridge with planar equiangular spiral antenna (PESA) is proposed and studied by simulation and experiment. This IJJs circuit is simulated firstly to obtain the minimum of reflection coefficient and pattern. Secondly, IJJs with PESA are fabricated on misaligned Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} superconducting film. The millimeter wave characteristics are investigated by a Febry–Pérot resonator, which consists of a spherical mirror antenna and a plane mirror. At 37.4 GHz, the IJJs and the millimeter wave show an optimum coupling, which deviate from the simulation for only 0.004 GHz. In addition, the extent of the coupling between IJJs and the resonator is discussed at different angle for the polarization direction of the spherical mirror antenna with the microbridge. The result shows that the strongest coupling is obtained at 0–30° angle. Good conformance of measurements and simulations illustrate the effectiveness of our design in strong coupling between sample and resonator.

  17. Structural analysis of TL genes of the mouse.

    OpenAIRE

    Obata, Y; Chen, Y T; Stockert, E; Old, L J

    1985-01-01

    Three Tla region-specific probes have been generated from the BALB/c genomic cosmid clone C6.3. One probe, pTL1, corresponds to 3' sequences of a thymus leukemia (TL)-encoding gene, whereas pTL2 and pTL3 detect noncoding flanking sequences. The TL specificity of pTL1 was demonstrated by studies of RNA from thymocytes of TL+ and TL- mouse strains and from TL+ and TL- leukemias; presence/absence of pTL1+ transcripts correlated with presence/absence of TL antigens detected serologically. Nine Tl...

  18. Visual and semi-quantitative assessment of brain tumors using (201)Tl-SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, Ayumi; Otsuka, Hideki; Nose, Hayato; Otomi, Yoichi; Terazawa, Kaori; Harada, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of (201)Tl-SPECT in differentiating benign from malignant brain tumors. Eighty-eight patients (44 males and 44 females) with 58 high-grade (WHO grade III-IV) and 30 low-grade (WHO grade I-II) tumors were evaluated with (201)Tl-SPECT. (1) Visual assessment was performed by board-certificated radiologists using (201)Tl-SPECT. Tumors were classified in two groups (Tl-positive and Tl-negative) and scored using the five grade evaluation system. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed in the Tl-positive group. (2) Semi-quantitative assessment involved measurement of early and delayed (201)Tl uptake, and the retention index (RI) was applied as follows: RI=delayed uptake ratio/early uptake ratio. Three combinations of RI using mean and maximum values of the region of interest were calculated. (1) Seventy-four Tl-positive and 14 Tl-negative tumors. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) estimated by three radiologists exceeded a value of 0.7. The value was greater when estimated by the more experienced radiologist. (2) In all RIs, the difference of RI between high-grade tumors and low-grade tumors was statistically significant. A visual and semi-quantitative assessment using (201)Tl-SPECT was found to be useful for differentiating benign from malignant brain tumors.

  19. New thallium iodates—Synthesis, characterization, and calculations of Tl(IO 3) 3 and Tl 4(IO 3) 6, [Tl +3Tl 3+(IO 3) 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Jeongho; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Halasyamani, P. Shiv

    2009-12-01

    Two new thallium iodates have been synthesized, Tl(IO 3) 3 and Tl 4(IO 3) 6 [Tl +3Tl 3+(IO 3) 6], and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both materials were synthesized as phase-pure compounds through hydrothermal techniques using Tl 2CO 3 and HIO 3 as reagents. The materials crystallize in space groups R-3 (Tl(IO 3) 3) and P-1 (Tl 4(IO 3) 6). Although lone-pairs are observed for both I 5+ and Tl +, electronic structure calculations indicate the lone-pair on I 5+ is stereo-active, whereas the lone-pair on Tl + is inert.

  20. PIXE characterization of CsI(Tl) scintillators used for particle detection in nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, N.; Casini, G.; Frosini, M.; Tobia, G.; Marchi, T.

    2008-05-01

    Particle-Induced X-ray Emission has been used to measure Thallium concentration in several CsI(Tl) scintillators from different manufacturers, in order to check their nominal declared values and correlate their behaviour with actual Tl concentration. Indeed, both Tl doping level and its uniformity affect light emission of these detectors, which are largely employed in nuclear physics experiments. In some of the examined crystals Tl concentration values from PIXE measurements came out to be quite different from those declared. This allowed us to explain apparent anomalies in the trend of their α/γ-induced light yield ratio versus Tl content. In some cases, the presence of unexpected contaminants was also pointed out.

  1. PIXE characterization of CsI(Tl) scintillators used for particle detection in nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy)], E-mail: grassi@fi.infn.it; Casini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Frosini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Tobia, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Marchi, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Particle-Induced X-ray Emission has been used to measure Thallium concentration in several CsI(Tl) scintillators from different manufacturers, in order to check their nominal declared values and correlate their behaviour with actual Tl concentration. Indeed, both Tl doping level and its uniformity affect light emission of these detectors, which are largely employed in nuclear physics experiments. In some of the examined crystals Tl concentration values from PIXE measurements came out to be quite different from those declared. This allowed us to explain apparent anomalies in the trend of their {alpha}/{gamma}-induced light yield ratio versus Tl content. In some cases, the presence of unexpected contaminants was also pointed out.

  2. Thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvoerer, M.; Delavergne, M.-C.; Chapoulie, R.

    1988-01-01

    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi/sub 4/O/sub 10/. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after ..beta.. irradiation (/sup 90/Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals.

  3. Thallophilic Tl(i)-Tl(i) contacts mediated by Tl-aryl interactions. A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Laura; Pownall, Barnaby T; Mair, Francis S; McDouall, Joseph J W

    2016-05-28

    A computational study is presented of a complex of thallium with a neutral β-triketimine ligand which was found to form dimers with close Tl-Tl interactions. Single point energies, using the crystallographic structures, suggest that the system is bound only when BArF counter ions are included in the calculations. Energy decomposition analysis of the system was carried out in order to investigate the nature of the bonding. Across the methods, calculations show the electrostatic interaction to be repulsive for the dimer with no counter ions, but attractive when BArF counter ions are included. This suggests the metallophilic interaction is counter ion-mediated, requiring the anions to provide favourable electrostatics, even in the case of spatially diffuse and distant counter ions such as the 3,5-bistrifluoromethylphenyl borate ions used here.

  4. Phase transitions and their co-existence in TlGaSe2–TlCrS2(Se2) systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R G Veliyev; Mir Hasan Yu Seyidov; E M Kerimova; R Z Sadykhov; Yu G Asadov; F M Seyidov; N Z Gasanov

    2013-08-01

    Investigation of dielectric properties of layered compound, TlGaSe2, showed that it is a ferroelectric (c = 105.5 K) with an intermediate incommensurate phase (i = 114.5 K). Our magnetic studies of layered compounds, TlCrS2 and TlCrSe2, for the first time revealed that the magnetic phase transition in these compounds are quasi two-dimensional ferromagnetic in nature and magnetic characteristics are c = 90 K, $T^{p}_{C}$ = 115 K, eff = 3.26 B and c = 105 K, $T^{p}_{C}$ = 120 K, eff = 3.05 B, respectively. Using the method of DTA, areas of homogeneous and heterogeneous coexistence of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic phase transitions in the systems, TlGaSe2–TlCrS2 and TlGaSe2–TlCrSe2, were identified. The low-dimensional solid solutions and eutectic alloys in these systems can be used as basic materials for plenty of functional recorders.

  5. NMR Structures and Interactions of Temporin-1Tl and Temporin-1Tb with Lipopolysaccharide Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Anirban; Saravanan, Rathi; Mohanram, Harini; Mangoni, Maria L.; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2011-01-01

    Temporins are a group of closely related short antimicrobial peptides from frog skin. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major constituent of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, plays important roles in the activity of temporins. Earlier studies have found that LPS induces oligomerization of temporin-1Tb (TB) thus preventing its translocation across the outer membrane and, as a result, reduces its activity on Gram-negative bacteria. On the other hand, temporin-1Tl (TL) exhibits higher activity, presumably because of lack of such oligomerization. A synergistic mechanism was proposed, involving TL and TB in overcoming the LPS-mediated barrier. Here, to gain insights into interactions of TL and TB within LPS, we investigated the structures and interactions of TL, TB, and TL+TB in LPS micelles, using NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. In the context of LPS, TL assumes a novel antiparallel dimeric helical structure sustained by intimate packing between aromatic-aromatic and aromatic-aliphatic residues. By contrast, independent TB has populations of helical and aggregated conformations in LPS. The LPS-induced aggregated states of TB are largely destabilized in the presence of TL. Saturation transfer difference NMR studies have delineated residues of TL and TB in close contact with LPS and enhanced interactions of these two peptides with LPS, when combined together. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and 31P NMR have pointed out the proximity of TL and TB in LPS and conformational changes of LPS, respectively. Importantly, these results provide the first structural insights into the mode of action and synergism of antimicrobial peptides at the level of the LPS-outer membrane. PMID:21586570

  6. PGF2α induced estrus characteristics and reproduc- tive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, P. ... PGF2α induced estrus characteristics and reproductive performance of free ranging goats ... kidding interval (KI), the type of management practice and clinical param- .... The purpose of this experiment was to study estrus characteristics of goats.

  7. Reductive dissolution of Tl(I)-jarosite by Shewanella putrefaciens: providing new insights into Tl biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, Christina M; Walshe, Gillian E; Fryer, Brian J; Weisener, Christopher G

    2012-10-16

    Thallium (Tl) is emerging as a metal of concern in countries such as China due to its release during the natural weathering of Tl-bearing ore deposits and mining activities. Despite the high toxicity of Tl, few studies have examined the reductive dissolution of Tl mineral phases by microbial populations. In this study we examined the dissolution of synthetic Tl(I)-jarosite, (H(3)O)(0.29)Tl(0.71)Fe(2.74)(SO(4))(2)(OH)(5.22)(H(2)O)(0.78), by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 using batch experiments under anaerobic circumneutral conditions. Fe(II) concentrations were measured over time and showed Fe(II) production (4.6 mM) in inoculated samples by 893 h not seen in mineral and dead cell controls. Release of aqueous Tl was enhanced in inoculated samples whereby maximum concentrations in inoculated and cell-free samples reached 3.2 and 2.1 mM, respectively, by termination of the experiment. Complementary batch Tl/S. putrefaciens sorption experiments were conducted under experimentally relevant pH (5 and 6.3) at a Tl concentration of 35 μM and did not show significant Tl accumulation by either live or dead cells. Therefore, in contrast to many metals such as Pb and Cd, S. putrefaciens does not represent a sink for Tl in the environment and Tl is readily released from Tl-jarosite during both abiotic and biotic dissolution.

  8. NaI(Tl) response functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Ortiz R, J. M. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Benites R, J. L. [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Calz. de la Cruz 118 Sur, Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); De Leon M, H. A., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos 1801 Ote., 20155 Aguascalientes, Ags. (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The response functions of a NaI(Tl) detector have been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Response functions were calculated for monoenergetic photon sources (0.05 to 3 MeV). Responses were calculated for point-like sources and for sources distributed in Portland cement cylinders. The responses were used to calculate the efficiency functions in term of photon energy. Commonly, sources used for calibration are point-like, and eventually sources to be measured have different features. In order to use the calibrated sources corrections due to solid angle, self-absorption and scattering, must be carried out. However, some of these corrections are not easy to perform. In this work, the calculated responses were used to estimate the detector efficiency of point-like sources, and sources distributed in Portland type cement. Samples of Portland paste were prepared and were exposed to photoneutrons produced by a 15 MV linac. Some of the elements in the cement were activated producing γ-emitting radionuclides that were measured with a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer, that was calibrated with point-like sources. In order to determine the specific activity in the induced radioisotopes calculated efficiencies were used to make corrections due to the differences between the solid angle, photon absorption and photon scattering in the point-like calibration sources and the sources distributed in cement. During the interaction between photoneutrons and the cement samples three radioisotopes were induced: {sup 56}Mn, {sup 24}Na, and {sup 28}Al. (Author)

  9. Tl(I) and Tl(III) alter the expression of EGF-dependent signals and cyclins required for pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell-cycle resumption and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, María T L; Verstraeten, Sandra V

    2015-08-01

    The effects of thallium [Tl(I) and Tl(III)] on the PC12 cell cycle were evaluated without (EGF(-)) or with (EGF(+)) media supplementation with epidermal growth factor (EGF). The following markers of cell-cycle phases were analyzed: cyclin D1 (G1 ); E2F-1, cyclin E and cytosolic p21 (G1 →S transition); nuclear PCNA and cyclin A (S); and cyclin B1 (G2). The amount of cells in each phase and the activation of the signaling cascade triggered by EGF were also analyzed. Tl(I) and Tl(III) (5-100 μM) caused dissimilar effects on PC12 cell proliferation. In EGF(-) cells, Tl(I) increased the expression of G1 →S transition markers and nuclear PCNA, without affecting cyclin A or cyclin B1. In addition to those, cyclin B1 was also increased in EGF(+) cells. In EGF(-) cells, Tl(III) increased the expression of cyclin D1, all the G1→S and S phase markers and cyclin B1. In EGF(+) cells, Tl(III) increased cyclin D1 expression and decreased all the markers of G1 →S transition and the S phase. Even when these cations did not induce the activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) in EGF(-) cells, they promoted the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. In the presence of EGF, the cations anticipated EGFR phosphorylation without affecting the kinetics of EGF-dependent ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation. Altogether, results indicate that Tl(I) promoted cell proliferation in both EGF(-) and EGF(+) cells. In contrast, Tl(III) promoted the proliferation of EGF(-) cells but delayed it in EGF(+) cells, which may be related to the toxic effects of this cation in PC12 cells. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cells induced by Triptolide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Xiong Zhou; Xiao-Ling Ding; Jie-Fei Huang; Hong Zhang; Sheng-Bao Wu; Jian-Ping Cheng; Qun Wei

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer ceils induced by Triptolide (TL),and the relationship between this apoptosis and expression of caspase-3' bcl-2 and bax.METHODS:Human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 was cultured in DIEM media for this study.MTT assay was used to determine the cell growth inhibitory rate in vitro.Flow cytometry and TUNEL assay were used to detect the apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cells before and after TL treatment.RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-associated gene caspase-3' bcl-2 and bax.RESULTS:TL inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner.TL induced human pancreatic cancer cells to undergo apoptosis with typically apoptotic characteristics.TUNEL assay showed that after the treatment of human pancreatic cancer cells with 40 ng/mL TL for 12 h and 24 h,the apoptotic rates of human pancreatic cancer cells increased significantly.RT-PCR demonstrated that caspase-3 and bax were significantly up-regulated in SW1990 cells treated with TL while bcl-2 mRNA was not.CONCLUSION:TL is able to induce the apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells.This apoptosis may be mediated by up-regulating the expression of apoptosisassociated caspase-3 and bax gene.

  11. Characteristics of impurity-induced pseudogap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, Yoshinori, E-mail: yo_c.n-15@ruri.waseda.jp; Uto, Tatsuro; Matuda, Azusa

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • We have studied characteristics of the pseudogap states of Co substituted Bi2212 crystals used by STM/STS. • The pseudogap of Co 4% samples have temperature dependence. • We observed a disappearance of a 4a periodic modulation and a development of 1D modulation in the DOS. • An intimate relation between the DOS modulation and the pseudogap is confirmed. - Abstract: We have performed STM/STS measurements on a single crystal of Bi{sub 2.1}Sr{sub 1.9}Ca (Cu{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}) {sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} (Co-Bi2212), to reveal impurity effects on the pseudogap in cuprate high-T{sub c} superconductors. We report a drastic change in the temperature dependence of a pseudogap and in the density of states (DOS) modulation with a 4a period, in a certain doping range. In the Co 4% substituted samples, the pseudogap gradually closed like a gap of a BCS superconductor for slightly overdoped and overdoped regime, while their low temperature values were enhanced due to impurity. In addition, a disappearance of a 4a periodic modulation and a development of new modulation were observed in the DOS spatial distribution. These results indicate an intimate relation between the DOS modulation and the pseudogap, and qualitative difference in the impurity enhanced pseudogap and conventional one.

  12. Temperature dependence of dielectric function and optical transitions in TlInSe{sub 2} and TlGaTe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, YongGu, E-mail: shim@pe.osakafu-u.ac.j [Department of Physics and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Aoh, Hitoshi; Sakamoto, Junichi [Department of Physics and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Wakita, Kazuki [Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1, Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Mamedov, Nazim [Department of Ellipsometry, Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, H. Javid ave. 33, Baku AZ-1143 (Azerbaijan)

    2011-02-28

    The principal components of the dielectric function of TlInSe{sub 2} and TlGaTe{sub 2} crystals with quasi-one-dimensional chain structure have been studied over the photon energies 1.5-5.0eV in the temperature range 140-400 K, with due regard to the reported phase transitions. For TlGaTe{sub 2}, the absolute values of the dielectric function experience a sudden temperature-induced change at 290 K in nearly all the accessed photon energy range. The energy and other parameters of the critical points for inter-band optical transitions related to the obtained dielectric function have then been retrieved for both TlInSe{sub 2} and TlGaTe{sub 2}. An abrupt change in the energy of the critical point, positioned at 2.93 eV at room temperature and formed by optical transitions induced by the light polarized along the chains, has then been disclosed for TlGaTe{sub 2} at 290 K.

  13. Intrinsic scintillators: TlMgCl3 and TlCaI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrami, R.; Ariesanti, E.; Wei, H.; Finkelstein, J.; Glodo, J.; Shah, K. S.

    2017-10-01

    Two intrinsic scintillators TlMgCl3 and TlCaI3 with excellent energy resolution and fast scintillation decay are presented. Crack-free transparent crystals were successfully grown by the Bridgman method. The scintillation light yields of TlMgCl3 and TlCaI3 are approximately 30,600 ph/MeV and 42,200 ph/MeV, respectively. Their energy resolutions at 662 keV are 3.7% for TlMgCl3 and 6.2% for TlCaI3. The scintillation decay times of TlMgCl3 are 46 ns, 166 ns, and 449 ns. The scintillation decay times of TlCaI3 are 62 ns, 200 ns, and 1.44 μs. Under X-ray irradiation, the emission of TlMgCl3 is between 300 nm and 540 nm with the peak at 409 nm. TlCaI3 has a broad emission band between 300 nm and 750 nm. Due to their excellent scintillation properties, these two scintillators can be developed for gamma-ray detection. Additionally, TlMgCl3 is non-hygroscopic.

  14. Development of the Separation System of {sup 203}Tl Stable Isotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Do Young; Ko, Kwang Hoon; Lim, Gwon; Kim, Tak Soo; Park, Hyun Min; Rho, Si Pyo; Kim, Cheol Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Thallium has two naturally occurring isotopes, {sup 203}Tl and {sup 205}Tl, with abundances of 30% and 70%, respectively. {sup 203}Tl is an indispensable raw material for the production of {sup 201}Tl radioisotopes by a proton bombardment in a cyclotron. {sup 201}TlCl is a radiopharmaceutical used widely to diagnose a heart disease. Development of the isotope-selective photoionization technique of Tl has been attractive, but an isotope selective ionization of thallium has never been achieved so far because of its small isotope shift as well as the lack of an available autoionization state. We have proposed a new method to separate the thallium isotopes, which is based-on an isotope-selective optical pumping followed by infrared photoionization. Many photoionization methods are available, such as the two photon excitation followed by the direct ionization in a high electric field. But, other ionization methods do not have the sufficient selectivity for a single stage. Two or three stages have to be applied for obtaining the sufficient selectivity. Moreover, they need strict experimental conditions and are expected that the efficiency decreases in the ionization step. However, our method is expected to overcome these drawbacks. With this background, we developed the laser isotope separation system to have high isotopic abundance of {sup 203}Tl. The system configuration and characteristics are represented in this paper.

  15. Characteristics of Induced Abortion in China in the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-chun QIAO

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand the characteristics of induced abortion in China in the 1990s,and to find out the influential factors.Methods The overall number of induced abortions, calculate cohort induced abortion frequency, explore the impact of a child's sex and the number of previous children on induced abortions were estimated by using the data from the "National Population and Reproductive Health Survey" conducted by the National Family Planning Commission in November 1997.Results Induced abortions in China had their own characteristics, which were far different from other countries. The main difference was led by the fact that the country was driven by an implemented family planning program and nationwide population policies. The key cause of induced abortions was due to an inconsistency with the requirements of the family planning policy. However, as a result of effective and prevalent contraception, the rates of induced abortions were not quite high in the 1990s,when compared with other countries. Even though, in the early 1990s, the government had reinforced the family planning program through administration and legislation,unlike during the early 1980s when the one-child policy was implemented, the induced abortion rate and the number of induce abortions did not increase as the fertility rate substantially decreased.Concltsion This finding implies that the fertility declines in the 1990s were not caused by the number of induced abortions. The transition of the fertility ideology of the people has played an important role in the fertility decline, as institutional reform and socioeconomic development are implemented.

  16. Soluble TL1A is sufficient for activation of death receptor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Sebastian; Knoll, Gertrud; Füllsack, Simone; Kurz, Maria; Wajant, Harald; Ehrenschwender, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Death receptor 3 (DR3) is a typical member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, and was initially identified as a T-cell co-stimulatory molecule. However, further studies revealed a more complex and partly dichotomous role for DR3 and its ligand TL1A under (patho)physiological conditions. TL1A and DR3 are not only a driving force in the development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but also play an important role in counteracting these processes through an increase in the number of regulatory T cells. Ligands of the tumor necrosis factor family typically occur in two forms, membrane-bound and soluble, that can differ strikingly with respect to their efficacy in activating their corresponding receptor(s). Ligand-based approaches to activate the TL1A-DR3 pathway therefore require understanding of the molecular prerequisites of TL1A-based DR3 activation. To date, this has not been addressed. Here, we show that recombinant soluble trimeric TL1A is fully sufficient to strongly activate DR3-associated pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. In contrast to the TRAIL death receptors, which are much better activated by soluble TRAIL upon secondary ligand oligomerization, but similarly to the death receptor tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, DR3 is efficiently activated by soluble TL1A trimers. Additionally, we have measured the affinity of TL1A-DR3 interaction in a cell-based system, and demonstrated TL1A-induced DR3 internalization. Identification of DR3 as a tumor necrosis factor receptor that responds to soluble ligand trimers without further oligomerization provides a basis for therapeutic exploitation of the TL1A-DR3 pathway.

  17. A preliminary discussion on the bio-metallogenesis of Tl deposits in the low-temperature minerogenetic province of southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Starting with the research status of bio-metallogenesis of Tl deposits and their geology, this work deals with the geological background of Tl enrichment and mineralization and the mechanism of bio- metal-logenesis of Tl deposits, as exemplified by Tl deposits in the low-temperature minerogenetic province. This research on the bio-metallogenesis of Tl deposits is focused on the correlations between bio-enrichment and Tl, the enrichment of Tl in micro-paleo-animals in rocks and ores, bio-fossil casts in Tl-rich ores, the involvement of bio-sulfur in minerogenesis and the enrichment of bio-genetic organic carbon in Tl ores. Thallium deposits have experienced two ore-forming stages: syngenetic bio- en-richment and epigenetic hydrothermal reworking (or transformation). Owing to the intense epigenetic hydrothermal reworking, almost no bio-residues remain in syngenetically bio-enriched Tl ores, thereby the Tl deposits display the characteristics of hydrothermally reoworked deposits.

  18. A preliminary discussion on the bio-metallogenesis of Tl deposits in the low-temperature minerogenetic province of southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong; ZHANG BaoGui; HU Jing; YAO LinBo; TIAN YiFu

    2007-01-01

    Starting with the research status of bio-metallogenesis of Tl deposits and their geology,this work deals with the geological background of Tl enrichment and mineralization and the mechanism of bio-metal-logenesis of Tl deposits,as exemplified by Tl deposits in the low-temperature minerogenetic province.This research on the bio-metallogenesis of Tl deposits is focused on the correlations between bio-enrichment and Tl,the enrichment of Tl in micro-paleo-animals in rocks and ores,bio-fossil casts in Tl-rich ores,the involvement of bio-sulfur in minerogenesis and the enrichment of bio-genetic organic carbon in Tl ores.Thallium deposits have experienced two ore-forming stages:syngenetic bio-enrichment and epigenetic hydrothermal reworking (or transformation).Owing to the intense epigenetic hydrothermal reworking,almost no bio-residues remain in syngenetically bio-enriched Tl ores,thereby the Tl deposits display the characteristics of hydrothermally reoworked deposits.

  19. Millimeter wave inducing subharmonic steps in the Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} thin film bicrystal Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Hu, L.; Xie, W. [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang, P. [Beijing Institute of Radio Measurement, Beijing 100854 (China); Ma, L.J.; Zhao, X.J.; He, M. [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang, X., E-mail: nkzhangxu@nankai.edu.cn [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ji, L. [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • We observed the subharmonic steps based on Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (Tl-2212) film which epitaxial grown on bicrystal SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) substrate. • The simulation of the RCLSJ model matched up well with the experimental results. • The dI/dV–V curves highlight the subharmonic steps. - Abstract: The bicrystal Josephson junction (BJJ) was fabricated by patterning microbridge into Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (Tl-2212) thin film grown epitaxially on the bicrystal SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) substrate. The millimeter wave responses of BJJ were researched by experiment and numerical simulation. Shapiro steps and subharmonic steps were both observed in the current–voltage (I–V) curve at the liquid nitrogen temperature. In the resistive–capacitive–inductive shunted junction (RCLSJ) model, both of the Shapiro steps and subharmonic steps were reproduced with varying capacitances and inductances. The result of simulation has a good agreement with the experiment. The relative large capacitance and inductance correspond to distinct subharmonic steps.

  20. Refractive index of TlGaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, K.; Shiba, M.; Yamakage, M.; Kajikawa, Y. [Department of Electric and Control Systems Engineering, Interdisciplinary Faculty of Science and Engineering, Shimane University (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Refractive index has been determined from reflectance measurements at 77-300 K for Tl{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As samples with x{<=}0.077 prepared by low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy. A very high refractive index of around 4.5 at room temperature in the transparent wavelength region has been revealed for Tl{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As with x=0.077. The temperature coefficient of the refractive index was found to increase with Tl content. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Effect of deep native defects on ultrasound propagation in TlInS2 layered crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu.; Suleymanov, Rauf A.; Odrinsky, Andrei P.; Kırbaş, Cafer

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated p-type semiconductor-ferroelectric TlInS2 by means of Photo-Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy (PICTS) technique in the temperature range 77-350 K for the detection of native deep defect levels in TlInS2. Five native deep defect levels were detected and their energy levels and capture cross sections were evaluated. Focusing on these data, the influence of these defects on the longitudinal and transverse ultrasound waves propagation as well as the effect of electric field on ultrasound waves were studied at different temperatures. The acoustic properties were investigated by the pulse-echo method. The direct contribution of thermally activated charged defects to the acoustic properties of TlInS2 was demonstrated. The key role of charged native deep level defects in elastic properties of TlInS2 was shown.

  2. Response of TL dosemeters to cosmic radiation on board passenger aircraft

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; Marczewska, B; Olko, P

    2002-01-01

    Measurements were performed with various LiF based TLDs on board seven Polish aircraft, flying long-distance or middle-distance routes. All of the /sup 7/LiF detectors used (various types of /sup 7 /LiF:Mg, Ti and /sup 7/LiF:Mg, Cu, P detectors), which measure the non-neutron component of the radiation field, produced consistent results. It was found that the characteristics of the TLD response (ratio of different detector responses, glow curve shapes) after doses of radiation at flying altitudes differ from those obtained after exposure at the CERN facility (CERF), suggesting a lower contribution of densely ionising radiation. The neutron induced TL signal was also more affected by the thickness of the holder, suggesting the presence of a softer neutron energy spectrum at flight altitudes. Further in-flight and CERF exposures of detectors are planned to resolve these issues. (5 refs).

  3. Tl2Mo9Se11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gougeon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure of Tl2Mo9Se11, dithallium nonamolybdenum undecaselenide, is isotypic with Tl2Mo9S11 [Potel et al. (1980. Acta Cryst. B36, 1319–1322]. The structural set-up is characterized by a mixture of Mo6Sei8Sea6 and Mo12Sei14Sea6 cluster units in a 1:1 ratio. Both components are interconnected through interunit Mo—Se bonds. The cluster units are centered at Wyckoff positions 3a and 3b (point-group symmetry overline{3}.. The two TlI atoms are situated in the voids of the three-dimensional arrangement. Two of the five independent Se atoms and the Tl atoms lie on sites with 3. symmetry (Wyckoff site 6c.

  4. The changes of holographic characteristics of photopolymer induced by temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingju Huang(黄明举); Huawen Yao(姚华文); Zhongyu Chen(陈仲裕); Lisong Hou(侯立松); Fuxi Gan(干福熹)

    2003-01-01

    The changes of holographic characteristics of photopolymer induced by temperature are studied experimentally. The results show that the exposure sensitivity increases with the increase of temperature. The maximum diffraction efficiency and the final maximum diffraction efficiency increase with the increase of temperature when the temperature is lower than Tg (glass transition temperature), while they decrease with the increase of temperature when the temperature is higher than Tg. The effect of the change of temperature on the saturation refractive index modulation is very weak.

  5. Firing temperature of pottery using TL and OSL techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polymeris, G.S. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, Xanthi 67100 (Greece); Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece); Sakalis, A. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, Xanthi 67100 (Greece); Papadopoulou, D. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, Xanthi 67100 (Greece); Department of Science, School of Technological Applications, Technological Educational Institute of Kavala, Agios Loukas, Kavala 65404 (Greece); Dallas, G. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, Xanthi 67100 (Greece); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi GR-67100 (Greece); Kitis, G. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece); Tsirliganis, N.C. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute/R.C. ' Athena' , Tsimiski 58, Xanthi 67100 (Greece)], E-mail: tnestor@ceti.gr

    2007-09-21

    Several methods of thermal analysis are used to determine in the laboratory the firing temperature of ancient ceramic sherds. These methods are based primarily on changes of physical characteristics occurring when clay minerals are heated. The luminescence properties of quartz grains in a ceramic matrix also undergo certain changes during firing. The possibility of measuring the sensitivity change (sensitization) of quartz in order to determine the firing temperature of archeological ceramic artifacts was investigated. The sensitivity change was studied for both the thermoluminescence (TL) and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal for a ceramic sample of known firing temperature. Various segments of the sample were annealed to a different temperature. Subsequently, the initial sensitivity, as well as the thermal and the pre-dose sensitization were measured for both TL and OSL at room temperature as a function of the annealing temperature. The obtained TL glow curves showed different shapes for annealing temperatures above the firing temperature. Thermal and pre-dose sensitizations also exhibited a similar, although less prominent, rise. The OSL signal was analyzed by integrating the raw signal over the initial second of stimulation. The initial sensitivity showed an abrupt change for annealing temperatures around the firing temperature. An alternative approach used for the analysis of the OSL signal involved a full-component resolved sensitization study. The same abrupt change for the initial sensitivity of both the first and second components was observed, as well as, a clear but not very prominent thermal sensitization trend for annealing temperatures above the firing temperature.

  6. Firing temperature of pottery using TL and OSL techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeris, G. S.; Sakalis, A.; Papadopoulou, D.; Dallas, G.; Kitis, G.; Tsirliganis, N. C.

    2007-09-01

    Several methods of thermal analysis are used to determine in the laboratory the firing temperature of ancient ceramic sherds. These methods are based primarily on changes of physical characteristics occurring when clay minerals are heated. The luminescence properties of quartz grains in a ceramic matrix also undergo certain changes during firing. The possibility of measuring the sensitivity change (sensitization) of quartz in order to determine the firing temperature of archeological ceramic artifacts was investigated. The sensitivity change was studied for both the thermoluminescence (TL) and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal for a ceramic sample of known firing temperature. Various segments of the sample were annealed to a different temperature. Subsequently, the initial sensitivity, as well as the thermal and the pre-dose sensitization were measured for both TL and OSL at room temperature as a function of the annealing temperature. The obtained TL glow curves showed different shapes for annealing temperatures above the firing temperature. Thermal and pre-dose sensitizations also exhibited a similar, although less prominent, rise. The OSL signal was analyzed by integrating the raw signal over the initial second of stimulation. The initial sensitivity showed an abrupt change for annealing temperatures around the firing temperature. An alternative approach used for the analysis of the OSL signal involved a full-component resolved sensitization study. The same abrupt change for the initial sensitivity of both the first and second components was observed, as well as, a clear but not very prominent thermal sensitization trend for annealing temperatures above the firing temperature.

  7. The use of thallium diethyldithiocarbamate for mapping CNS potassium metabolism and neuronal activity: Tl+ -redistribution, Tl+ -kinetics and Tl+ -equilibrium distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanger, Tim; Scheich, Henning; Ohl, Frank W; Goldschmidt, Jürgen

    2012-07-01

    The potassium (K(+)) analogue thallium (Tl(+)) can be used as a tracer for mapping neuronal activity. However, because of the poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) K(+) -permeability, only minute amounts of Tl(+) enter the brain after systemic injection of Tl(+) -salts like thallium acetate (TlAc). We have recently shown that it is possible to overcome this limitation by injecting animals with the lipophilic chelate complex thallium diethyldithiocarbamate (TlDDC), that crosses the BBB and releases Tl(+) prior to neuronal or glial uptake. TlDDC can thus be used for mapping CNS K(+) metabolism and neuronal activity. Here, we analyze Tl(+) -kinetics in the rodent brain both experimentally and using simple mathematical models. We systemically injected animals either with TlAc or with TlDDC. Using an autometallographic method we mapped the brain Tl(+) -distribution at various time points after injection. We show that the patterns and kinetics of Tl(+) -redistribution in the brain are essentially the same irrespective of whether animals have been injected with TlAc or TlDDC. Data from modeling and experiments indicate that transmembrane Tl(+) -fluxes in cells within the CNS in vivo equilibrate at similar rates as K(+) -fluxes in vitro. This equilibration is much faster than and largely independent of the equilibration of Tl(+) -fluxes across the BBB. The study provides further proof-of-concept for the use of TlDDC for mapping neuronal activity and CNS K(+) -metabolism. A theoretical guideline is given for the use of K(+) -analogues for imaging neuronal activity with general implications for the use of metal ions in neuroimaging. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. Observation of curious spiral growth features in Tl doped Hg bearing high temperature superconducting tapes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anjana Asthana; O N Srivastava

    2001-12-01

    Synthesis of H(Tl)Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+ superconducting tapes have been accomplished by annealing the precursor tape, Ba2Ca2Cu3O (fabricated by doctor blade tape casting technique) in an environment of H(Tl) vapour. Characterization of superconducting HTSC tape sample was carried out through XRD, TEM, SEM and R–T measurements. Surface morphological investigations of the as-synthesized H(Tl)Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+ HTSC tapes by scanning electron microscope have shown the occurrence of curious growth characteristics resembling spiral like features. These growth spirals encompass nearly the whole grain suggesting that spiral growth led to the formation of small crystal like grains of superconducting material H(Tl)Ba2Ca2Cu3O8+. The likely mechanism for the generation of these screw dislocations has been elucidated in terms of incoherent coalescence of growth fronts formed from H(Tl):1223 and H(Tl):1234 nuclei.

  9. CLUSTERS IN LIQUID K-TL AND CS-TL ALLOYS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERKERK, P; XU, R; HOWELLS, WS; DEWIJS, GA; VANDERLUGT, W

    1994-01-01

    The structure factors of several liquid K-Tl and Cs-Tl alloys have been measured by means of neutron time-of-flight diffraction at the spallation neutron source ISIS. A large first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) or prepeak is observed in all measurements at relatively short wave vector, indicating

  10. Bulk superconductivity in Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 and TlBa 2Ca 2Cu 3O 9 phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpice, A.; Giordanengo, B.; Tournier, R.; Hervieu, M.; Maignan, A.; Martin, C.; Michel, C.; Provost, J.

    1988-09-01

    Well-crystallized Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 phases have been observed superconducting or normal below 108 K depending on their stoichiometry. This observation is an evidence that a (Cu IL&.zbnd;O -) mixed valence induced by vacancies or substitution on different sites gives rise to superconductivity in this phase. The new phase TlBa 2Ca 2CuO 9 which intrinsically contains a mixed valence has been observed as having a sharp transition to bulk superconductivity in the Meissner effect at a critical temperature of 120 K. This temperature is much higher than the recently observed one.

  11. TL response of a natural fluorite

    CERN Document Server

    Balogun, F A; Ogundare, F O; Fasasi, M K; Hussein, L A

    1999-01-01

    A batch of a naturally occurring fluorite (CaF sub 2) from the Middle Benue Valley region of Nigeria has been studied in some detail for its thermoluminescence (TL) properties. TL glow peaks are observed at 119, 144 and 224 deg. C at a heating rate of 10 deg. C s sup - sup 1. The TL response is observed to increase with increasing dose, as expected, over the dose range examined. Variations are observed in the decay curves of the various glow peaks with storage at room temperature. While the lower temperature peaks are observed to decay, enhancement of the TL signal is observed for the 224 deg. C glow peak when stored for four weeks. A low-level radioactivity measurement showed no evidence of self-irradiation from naturally occurring radionuclides. UV exposure was suppressed by storage in a black sealed container to exclude sunlight contribution to the observed TL response. A scheme involving the formation of large defect complexes, from smaller ones, during storage, as possible route leading to loss of signal...

  12. Characteristics of the storm-induced big bubbles (SIBBs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Hyosub; Paxton, Larry J.; Su, Shin-Yi; Zhang, Yongliang; Yeh, Hweyching

    2006-10-01

    Large equatorial plasma depletions, referred to as storm-induced big bubbles (SIBBs), are detected from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program F15 and from the first Republic of China Satellite during the large magnetic storms of 31 March 2001, 29 October 2003, and 20 November 2003. They occur in the equatorial region at night, are elongated in the north-south direction, have steep walls, and always coexist with plasma bubbles. These observations are consistent with the SIBB characteristics described in the companion paper by Kil and Paxton [2006] and corroborate that the SIBBs are associated with bubbles. We discuss the common characteristics of the SIBBs and the role of the E × B drift for the formation of the SIBBs.

  13. Discriminating Characteristics of Tectonic and Human-Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaliapin, I. V.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze statistical features of background and clustered subpopulations of earthquakes in different regions in an effort to distinguish between human-induced and natural seismicity. Analysis of "end-member" areas known to be dominated by human-induced earthquakes (the Geyser geothermal field in northern California and TauTona gold mine in South Africa) and regular tectonic activity (the San Jacinto fault zone in southern California and Coso region excluding the Coso geothermal field in eastern central California) reveals several distinguishing characteristics. Induced seismicity is shown to have (i) higher rate of background events (both absolute and relative to the total rate), (ii) faster temporal offspring decay, (iii) higher intensity of repeating events, (iv) larger proportion of small clusters, and (v) larger spatial separation between parent and offspring, compared to regular tectonic activity. These differences also successfully discriminate seismicity within the Coso and Salton Sea geothermal fields in California before and after the expansion of geothermal production during the 1980s.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of right ventricular overload in cor pulmonale using sup 201 Tl myocardial SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroshi; Misawa, Toshihiro; Kutsumi, Yasunori (Fukui Medical School, Matsuoka (Japan)) (and others)

    1991-01-01

    To determine quantitatively the discriminant and characteristics of cor pulmonale, {sup 201}Tl myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed in 16 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 7 with restrictive pulmonary disease (RPD). One section of the short-axis SPECT image in which the right ventricle was most clearly visualized was selected. Tl-score was defined as the ratio of the sum of counts in the region of interest (ROI) at the anterior, mid, and posterior regions of the right ventricular free wall to the sum of counts in ROI at the posterior, lateral, and anterior walls of the left ventricle, and the anterior and posterior regions of the interventricular septum. In the group of COPD patients, Tl-score was positively correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), total pulmonary vascular resistance (TPR), and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO{sub 2}), while it was inversely correlated with arterial oxygen tension (PaO{sub 2}). However, there was no significant correlation between Tl-score and mPAP, TPR, PaCO{sub 2}, and PaO{sub 2} in the group of RPD patients. In assessing pulmonary hypertension as defined by mPAP over 20 mmHg, a Tl-score greater than 0.25 was useful with a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 90%. The occurrence of cor pulmonale is a major factor in determining the prognosis of COPD patients. It was concluded that {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT is useful for evaluating right ventricular overload quantitatively, as well as for assessing core pulmonale, especially in COPD patients, since the ratio of Tl counts in the right and left ventricles was significantly correlated with right cardiopulmonary hemodynamic parameters. (N.K.).

  15. 205Tl Knight and chemical shift in the high- Tc superconductors Tl 2Ba 2CuO 6, Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8 and Tl 2Ca 2Ba 2Cu 3O 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzek, N.; Hentsch, F.; Mehring, M.; Mattausch, Hj.; Kremer, R.; Simon, A.

    1990-06-01

    We report on the 205Tl NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra of the title compounds below and above the superconducting transition temperature Tc. The TlO layer NMR spectra are dominated by chemical shifts corresponding to Tl 3+ with a smaller additional positive Knight shift, whereas a “defect line” of Tl replacing Ca in the two and three layer compounds exhibits a large negative Knight shift, which is attributed to O-holes in the CuO 2 layers.

  16. Success in Student-Faculty/Staff SoTL Partnerships: Motivations, Challenges, Power, and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acai, Anita; Akesson, Bree; Allen, Meghan; Chen, Victoria; Mathany, Clarke; McCollum, Brett; Spencer, Jennifer; Verwoord, Roselynn E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Partnerships with students are considered one of the principles of good Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) practice. However, not all partnerships are equally successful. What characteristics are common to successful partnerships and what preparatory elements can lead toward more successful partnerships? In this article, our team of…

  17. The TL,NO /TL,CO ratio cannot be used to exclude pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabius, Timon M; Eijsvogel, Michiel M; van der Lee, Ivo; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; de Jongh, Frans H

    2017-07-01

    The existing screening modalities for pulmonary embolism (PE), such as D-dimer and clinical prediction rules, have low positive predictive values. With its capability to indicate pulmonary vascular abnormalities, the ratio of the transfer factor of the lungs for nitric oxide and the transfer factor of the lungs for carbon monoxide (TL,NO /TL,CO ) might be an additional discriminating parameter. Carbon monoxide/Nitric oxide diffusion measurements were performed on unselected patients seen on the emergency department for which due to suspected PE a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) was ordered. A total of 28 patients were included, PE was found in 12 on CTPA. Median TL,NO /TL,CO ratio was 4·09 (interquartile range (IQR) 3·83-4·40) in the no PE group versus 4·00 (IQR 3·78-4·32) in the PE group (P = 0·959). Median alveolar volume was 77·1% of predicted in the no PE group versus 71·0% of predicted in the PE group (P = 0·353). Median TL,CO was 75·8% of predicted in the no PE group versus 68·8% of predicted in the PE group (P = 0·120). Median TL,NO was 69·3% of predicted in the no PE group versus 60·5% of predicted in the PE group (P = 0·078). The presented data indicate that the TL,NO /TL,CO ratio cannot be used to exclude PE. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. TL Dating of Loess in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宝林; 卢良才

    1991-01-01

    TL ages of 56 loess samples collected from Xinjiang and the middle reaches of the Yellow River were determined by using fine-grained quartz and man-made light source bleaching techniques.The results indicate that :1.The well-preserved loess sections in Xinjiang began depositing 400000 a ago.The loess/paleosol series may be comparable with that observed in the middle reaches of the Yellow River but the depositing time was probably delayed by 30000-50000a.2.The bottom boundary age of the Malan loess varies from one place to another.The TL dates can be divided into two group:70000-130000 a and 30000-50000 a.The TL data are con-sistent with the appearance of two warmer climate periods since the Pleistocene,indicating obvious regional differences in stratigraphic development of loess,i.e.,paleosol occurred in the warm climate period in the same location,but loess was deposited in other locations.The initial age of loess deposition tends to become older from west to east and from south to north .In contrast ,the cold cli-matic belt showed an opposite trend.The TL ages of loess provide strong evidence for the Quaternary stratigraphy throughout geological times and the shift tendency of climatic belt.3.The depositing rate of the Malan loess along the middle reaches of the Yellow River varies from place to place but the TL age shows a linear relationship with the depositing thickness.The de-positing rate of loess in the north is higher than that in the south,suggesting that loess materials are derived from desert areas of northern China.

  19. Performance assessment of CsI(Tl) screens on various substrates for X-ray imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhao-Dong; JIANG Peng; ZHANG Hong-Kai; ZHAO Bo-Zhen; QIN Xiu-Bo; WEI Cun-Feng; LIU Yu

    2015-01-01

    Thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI(Tl)) screens are widely used in X-ray imaging devices because of the columnar structure of the CsI(Tl) layer,but few reports focus on the optical role of the substrate in the screen system.In this paper,four substrates including fused silica (SiO2),silver-film coated SiO2,graphite (C) and fiber optic plate (FOP) are used to fabricate CsI(Tl) screens by thermal evaporation.Their imaging performance is evaluated by relative light output (RLO),modulation transfer function (MTF),normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ).The results reveal that although CsI(Tl) film on graphite plate yields images with the lowest light output,it presents relatively higher spatial resolution and better signal-to-noise characteristics.However,films on SiO2 plate obtain low MTF but high NNPS curves,whether they are coated with silver film or not.Furthermore,scintillation screens on FOP have bright images with low NNPS and high NEQ,but have the lowest MTF.By controlling the substrate optical features,CsI(Tl) films can be tailored to suit a given application.

  20. Relative TL and OSL efficiency to protons of various dosimetric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sądel, M; Bilski, P; Swakoń, J

    2014-10-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are the well-known phenomena used for passive methods of dose measurements. TL and OSL detectors are frequently used in the dosimetry of cosmic radiation in space and of particle radiotherapy beams. However, the relative TL/OSL efficiency, which is defined as a ratio of the emitted light intensity per unit dose for a given radiation type, to the same quantity for the reference gamma radiation is not constant and depends on radiation type and energy. In the present work several types of TL and OSL dosimetric materials, including lithium fluoride (LiF), aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide and lithium aluminate, were tested with protons. The measurements were realised exploiting the 60-MeV proton beam of the AIC-144 cyclotron in the Proton Eye Radiotherapy Facility at Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN). The influence of proton energy on the relative efficiency and other TL/OSL characteristics of the studied detector types was presented. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Kinetics of Schottky defect formation and annihilation in single crystal TlBr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Sean R; Tuller, Harry L; Kuhn, Melanie; Ciampi, Guido; Higgins, William; Shah, Kanai S

    2013-07-28

    The kinetics for Schottky defect (Tl and Br vacancy pair) formation and annihilation in ionically conducting TlBr are characterized through a temperature induced conductivity relaxation technique. Near room temperature, defect generation-annihilation was found to take on the order of hours before equilibrium was reached after a step change in temperature, and that mechanical damage imparted on the sample rapidly increases this rate. The rate limiting step to Schottky defect formation-annihilation is identified as being the migration of lower mobility Tl (versus Br), with an estimate for source-sink density derived from calculated diffusion lengths. This study represents one of the first investigations of Schottky defect generation-annihilation kinetics and demonstrates its utility in quantifying detrimental mechanical damage in radiation detector materials.

  2. Photogenerated carriers in La 2CuO 4, YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ, and Tl 2Ba 2Ca (1-x)Gd xCu 2O 8: Polarizability-induced pairing of polarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, C. M.; Heeger, A. J.; Kim, Y. H.; Stucky, G.; Herron, N.

    1989-12-01

    Photoinduced absorption measurements have been carried out on Tl 2Ba 2Ca (1-x)Gd xCu 2O 8 (x=0.02), YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ (δ=0.75) and La 2CuO 4. The observation of infrared active vibrational (IRAV) modes and an associated electronic transition with common intensity and temperature dependence indicate the formation of self-localized polarons as photogenerated carriers. The photoinduced electronic transition deep in the infrared implies a major shift of oscillator strength leading to a large local polarizability in the vicinity of the polaron. We suggest that the enhanced local polarizability may provide an important mechanism for pairing.

  3. Effect of deep native defects on ultrasound propagation in TlInS{sub 2} layered crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu., E-mail: smirhasan@gtu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Institute of Physics of NAS of Azerbaijan, H. Javid Avenue, 33, AZ-1143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Suleymanov, Rauf A. [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Institute of Physics of NAS of Azerbaijan, H. Javid Avenue, 33, AZ-1143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Odrinsky, Andrei P. [Institute of Technical Acoustics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Lyudnikov Avenue 13, Vitebsk 210717 (Belarus); Kırbaş, Cafer [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, National Metrology Institute (TUBITAK UME), PQ 54 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2016-09-15

    We have investigated p-type semiconductor–ferroelectric TlInS{sub 2} by means of Photo-Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy (PICTS) technique in the temperature range 77–350 K for the detection of native deep defect levels in TlInS{sub 2}. Five native deep defect levels were detected and their energy levels and capture cross sections were evaluated. Focusing on these data, the influence of these defects on the longitudinal and transverse ultrasound waves propagation as well as the effect of electric field on ultrasound waves were studied at different temperatures. The acoustic properties were investigated by the pulse-echo method. The direct contribution of thermally activated charged defects to the acoustic properties of TlInS{sub 2} was demonstrated. The key role of charged native deep level defects in elastic properties of TlInS{sub 2} was shown.

  4. Identification of complexes involving Tl(I) and Tl(III) with EDTA and DTPA ligands by ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembrzuska, Joanna; Karbowska, Bozena

    2017-08-21

    Thallium is considered as an environmental threat, however its hazardous properties depend on its oxidation state. Tl(III) is approx. 1000-times more toxic compared to Tl(I), therefore identification of each species is essential in order to properly evaluate the associated health hazard. ESI-MS allows determination of speciation in solution due to its soft mode of ionization while selective complexation with ligands allows to distinguish the Tl species. Selective complexation of Tl(I) and Tl(III) ions requires the use of two selective complexing agents and selection of appropriate conditions for this process. Tl(I) and Tl(III) ions as well as two ligands (EDTA and DTPA) were used to form binary (single ion + single ligand), ternary (one ion + both ligands) and quaternary systems (both ions and both ligands) under different pH conditions (7 and 8). These mixtures were subjected to the determination of Tl species using ESI-MS operating in positive and negative ion mode. Tl(I) complexes with DTPA were identified at pH 7 and 8, whereas in case of EDTA the complexes were detected only at pH 8. In contrast, Tl(III) formed distinct complexes with EDTA at pH 7 and 8, while with DTPA the complexes were detected only at pH 8. Analysis of the quaternary system (which contained both ions and both ligands) revealed that Tl(I) formed complexes with EDTA, while Tl(III) formed complexes with DTPA at pH 7 and 8. The obtained results confirmed that the increase of the solution complexity allowed to simultaneously identify different complexes is solutions containing both Tl species. The initial analyzes carried out for binary and ternary solutions facilitated the simultaneous determination of specific complexes (Tl(I) with EDTA and Tl(III) with DTPA) in the quaternary system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Tl and OSL on diopside crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, N.F.; Watanabe, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mittani, J.C.R.; Yukihara, E.G. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The diopside with chemical composition CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} is part of an important solid solution series of the pyroxene group. The mineral is commonly found in meteorites and it is an important rock forming mineral of medium and high grade metamorphic rocks which are rich in calcium. In the bibliography it is possible to found several studies on electron spin resonance (ESR), reflectance, etc. but not on thermoluminescence (TL) or optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). In the present work we studied diopside TL and OSL behaviour on natural and natural irradiated samples. The sample used in our study is a white coloured diopside provided by Mineracao Sao Judas located in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The X-Ray Fluorescence technique has shown high concentrations of SiO{sub 2} (55.81 % mol), CaO (23.47 % mol), MgO (18.03 % mol), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1.56 % mol), Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.53 % mol), K{sub 2}O (0.44 % mol), TiO{sub 2} (0.065 % mol), P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (0.026 % mol), and MnO (0.013 % mol). TL measurements on natural samples show four TL peaks at 160, 260, 360, and 450 C. After beta-irradiation an increment mainly in the low temperature peaks is observed. As for OSL measurements, low OSL signal was observed on natural samples using blue light stimulation and UV detection. The intensity of the signal was observed to increase with the irradiation dose. (Author)

  6. Standardization of a 204Tl radioactive solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Mauro S; Koskinas, Marina F

    2003-02-01

    The standardization of 204Tl is described. The efficiency tracing technique was applied using 134Cs as tracer. The 4(pi)beta-gamma coincidence system was used for the calibration. The (Laboratorio de Metrologia Nuclear) has participated in this comparison in collaboration with the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes, from Rio de Janeiro. Independent results using different techniques were developed by each of these laboratories and included in the comparison.

  7. Starvation-induced effects on bacterial surface characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelleberg, S; Hermansson, M

    1984-09-01

    Changes in bacterial surface hydrophobicity, charge, and degree of irreversible binding to glass surfaces of seven marine isolates were followed during starvation. The degree of hydrophobicity was measured by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and by two-phase separation in a hexadecane-water system, whereas changes in charge were measured by electrostatic interaction chromatography. All isolates underwent the starvation-induced responses of fragmentation, which is defined as division without growth, and continuous size reduction, which results in populations with increased numbers of smaller cells. The latter process was also responsible for a significant proportion of the total drop in cell volume; this was observed by noting the biovolume (the average cell multiplied by the number of bacteria) of a population after various times of starvation. Four strains exhibited increases in both hydrophobicity and irreversible binding, initiated after different starvation times. The most hydrophilic and most hydrophobic isolates both showed a small increase in the degree of irreversible binding after only 5 h, followed by a small decrease after 22 h. Their hydrophobicity remained constant, however, throughout the entire starvation period. On the other hand, one strain, EF190, increased its hydrophobicity after 5 h of starvation, although the degree of irreversible binding remained constant. Charge effects could not be generally related to the increase in irreversible binding. Scanning electron micrographs showed a large increase in surface roughness throughout the starvation period for all strains that showed marked changes in physicochemical characteristics.

  8. Characteristics of Ions Emitted from Laser-Induced Silver Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. S. RAFIQUE; M. KHALEEQ-UR-RAHMAN; Shakoor MUNAZZA; K. A. BHATTI

    2008-01-01

    In this work, study of laser-induced ions is presented. The plasma was produced by focusing a Nd:YAG laser, with a wavelength of 1064 nm, a pulsed width of 9~14 ns, a power of 1.1 MW and energy of 10 mJ, on silver target in vacuum (10'-3> Torr = 1.3332 Pa). The charac-teristics of ion streams were investigated by CR-39 detectors located at angles of 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° with respect to normal of the target. The distance between the silver target and each detector was 11 cm. The energy of silver ions was found ranging from 1.5 eV to 1.06E4 eV. There was a high concentration of ions with low energy as compared to those with high energy, showing the energy distribution amongst the ions. The flux of ions was maximum in the axial direction which was decreasing with the angle increase with respect to normal of the target, and finally became minimum in the radial direction. Hence the silver ions have shown anisotropic behaviour.

  9. Speciation and mobility of volatile heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Tl) in fly ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świetlik, Ryszard; Trojanowska, Marzena; Karbowska, Bożena; Zembrzuski, Włodzimierz

    2016-11-01

    Speciation of volatile metals Cd, Pb, and Tl in fly ashes (FAs) produced from burning of hard coal in stocker-fired boilers (SFBs) was studied. Two grain fractions of fly ash collected in a multicyclone and battery cyclone of the systems of dust separation from three SFB units operating in various urban heating plants were analyzed. The characteristic feature of speciation of the three metals was a large share of labile fractions: Cd (av. 46.1 %), Pb (av. 39.8 %), and Tl (av. 21.6 %). The fraction which most clearly reflected the different chemical properties of the investigated metals was the oxidizable fraction: F(4)-Cd-0 %, F(4)-Pb-av. 10.0 %, and F(4)-Tl-av. 30.2 %. The importance of condensation of the volatile metal species on FA particles for shaping speciation of these metals was characterized using the normalized enrichment factor (NEF): Pb (2.3 ± 0.8) > Tl (1.8 ± 0.9) ≈ Cd (1.7 ± 0.6). Speciation of heavy metals may also be important economically, because the level of mobility coefficients (K Cd = 0.46, K Pb = 0.40, and K Tl = 0.22) in the case of fly ashes considerably enriched with toxic metals (Cd 4.8 ± 3.4 mg/kg, Pb 293 ± 210 mg/kg, and Tl 6.3 ± 4.5 mg/kg) may limit their utilization range.

  10. Characterization of deep level defects and thermally stimulated depolarization phenomena in La-doped TlInS{sub 2} layered semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu., E-mail: smirhasan@gyte.edu.tr; Suleymanov, Rauf A.; Mikailzade, Faik A. [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Institute of Physics of NAS of Azerbaijan, H. Javid ave. 33, Baku AZ-1143 (Azerbaijan); Kargın, Elif Orhan [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Odrinsky, Andrei P. [Institute of Technical Acoustics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Lyudnikov ave. 13, Vitebsk 210717 (Belarus)

    2015-06-14

    Lanthanum-doped high quality TlInS{sub 2} (TlInS{sub 2}:La) ferroelectric-semiconductor was characterized by photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS). Different impurity centers are resolved and identified. Analyses of the experimental data were performed in order to determine the characteristic parameters of the extrinsic and intrinsic defects. The energies and capturing cross section of deep traps were obtained by using the heating rate method. The observed changes in the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) near the phase transition points in TlInS{sub 2}:La ferroelectric-semiconductor are interpreted as a result of self-polarization of the crystal due to the internal electric field caused by charged defects. The TSDC spectra show the depolarization peaks, which are attributed to defects of dipolar origin. These peaks provide important information on the defect structure and localized energy states in TlInS{sub 2}:La. Thermal treatments of TlInS{sub 2}:La under an external electric field, which was applied at different temperatures, allowed us to identify a peak in TSDC which was originated from La-dopant. It was established that deep energy level trap BTE43, which are active at low temperature (T ≤ 156 K) and have activation energy 0.29 eV and the capture cross section 2.2 × 10{sup −14} cm{sup 2}, corresponds to the La dopant. According to the PICTS results, the deep level trap center B5 is activated in the temperature region of incommensurate (IC) phases of TlInS{sub 2}:La, having the giant static dielectric constant due to the structural disorders. From the PICTS simulation results for B5, native deep level trap having an activation energy of 0.3 eV and the capture cross section of 1.8 × 10{sup −16} cm{sup 2} were established. A substantial amount of residual space charges is trapped by the deep level localized energy states of B5 in IC-phase. While the external electric field is applied, permanent dipoles

  11. Characterization of deep level defects and thermally stimulated depolarization phenomena in La-doped TlInS2 layered semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu.; Suleymanov, Rauf A.; Mikailzade, Faik A.; Kargın, Elif Orhan; Odrinsky, Andrei P.

    2015-06-01

    Lanthanum-doped high quality TlInS2 (TlInS2:La) ferroelectric-semiconductor was characterized by photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS). Different impurity centers are resolved and identified. Analyses of the experimental data were performed in order to determine the characteristic parameters of the extrinsic and intrinsic defects. The energies and capturing cross section of deep traps were obtained by using the heating rate method. The observed changes in the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) near the phase transition points in TlInS2:La ferroelectric-semiconductor are interpreted as a result of self-polarization of the crystal due to the internal electric field caused by charged defects. The TSDC spectra show the depolarization peaks, which are attributed to defects of dipolar origin. These peaks provide important information on the defect structure and localized energy states in TlInS2:La. Thermal treatments of TlInS2:La under an external electric field, which was applied at different temperatures, allowed us to identify a peak in TSDC which was originated from La-dopant. It was established that deep energy level trap BTE43, which are active at low temperature (T ≤ 156 K) and have activation energy 0.29 eV and the capture cross section 2.2 × 10-14 cm2, corresponds to the La dopant. According to the PICTS results, the deep level trap center B5 is activated in the temperature region of incommensurate (IC) phases of TlInS2:La, having the giant static dielectric constant due to the structural disorders. From the PICTS simulation results for B5, native deep level trap having an activation energy of 0.3 eV and the capture cross section of 1.8 × 10-16 cm2 were established. A substantial amount of residual space charges is trapped by the deep level localized energy states of B5 in IC-phase. While the external electric field is applied, permanent dipoles, which are originated from the charged B5 deep level defects, are aligned in the

  12. Tl response of LiF:Mg, Cu, P + PTFE to Am-Be neutrons; Respuesta Tl de LiF: Mg, Cu, P + PTFE a neutrones de Am-Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, P.R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In different laboratories of the world it is followed the research about development of new Tl materials, whose main characteristics should be their equivalence with the tissue and their high sensibility to any type of radiation. The study consists in to measure the Tl peak intensity which TLD-100 presents at being irradiated with neutrons and that appears over 250 Centigrade, for compare it with the Tl intensity of the LiF: Mg, Cu, P + PTFE dosemeters. However, not all dosemeters of the same group show the interesting peak, by this only can be the total Tl intensity of dosemeters studied. In the ININ dosemeters development laboratory, we have developed a Tl material of lithium fluoride activated with magnesium, copper and phosphorus (LiF: Mg, Cu, P) that in polycrystalline powder form is almost 35 times more sensitive than the TLD-100 commercial dosemeter of Harshaw/Filtrol, USA. With the use of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and with the above described Tl material, it has been possible to obtain dosemeters in pellet form of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + PTFE. (Author)

  13. Application of a characteristic periods-based (CPB) approach to estimate earthquake-induced displacements of landslides through dynamic numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, S.; Lenti, L.; Delgado, J.; Garrido, J.; Lopez-Casado, C.

    2016-07-01

    The interaction between seismic waves and slopes is an important topic to provide reliable scenarios for earthquake-(re)triggered landslides. The physical properties of seismic waves as well as slope topography and geology can significantly modify the local seismic response, influencing landslide triggering. A novel approach is here applied to two case studies in Andalusia (southern Spain) for computing the expected earthquake-induced displacements of existing landslide masses. Towards this aim, dynamic stress-strain numerical modelling was carried out using a selection of seismic signals characterized by different spectral content and energy. In situ geophysical measurements, consisting of noise records and temporary seismometric arrays, were carried out to control the numerical outputs in terms of local seismic response. The results consist of relationships between the characteristic period, Tm, of the seismic signals and the characteristic periods of the landslide masses, related to the thickness (Ts) and length (Tl), respectively. These relationships show that the larger the horizontal dimension (i.e. length of landslide) of a landslide is, the more effective the contribution (to the resulting coseismic displacement) of the long-period seismic waves is, as the maximum displacements are expected for a low Tm at each energy level of the input. On the other hand, when the local seismic response mainly depends on stratigraphy (i.e. landslide thickness), the maximum expected displacements occur close to the resonance period of the landslide, except for high-energy seismic inputs.

  14. Effects of light exposure on the TL dating of pottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Shenghua

    2001-01-01

    [1]l.Aitken, M, J., Thermoluminescence Dating, London: Academic, 1985, 153.[2]Wintle, A. G., Huntley, D. J., Thermoluminescence dating of a deep-sea ocean core, Nature, 1979, 279: 710-712.[3]Zirmmerman, D. W., Thermoluminescent dating using fine grains from pottery, Archaeometry 1971, 13: 29-52.[4]Fleming, S. J., The pre-dose technique: a new thermoluminescent dating method, Archaeometry, 1973, 15: 13-30.[5]Zirmmerman, 1., The radiation-induced increase of thermoluminescence sensitivity of fired quartz, Journal of Physics C:Solid Physics, 1971, 4: 3277-3291.[6]Chen, G., Li, S. H., Studies of quartz 110℃ TL peak sensitivity change and its relevance to OSL dating, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2000, 33: 437-443.

  15. Quartz red TL SAR equivalent dose overestimation for Chinese loess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Z.P.; Murray, A.S.; Bailey, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    For the red TL of quartz extracted from Chinese loess, the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure overestimates the known laboratory doses in dose recovery test. The overestimation is the result of the first heating during the measurement of natural TL signal causing a sensitivity...... of red TL, which is found to be more than 100 Gy. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. Leading the Charge for SoTL - Embracing Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Cassard, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL enables colleges and universities to assess student learning and measure the outcomes by engaging in meaningful research, and to disseminate this research. The objective of this paper is to give a snapshot of and assess the current thinking behind this scholarship by presenting examples of SoTL, and to provide insights into the measurement of SoTL research by faculty members. By presenting a carefully crafted research agenda in SoTL, colleges and universities can disseminate this research as a means of providing useful assessments of student learning and measurements of relevant outcomes.

  17. Phase Equilibria in the Tl5Te3-Tl9BiTe6-Tl9TmTe6 Section of the Tl-Bi-Tm-Te Quaternary System

    OpenAIRE

    Imamaliyeva,Samira Zakir; Firudin,Mehdiyeva Ilaha; Gasymov,Vagif Akber; Babanly,Mahammad Baba

    2017-01-01

    Phase relations in the Tl5Te3-Tl9BiTe6-Tl9TmTe6 section of the Tl-Bi-Tm-Te quaternary system were studied by differential thermal analysis, powder X-ray diffraction technique and microhardness measurements applied to equilibria alloys. Some isopleth sections and isothermal section at 760 K, as well as projections of the liquidus and solidus surfaces, were constructed. The system is characterized by formation of continuous series of solid solutions at the solidus temperatures and below. Solid ...

  18. Scintillation, Afterglow and Thermoluminescence of CsI:Tl,Sm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappers, L. A.; Bartram, R. H.; Hamilton, D. S.; Lempicki, A.; Brecher, C.; Gaysinskiy, V.; Ovechkina, E. E.; Nagarkar, V. V.

    2010-11-01

    Experiments on co-doped CsI:Tl,Sm suggest that samarium electron traps scavenge electrons from thallium traps and that electrons subsequently released by samarium recombine non-radiatively with trapped holes, thus suppressing afterglow. These experiments support the inference that electrons tunnel freely between samarium ions and are trapped preferentially as substitutional Sm+ near VKA(Tl+) centers where non-radiative recombination is the rate-limiting step. Combined radioluminescence, afterglow and thermoluminescence on single-crystal samples of CsI:Tl and CsI:Tl,Sm, recorded sequentially at adjusted gain settings following low-temperature irradiation, reveal reversible radiation damage as well.

  19. Determination of Archaeological Doses for TL Dating Using and Automated TL Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Mejdahl, V.

    1980-01-01

    An automated reader was designed with special regard to TL dating. The reader is a microprocessor-controlled sample changer system that can construct the primary and secondaty response curves required for determination of the archaeological dose of quartz and feldspar extracted from pottery...

  20. Thermoluminescence (TL) spectra from quartz grains using on-line TL-spectrometric system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T.; Sugai, N.; Sakaue, H.; Shirai, N. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Faculty of Science; Yasuda, K. [Daiwa Geological Laboratory Co. Ltd., Fukushima (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    An on-line spectrometric system installed with a small spectrometer and an image intensifier unit has been developed for weak and changeable TL-spectrum measurements with rising temperature for application to natural minerals. The detection sensitivity over visible wavelength regions was corrected using a known spectrum from a standard light source, and the detection sensitivity was also examined by a chemical luminol reaction. In an applied experiment, two quartz grain samples from two pyroclastic flows of the same origin, were subjected to testing with the present measuring system. The original data, consisting of 512 channels for every second at a constant heating rate of 1degC/s, were used to create a contour map or a 3-dimensional expression of TL-spectra after subtraction of background radiation. The artificially irradiated quartz grains clearly showed both red (RTL) and blue TL (BTL) in contrast to RTL alone from naturally accumulated TL. Both spectral expressions and glow curves from the same original data were found to be available to estimate quartz formation temperatures, together with thermoluminescence color images (TLCIs). 24 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Performance assessment of CsI(Tl) screens on various substrates for X-ray imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhaodong; Zhang, Hongkai; Zhao, Bozhen; Qin, Xiubo; Wei, Cunfeng; Liu, Yu; Wei, Long

    2015-01-01

    Thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI(Tl)) screens are widely used in X-ray imaging devices because of the columnar structure of CsI(Tl) layer, but few reports focus on the optical role of the substrate in the screen system. In this paper, four substrates including fused silica (SiO2), silver-film coated SiO2, graphite (C) and fiber optic plate (FOP) are used to fabricate CsI(Tl) screens by thermal evaporation. Their imaging performance is evaluated by relative light output (RLO), modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ). The results reveal that although CsI(Tl) film on graphite plate yields images with the lowest light output, it presents relatively higher spatial resolution and better signal-to-noise characteristics. However, films on SiO2 plate obtain low MTF but high NNPS curves, whether or not coated with silver film. Furthermore, scintillation screens on FOP have bright images with low NNPS and high NEQ, but have the lowest MTF. By controll...

  2. Development of A phantom for ophthalmic beta source applicator quality control using TL dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, N. A.; da Rosa, L. A. R.; Braz, D.

    2015-11-01

    Concave eye applicators with 90Sr/90Y and 106Ru/106Rh beta ray sources are usually used in brachytherapy for the treatment of superficial intraocular tumors as uveal melanoma with thickness up to 5 mm. The calculation of the dose delivered to the eye is carried out based on the data present in the beta source calibration certificate. Therefore, it would be interesting to have a system that could evaluate that dose. In this work, an eye phantom to be used with 106Ru/106Rh betatherapy applicators was developed in solid water. This phantom can hold nine micro-cube thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters, TLD-100. The characteristics of the TL response of the dosimeters, namely reproducibility and individual sensitivity, were determined for a 60Co source. Using Monte Carlo code MCNPX, the dose to a water eye was determined at different depths. Exposing the eye phantom with TL dosimeters to the 106Ru/106Rh applicator, it is possible to assess calibration factors using the dose values obtained by Monte Carlo simulation to each depth. Using mean calibration factors, dose values obtained by TL dosimetry were compared to the data present in the applicators certificate. Mean differences for both applicators were lower than ±10%, maximum value 17% and minimum value 0.08%. Considering that the certificate values present an uncertainty of ±20%, the calibration procedure and the developed phantom are validated and can be applied.

  3. Effect of the crystallinity in the Tl signal induced by the gamma radiation in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu obtained by the sol gel method; Efecto de la cristalinidad en la senal Tl inducida por la radiacion gamma en Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu obtenida por el metodo sol gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza A, D.; Gonzalez M, P.R. [ININ, Gerencia de Ciencias de Materiales. Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Ocoyoacac (Mexico); Custodio, E. [Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, DACB, Carr. Cunduacan-Jalpa, km. 1.5, 86680 Tabasco (Mexico); Rubio, E.; Rodriguez L, V. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, BUAP. Av. San Claudio y 18 Sur Col. San Manuel. C. P. 72570.C.U. Puebla (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work the synthesis and characterization process of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu by sol gel method is reported. A previous thermal treatment at 500 and 1000 C on the material powder type showed a notable influences on the thermoluminescent signal induced by the gamma radiation, such that the intensity thermoluminescent signal produced by samples with thermal treatment at 1000 C is much bigger that thermoluminescent signal produced by samples thermal treatment at 500 C. In order to explain this behavior, an analysis for X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy was also realized. The results show a notably influence of the crystalline array and the microstructure on the thermoluminescent behavior of the alumina. (Author)

  4. Streptomyces venezuelae TX-TL - a next generation cell-free synthetic biology tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Simon J; Lai, Hung-En; Needham, Hannah; Polizzi, Karen M; Freemont, Paul S

    2017-04-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae is a promising chassis in synthetic biology for fine chemical and secondary metabolite pathway engineering. The potential of S. venezuelae could be further realized by expanding its capability with the introduction of its own in vitro transcription-translation (TX-TL) system. TX-TL is a fast and expanding technology for bottom-up design of complex gene expression tools, biosensors and protein manufacturing. Herein, we introduce a S. venezuelae TX-TL platform by reporting a streamlined protocol for cell-extract preparation, demonstrating high-yield synthesis of a codon-optimized sfGFP reporter and the prototyping of a synthetic tetracycline-inducible promoter in S. venezuelae TX-TL based on the tetO-TetR repressor system. The aim of this system is to provide a host for the homologous production of exotic enzymes from Actinobacteria secondary metabolism in vitro. As an example, the authors demonstrate the soluble synthesis of a selection of enzymes (12-70 kDa) from the Streptomyces rimosus oxytetracycline pathway. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Study on the Development and Dosimetric Properties of New CaSO{sub 4}:Dy TL Detectors Bonded by P-compounds for Gamma, Beta and Neutron Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jeong Seon

    2004-02-15

    A thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) has been generally accepted as the most accurate and reliable method of personal dosimetry because of its superior and long term stability comparing with other type dosimeter, such as Film Badge. Among many TL (thermoluminescence) materials investigated and suggested so far, the CaSO{sub 4}:Dy TL material has been most widely used as a personal or environmental dosimeter because of its high sensitivity and low fading. A solid or crystalline form dosimeter is generally preferred for routine dosimetric applications since it has an advantage of handling convenience over the loose TL powder. For this reason, sintered TL pellets are usually used. However a difficulty is still in manufacturing the dosimeter in the form of sintered pellets in which the TL characteristics of original powder remain unchanged. It is not possible to make a solid dosimeter composed of 100 % pure CaSO{sub 4}:Dy TL powder. One of the most frequent methods is mixing CaSO{sub 4}:Dy TL powder with binding substances. A Teflon is a good binding material currently used because it does not change the TL characteristics of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy TL powder. In the case of the Teflon pellet, due to the reduction of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy powder content by 15 {approx} 20 wt% in TL pellets, the TL sensitivity of the Teflon pellet accordingly decreases, and moreover the re-usability of this Teflon pellet is not sufficient due to its color changing. To overcome this disadvantage, many researchers have prepared CaSO{sub 4}:Dy TL pellets by mixing the powder with different binding substances. But even with these efforts, they could not significantly improve the TL intensity and other TL characteristics required for radiation dosimeter. In Korea, studies on the development of high sensitivity TL pellet using CaSO{sub 4}:Dy TL material have been conducted in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). This thesis presents the development of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy TL pellet by bonding the TL

  6. Effects of exposure to high concentrations of waterborne Tl on K and Tl concentrations in Chironomus riparius larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belowitz, Ryan; Leonard, Erin M; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a non-essential metal which is released into the environment primarily as the result of anthropogenic activities such as fossil fuel burning and smelting of ores. The ionic radius of monovalent Tl⁺ is similar to that of K⁺ and Tl⁺ may thus interfere with K⁺-dependent processes. We determined that the acute (48 h) lethal concentration where 50% of the organisms do not survive (LC₅₀) of Tl for 4th instar Chironomus riparius larvae was 723 μmol L⁻¹. Accumulation of Tl by the whole animal was saturable, with a maximum accumulation (Jmax) of 4637 μmol kg⁻¹ wet mass, and K(D) of 670 μmol Tl l⁻¹. Tl accumulation by the gut appeared saturable at the lowest four Tl concentrations, with a Jmax of 2560 μmol kg⁻¹ wet mass and a K(D) of 54.5 μmol Tl l⁻¹. The saturable accumulation at the gut may be indicative of a limited capacity for intracellular detoxification, such as storage in lysosomes or complexation with metal-binding proteins. Tl accumulation by the hemolymph was found to be linear and Tl concentrations in the hemolymph were ~75% of the exposure concentration at Tl exposures >26.9 μmol L⁻¹. There was not a significant decrease in whole animal, gut or hemolymph K during exposure to waterborne Tl at any of the concentrations tested (up to 1500 μmol L⁻¹). The avoidance of hypokalemia by C. riparius larvae may contribute to survival during acute waterborne exposures to Tl. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of Strain-Induced Ferrite in Low Carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-juan; LIU Cui-qin; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua

    2003-01-01

    The strain-induced ferrite formed under different conditions was observed with SEM and optical microscope. The nucleation sites of strain-induced ferrite include grain boundary, grain inside, deformed band and annealing twin boundary. The shapes of the ferrite accordingly are equiaxed irregular polygonal, strip-shaped and acicular.

  8. TL1A increased IL-6 production on fibroblast-like synoviocytes by preferentially activating TNF receptor 2 in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zijian; Wang, Bing; Wang, Miaomiao; Sun, Xiaotong; Tang, Yawei; Li, Ming; Li, Fang; Li, Xia

    2016-07-01

    TNF-like protein 1A (TL1A), a member of tumor necrosis factor family, recognized as a ligand of death receptor 3 (DR3) and decoy receptor 3 (DcR3). The interaction of TL1A and DR3 may participate in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our previous results showed that high concentrations of TL1A could be found in synovial and serum in RA patients, and it was correlated with disease severity. In addition, TL1A could promote Th17 differentiation induced by TGF-β and IL-6 and increased the production of IL-17A. In the present study, we found that TL1A could promote the expression of IL-6 on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of RA patients via NF-κB and JNK signaling pathway. TL1A-stimulated FLS increased the percentage of Th17 of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in RA via the production of IL-6, a critical cytokine involved in the differentiation of Th17. Moreover, the blocking of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) decreased TL1A-stimulated IL-6 production by RA FLS. Our results suggest that TL1A was capable of acting on RA FLS to elevate IL-6 expression, which promoted the production of Th17. More importantly, we showed that TL1A could influence RA FLS through binding to TNFR2 rather than DR3 on FLS, which indicated that the treatment of TNF inhibitors not only blocked the TNF but also suppressed the TL1A in RA patients.

  9. γ -ray spectroscopy of 209Tl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amro, B. M. S.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Loveland, W.; Chowdhury, P.; Zhu, S.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Barrett, J. S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Greene, J. P.; Harker, J. L.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Walters, W. B.; Yanez, R.

    2017-01-01

    States in 209Tl were populated using a multinucleon transfer reaction with a 136Xe beam impinging on a thick 208Pb target at E =785 MeV. The beam was pulsed at 825-ns intervals in order to perform isomer decay spectroscopy. The known Jπ=17 /2+ isomer in 209Tl was located at 1228(4) keV and measured to have a half-life of T1 /2=146 (10 ) ns. A second isomer with Jπ=13 /2+ was found to have T1 /2=14 (5 ) ns. The previously suggested low-energy X and Y transitions were found to have energies 57(2) and 47(2) keV respectively, while the measurement of conversion coefficients and a new decay path make the spin assignments below the isomers experimentally firm. Correlating the delayed γ transitions with the prompt beam flash allowed the decay of states above the isomer to be found. The longer-lived isomer represents full alignment of the simplest two-particle, one-hole configuration and illuminates the remarkably weak coupling of the proton hole to the 210Pb core.

  10. [Tl(III)(dota)](-): An Extraordinarily Robust Macrocyclic Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Tamás; Bányai, István; Bényei, Attila; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Purgel, Mihály; Horváth, Gábor L; Zékány, László; Tircsó, Gyula; Tóth, Imre

    2015-06-01

    The X-ray structure of {C(NH2)3}[Tl(dota)]·H2O shows that the Tl(3+) ion is deeply buried in the macrocyclic cavity of the dota(4-) ligand (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate) with average Tl-N and Tl-O distances of 2.464 and 2.365 Å, respectively. The metal ion is directly coordinated to the eight donor atoms of the ligand, which results in a twisted square antiprismatic (TSAP') coordination around Tl(3+). A multinuclear (1)H, (13)C, and (205)Tl NMR study combined with DFT calculations confirmed the TSAP' structure of the complex in aqueous solution, which exists as the Λ(λλλλ)/Δ(δδδδ) enantiomeric pair. (205)Tl NMR spectroscopy allowed the protonation constant associated with the protonation of the complex according to [Tl(dota)](-) + H(+) ⇆ [Tl(Hdota)] to be determined, which turned out to be pK(H)Tl(dota) = 1.4 ± 0.1. [Tl(dota)](-) does not react with Br(-), even when using an excess of the anion, but it forms a weak mixed complex with cyanide, [Tl(dota)](-) + CN(-) ⇆ [Tl(dota)(CN)](2-), with an equilibrium constant of Kmix = 6.0 ± 0.8. The dissociation of the [Tl(dota)](-) complex was determined by UV-vis spectrophotometry under acidic conditions using a large excess of Br(-), and it was found to follow proton-assisted kinetics and to take place very slowly (∼10 days), even in 1 M HClO4, with the estimated half-life of the process being in the 10(9) h range at neutral pH. The solution dynamics of [Tl(dota)](-) were investigated using (13)C NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The (13)C NMR spectra recorded at low temperature (272 K) point to C4 symmetry of the complex in solution, which averages to C4v as the temperature increases. This dynamic behavior was attributed to the Λ(λλλλ) ↔ Δ(δδδδ) enantiomerization process, which involves both the inversion of the macrocyclic unit and the rotation of the pendant arms. According to our calculations, the arm-rotation process limits the Λ(λλλλ) ↔

  11. Leading the Charge for SoTL--Embracing Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassard, Anita; Sloboda, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) enables colleges and universities to assess student learning and measure the outcomes by engaging in meaningful research, and to disseminate this research. The objective of this paper is to give a snapshot of and assess the current thinking behind this scholarship by presenting examples of SoTL, and…

  12. Synthesis and superconductivity of (Agx/CuTl-1223 composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Jabbar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Series of (Agx/(Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2Cu3O10-δ {(Agx/CuTl-1223} nano-superconductor composites were synthesized with different concentrations (i.e. x=0~4.0 wt% of silver (Ag nanoparticles. Low anisotropic CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix was prepared by solid-state reaction and Ag nanoparticles were prepared by a sol–gel method separately. The required (Agx/CuTl-1223 composition was obtained by the inclusion of Ag nanoparticles in CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix. Structural, morphological, compositional and superconducting transport properties of these composites were investigated in detail by x-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive x-rays (EDX spectroscopy and four-point probe electrical resistivity (ρ measurements. The inclusion of Ag nanoparticles enhanced the superconducting properties without affecting the tetragonal structure of the host CuTl-1223 matrix. The improvement in superconducting properties of (Agx/CuTl-1223 composites is most likely due to enhanced inter-grains coupling and increased superconducting volume fraction after the addition of metallic Ag nanoparticles at the inter-crystallite sites in the samples. The presence of Ag nanoparticles at the grain-boundaries may increase the number of flux pinning centers, which were present in the form of weak-links in the pure CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix.

  13. The Lanmuchang Tl deposit and its environmental geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Tl is a dispersed element and it seldom occurs in the form of independent minerals.The world annual production of Tl is about 13 ton,most of which is by-product separated from non-ferrous metal products.Lanmuchang is the only large-size independent Tl deposit in the world.Bio-enrichment and hydrothermal reworking are the two important metallogenic mechanisms of this Tl deposit.Samples of plant and animal organs and villagers' urine as well as hair and nail (toenail) samples from the Tl mining district were analyzed.Analytical results showed that the contents of Tl,Hg and As are high,suggesting that the residents and villagers in the mining district have been affected by Tl-Hg pollution,and on the other hand,they can serve as the guidelines for ore prospecting.The contents of Tl,Hg,and As in human beings and other organic bodies depend largely on the background values of these metals in rock,ore,soil and water.

  14. The geochemical release feature of Tl in Tl-rich pyrite mine wastes: a long-term leaching test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinwen; Chen, Nan; Rajan, Ivy; Sun, Zhehua; Wu, Huiming; Chen, Diyun; Kong, Lingjun

    2017-05-01

    Identifying and revealing the geochemical behaviour of Tl during mine waste weathering are very important to assess the potential environmental impact of Thallium (Tl) from open mine-waste piles. Herein, two methods including the modified BCR sequential extraction and the long-term humidity cell tests (HCT) were employed to understand the Tl chemical fractions and to stimulate intense chemical weathering process, respectively. The results from BCR sequential extraction showed that the Tl concentration in the studied sample was 18.78 mg/kg, containing 1.878 mg/kg oxidisable, 0.282 mg/kg acid exchangeable and 1.596 mg/kg reducible Tl. The acid exchangeable fraction contributed to a particular potential risk to the aquatic marine life in the early stages and the Fe/Mn oxidisable fraction posed a potential risk being dissolved into solution at low pH (i.e. acidic conditions). The variations of Tl concentration in leachates were classified as two period as the pH values decrease. In the first period, the Tl concentrations decreased positively with pH value with poor correlation between pH value and SO4(2-) concentration in leachates. Drastic release of Tl was observed in the early period once the material was exposed to air and water, being ascribe to the acid exchangeable fraction bound to carbonate as dissolved by acid. During the second period, three increased peaks of Tl concentration (11.02, 16.03, 43.15 μg/L) and four increased peaks of SO4(2-) concentration (315, 390, 899.61 and 2670 mg/L) were observed. A good correlation (R (2) = 0.8384) between the concentrations of Tl and SO4(2-) was observed, indicating the Tl was mainly released from the oxidation of sulphide.

  15. Investigations on Tl-2223 thin films fabricated through ultrasonic spray pyrolysis under oxygen deficient conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H K Singh; O N Srivastava

    2000-12-01

    In this paper we have shown that polycrystalline films corresponding to Tl-2223 phase can be grown by employing high thalliation temperatures and short thalliation times. Ultrasonically deposited precursor films corresponding to Ba2Ca2.2Cu3.3O(Ag) have been thalliated under high vacuum (∼ 10–5 torr) at 890°C to obtain single phase Tl-2223 films. An off-stoichiometric and unreacted pellet of composition Tl2.05Ba2Ca2Cu3O has been used as source of Tl. We have shown that oxygen ambient is not necessary for the growth of Tl-2223 phase. The as-thalliated films have ’s in the range 123 K ± 0.70 K. The has been found to be independent of the addition of AgNO3 to the precursor. The zero field transport has been observed to be > 1.2 × 105 A/cm2 at 77 K. Near (110 K–122 K), has been observed to follow the power law ∝ (1 – /) , ≈ 2. A power law with ≈ 1.4 has been observed for the temperature range 70 K–110 K. An optimum doping of Ag has been observed to induce about 25% increase in and it also leads to uniform and enlarged grain growth. The surface morphology of Ag free samples contains plate like grains having arbitrary shapes. In contrast to this 0.35 Ag doped sample exhibits nearly rectangular plate like grains.

  16. Novel laser-processed CsI:Tl detector for SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, H; Bläckberg, L; Uzun-Ozsahin, D; El-Fakhri, G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel technique for fabrication of high spatial resolution CsI:Tl scintillation detectors for single photon emission computed tomography systems. The scintillators are fabricated using laser-induced optical barriers technique to create optical microstructures (or optical barriers) inside the CsI:Tl crystal bulk. The laser-processed CsI:Tl crystals are 3, 5, and 10 mm in thickness. In this work, the authors focus on the simplest pattern of optical barriers in that the barriers are created in the crystal bulk to form pixel-like patterns resembling mechanically pixelated scintillators. The monolithic CsI:Tl scintillator samples are fabricated with optical barrier patterns with 1.0 × 1.0 mm(2) and 0.625 × 0.625 mm(2) pixels. Experiments were conducted to characterize the fabricated arrays in terms of pixel separation and energy resolution. A 4 × 4 array of multipixel photon counter was used to collect the scintillation light in all the experiments. The process yield for fabricating the CsI:Tl arrays is 100% with processing time under 50 min. From the flood maps of the fabricated detectors exposed to 122 keV gammas, peak-to-valley (P/V) ratios of greater than 2.3 are calculated. The P/V values suggest that regardless of the crystal thickness, the pixels can be resolved. The results suggest that optical barriers can be considered as a robust alternative to mechanically pixelated arrays and can provide high spatial resolution while maintaining the sensitivity in a high-throughput and cost-effective manner.

  17. Signal and noise transfer properties of CMOS based active pixel flat panel imager coupled to structured CsI:Tl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, C D; Bohndiek, S E; Blakesley, J; Olivo, A; Speller, R D

    2009-01-01

    Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) active pixel sensors can be optically coupled to CsI:Tl phosphors forming a indirect active pixel flat panel imager (APFPI) for high performance medical imaging. The aim of this work is to determine the x-ray imaging capabilities of CMOS-based APFPI and study the signal and noise transfer properties of CsI:Tl phosphors. Three different CsI:Tl phosphors from two different vendors have been used to produce three system configurations. The performance of each system configuration has been studied in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) in the mammographic energy range. A simple method to determine quantum limited systems in this energy range is also presented. In addition, with aid of monochromatic synchrotron radiation, the effect of iodine characteristic x-rays of the CsI:Tl on the MTF has been determined. A Monte Carlo simulation of the signal transfer properties of the imager is also presented in order to study the stages that degrade the spatial resolution of our current system. The effect of using substrate patterning during the growth of CsI:Tl columnar structure was also studied, along with the effect of CsI:Tl fixed pattern noise due to local variations in the scintillation light. CsI:Tl fixed pattern noise appears to limit the performance of our current system configurations. All the system configurations are quantum limited at 0.23 microC/kg with two of them having DQE (0) equal to 0.57. Active pixel flat panel imagers are shown to be digital x-ray imagers with almost constant DQE throughout a significant part of their dynamic range and in particular at very low exposures.

  18. The types and characteristics of man-induced sediment disaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The man-induced sediment disaster includes material erosion, transportation and accumula-tion by human activities. It possesses special attribute in sociology and disaster science. In accordancewith human activities, geomorphologic location, behavior and particular, the man-induced sedimentdisaster can be divided into 4 types: the drainage network, slope and gully, channel and plain-estu-au-coastline. Each type includes erosion, transportation, accumulation, complexity and cascading.Based on human activity, geomorphology, sediment mechanics and catastrophology, the man-inducedsediment disaster is characterized as follows: (1) accelerating tendency with geographical zoning back-ground; (2) non-order characters by blind action without special technical training; (3) gradually andsharply changing with human environment vibration; and (4) complexity and non-linear figure, etc.One of the reasons leading to man-induced sediment disaster is human environment vibration.

  19. 增稠剂对TL-615苯丙涂料性能的影响%Influence of TL-615 styrene acrylic latex coating function caused by thickeners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文录

    2003-01-01

    This paper has described the characteristics and thickening mechanism of cellulose thickener, associated polyurethane thickener and alkali-swelling acrylic emulsion thickener. In this passage, the influence on the function of TL-615 styrene acrylic latex coating such as theological behavior, water and alkali resistance, scrub resistance,storage stability, adhesion etc. were introduced.

  20. The “irreversibility line” of a Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 single crystal: Evidence for a phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordanengo, B.; Genicon, J. L.; Sulpice, A.; Chaussy, J.; Tournier, R.; Frison, J. C.; Chaminade, J. P.; Pouchard, M.; Etourneau, J.

    1990-08-01

    The irreversibility line H *(T) of a Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 single crystal varies as {ie1147-1} and diverges below 20 K. These phenomena could be related to a breakdown field of a weak superconductivity induced in BaO-TlO-TIO-BaO layer blocks by superconducting CuO layer blocks. The magnetization at the transition can be calculated assuming the existence of a second order phase transition.

  1. Insight on a novel layered semiconductors: CuTlS and CuTlSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, Ziya S.; Zúñiga, Fco. Javier; Koroteev, Yury M.; Breczewski, Tomasz; Babanly, Nizamaddin B.; Amiraslanov, Imamaddin R.; Politano, Antonio; Madariaga, Gotzon; Babanly, Mahammad B.; Chulkov, Evgueni V.

    2016-10-01

    Single crystals of the ternary copper compounds CuTlS and CuTlSe have been successfully grown from stoichiometric melt by using vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger method. The crystal structure of the both compounds has been determined by powder and single crystal X-Ray diffraction. They crystallize in the PbFCl structure type with two formula units in the tetragonal system, space group P4/nmm, a=3.922(2); c=8.123(6); Z=2 and a=4.087(6); c=8.195(19) Å; Z=2, respectively. The band structure of the reported compounds has been analyzed by means of full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW) method based on the density functional theory (DFT). Both compounds have similar band structures and are narrow-gap semiconductors with indirect band gap. The resistivity measurements agree with a semiconductor behavior although anomalies are observed at low temperature.

  2. Evaluasi Pengendalian Sistem Informasi Pengiriman pada TL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Nelly

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the control systems on the TL shipping information, in order to discern weaknesses or problems in delivery of enterprise information systems control using CobIT approach. The research method used is the data collecting by observation, checklists, interviews, and literature study. The results achieved are findings and issue recommendations that provide an illustration about a control of the running information delivery systems. From the illustration it is known that on the company’s control of information delivery system, there are still many things that have not been up to standard. The conclusion obtained is that the control of information delivery systems that have been implemented meets only partially the standards set small, so it still needs much improvement. 

  3. Study of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL detectors for individual monitoring for weakly penetrating radiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The results are described of a study of three commercially available LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL materials aiming at using this phosphor for individual monitoring for weakly penetrating radiations. Due to the high radiation sensitivity of the material it is suitable for application as thin detectors which...... are necessary for monitoring weakly penetrating radiations. Furthermore, the good energy response characteristics of the material for exposure to photons makes it also attractive for monitoring strongly penetrating radiations. Results are given on glow curve analyses of the LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL phosphor and data...

  4. Emergence of topological and topological crystalline phases in TlBiS2 and TlSbS2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun

    2015-02-11

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the band structure evolution and topological phase transitions in TlBiS2 and TlSbS2 under hydrostatic pressure as well as uniaxial and biaxial strain. The phase transitions are identified by parity analysis and by calculating the surface states. Zero, one, and four Dirac cones are found for the (111) surfaces of both TlBiS2 and TlSbS2 when the pressure grows, which confirms trivial-nontrivial-trivial phase transitions. The Dirac cones at the (M) over bar points are anisotropic with large out-of-plane component. TlBiS2 shows normal, topological, and topological crystalline insulator phases under hydrostatic pressure, thus being the first compound to exhibit a phase transition from a topological to a topological crystalline insulator.

  5. Review of doped silica glass optical fibre: their TL properties and potential applications in radiation therapy dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D A; Hugtenburg, R P; Nisbet, A; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Taufek; Issa, Fatma; Mohd Noor, Noramaliza; Alalawi, Amani

    2012-12-01

    Review is made of dosimetric studies of Ge-doped SiO(2) telecommunication fibre as a 1-D thermoluminescence (TL) system for therapeutic applications. To-date, the response of these fibres has been investigated for UV sources, superficial X-ray beam therapy facilities, a synchrotron microbeam facility, electron linear accelerators, protons, neutrons and alpha particles, covering the energy range from a few eV to several MeV. Dosimetric characteristics include, reproducibility, fading, dose response, reciprocity between TL yield and dose-rate and energy dependence. The fibres produce a flat response to fixed photon and electron doses to within better than 3% of the mean TL distribution. Irradiated Ge-doped SiO(2) optical fibres show limited signal fading, with an average loss of TL signal of ~0.4% per day. In terms of dose response, Ge-doped SiO(2) optical fibres have been shown to provide linearity to x and electron doses, from a fraction of 1 Gy up to 2 kGy. The dosimeters have also been used in measuring photoelectron generation from iodinated contrast media; TL yields being some 60% greater in the presence of iodine than in its absence. The review is accompanied by previously unpublished data.

  6. Characteristics of deslanoside-induced modulation on jejunal contractility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Peng Chen; Yong-Jian Xiong; Ze-Yao Tang; Qi-Ying Yao; Dong-Mei Ye; Sha-Sha Liu; Yuan Lin

    2012-01-01

    AIM:TO characterize the dual effects of deslanoside on the contractility of jejunal smooth muscle.METHODS:Eight pairs of different low and high contractile states of isolated jejunal smooth muscle fragment (JSMF) were established.Contractile amplitude of JSMF in different low and high contractile states was selected to determine the effects of deslanoside,and Western blotting analysis was performed to measure the effects of deslanoside on myosin phosphorylation of jejunal smooth muscle.RESULTS:Stimulatory effects on the contractility of JSMF were induced (45.3% ± 4.0% vs 87.0% ± 7.8%,P < 0.01) by deslanoside in 8 low contractile states,and inhibitory effects were induced (180.6% ± 17.8%vs 109.9% ± 10.8%,P < 0.01) on the contractility of JSMF in 8 high contractile states.The effect of deslanoside on the phosphorylation of myosin light chain ofJSMF in low (78.1% ± 4.1% vs 96.0% ± 8.1%,P <0.01) and high contractile state (139.2% ± 8.5% vs 105.5 ± 7.34,P < 0.01) was also bidirectional.Bidirectional regulation (BR) was abolished in the presence of tetrodotoxin.Deslanoside did not affect jejunal contractility pretreated with the Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil or in a Ca2+-free assay condition.The stimulatory effect of deslanoside on JSMF in a low contractile state (low Ca2+ induced) was abolished by atropine.The inhibitory effect of deslanoside on jejunal contractility in a high contractile state (high Ca2+ induced) was blocked by phentolamine,propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine,respectively.CONCLUSION:Deslanoside-induced BR is Ca2+ dependent and is related to cholinergic and adrenergic systems when JSMF is in low or high contractile states.

  7. Determination of kinetic parameters in Tl dosemeters of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + PTFE developed in the ININ; Determinacion de parametros cineticos en dosimetros Tl de LiF: Mg, Cu, P + PTFE desarrollados en el ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basurto G, B.S

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this work, is the one of determining the kinetic parameters of the dosemeter of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe; starting from the curves Tl obtained at being irradiated with alpha radiation ({alpha}), beta ({beta}) and gamma ({gamma}). As like to compare its sensitivity with each radiation type, considering the sensitivity of the TLD-100 as the unit. In the Chapter 1, the fundamental structure of the matter is described, making emphasis in the different radiation types, and their interaction with this. In the Chapter 2, the units are described but used in the dosimetry of the radiation. In the Chapter 3, the basic concepts of the phenomenon of Tl are described and those are explained characteristic of the deconvolution method to determine the kinetics of the one phenomenon. In the Chapter 4, the methodology is detailed that was used in the elaboration of this thesis work, describing the material Tl that were considered like reference, as well as the sources of ionizing radiation, with those that the dosemeters were irradiated and the equipment in the one that the curves Tl was obtained. Reference is made to the software used to carry out the deconvolution of the curves Tl that were obtained in the one experimental development. In the Chapter 5, the obtained results of this study are presented, showing the tables of homogenization of dosemeters and the reading of the same one; they are observed the curves Tl obtained to different radiation doses (alpha, beta and gamma), the intensity Tl in function of the dose. Also they are tabulated, the obtained results in the kinetic parameters of the three different study materials (TLD-100H, USA; TLD-100, USA and LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe developed in the l.N.l.N). They are analyzed shortly for each material Tl their sensitivity to the ionizing radiation as well as their kinetic parameters. The obtained results showed that the Tl dosemeters of LiF: Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe, they presented a bigger sensitivity that the TLD-100 when

  8. Excitation functions and yields of proton induced reactions at intermediate energies leading to important diagnostics radioisotopes of {sup 52}Fe, {sup 77}Br, {sup 82}Rb, {sup 97}Ru, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, {sup 127}Xe, {sup 128}Cs, {sup 178}Ta and {sup 201}Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rurarz, E. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    This report describes investigations of the excitation functions of the proton induced reactions on 14 targets (Mn, Co, Br, Rb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 113}Cd, {sup 114}Cd, Cd, I, Cs, Ta, {sup 206,207,208}Pb) leading directly or indirectly to the formation of radionuclides {sup 52}Fe, {sup 77}Br, {sup 82}Rb, {sup 97}Ru, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, {sup 127}Xe, {sup 128}Cs, {sup 178}Ta and {sup 201}Tl frequently used in diagnostic procedures of nuclear medicine. The measurements of the excitation functions were made over a wide proton energy range from the reaction threshold up to 100 MeV using the stacked foil (or pellet) technique. Small energy steps were used to allow for accurate determination of the structure of excitation functions. For {sup 97}Ru, {sup 111}In and {sup 127}Xe formation with protons, new reaction channels and targets were used and data concerning this method are published for the first time. The data for {sup 52}Fe, {sup 77}Br, {sup 82}Rb, {sup 123}I, {sup 128}Cs and {sup 201}Tl obtained in the present work for the E{sub p}=70-100 MeV region are also published for the first time. The measured excitation functions for the formation of desired (and undesired) radionuclides (altogether 28 excitation functions) are compared with the theoretical ones calculated on the basis of a hybrid model of nuclear reactions in the form of the Overlaid Alice computer code. In order to determine the contribution of the competitive reaction channels to the purity of the produced, desired radionuclide, the excitation functions of the accompanying reactions were also calculated. The 122 calculated excitation functions for the possible contaminant are given. The comparison of experimental excitation functions with the results of model calculations showed satisfactory agreement; no parameter adjustment for individual reaction products was undertaken. Production yields for 28 radionuclides mentioned above were determined (author). 262 refs, 65 figs, 34 tabs.

  9. Further characterisation of differences between TL and AB zebrafish (Danio rerio): Gene expression, physiology and behaviour at day 5 of the larval stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Ruud; Mes, Wouter; Galligani, Pietro; Heil, Anthony; Zethof, Jan; Flik, Gert; Gorissen, Marnix

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become popular as model organism in research. Many strains are readily available, which not only differ morphologically, but also genetically, physiologically and behaviourally. Here, we focus on the AB and Tupfel long-fin (TL) strain for which we have previously shown that adults differ in baseline hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI)-axis activity (AB higher than TL) affecting inhibitory avoidance behaviour (absent in AB). To assess whether strain differences are already present in early life stages, we compared baseline HPI-axis related gene expression as well as cortisol levels, (neuro)development related as well as (innate) immune system related gene expression, and light-dark as well as startle behaviour in larvae 5 days post fertilisation. The data show that AB and TL larvae differ in baseline HPI-axis activity (AB higher than TL), expression of (neuro)development and immune system related genes (AB higher than TL), habituation to acoustic/vibrational stimuli (AB habituate faster than TL) and light-dark induced changes in motor behaviour (AB stronger than TL). Our data show that already in larval stages differences exist between zebrafish of the AB and TL strain confirming and extending data of earlier studies. To what extent the mutation in connexin 41.8, leading to spots rather than stripes in TL, but also (possibly) affecting eye, heart and brain function, is involved in the expression of (some of) these differences needs to be studied. These results emphasise that differences between strains need to be taken into account to enhance reproducibility both within, and between, laboratories.

  10. In vivo effects of radioactive properties of Tl-201 on human carbonic anhydrase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ali; Senturk, Murat

    2017-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a family of metalloenzymes that requires Zn as a cofactor and catalyze the quick conversion of CO2 to HCO3- and H+. Inhibitors of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have medical usage of significant diseases such as glaucoma, epilepsy, gastroduodenal ulcers, acid-base disequilibria and neurological disorders. The most useful radioisotope, Tl-201, decays by electron capture, emitting Hg X-rays ( 70-80 keV), and photons of 135 and 167 keV in 10% total abundance. Therefore, it has good imaging characteristics without excessive patient radiation dose. It is the most popular isotope used for thallium 201 nuclear cardiac stress tests. In the present study, In vivo inhibitory effect of Tl-201 (Thallium-201) on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity were investigated.

  11. The Lanmuchang Tl deposit and its environmental geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠[1; 陈国立[2; 张宝贵[3; 陈业才[4; 张兴茂[5

    2000-01-01

    Tl is a dispersed element and it seldom occurs in the form of independent minerals. The world annual production of Tl is about 13 ton, most of which is by-product separated from non-ferrous metal products. Lanmuchang is the only large-size independent Tl deposit in the world. Bio-enrichment and hydrothermal reworking are the two important metallogenic mechanisms of this Tl deposit. Samples of plant and animal organs and villagers’ urine as well as hair and nail (toenail) samples from the Tl mining district were analyzed. Analytical results showed that the contents of Tl, Hg and As are high, suggesting that the residents and villagers in the mining district have been affected by Ti-Hg pollution, and on the other hand, they can serve as the guidelines for ore prospecting. The contents of Tl, Hg, and As in human beings and other organic bodies depend largely on the background values of these metals in rock, ore, soil and water.

  12. Phonon and Elastic Instabilities in Zincblende TlN under Hydrostatic Pressure from First Principles Calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Li-Wei; DUAN Yi-Feng; YANG Xian-Qing; TANG Gang

    2011-01-01

    The lattice dynamic and elastic instabilities of zincblende (ZB) thallium nitride (TIN) under hydrostatic pressure are extensively studied to reveal the physically driven mechanism of phase transition from the ZB to a rocksalt structure using pseudopotential plane-wave density functional calculations within the local density approximation. Our calculated results shows that both transverse acoustic phonon mode softening behavior and elastic instability are responsible for the pressure-induced structural phase transition in ZB TIN.%The lattice dynamic and elastic instabilities of zincblende (ZB) thallium nitride (TlN) under hydrostatic pressure are extensively studied to reveal the physically driven mechanism of phase transition from the ZB to a rocksalt structure using pseudopotential plane-wave density functional calculations within the local density approximation.Our calculated results shows that both transverse acoustic phonon mode softening behavior and elastic instability are responsible for the pressure-induced structural phase transition in ZB TlN.Recently,thallium nitride (TlN) was predicted to have a small or even negative energy gap,indicating a semi-metallic character.Thus the combination of thallium with other wide-gap ⅢA-nitrides yields interesting novel ternary semiconducting alloys such as Al1-xTlxN,[1] and Ga1-xTlxN,[2] whose phonon energies can encompass the near-infrared region extending well into the ultraviolet spectral range,with great potential in optical communication systems.

  13. Dating sediment deposits on Montalvanian carvings using EPR and TL methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, M.D.; Sullasi, Henry S.L. E-mail: hsullasi@dfn.if.usp.br; Camargo, Fabiola; Watanabe, Shigueo; Prous, Andre P.P.; Silva, Martha M.C

    2004-01-01

    About 30 years ago a rock shelter with engravings by early settlers was found at Montalvania, northern end of state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Lower part of engravings was covered with thin deposit of calcite mixed with quartz grains, due to occasional flood. This mixture of two minerals was dated by thermoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance using in both cases, additive method. The accumulated dose D{sub AC}, that is, natural radioactivity and cosmic rays radiation dose that induces TL and EPR signal intensity has been found to be around 50 Gy both by TL and EPR methods. The annual radiation dose rate was estimated to be about 1.027 mGy/a from knowledge of uranium, thorium and potassium content determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer system. The age of this calcite plus quartz deposits was estimated to be about 50 ka.

  14. Characteristics of radiation-induced neoplastic transformation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented to support the hypothesis that the initial step in the morphologic transformation of irradiated rodent (BALB/3T3) cells is a frequent cellular event involving a large fraction of the irradiated population. This process appears to involve DNA damage, but not to represent a targeted mutation in specific structural gene(s). Morphologic transformation and immortalization appear to be distinct steps in the overall process of transformation. In contradistinction to rodent cells, immortalization is a very rare event in human diploid cells which is induced at extremely low frequencies. The hypothesis is presented that immortality develops among clones of cells bearing stable chromosomal rearrangements which emerge during the proliferation of a population of radiation damaged cells.

  15. Characteristics of induced activity from medical linear accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi Zhen; Evans, Michael D C; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2005-09-01

    A study of the induced activity in a medical linear accelerator (linac) room was carried out on several linac installations. Higher beam energy, higher dose rate, and larger field size generally result in higher activation levels at a given point of interest, while the use of multileaf collimators (MLC) can also increase the activation level at the isocenter. Both theoretical and experimental studies reveal that the activation level in the morning before any clinical work increases from Monday to Saturday and then decreases during the weekend. This weekly activation picture keeps stable from one week to another during standard clinical operation of the linac. An effective half-life for a given point in the treatment room can be determined from the measured or calculated activity decay curves. The effective half-life for points inside the treatment field is longer than that for points outside of the field in the patient plane, while a larger field and longer irradiation time can also make the effective half-life longer. The activation level reaches its practical saturation value after a 30 min continuous irradiation, corresponding to 12 000 MU at a "dose rate" of 400 MU/min. A "dose" of 300 MU was given 20 times in 15 min intervals to determine the trends in the activation level in a typical clinical mode. As well, a long-term (85 h over a long weekend) decay curve was measured to evaluate the long-term decay of room activation after a typical day of clinical linac use. A mathematical model for the activation level at the isocenter has been established and shown to be useful in explaining and predicting the induced activity levels for typical clinical and experimental conditions. The activation level for a 22 MeV electron beam was also measured and the result shows it is essentially negligible.

  16. Preparation and determination of the luminescent characteristics of ZrO{sub 2} in powder; Preparacion y determinacion de las caracteristicas luminiscentes del ZrO{sub 2} en polvo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera M, T. [ESIME-IPN Unidad Culhuacan Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Olvera T, L.; Azorin N, J.; Soto E, A.M.; Velazquez O, C.; Campero C, A. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work the luminescent characteristics of the ZrO{sub 2} are presented using the method of Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL), also called thermoluminescence (Tl). The powders of ZrO{sub 2} were obtained by two preparation methods: for precipitation and for evaporation of Sol-gel. The luminescent characteristics of the ZrO{sub 2} are determined using a lamp of radiation of UV light and a radiation source of beta particles of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. Using the method of thermal stimulation the curve representative thermoluminescent of the previously irradiated material was obtained. The curve Tl of the ZrO{sub 2} irradiated with UV light presents a maximum in 180 C. Likewise, the spectrum of the curve Tl of the ZrO{sub 2} irradiated with particles beta presents a maximum centered in 181 C. While using gamma radiation like excitement source one has a spectrum with a peak centered in 184 C. When subjecting the materials obtained by sol-gel to a process of calcination at 1000 C for 24 hours a curved Tl it presents with two maxim in 185 and in 290 C respectively. The intensity of the response induced in the material it is a decisive factor to continue studying the dosimetric characteristics of the ZrO{sub 2} what allows to consider it as a potential material to use it in the beta particle dosimetry and of the UV light using the thermoluminescence method (Tl). (Author)

  17. Evidence for K-substitution in the Tl-sites of superconducting Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O χ: Neutron diffraction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, A.; Rajagopal, H.; Gopalakrishnan, I. K.; Sastry, P. V. P. S. S.; Phatak, G. M.; Yakhmi, J. V.; Iyer, R. M.

    1988-11-01

    A comparison of the Rietveld profile refinement of neutron diffraction data of the superconducting compounds Tl-2122 (i.e. Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O χ) and Tl 1K 1Ca 1Ba 2Cu 2O y provides evidence that nearly half of the Tl-sites belonging to the pure Tl-2122 structure get substituted by K-ions in Tl 1K 1Ca 1Ba 2Cu 2O y. The consequence of this is reflected in a substantial movement of Ba-ions towards the plane of the O(2)-ions in the K-substituted compound.

  18. Methylglyoxal-induced modifications of hemoglobin: structural and functional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Tania; Bhattacherjee, Abhishek; Banerjee, Sauradipta; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2013-01-15

    Methylglyoxal (MG) reacts with proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Although hemoglobin modification by MG is known, the modified protein is not yet characterized. We have studied the nature of AGE formed by MG on human hemoglobin (HbA(0)) and its effect on structure and function of the protein. After reaction of HbA(0) with MG, the modified protein (MG-Hb) was separated and its properties were compared with those of the unmodified protein HbA(0). As shown by MALDI-mass spectrometry, MG converted Arg-92α and Arg-104β to hydroimidazolones in MG-Hb. Compared to HbA(0), MG-Hb exhibited decreased absorbance around 280nm, reduced tryptophan fluorescence (excitation 285nm) and increased α-helix content. However, MG modification did not change the quaternary structure of the heme protein. MG-Hb appeared to be more thermolabile than HbA(0). The modified protein was found to be more effective than HbA(0) in H(2)O(2)-mediated iron release and oxidative damages involving Fenton reaction. MG-Hb exhibited less peroxidase activity and more esterase activity than HbA(0). MG-induced structural and functional changes of hemoglobin may enhance oxidative stress and associated complications, particularly in diabetes mellitus with increased level of MG.

  19. Improvements in the Tl dosimetry for Radiotherapy; Mejoras en la dosimetria Tl para Radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, S.; Velez, G.; Rubio, M. [CEPROCOR. Arenales 230 Juniors Cordoba 5000 (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    The thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) in vivo has been demonstrated to be one of the most reliable for the control of radiotherapeutic treatments, but the delay in the response is the main disadvantage in its applicability. In this work are presented important improvements and it is demonstrated that maintaining the accuracy and reliability of the technique, it is possible to accelerate the response times at a few hours. To realize this work is utilized a lecturer Harshaw 4000, dosemeters LiF-TLD-100 chips (3.1 x 3.1 x 0.89 mm{sup 3}) and rods (1 x 1 x 6 mm{sup 3}). With the implementation of a glow curve analysis program developed in CIEMAT, its obtained a Tl peaks separation in such manner rapid and accurate, by that the thermal treatment of dosemeters may be reduced at one unique annealing pre-irradiation for 1 hr at 400 Centigrade. It is realized a periodical and individual calibration of the TLD and a study of the factors which influencing the ratio Tl signal-dose as linearity, correction by energy, directional response and pride of Tl signal. the results of this study are introducing in a calculation list specially designed and which allows to obtain absorbed dose by TLD starting of the dates (dosimetric peaks area) which appear of the glow curves analysis. The dose is obtained with an accuracy less than 5 %. The dosemeters already irradiated (in vivo) are analysed and informed in only four hours, allowing a greater control of the treatment and a correction of the possible errors for the next session, still in bi fractional treatments. The method implemented results thus accurate, rapid and reliable. (Author)

  20. Scintillation, Afterglow and Thermoluminescence of CsI:Tl,Sm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappers, L A; Bartram, R H; Hamilton, D S; Lempicki, A; Brecher, C; Gaysinskiy, V; Ovechkina, E E; Nagarkar, V V, E-mail: lawrence.kappers@uconn.edu

    2010-11-15

    Experiments on co-doped CsI:Tl,Sm suggest that samarium electron traps scavenge electrons from thallium traps and that electrons subsequently released by samarium recombine non-radiatively with trapped holes, thus suppressing afterglow. These experiments support the inference that electrons tunnel freely between samarium ions and are trapped preferentially as substitutional Sm{sup +} near V{sub KA}(Tl{sup +}) centers where non-radiative recombination is the rate-limiting step. Combined radioluminescence, afterglow and thermoluminescence on single-crystal samples of CsI:Tl and CsI:Tl,Sm, recorded sequentially at adjusted gain settings following low-temperature irradiation, reveal reversible radiation damage as well.

  1. Synthesizing SoTL Institutional Initiatives toward National Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    This chapter draws on other authors' ideas in this issue, describing parallels and outlining distinctions toward a synthesized model for the development of SoTL initiatives at the institutional level and beyond.

  2. Local self-field measurements in Tl-2223 polycrystalline superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenz, A. [Univ. de Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica). Escuela de Fisica; Niculescu, H. [Florida Agricultural and Mechanical Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gielisse, P.J. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2000-07-01

    We report local self-field measurements on superconducting (Tl-2223) disks in an applied field. The axial components of the self-field generated by polycrystalline superconductors, have been measured at points above the sample using a Hall probe. The measurements were conducted with a computer controlled precision x-y scanning assembly, at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Single point and two- dimensional distributions of the local self-field above the samples immersed in a homogeneous applied field up to 16 mT, were recorded. In an increasing/decreasing magnetic field the magnetic response of the superconductors traverses hysteresis loops due to inter- and intragranular flux pinning. The field for full flux penetration and the maximum shielded field have been identified from characteristic points on the hysteresis loops. Evaluation of the average intergrain current density j{sub c}, assuming a uniform critical current density, resulted in the value 2.7 x 10{sup 6} A/m{sup 2}. (orig.)

  3. Histopathological and Immunological Characteristics of Tachycardia-Induced Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karin A L; Heinzmann, David; Klingel, Karin; Fallier-Becker, Petra; Kandolf, Reinhard; Kilias, Antonios; Walker-Allgaier, Britta; Borst, Oliver; Kumbrink, Jörg; Kirchner, Thomas; Langer, Harald; Geisler, Tobias; Schreieck, Jürgen; Gramlich, Michael; Gawaz, Meinrad; Seizer, Peter

    2017-05-02

    Tachycardiomyopathy or tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TCM) has been known for decades as a reversible form of nonischemic cardiomyopathy. However, its mechanism and properties remain poorly understood. The current study investigated endomyocardial biopsy samples from patients with TCM and compared them with samples from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and inflammatory cardiomyopathy (ICM). The study included 189 patients with new-onset heart failure and severely reduced ejection fraction not caused by valvular or ischemic heart disease. Nineteen patients retrospectively fulfilled common criteria of TCM, 79 patients had a diagnosis of DCM, and 91 had a diagnosis of ICM. Patients with TCM, on the basis of clinical criteria, had stronger myocardial expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecule and enhanced infiltration of CD68(+) macrophages compared with patients with DCM. Furthermore, when compared with patients with ICM, the presence of T cells and macrophages was significantly reduced in TCM. Myocardial fibrosis was detected to a significantly lower degree in patients with TCM compared with patients with DCM and ICM. Electron microscopic examination revealed severe structural changes in patients with TCM. A disturbed distribution pattern of mitochondria was predominantly present in TCM. Quantitative assessment of myocyte morphology revealed significantly enhanced myocyte size compared with patients with ICM. Ribonucleic acid expression analysis identified changes in metabolic pathways among the patient groups. TCM is characterized by changes in cardiomyocyte and mitochondrial morphology accompanied by a macrophage-dominated cardiac inflammation. Thus, further prospective studies are warranted to characterize patients with TCM by endomyocardial biopsy more clearly. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Deformation effects in electronic spectra of the layered semiconductors TlGaS sub 2 , TlGaSe sub 2 and TlInS sub 2

    CERN Document Server

    Allakhverdiev, K R; Suleymanov, R A; Gasanov, N Z

    2003-01-01

    The deformation effects in electronic spectra of the ternary layered semiconductors TlGaS sub 2 , TlGaSe sub 2 and TlInS sub 2 are considered. It is shown that the influence of hydrostatic pressure, thermal expansion and variation of composition in solid solutions on the band gap of the crystals investigated can be described in the framework of one common model of deformation potentials. This model appears to be close to that of layered semiconductors of the A sub 3 B sub 6 group, attesting to the fact that the main principles of formation of band structure in these two groups of layered crystals are the same.

  5. Identification of irradiated spices by the use of thermoluminescence method (TL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifzadeh, M.; Sohrabpour, M. (Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))

    In this paper the results of the investigation of identification of irradiated spices by the use of thermoluminescence method is reported. The materials used were black and red peppers, turmeric, cinnamon, and garlic powder. Gamma Cell 220 was used for irradiating samples at dose values of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy respectively. The TL intensity of the unirradiated spices as well as the fading characteristics of the irradiated samples having received a dose of 10 kGy have been measured. Post-irradiation temperature treatment of the irradiated (10 kGy) and unirradiated samples at 60[sup o]C and 100[sup o]C for 24 hours have also been performed. The results show that the TL intensities of unirradiated and irradiated samples from different batches of each spice are fairly distributed. A reasonable TL intensity versus dose has been observed in nearly all cases. Based on the observation made it is possible to distinguish irradiated spices after (4-9) months post-irradiation. (author).

  6. Optimum technique for /sup 201/Tl tomography of myocardium: an investigation using phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, E.E.; Williams, E.D.

    1987-08-01

    Rotating gamma-camera tomography is used for /sup 201/Tl perfusion imaging to detect myocardial ischaemia or infarction. Variables which can affect the utility of the images include acquisition time, collimator sensitivity and resolution, spatial filtering, reconstruction matrix and display parameters. An 'Iowa' design myocardial phantom containing /sup 201/Tl, with a defect representing an unperfused area, was used to study the effect of these variables. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and contrast ratios indicated that filtering the acquisition data with a count-dependent (Metz) filter before reconstruction and using a narrow slice width gave best results. No single collimator was superior for all four defect locations investigated but low-energy general purpose and high-resolution collimators were preferred to those with greater sensitivity. Reducing acquisition time by a factor of four compared with that for routine patient imaging affected contrast ratio, uniformity and area under ROC curves insignificantly, provided the optimum reconstruction was used. Displaying tomographic sections in colour gave no improvement in ROC curves over monochrome images. Data acquisition time or administered /sup 201/Tl radioactivity might therefore be reduced below the 25 min and 80 MBq often used for patient studies.

  7. Infrared spectra of the high- Tc TlBaCaCuO superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanru, Ren; Hanpeng, Liu; Mingzhu, Lin; Qingyun, Tu; Lihua, Sang; Zhenjin, Lin; Xianren, Meng; Zhenxing, Liu

    1988-12-01

    The TlBaCaCuO superconductors with zero resistance at temperatures in the range of 100-123 K have been sintered by solid state reactions. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies reveal that they are multiphased, containing both Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 and Tl 2Ba 2Ca 2Cu 3O 10 superconducting phases. Infrared spectra have been measured at room temperature for the multiphase samples. The spectra display structures at ∼590 cm -1 ( P1) and ∼530 cm -1 ( P2) which seem characteristic to Cu-O stretching modes. The difference Δ P between P1 and P1 has been found to be related to the superconducting transition temperature. Smaller Δ P corresponds to a higher Tc. The electron-like excitation of∼0.1 eV and the phonon-like structure at ∼850 cm -1 are also found to be important for high Tc.

  8. Electronic structures of Tl-based materials for γ-ray detectors; First-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jung-Hwan; Jin, Hosub; Freeman, Arthur J.; Johnsen, Simon; Androulakis, John; Sebastian, Peter; Liu, Zhifu; Peter, John A.; Cho, Nam-Ki; Wessels, Bruce; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2011-03-01

    For Tl-based semiconductors, investigated to find good candidate materials for γ -ray detectors, we performed ab-initio calculations using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method to find their electronic structures and to estimate their physical properties such as band gaps, effective masses, absorption coefficients, dielectric constants, and work functions. Within the LDA scheme, the underestimation of the band gap is well-known and causes serious problems in obtaining optical properties. Therefore, we adopted the screened-exchange LDA (sX-LDA) scheme and acquired correct gap values close to experimental ones. With the sX-LDA, we found that Tl 6 I4 S and Tl 6 I4 Se have direct band gaps of 2.36 and 1.88 eV, respectively, and they exhibit dispersive bands near the band edges. Based on the calculated and experimental results, we discuss the relationship between atom species/crystal structure and electronic characteristics, and suggest several materials for γ -ray detectors. Supported by NSF (Grant No. ARI-MA CMMI-0938810).

  9. SCRLH-TL Based Sequential Rotation Feed Network for Broadband Circularly Polarized Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Zong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a broadband circularly polarized (CP microstrip antenna array using composite right/left-handed transmission line (SCRLH-TL based sequential rotation (SR feed network is presented. The characteristics of a SCRLH-TL are initially investigated. Then, a broadband and low insertion loss 45º phase shifter is designed using the SCRLH-TL and the phase shifter is employed in constructing a SR feed network for CP antenna array. To validate the design method of the SR feed network, a 2×2 antenna array comprising sequentially rotated coupled stacked CP antenna elements is designed, fabricated and measured. Both the simulated and measured results indicate that the performances of the antenna element are further enhanced when the SR network is used. The antenna array exhibits the VSWR less than 1.8 dB from 4 GHz to 7 GHz and the 3 dB axial ratio (AR from 4.4 GHz to 6.8 GHz. Also, high peak gain of 13.7 dBic is obtained. Besides, the normalized radiation patterns at the operating frequencies are symmetrical and the side lobe levels are low at φ=0º and φ=90º.

  10. $\\alpha$-decay study of $^{182,184}$Tl

    CERN Document Server

    Van Beveren, C; Barzakh, A E; Cocolios, T E; de Groote, R P; Fedorov, D; Fedosseev, V N; Ferrer, R; Ghys, L; Huyse, M; Köster, U; Lane, J; Liberati, V; Lynch, K M; Marsh, B A; Molkanov, P L; Procter, T J; Rapisarda, E; Sandhu, K; Seliverstov, M D; Van Duppen, P; Venhart, M; Veselský, M

    2016-01-01

    α -decay spectroscopy of 182,184 Tl has been performed at the CERN isotope separator on-line ( ISOLDE ) facility. New fi ne-structure α decays have been observed for both isotopes. α -decay branching ratios of 0.089 ( 19 ) %, 0.047 ( 6 ) % and 1.22 ( 30 ) % have been deduced for the ( 10 − ) , ( 7 + ) and ( 2 − ) states respectively in 184 Tl and a lower limit of 0.49% for the α -decay branching ratio of 182 Tl. A new half-life of 9.5 ( 2 ) s for the ( 2 − ) state in 184 Tl and 1.9 ( 1 ) s for the low-spin state in 182 Tl has been deduced. Using α – γ coincidence analysis, multiple γ rays were observed de-exciting levels in 178,18 0 Au fed by 182,184 Tl α decays. The γ transitions connecting these low-lying states in 178,18 0 Au are essential to sort the data and possibly identify bands from in- beam studies in these isotopes. Owing to the complex fi ne-structure α decays and limited knowledge about the structure of the daughter nuclei, only partial level schemes could be constructed for bot...

  11. Pulse-shape discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils in a NaI(Tl) crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H S; Adhikari, P; Choi, S; Hahn, I S; Jeon, E J; Joo, H W; Kang, W G; Kim, G B; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, K W; Kim, N Y; Kim, S K; Kim, Y D; Kim, Y H; Lee, J H; Lee, M H; Leonard, D S; Li, J; Oh, S Y; Olsen, S L; Park, H K; Park, H S; Park, K S; Shim, J H; So, J H

    2015-01-01

    We report on the response of a high light-output NaI(Tl) crystal to nuclear recoils induced by neutrons from an Am-Be source and compare the results with the response to electron recoils produced by Compton scattered 662 keV $\\gamma$-rays from a $^{137}$Cs source. The measured pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) power of the NaI(Tl) crystal is found to be significantly improved because of the high light output of the NaI(Tl) detector. We quantify the PSD power with a quality factor and estimate the sensitivity to the interaction rate for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with nucleons, and the result is compared with the annual modulation amplitude observed by the DAMA/LIBRA experiment. The sensitivity to spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions based on 100 kg$\\cdot$year of data from NaI detectors is estimated with simulated experiments, using the standard halo model.

  12. Debye temperatures and Grueneisen parameters of chain TlSe and TlInSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, Nazim; Orudzhev, Guseyn; Hamidov, Sadig; Jafarova, Vusala [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan); Wakita, Kazuki [Chiba Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, Narashino (Japan); Shim, YongGu; Kishigui, Koiru; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki [Osaka Prefecture University, Department of Physics and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Sakai (Japan); Mimura, Kojiro [Osaka Prefecture University, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Graduate School of Engineering, Sakai (Japan); Schorr, Susan [Free University, Department of GeoSciences, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    Debye temperatures and Grueneisen parameters of chain TlSe and TlInSe{sub 2} were calculated using our earlier obtained ab-initio results on phonon band structure and existed experimental data on thermal expansion coefficient. For both compounds, the values of heat capacity at constant volume (C{sub v}) were found to obey cubic law at temperatures less than 2 K. The Debye temperatures were determined to be 95 K and 96 K for TlSe and TInSe{sub 2}, respectively. The unit cells of TlSe and TInSe{sub 2} were relaxed by minimizing Hellman-Feynman forces and the total energy dependence on the unit cell volume was obtained. The bulk modulus (B{sub 0}) values in Murnaghan and Birch-Murnaghan equations of state were shown to be very close to each other. By using above B{sub 0} and C{sub v}, as well as available experimental data on linear expansion, the heat capacity at constant pressure (C{sub P}) was evaluated. Comparison with experimental C{sub P} in a wide temperature range showed a good agreement for TlInSe{sub 2} and a noticeable discrepancy for TlSe at temperatures above 170 K. The calculated Grueneisen parameter of TlInSe{sub 2} showed a tendency to saturation in a region above Debye temperature. The situation with TlSe is not clear because of the ambiguous character of the available experimental data on thermal expansion. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Normal mode coordinates of high T c superconductors TlCaBa 2Cu 2O 7 and Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.; Nakaoka, K.; Onari, S.; Arai, T.

    1989-10-01

    Normal mode coordinates of high Tc superconductors TlCaBa 2Cu 2O 7- (Tl-1122) and Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8(Tl-2122) are analyzed by the shell model calculations. The model calculations have reproduced very well the observed Raman frequencies. The vibrational frequencies of the oxygens on the CuO 2 layers are found to depend on the ionic charges of the oxygens on the CuO 2 layers.

  14. Crystal structure and activating effect on RyRs of AhV_TL-I, a glycosylated thrombin-like enzyme from Agkistrodon halys snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fuxing; Shen, Bing; Zhu, Zhongliang; Zhang, Ping; Ji, Yonghua; Niu, Liwen; Li, Xu; Teng, Maikun

    2013-03-01

    A snake venom thrombin-like enzyme (SVTLE) from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom was isolated by means of a two-step chromatographic procedure. The purified enzyme, named AhV_TL-I, showed fibrinogenolytic activity against both the Aα and Bβ chains of bovine fibrinogen. Unlike the other SVTLEs, AhV_TL-I has poor esterolytic activity upon BAEE substrate. The N-terminal sequence of AhV_TL-I was determined to be IIGGDEXNINEHRFLVALYT, and the molecular mass was confirmed to 29389.533 Da by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Its complete cDNA and derived amino acid sequence were obtained by RT-PCR. The crystal structure of AhV_TL-I was determined at a resolution of 1.75 Å. A disaccharide was clearly mapped in the structure, which involved in regulating the esterolytic activity of AhV_TL-I. The presence of the N-glycan deformed the 99-loop, and the resulting steric hindrances hindered the substrates to access the active site. Furthermore, with the carbohydrate moiety, AhV_TL-I could induce mouse thoracic aortic ring contraction with the EC(50) of 147 nmol/L. Besides, the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_TL-I were also independent of the enzymatic activity. The results of [Ca(2+)](i) measurement showed that the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_TL-I were attributed to Ca(2+) releasing from Ca(2+) store. Further studies showed that it was related to the activation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs). These offer new insights into the snake SVTLEs functions and provide a novel pathogenesis of A. halys pallas venom.

  15. Induced abortion in the Republic of Srpska: Characteristics and impact on mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Niškanović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Induced abortion is an important aspect of sexual and reproductive health, with potentially negative impact on physical and emotional health of women. The aim of this paper is to investigate the presence of abortion in our society, characteristics of women who had induced abortion and its impact on mental health. The results presented in this paper are part of the bigger study "Health Status, Health Needs and Utilization of Health Services", which was carri...

  16. Dynamic Characteristics of Flow Induced Vibration in a Rotor-Seal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow induced vibration is an important factor affecting the performance of the rotor-seal system. From the point of view of flow induced vibration, the nonlinear models of the rotor-seal system are presented for the analysis of the fluid force, which is induced by the interaction between the unstable fluid flow in the seal and the vibrating rotor. The nonlinear characteristics of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system are analyzed, and the nonlinear phenomena in the unbalanced rotor-seal system are investigated using the nonlinear models. Various nonlinear phenomena of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system, such as synchronization phenomenon and amplitude mutation, are reproduced.

  17. Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATS 2013 Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology Urmila P Kodavanti, Debora Andrews, Mette C Schaldweiler, Jaime M Cyphert, Darol E Dodd, and Stephen H Gavett NHEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC; NIEH...

  18. Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATS 2013 Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology Urmila P Kodavanti, Debora Andrews, Mette C Schaldweiler, Jaime M Cyphert, Darol E Dodd, and Stephen H Gavett NHEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC; NIEH...

  19. Development of tailor-made silica fibres for TL dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. A.; Abdul Sani, Siti F.; Alalawi, Amani I.; Jafari, S. M.; Noor, Noramaliza M.; Hairul Azhar, A. R.; Mahdiraji, Ghafour Amouzad; Tamchek, Nizam; Ghosh, S.; Paul, M. C.; Alzimami, Khalid S.; Nisbet, A.; Maah, M. J.

    2014-11-01

    The Ge dopant in commercially available silica optical fibres gives rise to appreciable thermoluminscence (TL), weight-for-weight offering sensitivity to MV X-rays several times that of the LiF dosimeter TLD100. The response of these fibres to UV radiation, X-rays, electrons, protons, neutrons and alpha particles, with doses from a fraction of 1 Gy up to 10 kGy, have stimulated further investigation of the magnitude of the TL signal for intrinsic and doped SiO2 fibres. We represent a consortium effort between Malaysian partners and the University of Surrey, aimed at production of silica fibres with specific TL dosimetry applications, utilizing modified chemical vapour deposition (MCVD) doped silica-glass production and fibre-pulling facilities. The work is informed by defect and dopant concentration and various production dependences including pulling parameters such as temperature, speed and tension; the fibres also provide for spatial resolutions down to <10 μm, confronting many limitations faced in use of conventional (TL) dosimetry. Early results are shown for high spatial resolution (~0.1 mm) single-core Ge-doped TL sensors, suited to radiotherapy applications. Preliminary results are also shown for undoped flat optical fibres of mm dimensions and Ge-B doped flat optical fibres of sub-mm dimensions, with potential for measurement of doses in medical diagnostic applications.

  20. CsI(Tl) for WIMP dark matter searches

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtsev, V A; Tovey, Daniel R; Roberts, J W; Lehner, M J; McMillan, J E; Lightfoot, P K; Lawson, T B; Peak, C D; Lüscher, R; Barton, J C

    2001-01-01

    We report a study of CsI(Tl) scintillator to assess its applicability in experiments to search for dark matter particles. Measurements of the mean scintillation pulse shapes due to nuclear and electron recoils have been performed. We find that, as with NaI(Tl), pulse shape analysis can be used to discriminate between electron and nuclear recoils down to 4 keV. However, the discrimination factor is typically (10-15)% better than in NaI(Tl) above 4 keV. The quenching factor for caesium and iodine recoils was measured and found to increase from 11% to ~17% with decreasing recoil energy from 60 to 12 keV. Based on these results, the potential sensitivity of CsI(Tl) to dark matter particles in the form of neutralinos was calculated. We find an improvement over NaI(Tl) for the spin independent WIMP-nucleon interactions up to a factor of 5 assuming comparable electron background levels in the two scintillators.

  1. Preparation of high T(c) Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O thin films by pulsed laser evaporation and Tl2O3 vapor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johs, B.; Thompson, D.; Ianno, N. J.; Woollam, John A.; Liou, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O superconducting thin films with zero-resistance temperatures up to 115 K have been prepared using a Tl2O3 vapor process on Ba-Ca-Cu-O precursor thin films. The Ba-Ca-Cu-O thin films were made by laser deposition on Y-stabilized ZrO2 substrates. This technique minimizes problems caused by the toxicity of Tl2O3, and its subsequent decomposition to the volatile and toxic Tl2O upon heating. Therefore, it may have practical application in the fabrication of high T(c) Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O superconducting thin-film devices.

  2. Hydrostatin-TL1, an Anti-Inflammatory Active Peptide from the Venom Gland of Hydrophis cyanocinctus in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningyuan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α is a pleiotropic cytokine with intense pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, and anti-TNF-α biologics are effective therapies for various inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and sepsis. Snake venom, as a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases in China for centuries. In this research, we constructed a venom gland T7 phage display library of the sea snake Hydrophis cyanocinctus to screen bioactive compounds that antagonize TNF-α and identified a novel nine-amino-acid peptide, termed hydrostatin-TL1 (H-TL1. In enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR analyses, H-TL1 inhibited the interaction between TNF-α and TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1. Further, H-TL1 attenuated the cytotoxicity of TNF-α in L929 cells as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. H-TL1 also decreased the mRNA expression of TNF-α/TNFR1 downstream targets and suppressed the phosphorylation of well-characterized proteins of downstream signal transduction pathways in HEK-293 cells. In vivo data demonstrated that H-TL1 protects animals against dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced acute colitis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced acute shock. Given its significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo, H-TL1 is a potential peptide for the development of new agents to treat TNF-α-associated inflammatory diseases.

  3. Hydrostatin-TL1, an Anti-Inflammatory Active Peptide from the Venom Gland of Hydrophis cyanocinctus in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningyuan; Huang, Yan; Li, An; Jiang, Hailong; Wang, Jie; Li, Jianzhong; Qiu, Lei; Li, Ka; Lu, Yiming

    2016-11-22

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is a pleiotropic cytokine with intense pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, and anti-TNF-α biologics are effective therapies for various inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and sepsis. Snake venom, as a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases in China for centuries. In this research, we constructed a venom gland T7 phage display library of the sea snake Hydrophis cyanocinctus to screen bioactive compounds that antagonize TNF-α and identified a novel nine-amino-acid peptide, termed hydrostatin-TL1 (H-TL1). In enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses, H-TL1 inhibited the interaction between TNF-α and TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1). Further, H-TL1 attenuated the cytotoxicity of TNF-α in L929 cells as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. H-TL1 also decreased the mRNA expression of TNF-α/TNFR1 downstream targets and suppressed the phosphorylation of well-characterized proteins of downstream signal transduction pathways in HEK-293 cells. In vivo data demonstrated that H-TL1 protects animals against dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced acute colitis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute shock. Given its significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo, H-TL1 is a potential peptide for the development of new agents to treat TNF-α-associated inflammatory diseases.

  4. Quasielastic Scattering from Relativistic Bound Nucleons: R{sub TL} Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Caballero; E. Moya de Guerra; J. M. Udias; J. E. Amaro; T. W. Donnelly

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of relativistic calculations for electron induced knock-out from the p{sub 1/2} and p{sub 3/2} shells in {sup 16}O are presented. Results for differential cross-section, TL response function and left-right asymmetry are compared to recent (e,e'p) data at Q{sup 2} = 0.8 (GeV/c){sup 2} taken at TJNAF. We show that the trend of the fully relativistic results is closely followed by the experimental data, pointing to the importance of both kinematical and dynamical relativistic effects in the nucleonic current.

  5. beta. -. gamma. directional correlations in the. beta. -decay of /sup 208/Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, O.A.; Krmpotic, F.; Szybisz, L.

    1984-02-13

    The relevance of the quenching effects induced by charge-exchange collective fields and ..delta..-isobar-hole excitations is discussed in the case of the ..beta..-..gamma.. angular correlations in the decay of /sup 208/Tl to the 5/sup -//sub 1/, 4/sup -//sub 1/ and 5/sup -//sub 2/ levels in /sup 208/Pb. It is found that, although these effects give rise to a large hindrance of the ..beta..-moments, they influence the anisotropy factor only very weakly. Satisfactory agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental data is obtained for all the transitions.

  6. Study of Residual TL of CaSO4:Dy-based Thermoluminescence Dosemeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Manish K; Pradhan, S M; Bakshi, A K; Datta, D

    2017-04-27

    Thermoluminescence (TL) signal obtained during second readout of a TL dosemeter disc previously exposed to ionising radiation is termed as residual TL. The origin of residual TL has not been discussed in detail so far in the literature. In this work, experimentally obtained residual TL signal and its origin is studied for CaSO4:Dy-based TL dosemeter through numerical simulation and role of deeper traps has been discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Expanding the Teaching Commons: Making the Case for a New Perspective on SoTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim A. Case, PhD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As a reflection on O’Meara, Terosky, and Neumann’s (2011 work on scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL faculty development, this essay describes the benefits of SoTL to individual faculty and university goals. In support and expansion of arguments advanced by O’Meara et al., this work calls for the use of SoTL faculty development to promote the shared teaching commons, active recruitment of new SoTL scholars, institutionalization of SoTL values, and integration of SoTL initiatives in both teaching centers and research-focused development offices.

  8. Analysis of TL and OSL kinetics of lithium aluminate

    CERN Document Server

    Twardak, A; Marczewska, B; Gieszczyk, W

    2014-01-01

    Lithium aluminate (LiAlO2) polycrystalline material showing high OSL sensitivity and linear dose response was prepared at IFJ Krakow. The kinetic parameters of OSL and TL processes were evaluated using various experimental techniques: LM-OSL deconvolution, TL glow-curve deconvolution, variable heating rate and isothermal decay. The OSL signal was found to consist of four components, one of them exhibiting a very slow decay. The TL glow-curve possesses two apparent peaks at approximately 85 oC and at 165 oC, which both seem to follow first order kinetics. These peaks seem to have a composite structure and as many as six peaks were found in the glow-curve.

  9. Magnetism and superconductivity of some Tl-Cu oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Timir

    1991-01-01

    Many copper oxide based Thallium compounds are now known. In comparison to the Bi-compounds, the Tl-system shows a richer diversity; i.e., High Temperature Superconductors (HTSC) can be obtained with either one or two Tl-0 layers (m = 1,2); also, the triple-digit phases are easier to synthesize. The value of d, oxygen stoichiometry, is critical to achieving superconductivity. The Tl system is robust to oxygen loss; Tl may be lost or incorporated by diffusion. A diffusion coefficient equal to 10 ms at 900 C was determined. Both ortho-rhombic and tetragonal structures are found, but HTSC behavior is indifferent to the crystal symmetry. This system has the highest T(sub c) confirmed. T(sub c) generally increases with p, the number of CuO layers, but tends to saturate at p = 3. Zero resistance was observed at temperatures as great as 125 K. Most of these HTSC's are hole type, but the Ce-doped specimens may be electronic. The magnetic aspects were studied; because in addition to defining the perfectly diamagnetic ground state as in conventional superconductors, magnetism of the copper oxides show a surprising variety. This is true of both the normal and the superconducting states. Also, due to the large phonon contribution to the specific heat at the high T(sub c) jump, electronic density of states, D(Ef), and coherence length are uncertain, and thus, are estimated from the magnetic results. Results from the Tl-system CuO, LaBaCuO,120 and the Bi-CuO compounds are discussed. The emphasis is on the role of magnetism in the Tl-CuO HTSC, but technological aspects are also pointed out.

  10. ESR and TL studies of irradiated Anatolian laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe Çam, Semra; Aydaş, Canan; Engin, Birol; Rabia Yüce, Ülkü; Aydın, Talat; Polat, Mustafa

    2012-06-01

    Laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.) samples that originated from Turkey were analyzed by electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) techniques before and after γ-irradiation. Unirradiated (control) laurel leaf samples exhibit a weak ESR singlet centered at g=2.0020. Besides this central signal were two weak satellite signals situated about 3 mT left and right to it in radiation-induced spectra. The dose-response curve of the radiation-induced ESR signal at g=2.0187 (the left satellite signal) was found to be described well by a power function. Variation of the left satellite ESR signal intensity of irradiated samples at room temperature with time in a long term showed that cellulosic free radicals responsible for the ESR spectrum of laurel leaves were not stable but detectable even after 100 days. Annealing studies at four different temperatures were used to determine the kinetic behavior and activation energy of the radiation-induced cellulosic free radicals responsible from the left satellite signal (g=2.0187) in laurel leaves. TL measurements of the polymineral dust isolated from the laurel leaf samples allowed distinguishing between irradiated and unirradiated samples.

  11. Measurement of Quenching Factor for Nuclear Recoils in CsI(Tl) Crystal%CsI(Tl)晶体中反冲Cs和I核Quenching Factor的测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳骞; 李金; 刘延; 李浩斌; 王子敬; 王名儒

    2002-01-01

    Detection of dark matter using CsI(Tl) scintillating crystal as the detector has gathered more and more interests. In this paper, the quenching factor of nuclear recoils induced by incident neutron beam was measured based on Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) method to identify events of nuclear recoils from background. It is shown that the quenching factor increases with the decreased recoil energy in the range of 7 keV to 132 keV. This result shows the great advantage of CsI(Tl) crystal detector in detecting of dark matter.%许多实验对用CsI(Tl)闪烁晶体作为探测器来寻找和探测暗物质的可行性进行了研究. 本工作利用8MeV单能中子轰击CsI(Tl)晶体探测器来研究Cs核和I核的Quenching Factor. 在数据处理中,运用脉冲形状甄别(PSD)方法来分辨反冲核信号和本底信号. 实验结果表明,在7keV到132keV的能区中,Quenching Factor随着反冲核能量的减少而增加. 在探测暗物质的实验中,这一性质对于CsI(Tl)晶体探测器获得较低的能量阈值是很有利的.

  12. Rotational bands and chirality in {sup 194}Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiteng, P.L. [National Research Foundation, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa); University of the Western Cape, Bellville (South Africa); University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park (South Africa); Lawrie, E.A.; Lawrie, J.J.; Bark, R.A.; Mullins, S.M.; Murray, S.H.T. [National Research Foundation, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa); Ramashidzha, T.M.; Maine, P.; Maliage, S.M.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Shirinda, O.; Vymers, P.A. [National Research Foundation, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa); University of the Western Cape, Bellville (South Africa); Lindsay, R. [University of the Western Cape, Bellville (South Africa); Komati, F.; Kau, J. [National Research Foundation, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa); University of North West, Mmabatho (South Africa); Matamba, I. [University of Venda for Science and Technology, Thohoyandou (South Africa); Mutshena, K.P. [National Research Foundation, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa); University of Venda for Science and Technology, Thohoyandou (South Africa); Pasternak, A.A. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Roux, D.G. [University of the Western Cape, Bellville (South Africa); Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown (South Africa)

    2014-07-15

    The high-spin states in {sup 194}Tl were studied using the {sup 181}Ta({sup 18}O, 5n) reaction and the AFRODITE γ -ray spectrometer at iThemba LABS. The level scheme of {sup 194}Tl was considerably extended with several new bands. Three negative-parity 4-quasiparticle bands were observed and associated with πh{sub 9/2} x νi{sub 13/2}{sup -3} configurations. Two of these form a candidate chiral pair with excellent near-degeneracy. In addition two new positive-parity bands were found. (orig.)

  13. Effects of light exposure on the TL dating of pottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Bleaching experiments on Chinese pottery fine grains were conducted under sunlight and laboratory light conditions. It is found that the thermoluminescence (TL) at high temperatures can be bleached significantly, but no effects were observed on TL signals used for the pre-dose dating technique. It is concluded that the pre-dose dating technique can be applied to samples even after light exposures. Pottery samples of Tang Dynasty and New Stone Age were studied. Modifications to routine pre-dose dating technique are proposed with adding preheat procedures and using saturation exponential fitting for the sensitivity change data. The modified technique can extend the dating range to New Stone Age.

  14. Characteristics of liquid flow induced by atmospheric-pressure DC glow discharge in contact with liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi; Aoki, Takuya; Shirai, Naoki; Uchida, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we investigated the characteristics of liquid flow induced by atmospheric-pressure dc glow discharge in contact with a liquid. The spatiotemporal development of liquid flow was visualized by the schlieren method, and the temperature distribution was measured using microencapsulated thermotropic liquid crystal particles dispersed in a liquid. We confirmed the appearance of specific downward liquid flow immediately below the dc glow discharge. The characteristics of downward liquid flow were reproduced by fluid simulation considering a downward driving force at the plasma–liquid interface. Our results suggest that the probable driving force for the downward liquid flow was the momentum transfer of charged species at the liquid surface.

  15. Trace elements in Zn Pb Ag deposits and related stream sediments, Brooks Range Alaska, with implications for Tl as a pathfinder element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, G.E.; Kelley, K.D.; Slack, J.F.; Koenig, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Zn-Pb-Ag metallogenic province of the western and central Brooks Range, Alaska, contains two distinct but mineralogically similar deposit types: shale-hosted massive sulphide (SHMS) and smaller vein-breccia occurrences. Recent investigations of the Red Dog and Anarraaq SHMS deposits demonstrated that these deposits are characterized by high trace-element concentrations of As, Ge, Sb and Tl. This paper examines geochemistry of additional SHMS deposits (Drenchwater and Su-Lik) to determine which trace elements are ubiquitously elevated in all SHMS deposits. Data from several vein-breccia occurrences are also presented to see if trace-element concentrations can distinguish SHMS deposits from vein-breccia occurrences. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that Tl is the most consistently and highly concentrated characteristic trace element in SHMS deposits relative to regional unmineralized rock samples. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of pyrite and sphalerite indicate that Tl is concentrated in pyrite in SHMS. Stream sediment data from the Drenchwater and Su-Lik SHMS show that high Tl concentrations are more broadly distributed proximal to known or suspected mineralization than As, Sb, Zn and Pb anomalies. This broader distribution of Tl in whole-rock and particularly stream sediment samples increases the footprint of exposed and shallowly buried SHMS mineralization. High Tl concentrations also distinguish SHMS mineralization from the vein-breccia deposits, as the latter lack high concentrations of Tl but can otherwise have similar trace-element signatures to SHMS deposits. ?? 2009 AAG/Geological Society of London.

  16. Response of Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota) and mastic shrub (Pistacia lentiscus L.) seedlings to high concentrations of Cd and Tl in the rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, María T; Marañón, Teodoro; Murillo, José Manuel; Redondo-Gómez, Susana

    2011-05-01

    The impairment of root growth and photosynthetical functioning are the main impacts of trace elements on woody plant seedlings. In this work, we assessed the response of Holm oak (Quercusilex subsp. ballota) and mastic shrub (Pistacia lentiscus) seedlings to high concentrations of Cd and Tl in the rhizosphere. These are non-essential trace elements, with a potential high mobility in the soil-plant system. Seedlings of these species are frequently used in the afforestation of degraded soils in mining areas. Plants were exposed to different levels of Cd (20, 80 and 200 mg L(-1)) and Tl (2, 10 and 20 mg L(-1)) in a sand culture. Biomass allocation, growth rates, chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange were studied. Both metals affected root biomass. Cadmium produced an increase in the root mass ratio and a decrease in the specific leaf area of the plants in oak seedlings, while Tl did not provoke such response. Mastic plants were more sensitive to Tl and Cd than oak plants. Between elements, Tl provoked more severe toxic effects in the plants, affecting the antennae complexes and reaction centers of the photosystem II. Both elements decreased net assimilation rates (down to a 20% of the control plants) and stomatal conductance (5-10% of the values for the control plants). Cadmium was highly retained in the roots of both species, while Tl was highly translocated into the leaves. In general, Holm oak showed a higher tolerance for Cd than for Tl, and a higher resistance to both metals than mastic shrub, due to a high capacity for Cd retention at the root level. However, such accumulation in roots may induce water stress in the seedling exposed to Cd.

  17. Superconducting thin films of Tl 2Ca 2Ba 2Cu 3O y and Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, D. S.; Kwak, J. F.; Hellmer, R. P.; Baughman, R. J.; Venturini, E. L.; Mitchell, M. A.; Morosin, B.

    1988-11-01

    We present techniques for preparing unoriented polycrystalline and epitaxial superconducting thin films of the Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O y and Tl 2Ca 2Ba 2Cu 3O y phases on a wide variety of substrates. The crucial steps determining the properties of the films are shown to be the air sintering and oxygen annealing following the initial metal deposition by electron beam evaporation under a slight oxygen overpressure. A sintered Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O pellet is employed as a source of excess Tl during sintering and annealing of the thin film. The Tl concentration in the final films controls the nature of the intergrain connections. The films are characterized by their structural, chemical, magnetic and transport properties. Zero resistance typically occurs at 97 K for Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O and at 106 K for Tl 2Ca 2Ba 2Cu 3O y. Transport critical currents of up to 110 000 A/cm 2 have been obtained at 77 K for unoriented Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O y, up to 160 000 A/cm 2 for epitaxial Tl 2Ca 2Ba 2Cu 3O y and up to 240 000 A/cm 2 for unoriented Tl 2Ca 2Cu 3O y films with little field dependence of the critical current observed.

  18. Jet-induced modifications of the characteristic of the bulk nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Marcinkowski, P; Kikoła, D; Sikorski, J; Porter-Sobieraj, J; Gawryszewski, P; Zygmunt, B

    2015-01-01

    We present our studies on jet-induced modifications of the characteristic of the bulk nuclear matter. To describe such a matter, we use efficient relativistic hydrodynamic simulations in (3+1) dimensions employing the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in the parallel programming framework. We use Cartesian coordinates in the calculations to ensure a high spatial resolution that is constant throughout the evolution of the system. We show our results on how jets modify the hydrodynamics fields and discuss the implications.

  19. Jet-induced modifications of the characteristic of the bulk nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, P.; Słodkowski, M.; Kikoła, D.; Sikorski, J.; Porter-Sobieraj, J.; Gawryszewski, P.; Zygmunt, B.

    2016-01-01

    We present our studies on jet induced modifications of the characteristics of bulk nuclear matter. To describe such matter, we use efficient relativistic hydrodynamic simulations in (3+1)-dimension, employing the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in the parallel programming framework. We use Cartesian coordinates in the calculations to ensure a high spatial resolution that is constant throughout the evolution of the system. We show our results on how jets modify the hydrodynamics fields and discuss the implications.

  20. Emission and gain studies of the Tl-Hg excimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilukuri, S.; Nayfeh, M.H.

    1978-11-01

    The pressure and temperature dependence of the Tl-Hg excimer emission in the visible from an rf excited discharge has been studied. The gain of the system in the blue band at 4585 A is probed with an Ar-ion laser. With gain sensitivity limited to 1/2% due to beam steering and defocusing effects, the system has no gain.

  1. Study of a large NaI(Tl) crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Aoki, M. [Physics Department, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Blecher, M. [Physics Department, Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Bryman, D.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Doria, L., E-mail: luca@triumf.c [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gumplinger, P. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hussein, A. [University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, B.C., V2N 4Z9 (Canada); Ito, N. [Physics Department, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Kettell, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Kurchaninov, L. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Littenberg, L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Malbrunot, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Marshall, G.M. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Numao, T., E-mail: toshio@triumf.c [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Poutissou, R.; Sher, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Yamada, K. [Physics Department, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2010-09-21

    Using a narrow band positron beam, the response of a large high-resolution NaI(Tl) crystal to an incident positron beam was measured. It was found that nuclear interactions cause the appearance of additional peaks in the low energy tail of the deposited energy spectrum.

  2. Preparation of biaxially oriented TlCu-1234 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, N A; Tateai, F; Kojima, T; Ishida, K; Terada, N; Ihara, H

    1999-01-01

    The single phase of TlCu-1234 superconductor thin films is prepared for the first time by the amorphous phase epitaxy (APE) method, which is thallium treatment of sputtered amorphous phase at 900 degrees C for 1 h. The amorphous $9 phase is prepared by sputtering from the stoichiometric target composition CuBa/sub 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O/sub 12-y/. The films on the SrTiO/sub 3/ substrate are aligned biaxially after the thallium treatment. Highly reproducible $9 TlCu-1234 films are prepared by this method. The XRD reflected a predominant single phase with the c-axis lattice constant of 18.74 AA. This lattice constant value is in between that of Cu-1234 (17.99 AA) and Tl-1234 (19.11 AA) . The $9 pole figure measurements of (103) reflection of the films showed a-axis-oriented crystals with Delta phi =0.8 degrees . The composition of the films after energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements is Tl/sub 0.8/Cu/sub 0.2/Ba/sub $9 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O /sub 12-y/. From the resistivity measurements, the T/sub c/ is 113 K...

  3. TL, EPR and optical absorption in natural grossular crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yauri, J.M. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Department of Physics, University of San Agustin, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Cano, N.F. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: nilocano@dfn.if.usp.br; Watanabe, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    Grossular is one of six members of silicate Garnet group. Two samples GI and GII have been investigated concerning their luminescence thermally stimulated (TL). EPR and optical absorption and the measurements were carried out to find out whether or not same point defects are responsible for all three properties. Although X-rays diffraction analysis has shown that both GI and GII have practically the same crystal structure of a standard grossular crystal, they presented different behavior in many aspects. The TL glow curve shape, TL response to radiation dose, the effect of annealing at high temperatures before irradiation, the dependence of UV bleaching parameters on peak temperature, all of them differ going from GI to GII. The EPR signals around g=2.0 as well as at g=4.3 and 6.0 have much larger intensity in GI than in GII. Very high temperature (>800 deg. C) annealing causes large increase in the bulk background absorption in GI, however, only very little in GII. In the cases of EPR and optical absorption, the difference in their behavior can be attributed to Fe{sup 3+} ions; however, in the TL case one cannot and the cause was not found as yet.

  4. Accident dosimetry using the TL from dental restoration porcelains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, C.L.P.; Rosa, L.A.R.; Cunha, P.G. (Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1985-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of dental restorative porcelain were investigated with the aim of using this material as a TL dosemeter to estimate high doses in radiological accidents. The irradiations were carried out with a /sup 60/Co gamma source and X rays with effective energies from 29 to 95 keV. The porcelain glow curve presents three peaks at about 393,463 and 543K. The samples have a limit of detection at about 1.29 x 10/sup -2/ C.kg/sup -1/(50 R) and their reproducibility is better than 15%. Linearity was observed from 1.29 x 10/sup -2/ to 12.9 C.kg/sup -1/(50 to 50,000 R). Over this exposure range, the dental porcelain TL response presents a maximum pre-dose sensitisation factor of 2.33. The porcelain TL sensitivity, normalised to /sup 60/Co, has a maximum of 4.8 at 29 keV due to its energy dependence.

  5. Being Chimaera: A Monstrous Identity for SoTL Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rebecca; Hobson, Julia; Jones, Angela; Martin-Lynch, Pamela; Scutt, Cecily; Strehlow, Karin; Veitch, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Lurking on the fringes of university culture are academic identities that do not fit into the usual disciplinary communities. Aiming to explore the experience of "being academic" when not linked directly to a discipline, this paper examines the stories of a diverse group of SoTL scholars who work in a centralised multi-campus academic…

  6. Solving the TTC 2011 Reengineering Case with GReTL

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, Tassilo

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the GReTL reference solution of the TTC 2011 Reengineering case. Given a Java syntax graph, a simple state machine model has to be extracted. The submitted solution covers both the core task and the two extension tasks.

  7. Solving the TTC 2011 Reengineering Case with GReTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassilo Horn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the GReTL reference solution of the TTC 2011 Reengineering case. Given a Java syntax graph, a simple state machine model has to be extracted. The submitted solution covers both the core task and the two extension tasks.

  8. The Intentional Design of a SoTL Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Cheryl; Emmioglu, Esma; Hotton, Veronica; Hum, Gregory; Xin, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a SoTL program at Simon Fraser University that focuses on the importance of analyzing the internal coherence and alignment of the program design and the thinking underpinning the design as the first steps in evaluating effectiveness or impact.

  9. Microcomputer-Controlled Reader Systems for Archaeological and Geological TL Dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Mejdahl, V.

    1984-01-01

    Two fully automated TL reader systems for TL dating and a manually operated reader for research purpose were put into operation during 1982-3. All systems are controlled by HP-85 or HP-86 microcomputers; thus flexibility in selection of measurement parameters, calculation of TL signals and display...

  10. Secretion, blood levels and cutaneous expression of TL1A in psoriasis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Schmidt, Esben Gjerløff Wedebye; Sørensen, Jesper Freddie

    2015-01-01

    was observed as compared to healthy controls and a small subset of patients had highly elevated TL1A in the blood. Interestingly, activation of PBMCs with various cytokines showed a decreased sensitivity for TL1A activation in psoriasis patients compared to healthy controls.TL1A levels in blood and biopsies...

  11. Anomalously small blackbody radiation shift in the Tl+ frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhrianda, Z.; Safronova, M. S.; Kozlov, M. G.

    2012-02-01

    The operation of atomic clocks is generally carried out at room temperature, whereas the definition of the second refers to the clock transition in an atom at absolute zero. This implies that the clock transition frequency should be corrected in practice for the effect of finite temperature of which the leading contributor is the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift. In the present work, we used configuration interaction + coupled-cluster method to evaluate polarizabilities of the 6s21S0 and 6s6p3P0 states of the Tl+ ion; we find α0(1S0)=19.6 a.u. and α0(3P0)=21.4 a.u. The resulting BBR shift of the 6s6p3P0-6s21S0 Tl+ transition at 300 K is ΔνBBR=-0.0157(16) Hz. This result demonstrates that near cancellation of the 1S0 and 3P0 state polarizabilities in divalent B+, Al+, and In+ ions of group IIIB [M. S. Safronova , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.143006 107, 143006 (2011)] continues for much heavier Tl+, leading to anomalously small BBR shift for this system. This calculation demonstrates that the BBR contribution to the fractional frequency uncertainty of the Tl+ frequency standard at 300 K is 1×10-18. We find that Tl+ has the smallest fractional BBR shift among all present or proposed frequency standards with the exception of Al+.

  12. Cloning and Expression Analysis of TaLr19TLP1 Gene in Wheat Induced by Puc c inia tritic ina%叶锈菌诱导的小麦TaL r19TL P1基因的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗小英; 高琳; 张艳俊; 王海燕; 刘大群

    2014-01-01

    为了探明类甜蛋白(thaumatin-like proteins, TLPs)基因与小麦抗叶锈病防御反应的相关性,本研究采用RT-PCR和电子克隆技术从叶锈菌侵染的TcLr19小麦叶片中获得了一个类甜蛋白基因,命名为TaLr19TLP1(GeneBank登录号:KJ764822)。生物信息学分析表明该基因包含一个长516 bp的开放阅读框(open reading frame, ORF),不含内含子,编码171个氨基酸残基,具有一个甜蛋白保守结构域(thaumatin, THN),氨基酸序列与其他物种类甜蛋白序列具有较高同源性。实时荧光定量PCR分析明确该基因表达受叶锈菌、脱落酸和水杨酸的诱导。接种叶锈菌后不同时间点,TaLr19TLP1基因在非亲和组合中表达早于亲和组合,且表达量明显高于亲和组合。另外,该基因表达具有组织特异性,在茎部表达量高于叶部和根部。Western杂交分析表明,TaLr19TLP1蛋白与小麦叶锈菌诱导具有相关性,与基因水平表达模式相一致。以上研究结果说明TaL r19TL P1基因参与小麦TcLr19小麦抗叶锈防御反应。%To understand the roles of thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) gene in the response of wheat to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) infection, one thaumatin-like proteins gene designated TaLr19TLP1 (GeneBank accession number: KJ764822) was obtained from TcLr19 wheat leaves infected by leaf rust pathogen using RT-PCR and silico cloning methods. Bioinformatics analysis showed that TaLr19TLP1 contained a single opening reading frame of 516 bp encoding 171 amino acid-peptides without intron, and the deduced amino acids sequence of TaLr19TLP1 has high homology with pathogenesis-related protein 5 obtained from other species with a thaumatin THN domain. The expression profiles of the TaLr19TLP1 gene detected by real-time quantitative PCR showed that TaLr19TLP1 gene could be induced by Puccinia triticina, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA). TaLr19TLP1 was induced earlier and its expression level

  13. Effect of particle size in the TL response of natural quartz sensitized by high dose of gamma radiation and heat-treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Barbosa de Carvalho Jr

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effect of particle size in the thermoluminescence (TL response of a quartz crystal that was initially crushed and classified into ten size fractions between 38 μm and 5 mm. Aliquots of each size fraction were sensitized with a dose of 25 kGy of γ rays and heat-treatments at 400 °C. TL glow curves of sensitized and non-sensitized samples were recorded as a function of different test-doses of γ rays. For the non-sensitized samples, the TL peak near 325 °C increases with the decrease in particle size. In the case of sensitized samples, a strong TL peak near 300 °C increases with the increase in particle size up to mean grain size equal to 304 μm. Above 304 μm, an abrupt reduction in the TL intensity is noticed for the sensitized peak. These effects are discussed in relation to the specific surface area of quartz particles and the intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance signal of the E'1 center induced by the sensitization process.

  14. TL and OSL dose response and stability properties of various commercially glass samples obtained from Turkey for dosimetric purposes in the UV emission spectral region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahiner, Eren

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports Thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dose response characteristics of ten different commercial glass samples collected from Turkey. Nowadays, glass samples are widely used mostly in objects of everyday life. The study focuses to both TL and OSL dose responses, through a dose region within 1 and 512Gy. Lowest detectable dose limit (LDDL) as well as the respective linearity features of the corresponding dose response curves were studied for both TL and OSL. Moreover, signal reproducibility and fading behaviors have also been studied in detail. For specific samples, the lowest detectable dose was yielded at 2Gy, making thus these samples appropriate for retrospective dosimetry applications. Nevertheless, based on the features reported in the present study, the majority of the samples could be possibly used effectively for dosimetric applications of higher doses in the UV region emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Excess conductivity analysis of Cr substituted TlSr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 7–δ} superconductor at Tl and Ca sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Sharabi, Annas; Abd-Shukor, R., E-mail: ras@ukm.edu.my

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Induced 2D-to-3D conductivity transition with the highest temperature, T{sub 2D–3D} at x = 0.15. • Shortest ξ{sub c}(0) and lowest interplanar coupling, J for x = 0.20. • This work showed strong relation between T{sub c} {sub onset} and T{sub 2D–3D}. - Abstract: Samples with nominal starting compositions (Tl{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x})Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 7−δ} and TlSr{sub 2}(Ca{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x})Cu{sub 2}O{sub 7−δ} (x = 0.05–0.30) had been prepared by the solid state reaction method and studied by powder X-ray diffraction method, electrical resistance measurements and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Cr{sub 2}S{sub 3} was used as the Cr source. Excess conductivity analysis using the Aslamazov–Larkin (AL) theory to determine the dimension of fluctuation induced conductivity λ was carried out. The Lawrence–Donaich (LD) theory was used to calculate the coherence length ξ{sub c}(0), Josephson coupling J, and γ = (ξ{sub ab}(0)/ξ{sub c}(0)) of the superconducting samples. Partial substitution of Cr in place of Tl in (Tl{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x})Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 7−δ} (Tl-1212) showed initial increase in zero-resistance–temperature, T{sub c} {sub zero}. Sample with x = 0.15 showed the highest superconducting onset temperature T{sub c} {sub onset} (105 K) and the lowest normal state electrical resistivity. XRD patterns indicated that the samples were dominantly Tl-1212 phase. Excess conductivity analyses showed that Cr substitution induced 2D-to-3D conductivity transition with the highest transition temperature, T{sub 2D–3D} observed at x = 0.15. The calculations based on Lawrence–Doniach model revealed shortest coherence length, ξ{sub c}(0) and lowest interplanar coupling, J for x = 0.20. Substitution of Cr in place of Ca in TlSr{sub 2}(Ca{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x})Cu{sub 2}O{sub 7−δ} showed T{sub c} {sub onset} between 90 K (x = 0.3) and 104 K (x = 0.2). Excess conductivity analyses for TlSr{sub 2}(Ca{sub 1

  16. AES and EELS analysis of TlBaCaCuOx thin films at 300 K and at 100 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A. J.; Swartzlander, A.; Kazmerski, L. L.; Kang, J. H.; Kampwirth, R. T.; Gray, K. E.

    1989-02-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy line-shape analysis of the Tl(NOO), Ba(MNN), Ca(LMM), Cu(LMM) and O(KLL) peaks has been performed in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) on magnetron sputter deposited TlBaCaCuOx thin films a superconducting onset at 110 K with zero resistance at 96 K. AES and EELS analyses were performed at 300 K and at 100 K. Changes in the Auger line shapes and in the EELS spectra as the temperature is lowered below the critical point are related to changes in the electronic structure of states in the valence band (VB). Bulk and surface plasmon peaks are identified in the EELS spectra along with features due to core level transitions. Electron beam and ion beam induced effects are also addressed.

  17. Characteristics of laser-induced shock wave injury to the inner ear of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurioka, Takaomi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Niwa, Katsuki; Tamura, Atsushi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Satoh, Yasushi; Sato, Shunichi; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the number of blast injuries of the inner ear has increased in the general population. In blast-induced inner ear injury, a shock wave (SW) component in the blast wave is considered to play an important role in sensorineural hearing loss. However, the mechanisms by which an SW affects inner ear tissue remain largely unknown. We aimed to establish a new animal model for SW-induced inner ear injury by using laser-induced SWs (LISWs) on rats. The LISWs were generated by irradiating an elastic laser target with 694-nm nanosecond pulses of a ruby laser. After LISW application to the cochlea through bone conduction, auditory measurements revealed the presence of inner ear dysfunction, the extent of which depended on LISW overpressure. A significantly lower survival rate of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons, as well as severe oxidative damage, were observed in the inner ear exposed to an LISW. Although considerable differences in the pressure characteristics exist between LISWs and SWs in real blast waves, the functional and morphological changes shown by the present LISW-based model were similar to those observed in real blast-induced injury. Thus, our animal model is expected to be useful for laboratory-based research of blast-induced inner ear injury.

  18. [Doppler effect on width of characteristic line in plasma induced by pulsed laser ablating Al].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi-Zhong; He, An-Zhi

    2005-05-01

    Aluminum (Al) plasma was induced with a pulsed Nd: YAG laser beam ablating Al target in Ar. Time-resolved information of the plasma radiation was taken with time-resolved technique, and the spectra of the radiation were recorded with an optical multi-path analyzer (OMA III ), whereupon, time-resolved spectra of the plasma radiation induced by pulsed laser were acquired. Based on the experiment data, Al resonant double lines, Al I 396.15 nm, Al I 394.40 nm, were respectively fitted with Lorentz, Gauss and their linear integrated function (abbr. Integrated function), whereupon, Lorentz and Gauss elements were separated from the experiment data profile curve. By contrasting Lorentz with Gauss curve separated, it was found that the experiment curve mainly consisted of Lorentz element, a with little Gauss. By contrasting Lorentz with Integrated fitting curve for experiment data, a visual picture of the characteristic lines broadened by Doppler effect was exhibited. According to the visual picture, the increase of full half-high width of the characteristic line broadened by Doppler effect was estimated. It was about 2 x 10(-)3 -8 x 10(-3) nm, approximating the theoretical value 6.7 x 10(-)3 nm. As a result, Doppler effect on the width of characteristic lines in the plasma could be reasonably explained by curve fitting analysis and theoretical calculation.

  19. Numerical simulation of inducing characteristics of high energy electron beam plasma for aerodynamics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongfeng, DENG; Jian, JIANG; Xianwei, HAN; Chang, TAN; Jianguo, WEI

    2017-04-01

    The problem of flow active control by low temperature plasma is considered to be one of the most flourishing fields of aerodynamics due to its practical advantages. Compared with other means, the electron beam plasma is a potential flow control method for large scale flow. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics model coupled with a multi-fluid plasma model is established to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics induced by electron beam plasma. The results demonstrate that the electron beam strongly influences the flow properties, not only in the boundary layers, but also in the main flow. A weak shockwave is induced at the electron beam injection position and develops to the other side of the wind tunnel behind the beam. It brings additional energy into air, and the inducing characteristics are closely related to the beam power and increase nonlinearly with it. The injection angles also influence the flow properties to some extent. Based on this research, we demonstrate that the high energy electron beam air plasma has three attractive advantages in aerodynamic applications, i.e. the high energy density, wide action range and excellent action effect. Due to the rapid development of near space hypersonic vehicles and atmospheric fighters, by optimizing the parameters, the electron beam can be used as an alternative means in aerodynamic steering in these applications.

  20. Two crystal structures of Ag sup + -and Tl sup + -exchanged zeolite X, Ag sub 2 sub 7 Tl sub 6 sub 5 -X and Ag sub 2 sub 3 Tl sub 6 sub 9 -X

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S Y; Kim, Y

    2002-01-01

    Two crystal structures of dehydrated Ag sup + -and Tl sup + -exchanged zeolite X (Ag sub 2 sub 7 Tl sub 6 sub 5 -X and Ag sub 2 sub 3 Tl sub 6 sub 9 -X) have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques in the cubic space group Fd3 at 21(1) .deg. C (a = 24.758(4) A, a = 24.947(4) A, respectively). Their structures were refined to the final error indices R sub 1 = 0.055 and wR sub 2 = 0.057 with 375 reflections, and R sub 1 = 0.058 and wR sub 2 = 0.057 with 235 reflections, respectively, for which I> 3 sigma(I). In the structure of Ag sub 2 sub 7 Tl sub 6 sub 5 -X, 27 Ag sup + ions were found at two crystallographic sites: 15 Ag sup + ions at site I at the center of the hexagonal prism and the remaining 12 Ag sup + ions at site II' in the sodalite cavity. Sixty-five Tl sup + ions were located at three crystallographic sites: 20 Tl sup + ions at site II opposite single six-rings in the supercage, 18 Tl sup + ions at site I' in the sodalite cavity opposite the D6Rs, and the remaining 27 Tl sup ...

  1. The development of Tl-2212 based superconducting thin films for microwave applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hyland, D M C

    2001-01-01

    This thesis attempts to develop the understanding of the two-stage ex-situ processing of Tl sub 2 Ba sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O (Tl-2212) thin films on LaAlO sub 3 substrates. Initially a thallium-free precursor film is deposited by sputtering, this is then annealed in a sealed crucible containing a thallium source to produce the final crystalline film. An investigation into the correlation of physical characteristics of the films with their microwave properties is presented. High reproducibility of processing was achieved for 1cm sup 2 size films with measured R sub s < 0.5m OMEGA. Strong dependence of the microwave properties was found with film thickness and growth morphology of the crystalline film. A good correlation of R sub s was seen with defect density, greater numbers of defects giving higher R sub s values. Problems were encountered in scaling up the process to fabricate 2-inch diameter films, initially limited by the increased defect density associated with a larger surface area. Additionally when usin...

  2. Measurements of NaI:Tl Electron Response using SLYNCI: Comparison of Different Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, G; Choong, W; Moses, W W; Bizarri, G; Valentine, J D; Payne, S A; Cherepy, N; Reutter, B W

    2007-11-12

    This paper measures the sample to sample variation in the light yield non-proportionality of NaI:Tl, and so explores whether this is an invariant characteristic of the material or whether it is dependent on the chemical and physical properties of tested sample. In this work we report on the electron response of nine crystals of NaI(Tl), differing in shape, volume, age, manufacturer and quality. The non-proportionality has been measured at the SLYNCI facility in the energy range between 3.5 to 460 keV. The Scintillation Light Yield Non-proportionality Characterization Instrument (SLYNCI) is a next generation Compton Coincidence device, explicitly designed to study the 'non-proportionality' of the electron response in scintillators and the contribution of this effect to the intrinsic energy resolution. We also discuss the gamma response, x-ray excited emission spectra and decay times for the nine crystals, in order to provide a complete characterization of their physical properties and determine whether the mechanism of scintillation varies between samples.

  3. Measurements of NaI(Tl) electron response: comparison of different samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Giulia; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W.; Bizarri, Gregory; Valentine, John D.; Payne, Stephen A.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Reutter, Bryan W.

    2008-12-10

    This paper measures the sample to sample variation in the light yield proportionality of NaI(Tl), and so explores whether this is an invariant characteristic of the material or whether it depends on the chemical and physical properties of the tested samples. We report on the electron response of nine crystals of NaI(Tl), differing in shape, volume, age, manufacturer and quality. The proportionality has been measured at the SLYNCI facility in the energy range between 3.5 to 460 keV. We observe that while samples produced by the same manufacturer at approximately the same time have virtually identical electron response curves, there are significant sample to sample variations among crystals produced by different manufacturers or at different times. In an effort to correlate changes in the electron response with details of the scintillation mechanism, we characterized other scintillation properties, including the gamma response and the x-ray excited emission spectra and decay times, for the nine crystals. While sample to sample differences in these crystals were observed, we have been unable to identify the underlying fundamental mechanisms that are responsible for these differences.

  4. Superconductivity in the Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O System:. Synthesis, Characterization and Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, A. K.; Swamy, K. S. Nanjunda; Subbanna, G. N.; Rajumon, M. K.; Sarma, D. D.; Rao, C. N. R.

    Synthesis and characterization of some of the members of the Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O system are presented. Tc in both the TlCan-1Ba2CunO2n+3 and Tl2Can-1Ba2CunO2n+4 series increase with the number of Cu-O layers, n; Tc in the latter series with two Tl-O layers are generally higher than in the former with a single Tl-O layer. Tl in the cuprates is in the 3+ state while Cu is in the 1+ and 2+ states, showing the importance of oxygen holes. The concentration of these holes seems to increase with the number of Tl-O layers.

  5. Phase characteristics of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in coupled resonant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Qingrui; Zhang, Daihua

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and EIT-like effects have been investigated in a wide variety of coupled resonant systems. Here, a classification of the phase characteristics of the EIT-like spectral responses is presented. Newly identified phase responses reveal unexplored operation regimes of EIT-like systems. Taking advantage of the new phase regimes, one can obtain group delay, dispersion and nonlinearity properties greatly enhanced by almost one order of magnitude, compared to the traditionally constructed EIT-like devices, which breaks the fundamental limitation (e.g., delay-bandwidth product) intrinsic to atomic EIT and EIT-like effects. Optical devices and electrical circuits are analyzed as examples showing the universality of our finding. We show that cavity-QED-based quantum phase gates can be greatly improved to achieve a phase shift of {\\pi}. The new phase characteristics are also believed to be useful to build novel doubly resonant devices in quantum information based on cavity QE...

  6. Damage Induced by Neutron Radiation on Output Characteristics of Solar Cells, Photodiodes, and Phototransistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Simić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of neutron radiation on I-V characteristics (current dependance on voltage of commercial optoelectronic devices (silicon photodiodes, phototransistors, and solar panels. Current-voltage characteristics of the samples were measured at room temperature before and after irradiation. The diodes were irradiated using Am-Be neutron source with neutron emission of 2.7×106 n/s. The results showed a decrease in photocurrent for all samples which could be due to the existence of neutron-induced displacement defects introduced into the semiconductor lattice. The process of annealing has also been observed. A comparative analysis of measurement results has been performed in order to determine the reliability of optoelectronic devices in radiation environments.

  7. 3D Characteristic Diagram of Acoustically Induced Surface Vibration with Different Landmines Buried

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴智强; 张燕丽; 王驰; 朱俊; 徐文文; 袁志文

    2016-01-01

    The 3Dcharacteristic diagram of acoustically induced surface vibration was employed to study the influence of different buried landmines on the acoustic detection signal. By using the vehicular experimental system for acoustic landmine detection and the method of scanning detection, the 3D characteristic diagrams of surface vibration were measured when different objects were buried underground, including big plastic landmine, small plastic landmine, big metal landmine and bricks. The results show that, under the given conditions, the surface vi-bration amplitudes of big plastic landmine, big metal landmine, small plastic landmine and bricks decrease in turn. The 3D characteristic diagrams of surface vibration can be used to further identify the locations of buried land-mines.

  8. Statistical evaluation of characteristic SDDLV-induced stress resultants to discriminate between undamaged and damaged elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, L. M.; Johansen, R. J.; Ulriksen, M. D.; Tcherniak, D.; Damkilde, L.

    2015-07-01

    The stochastic dynamic damage location vector (SDDLV) method utilizes the vectors from the kernel of a damaged-induced transfer function matrix change to localize damages in a structure. The kernel vectors associated with the lowest singular values are converted into static pseudo-loads and applied alternately to an undamaged reference model with known stiffness matrix, hereby, theoretically, yielding characteristic stress resultants approaching zero in the damaged elements. At present, the discrimination between potentially damaged elements and undamaged ones is typically conducted on the basis of modified characteristic stress resultants, which are compared to a pre-defined tolerance value, without any thorough statistical evaluation. In the present paper, it is tested whether three widely-used statistical pattern-recognition-based damage-detection methods can provide an effective statistical evaluation of the characteristic stress resultants, hence facilitating general discrimination between damaged and undamaged elements. The three detection methods in question enable outlier analysis on the basis of, respectively, Euclidian distance, Hotelling's T2 statistics, and Mahalanobis distance. The study of the applicability of these methods is based on experimentally obtained accelerations of a cantilevered residential-sized wind turbine blade subjected to an unmeasured multi-impulse load. The characteristic stress resultants are derived by applying the static pseudo-loads to a representative finite element (FE) model of the actual blade.

  9. The application of time decay characteristics of laser-induced fluorescence in the classification of vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Yang, Jian; Shi, Shuo; Du, Lin; Sun, Jia; Song, Shalei

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the time decay of the chlorophyll fluorescence intensity (TDCFI) of vegetation was measured based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology with a 355 nm laser serving as the excitation light source. The pseudo-color diagram of the TDCFI (PDTDCFIs) was proposed for use as a characteristic fingerprint for the analysis of various plant species based on variations in the fluorescence intensity over time. Compared with the steady-state fluorescence spectra, two-dimensional PDTDCFIs contained more spectral information, including variations in both the shape of the laser-induced fluorescence spectra and the relative intensity. The experimental results demonstrated that the PDTDCFIs of various plant species show distinct differences, and this was successfully applied in the classification of plant species. Therefore, the PDTDCFIs of plants could provide researchers with a more reliable and useful tool for the characterization of vegetation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [Laser induced fluorescence spectrum characteristics of common edible oil and fried cooking oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Tao-tao; Chen, Si-ying; Zhang, Yin-chao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Ge, Xian-ying; Gao, Li-lei

    2013-09-01

    In order to detect the trench oil the authors built a trench oil rapid detection system based on laser induced fluorescence detection technology. This system used 355 nm laser as excitation light source. The authors collected the fluorescence spectrum of a variety of edible oil and fried cooking oil (a kind of trench oil) and then set up a fluorescence spectrum database by taking advantage of the trench oil detection system It was found that the fluorescence characteristics of fried cooking oil and common edible oil were obviously different. Then it could easily realize the oil recognition and trench oil rapid detection by using principal component analysis and BP neural network, and the overall recognition rate could reach as high as 97.5%. Experiments showed that laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology was fast, non-contact, and highly sensitive. Combined with BP neural network, it would become a new technique to detect the trench oil.

  11. Anomalously small blackbody radiation shift in Tl+ frequency standard

    CERN Document Server

    Zuhrianda, Z; Kozlov, M G

    2012-01-01

    The operation of atomic clocks is generally carried out at room temperature, whereas the definition of the second refers to the clock transition in an atom at absolute zero. This implies that the clock transition frequency should be corrected in practice for the effect of finite temperature of which the leading contributor is the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift. In the present work, we used configuration interaction + coupled-cluster method to evaluate polarizabilities of the $6s^2 ^1S_0$ and $6s6p ^3P_0$ states of Tl$^+$ ion; we find $\\alpha_0(^1S_0)=19.6$ a.u. and $\\alpha_0(^3P_0)=21.4$ a.u.. The resulting BBR shift of the $6s6p ^3P_0 - 6s^2 ^1S_0$ Tl$^+$ transition at $300 K$ is $\\Delta \

  12. Bifurcation of the roots of the characteristic polynomial and the destabilization paradox in friction induced oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillov O.N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxical effect of small dissipative and gyroscopic forces on the stability of a linear non-conservative system, which manifests itself through the unpredictable at first sight behavior of the critical non-conservative load, is studied. By means of the analysis of bifurcation of multiple roots of the characteristic polynomial of the non-conservative system, the analytical description of this phenomenon is obtained. As mechanical examples two systems possessing friction induced oscillations are considered: a mass sliding over a conveyor belt and a model of a disc brake describing the onset of squeal during the braking of a vehicle.

  13. Behavioral and pharmacological characteristics of bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Yamamoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bortezomib, an effective anticancer drug for multiple myeloma, often causes peripheral neuropathy which is mainly characterized by numbness and painful paresthesia. Nevertheless, there is no effective strategy to escape or treat bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BIPN, because we have understood few mechanism of this side effect. In this study, we evaluated behavioral and pathological characteristics of BIPN, and investigated pharmacological efficacy of various analgesic drugs and adjuvants on mechanical allodynia induced by bortezomib treatment in rats. The repeated administration of bortezomib induced mechanical and cold allodynia. There was axonal degeneration of sciatic nerve behind these neuropathic symptoms. Furthermore, the exposure to bortezomib shortened neurite length in PC12 cells. Finally, the result of evaluation of anti-allodynic potency, oral administration of tramadol (10 mg/kg, pregabalin (3 mg/kg, duloxetine (30 mg/kg or mexiletine (100 mg/kg, but not amitriptyline or diclofenac, transiently relieved the mechanical allodynia induced by bortezomib. These results suggest that axonal degeneration of the sciatic nerve is involved in BIPN and that some analgesic drugs and adjuvants are effective in the relief of painful neuropathy.

  14. Numerical study on the characteristics of nitrogen discharge at high pressure with induced plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yi-Nan; Liu Yue; Zheng Shu; Lin Guo-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the fluid theory of plasma,a model is built to study the characteristics of nitrogen discharge at high pressure with induced argon plasma.In the model,species such as electrons,N2+,N4+,Ar+,and two metastable states (N2(A3 ∑ u+),N2(a1 ∑ u-)) are taken into account.The model includes the particle continuity equation,the electron energy balance equation,and Poisson(柤)equation.The model is solved with a finite difference method.The numerical results are obtained and used to investigate the effect of time taken to add nitrogen gas and initially-induced argon plasma pressure.It is found that lower speeds of adding the nitrogen gas and varying the gas pressure can induce higher plasma density,and inversely lower electron temperature.At high-pressure discharge,the electron density increases when the proportion of nitrogen component is below 40%,while the electron density will keep constant as the nitrogen component further increases.It is also shown that with the increase of initially-induced argon plasma pressure,the density of charged particles increases,and the electron temperature as well as the electric field decreases.

  15. Development of surgical gamma probes with TlBr semiconductors and CsI(Tl) scintillators crystals; Desenvolvimento de sondas cirurgicas radioguiadas com semicondutores de TlBr e com cristais cintiladores de CsI (Tl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Fabio Eduardo da

    2006-07-01

    Radio guided surgery, using probes with radiation detectors, has been prominence in the medical area in the last decade. This technique consists in injecting a radioactive substance to concentrate in tumour and assist the localization during the surgical procedure. The radio guided surgeries allowing the identification of lymph node has revolutioned the behavior of tumour in initial stadium when are being spread by lymphatic way. The conditions imposed to the surgery due the proximity between some lymph nodes, demands of the probes, a small diameters and capacity of individual identification of these lymph nodes radiolabelled by a specific tracer. The international market supplies these probes with CdTe semiconductors and scintillators, but there is some time lack a promptly technical assistance in the Brazilian market. This work developed probes with national technology, using CsI(Tl) scintillators crystals and, in substitution to CdTe crystals semiconductors, the TlBr crystal, that is a new semiconductor detector in a world-wide development, with advantages in relation to the CdTe. Both crystals have been grown in IPEN. All the necessary electronics, specially, the preamplifier, that was also a restrictive factor for development of these types of probe in the country, have been developed with components found in the national market. Systematic measures of spatial resolution, spatial selectivity, maximum sensitivity and quality of the shielding have been carried the probes development. The results have shown that the probes, one with the CsI(Tl) crystal and another with TlBr semiconductor presented the requested performance in the international literature for radio guided probes. (author)

  16. Theory study of shapes in 187,189Tl nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YanXin; YU ShaoYing; SHEN CaiWan; DONG YongSheng

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear shapes of 187,189Tl were Investigated theoretically in this work. The total routhian surface (TRS) calculations were performed for N=106 and 108 isotopes of thallium (Z=81). The single-particle energies were obtained from the deformed Woods-Saxon potential, with the Lipkin-Nogami (LN) treatment of pairing. It is found that the collective oblate rotation coexists with the high-K prolate rotation. Superdeformed prolate rotation is included in this calculation.

  17. Neutron Scattering from fcc Pr and Pr3Tl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgeneau, R. J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Bucher, E.

    1972-01-01

    Elastic-neutron-scattering measurements on the singlet-ground-state ferromagnets fcc Pr and Pr3 Tl are reported. Both exhibit magnetic phase transitions, possibly to a simple ferromagnetic state at 20 and 11.6 °K, respectively. The transitions appear to be of second order although that in fcc Pr...... is clearly anomalous. Additional information on the inelastic scattering studies of the Γ1-Γ4 excitons in these systems is presented. dhcp Pr is also briefly discussed....

  18. Detection of extracardiac disease during Tl-201 myocardial perfusion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan H.; Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    It is important to observe extracardiac disease processes (ECD) during cardiac perfusion imaging for valuable information can be obtained at no extracost to patients. The aim of the study is to find out the frequency of ECD during Tl-201 stress myocardial perfusion imaging (TSMPI). Retrospective evaluation of 552 TSMPI was done. There were 229 males and 223 females reffered for evaluation of possible ischemic heart disease. Their ages range from 20 to 80 with mean age of 58.8 years. Three mCi (111 MBq) of 201 TlCl is used for adenosine or treadmil exercise testing and myocardial SPECT is performed utilizing low energy high resolution collimators and a triple-head camera ( MultiSPECT, Siemens medical systems, Inc., Hoffman Estate, III., USA). In addition to routine cardiac Tl-201 SPECT acquisition, included in the protocol is 1 min, anterior planar views in 128 128 matrix after stress and rest SPECT studies for evaluation of lung uptake and chamber size. Utilizing these views ECD is assessed. Five patients had focal increased activity suggesting tumor and 3 of 5 cases were confirmed as malignancy. The malignancies were thyroid cancer (Hurthle cell), lung cancer, and breast cancer. Benign lesions were autonomous thyroid nodule and pheochromocytoma. Other ECDs include pericardial effusion, pleural effusion, and paralyzed hemidiapharm.. Extracardiac disease processes such as benign or malignancy are easily detected during Tl-201 myocardial perfusion imaging using our acquisition protocol at no cost to the patients. This information could be life saving in some patients for early detection of clinically unsuspected malignancy.

  19. Theory study of shapes in 187,189Tl nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear shapes of 187,189Tl were investigated theoretically in this work. The total routhian surface (TRS) calculations were performed for N=106 and 108 isotopes of thallium (Z=81). The single-particle energies were obtained from the deformed Woods-Saxon potential, with the Lipkin-Nogami (LN) treatment of pairing. It is found that the collective oblate rotation coexists with the high-K prolate rotation. Superdeformed prolate rotation is included in this calculation.

  20. Scholarly Personal Narrative in the SoTL Tent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly personal narrative (SPN extends the available methodologies by which researchers conduct the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL. In this article, the authors define SPN, which interprets personal experience through scholarly frameworks, leveraging the power of reflective practice to understand the interpersonal dynamics of both the classroom and wider academic communities. SPN fosters disciplinary understandings of SoTL and bridges discourse barriers in order to illuminate the complex environments of teaching and learning. The article examines how widely-accepted definitions of scholarship apply to SPN and provides a scholarly approach for researchers to analyze personal experience as a pool of data, employ a range of analytical techniques, and identify significant results. Through an analysis of two articles, the authors discuss the usefulness of SPN both as a major and minor critical lens. The inclusion of SPN may enrich SoTL pluralism and contribute to the knowledge of the complex contexts and influences that shape instructors, learning environments, and student experiences.

  1. Anomalously small BBR shift in Tl^+ frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhrianda, Z.; Safronova, Marianna; Kozlov, Mikhail

    2012-06-01

    The operation of atomic clocks is generally carried out at room temperature, whereas the definition of the second refers to the clock transition in an atom at absolute zero. This implies that the clock transition frequency should be corrected in practice for the effect of finite temperature of which the leading contributor is the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift. In the present work, we have used configuration interaction + coupled-cluster method to evaluate polarizabilities of the 6s^2 ^1S0 and 6s6p ^3P0 states of Tl^+; α0(^1S0)=19.5 a.u. and α0(^3P0)=21.4 a.u.. We find dynamic correction to the BBR shift to be negligible. The resulting BBR shift at 300 K is δνBBR=-0.0166(17) Hz. This result demonstrates that near cancelation of the ^1S0 and ^3P0 state polarizabilities in monovalent B^+, Al^+, In^+ ions of group 13 [Safronova et al., PRL 107, 143006 (2011)] continues for much heavier Tl^+, leading to anomalously small BBR shift for this system. The corresponding relative BBR shift at 300 K is |δνBBR/ν0|=1.1(1)x10-17. This calculation demonstrates that the BBR contribution to the fractional frequency uncertainty of the Tl^+ frequency standard at 300 K is 1x10-18.

  2. Evaluation of dilated cardiomyopathy by /sup 201/Tl myocardial single photon emission computed tomography. Morphological and quantitative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futagami, Yasuo; Makino, Katsutoshi; Ichikawa, Takehiko

    1984-08-01

    To estimate dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)morphologically and quantitatively, /sup 201/Tl myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 14 DCM and 5 normal cases. Using a rotating dual-gamma camera system, resting SPECT data were collected for 6 minutes. Quantitative analysis of clinical cases was based on phantom studies. Marked spherical left ventricular (LV) dilatation (14/14), localized-diffuse low uptake or defect (12/14), and right ventricular visualization (6/14) were characteristic features in DCM. Differentiation of DCM from ischemic heart disease by SPECT was possible through the feature indicating disproportionately large LV cavity to defect size or degree. Quantitative analysis When DCM was compared with normal control (n-5), following 3 features were impressive: DCM was significantly higher in LV myocardial /sup 201/Tl uptake ratio and LV volume than normal control; DCM was significantly lower in LV myocardial /sup 201/Tl uptake ratio of unit volume (1 ml) than normal control; DCM was significantly lower in mean myocardial count/mean lung count.ratio than normal control.

  3. Catalytic Synthesis of Temsirolimus by Lipozyme TL IM%Lipozyme TL IM催化合成Temsirolimus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万振江; 卢晓霞

    2012-01-01

    Temsirolimus was prepared by regioselective esterification at the 42-hydroxy of sirolimus u-sing 2,2,5-trimethyl-l ,3-dioxane-5-carboxylic anhydride as the esterifying agent and Lipozyme TL IM as the catalyst to give intermediate 4, followed by hydrolysis. The total yield was 83. 7% and the structure was confirmed by *H NMR and HR-MS.%在脂肪酶Lipozyme TL IM的催化下,2,2,5-三甲基-1,3-二氧六环-5-羧酸酐对抗生素西罗莫司的42-位羟基进行区域选择性酯化制得化合物4;4水解后合成了西罗莫司脂化物Temsirolimus,总产率83.7%.其结构经1H NMR和HR-MS确证.

  4. Characteristic X-rays induced by electrons and positrons from {beta}-emitting radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesta, M.A.; Mainardi, R.T. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5010 Cordoba (Argentina); Plivelic, T.S. [Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1998-11-01

    We have investigated the use of energetic electrons and positrons from low intensity {sup 90}Sr and {sup 22}Na radioactive sources respectively to produce characteristic radiation and compare the emission efficiencies of each kind of particle. A new proposed experimental set-up for radioisotope-excited X-ray fluorescence analysis is of the transparent source type and provides at least a ten-time increase in the intensity of characteristic X-rays emitted by the sample as compared to a standard radioactive source arrangement. Theoretically derived expressions for {beta}-particle penetration, transport and emission processes in a sample are presented, and experimental results of absolute characteristic X-ray yields induced by electrons and positrons from 31 pure chemical elements, from titanium to lead, have been included. The advantages of energetic {beta}-particles in comparison with other radiation sources are also discussed, in fact, a remarkable feature observed being that radiation yield changes by less than an order of magnitude across the whole range of the target atomic numbers herein considered. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. An Extended Chain and Trinuclear Complexes Based on Pt(II)-M (M = Tl(I), Pb(II)) Bonds: Contrasting Photophysical Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forniés, Juan; Giménez, Nora; Ibáñez, Susana; Lalinde, Elena; Martín, Antonio; Moreno, M Teresa

    2015-05-04

    The syntheses and structural characterizations of a Pt-Tl chain [{Pt(bzq)(C6F5)2}Tl(Me2CO)]n 1 and two trinuclear Pt2M clusters (NBu4)[{Pt(bzq)(C6F5)2}2Tl] 2 and [{Pt(bzq)(C6F5)2}2Pb] 3 (bzq = 7,8-benzoquinolinyl), stabilized by donor-acceptor Pt → M bonds, are reported. The one-dimensional heterometallic chain 1 is formed by alternate "Pt(bzq)(C6F5)2" and "Tl(Me2CO)" fragments, with Pt-Tl bond separations in the range of 2.961(1)-3.067(1) Å. The isoelectronic trinuclear complexes 2 (which crystallizes in three forms, namely, 2a, 2b, and 2c) and 3 present a sandwich structure in which the Tl(I) or Pb(II) is located between two "Pt(bzq)(C6F5)2" subunits. NMR studies suggest equilibria in solution implying cleavage and reformation of Pt-M bonds. The lowest-lying absorption band in the UV-vis spectra in CH2Cl2 and tetrahydrofuran (THF) of 1, associated with (1)MLCT/(1)L'LCT (1)[5dπ(Pt) → π*(bzq)]/(1)[(C6F5) → bzq], displays a blue shift in relation to the precursor, suggesting the cleavage of the chain maintaining bimetallic Pt-Tl fragments in solution, also supported by NMR spectroscopy. In 2 and 3, it shows a blue shift in THF and a red shift in CH2Cl2, supporting a more extensive cleavage of the Pt-M bonds in THF solutions than in CH2Cl2, where the trinuclear entities are predominant. The Pt-Tl chain 1 displays in solid state a bright orange-red emission ascribed to (3)MM'CT (M' = Tl). It exhibits remarkable and fast reversible vapochromic and vapoluminescent response to donor vapors (THF and Et2O), related to the coordination/decoordination of the guest molecule to the Tl(I) ion, and mechanochromic behavior, associated with the shortening of the intermetallic Pt-Tl separations in the chain induced by grinding. In frozen solutions (THF, acetone, and CH2Cl2) 1 shows interesting luminescence thermochromism with emissions strongly dependent on the solvent, concentration, and excitation wavelengths. The Pt2Tl complex 2 shows an emission close to 1, ascribed to

  6. Underwater gamma-spectrometry with HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povinec, P.P.; Osvath, I.; Baxter, M.S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco (Monaco). Marine Environment Lab.

    1996-09-01

    An in situ {gamma}-spectrometer designed for underwater operations consisting of HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors with electronics, data acquisition and processing electronics, and a supporting system consisting of a hydraulic winch with 1200 m conducting cable is described. The characteristics of the system and results obtained during operational tests and deployment in the Irish and Kara Seas are presented. The spectra measured with the HPGe detector represent the first set of high resolution sea-bed {gamma}-spectra ever recorded in situ. Further, a possible utilisation of underwater {gamma}-spectrometry for in situ monitoring of leakages of radionuclides from dumped or sunken nuclear objects/wastes or discharges from nuclear plants is discussed. Remote stationary {gamma}-spectrometers operating on the sea-bed, in the open sea or in any aquatic environment with satellite data transmission would be very efficient means of long-term monitoring. (author).

  7. Scintillation characterizations of Tl 2 LiLuCl 6 : Ce 3+ single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooh, Gul; Kim, H. J.; Jang, Jonghun; Kim, Sunghwan

    2017-07-01

    0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% Ce-concentration single crystals of Tl2LiLuCl6 were grown from the melt using two zone vertical Bridgman technique. X-ray induced emission spectra showed Ce3+ emission between 370 nm and 540 nm wavelength range. Energy resolution, light yield and decay time of the grown samples were measured under {\\gamma}-ray excitation at room temperature. Energy resolution of 5.6% (FWHM) with 27,000+-2700 light yield is found for 1%Ce doped sample. For the same dopant concentration, three decay time components are also observed. Variation of scintillation properties is observed as a function of dopant concentration in this material.This material will provide excellent detection efficiency for X- and {\\gamma}-rays due to its high effective Z-number and density. It is expected that this scintillor will be a potential detector for the medical imaging techniques.

  8. Narrow-band UVB (TL-01) phototherapy: an effective preventative treatment for the photodermatoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, P.; Ferguson, J. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    1995-06-01

    Twenty patients with photodermatoses [actinic prurigo (n = 6), hydroa vacciniforme (n = 4), idiopathic solar urticaria (n 1), amiodarone-induced photosensitivity (n = 1) and a range of cutaneous porphyrias (n = 8)] were treated with a ``hardening`` course of narrow-band ultraviolet B (TL-01) phototherapy in springtime. The response to phototherapy was monitored subjectively, by interviewing patients after the summer, and objectively by monochromator phototesting, before and after phototherapy. Fifteen patients reported that treatment was worthwhile. Monochromator phototesting after phototherapy revealed a fourfold increase in the minimal erythema dose in those with abnormal photosensitivity to ultraviolet A wavebands. Adverse effects included erythema (seven patients), pruritus (five) and provocation of the eruption (four). We now routinely consider narrow-band UVB phototherapy for problem photodermatoses. (author).

  9. Chronic cadmium exposure in vitro induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, Rachel J.; Tokar, Erik J.; Xu, Yuanyuan; Orihuela, Ruben; Ngalame, Ntube N. Olive; Waalkes, Michael P., E-mail: waalkes@niehs.nih.gov

    2013-12-01

    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen. Here, we attempt to develop an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung carcinogenesis by chronically exposing the peripheral lung epithelia cell line, HPL-1D, to a low level of cadmium. Cells were chronically exposed to 5 μM cadmium, a noncytotoxic level, and monitored for acquired cancer characteristics. By 20 weeks of continuous cadmium exposure, these chronic cadmium treated lung (CCT-LC) cells showed marked increases in secreted MMP-2 activity (3.5-fold), invasion (3.4-fold), and colony formation in soft agar (2-fold). CCT-LC cells were hyperproliferative, grew well in serum-free media, and overexpressed cyclin D1. The CCT-LC cells also showed decreased expression of the tumor suppressor genes p16 and SLC38A3 at the protein levels. Also consistent with an acquired cancer cell phenotype, CCT-LC cells showed increased expression of the oncoproteins K-RAS and N-RAS as well as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition marker protein Vimentin. Metallothionein (MT) expression is increased by cadmium, and is typically overexpressed in human lung cancers. The major MT isoforms, MT-1A and MT-2A were elevated in CCT-LC cells. Oxidant adaptive response genes HO-1 and HIF-1A were also activated in CCT-LC cells. Expression of the metal transport genes ZNT-1, ZNT-5, and ZIP-8 increased in CCT-LC cells culminating in reduced cadmium accumulation, suggesting adaptation to the metal. Overall, these data suggest that exposure of human lung epithelial cells to cadmium causes acquisition of cancer cell characteristics. Furthermore, transformation occurs despite the cell's ability to adapt to chronic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Chronic cadmium exposure induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells. • This provides an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung cell transformation. • This occurred with general and lung specific changes typical for cancer cells. • These findings add insight to the

  10. TL1A regulates TCRγδ+ intraepithelial lymphocytes and gut microbial composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Peter; Skov, S.; Pedersen, A. E.;

    2015-01-01

    to analyse the impact of TL1A on the intestinal immune system and gut microbiota. The TL1A KO mice showed reduced amounts of small intestinal intraepithelial TCRγδ+ and CD8+ T cells, and reduced expression of the activating receptor NKG2D. Moreover, the TL1A KO mice had significantly reduced body weight....... in the mucosal ileum. Our results show that TL1A deficiency impacts on the gut microbial composition and the mucosal immune system, especially the intraepithelial TCRγδ+ T‐cell subset, and that TL1A is involved in the establishment of adipose tissue. This research contributes to a broader understanding of TL1A...... inhibition, which is increasingly considered for treatment of IBD....

  11. Clinical and experimental studies concerned with /sup 201/Tl-scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Tohru; Takada, Norihiko; Hotaka, Eiji (Chiba Cancer Center Hospital (Japan)); Inoue, Shunichi; Endo, Fujinori

    1982-07-01

    Basic autoradiographic study demonstrated that /sup 201/Tl concentrated in the area of increased proliferation of the cells. On diagnosis of bone lesions, /sup 201/Tl-scintigram showed a higher specificity than sup(99m)Tc-MDP-bone scintigram, and negative results of /sup 201/Tl-scintigraphy was highly suggestive of benign changes. However, positive results were sometimes obtained from benign lesions and negative results from malignant ones. /sup 201/Tl-scintigram was useful in differentiating compression fracture or inflammation from malignant lesions, observing the effect of radiation therapy, revealing the metastasis of thyroid carcinoma, and according to literature, in detecting the recurrence of giant cell tumor. /sup 201/Tl-scintigram provides information different from that of bone-scintigram in the extremity and the superficial area, because of rapid clearance of /sup 201/Tl, and it is thought to be useful for screening.

  12. Induced abortion in the Republic of Srpska: Characteristics and impact on mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niškanović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced abortion is an important aspect of sexual and reproductive health, with potentially negative impact on physical and emotional health of women. The aim of this paper is to investigate the presence of abortion in our society, characteristics of women who had induced abortion and its impact on mental health. The results presented in this paper are part of the bigger study "Health Status, Health Needs and Utilization of Health Services", which was carried out in Republic of Srpska during 2010. Survey covered 1042 women age from 18 to 49. A standardized set of instruments in the field of sexual-reproductive and mental health (NHS, EUROHIS, ECHIM was applied. Results indicate that 28.8 % of women had induced abortion, while nearly half of them (48.2% had more than one abortion in their life. Induced abortion is more common among women over 38 years who already have children (97.1% and live in rural parts of country (61.7%. Abortion is mostly preferred method of birth control among married woman (88.6%, woman with secondary school (64.5%, but is equally present among employed or unemployed woman and housewife's (around 1/3. There was a statistically significant but low correlation between current life satisfaction, mental health and induced abortion (F=8.0, p=0.000; Wilks' lambda =0.97; partial Eta-squared=0.03. More precisely, women who have had abortions have expressed higher levels of stress, lower levels of vitality, and were less satisfied with present life compared to those who did not have an abortion. High rates of induced abortion are present in Balkans countries for a long time (Rašević, 1994: 86; Rašević, 2011: 3. Higher rates of abortion, compared to the European Union and western neighbors, raises the question of presence of "abortion culture" (Rasevic and Sedlecki, 2011: 4. Abortion culture is the conse-quence of frequent use of traditional method of contraception (coitus interruptus in combination with low availability of

  13. Expanding the Teaching Commons: Making the Case for a New Perspective on SoTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    As a reflection on O'Meara, Terosky, and Neumann's (2011) work on scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) faculty development, this essay describes the benefits of SoTL to individual faculty and university goals. In support and expansion of arguments advanced by O'Meara et al., this work calls for the use of SoTL faculty…

  14. WIMPs search by exclusive measurements with thin multilayer NaI(Tl) scintillators (PICO-LON)

    CERN Document Server

    Fushimi, K; Yasuda, K; Kameda, Y; Koori, N; Nakayama, S; Ichihara, K; Nomachi, M; Umehara, S; Yoshida, S; Ejiri, H; Imagawa, K; Ito, H

    2006-01-01

    The WIMPs search project PICO-LON has been started with multilayer thin NaI(Tl) crystals. The thin (0.05cm) and wide area (5cmx5cm) NaI(Tl) crystals was successfully developed. The performances of thin NaI(Tl) scintillator was measured and they showed good energy resolution (20% at 60keV) and good position resolution (20% in 5cmx5cm wider area).

  15. CsI(Tl) scintillators as gamma-ray detectors for the identification of hidden explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Fioretto, E; Innocenti, F D; Viesti, G; Cinausero, M; Coco, I; Fabris, D; Filippini, V; Lunardon, M; Nebbia, G; Prete, G; Pesente, S; Sajo-Bohus, L; Chukhaev, E; Melnikov, A I

    2001-01-01

    We report on the performances of CsI(Tl) crystals as gamma-ray detectors, compared with standard NaI(Tl). Energy resolution from E subgamma=122 keV up to E subgamma=7.6 MeV and light output yield of different CsI(Tl) crystals and read-out configurations (photomultiplier tubes, photodiodes and avalanche photodiodes) have been measured.

  16. Interaction-Induced Characteristic Length in Strongly Many-Body Localized Systems

    CERN Document Server

    He, Rong-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a numerical method for explicitly constructing a complete set of local integrals of motion (LIOM) and definitely show the existence of LIOM for strongly many-body localized systems. The method starts with a complete set of maximally localized guessed LIOM, gradually deforms it into a complete set of true LIOM. By using this method we find that for strongly disordered and weakly interacting systems, there are two characteristic lengths in the LIOM. The first one is governed by disorder and is of Anderson-localization nature. The second one is induced by interaction but independent of the strength of interaction, showing a nonperturbative nature. We prove that the entanglement and correlation in any eigenstate extend not longer than twice the second length.

  17. Matching asteroid population characteristics with a model constructed from the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Seth Andrew; Rossi, Alessandro; Scheeres, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    From the results of a comprehensive asteroid population evolution model, we conclude that the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis can be consistent with the observed population statistics of small asteroids in the main belt including binaries and contact binaries. The foundation of this model is the asteroid rotation model of Marzari et al. (2011), which incorporates both the YORP effect and collisional evolution. This work adds to that model the rotational fission hypothesis and the binary evolution model of Jacobson & Scheeres (2011). The asteroid population evolution model is highly constrained by these and other previous works, and therefore it has only two significant free parameters: the ratio of low to high mass ratio binaries formed after rotational fission events and the mean strength of the binary YORP (BYORP) effect. We successfully reproduce characteristic statistics of the small asteroid population: the binary fraction, the fast binary fraction, steady-state mass ratio fraction and the...

  18. Levamisole-Induced Vasculitis: A Characteristic Cutaneous Vasculitis Associated With Levamisole-Adulterated Cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jordan A; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Levamisole-induced vasculitis is a characteristic cutaneous vasculitis syndrome associated with the use of levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Patients will typically present with a painful, purpuric rash in a retiform or stellate pattern with or without central necrosis involving the extremities, trunk, nasal tip, digits, cheeks, and/or ears. A history of cocaine abuse can be elicited. Histologic features include microvascular thrombi and/or leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving small vessels of the superficial and deep dermis. Epidermal involvement is variably seen. Laboratory findings include leukopenia, neutropenia (including agranulocytosis), elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, normal coagulation studies, and positive autoantibodies including perinuclear and cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, antinuclear antibody, and lupus anticoagulant. Differential diagnosis includes other microscopic vasculitides, and clinical and laboratory correlation with histologic findings is essential. Lesions typically resolve with the cessation of cocaine use. Because of the treatment implications and rising incidence of this entity, rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential.

  19. Analysis of time phase of characteristic rad iation in plasma induced by laser ablating aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With time- and space-resolved technique, we have recorde d time-resolved spectra of irradiation of the plasma induced by Nd: YAG laser a blating metal Aluminum in Ar, in which, laser pulse-energy was set up to 145 mJ /pulse and the buffer pressure 100 kpa. The continuum radiation and special emis sion of Aluminum plasma were studied based on the records. According to time dis tribution of Al Ⅰ396.15 nm emission, we analyzed the time differences between c haracteristic and continuum radiation evolving. We tried to explain the time pha ses of characteristic radiation evolving with traditional theoretical model of a tomic transition. As the result, we found that it was difficult to explain our e xperimental results with the model. In order to explain our experimental results , we need new model or to improve the traditional theoretical model of atomic tr ansition.

  20. Physiological and biochemical characteristics of laboratory induced mutants of Botrytis cinerea with resistance to fluazinam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wenyong; Zhang, Yu; Ren, Weichao; Chen, Changjun

    2015-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic and filamentous fungus with a high risk of developing resistance to fungicides. The pyridinamine fungicide fluazinam has been reported to have excellent activity against B. cinerea and better effect on controlling gray mold. In this study, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of laboratory-induced mutants of B. cinerea with resistance to fluazinam has been investigated. Compared to the wild-type strains, the fluazinam-resistant mutants had a significant decrease in respiratory rate, glycerol, oxalate, and ATP contents, and an increase in ATPase activity and sensitivity to osmotic pressure, but did not differ in cell membrane permeability. Sequencing indicated that two parental strains and four resistant mutants were identical in the nucleotide sequence of F-ATPase gene. These results will enrich our understanding of the resistance mechanism of B. cinerea to fluazinam.

  1. 3D spin-flop transition in enhanced 2D layered structure single crystalline TlCo2Se2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Z.; Xia, Z.-C.; Wei, M.; Yang, J.-H.; Chen, B.; Huang, S.; Shang, C.; Wu, H.; Zhang, X.-X.; Huang, J.-W.; Ouyang, Z.-W.

    2016-10-01

    The enhanced 2D layered structure single crystalline TlCo2Se2 has been successfully fabricated, which exhibits field-induced 3D spin-flop phase transitions. In the case of the magnetic field parallel to the c-axis (B//c), the applied magnetic field induces the evolution of the noncollinear helical magnetic coupling into a ferromagnetic (FM) state with all the magnetization of the Co ion parallel to the c-axis. A striking variation of the field-induced strain within the ab-plane is noticed in the magnetic field region of 20-30 T. In the case of the magnetic field perpendicular to the c-axis (B  ⊥  c), the inter-layer helical antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling may transform to an initial canted AFM coupling, and then part of it transforms to an intermediate metamagnetic phase with the alignment of two-up-one-down Co magnetic moments and finally to an ultimate FM coupling in higher magnetic fields. The robust noncollinear AFM magnetic coupling is completely destroyed above 30 T. In combination with the measurements of magnetization, magnetoresistance and field-induced strain, a complete magnetic phase diagram of the TlCo2Se2 single crystal has been depicted, demonstrating complex magnetic structures even though the crystal geometry itself gives no indication of the magnetic frustration.

  2. A preliminary study on thermoluminescence characteristics of sediments from the North Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Huahua; SHI Xuefa; WU Yonghua; YANG Gang; WEI Jianwei; REN Xiangwen

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-eight surficial deposit samples were collected from the equatorial North Pacific, and the natural thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of both bulk and clay fraction samples (<2 μm fractions) were studied by the FJ427-A1 automatic TL Dosimeter for the first time. With the measurements of clay mineral composition, element composition by XRD and ICP, the correlations between TL intensity and sedimentary environment proxies were analyzed, such as water depth, ratio of FeO to Fe2O3 contents, LOI, and major clay mineral concentration, and it was found the bulk sample's TL signal was stronger than the clay ones. Usually, increase in the clay components may result in the decrease of TL intensity. From the shape of TL curves, the pelagic sediments can be divided into two groups: the majority group has two glow peaks, in general, the first peak is broad and flat, but the second narrow and sharp; the minority group only has a single peak because the first is absent. The peak centers of TL curves are almost fixed, falling in the temperature sections 230~260 and 390~405 ℃ respectively. Lorentz model packed in the Origin 7.5 was chosen to deal with the TL curves. From the processing results, three parameters (H, C and A), corresponding to the height, center, and kurtosis of TL curve, were obtained to describe the curve characteristics. The correlations between TL curve parameters and sedimentary environment proxies were also calculated. On the basis of the above work, the relationship between TL characteristics and sediment type, mineral composition, sedimentary environment of surface sediments was discussed in the study area, and a conclusion is: sediments from the environment of shallower water, higher organic contents and weaker reductivity have stronger TL signals.

  3. CsI(Tl) infrared scintillation light yield and spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Belogurov, S; Carugno, Giovanni; Conti, E; Iannuzzi, D; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Infrared emission from CsI(Tl) excited by approx 70 keV electrons was detected with an InGaAs PIN photodiode. Some parameters of infrared scintillation were studied. The emission spectrum is located between 1.55 and 1.70 mu m with a maximum at 1.60 mu m. The light yield of infrared scintillation is (4.9+-0.3)x10 sup 3 photons/MeV. Infrared scintillation caused by 3 MeV alpha-particles is detected as well.

  4. Spins of superdeformed rotational bands in Tl isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadwal, Anshul; Mittal, H.M. [Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar (India)

    2017-01-15

    The two-parameter model defined for even-even nuclei viz. soft-rotor formula is used to assign the band-head spin of the 17 rotational bands in Tl isotopes. The least-squares fitting method is employed to obtain the spins of these bands in the A ∝ 190 mass region. The calculated transition energies are found to depend sensitively on the proposed spin. Whenever a correct spin assignment is made, the calculated and experimental transition energies coincide very well. The dynamic moment of inertia is also calculated and its variation with rotational frequency is explored. (orig.)

  5. Spins of superdeformed rotational bands in Tl isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadwal, Anshul; Mittal, H. M.

    2017-01-01

    The two-parameter model defined for even-even nuclei viz. soft-rotor formula is used to assign the band-head spin of the 17 rotational bands in Tl isotopes. The least-squares fitting method is employed to obtain the spins of these bands in the A˜ 190 mass region. The calculated transition energies are found to depend sensitively on the proposed spin. Whenever a correct spin assignment is made, the calculated and experimental transition energies coincide very well. The dynamic moment of inertia is also calculated and its variation with rotational frequency is explored.

  6. Progress in TL Dating at Risø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, V.

    1972-01-01

    This article outlines the thermoluminescent dating technique employed at Risö. The intensity of beta and gamma radiation is determined by means of the TL phosphors CaSO4:Mn and CaSO4:Dy, and the determination of accumulated exposure is based on quartz and feldspar inclusions with a size of 0.......3–0.5 mm. Results are presented of a dating programme comprising sherds, bricks, burned stones and burned clay (from kilns) from seventeen excavation sites. The age of the sites ranged from a.d. 1600 to 4000 b.c....

  7. Model-based visual tracking the OpenTL framework

    CERN Document Server

    Panin, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    This book has two main goals: to provide a unifed and structured overview of this growing field, as well as to propose a corresponding software framework, the OpenTL library, developed by the author and his working group at TUM-Informatik. The main objective of this work is to show, how most real-world application scenarios can be naturally cast into a common description vocabulary, and therefore implemented and tested in a fully modular and scalable way, through the defnition of a layered, object-oriented software architecture.The resulting architecture covers in a seamless way all processin

  8. Luminescence and scintillation properties of Tl- and In-doped CsCl crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takumi; Koshimizu, Masanori; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Nakauchi, Daisuke; Yanagida, Takayuki; Asai, Keisuke

    2017-06-01

    Optical and scintillation properties of CsCl:Tl and CsCl:In single crystals were investigated. Ions Tl+ and In+ were selected as dopants to enhance the light yield of CsCl crystals. Luminescence and scintillation spectra of CsCl:Tl and CsCl:In could be attributed to the relaxed excited state (RES) originating from each dopant ion. The decay-time constants of the fast component had values of 5.4 ns for CsCl:Tl and 2.2 ns for CsCl:In, and can be ascribed to the overlapping of on-center STE and auger-free luminescence (AFL) for CsCl:Tl and only AFL for CsCl:In, respectively. Decay-time constants of the slow component were relatively long (220 ns for CsCl:Tl and 240 ns for CsCl:In), possibly owing to their low energy transfer rate from host to each dopant ion. The light yields of CsCl:1%Tl and CsCl:0.5%Tl were estimated to be 2800 and 2200 photons/MeV, respectively. The light yield of CsCl:0.5%In crystals was estimated to be 2200 photons/MeV. In conclusion, the light yield of pure CsCl (several ten photons/MeV) can be enhanced by doping Tl+ and In+ while maintaining the fast component of the CsCl crystal.

  9. How Experienced SoTL Researchers Develop the Credibility of Their Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Billot

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning research in higher education, often referred to as the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL, is still relatively novel in many academic contexts compared to the mainstay of disciplinary research. One indication of this is the challenges those who engage in SoTL report in terms of how this work is valued or considered credible amongst disciplinary colleagues and in the face of institutional policies and practices. This paper moves beyond the literature that describes these specific challenges to investigate how 23 experienced SoTL researchers from five different countries understood the notion of credibility in relationship to their SoTL research and how they went about developing credibility for their work. Semi-structured interviews were facilitated and analyzed using inductive analysis. Findings indicate that notions of credibility encompassed putting SoTL research into action and building capacity and community around research findings, as well as gaining external validation through traditional indicators such as publishing. SoTL researchers reported a variety of strategies and approaches they were using, both formal and informal, to develop credibility for their work. The direct focus of this paper on credibility of SoTL work as perceived by experienced SoTL researchers, and how they go about developing credibility, is a distinct contribution to the discussions about the valuing of SoTL work.

  10. The effects of chemical and radioactive properties of Tl-201 on human erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ali; Senturk, Murat; Akkemik, Ebru; Ciftci, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of thallium-201 ((201)Tl) solution on human erythrocyte glutathione reductase (GR) activity. Erythrocyte GR was initially purified by 2',5'-adenosine diphosphate Sepharose-4B affinity and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography. The purification was monitored by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which showed a single band for the final enzyme preparation. The in vitro and in vivo effects of the (201)Tl solution including Tl(+), Fe(+3) and Cu(+2) metals and the in vitro effects of the radiation effect of the (201)Tl solution and nonradioactive Tl(+), Fe(+3) and Cu(+2) metals on human erythrocyte GR enzyme were studied. Enzyme activity was determined with the Beutler method at 340 nm using a spectrophotometer. All purification procedures were carried out at (+)4 °C. Glutathione reductase was purified 2033-fold at a yield of 28.17%. (201)Tl solution and radiation exposure had inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity. Besides, effects of nonradioactive Tl(+), Fe(+3) and Cu(+2) were studied on enzyme activity in vitro. Furthermore, seven human patients were also used for in vivo studies of (201)Tl solution. It was detected in in vitro and in vivo studies that the human erythrocyte GR enzyme is inhibited due to the radiation effect of (201)Tl solution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of bio-membrane on current characteristics induced by ambient ELF magnetic field for spherical tissue model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Noriyuki [Kyushu University, Kasuga (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering Sciences; Tarao, Hiroo; Isaka, Katsuo [University of Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-07-01

    Based on the experimental works using rats and chicken eggs, possible influences of the bio-membrane on the electric field and resultant current induced by the exposure to ambient ELF magnetic field, have been pointed out. Existence of the bio-membrane is, however, rarely implemented in conventional procedures of the induced current examination. The present contribution presents results of the analytical examination on how the thickness and electric conductivity of the bio-membrane affect the induced current profiles, indicating the significant role of the bio-membrane on the exact evaluation of the induced current characteristics. (author)

  12. Dynamic characteristics of an inclined flexible cylinder undergoing vortex-induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qinghua; Ma, Yexuan; Xu, Wanhai; Lu, Yan; Cheng, Ankang

    2017-04-01

    A series of experimental tests were conducted on vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a flexible inclined cylinder with a yaw angle equals 45° for investigating the response characteristics in a towing tank. The flexible cylinder model was 5.6 m in length and 16 mm in diameter with an aspect ratio of 350 and a mass ratio of 1.9. The Reynolds numbers ranged from about 800 to 16,000.The strain responses were measured directly in both cross-flow (CF) and in-line (IL) directions and corresponding displacements were obtained using a modal approach. The dynamic response characteristics of the inclined flexible cylinder excited by vortex shedding was examined from the aspect of strain response, displacement amplitudes, dominant modes, response frequencies and drag force coefficients. The experimental results indicated that the CF response amplitude could be up to a value of 3.0D and the IL one more than 1.1D. The dominant modes were from 1 to 3 in CF direction and 1 to 5 in IL direction. And it was found that dominant frequencies increased linearly with the reduced velocity. The multi-modal response of the flexible inclined cylinder model excited by VIV was observed and analyzed. Moreover, the values of drag coefficients were in the range of 0.9-2.6.

  13. Characteristics of weak base-induced vacuoles formed around individual acidic organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Hiromi; Kawakami, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    We have previously found that the weak base 4-aminopyridine induces Brownian motion of acidic organelles around which vacuoles are formed, causing organelle traffic disorder in neurons. Our present study investigated the characteristics of vacuoles induced by weak bases (NH(4)Cl, aminopyridines, and chloroquine) using mouse cells. Individual vacuoles included acidic organelles identified by fluorescent protein expression. Mitochondria and actin filaments were extruded outside the vacuoles, composing the vacuole rim. Staining with amine-reactive fluorescence showed no protein/amino acid content in vacuoles. Thus, serous vacuolar contents are probably partitioned by viscous cytosol, other organelles, and cytoskeletons, but not membrane. The weak base (chloroquine) was immunochemically detected in intravacuolar organelles, but not in vacuoles. Early vacuolization was reversible, but long-term vacuolization caused cell death. The vacuolization and cell death were blocked by the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor and Cl--free medium. Staining with LysoTracker or LysoSensor indicated that intravacuolar organelles were strongly acidic and vacuoles were slightly acidic. This suggests that vacuolization is caused by accumulation of weak base and H(+) in acidic organelles, driven by vacuolar H(+)-ATPase associated with Cl(-) entering, and probably by subsequent extrusion of H(+) and water from organelles to the surrounding cytoplasm.

  14. Global Warming Induced Changes in Rainfall Characteristics in IPCC AR5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, Jenny, H.-T.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2012-01-01

    Changes in rainfall characteristic induced by global warming are examined from outputs of IPCC AR5 models. Different scenarios of climate warming including a high emissions scenario (RCP 8.5), a medium mitigation scenario (RCP 4.5), and 1% per year CO2 increase are compared to 20th century simulations (historical). Results show that even though the spatial distribution of monthly rainfall anomalies vary greatly among models, the ensemble mean from a sizable sample (about 10) of AR5 models show a robust signal attributable to GHG warming featuring a shift in the global rainfall probability distribution function (PDF) with significant increase (>100%) in very heavy rain, reduction (10-20% ) in moderate rain and increase in light to very light rains. Changes in extreme rainfall as a function of seasons and latitudes are also examined, and are similar to the non-seasonal stratified data, but with more specific spatial dependence. These results are consistent from TRMM and GPCP rainfall observations suggesting that extreme rainfall events are occurring more frequently with wet areas getting wetter and dry-area-getting drier in a GHG induced warmer climate.

  15. Heart period and blood pressure characteristics in splanchnic arterial occlusion shock-induced collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletti, Federico; Gambarotta, Nicolò; Penn, Alexander H; Ferrario, Manuela; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2017-02-01

    The nature of hemodynamic instability typical of circulatory shock is not well understood, but an improved interpretation of its dynamic features could help in the management of critically ill patients. The objective of this work was to introduce new metrics for the analysis of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in order to characterize the risk of catastrophic outcome in splanchnic arterial occlusion (SAO) shock. Continuous ABP (fs = 1 kHz) was measured in rats during experimental SAO shock, which induced a fatal pressure drop (FPD) in ABP. The FPD could either be slow (SFPD) or fast (FFPD), with the latter causing cardiovascular collapse. Time series of mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure and heart period were derived from ABP. The sample asymmetry-based algorithm Heart Rate Characteristics was adapted to compute the Heart Period Characteristics (HPC) and the Blood Pressure Characteristics (BPC). Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was assessed by means of a bivariate model. The approach to FPD of the animals who collapsed (FFPD) was characterized by higher BRS in the low frequency band versus SFPD animals (0.36 ± 0.15 vs. 0.19 ± 0.12 ms/mmHg, p value = 0.0196), bradycardia as indicated by the HPC (0.76 ± 0.57 vs. 1.94 ± 1.27, p value = 0.0179) and higher but unstable blood pressure as indicated by BPC (3.02 ± 2.87 vs. 1.47 ± 1.29, p value = 0.0773). The HPC and BPC indices demonstrated promise as potential clinical markers of hemodynamic instability and impending cardiovascular collapse, and this animal study suggests their test in data from intensive care patients.

  16. Structural characteristics correlate with immune responses induced by HIV envelope glycoprotein vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Victoria A; Kan, Elaine; Sun, Yide; Lian, Ying; Cisto, Jimna; Frasca, Verna; Hilt, Susan; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Donnelly, John J; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Barnett, Susan W; Srivastava, Indresh K

    2006-08-15

    HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the target for inducing neutralizing antibodies. Env is present on the virus surface as a trimer, and, upon binding to CD4, a cascade of events leads to structural rearrangement exposing the co-receptor binding site and entry into the CD4+ host target cells. We have designed monomeric and trimeric Env constructs with and without deletion of the variable loop 2 (ΔV2) from SF162, a subtype B primary isolate, and performed biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies to establish a potential structure–functional relationship. We expressed these Envs in CHO cells, purified the proteins to homogeneity and performed biophysical studies to define the binding properties to CD4, structural characteristics and exposure of epitopes recognized by b12 and CD4i mAb (17B) on both full-length and mutant HIV Env proteins. Parameters evaluated include oligomerization state, number and affinity of CD4 binding sites, enthalpy and entropy of the Env–CD4 interaction and affinity for b12 and 17b mAbs. We observed one CD4 binding site per monomer and three active CD4 binding sites per trimer. A40-fold difference in affinity of the gp120 monomer vs. the o-gp140 trimer towards CD4 was observed (Kd = 58 nM and 1.5 nM, respectively),whereas only a 2-fold difference was observed for the V2 deleted Envs (Kd of gp120ΔV2 = 19 nM, Kd of o-gp140DV2 = 9.3 nM). Monomers had 3-fold higher affinity to the mAb 17b and at least 3-fold weaker affinity to b12 compared to trimers, with gp120DV2 having the weakest affinity for b12 (Kd = 446 nM). Affinity of CD4 binding correlated with proportion of the antibodies induced against the conformational epitopes by the corresponding Envs, and changes in mAb binding correlated with the induction of antibodies directed against linear epitopes. Furthermore,biophysical analysis reveals that the V2 deletion has broad structural implications in the monomer not shared by the trimer, and these changes are reflected in the

  17. Phase diagrams of novel Tl{sub 4}SnSe{sub 4}–TlSbSe{sub 2}–Tl{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} quasi-ternary system following DTA and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchiy, I.E.; Tatzkar, A.R. [Department of Chemistry, Uzhgorod National University, Pidgirna St., 46, Uzhgorod 88000 (Ukraine); Fedorchuk, A.O. [Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Pekarska St., 50, Lviv 79010 (Ukraine); Plucinski, K., E-mail: kpluc2006@wp.pl [Electronics Department, Military University Technology, Warsaw, Kaliskiego 2, Warsaw 00-908 (Poland)

    2016-06-25

    Phase relation in the Tl{sub 4}SnSe{sub 4}–TlSbSe{sub 2}–Tl{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} quasiternary system were studied by the DTA and X-ray diffraction in combination with mathematical modeling. The phase diagrams of the Tl{sub 4}SnSe{sub 4}–TlSbSe{sub 2} and Tl{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}–TlSbSe{sub 2} systems, the perspective views of the phase interaction in the ternary system, the liquidus surface projection, the isothermal section at 423 K were built for the first time. The Tl{sub 4}SnSe{sub 4}–TlSbSe{sub 2}–Tl{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} system is of the invariant eutectic type and is characterized by the formation of limited solid solutions following initial ternary compounds. New complex compounds are not formed. - Highlights: • Two Tl{sub 4}SnSe{sub 4}–TlSbSe{sub 2},Tl{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}–TlSbSe{sub 2} systems were explored. • Invariant processes in the ternary system were determined. • New complex compounds were not observed in ternary system.

  18. High-nuclearity Pt-Tl-Fe complexes: structural, electrochemistry, and spectroelectrochemistry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Alvaro; Fernández, Julio; Lalinde, Elena; Moreno, M Teresa; Sánchez, Sergio

    2010-12-20

    A series of heteropolynuclear Pt-Tl-Fe complexes have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The final structures strongly depend on the geometry of the precursor and the Pt/Tl ratio used. Thus, the anionic heteroleptic cis-configured [cis-Pt(C(6)F(5))(2)(C≡CFc)(2)](2-) and [Pt(bzq)(C≡CFc)(2)](-) (Fc = ferrocenyl) complexes react with Tl(+) to form discrete octanuclear (PPh(3)Me)(2)[{trans,cis,cis-PtTl(C(6)F(5))(2)(C≡CFc)(2)}(2)] (1), [PtTl(bzq)(C≡CFc)(2)](2) (5; bzq = benzoquinolate), and decanuclear [trans,cis,cis-PtTl(2)(C(6)F(5))(2)(C≡CFc)(2)](2) (3) derivatives, stabilized by both Pt(II)···Tl(I) and Tl(I)···η(2)(alkynyl) bonds. By contrast, Q(2)[trans-Pt(C(6)F(5))(2)(C≡CFc)(2)] (Q = NBu(4)) reacts with Tl(+) to give the one-dimensional (1-D) anionic [(NBu(4)){trans,trans,trans-PtTl(C(6)F(5))(2)(C≡CFc)(2)}](n) (2) and neutral [trans,trans,trans-PtTl(2)(C(6)F(5))(2)(C≡CFc)(2)](n) (4) polymeric chains based on [PtFc(2)](2-) platinate fragments and Tl(+) (2) or [Tl···Tl](2+) (4) units, respectively, connected by Pt(II)···Tl(I) and secondary weak κ-η(1) (2) or η(2) (4) alkynyl···Tl(I) bonding. The formation of 1-4 is reversible, and thus treatment of neutral 3 and 4 with PPh(3)MeBr causes the precipitation of TlBr, returning toward the formation of the anionic 1 and 2' (Q = PPh(3)Me). Two slightly different pseudopolymorphs were found for 2', depending on the crystallization solvent. Finally, the reaction of the homoleptic [Pt(C≡CFc)(4)](2-) with 2 equiv of Tl(+) affords the tetradecanuclear sandwich type complex [Pt(2)Tl(4)(C≡CFc)(8)] (6). Electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical, and theoretical studies have been carried out to elucidate the effect produced by the interaction of the Tl(+) with the Pt-C≡CFc fragments. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) of 1-5 reveal that, in general, neutralization of the anionic fragments increases the stability of the fully oxidized species and

  19. Study of TL response in heavily irradiated rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, X.; Dies, X. (Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. de Tecniques Energetiques); Cuevas, C. de las (Barcelona Univ. (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    Within the framework of the CEC R and D Programme ''Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste'', the study of the generation of radiation damage in heavily irradiated rock salt is being carried out. This work describes the experiments carried out for the validation of the TL techniques, in the assessment of the phenomena related to the energy absorbed by the rock salt, due to the high levels of irradiation. The samples analysed are natural rock salt coming from the Sallent mine (Spain). The chemical composition of the rocks is, in all cases, higher than 90% NaCl, having small amounts of SO[sub 4], Mg, K, Br and Sr as major impurities. A first set of irradiations was performed at the laboratory with a source of [sup 137]Cs. The doses reached were lower than 20Gy. A second set of irradiations was performed at an industrial facility with a source of [sup 60]Co, achieving doses up to 2.5 MGy. Afterwards the irradiated samples were analysed with TL and optical absorption techniques. The results have facilitated a study of the glow curves, their evolution in time and the influence of the chemical composition, the absorbed dose, and the absorbed dose rate. These experiments have increased knowledge of the behaviour of heavily irradiated rock salt. (Author).

  20. Cosmogenic radionuclide production in NaI(Tl) crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Amaré, J; Cuesta, C; García, E; Ginestra, C; Martínez, M; Oliván, M A; Ortigoza, Y; de Solórzano, A Ortiz; Pobes, C; Puimedón, J; Sarsa, M L; Villar, J A; Villar, P

    2014-01-01

    The production of long-lived radioactive isotopes in materials due to the exposure to cosmic rays on Earth surface can be an hazard for experiments demanding ultra-low background conditions, typically performed deep underground. Production rates of cosmogenic isotopes in all the materials present in the experimental set-up, as well as the corresponding cosmic rays exposure history, must be both well known in order to assess the relevance of this effect in the achievable sensitivity of a given experiment. Although NaI(Tl) scintillators are being used in experiments aiming at the direct detection of dark matter since the first nineties of the last century, very few data about cosmogenic isotopes production rates have been published up to date. In this work we present data from two 12.5 kg NaI(Tl) detectors, developed in the frame of the ANAIS project, which were installed inside a convenient shielding at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory just after finishing surface exposure to cosmic rays. The very fast star...

  1. Evaluation of Tl-201 SPECT imaging findings in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ozyurt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare with histopathological findings the findings of prostate cancer imaging by SPECT method using Tl-201 as a tumor seeking agent. Methods: The study comprised 59 patients (age range 51-79 years, mean age 65.3 ± 6.8 years who were planned to have transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS-guided biopsies due to suspicion of prostate cancer between April 2011 and September 2011. Early planar, late planar and SPECT images were obtained for all patients. Scintigraphic evaluation was made in relation to uptake presence and patterns in the visual assessment and to Tumor/Background (T/Bg ratios for both planar and SPECT images in the quantitative assessment. Histopathological findings were compatible with benign etiology in 36 (61% patients and malign etiology in 23 (39% patients. Additionally, comparisons were made to evaluate the relationships between uptake patterns,total PSA values and Gleason scores. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the benign and malignant groups in terms of uptake in planar and SPECT images and T/Bg ratios and PSA values. No statistically significant difference was found between uptake patterns of planar and SPECT images and Gleason scores in the malignant group. Conclusions: SPECT images were superior to planar images in the comparative assessment. Tl-201 SPECT imaging can provide an additional contribution to clinical practice in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and it can be used in selected patients.

  2. Experimental Study of the Effects of the Cycle Characteristics on the Refrigerant-Induced Noise in System Air-Conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Weui Bong [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Hyung Suk; Mo, Jin Yong; Lee, Jae Kwon [Samsung Electronics, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    The main sources of the refrigerant-induced noise can be classified 2 types according to its characteristics. One is due to the cyclic characteristics such as quality, velocity of the refrigerant, pressure drop and mass flow rate. The other is due to the structural characteristics such as distributed path pipe layout, distributor and expansion device. In this paper, the effects of cycle characteristics on the noise of multi-type system air-conditioner are investigated experimentally. In the indoor unit of multi-type air-conditioner, the variation of noise is examined when the in-flowing and out-flowing refrigerant to the indoor unit are 2-phase state according to its cycle control. And several factors are recommended in order to reduce the refrigerant-induced noise of the air-conditioner.

  3. Thermoelectric properties of Tl-doped PbTeSe crystals grown by directional solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Three Tl-doped PbTe and two Tl-doped PbTeSe crystals were grown by vertical un-seeded directional solidification method. Among them, two Tl-doped PbTe ingots, with starting composition of (Pb0.99Tl0.01)Te, were grown under Pb or Te pressure over the melt provided by a Pb or Te reservoir, respectively, whereas another ingot, with starting composition of (Pb0.98Tl0.02)Te, was grown under Te overpressure. Two Tl-doped PbTeSe crystals, with starting composition of (Pb0.98Tl0.02)(Te0.85Se0.15) and (Pb0.96Tl0.04)(Te0.85Se0.15), were grown without any over-pressure. Disk-shaped samples were sliced at different locations along the growth axis and their thermal conductivities were determined from thermal diffusivity, density, and heat capacity measurements. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were simultaneously measured as a function of temperature for each disk sample. The Figure of Merit for the thermoelectric application, zT, was calculated from these properties from room temperature to about 640 °C. The Tl-doped PbTeSe samples have the highest zT value of 1.63 at temperature range of 425 to 475 °C, comparing to 1.13 at 410 °C for the Tl-doped PbTe samples. By substituting 15% of the Te atoms in the Tl-doped PbTe by Se atoms, the Figure of Merit of PbTeSe was enhanced by reducing the thermal conductivity about 26% and, at the same time, increasing the electrical conductivity by 43%.

  4. Characteristics of electroencephalographic responses induced by a pleasant and an unpleasant odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Kyu; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2003-11-01

    More than sensory stimuli, odorous stimuli were employed to facilitate the evocation of emotional responses in the present study. The odor-stimulated emotion was evaluated by investigating specific features of encephalographic (EEG) responses produced thereof. In this study, the concentrations of the same odor were altered; viz., the changes in odor-induced emotional level were compared with the concurrently monitored EEG response features. In addition, we performed the mental task to evoke the arousal state of the brain and investigated the resemblance of response characteristics of the resting state to the post-mental task resting state. Subjects having no abnormalities in the sense of smell included 12 male undergraduate and graduate students (age range: 22-26 years). Experiment I involved 2 types of odors that induced favorable odorous stimuli (pleasant induction); test-solutions were either diluted 150 (easily perceptible odorous sensation) or 500 (slightly perceptible odorous stimuli) times. Experiment II had 2 types of odors that evoked unfavorable odorous stimuli (unpleasant induction), and test-solutions with dilution rates similar to those of pleasant induction were prepared. Odorless distilled water was used as the control in both experiments. From results of rating the odorous stimuli of our compounds used, the candidates were respectively found to be appropriate in inducing the pleasant and unpleasant smell sensations. The analyses of EEG responses on inducing pleasant and unpleasant smell sensations revealed that the EEG activities of the left frontal region were enhanced. This finding may establish the hypothesis of a relationship prevailing between the positive approach-related emotion evoked by the visual sensation and the left hemisphere (Davidson, 1992; Tomarken et al., 1989). In other words, it can be interpreted that the negative withdrawal-related emotion may be associated with activities of the right hemisphere. However, this hypothesis may

  5. Tl response of KMgF{sub 3}: Lu + PTFE at ultraviolet radiation; Respuesta Tl de KMgF{sub 3}: Lu + PTFE a radiacion ultravioleta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, P.R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18 -1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Alarcon, N.G. [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico. Paseo Tollocan, Esq. con Jesus Carranza, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Furetta, C.; Azorin, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana- Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico. D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has different types of interaction with a crystalline solid. However, only few effects are interesting to optimize some thermoluminescent (Tl) properties of certain Tl materials. This paper presents results obtained by irradiating KMgF{sub 3}: Lu + Ptfe Tl dosimeters with ultraviolet (UV) radiation previously exposed to gamma radiation. These results showed that those dosimeters not exposed previously to gamma radiation did not presented any Tl signal. Meanwhile, those previously submitted to gamma irradiation showed that their sensitivity was increased as the gamma dose increased. The glow curve of sensitized KMgF{sub 3}: Lu + Ptfe exposed to UV radiation, presented the dosimetric pea at 212 C. This makes this material to be promissory for measuring UV radiation. (Author)

  6. Properties of a large NaI(Tl) spectrometer for the energy measurement of high-energy gamma rays on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, E. B.; Finman, L. C.; Hofstadter, R.; Lepetich, J. E.; Lin, Y. C.

    1986-01-01

    A large NaI(Tl) spectrometer is expected to play a crucial role in the measurement of the energy spectra from an all-sky survey of high-energy celestial gamma rays on the Gamma Ray Observatory. The crystal size and requirements of space flight have resulted in a novel crystal-packaging and optics combination. The structure of this spectrometer and the operating characteristics determined in a test program using high energy positrons are described.

  7. Structural and magnetic properties of TlTF{sub 3} (T=Fe, Co and Ni) by hybrid functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeb, Raham [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir (Lower) (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir (Lower) (Pakistan); Ali, Zahid, E-mail: zahidf82@gmail.com [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir (Lower) (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir (Lower) (Pakistan); Ahmad, Iftikhar; Khan, Imad [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir (Lower) (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir (Lower) (Pakistan)

    2015-08-15

    DFT studies are performed to investigate the structural, mechanical and magneto-electronic properties of the TlTF{sub 3} (T=Fe, Co and Ni) perovskites for the first time using GGA, GGA+U and hybrid density functional theory (HF). Our calculations show that HF give better results than GGA and GGA+U and more consistent with the experiments. The comparison of the lattice constants calculated by HF with experiments shows a maximum underestimation less than 0.2%. The chemical bonding between different ions in these compounds is explained on the bases of electronic clouds, which reveals that in TlFeF{sub 3}, Fe has more ionic character with F than the rest. The mechanical properties explain the hardness of these compounds and show that TlFeF{sub 3} is more ductile. Spin-dependent electronic band profiles show that TlFeF{sub 3} and TlCoF{sub 3} are metallic, whereas TlNiF{sub 3} is pseudo direct wide bandgap semiconductor. The stable magnetic phase optimizations and the calculated magnetic susceptibility confirm that TlFeF{sub 3} and TlNiF{sub 3} are ferromagnetic whereas TlCoF{sub 3} is anti-ferromagnetic material. - Highlights: • TlTF{sub 3} (T=Fe, Co and Ni) perovskites are investigated theoretically by hybrid density functional theory. • Mechanical properties explain the hardness of these compounds and show that TlFeF{sub 3} is more ductile. • The bandgap calculations show that TlFeF{sub 3} and TlCoF{sub 3} are metallic, whereas TlNiF{sub 3} is a wide bandgap semiconductor. • Magnetic optimizations and magnetic susceptibility confirm that TlFeF{sub 3} and TlNiF{sub 3} are ferromagnetic whereas TlCoF{sub 3} is anti-ferromagnetic material.

  8. Spectral Characteristics of Laser-Induced Graphite Plasma in Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinmei; Zheng, Peichao; Liu, Hongdi; Fang, Liang

    2016-11-01

    An experimental setup of laser-induced graphite plasma was built and the spectral characteristics and properties of graphite plasma were studied. From the temporal behavior of graphite plasma, the duration of CN partials (B2 Σ+ → X2 Σ+) emission was two times longer than that of atomic carbon, and all intensities reached the maximum during the early stage from 0.2 μs to 0.8 μs. The electron temperature decreased from 11807 K to 8755 K, the vibration temperature decreased from 8973 K to 6472 K, and the rotational temperature decreased from 7288 K to 4491 K with the delay time, respectively. The effect of the laser energy was also studied, and it was found that the thresholds and spectral characteristics of CN molecular and C atomic spectroscopy presented great differences. At lower laser energies, the electron excited temperature, the electron density, the vibrational temperature and rotational temperature of CN partials increased rapidly. At higher laser energies, the increasing of electron excited temperature and electron density slow down, and the vibrational temperature and rotational temperature even trend to saturation due to plasma shielding and dissociation of CN molecules. The relationship among the three kinds of temperatures was Telec>Tvib>Trot at the same time. The electron density of the graphite plasma was in the order of 1017 cm-3 and 1018 cm-3. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61205149), Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars of State Education Ministry, Science Research Funds of Chongqing Municipal Education Commission (KJ1500436), Scientific and Technological Talents Training Project of Chongqing (CSTC2013kjrc-qnrc40002), Key Project of Foundation and Advanced Technology Research Project of Chongqing (CSTC2015jcyjB0358), Visiting Scholarship of State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment & System Security and New Technology (2007DA10512714409)

  9. TlBr 探测器的发展与现状%The Development and Current Status of TlBr detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽霞; 郝晓勇

    2015-01-01

    TlBr is a promising detector material for X-ray and γ-rays due to its high atomic number, high density, large band-gap and low ionization energy.The properties of TlBr detector are high detection efficien-cy and excellent energy resolution.It can be easily fabricated or compacted in small size,it also can be operated at room temperature.So the TlBr detector is a priority selection for nuclear material inspection and safeguards property, national security, spatial and high energy physics researches.The paper shows the principle of TlBr detector, its development and current status.The detectors'electrode structure with signals collection and pro-cessing are introduced in detail.Lastly, there are some original ideas for component optimizing design, signal analysis method.%TlBr晶体是一种理想的的X射线和γ射线探测器材料,其原子序数高、密度大、禁带宽和电离能小,TlBr探测器具有探测效率高、能量分辨性能优异和体积小易集成等特点,可以在室温条件下使用,是核材料核查与核保障、国土安全、空间及高能物理实验的较佳选择。文章介绍了TlBr探测器工作原理及其发展与现状,对探测器结构设计及信号收集处理方法作了详细介绍,提出了TlBr探测器发展及开发工艺的建议。

  10. Antireflective coating for AgBr-TlI and AgBr-TlBr0.46I0.54 solid solution crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsakov, Alexandr; Salimgareev, Dmitrii; Lvov, Alexandr; Zhukova, Liya

    2016-12-01

    We researched the process of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for the crystals of AgBr-TlI and AgBr-TlBr0.46I0.54 systems. It was found that on the surface of irradiated crystals, the film is formed and film grain size depends on exposure time and crystal composition. This film proved to gain the transmission by reducing the reflection from its surface within the 8.0-27.0 μm range.

  11. Endopeptidase Isoenzyme Characteristics in Cucumis sativus Leaves During Dark-induced Senescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Zhang; Fei Wang; Lie-Feng Zhang; Qi Rui; Lang-Lai Xu

    2007-01-01

    The changes and characteristics of endopeptidase (EP) isoenzymes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves during dark-induced senescence were investigated by activity staining after gradient-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (G-PAGE) containing co-polymerized gelatin as substrate. The results showed that both the chlorophyll and the protein contents of leaves were decreased, and the protein degradation was correlated with the increase of proteolytic activity during the course of leaf senescence. Meanwhile, nine cucumber endopeptidases isoenzymes (CEP) with 140, 120, 106, 94, 76, 55, 46, 39 and 35 kDa molecular weights were detected. Four of these, CEP2, 3, 4 and CEP9 appeared all the time, but the changes of the activity were different during incubation. Another four CEPs (CEP5, 6, 7 and CEP8) whose activities increased with dark-induced time were only detected in senescent leaves.Furthermore, the biochemical properties of these nine CEP were also characterized. All the CEPs had high activities from 35 ℃ to 45 ℃, and the optimum temperature was found to be 40 ℃. However, the activities of CEPs were not detected below 25 ℃ or over 60 ℃. The activity bands appeared at a wide range of pH from 5.0 to 9.0, but the optimum pH was found at 7.0. No CEPs were detected at pH 4 or pH 10. By inhibition analysis we concluded that CEP2,3, 4 and CEP9 were serine endopeptidases and CEP6 was a kind of cysteine protease. It is suggested that serine endopeptidases might play a major role in cucumber leaf senescence, and for the first time, six senescencerelated endopeptidases (CEP1, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) were found in cucumber leaves.

  12. Settleability and characteristics of ferrate(VI)-induced particles in advanced wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Deng, Yang

    2016-04-15

    Ferrate(VI) as an emerging water treatment agent has recently recaptured interests for advanced wastewater treatment. A large number of studies were published to report ferrate(VI)-driven oxidation for various water contaminants. In contrast, very few efforts were made to characterize ferrate(VI) resultant particles in water and wastewater. In this study, jar tests were performed to examine the settleability and characteristics of ferrate(VI)-induced iron oxide particles, particularly the non-settable fraction of these particles, after ferrate(VI) reduction in a biologically treated municipal wastewater. The particle settleability was evaluated through the measurement of turbidity and particulate iron concentration in the supernatant with the settling time. Results showed that a majority of ferrate(VI)-induced iron oxide aggregates remained suspended and caused an increased turbidity. For example, at a Fe(VI) dose of 5.0 mg/L and pH 7.50, 82% of the added iron remained in the supernatant and the turbidity was 8.97 NTU against the untreated sample turbidity (2.33 NTU) after 72-h settling. The poor settling property of these particles suggested that coagulation and flocculation did not perform well in the ferrate(VI) treatment. Particle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that nano-scale particles were produced after ferrate(VI) decomposition, and gradually aggregated to form micro-scale larger particles in the secondary effluent. Zeta potentials of the non-settable ferrate(VI) resultant aggregates varied between -7.36 and -8.01 mV at pH 7.50 during the 72-h settling. The negative surface charges made the aggregates to be relatively stable in the wastewater matrix.

  13. Characteristics of wind-induced loss of solid precipitation derived from a Norwegian field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen-Øverleir, Asgeir; Wolff, Mareile; Isaksen, Ketil; Ødemark, Karianne; Reitan, Trond; Brækkan, Ragnar

    2016-04-01

    Solid precipitation measurements are known to be plagued by under-catch in windy conditions. Adjustment techniques, either based on a dynamic relationship between under-catch and measured determinants or static corrections, are then typically invoked. Such adjustment procedures, especially if the adjustment algorithm is unfit, introduce notable uncertainties that impact hydrological modelling in snow-dominated regions. In 2010, a test-site was established at a mountain plateau in Haukeli, Telemark, Southern Norway. Precipitation data of automatic gauges were compared with a precipitation gauge located in a Double Fence Inter-comparison Reference (DFIR) wind shield construction that served as the reference. A large number of sensors were additionally monitoring supportive meteorological parameters. The study presented in this poster considers data from three winters that were used to study and determine the wind-induced loss of solid precipitation. A general model framework was proposed, and Bayesian methods were used to objectively choose the most plausible sub-model to describe the loss ratio - wind speed - temperature relationship from the Haukeli data. The derived adjustment function is continuous and accounts for measurements of all types of winter precipitation (from rain to dry snow). The analysis shows a non-linear relationship between the loss ratio and wind speed during significant precipitation events, and there is a clear temperature dependency, believed to be mostly related to the precipitation type. The data also displayed a distinctive scatter that is believed to be an artefact mainly caused by neglecting the varying aerodynamic characteristics of the precipitation particles (for a given temperature) as a determinant. The adjustment formula allowed for the first time to derive an adjustment function with a data-tested validity beyond 8-9 m/s and proved a stabilisation of the wind-induced precipitation loss for higher wind speeds. Preliminary tests of

  14. Search for WIMPs with NaI(Tl) detectors at Oto Cosmo Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S.; Ejiri, H.; Fushimi, K.; Hayashi, K.; Kishimoto, T.; Kudomi, N.; Kume, K.; Kuramoto, H.; Matsuoka, K.; Ohsumi, H.; Takahisa, K.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Umehara, S.

    2003-06-01

    The cold dark matter search has been carried out at Oto Cosmo Observatory with the large volume NaI(Tl) scintillators of ELEGANT V(ELE-V). The new limits on WIMPs could be obtained by the analysis of the annual modulation. Recently, the performance of NaI(Tl) detector in ELE-V was successfully improved. these are also discussed.

  15. One-atom-layer 4×4 compound in (Tl, Pb)/Si(111) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalyuk, A. N.; Hsing, C. R.; Wei, C. M.; Gruznev, D. V.; Bondarenko, L. V.; Tupchaya, A. Y.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    An ordered 4×4-periodicity 2D compound has been found in the (Tl, Pb)/Si(111) system and its composition, structure and electronic properties have been characterized using low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy observations and density-functional-theory calculations. The compound has been concluded to contain 9 Tl atoms and 12 Pb atoms per 4×4 unit cell, i.e., 0.56 ML of Tl and 0.75 ML of Pb. Structural model was proposed for the 4×4-(Tl, Pb) compound where building blocks are a hexagonal array of 12 Pb atoms, a triangular array of 6 Tl atoms and a Tl trimer. The proposed structure has a C3 symmetry and occurs in the two equivalent orientations. The electron band structure of the compound contains two metallic spin-split surface-state bands. Bearing in mind the advanced properties of the known √{ 3 } ×√{ 3 } 2D compound in the same (Tl, Pb)/Si(111) system (i.e., combination of giant Rashba effect and superconductivity), the found 4×4-(Tl, Pb) compound is believed to be a promising object for exploration of its superconductive properties.

  16. Synthesis and superconductivity of (Ag)x/CuTl-1223 composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Jabbar; Irfan Qasim; M Mumtaz; K Nadeem

    2015-01-01

    Series of (Ag)x/(Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2Cu3O10-δ) {(Ag)x/CuTl-1223} nano-superconductor composites were synthesized with different concentra-tions (i.e. x ¼ 0 ? 4.0 wt%) of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. Low anisotropic CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix was prepared by solid-state reaction and Ag nanoparticles were prepared by a sol–gel method separately. The required (Ag)x/CuTl-1223 composition was obtained by the inclusion of Ag nanoparticles in CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix. Structural, morphological, compositional and superconducting transport properties of these composites were investigated in detail by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-rays (EDX) spectroscopy and four-point probe electrical resistivity (ρ) measurements. The inclusion of Ag nanoparticles enhanced the superconducting properties without affecting the tetragonal structure of the host CuTl-1223 matrix. The improvement in superconducting properties of (Ag)x/CuTl-1223 composites is most likely due to enhanced inter-grains coupling and increased superconducting volume fraction after the addition of metallic Ag nanoparticles at the inter-crystallite sites in the samples. The presence of Ag nanoparticles at the grain-boundaries may increase the number of flux pinning centers, which were present in the form of weak-links in the pure CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix.

  17. Protocol for TL dating with zircon : Computer simulation of temperature and dose rate effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkin, AA; Van Es, HJ; Vainshtein, DI; den Hartog, HW

    2002-01-01

    Natural zircon is irradiated internally by U and Th impurities. After exposure to ionizing irradiation zircon exhibits thermoluminescence (TL), which can be used to calculate the irradiation dose and the sample age. A kinetic model for TL of zircon developed earlier is used to model the processes

  18. A Simple, Hot N2-Gas TL Reader Incorporating a Post-Irradiation Annealing Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    1978-01-01

    A simple “do-it-yourself” TL reader is outlined. It is based on a hot nitrogen gas heating technique that has been routinely used at Risø for several years and thus intensively investigated. A description is given of the complete TL read-out system including electronic circuit diagrams of the most...

  19. Effects of Tl on the electrocrystallisation of thick Au layers from KAu(CN) 2 solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, Benedetto; Fanigliulo, Ameriga

    2002-08-01

    Electrocrystallisation of thick (exceeding a few microns) gold layers from weakly acidic KAu(CN) 2 aqueous solutions is not feasible unless specific addition agents are present in the bath. Tl + salts are empirically known to enhance the growth rate of gold. In this paper we investigate the action of Tl + at the growth interface by electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical techniques and propose a mechanism for its action as a cathodic depolariser. The electrochemical behaviour of Tl + was studied by linear sweep voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, and differential capacitance measurements. The interactions of Tl + and CN - at the growth interface were studied in-situ during the electrocrystallisation process by Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies. Cyanoaurate baths display a significant cathodic passivation, which is reduced by addition of Tl +. Voltammograms of baths containing Tl + show underpotential deposition features but no stripping peaks. Spectroelectrochemistry shows that the deposition of Tl + is specifically active in cathodically passivated areas. This behaviour is suggestive of an assisted Au electrodeposition mechanism. Tl is oxidatively desorbed by Au(I), giving rise to the growth of thick, pure gold films.

  20. Exploring the SoTL Landscape at the University of Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuetherick, Brad; Yu, Stan; Greer, Jim

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a quantitative study that comprehensively assessed the level and extent to which the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) was being conducted amongst faculty and staff at the University of Saskatchewan, and identifies the barriers and challenges faced by SoTL practitioners.

  1. Effects of the number of inducer blades on the anti-cavitation characteristics and external performance of a centrifugal pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, XiaoMei; Shi, GaoPing [Zhejiang University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Hangzhou (China); Zhu, ZuChao; Cui, BaoLing [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou (China)

    2016-07-15

    Installing an inducer upstream of the main impeller is an effective approach for improving the anti-cavitation performance of a high speed centrifugal pump. For a high-speed centrifugal pump with an inducer, the number of inducer blades can affect its internal flow and external performance. We studied the manner in which the number of inducer blades can affect the anti-cavitation characteristics and external performance of a centrifugal pump. We first use the Rayleigh-Plesset equation and the mixture model to simulate the vapor liquid flow in a centrifugal pump with an inducer, and then predict its external performance. Finally, we tested the external performance of a centrifugal pump with 2-, 3- and 4-bladed inducers, respectively. The results show that the simulations of external performance in a centrifugal pump are in accordance with our experiments. Based on this, we obtained vapor volume fraction distributions for the inducer, the impeller, and in the corresponding whole flow parts. We discovered that the vapor volume fraction of a centrifugal pump with a 3- bladed inducer is less than that of a centrifugal pump with 2- or 4-bladed inducers, which means that a centrifugal pump with a 3-bladed inducer has a better external and anti-cavitation performance.

  2. OSL and photo-transferred TL of quartz single crystals sensitized by high-dose of gamma-radiation and moderate heat-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Souza, Leonardo B; Guzzo, Pedro L; Khoury, Helen J

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and the photo-transferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) signals in quartz single crystals showing a strong TL peak near 300°C after being sensitized by irradiation with 25kGy of gamma rays and heating at 400°C. Natural and sensitized samples were prepared from two crystals with different sensitivity levels in the 300°C TL region. Continuous-wave (CW) and linearly-modulated (LM) OSL signals were stimulated with blue light-emitting diodes during 40 and 1000s, respectively. Two components were isolated from the CW-OSL signals of sensitized samples. These components were clearly seen in LM-OSL measurements together with two long-term components. LM-OSL showed that the sensitization process considered in this study sensitized an ultrafast OSL component of these crystals. The similar behavior found for the thermal stabilities of OSL and TL signals and the dependence of these signals with sample origins suggested that the trapping site related to the ultrafast component is also related to the TL process of the sensitized peak. The PTTL signal induced by blue LEDs increased the intensity of the sensitized glow peak. On the other hand, a remarkable reduction in the intensity of this peak as a result of the accumulated effect of blue light exposure was clearly seen in both kinds of crystals. These results were explained by a mechanism of competition between optically unstable deep traps and trap levels responsible to the sensitized TL peak. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of hyperfine structure and isotope shift within the 7s1/2-7p1/2 transition in 203-Tl and 205-Tl

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjit, G; Vukasin, G D; Majumder, P K

    2013-01-01

    A two-step, two-color laser spectroscopy technique has been used to determine of the hyperfine splitting (HFS) of the 7p1/2 excited state in 203-Tl and 205-Tl, as well as the isotope shift within the 7s1/2 - 7p1/2 1301 nm transition. We find the hyperfine splittings in 203-Tl and 205-Tl to be 2152.2(7) MHz and 2173.3(8) MHz respectively. The 203-Tl - 205-Tl transition isotope shift is found to be 534.4(9) MHz. The HFS values each disagree by roughly 20 MHz from previously published values which quoted precision comparable to ours. In order to ensure accurate frequency-axis calibration in this new measurement, we employed both a Fabry-Perot cavity, as well as radio-frequency modulation to create sidebands in the absorption spectrum at well-defined frequency separation. In our experiment, one laser was locked to the ground-state 6p1/2 - 7s1/2 378 nm transition, while the second, spatially overlapping laser was scanned across the 7s1/2 (F=1) - 7p1/2 (F=0,1) hyperfine transitions.

  4. Exploring the thermoelectric and magnetic properties of uranium selenides: Tl2Ag2USe4 and Tl3Cu4USe6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Sikander; Khan, Saleem Ayaz; Din, Haleem Ud; Khenata, Rabah; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2016-09-01

    The electronic, magnetic and thermoelectric properties of Tl2Ag2USe4 and Tl3Cu4USe6 compounds were investigated using the full potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on the density functional theory (DFT). The exchange correlation was treated with the generalized gradient approximation plus optimized effective Hubbard parameter and spin-orbit coupling (GGA+U+SOC). The present uranium selenides show narrow direct energy band gap values of 0.7 and 0.875 eV for Tl2Ag2USe4 and Tl3Cu4USe6 respectively. For both selenides U-d/f states are responsible for electrical transport properties. Uranium atoms were the most contributors in the magnetic moment compared to other atoms and show ferromagnetic nature. The spin density isosurfaces show the polarization of neighboring atoms of Uranium, such as silver/copper and selenium. Thermoelectric calculations reveal that Tl3Cu4USe6 is more suitable for thermoelectric device applications than Tl2Ag2USe4.

  5. Natural quartz TL property and similarity in Piper nigrum L; Propiedad TL de cuarzo natural y similitud en pimienta negra (Piper nigrum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman A, S.; Cruz Z, E.; Furetta, C. [Unidad de Irradiacion y Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Brown, F. [Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Barboza F, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)], e-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.mx

    2009-10-15

    Quartz is a mineral abundant in nature and can provide information thermoluminescent (TL), and also is located in the mineral fraction of some herbs and spices consumed. It is present the analysis of the TL properties of a sample of natural quartz rock and compared with those obtained from the fraction of Piper nigrum L. poly mineral when they were exposed to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. The poly minerals of Piper nigrum L. were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, where the quartz was found as a major component. They separated in different particle sizes (10, 53, 74 and 149 {mu}m). The samples were irradiated at relatively low doses (1-500 Gy) and high (0.1-40 kGy) in order to determine the linearity of the TL emission as a function of the dose and the analysis of glow curves. Also there was the fading of the TL signal, the effect of ultra violet light. The reproducibility of the TL signal in the samples indicates that a smaller particle size gives better TL signal. (author)

  6. Preparation of Pt-Tl clusters showing new geometries. X-ray, NMR and luminescence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belío, Úrsula; Fuertes, Sara; Martín, Antonio

    2014-07-28

    Square planar complexes [Pt(CNC)L] (CNC = C,N,C-2,6-NC5H3(C6H4-2)2; L = tht (tetrahydrothiophene, SC4H8, 1), L = CN(t)Bu (2)) react with TlPF6 in different Pt/Tl molar ratios (3/1 in the case of 1 and 1/1 in the case of 2) yielding the complexes [{Pt(CNC)(tht)}3Tl](PF6) (3) and [Pt(CNC)(CN(t)Bu)Tl](PF6) (4), respectively. The structures of 3 and 4 (X-ray) show the presence of Pt→Tl dative bonds unsupported by any bridging ligands. In complex 3, the only Tl centre is simultaneously bonded to three Pt atoms forming a perfect equilateral triangle with Pt-Tl distances of 2.9088(5) Å, remarkably short. Complex 4 is formed by three "Pt(CNC)(CN(t)Bu)Tl" units, disposed in a triangular fashion, linked together through η(6)-Tl-arene interactions, and showing Pt-Tl bonds with distances of ca. 3.04 Å. The study of these crystal structures would seem to indicate that the difference between the Pt/Tl ratios found in the complexes 3 and 4 is due to the steric requirements of the L ligand bonded to Pt. NMR studies both in solution and in the solid state show that the Pt-Tl bond persists in solutions of 3 and 4. The UV-vis spectra of 3 and 4 in solution display the same profiles as those of 1 and 2, which may suggest a partial dissociation of the Pt-Tl bond in solution. However, by DFT calculations it was proved that in this case the formation of the Pt-Tl dative bond does not produce the expected blue-shift in the UV-vis absorptions. The emissive behaviour of 1-4 in the solid state and in frozen solutions is also studied and included in this work.

  7. Crushing effects on TL and OSL on quartz: relevance to fault dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, S. E-mail: toyoda@dap.ous.ac.jp; Rink, W.J.; Schwarcz, H.P.; Rees-Jones, J

    2000-12-15

    The effect of crushing on the TL and OSL signals in quartz was investigated to examine the feasibility of using OSL and TL for dating of faulted rocks. 275 deg. C TL signals were not reduced by crushing by hand (mortar and pestle), in a pellet die press, or using an automatic mortar and pestle, but the sensitivity of the 100 deg. C TL signal to a test dose decreased in crushed samples. Green light-stimulated OSL signal intensities were not decreased after crushing, but showed strongly increased inter-aliquot variability after crushing. We concluded that OSL and TL in quartz might be useful to characterize the crushing history of quartz in fault rocks, but their usefulness in dating fault events was not evident because we did not find evidence of signal zeroing under the conditions used in this study.

  8. How thermoelectric properties of p-type Tl-filled skutterudites are improved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghun Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high-temperature thermoelectric properties of p-type Tl-filled skutterudites TlxFe1Co3Sb12 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 were examined. While samples with x ≤ 0.4 were single-phase Tl-filled skutterudite, samples with x = 0.6 and 0.8 were composed of two phases: TlxFe1Co3Sb12 (x ≈ 0.4 as the matrix phase and a Tl-Fe-Sb ternary alloy. The thermal conductivity (κ was reduced effectively by Tl addition, but the secondary phase increased κ slightly. The maximum value of the dimensionless figure of merit ZT (=S2T/ρ/κ, where T is the absolute temperature was 0.36 at 723 K for Tl0.2Fe1Co3Sb12.

  9. A Call for Expanding Inclusive Student Engagement in SoTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Felten

    2013-09-01

    of student-faculty partnerships focused on inquiry into teaching and learning. However, some students tend to be privileged in SoTL initiatives while others are discouraged, implicitly or explicitly, from engaging in this work. In this paper, we consider why certain students tend to be excluded from SoTL, summarize the possible developmental gains made by students and faculty when diverse student voices are included, and highlight strategies for generating a more inclusive SoTL. We call for expanding student engagement in SoTL by encouraging a diversity of student voices to engage in co-inquiry with faculty. Inclusive engagement has tremendous potential to enhance student and faculty learning, to deepen SoTL initiatives, and to help redress the exclusionary practices that too often occur in higher education.

  10. Discussion on coupling mechanism of asymmetric CRLH/RH TL coupler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You-zhen; ZHANG Ye-wen; HE Li; LIU Fu-qiang; LI Hong-qiang; CHEN Hong

    2006-01-01

    A quasi 0-dB coupler composed of a composite right-/left-handed transmission line (CRLH TL) and a conventional right-handed transmission line (RH TL) is presented. This coupler is shown to exhibit broad bandwidth and tight coupling char acteristics. The circuit model and S-parameter results are also demonstrated. Another coupler with properly chosen loaded lumped-elements LL and CL in the CRLH TL is proposed to gain further understanding of the coupling mechanism. By adjusting the spacing between the CRLH TL and RH TL from 8 mm to 0.2 mm, it can be shown that backward coupling occurs in the left-handed region.

  11. Concentration Dependence of Afterglow Suppression in CsI:Tl,Sm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappers, L. A.; Bartram, R. H.; Hamilton, D. S.; Lempicki, A.; Brecher, C.; Gaysinskiy, V.; Ovechkina, E. E.; Nagarkar, V. V.

    2010-11-01

    Combined radioluminescence, afterglow and thermoluminescence experiments on single-crystal samples of co-doped CsI:Tl,Sm suggest that deeper samarium electron traps scavenge electrons from shallower thallium traps and that electrons subsequently released by samarium recombine non-radiatively with holes trapped as VKA(Tl+) centers, thus providing a mechanism for suppression of trapped-charge accumulation in repetitive applications. In the present investigation, experiments performed on two single-crystal samples of CsI:Tl,Sm with nominal concentrations of 0.11% Tl+ and of 0.2% and 0.05% Sm2+, respectively, support the inference that electrons tunnel freely between samarium ions and are trapped preferentially near VKA(Tl+) centers where non-radiative recombination is the rate-limiting step.

  12. Concentration Dependence of Afterglow Suppression in CsI:Tl,Sm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappers, L A; Bartram, R H; Hamilton, D S; Lempicki, A; Brecher, C; Gaysinskiy, V; Ovechkina, E E; Nagarkar, V V, E-mail: lawrence.kappers@uconn.ed

    2010-11-01

    Combined radioluminescence, afterglow and thermoluminescence experiments on single-crystal samples of co-doped CsI:Tl,Sm suggest that deeper samarium electron traps scavenge electrons from shallower thallium traps and that electrons subsequently released by samarium recombine non-radiatively with holes trapped as V{sub KA}(Tl{sup +}) centers, thus providing a mechanism for suppression of trapped-charge accumulation in repetitive applications. In the present investigation, experiments performed on two single-crystal samples of CsI:Tl,Sm with nominal concentrations of 0.11% Tl{sup +} and of 0.2% and 0.05% Sm{sup 2+}, respectively, support the inference that electrons tunnel freely between samarium ions and are trapped preferentially near V{sub KA}(Tl{sup +}) centers where non-radiative recombination is the rate-limiting step.

  13. Light-induced vibration characteristics of free-standing carbon nanotube films fabricated by vacuum filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junying; Zhu, Yong, E-mail: yongzhu@cqu.edu.cn; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Jie [The Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System, Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); Wang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054 (China)

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, we fabricated carbon nanotube (CNT) films with different thickness by vacuum filtration method, and the films were separated from Mixed Cellulose Ester membranes with burn-off process. The thickness of CNT films with different concentrations of CNTs 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, and 200 mg are 10.36 μm, 20.90 μm, 30.19 μm, and 39.98 μm respectively. The CNT bundles are homogeneously distributed and entangled with each other, and still maintain 2D continuous network structures after burn-off process. The optical absorptivity of the films is between 84% and 99% at wavelengths ranging from 400 nm to 2500 nm. Vibration characteristics were measured with the Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometer vibration measurement system. CNT films vibrate only under the xenon light irradiating perpendicularly to the surface. Vibration recorded by Fabry-Perot interferometer is considered to be caused by the time-dependent thermal moment, which is due to the temperature differences of two sides of CNT films. The vibration frequency spectrums between 0.1 ∼ 0.5 Hz were obtained by the Fast Fourier Transform spectra from time domain to frequency domain, and showed a linear relationship with films thickness, which is in accordance with theoretical model of thermal induced vibration.

  14. On the characteristics of ion implanted metallic surfaces inducing dropwise condensation of steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Michael H; Leipertz, Alfred; Fröba, Andreas P

    2010-04-20

    The present work provides new information on the characteristics of ion implanted metallic surfaces responsible for the adjustment of stable dropwise condensation (DWC) of steam. The results are based on condensation experiments and surface analyses via contact angle (CA) and surface free energy (SFE) measurements as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For studying possible influences of the base material and the implanted ion species, commercially pure titanium grade 1, aluminum alloy Al 6951, and stainless steel AISI 321 were treated with N(+), C(+), O(+), or Ar(+) using ion beam implantation technology. The studies suggest that chemically inhomogeneous surfaces are instrumental in inducing DWC. As this inhomogeneity is apparently caused by particulate precipitates bonded to the metal surface, the resulting nanoscale surface roughness may also influence the condensation form. On such surfaces nucleation mechanisms seem to be capable of maintaining DWC even when CA and SFE measurements indicate increased wettability. The precipitates are probably formed due to the supersaturation of ion implanted metal surfaces with doping elements. For high-alloyed materials like AISI 321 or Hastelloy C-276, oxidation stimulated by the condensation process obviously tends to produce similar surfaces suitable for DWC.

  15. Analysis of Excitation Characteristics of Ultra High Frequency Electromagnetic Waves Induced by PD in GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Dengwei; GAO Wensheng; YAO Senjing; LIU Weidong; HE Jiaxi

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of the excitation mechanism of ultra high frequency (UHF) electromagnetic waves (EW) is essential for applying UHF method to partial discharge (PD) detection.Since the EW induced by PD in gas insulated switchgear (GIS) contains not only transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave,but also high-order transverse electric (TE) and high-order transverse magnetic (TM) waves,we analyzed the proportions between the TEM wave and the high order waves,as well as the influence of the PD position on this proportion,using the finite different time domain (FDTD) method.According to the unique characteristics of the waves,they are separated only approximately.It is found that the high-order mode is the main component,more than 70%,of the electric field around the enclosure of GIS,and that with the increasing distance between PD source and inner conductors,the low frequency (below about 800 MHz) component of EW decreases,but the high frequency component (above 1 GHz) increases,meanwhile the proportion of high-order components in EW could reach 77% from 70%.It concluded that the closer the PD source to the enclosure is,the easier high order EW may be excited.

  16. Numerical study on wave dynamics and wave-induced bed erosion characteristics in Potter Cove, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chai Heng; Lettmann, Karsten; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf

    2013-12-01

    Wave generation, propagation, and transformation from deep ocean over complex bathymetric terrains to coastal waters around Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) have been simulated for an austral summer month using the Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) wave model. This study aims to examine and understand the wave patterns, energy fluxes, and dissipations in Potter Cove. Bed shear stress due to waves is also calculated to provide a general insight on the bed sediment erosion characteristics in Potter Cove.A nesting approach has been implemented from an oceanic scale to a high-resolution coastal scale around Potter Cove. The results of the simulations were compared with buoy observations obtained from the National Data Buoy Center, the WAVEWATCH III model results, and GlobWave altimeter data. The quality of the modelling results has been assessed using two statistical parameters, namely the Willmott's index of agreement D and the bias index. Under various wave conditions, the significant wave heights at the inner cove were found to be about 40-50 % smaller than the ones near the mouth of Potter Cove. The wave power in Potter Cove is generally low. The spatial distributions of the wave-induced bed shear stress and active energy dissipation were found to be following the pattern of the bathymetry, and waves were identified as a potential major driving force for bed sediment erosion in Potter Cove, especially in shallow water regions. This study also gives some results on global ocean applications of SWAN.

  17. Investigation of Characteristics of Large dB/dt for Geomagnetically Induced Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, D.; Ngwira, C.; Damas, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    When geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) flow through electrical networks, they become a potential threat for electrical power systems. Changes in the geomagnetic field (dB/dt) during severe geomagnetic disturbances are the main sources of GICs. These dB/dt phenomena were studied by selecting 24 strong geomagnetic storms with Dst ≤ - 150 nT. ACE spacecraft solar wind data: flow speed, proton density, By and Bz IMF components of the solar wind were correlated with measurements of the magnetic field detected on ground stations at different latitudes. This article reports characteristics of the solar wind during time intervals of large changes in the horizontal geomagnetic field with a threshold of dB/dt ≥ ± 20 nT/min for the 24 geomagnetic storms. The results of this investigation can help scientists to understand the mechanisms responsible for causing large magnetic field variations in order to predict and mitigate possible large events in the future, which is critical for our society that relies constantly on electricity for livelihood and security. In addition, this ongoing project will continue to investigate electron flux response before, during, and after large changes in geomagnetic field.

  18. Limites de stabilité de la phase (Ag, Cu)TlTe dans le système AgCuTlTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Gerard; Boubali, Mahjoub; Ayral, R. M.; Tedenac, Jean-Claude

    1990-12-01

    Three isopleth sections, AgTlTe(CuTlTe), AgTlTeCu 2Te, and AgTlTeCu 2TlTe 2, of the quaternary system AgCuTlTe were investigated using thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray powder diffraction. The AgTlTe-based solid solution (Ag xCu YTl zTe) limits were determined and the composition-structure relations depicted.

  19. Giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3: Tl

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2014-07-25

    First-principles calculations are employed to demonstrate a giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3:Tl. Biaxial tensile and compressive strain is used to tune the splitting by modifying the potential gradient. The band gap is found to increase under compression and decreases under tension, whereas the dependence of the Rashba spin splitting on the strain is the opposite. Large values of αR = 1.57 eV Å at the bottom of the conduction band (electrons) and αR = 3.34 eV Å at the top of the valence band (holes) are obtained without strain. These values can be further enhanced to αR = 1.83 eV Å and αR = 3.64 eV Å, respectively, by 2% tensile strain. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Retrospective dosimetry using EPR and TL techniques: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.H.

    1996-12-31

    Methods of retrospective dosimetry, including luminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), rely on measurement of accident dose absorbed by naturally occurring materials - ceramics in the case of both thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and organic materials and bio- minerals in the case of EPR. Each of these methods relies on measurement of radiation defects resulting from accidental exposure. Since defects also result from natural sources of radiation over the lifetime of a sample, analysis is usually restricted to materials for which the natural dose may be determined and subtracted from the measured cumulative dose. Luminescence dating techniques rely heavily on an accurate assessment of cumulative dose from natural radiation sources, and dating research has provided us with the bulk of our knowledge in this area. Virtually all of the work on natural dose determination can be directly applied to retrospective techniques. With EPR techniques the cumulative dose from diagnostic x- rays is also of importance.

  1. Multi-band Monopole Antennas Loaded with Metamaterial TL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhi-jie; Liang, Jian-gang

    2015-05-01

    A novel metamaterial transmission line (TL) by loading complementary single Archimedean spiral resonator pair (CSASRP) is investigated and used to design a set of multi-frequency monopole antennas. The particularity is that the CSASRP which features dual-shunt branches in the equivalent circuit model is directly etched in the signal strip. By smartly controlling the element parameters, three antennas are designed and one of them covering UMTS and Bluetooth bands is fabricated and measured. The antenna exhibits impedance matching better than -10 dB and normal monopolar radiation patterns at working bands of 1.9-2.22 and 2.38-2.5 GHz. Moreover, the loaded element also contributes to the radiation, which is the major advantage of this prescription over previous lumped-element loadings. The proposed antenna is also more compact over previous designs.

  2. Core excitations across the neutron shell gap in 207Tl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The single closed-neutron-shell, one proton–hole nucleus 207Tl was populated in deep-inelastic collisions of a 208Pb beam with a 208Pb target. The yrast and near-yrast level scheme has been established up to high excitation energy, comprising an octupole phonon state and a large number of core excited states. Based on shell-model calculations, all observed single core excitations were established to arise from the breaking of the N=126 neutron core. While the shell-model calculations correctly predict the ordering of these states, their energies are compressed at high spins. It is concluded that this compression is an intrinsic feature of shell-model calculations using two-body matrix elements developed for the description of two-body states, and that multiple core excitations need to be considered in order to accurately calculate the energy spacings of the predominantly three-quasiparticle states.

  3. Photoluminescence spectra of TlInSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakita, Kazuki; Araki, Yoshito; Asaba, Ryo [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, 275-0016 Narashino (Japan); Shim, YongGu [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuencho, 599-8531 Sakai (Japan); Mamedov, Nazim [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, H. Javid ave. 33, 1143 Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2012-12-15

    Photoluminescence spectra of TlInSe{sub 2} crystals with quasi one-dimensional structure have been investigated. The observed broad spectra have been found to result from overlapping of two peaks centered at 1.05 and 0.97 eV. Following the results of the examination of the excitation intensity dependence of the observed photoluminescence, the last peaks have been attributed to free-to-bound radiative transitions. The activation energy of donor or acceptor levels associated with these emissions has been tentatively evaluated. Furthermore, two sharp peaks located at 1.17 and 1.23 eV have been observed at 10 K in the excitation spectra of the observed photoluminescence (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Effect of time and exercise on the clearance rate of (201)Tl in normal and ischemic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Barbra E; Hezemans, Rachel E L; Verburg, Frederik A; Keijsersa, Ruth G M; Konijnenberg, Mark W; Verzijlbergen, J Fred

    2010-06-01

    Simultaneous dual isotope (SDI) acquisition of (201)Tl rest/(99m)Tc-sestamibi stress-myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography is a desirable new procedure in nuclear cardiology. In this protocol (201)Tl is injected at rest but imaging is performed not earlier than after exercise. Therefore, one must be convinced that throughout exercise (201)Tl remains distributed in an identical pattern as at rest. Before SDI can be applied clinically, (201)Tl rest MPS before and after exercise test needs to be compared for equality. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of time and exercise on the clearance of preinjected (201)Tl in normal and ischemic myocardium. In 122 patients rest (201)Tl and delayed (n =20) or poststress (n= 102) (201)Tl imaging was performed. Quantitative analysis of mean counts-per-pixel was performed for each segment in a 17-segment model. Differences between rest and delayed or poststress (201)Tl MPS were calculated. Patients with a poststress (201)Tl image were divided into normal (N= 66) and ischemic (N= 36) groups. Visual analysis was performed by two independent observers scoring the 17 segments on a scale of 0-4. The overall difference between rest (201)Tl and poststress (201)Tl MPS was - 15.4%. Normal and ischemic patients showed 16.2 and 14.0% (P =0.17) washout, respectively. Visual assessment by two independent observers revealed no regional differences between rest (201)Tl and delayed or poststress (201)Tl MPS. (201)Tl poststress MPS shows significant washout of thallium. This washout is not segmental, but global over the myocardium. No significant differences are found between normal and ischemic myocardium. The poststress (201)Tl MPS is a reliable reflection of rest perfusion. SDI acquisition of (201)Tl rest/(99m)Tc-sestamibi stress-MPS is clinically applicable.

  5. NaI(Tl Scintillator's Response Functions for Point-like and Distributed Gamma-ray Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Vega-Carrillo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The response functions of a NaI(Tl detectors have been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Response functions were calculated for monoenergetic photon sources (0.05 to 3 MeV. Responses were calculated for point-like sources and for sources distributed in Portland cement cylinders. Calculated responses were used to estimate the detector efficiency for pointlike and distributed sources. Samples of cylindrical Portland cement were prepared and exposed to the photoneutron field produced by a 15 MV linac used for radiotherapy. Short half-life radioisotopes were induced and the activity was determined by measuring the pulse-height spectra with a NaI(Tl g-ray spectrometer that was calibrated using point-like sources. Instead of doing corrections due to differences between the geometry, material and solid angle of point-like sources used for calibration, and the Portland cement cylinders, the detection efficiency was determined using the ratio between the efficiencies for the point-like and the distributed sources estimated with the Monte Carlo calculations, and the activity of the induced isotopes in cement was obtained.

  6. Interlaboratory tests to identify irradiation treatment of various foods via gas chromatographic detection of hydrocarbons, ESR spectroscopy and TL analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.; Schulzki, G.; Linke, B.; Spiegelberg, A.; Mager, M.; Boegl, K.W. [BgVV - Federal Inst. for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) and 2-alkylcyclobutanones, the ESR spectroscopic detection of radiation-specific radicals and the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis of silicate mineral are the most important methods for identification of irradiated foods. After successful performance in interlaboratory studies on meat products, fish, spices, herbs and shells of nuts, all or some of these methods have been approved by national authorities in Germany and the United Kingdom. Recently, draft European Standards have been elaborated for approval by member states of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Several research laboratories have shown that these methods can be applied to various foods not yet tested in collaborative studies. However, for an effective application in food control it is necessary to prove their suitability in interlaboratory studies. Therefore, in 1993/94, various interlaboratory tests were organised by the BgVV. In an ESR spectroscopic test, shrimps and paprika powder were examined. Shrimps were also the subject of examination in a TL test. Finally, GC detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the fat fraction of foods was used in another test to identify irradiated Camembert, avocado, papaya and mango. In the following paper, results of the interlaboratory tests are summarised. Detailed reports are published by this institute. (author).

  7. Cosmogenic radionuclide production in NaI(Tl) crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2015-02-01

    The production of long-lived radioactive isotopes in materials due to the exposure to cosmic rays on Earth surface can be an hazard for experiments demanding ultra-low background conditions, typically performed deep underground. Production rates of cosmogenic isotopes in all the materials present in the experimental set-up, as well as the corresponding cosmic rays exposure history, must be both well known in order to assess the relevance of this effect in the achievable sensitivity of a given experiment. Although NaI(Tl) scintillators are being used in experiments aiming at the direct detection of dark matter since the first nineties of the last century, very few data about cosmogenic isotopes production rates have been published up to date. In this work we present data from two 12.5 kg NaI(Tl) detectors, developed in the frame of the ANAIS project, which were installed inside a convenient shielding at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory just after finishing surface exposure to cosmic rays. The very fast start of data taking allowed to identify and quantify isotopes with half-lives of the order of tens of days. Initial activities underground have been measured and then production rates at sea level have been estimated following the history of detectors; values of about a few tens of nuclei per kg and day for Te isotopes and 22Na and of a few hundreds for I isotopes have been found. These are the first direct estimates of production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in NaI crystals. A comparison of the so deduced rates with calculations using typical cosmic neutron flux at sea level and a carefully selected description of excitation functions will be also presented together with an estimate of the corresponding contribution to the background at low and high energies, which can be relevant for experiments aiming at rare events searches.

  8. Who Is Represented in the Teaching Commons?: SoTL through the Lenses of the Arts and Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Michael K.; Wuetherick, Brad

    2015-01-01

    As the community of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) scholars has flourished across Canada and around the world, there has been a growing sense among humanists that SoTL work has been dominated by the epistemologies, philosophies, and research methods of the social sciences. This is a view that has been supported by SoTL journal editors…

  9. Age-dependent change in biological characteristics of stem cells in radiation-induced mammary carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Yoshiya; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa, Chiba (Japan); Yasukawa-Barnes, Jane; Gould, Michael N.; Clifton, Kelly H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2003-07-01

    If you ask what types of cells are the targets for carcinogenesis, a popular answer would be that cancer arises from stem cells. Stem cells are cells that are capable of both self-renewal and generation of differentiated progenies. If the hypothesis of 'cancer as stem cell disease' is correct, the risk of carcinogenesis should be a function of the number of stem cells and their responsiveness of carcinogen-induced damage. In the present study, we addressed the feasibility of this hypothesis using the rat mammary carcinogenesis model. One of the important conclusions emerging from studies on atomic bomb survivors concerns age-related changes in the susceptibility to breast cancer. The relative risk of breast cancer is very high among women exposed to ionizing radiation before or during puberty, and it decreases thereafter. Little information is available, however, on age-related changes in the radiobiological nature of mammary stem cells. We examined age-associated changes in the number of mammary stem-like cells (clonogens) and their susceptibility to radiation in terms of cell death and carcinogenic initiation frequency. The results were as follows. (1) During the prepubertal period, the total number of mammary clonogens per rat increased exponentially with a population doubling time of {approx}4 days. After puberty, the doubling time lengthened to {approx}30 days. The total number of clonogens in abdominal and inguinal mammary glands was {approx}200 in 2-week-old rats, while it was {approx}5600 in 8-week-old rats. (2) The survival curves of clonogenic cells after irradiation indicated that radiation sensitivity of the cells before and during puberty was much higher than after puberty. (3) The initiation frequency of the clonogens from prepubertal rats after 5 Gy irradiation was four times higher than that of the clonogens from post-pubertal rats. These results suggest that changes in the number of stem cells and their radiobiological characteristics

  10. Spectral-induced polarization characteristics of rocks from Shinyemi deposit in Northeastern South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Samgyu; Shin, Seung Wook; Son, Jeong-Sul; Kim, Changryol

    2016-04-01

    Contact metasomatism between carbonate and igneous rocks leads to the formation of skarn deposits, and ore minerals are abundant. Geophysical methods that visualize the distributions of physical properties have been utilized to determine lithological boundaries in ore deposits. In particular, spectral-induced polarization (SIP) is the most effective of those methods for mineral exploration because it can obtain not only the boundaries but also the abundance and grain size of ore minerals. It is crucial to characterize the SIP responses of in situ rocks for a more realistic interpretation. Thus, typical rocks composed of igneous rock, skarn rock, skarn ore, and carbonate rock were sampled from drilling cores in the Shinyemi deposit, which is one of the well-known skarn deposits in Northeastern South Korea. The purpose of this study was to characterize the SIP responses of rocks by laboratory measurements. The characterization was performed by evaluating spectra and IP parameters. The IP properties were acquired from equivalent circuit analysis using a circuit model based on the electrochemical theory, and the analysis results of this circuit model were relatively well fit compared with those of the traditional Dias and Cole-Cole models. The frequency responses below 100 Hz in the spectra and the chargeability values of the skarn rocks and ores containing magnetite were relatively strong and high, respectively, compared with those of non-mineralized igneous and carbonate rocks. Therefore, it is considered that these characteristics are dependent on the abundance of magnetite. In case of the skarn ores with high magnetite content, the resistivity values were significantly low and the relaxation time values were influenced by the grain size of magnetite. On the other hand, it is considered that the DC resistivity and the relaxation time values of the igneous and carbonate rocks are slightly related to the porosity and the grade of hydrothermal alteration, respectively.

  11. [Characteristics of induced labors at Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Maestro, Marta; Laurrieta-Saiz, Izaskun; García-González, Casandra; López-Mirones, Marta; Terán-Muñoz, Oihane; Alonso-Salcines, Alicia

    2017-01-03

    Induction of labor (IOL) is a common obstetric practice which has increased in recent decades. The main objective of this study is to describe the characteristics of induced labor at Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital. A descriptive, retrospective study was performed between January 1st and April 30t(h) of 2014, by reviewing medical histories. A standardised registration has been used to collect data. There were a total of 376 IOL, the incidence was 35.1%. The most frequent indications were premature rupture of membranes (33.9%) and gestational age of 41 completed weeks or more (16.7%). Oxytocin was used to start 66.8% of the IOL. Of all births, 61.4% were spontaneous vaginal births and 25.3% caesarean sections. An increase in the rate of caesarean sections was observed in the group of gestational age of 41 completed weeks or more (27.3%) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (29.8%). The main cause of dystocia was suspected fetal compromise (36.4%). Adaptation to extrauterine life was within the parameters of normality in 94% of the newborn infants. Comparing the IOL with spontaneous labor, a decrease in spontaneous vaginal births and an increase in caesarean sections and operative vaginal births was observed in the inductions. This study provides relevant information to the professionals in the fields of gynaecology and obstetrics, and opens the way for future research to obtain results transferable to the clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics of seizure-induced signal changes on MRI in patients with first seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si Eun; Lee, Byung In; Shin, Kyong Jin; Ha, Sam Yeol; Park, JinSe; Park, Kang Min; Kim, Hyung Chan; Lee, Joonwon; Bae, Soo-Young; Lee, Dongah; Kim, Sung Eun

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors and identify the characteristics of the seizure-induced signal changes on MRI (SCM) in patients with first seizures. We conducted a retrospective study of patients with first seizures from March 2010 to August 2014. The inclusion criteria for this study were patients with 1) first seizures, and 2) MRI and EEG performed within 24h of the first seizures. The definition of SCM was hyper-intensities in the brain not applying to cerebral arterial territories. Multivariate logistic regression was performed with or without SCM as a dependent variable. Of 431 patients with seizures visiting the ER, 69 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of 69 patients, 11 patients (15.9%) had SCM. Epileptiform discharge on EEG (OR 29.7, 95% CI 1.79-493.37, p=0.018) was an independently significant variable predicting the presence of SCM in patients with first seizures. In addition, the topography of SCM was as follows; i) ipsilateral hippocampus, thalamus and cerebral cortex (5/11), ii) unilateral cortex (4/11), iii) ipsilateral thalamus and cerebral cortex (1/11), iv) bilateral hippocampus (1/11). Moreover, 6 out of 7 patients who underwent both perfusion CT and MRI exhibited unilateral cortical hyperperfusion with ipsilateral thalamic involvement reflecting unrestricted vascular territories. There is an association between epileptiform discharges and SCM. Additionally, the involvement of the unilateral cortex and ipsilateral thalamus in SCM and its hyperperfusion state could be helpful in differentiating the consequences of epileptic seizures from other pathologies. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of left ventricular eccentric hypertrophy by /sup 201/Tl-myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Junichi; Kawamura, Yasuaki; Okuzumi, Ichio; Morishita, Takeshi; Koyama, Nobuya; Komatsu, Hisashi; Ohsawa, Hidefumi; Yabe, Yoshimasa

    1989-03-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of left ventricular eccentric hypertrophy in conditions of volume overload, Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy was performed in patients with aortic valve regurgitation and mitral valve regurgitation. There was a good relationship between the severity of Tl-defects, as determined by Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy, and the changes in the T wave on the ECG on the one hand and the NYHA functional classification of heart diseases. In 17 of 18 patients where LVDd increased with increasing severity of Tl-defects and the defects were moderate to severe, LVDd was 65 mm or larger. There was a significant negative correlation between the washout rate for the whole circumference of the left ventricle, as determined by exercise Tl-201 SPECT, and LVDd (r=-0.603, p<0.01). The phenomenon of redistribution as determined by exercise Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy was observed relatively early. Our results suggest that mechanical volume overload and ischemic changes are involved in left ventricular wall damage in left ventricular eccentric hypertrophy. For patients with moderate to severe Tl-defects valve replacement is indicated, no matter whether they may have heart failure or arrhythmia.

  14. The usefulness of [sup 201]TlCl scintigraphy for the diagnosis of breast tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tamami; Moriya, Etsuo; Miyamoto, Yukio; Kawakami, Kenji; Kubo, Hirotaka; Uchida, Takeshi (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-06-01

    The usefulness of [sup 201]TlCl SPECT (Tl SPECT) for the diagnosis of breast cancer was evaluated in 14 patients with various breast tumors (9 with invasive ductal carcinoma, 2 with fibroadenoma and 3 with benign process). These tumors ranged in size from 1.5 cm x 1.5 cm to 15.0 cm x 14.0 cm. Tl SPECT was carried out 2 hours after the intravenous injection of [sup 201]TlCl (185 MBq). For quantitative study, ROIs were set in the tumor (T), normal tissue of the opposite breast (B) and myocardium (M). Count ratios of T/B and T/M were calculated. Eight patients with breast cancer and a case of fibroadenoma showed intense accumulation of [sup 201]TlCl in the tumors. The T/B ratio was 1.20[+-]0.68 and the T/M ratio was 0.68[+-]0.31 in the 9 cases. Lymph node metastasis was detected in 2 of 6 cases that were confirmed at operation. No remarkable accumulation of [sup 201]TlCl was seen in 4 patients with benign process. One patient with benign tumor showed a false positive result. The rates of accuracy of mammography and ultrasonography for the same subjects were 82% and 84%, respectively. The results suggest that [sup 201]TlCl SPECT might be useful to assess breast cancer in cases in which the findings of other modalities are equivocal. (author).

  15. Analysis of plasma membrane integrity by fluorescent detection of Tl(+) uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Angela M; Nesin, Olena M; Pakhomova, Olga N; Pakhomov, Andrei G

    2010-07-01

    The exclusion of polar dyes by healthy cells is widely employed as a simple and reliable test for cell membrane integrity. However, commonly used dyes (propidium, Yo-Pro-1, trypan blue) cannot detect membrane defects which are smaller than the dye molecule itself, such as nanopores that form by exposure to ultrashort electric pulses (USEPs). Instead, here we demonstrate that opening of nanopores can be efficiently detected and studied by fluorescent measurement of Tl(+) uptake. Various mammalian cells (CHO, GH3, NG108), loaded with a Tl(+)-sensitive fluorophore FluxOR and subjected to USEPs in a Tl(+)-containing bath buffer, displayed an immediate (within Tl(+) by 600-ns USEP was at 1-2 kV/cm, and the rate of Tl(+) uptake increased linearly with increasing the electric field. The lack of concurrent entry of larger dye molecules suggested that the size of nanopores is less than 1-1.5 nm. Tested ion channel inhibitors as well as removal of the extracellular Ca(2+) did not block the USEP effect. Addition of a Tl(+)-containing buffer within less than 10 min after USEP also caused a fluorescence surge, which confirms the minutes-long lifetime of nanopores. Overall, the technique of fluorescent detection of Tl(+) uptake proved highly effective, noninvasive and sensitive for visualization and analysis of membrane defects which are too small for conventional dye uptake detection methods.

  16. Preliminary results on TL and OSL aluminium oxide dosimeters developed at IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumori, David T.; Yoshito, Walter K.; Ussui, Valter; Lazar, Dolores R.R.; Campos, Leticia L., E-mail: fukumori@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aluminum oxide composes the modern TL and OSL radiation dosimeters. TL and OSL phenomena are related to chemical elements in the crystalline structure of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The aim of this work was to develop materials based on aluminum oxide for use in TL and OSL dosimetry. The studies included the dosimetric properties of alumina samples obtained by electro fusion, adsorption and coprecipitation. Electro fused alumina commercially available as abrasive particles was used to produce the pellets by glass sintering. Adsorption and coprecipitation were the methods used to insert metal ions to alumina. The best results were achieved with electro fused alumina and Tm{sup 3+} doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pellets. The electro fused alumina-glass pellets show TL and OSL signals and the TL curve has two peaks. Its minimum detectable radiation dose is 7.2 mGy and the linearity of TL response as function of dose is up to about 800 mGy. The {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tm pellets produced by sintering at 1550 deg C presented a meaningful TL glow curve so that it is worth studying their properties and viability of use in dosimetry. (author)

  17. Estimating distribution parameters of annual maximum streamflows in Johor, Malaysia using TL-moments approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Jan, Nur Amalina; Shabri, Ani

    2017-01-01

    TL-moments approach has been used in an analysis to identify the best-fitting distributions to represent the annual series of maximum streamflow data over seven stations in Johor, Malaysia. The TL-moments with different trimming values are used to estimate the parameter of the selected distributions namely: Three-parameter lognormal (LN3) and Pearson Type III (P3) distribution. The main objective of this study is to derive the TL-moments ( t 1,0), t 1 = 1,2,3,4 methods for LN3 and P3 distributions. The performance of TL-moments ( t 1,0), t 1 = 1,2,3,4 was compared with L-moments through Monte Carlo simulation and streamflow data over a station in Johor, Malaysia. The absolute error is used to test the influence of TL-moments methods on estimated probability distribution functions. From the cases in this study, the results show that TL-moments with four trimmed smallest values from the conceptual sample (TL-moments [4, 0]) of LN3 distribution was the most appropriate in most of the stations of the annual maximum streamflow series in Johor, Malaysia.

  18. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Mental Stress–Induced Myocardial Ischemia in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Samad, Zainab; Boyle, Stephen; Becker, Richard C.; Williams, Redford; Kuhn, Cynthia; Ortel, Thomas L.; Rogers, Joseph; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; O’Connor, Christopher; Velazquez, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of mental stress–induced myocardial ischemia. Background Mental stress–induced myocardial ischemia is prevalent and a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease, but past studies mainly studied patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. Methods Eligible patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease, regardless of exercise stress testing status, underwent a battery of 3 mental stress tests followed by a treadmill test. Stress-induced ischemia, assessed by echocardiography and electrocardiography, was defined as: 1) development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality; 2) left ventricular ejection fraction reduction ≥8%; and/or 3) horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression ≥1 mm in 2 or more leads lasting for ≥3 consecutive beats during at least 1 mental test or during the exercise test. Results Mental stress–induced ischemia occurred in 43.45%, whereas exercise-induced ischemia occurred in 33.79% (p = 0.002) of the study population (N = 310). Women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.88), patients who were not married (OR: 1.99), and patients who lived alone (OR: 2.24) were more likely to have mental stress–induced ischemia (all p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that compared with married men or men living with someone, unmarried men (OR: 2.57) and married women (OR: 3.18), or living alone (male OR: 2.25 and female OR: 2.72, respectively) had higher risk for mental stress-induced ischemia (all p < 0.05). Conclusions Mental stress-induced ischemia is more common than exercise-induced ischemia in patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease. Women, unmarried men, and individuals living alone are at higher risk for mental stress-induced ischemia. (Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment [REMIT]; NCT00574847) PMID:23410543

  19. Influence of additives on microstructures, mechanical properties and shock-induced reaction characteristics of Al/Ni composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Xianfeng, E-mail: lynx@mail.njust.edu.cn; Wu, Yang; He, Yong; Wang, Chuanting; Guo, Lei

    2015-11-05

    Granular composites containing aluminum (Al) and nickel (Ni) are typical structural energetic materials, which possess ideal combination of both mechanical properties and energy release capability. The influence of two additives, namely Teflon (PTFE) and copper (Cu), on mechanical properties and shock-induced chemical reaction (SICR) characteristics of Al/Ni material system has been investigated. Three composites, namely Al/Ni, Al/Ni/PTFE and Al/Ni/Cu with same volumetric ratio of Al powder to Ni powder, were processed by means of static pressing. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the microstructure of the mentioned three composites. Quasi static compression tests were also conducted to determine the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of the mentioned three composites. It was shown that the additives affected both compressive strength and fracture mode of the three composites. Impact initiation experiments on the mentioned three composites were performed to determine their shock-induced chemical reaction characteristics by considering pressure histories measured in the test chamber. The experimental results showed that the additives had significant effects on critical initiation velocity, reaction rate, reaction efficiency and post-reaction behavior. - Highlights: • .Al/Ni, Al/Ni/PTFE and Al/Ni/Cu were processed by means of static pressing. • .Microstructures, mechanical properties and shock-induced reactions were studied. • .Microstructures affect both compressive strength and fracture mode. • .Impact velocity is an important factor in shock-induced chemical characteristics. • .Each additive has significant effects on energy release behavior.

  20. 2D Tl-Pb compounds on Ge(1 1 1) surface: atomic arrangement and electronic band structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruznev, D V; Bondarenko, L V; Tupchaya, A Y; Eremeev, S V; Mihalyuk, A N; Chou, J P; Wei, C M; Zotov, A V; Saranin, A A

    2017-01-25

    Structural transformations and evolution of the electron band structure in the (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1) system have been studied using low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The two 2D Tl-Pb compounds on Ge(1 1 1), [Formula: see text]-(Tl, Pb) and [Formula: see text]-(Tl, Pb), have been found and their composition, atomic arrangement and electron properties has been characterized. The (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1)[Formula: see text] compound is almost identical to the alike (Tl, Pb)/Si(1 1 1)[Formula: see text] system from the viewpoint of its atomic structure and electronic properties. They contain 1.0 ML of Tl atoms arranged into a honeycomb network of chained trimers and 1/3 ML of Pb atoms occupying the centers of the honeycomb units. The (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1)[Formula: see text] compound contains six Tl atoms and seven Pb atoms per [Formula: see text] unit cell (i.e.  ∼0.67 ML Tl and  ∼0.78 ML Pb). Its atomic structure can be visualized as consisting of Pb hexagons surrounded by Tl trimers. The (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1)[Formula: see text] and (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1)[Formula: see text] compounds are metallic and their band structures contain spin-split surface-state bands. By analogy with the (Tl, Pb)/Si(1 1 1)[Formula: see text], these (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1) compounds are believed to be promising objects for prospective studies of superconductivity in one-atom-layer systems.

  1. 2D Tl-Pb compounds on Ge(1 1 1) surface: atomic arrangement and electronic band structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruznev, D. V.; Bondarenko, L. V.; Tupchaya, A. Y.; Eremeev, S. V.; Mihalyuk, A. N.; Chou, J. P.; Wei, C. M.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Structural transformations and evolution of the electron band structure in the (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1) system have been studied using low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The two 2D Tl-Pb compounds on Ge(1 1 1), \\sqrt{3}× \\sqrt{3} -(Tl, Pb) and 3× 3 -(Tl, Pb), have been found and their composition, atomic arrangement and electron properties has been characterized. The (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1)\\sqrt{3}× \\sqrt{3} compound is almost identical to the alike (Tl, Pb)/Si(1 1 1)\\sqrt{3}× \\sqrt{3} system from the viewpoint of its atomic structure and electronic properties. They contain 1.0 ML of Tl atoms arranged into a honeycomb network of chained trimers and 1/3 ML of Pb atoms occupying the centers of the honeycomb units. The (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1)3× 3 compound contains six Tl atoms and seven Pb atoms per 3× 3 unit cell (i.e.  ˜0.67 ML Tl and  ˜0.78 ML Pb). Its atomic structure can be visualized as consisting of Pb hexagons surrounded by Tl trimers. The (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1)\\sqrt{3}× \\sqrt{3} and (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1)3× 3 compounds are metallic and their band structures contain spin-split surface-state bands. By analogy with the (Tl, Pb)/Si(1 1 1)\\sqrt{3}× \\sqrt{3} , these (Tl, Pb)/Ge(1 1 1) compounds are believed to be promising objects for prospective studies of superconductivity in one-atom-layer systems.

  2. An Excursion into the Intriguing World of Polymeric Tl(I and Ag(I Cyanoximates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Gerasimchuk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of hot (~95 °C aqueous solutions of Tl2CO3 with solid HL (HL = NC-C(=N-OH-R is a cyanoxime, and R is an electron-withdrawing group; 37 ligands are known up-to-date leads to crystalline yellow/orange TlL. Similarly, the reaction between AgNO3 and ML (M = K+, Na+; L = anion of the monodeprotonated cyanoxime this time at room temperature in mixed ethanol/aqueous solutions leads to sparingly soluble, colored AgL in high-yield. All synthesized monovalent Tl and Ag complexes were characterized using a variety of spectroscopic methods and X-ray analysis, which revealed the formation of primarily 2D coordination polymers of different complexity. In all cases cyanoxime mono-anions act as bridging ligands. Thallium(I cyanoximates adopt in most cases a double-stranded motif that is originated from centrosymmetric (TlL2 dimers in which two Tl2O2 rhombs are fused into infinite “ladder-type” structure. There are very short (3.65–3.85 Å intermetallic distances in (TlLn, which are close to that (3.46 Å in metallic thallium. This opens the possibility for the electrochemical or chemical generation of mixed valence Tl(I/Tl(III polymers that may exhibit electrical conductivity. Synthesized silver(I compounds demonstrate a very significant (for multiple years! stability towards visible light. There are three areas of potential practical applications of these unusual complexes: (1 battery-less detectors of UV-radiation, (2 non electrical sensors for gases of industrial importance, (3 antimicrobial additives to light-curable acrylate polymeric glues, fillers and adhesives used during introduction of indwelling medical devices. Chemical, structural, technological and biological aspects of application of Tl(I and Ag(I cyanoximes-based coordination polymers are reviewed.

  3. AG, TL, and IRSL dosimetric properties in X-ray irradiated HPHT diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil-Tolano, M.I. [Programa de Posgrado, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A. P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190, Mexico (Mexico); Melendrez, R.; Lancheros-Olmos, J.C.; Soto-Puebla, D.; Chernov, V.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Barboza-Flores, M. [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A. P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190, Mexico (Mexico); Castaneda, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales S/N, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83000, Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    HPHT diamonds have been studied for several years for their potential in different applications. In previous studies it has been found that the thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of ''as-grown'' HPHT diamonds are non-reproducible. In this work, we study the afterglow (AG), thermoluminescent (TL), and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) response of commercial samples of synthetic HPHT type-Ib diamond crystals exposed to X-ray irradiation (0.75 mA, 35 kV) at a dose rate of 0.624 Gy/s, after a high gamma ({sup 60}Co) dose irradiation of 500 kGy followed by a thermal treatment at 1073 K for 1 h in nitrogen atmosphere. Deconvolution of the TL glow curves shows four peaks, located around 379, 509, 561, and 609 K. The crystals exhibit evident AG recorded for 300 s immediately after X-ray irradiation, due to the thermal emptying of the traps responsible for the low-temperature TL peaks (below 400 K). The stimulation of irradiated crystals with 870-nm light, creates pronounced OSL and destroys all TL peaks with the exception of the high-temperature peak at 609 K. The dose responses of the integrated AG, TL, and OSL are linear in the range of 0.6-5 Gy and saturated at higher doses. The reproducibility of AG, TL, and OSL measurements is about 5%. The fading in the first hour of storage in dark conditions at RT of TL signal of HPHT diamond is mainly associated to the emptying of the traps responsible for the 379-K TL peaks. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. AES and EELS analysis of TlBaCaCuO sub x thin films at 300 K and at 100 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.J.; Swartzlander, A.; Kazmerski, L.L. (Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, CO 80401 (USA)); Kang, J.H.; Kampwirth, R.T.; Gray, K.E. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (USA))

    1989-02-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy line-shape analysis of the Tl(NOO), Ba(MNN), Ca(LMM), Cu(LMM) and O(KLL) peaks has been performed in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) on magnetron sputter deposited TlBaCaCuO{sub x} thin films a superconducting onset at 110 K with zero resistance at 96 K. AES and EELS analyses were performed at 300 K and at 100 K. Changes in the Auger line shapes and in the EELS spectra as the temperature is lowered below the critical point are related to changes in the electronic structure of states in the valence band (VB). Bulk and surface plasmon peaks are identified in the EELS spectra along with features due to core level transitions. Electron beam and ion beam induced effects are also addressed.

  5. Experimental partitioning studies near the Fe-FeS eutectic, with an emphasis on elements important to iron meteorite chronologies (Pb, Ag, Pd, and Tl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.; Hart, S. R.; Benjamin, T. M.

    1993-01-01

    Partitioning coefficients for metal/sulfide liquid, troilite/sulfide liquid, and schreibersite/sulfide liquid were determined for Ag, Au, Mo, Ni, Pd, and Tl (using EMPA and proton-induced X-ray microprobe and ion microprobe analyses) in order to understand the chronometer systems of iron meteorites. In general, the obtained schreibersite/metal and troilite/metal partition coefficients for 'compatible' elements were quite similar to those inferred from natural assemblages, reinforcing an earlier made conclusion that there is a class of elements for which experimental troilite/metal and schreibersite/metal partition coefficients approximate those inferred from natural samples. The consistency between experimental and natural assemblages, however, was not observed for Ag, Pb, and Tl, indicating that the abundances of these elements determined in 'metal' and 'troilite' separates from iron meteorites are influenced by trace minerals that concentrate incompatible elements.

  6. Microcomputer-Controlled Reader Systems for Archaeological and Geological TL Dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Mejdahl, V.

    1984-01-01

    Two fully automated TL reader systems for TL dating and a manually operated reader for research purpose were put into operation during 1982-3. All systems are controlled by HP-85 or HP-86 microcomputers; thus flexibility in selection of measurement parameters, calculation of TL signals and display...... and printout of glow curves is achieved. The basic design of the automated reader system incorporates a 24-position microprocessor-controlled sample changer and a beta irradiator. The system automatically provides the data for constructing the primary and secondary response curves required for determining...

  7. A new activator strontium for magnesium tetraborate: PL and TL studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evis, D; Yucel, A; Kizilkaya, N; Depci, T; Kafadar, V E; Öztürk, E; Yildirim, R G

    2016-10-01

    Strontium was used for the first time as an activator agent for magnesium tetraborate (MBO) and photoluminescence (PL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties were determined using a spectrophotometer and a TL reader, respectively. The results proved that 0.25wt% Sr ratio played an important role in prolonging the afterglow and the phosphor gave the main TL peak with the highest intensity at 200°C like an ideal case. Therefore, it is worthwhile to carry out continuous and systematic research on it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nondestructive method for quantifying thallium dopant concentrations in CsI:Tl crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stuart R; Ovechkina, Elena E; Bennett, Paul; Brecher, Charles

    2013-12-01

    We report a quantitative method for using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to nondestructively measure the true content of Tl dopant in CsI:Tl scintillator crystals. The instrument is the handheld LeadTracer™, originally developed at RMD Instruments for measuring Pb concentration in electronic components. We describe both the measurement technique and specific findings on how changes in crystal size and growth parameters affect Tl concentration. This method is also applicable to numerous other activator ions important to scintillators, such as Ce(3+) and Eu(2+). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tests on NaI(Tl) crystals for WIMP search at the Yangyang Underground Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, K W; Oh, S Y; Adhikari, P; So, J H; Kim, N Y; Lee, H S; Choi, S; Hahn, I S; Jeon, E J; Joo, H W; Kim, B H; Kim, H J; Kim, Y D; Kim, Y H; Lee, J K; Leonard, D S; Li, J; Olsen, S L; Park, H S

    2014-01-01

    Among the direct search experiments for WIMP dark matter, the DAMA experiment observed an annual modulation signal interpreted as WIMP interactions with 9.2$\\sigma$ significance. However, this result is contradictory with other direct search experiments reporting null signals in the same parameter space allowed by the DAMA observation, necessitating clarification of the origin of the modulation signal observed using the NaI(Tl) crystals of the DAMA experiment independently. Here, we report the first results of NaI(Tl) crystal measurement at the Yangyang Underground Laboratory to grow ultra-low-background NaI(Tl) crystal detectors.

  10. Influence of zone purification process on TlBr crystals for radiation detector fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitomi, Keitaro [Department of Electronics, Tohoku Institute of Technology, 35-1 Yagiyama Kasumi-cho, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: hitomi@tohtech.ac.jp; Onodera, Toshiyuki; Shoji, Tadayoshi [Department of Electronics, Tohoku Institute of Technology, 35-1 Yagiyama Kasumi-cho, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-8577 (Japan)

    2007-08-21

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a wide gap compound semiconductor and is a promising material for fabrication of nuclear radiation detectors. In this study, the conventional zone refining method was employed to reduce the concentration of impurities in the TlBr crystals. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the zone purification, the zone purification process was repeated up to 300 times. The resistivity, the charge transport properties, and the spectroscopic performance of TlBr detectors fabricated from the crystals zone purified 1 time, 100 times, and 300 times were compared in this study in order to clarify the effectiveness of the zone purification process.

  11. Hierarchy of Combined TL-RTL Equations and an Associated (2+1)-Dimensional Lattice Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Qiao-Yun; ZHOU Ru-Guang

    2006-01-01

    A new (2+1)-dimensional lattice equation is presented based upon the first two members in the hierarchy of the combined Toda lattice and relativistic Toda lattice (TL-RTL) equations in (1+1) dimensions. A Darboux transformation for the hierarchy of the combined TL-RTL equations is constructed. Solutions of the first two members in the hierarchy of the combined TL-RTL equations, as well as the new (2+1)-dimensional lattice equation are explicitly obtained by the Darboux transformation.

  12. Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) genotype but not GSTT1 or MC1R genotype influences erythemal sensitivity to narrow band (TL-01) UVB phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gillian; Weidlich, Simone; Dawe, Robert S; Ibbotson, Sally H

    2011-04-01

    Although a majority of psoriasis patients respond to treatment with narrow band ultraviolet B radiation (TL-01) phototherapy, it is currently not possible to predict erythemal sensitivity, or to identify treatment responders. A variety of antioxidant enzymes, including the polymorphic glutathione S-transferase GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes, protect the cell from UVR-induced oxidative challenge. GSTM1 and GSTT1 are deleted in approximately 50 and 20% of the Caucasian population, respectively, and GST null genotype has been associated with increased sunburn sensitivity and reduced minimal erythemal dose (MED) after broadband UVR exposure in healthy volunteers and with susceptibility to skin cancer. Another polymorphic determinant of UVR sensitivity is the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), which protects cells from UVR-induced apoptosis and photodamage. Our aim was therefore to investigate whether GST or MC1R genotype influenced erythemal sensitivity to narrow band (TL-01) ultraviolet B radiation phototherapy in patients with psoriasis. We used TaqMan quantitative gene copy and allelic discrimination assays to determine GST and MC1R genotypes, and looked for possible associations between genotype and threshold erythemal sensitivity (MED) and treatment outcomes in patients with psoriasis (n=256). We showed that GSTM1 genotype, but not GSTT1 or MC1R genotype influences erythemal sensitivity to TL-01 phototherapy, with a significantly lower MED observed in GSTM1 null individuals [χ(2 d.f.)=8.862, P=0.012]. None of the genotypes studied were associated with TL-01 treatment outcomes or relapse rates. GSTM1 genotype may have clinical utilityin the prediction of photosensitivity and/or in identifying patients at increased risk of treatment-related side effects.

  13. Matching asteroid population characteristics with a model constructed from the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Seth A.; Marzari, Francesco; Rossi, Alessandro; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2016-10-01

    From the results of a comprehensive asteroid population evolution model, we conclude that the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis is consistent with the observed population statistics of small asteroids in the main belt including binaries and contact binaries. These conclusions rest on the asteroid rotation model of Marzari et al. ([2011]Icarus, 214, 622-631), which incorporates both the YORP effect and collisional evolution. This work adds to that model the rotational fission hypothesis, described in detail within, and the binary evolution model of Jacobson et al. ([2011a] Icarus, 214, 161-178) and Jacobson et al. ([2011b] The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 736, L19). Our complete asteroid population evolution model is highly constrained by these and other previous works, and therefore it has only two significant free parameters: the ratio of low to high mass ratio binaries formed after rotational fission events and the mean strength of the binary YORP (BYORP) effect. We successfully reproduce characteristic statistics of the small asteroid population: the binary fraction, the fast binary fraction, steady-state mass ratio fraction and the contact binary fraction. We find that in order for the model to best match observations, rotational fission produces high mass ratio (> 0.2) binary components with four to eight times the frequency as low mass ratio (<0.2) components, where the mass ratio is the mass of the secondary component divided by the mass of the primary component. This is consistent with post-rotational fission binary system mass ratio being drawn from either a flat or a positive and shallow distribution, since the high mass ratio bin is four times the size of the low mass ratio bin; this is in contrast to the observed steady-state binary mass ratio, which has a negative and steep distribution. This can be understood in the context of the BYORP-tidal equilibrium hypothesis, which predicts that low mass ratio binaries survive for a significantly

  14. Characteristics of the ablation plume induced on glasses for analysis purposes with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Sokolova, Ekaterina B.; Zheng, Ronger; Ma, Qianli; Chen, Yanping; Yu, Jin

    2015-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for elemental analyses of transparent dielectric materials such as glasses or crystals for more than ten years. The induced plasma is however much less studied compared to that induced on the surface of a metal. The purpose of this work is therefore to characterize the plasma induced on the surface of a glass sample for analytical purpose as a function of the ablation laser wavelength, infrared (IR) or ultraviolet (UV), and the ambient gas, air or argon. The surface damage of the samples was also observed for ablation with IR or UV laser pulse when the sample was a float glass or a frosted one. Optimized ablation fluence was then determined. The morphology of the plasma was observed with time-resolved spectroscopic imaging, while the profiles of the electron density and temperature were extracted from time- and space-resolved emission spectroscopy. The analytical performance of the plasmas was then studied in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio for several emission lines from some minor elements, Al, Fe, contained in glasses, and of the behavior of self-absorption for another minor element, Ca, in the different ablation conditions.

  15. Response function study of a scintillator detector of NaI(Tl); Estudo da funcao resposta de um detector cintilador de NaI(Tl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Marcelo Barros; Costa, Alessandro Martins da, E-mail: amcosta@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    In measurements of gamma rays with Nai (Tl) scintillator, the detectors output data are pulse height spectra, that corresponding to distorted information about the radiation source due to various errors associated with the crystal scintillation process and electronics associated, instead of power spectra photons. Pulse height spectra are related to the real power spectra by means of scintillator detector response function NaI (Tl). In this work, the response function for a cylindrical crystal of Nal (Tl) of 7,62 x 7,62 cm (diameter x length) was studied, by Monte Carlo method, using the EGSnrc tool to model the transport of radiation, combined with experimental measurements. An inverse response matrix, even with the energy of the square root, which transforms the pulse height spectrum of photon energy spectrum was obtained. The results of this transformation of pulse height spectrum for photon energy spectrum is presented, showing that the methodology employed in this study is suitable.

  16. Effect of progesterone from induced corpus luteum on the characteristics of a dominant follicle in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, B M; David, C G; Pratap, N; Al-Bulushi, Samir; Hago, B E

    2012-06-01

    The present study was carried out to elucidate the effect of progesterone (P4) from the induced corpus luteum (CL) on the characteristics of the dominant follicle (DF) in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Ovarian follicular and induced CL dynamics were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography in eight camels during the peak breeding season. The characteristics of the DF were monitored daily from the day of emergence into a wave, until it appeared to lose its dominance and the DF of a subsequent wave grew to a diameter of 13-17 mm. At this stage ovulation was induced by hCG and the DF was monitored every 8 h for 48 h. After ovulation, CL dynamics and follicular development (emergence of a new wave, growth and mature phase of the selected DF) were monitored daily. Blood samples were collected during each ultrasound examination to study the P4 profile in these animals. The CL developed to a maximum size (22.55 ± 3.24 mm) with a peak concentration of P4 (4.60 ± 2.57 ng/ml) 7 days after ovulation. The size of the CL was positively correlated with the P4 concentration (r = 0.612) during the different stages of the CL dynamics. The presence of CL did not affect the linear growth rate, duration of growth and mature phases of the DF. The development of the DF to its maximum size during its mature phase and inter-wave interval were not affected by the P4 secreted by the induced CL. In conclusion, there is no evidence from this study to suggest that P4 from induced CL altered the characteristics of a DF in dromedary camels.

  17. T.L. Lakwo, BSc, MPH, Senior Entomologist, Vector Control Division ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-06

    Jun 6, 2006 ... Request for reprints to: T.L. Lakwo, Vector Control Division, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 1661, Kampala, Uganda ... sustainability, ownership and cost savings by health ..... other information dissemination media like posters,.

  18. Bonding and M?ssbauer Isomer Shifts in (Tl,Pb) - 1223 Cuprate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By using the chemical bond theory of dielectric description,the chemical bond parameters of (Tl,Pb) - 1223 was calculated.The results show that the Sr-O,Tl-O,and Ca-O types of bond have higher ionic character and the Cu-O types of bond have more covalent character.M?ssbauer isomer shifts of 57Fe and 119Sn doped in (Tl,Pb) -1223 were calculated by using the chemical environmental factor,he,defined by covalency and electronic polarizability.Four valence state tin and three valence iron sites were identified in 57Fe,and 119Sn doped (Tl,Pb) -1223 superconductor.We conclude that all of the Fe atoms substitute the Cu at square planar Cu (1) site,whereas Sn prefers to substitute the square pyramidal Cu (2) site.

  19. Superconductivity in the PbTe/sub 1-x/Se/sub x/:Tl system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaidanov, V.I.; Nemov, S.A.; Parfen' ev, R.V.; Shamshur, D.V.

    1985-08-01

    A study of the influence of the replacement of the atoms in the chalco sublattice, carried out by investigating the superconducting transition in the PbTlTeSe system with x = 0.001-0.05 is reported. (AIP)

  20. Enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit in strained Tl-doped Bi2Se3

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Y.

    2014-07-21

    We explain recent experimental findings on Tl-doped Bi2Se3 by determining the electronic and transport properties by first-principles calculations and semi-classical Boltzmann theory. Though Tl-doping introduces a momentum-dependent spin-orbit splitting, the effective mass of the carriers is essentially not modified, while the band gap is reduced. Tl is found to be exceptional in this respect as other dopants modify the dispersion, which compromises thermoelectricity. Moreover, we demonstrate that only after Tl-doping strain becomes an efficient tool for enhancing the thermoelectric performance. A high figure of merit of 0.86 is obtained for strong p-doping (7 × 10^20 cm^(−3), maximal power factor) at 500 K under 2% tensile strain.

  1. Thallium(I copper(I thorium(IV triselenide, TlCuThSe3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Ibers

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thallium(I copper(I thorium(IV triselenide, TlCuThSe3, crystallizes with four formula units in the space group Cmcm in the KCuZrS3 structure type. There is one crystallographically independent Th, Tl, and Cu atom at a site of symmetry 2/m.., m2m, and m2m, respectively. There are two crystallographically independent Se atoms at sites of symmetry m.. and m2m. The structure consists of sheets of edge-sharing ThSe6 octahedra and CuSe4 tetrahedra stacked parallel to the (010 face, separated by layers filled with chains of Tl running parallel to [100]. Each Tl is coordinated by a trigonal prism of Se atoms.

  2. CsI(Tl)-photodiode detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fioretto, E; Viesti, G; Cinausero, M; Zuin, L; Fabris, D; Lunardon, M; Nebbia, G; Prete, G

    2000-01-01

    We report on the performances of CsI(Tl)-photodiode detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications. Light output yield and energy resolution have been measured for different crystals and read-out configurations.

  3. Primary Study on Biological Control Potential of Trichoderma harzianum TL-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Zhenyu; Xiao; Man; Gao; Xinzheng; Tang; Libo; Li; Li

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a widely used biocontrol fungus. The growth promoting effect of strain Trichoderma harzianum TL-1 on tomato and pepper and its biological control effects against tomato seedling damping-off and pepper blight were investigated through pot experiments. The results showed that the stain TL-1 had significant promotion effect on growth of pepper and tomato in sterilized and natural soils. With the application dose of 3. 0 and 0. 5g/ pot,their dry weight were increased up to 46% and 150% compared with control,respectively. In addition,TL-1 had good control effects against tomato seedling damping-off and pepper blight. Compared with fungicide treatment,TL-1 treatment could control diseases for long term,without repeat occurrence of diseases.

  4. Building Sustained Action: Supporting an Institutional Practice of SoTL at the University of Guelph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Natasha; Watson, Gavan P. L.; Desmarais, Serge

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines how SoTL has been integrated and supported at the University of Guelph based on three catalysts: (1) leadership commitment, (2) reward and recognition, and (3) integrated networks for sustained development.

  5. Thermal and Dielectric Studies On Ge10se69tl21 Chalcogenide Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. Madhu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk Ge10Se69Tl21 chalcogenide glass is prepared by melt quenching technique. Thermal analysis of bulk Ge10Se69Tl21 glass has been undertaken using temperature modulated Alternating Differential Scanning Calorimetry (ADSC. The Ge10Se69Tl21 glass is found to exhibit single glass transition temperature (Tg and double stage crystallization reactions (Tc1 & Tc2. The dependence of dielectric properties such as dielectric loss tangent (tanδ, dielectric constant (ε’ and dielectric loss factor (ε’’ on the frequency has been studied at the room temperature in the frequency range 10 kHz to 5 MHz. The dielectric parameters tanδ, ε’and ε’’ are found to decrease with the increase in the frequency. Further, resistance of the Ge10Se69Tl21 sample is also found to decrease with the increase in the frequency.

  6. Analysis of laser generated ultrasonic wave frequency characteristics induced by a partially closed surface-breaking crack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Hongchao; Ni, Chenyin; Shen, Zhonghua

    2013-06-20

    This research focuses on analyzing the frequency characteristics of ultrasonic waves induced by a partially closed surface-breaking crack. When acoustic waves interact with the crack, transmission, reflection, and mode conversions occur and the frequency characteristics of signals perform obvious changes. A pulsed laser line source is used to generate ultrasonic waves in the sample with a partially closed surface-breaking crack, and one can see how the frequency characteristics of detected signals change as the pulsed laser beam scans across the sample surface. The optical deflection beam method is developed to detect the ultrasonic signals experimentally. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used to analyze the time-domain data, and the FFT data are visualized by a B-scan plot. A clear disruption in the B-scan can be observed when the laser beam illuminates directly onto the crack, which is due to the changes of frequency characteristics induced by the partially closed crack. A frequency-domain B-scan of numerical simulation results is presented, and the clear disruption can also be observed clearly.

  7. Dielectric and photo-dielectric properties of TlGaSeS crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A F Qasrawi; Samah F Abu-Zaid; Salam A Ghanameh; N M Gasanly

    2014-05-01

    The room temperature, dark and photo-dielectric properties of the novel crystals TlGaSeS are investigated in the frequency, intensity and biasing voltage having ranges of ~ 1–120 MHz, 14–40 klux and 0–1 V, respectively. The crystals are observed to exhibit a dark high frequency effective dielectric constant value of ∼ 10.65 × 103 with a quality factor of ∼ 8.84 × 104 at ∼ 120 MHz. The dielectric spectra showed sharp resonance–antiresonance peaks in the frequency range of ∼ 25–250 kHz. When photoexcited, pronounced increase in the dielectric constant and in the quality factor values with increasing illumination intensity are observed. Signal amplification up to ∼ 33% with improved signal quality up to ∼ 29% is attainable via photoexcitation. On the other hand, the illuminated capacitance–voltage characteristics of the crystals reflected a downward shift in the voltage biasing and in the built-in voltage of the device that is associated with increase in the uncompensated carrier density. The increase in the dielectric constant with increasing illumination intensity is ascribed to the decrease in the crystal's resistance as a result of increased free carrier density. The light sensitivity of the crystals, the improved dielectric properties and the lower biasing voltage obtained via photoexcitation and the well-enhanced signal quality factor of the crystals make them promising candidates for optical communication systems.

  8. UWB Miniature Antenna Based on the CRLH-TL with Increase Gain for Electromagnetic Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kenari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel ultra-wideband (UWB miniature antenna based on the composite right-left handed transmission line (CRLH-TL structure with enhancement gain is proposed and investigated. With CRLH metamaterial (MTM technology embedded, the proposed UWB and miniature antenna is presented with best in bandwidth, size, efficiency and radiation patterns. To realize characteristics of the antenna, the printed -shaped gaps into the rectangular radiation patches are used. This antenna is constructed of the two unit cells, also presented antenna is designed from 2.25 GHz to 4.7 GHz which corresponding to 70.5% bandwidth. The overall size of the presented antenna is 10.8mm×6.9mm×0.8mm or 0.09λ0× 0.05λ0 × 0.006λ0 at the operating frequency f = 2.5 GHz (where λ0 is free space wavelength. The radiation peak gain and the maximum efficiency which occurs at 4.6 GHz, are 3.96dBi and 63.6%, respectively.

  9. Combustion Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Droplets Induced by Photoignition of Aluminum Nanoparticles (Conference Paper with Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-23

    Hydrocarbon Droplets Induced by Photoignition of Aluminum Nanoparticles (Conference Paper with Briefing Charts) John Bennewitz, Alireza Badakhshan, and...droplets has been achieved through photoignition (PI) utilizing sub milligram of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs). For diesel fuel, a reliable ignition...Droplets Induced by Photoignition of Aluminum Nanoparticles Alireza Badakhshan1,*, John W. Bennewitz2, Douglas G. Talley3 1Engineering Research

  10. Characteristics and implications of prolonged fusicoccin-induced growth of Avena coleoptile sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been made of the prolonged growth of Avena coleoptile sections in response to fusicoccin (FC), a phytotoxin that promotes apoplastic acidification. The final amount of FC-induced growth is a function of the FC concentration. Removal of the epidermis speeds up the initial rate of elongation and shortens the duration of the response, without affecting the total amount of extension. A suboptimal FC concentration (7 x 10(-8) M) which induces the same rate of proton excretion as does optimal indoleacetic acid (IAA) (1 x 10(-5) M), causes elongation which is 60-75% of that induced by IAA in 4 h or 50-65% in 7 h. This suggests that acid-induced extension could make a major contribution to auxin-induced growth for at least 7 h.

  11. Particle identification using CsI(Tl) crystal with three different methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Three pulse-shape-discrimination (PSD) methods are applied to study the particle identification (PID) by using CsI(Tl) crystal, especially for identifying light charged particles. The zero-cross time method, fast and total component method and signal rise time method are used. The experiment, data analysis and results are compared. Good PID for p, α and γ, can be achieved with a CsI(Tl)-photomultiplier assembly.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Immunobiotic Strain Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumizu, Yuki; Iida, Hikaru; Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Wakako; Albarracin, Leonardo; Makino, Seiya; Ohkawara, Sou; Kimura, Katsunori; Saavedra, Lucila

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genome of the immunomodulatory strain Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937 is described here. The draft genome has a total length of 1,678,416 bp, a G+C content of 34.3%, and 1,470 predicted protein-coding sequences. The genome information will be useful for gaining insight into the immunomodulatory properties of the TL2937 strain in the porcine host. PMID:28254966

  13. Thallium(I) complexes of fluorinated bis- and tris(pyrazolyl)borate ligands: [H2B{3,5-(CF3)2pz}2]Tl and [HB{3,5-(CF3)2pz}3]Tl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, H V Rasika; Thankamani, Jose

    2013-09-01

    X-ray crystal structural data at 100 (2) K for the thallium(I) complex of a fluorinated bis(pyrazolyl)borate, {bis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2)]borato}thallium(I), [Tl(C10H4BF12N4)], abbreviated as [H2B{3,5-(CF3)2pz}2]Tl, and the related tris(pyrazolyl)borate, {tris[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2)]borato}thallium(I), [Tl(C15H4BF18N6)], abbreviated as [HB{3,5-(CF3)2pz}3]Tl, are reported. [H2B{3,5-(CF3)2pz}2]Tl features a two-coordinate Tl(I) atom with a bent geometry and a boat-shaped bis(pyrazolyl)borate ligand. It also has several additional inter- and intramolecular Tl···H and Tl···F contacts in the solid state. The tris(pyrazolyl)borate analogue [HB{3,5-(CF3)2pz}3]Tl has a trigonal-pyramidal thallium centre and features inter- and intramolecular Tl···F contacts.

  14. Prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of women with induced abortion in a population sample of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Goulart Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims at estimating the prevalence of women with induced abortion among women of childbearing age (15-49 years who had any previous pregnancy, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in the last quarter of 2008, and identifying the sociodemographic characteristics (SC associated with it. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out. The dependent variable was dichotomized as: no abortion and induced abortion. The independent variables were: age, paid work/activity, familial monthly income, schooling, marital status, contraceptive use and number of live births. Statistical analysis was performed using log-binomial regression models with approximation of Poisson to estimate the prevalance ratios (PR. Results: Of all women with any previous pregnancy (n = 683, 4.5% (n = 31 reported induced abortion. The final multivariate model showed that having now between 40 and 44 years (PR = 2.76, p = 0.0043, being single (PR = 2.79, p = 0.0159, having 5 or more live births (PR = 3.97, p = 0.0013, current oral contraception or IUD use (PR = 2.70, p = 0.454 and using a "non effective" (or of low efficacy contraceptive method (PR = 4.18, p = 0.0009 were sociodemographic characteristics associated with induced abortion in this population. Conclusions: Induced abortion seems to be used to limit fertility, more precisely after having reached the desired number of children. The inadequate use or non-use of effective contraceptive methods, and / or the use of contraceptives " non effective", exposed also the women to the risk of unintended pregnancies and, therefore, induced abortions. In addition, when faced with a pregnancy, single women were more likely to have an abortion than married women.

  15. Temperature or strain induced adjustable-chirp characteristics of uniform fibre grating with tapered metal coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yan; Li Bin; Zheng Kai; Tan Zhong-Wei; Chen Yong; Wang Yan Hua; Ren Wen-Hua; Jian Shui-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Temperature and strain characteristics of uniform fibre grating with tapered metal coatings have been analysed theoretically, by which adjustable chirp characteristics of such gratings are shown. Electroplating is adopted to fabricate such gratings, and the tapered metal coating is obtained by gradually drawing the fibre grating out of the solution during the process of electroplating. The gradually changing cross-sectional area of the metal coating is calculated by a newly suggested numerical method. By combining the theoretical and numerical simulation analyses, the gratings' characteristics are given at various temperatures and strains. The results obtained using such a method are also testified by experiments.

  16. Annealing-induced evolution of transformation characteristics in TiNi shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. G.; Zu, X. T.; Feng, X. D.; Zhu, S.; Zhou, J. M.; Wang, L. M.

    2004-11-01

    The effect of annealing on transformation characteristics of TiNi shape memory alloys (SMAs) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the evolution of the microstructure was studied using positron annihilation technology (PAT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that transformation characteristics depend on the annealing temperature. The R-phase transformation appeared at low annealing temperature. The R-phase disappeared and austensite transformed into martensite directly as the annealing temperature exceeded 550 °C. With increasing annealing temperature, the vacancy cluster and dislocation related positron lifetime decreased. Changes in transformation characteristics can be attributed to the evolution of the microstructrue of the TiNi specimen.

  17. Comparison of multi-pole shaping and delay line clipping pre-amplifiers for position sensitive NaI(Tl) detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifelder, R.; Karp, J.S.; Wear, J.A.; Lockyer, N.S.; Newcomer, F.M.; Surti, S.; Berg, R. van [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    NaI(Tl) position sensitive detectors have been used in medical imaging for many years. For PET applications without collimators, the high counting rates place severe demands on such large area detectors. The NaI(Tl) detectors in the PENN-PET scanners are read-out via photomultiplier tubes and preamplifiers. Those preamplifiers use a delay-line clipping technique to shorten the characteristic 240 ns fall time of the NaI(Tl) signal. As an alternative, the authors have investigated a pole-zero network to shorten the signal followed by a multi-pole shaper to produce a symmetric signal suitable for high counting rates. This has been compared to the current design by measuring the energy and spatial resolution of a single detector as a function of different preamplifier designs. Data were taken over a range of ADC integration times and countrates. The new design shows improved energy resolution with short integration times. Effects on spatial resolution and deadtime are reported for large position sensitive detectors at different countrates.

  18. Pulse shape discrimination properties of Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce,B single crystal in comparison with CsI:Tl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, S.; Tyagi, Mohit; Netrakanti, P. K.; Kashyap, V. K. S.; Mitra, A.; Singh, A. K.; Desai, D. G.; Kumar, G. Anil; Gadkari, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce,B and CsI:Tl were grown by Czochralski and Bridgman techniques, respectively. While both the crystals exhibited similar emission at about 550 nm, their scintillation decay times showed significantly different characteristics. The average scintillation decay time of Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce,B crystal was found to be about 284 ns for alpha excitation compared to 108 ns measured for a gamma source. On the other hand in CsI:Tl crystals, the alpha excitation resulted in a lower average decay time of 600 ns compared to 1200 ns with gamma excitation. Their pulse shape discrimination (PSD) for gamma and alpha radiations were studied by coupling the scintillators with photomultiplier tube or SiPM and employing an advanced digitizer as well as a conventional zero-crossing setup. In spite of having a poor α/γ light yield ratio, the PSD figure of merit and the difference of zero-crossing time in Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce,B crystals were found to be superior in comparison to CsI:Tl crystals.

  19. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of the Human TL1A Ectodomain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, C.; Yan, Q; Patskovsky, Y; Li, Z; Toro, R; Meyer, A; Cheng, H; Brenowitz, M; Nathenson, S; Almo, S

    2009-01-01

    TNF-like 1A (TL1A) is a newly described member of the TNF superfamily that is directly implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. We report the crystal structure of the human TL1A extracellular domain at a resolution of 2.5 {angstrom}, which reveals a jelly-roll fold typical of the TNF superfamily. This structural information, in combination with complementary mutagenesis and biochemical characterization, provides insights into the binding interface and the specificity of the interactions between TL1A and the DcR3 and DR3 receptors. These studies suggest that the mode of interaction between TL1A and DcR3 differs from other characterized TNF ligand/receptor complexes. In addition, we have generated functional TL1A mutants with altered disulfide bonding capability that exhibit enhanced solution properties, which will facilitate the production of materials for future cell-based and whole animal studies. In summary, these studies provide insights into the structure and function of TL1A and provide the basis for the rational manipulation of its interactions with cognate receptors.

  20. Tl10Hg3Cl16: Single crystal growth, electronic structure and piezoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khyzhun, O. Y.; Piasecki, M.; Kityk, I. V.; Luzhnyi, I.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Fochuk, P. M.; Levkovets, S. I.; Karpets, M. V.; Parasyuk, O. V.

    2016-10-01

    Single crystal of the ternary halide Tl10Hg3Cl16 was grown using Bridgman-Stockbarger method. For the Tl10Hg3Cl16 crystal, we have measured X-ray photoelectron spectra for both pristine and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces and additionally investigated photoinduced piezoelectricity. Our data indicate that the Tl10Hg3Cl16 single crystal surface is very sensitive with respect to Ar+ ion-bombardment. In particular, Ar+ ion-bombardment with energy of 3.0 keV over 5 min at an ion current density of 14 μA/cm2 causes significant changes of the elemental stoichiometry of the Tl10Hg3Cl16 surface resulting in an abrupt decrease of the mercury content in the top surface layers of the studied single crystal. As a result of the treatment, the mercury content becomes nil in the top surface layers. In addition, the present XPS measurements allow for concluding about very low hygroscopicity of the Tl10Hg3Cl16 single crystal surface. The property is extremely important for the crystal handling in optoelectronic or nano-electronic devices working at ambient conditions. The photoinduced piezoelectricity has been explored for Tl10Hg3Cl16 depending on nitrogen (λ=371 nm) laser power density and temperature.

  1. Statistical evaluation of characteristic SDDLV-induced stress resultants to discriminate between undamaged and damaged elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse Majgaard; Johansen, Rasmus Johan; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard

    2015-01-01

    evaluation of the characteristic stress resultants, hence facilitating general discrimination between damaged and undamaged elements. The three detection methods in question enable outlier analysis on the basis of, respectively, Euclidian distance, Hotelling’s statistics, and Mahalanobis distance. The study...

  2. Characteristics of brain injury induced by shock wave propagation in solids after underwater explosion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-ling LI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the characteristics of rat brain injury induced by shock wave propagation in solids resulting from underwater explosion and explore the related mechanism. Methods  Explosion source outside the simulated ship cabin underwater was detonated for establishing a model of brain injury in rats by shock wave propagation in solid; 72 male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n=8, injury group 1 (600mg RDX paper particle explosion source, n=32, injury group 2 (800mg RDX paper particle explosion source, n=32. The each injury group was randomly divided into 4 subgroups (n=8, 3, 6, 24 and 72h groups. The division plate as a whole and the head of 8 rats in each injury group were measured for the peak value of the solid shock wave, its rising time and the duration time of shock wave propagation in solid. To observe the physiological changes of animals after injury, plasma samples were collected for determination of brain damage markers, NSE and S-100β. All the animals were sacrificed, the right hemisphere of the brain was taken in each group of animals, weighting after baking, and the brain water content was calculated. Pathological examination was performed for left cerebral hemisphere in 24-h group. The normal pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 region were counted. Results  The peak value, rising time and duration time of shock wave propagation on the division plate and head were 1369.74±91.70g, 0.317±0.037ms and 24.85±2.53ms, 26.83±3.09g, 0.901±0.077ms and 104.21±6.26ms respectively in injury group 1, 1850.11±83.86g, 0.184±0.031ms and 35.61±2.66ms, 39.75±3.14g, 0.607±0.069ms and 132.44±7.17ms in injury group 2 (P<0.01. After the injury, there was no abnormality in the anatomy, and brain damage markers NSE, S-100β increased, reached the peak at 24 h, and they were highest in injury group 2 and lowest in control group with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05. The brain water content

  3. Dosimetric characteristics of ultraviolet and x-ray-irradiated KBr:Eu{sup 2+} thermoluminescence crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendrez, R.; Perez-Salas, R. [Programa de Posgrado en Fisica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion, Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Apartado Postal 2681, Ensenada, Baja California, 22800 (Mexico); Aceves, R.; Piters, T.M.; Barboza-Flores, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190 (Mexico)

    1996-08-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of KBr:Eu{sup 2+} (150 ppm) previously exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light (200{endash}300 nm) and x-ray radiation at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curve of UV-irradiated samples is composed of six peaks located at 337, 384, 402, 435, 475, and 510 K. The TL glow curves of x-irradiated samples show mainly a TL peak around 384 K. The TL intensities of UV-irradiated (402 and 510 K glow peaks) and x-irradiated specimens present a linear dependence as a function of radiation dose as well as fading stability 300 s after irradiation. These results further enhance the possibilities of using europium-doped materials in nonionizing (actinic region) and ionizing radiation detection and dosimetry applications. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Some characteristics of hyperreactivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide induced in mice by Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eduardo Alves Bambirra; M. Queiroz da Cruz; Deisy S. Campos; A. Oliveira Lima

    1984-01-01

    .... During the acaute phase of experimental infection with T. cruzi Y strain, mice generally die with a hypovolemic shock very similar to that induced in uninfected animals injected with an adequate dose of bacterial endotoxin...

  5. TL dosimetry for quality control of CR mammography imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona, E.; Nieto, J. A.; Góngora, J. A. I. D.; Arreola, M.; Enríquez, J. G. F.

    The aim of this work is to estimate the average glandular dose with thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetry and comparison with quality imaging in computed radiography (CR) mammography. For a measuring dose, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) use a phantom, so that dose and image quality are assessed with the same test object. The mammography is a radiological image to visualize early biological manifestations of breast cancer. Digital systems have two types of image-capturing devices, full field digital mammography (FFDM) and CR mammography. In Mexico, there are several CR mammography systems in clinical use, but only one system has been approved for use by the FDA. Mammography CR uses a photostimulable phosphor detector (PSP) system. Most CR plates are made of 85% BaFBr and 15% BaFI doped with europium (Eu) commonly called barium flourohalideE We carry out an exploratory survey of six CR mammography units from three different manufacturers and six dedicated X-ray mammography units with fully automatic exposure. The results show three CR mammography units (50%) have a dose greater than 3.0 mGy without demonstrating improved image quality. The differences between doses averages from TLD system and dosimeter with ionization chamber are less than 10%. TLD system is a good option for average glandular dose measurement for X-rays with a HVL (0.35-0.38 mmAl) and kVp (24-26) used in quality control procedures with ACR Mammography Accreditation Phantom.

  6. Anti-MoS2 Nanostructures: Tl2S and Its Electrochemical and Electronic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Xinyi; Ambrosi, Adriano; Sofer, Zdeněk; Luxa, Jan; Sedmidubský, David; Pumera, Martin

    2016-01-26

    Layered transition metal dichalcogenides are catalytically important compounds. Unlike the mounting interest in transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2 and WS2 for electrochemical applications, other metal chalcogenides with layered structure but different chemical composition have received little attention among the scientific community. One such example is represented by thallium(I) sulfide (Tl2S), a Group 13 chalcogenide, which adopts the peculiar anti-CdCl2 type structure where the chalcogen is sandwiched between the metal layers. This is the exact opposite of a number of transition metal dichalcogenides like 1T-MoS2 adopting the regular CdCl2 structure type. The electronic structure of Tl2S thus differs from MoS2. Such structure may provide a useful insight and understanding toward its electrochemical behavior in relation to the electrochemical properties of MoS2. We thus investigated the intrinsic electroactivity of Tl2S and its implications for sensing and energy generation, specifically the electrocatalytic properties toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We show that Tl2S exhibits four distinct redox signals at ca. 0.4 V, -0.5 V, -1.0 V and -1.5 V vs Ag/AgCl as a result of its inherent cathodic and anodic processes. We also demonstrate that Tl2S possesses slow electron transfer abilities with a rate (k(0)obs) as low as 6.3 × 10(-5) cm s(-1). Tl2S displays a competent performance as a HER electrocatalyst compared to a conventional glassy carbon electrode. However, the poor conductivity of Tl2S renders the HER electrocatalytic behavior second-rate compared to MoS2. Furthermore, we investigated the electronic properties of Tl2S and found that Tl2S exhibits an unusually narrow band dispersion around the Fermi level. We show here that anti-MoS2 structure of Tl2S is accompanied by highly unusual features.

  7. Examining the low energy electrodynamics of the superconductor-insulator transition in the potential topological superconductor Tl4(Tl1-xSnx)Te3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurita, N. J.; Arpino, K. A.; Koopayeh, S. M.; McQueen, T. M.; Armitage, N. P.

    The search for an intrinsic single crystal topological superconductor is one of the most dynamic areas of modern condensed matter physics. One of the best candidates of such a material is Tl5Te3 (Tc = 2 . 3 K), which previous ARPES measurements have shown possesses a Dirac cone within its superconducting gap. However, the fundamental nature of superconductivity, i.e. the superconducting order parameter, in Tl5Te3 remains unknown. Additionally, it has been shown that Tl5Te3 undergoes a superconducting-insulator transition upon doping with Sn. With no band parity inversion expected in the fully Sn doped compound one expects a topological supercondutor - trivial insulator transition, the nature of which is also unknown. In this work we use highly sensitive microwave cavity perturbation measurements, a direct probe of the superfluid density, to study the low energy electrodynamics of superconductivity in Tl5Te3 and its corresponding superconductor-insulator transition upon Sn doping. Work at Johns Hopkins was supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF2628, the DOE-BES through DE-FG02-08ER46544, and the ARCS Foundation.

  8. [Morphological characteristic of rats’ kidneys under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxicity against the background alimentary deprivation of protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopylchuk G.P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetaminophen is known as inducer of acute hepatotoxicity. Extrahepatic manifestations of acetaminophen toxicity are poorly understood in particular its nephrotoxicity. Objective. The purpose of this study was the morphological characteristic of rat kidneys under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxicity on the background of alimentary deprivation of protein. Methods. Аfter administration of the toxic dose of acetaminophen and maintenance of rats on a different regimen of protein nutrition their kidneys were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin according to a standard technique. Results. It was estimated, that in rats maintained during long period of time under the conditions of alimentary deprivation of protein, and in rats injected with toxic dose of acetaminophen morphological changes of kidney were not observed. Administration of acetaminophen on the background of previous protein deficiency causes the pathological changes of kidney morphology with papillary necrosis as a key sign. Conclusion. Alimentary deprivation of protein in case of acetaminophen injection is the critical factor for the impairment of structural integrity of kidney tissue with its subsequent dysfunction. Citation: Kopylchuk GP, Voloshchuk ON, Buchkovskaia IM, Davydenko IS. [Morphological characteristic of rats’ kidneys under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxicity against the background alimentary deprivation of protein]. Morphologia. 2015;9(3:28-30. Russian.

  9. Исследование системы TlI-TlS

    OpenAIRE

    ГУСЕЙНОВ ГОРХМАЗ МАНСУР ОГЛЫ

    2014-01-01

    В работе методами ДТА и РФА, а также измерениями микротвердости и ЭДС концентрационных относительно таллия цепей исследованы фазовые равновесия в системе TlI-TlS. Показано, что она неквазибинарна. В ней в широкой области концентрации (25-90 мол% TlS) из расплава первично кристаллизуется тройное соединение Tl6SI4. На конечной стадии кристаллизации в системе протекает перитектическая реакция L+Tl6SI4®TlI+TlS (T=475 К) и формируется соответствующая коннодная линия....

  10. Measuring Positron Annihilation in NaI(Tl) Detectors as the Final Stage in a Carbon Diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Melissa; Brown, Cassarah; Padalino, Stephen; Glebov, Vladimir; Sangster, T. Craig; Duffy, Timothy

    2007-11-01

    This study was performed to increase the detection efficiency of 511 keV annihilation radiation from decaying C-11 by indentifying and eliminating different forms of background radiation originating from the source and the ambient background in the gamma ray coincidence spectrum. Cu-64 was substituted for C-11 in this investigation since it could be easily made from Cu-63 via neutron capture using a PuBe neutron source. Using Cu-64, the effect of ambient background and source induced radiation in the NaI detectors was examined in three coincidence spectra. The spectra were generated by pairing the output signals of the three NaI(Tl) detectors and displaying them as two dimensional spectra. Different gamma ray background contributions to the coincidence spectrum were studied, including annihilation radiation from pair production in the detectors and the lead shielding. Detector geometries and source materials which modified the Compton scattering background were also investigated.

  11. Neutron calibration facility with an Am-Be source for pulse shape discrimination measurement of CsI(Tl) crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H S; Choi, J H; Choi, S; Hahn, I S; Jeon, E J; Joo, H W; Kang, W G; Kim, G B; Kim, H J; Kim, K W; Kim, S C; Kim, S K; Kim, Y D; Kim, Y H; Lee, J H; Lee, J K; Leonard, D S; Li, J; Myung, S S; Olsen, S L; So, J H

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a neutron calibration facility based on a 300-mCi Am-Be source in conjunction with a search for weakly interacting massive particle candidates for dark matter. The facility is used to study the response of CsI(Tl) crystals to nuclear recoils induced by neutrons from the Am-Be source and comparing them with the response to electron recoils produced by Compton scattering of 662-keV $\\gamma$-rays from a $^{137}$Cs source. The measured results on pulse shape discrimination (PSD) between nuclear- and electron-recoil events are quantified in terms of quality factors. A comparison with similar result from a neutron reactor demonstrate the feasibility of performing calibrations of PSD measurements using neutrons from a Am-Be source.

  12. Novel Interplay between High-Tc Superconductivity and Antiferromagnetism in Tl-Based Six-CuO2-Layered Cuprates: 205Tl- and 63Cu-NMR Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuda, Hidekazu; Shiki, Nozomu; Kimoto, Naoki; Yashima, Mitsuharu; Kitaoka, Yoshio; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Iyo, Akira

    2016-08-01

    We report 63Cu- and 205Tl-NMR studies on six-layered (n = 6) high-Tc superconducting (SC) cuprate TlBa2Ca5Cu6O14+δ (Tl1256) with Tc ˜ 100 K, which reveal that antiferromagnetic (AFM) order takes place below TN ˜ 170 K. In this compound, four underdoped inner CuO2 planes [n(IP) = 4] sandwiched by two outer planes (OPs) are responsible for the onset of AFM order, whereas the nearly optimally-doped OPs responsible for the onset of bulk SC. It is pointed out that an increase in the out-of-plane magnetic interaction within an intra-unit-cell causes TN ˜ 45 K for Tl1245 with n(IP) = 3 to increase to ˜170 K for Tl1256 with n(IP) = 4. It is remarkable that the marked increase in TN and the AFM moments for the IPs does not bring about any reduction in Tc, since Tc ˜ 100 K is maintained for both compounds with nearly optimally doped OP. We highlight the fact that the SC order for n ≥ 5 is mostly dominated by the long-range in-plane SC correlation even in the multilayered structure, which is insensitive to the magnitude of TN and the AFM moments at the IPs or the AFM interaction among the IPs. These results demonstrate a novel interplay between the SC and AFM orders when the charge imbalance between the IPs and OP is significantly large.

  13. Synthesis and TL glow curve analysis of BaSO{sub 4}:Eu,Dy phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangeela Devi, Y. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India); Pachhunga University College, Aizawl, Mizoram (India); Dorendrajit Singh, S., E-mail: dorendrajit@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India)

    2012-06-15

    The polycrystalline samples of Ba{sub 1-x-y}SO{sub 4}:Eu{sub x},Dy{sub y} (0{<=}x{<=}1, 0{<=}y{<=}1) have been prepared using the chemical co-precipitation technique. The thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity of the samples have been found changing with the value of x and y and the highest TL intensity is for Ba{sub 96}SO{sub 4}:Eu{sub 02},Dy{sub 02}. The sample has been characterised by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The samples are found to have orthorhombic structure. For TL analysis Ba{sub 96}SO{sub 4}:Eu{sub 02},Dy{sub 02} is annealed at different temperatures ranging from 873 to 1173 K. Kinetic parameters of all the TL glow curves of Ba{sub 1-x-y}SO{sub 4}:Eu{sub x},Dy{sub y} for different values of x and y and also for the TL glow curves Ba{sub 96}SO{sub 4}:Eu{sub 02},Dy{sub 02} annealed at different temperatures have been found out using computerised glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) method. The activation energy for the most intense TL peak at (444-453 K) is found out to be 1.26 eV and order of kinetics is 1.35. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TL study of BaSO{sub 4}:Eu,Dy is reported for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The kinetic parameters are evaluated by CGCD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of concentration, annealing temperature and dose response curve discussed.

  14. Electronic excitation energy transfer and nonstationary processes in KH2PO4:Tl crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodnikov, I. N.; Pustovarov, V. A.

    2017-04-01

    We report the results of our experimental study and numerical simulation of the electronic excitation energy transfer to impurity centers under conditions where nonstationary processes take place in the hydrogen sublattice of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) single crystals doped with mercury-like Tl+ ions (KDP:Tl). We present the experimental results of our investigation of the decay kinetics of the transient optical absorption (100 ns-50 s) of intrinsic defects in the hydrogen sublattice of KDP:Tl obtained by pulsed absorption spectroscopy and the results of our study of the dynamics of the change in steady-state luminescence intensity with irradiation time (1-5000 s). To explain the transfer of the energy being released during electron recombination involving intrinsic KDP:Tl lattice defects, we formulate a mathematical model for the transfer of this energy to impurity Tl+ luminescence centers. Within the model being developed, we present the systems of differential balance equations describing the nonstationary processes in the electron subsystem and the hydrogen sublattice; provide a technique for calculating the pair correlation functions Y( r, t) of dissimilar defects based on the solution of the Smoluchowski equation for the system of mobile hydrogen sublattice defects; calculate the time-dependent reaction rate constants K( t) for various experimental conditions; and outline the peculiarities and results of the model parametrization based on our experimental data. Based on our investigation, the dramatic and significant effect of a gradual inertial increase by a factor of 50-100 in steady-state luminescence intensity in the 4.5-eV band in KDP:Tl crystals due to the luminescence of mercury-like Tl+ ions has been explained qualitatively and quantitatively.

  15. Structure and scintillation properties of CsI(Tl) films on Si single crystal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lina [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu, Shuang, E-mail: shuangliu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Chen, Dejun; Zhang, Shangjian; Liu, Yong; Zhong, Zhiyong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Falco, Charles M. [University of Arizona, College of Optical Sciences, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • We obtained the desired micro-columnar structure of CsI(Tl) films on the orienting Si substrates. • We improved the micro-columnar structure of CsI(Tl) films under the relatively large deposition rate through using the substrate with a pre-deposited CsI nanolayer. • We modeled the interface structures between the CsI(Tl) films with (200) and (310) orientation and Si(111) substrates to explain the preferred orientation of film under the influence of the orienting substrate significantly. • We gained a new spectrum of the CsI(Tl) films peaked at 740 nm wavelength. - Abstract: CsI(Tl) scintillation films fabricated on glass substrates are widely applied for X-ray imaging because their ability to grow in micro-columnar structure and proper emission wavelength matching CCD cameras. But the coupling process between the CsI(Tl) films and Si-based photo detector would cause coupling loss. In this work, CsI(Tl) films were deposited on the orienting Si substrates and the Si substrates covered by the pre-deposited CsI nanolayers. Structure and scintillation properties of films were examined by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and radioluminescent spectrum. The films deposited on the orienting Si substrates show the micro-columnar morphology with perfect single crystalline structure and the photoluminescence spectra with bimodal distribution. The performances of the films prepared on the pre-deposited CsI nanolayer, containing micro-columns structure and the light yield are improved.

  16. TL and OSL studies of carbon doped magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4:C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sanu S.; Mishra, D. R.; Soni, Anuj; Grover, V.; Polymeris, G. S.; Muthe, K. P.; Jha, S. K.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-10-01

    The MgAl2O4:C has been synthesized by using two different methods by electron gun and vacuum assisted melting of MgAl2O4 in presence of graphite. The MgAl2O4:C phosphor thus developed by these two different methods have similar types of the TL/OSL defects with multiple overlapping TL glow peaks from 100 °C to 400 °C. The Computerized Curve De-convolution Analysis (CCDA) has been used to measure TL parameters such as thermal trap depth, frequency factor and order of kinetic associated with charge transfer process in TL phenomenon. The investigated TL/OSL results show that these two methods of incorporating carbon in MgAl2O4 have generated closely resemble the defects of similar types in MgAl2O4:C lattice. However, the MgAl2O4:C synthesized by electron gun shows relatively larger concentration of the TL/OSL defects as compared to MgAl2O4:C synthesized using vacuum assisted melting method. The photo-ionization cross-section (PIC) associated with fastest OSL component of MgAl2O4: C is found to be ∼ 0.5 times than that of fastest OSL component of commercially available dosimetric grade α-Al2O3:C. The MgAl2O4:C thus developed shows good dynamic OSL dose linearity from few mGy to 1 Gy. This work reveals that MgAl2O4:C could be developed as potential tissue equivalent OSL / TL material.

  17. Sediment characteristics and wind-induced sediment dynamics in shallow Lake Markermeer, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelderman, P.; Ang'weya, R.O.; De Rozari, P.; Vijverberg, T.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007/08, a study was undertaken on the sediment dynamics in shallow Lake Markermeer (the Netherlands). Firstly, sediment characteristics were determined at 49 sites in the lake. Parameters such as median grain size and loss on ignition showed a spatial as well as water depth related pattern, indi

  18. A linear description of shortening induced changes in isometric length-force characteristics of rat muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K.; Grootenboer, H.J.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.; Huijing, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Active muscle shortening reduces the isometric force potential of muscle. This observation indicates that the isometric length-force characteristics are altered during muscle shortening. Post-shortening decrease in isometric force depends on starting length, shortening amplitude and shortening veloc

  19. TL/OSL properties of beta irradiated Al2O3 Nanophosphor synthesized by microwave combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S. Satyanarayana; Nagabhushana, K. R.; Chauhan, Naveen; Singh, Fouran

    2017-05-01

    Stable α-phase of Al2O3 is synthesized by combustion method usingtemperature controlled microwave oven. Crystalline phase is analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD)and average crystallite size is found to be 75 nm. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve of Al2O3 is studied in UV, blue and open (visible) windows after beta irradiation. A prominent TL glow with peak at 472 K along with shoulders at 416 and 513 K are observed in all three windows. These peaks may be ascribed to F, F2 and F+- centers. Highest TL intensity isobserved inopen window. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) studies in UV and blue windows shows highest intensityin UV window. TL/OSL of phosphor shows linearresponse with beta dose upto 6.16 Gy.TL/OSL properties viz fading,repeatabilityand MDDare studied. TL kinetic parameters are estimated by deconvolution with computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) techniques.

  20. TL response of Eu activated LiF nanocubes irradiated by 85 MeV carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salah, Numan, E-mail: nsalah@kau.edu.sa [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, Najlaa D. [Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Habib, Sami S. [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Lochab, S.P. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2015-09-01

    Carbon ions were found to be effective for cancer treatment. These heavy ions have a high relative biological effectiveness compared to those of photons. They have higher linear energy transfer and sharper Bragg peak with a very excellent local tumor control. However, the dose of these swift heavy ions needs to be measured with great accuracy. Lithium fluoride (LiF) is a highly sensitive phosphor widely used for radiation dosimetry. In this work Eu activated LiF nanocubes were exposed to 85 MeV C{sup 6+} ion beam and evaluated for their thermoluminescence (TL) response. Pellet forms of this nanomaterial were exposed to these ions in the fluence range 10{sup 9}–10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The obtained result shows a prominent TL glow peak at around 320 °C, which is different than that induced by gamma rays. This glow peak exhibits a linear response in the range 10{sup 9}–10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}, corresponding to the equivalent absorbed doses 0.273–273 kGy. The absorbed doses, penetration depths and main energy loss were calculated using TRIM code based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The supralinearity function and stopping power in this nanomaterial were also studied. The modification induced in the glow curve structure as a result of changing irradiation type might be utilized to use LiF:Eu nanocubes as a dosimeter for mixed filed radiations. Moreover, the wide linear response of LiF:Eu nanocubes along with the low fading are another imperative results suggesting that this nanomaterial might be a good candidate for carbon ions dosimetry.

  1. Electrophysiologic and clinico-pathologic characteristics of statin-induced muscle injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdulrazaq

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Atorvastatin increased average creatine kinase, suggesting, statins produce mild muscle injury even in asymptomatic subjects. Diabetic statin users were more prone to develop muscle injury than others. Muscle fiber conduction velocity evaluation is recommended as a simple and reliable test to diagnose statin-induced myopathy instead of invasive muscle biopsy.

  2. Perception of linear horizontal self-motion induced by peripheral vision /linearvection/ - Basic characteristics and visual-vestibular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoz, A.; Pavard, B.; Young, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    The basic characteristics of the sensation of linear horizontal motion have been studied. Objective linear motion was induced by means of a moving cart. Visually induced linear motion perception (linearvection) was obtained by projection of moving images at the periphery of the visual field. Image velocity and luminance thresholds for the appearance of linearvection have been measured and are in the range of those for image motion detection (without sensation of self motion) by the visual system. Latencies of onset are around 1 sec and short term adaptation has been shown. The dynamic range of the visual analyzer as judged by frequency analysis is lower than the vestibular analyzer. Conflicting situations in which visual cues contradict vestibular and other proprioceptive cues show, in the case of linearvection a dominance of vision which supports the idea of an essential although not independent role of vision in self motion perception.

  3. Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently by bacterial probiotic supplementation during induced lactic and subacute acidosis in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lettat Abderzak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ruminal disbiosis induced by feeding is the cause of ruminal acidosis, a digestive disorder prevalent in high-producing ruminants. Because probiotic microorganisms can modulate the gastrointestinal microbiota, propionibacteria- and lactobacilli-based probiotics were tested for their effectiveness in preventing different forms of acidosis. Results Lactic acidosis, butyric and propionic subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA were induced by feed chalenges in three groups of four wethers intraruminally dosed with wheat, corn or beet pulp. In each group, wethers were either not supplemented (C or supplemented with Propionibacterium P63 alone (P or combined with L. plantarum (Lp + P or L. rhamnosus (Lr + P. Compared with C, all the probiotics stimulated lactobacilli proliferation, which reached up to 25% of total bacteria during wheat-induced lactic acidosis. This induced a large increase in lactate concentration, which decreased ruminal pH. During the corn-induced butyric SARA, Lp + P decreased Prevotella spp. proportion with a concomitant decrease in microbial amylase activity and total volatile fatty acids concentration, and an increase in xylanase activity and pH. Relative to the beet pulp-induced propionic SARA, P and Lr + P improved ruminal pH without affecting the microbial or fermentation characteristics. Regardless of acidosis type, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that probiotic supplementations modified the bacterial community structure. Conclusion This work showed that the effectiveness of the bacterial probiotics tested depended on the acidosis type. Although these probiotics were ineffective in lactic acidosis because of a deeply disturbed rumen microbiota, some of the probiotics tested may be useful to minimize the occurrence of butyric and propionic SARA in sheep. However, their modes of action need to be further investigated.

  4. Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently by bacterial probiotic supplementation during induced lactic and subacute acidosis in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Ruminal disbiosis induced by feeding is the cause of ruminal acidosis, a digestive disorder prevalent in high-producing ruminants. Because probiotic microorganisms can modulate the gastrointestinal microbiota, propionibacteria- and lactobacilli-based probiotics were tested for their effectiveness in preventing different forms of acidosis. Results Lactic acidosis, butyric and propionic subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) were induced by feed chalenges in three groups of four wethers intraruminally dosed with wheat, corn or beet pulp. In each group, wethers were either not supplemented (C) or supplemented with Propionibacterium P63 alone (P) or combined with L. plantarum (Lp + P) or L. rhamnosus (Lr + P). Compared with C, all the probiotics stimulated lactobacilli proliferation, which reached up to 25% of total bacteria during wheat-induced lactic acidosis. This induced a large increase in lactate concentration, which decreased ruminal pH. During the corn-induced butyric SARA, Lp + P decreased Prevotella spp. proportion with a concomitant decrease in microbial amylase activity and total volatile fatty acids concentration, and an increase in xylanase activity and pH. Relative to the beet pulp-induced propionic SARA, P and Lr + P improved ruminal pH without affecting the microbial or fermentation characteristics. Regardless of acidosis type, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that probiotic supplementations modified the bacterial community structure. Conclusion This work showed that the effectiveness of the bacterial probiotics tested depended on the acidosis type. Although these probiotics were ineffective in lactic acidosis because of a deeply disturbed rumen microbiota, some of the probiotics tested may be useful to minimize the occurrence of butyric and propionic SARA in sheep. However, their modes of action need to be further investigated. PMID:22812531

  5. KamLAND-PICO dark matter search project Low background test by highly radiopure NaI(Tl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Kenichi; Ejiri, Hiroyasu; Hazama, Ryuta; Ikeda, Haruo; Imagawa, Kyoshiro; Inoue, Kunio; Kozlov, Alexandre; Orito, Reiko; Shima, Tatsushi; Takemoto, Yasuhiro; Umehara, Saori; Yasuda, Kensuke; KamLAND-PICO Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    KamLAND-PICO aims to search for WIMPs dark matter by means of highly radiopure NaI(Tl) scintillator. The impurities in NaI(Tl) has been successfully reduced by chemical processing of raw NaI(Tl) powder. The intensity of alpha ray was observed and the contamination in 210Pb has been dramatically reduced to about 60 μBq/kg. The present status of low background measurement will be reported.

  6. The effects of chemical and radioactive properties of Tl-201 on human erythrocyte glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ali; Senturk, Murat; Ciftci, Mehmet; Varoglu, Erhan; Kufrevioglu, Omer Irfan

    2010-04-01

    The inhibitory effects of thallium-201 ((201)Tl) solution on human erythrocyte glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity were investigated. For this purpose, erythrocyte G6PD was initially purified 835-fold at a yield of 41.7% using 2',5'-Adenosine diphosphate sepharose 4B affinity gel chromatography. The purification was monitored by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which showed a single band for the final enzyme preparation. The in vitro and in vivo effects of the (201)Tl solution including Tl(+), Fe(+3) and Cu(+2) metals and the in vitro effects of the radiation effect of the (201)Tl solution and non-radioactive Tl(+), Fe(+3) and Cu(+2) metals on human erythrocyte G6PD enzyme were studied. Enzyme activity was determined with the Beutler method at 340 nm using a spectrophotometer. All purification procedures were carried out at +4 degrees C. (201)Tl solution and radiation exposure had inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity. IC(50) value of (201)Tl solution was 36.86 microl ([Tl(+)]: 0.0036 microM, [Cu(+2)]: 0.0116 microM, [Fe(+3)]: 0.0132 microM), of human erythrocytes G6PD. Seven human patients were also used for in vivo studies of (201)Tl solution. Furthermore, non-radioactive Tl(+), Fe(+3) and Cu(+2) were found not to have influenced the enzyme in vitro. Human erythrocyte G6PD activity was inhibited by exposure for up to 10 minutes to 0.057 mCi/kg (201)Tl solution. It was detected in in vitro and in vivo studies that the human erythrocyte G6PD enzyme is inhibited due to the radiation effect of (201)Tl solution. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endosomes and lysosomes are involved in early steps of Tl(III)-mediated apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzel, Cecilia E; Almeira Gubiani, María F; Verstraeten, Sandra V

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms that mediate thallium (Tl) toxicity are still not completely understood. The exposure of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells to Tl(I) or Tl(III) activates both mitochondrial (Tl(I) and Tl(III)) and extrinsic (Tl(III)) pathways of apoptosis. In this work we evaluated the hypothesis that the effects of Tl(III) may be mediated by the damage to lysosomes, where it might be incorporated following the route of iron uptake. PC12 cells exposed for 3 h to 100 μM Tl(III) presented marked endosomal acidification, effect that was absent when cells were incubated in a serum-free medium and that was fully recovered when the latter was supplemented with transferrin. After 6 h of incubation the colocalization of cathepsins D and B with the lysosomal marker Lamp-1 was decreased together with an increase in the total activity of the enzymes. A permanent damage to lysosomes after 18 h of exposure was evidenced from the impairment of acridine orange uptake. Cathepsin D caused the cleavage of pro-apoptotic protein BID that is involved in the activation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Supporting that, BID cleavage and the activation of caspase 3 by Tl(III) were fully prevented when cells were preincubated with cathepsin D inhibitor (pepstatin A) and only partially prevented when cathepsin B inhibitor (E64d) was used. None of these inhibitors affected BID cleavage or caspase 3 activation in Tl(I)-treated cells. Together, experimental results support the role of Tl(III) uptake by the acidic cell compartments and their involvement in the early steps of Tl(III)-mediated PC12 cells apoptosis.

  8. Tunable Transmission-Line Metamaterials Mimicking Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, T. H.; Han, H. P.

    2016-11-01

    Tunable transmission-line (TL) metamaterials mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been studied. Firstly, two types of tunable TL EIT-like metamaterial, based on the double split-ring resonator (DSRR) and single split-ring resonator (SSRR), were fabricated and their transmission properties carefully compared. The results showed that the transmittance maximum was almost invariable with shift of the transparency window for the tunable DSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial, but for the tunable SSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial, the transmittance maximum gradually diminished with shift of the transparency window toward the center of the absorption band. Moreover, the reason for these different transmission properties was explored, revealing that the reduction of the transmittance maximum of the transparency window for the tunable SSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial is mainly due to energy loss caused by the resistance of the loaded varactor diodes.

  9. The use of laser-induced shock wave plasma spectroscopy (LISPS) for examining physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur, E-mail: syahrun-madjid@yahoo.com; Lahna, Kurnia, E-mail: kurnialahna@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Aceh (Indonesia); Desiyana, Lydia Septa, E-mail: lydia-septa@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Aceh (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    An experimental study has been performed to examine the physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products, such as tablet, by employing an emission plasma induced by Nd-YAG laser at a low pressure of Helium gas. The hardness of tablet is one of the parameters that examined during the production process for standard quality of pharmaceutical products. In the Laser-Induced Shock Wave Plasma Spectroscopy (LISPS), the shock wave has a significant role in inducing atomic excitation. It was known that, the speed of the shock wavefront depends on the hardness of the sample, and it correlates with the ionization rate of the ablated atoms. The hardness of the tablet is examined using the intensity ratio between the ion of Mg (II) 275.2 nm and the neutral of Mg (I) 285.2 nm emission lines detected from the laser-induced plasma. It was observed that the ratio changes with respect to the change in the tablet hardness, namely the ratio is higher for the hard tablet. Besides the ratio measurements, we also measured the depth profile of a tablet by focusing 60 shots of irradiation of laser light at a fixed position on the surface of the tablet. It was found that the depth profile varies differently with the hardness of the tablet. These experiment results show that the technique of LISPS can be applied to examine the quality of pharmaceutical products.

  10. A characteristic subset of psoriasis-associated genes is induced by oncostatin-M in reconstituted epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, Alix; Rosdy, Martin; Bertino, Béatrice; Tornier, Carine; Sahuc, Florent; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2006-12-01

    The pathological manifestations of psoriasis are orchestrated by many secreted proteins, but only a handful, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-1, have been studied in great detail. Oncostatin-M (OsM) has also been found in psoriatic skin and we hypothesized that it makes a unique and characteristic contribution to the psoriatic processes. To define in-depth the molecular effects of OsM in epidermis, we used high-density DNA microarrays for transcriptional profiling of OsM-treated human skin equivalents. We identified 374 unambiguously OsM-regulated genes, out of 22,000 probed. OsM suppressed the expression of the "classical" epidermal differentiation markers, but strongly and specifically induced the S100A proteins. Cytoskeletal and complement proteins, proteases, and their inhibitors were also induced by OsM. Interestingly, a large set of genes was induced by OsM at early time points but suppressed later; these genes are known regulatory targets of IFN and thus provide a nexus between the OsM and IFN pathways. OsM induces IL-4 and suppresses the T-helper 1-type and IL-1-responsive signals, potentially attenuating the psoriatic pathology. The data suggest that OsM plays a unique role in psoriasis, different from all other, more thoroughly studied cytokines.

  11. CoCl2, a mimic of hypoxia, induces formation of polyploid giant cells with stem characteristics in colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Lopez-Sánchez

    Full Text Available The induction of polyploidy is considered the reproductive end of cells, but there is evidence that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs contribute to cell repopulation during tumor relapse. However, the role of these cells in the development, progression and response to therapy in colon cancer remains undefined. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the generation of PGCCs in colon cancer cells and identify mechanisms of formation. Treatment of HCT-116 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells with the hypoxia mimic CoCl2 induced the formation of cells with larger cell and nuclear size (PGCCs, while the cells with normal morphology were selectively eliminated. Cytometric analysis showed that CoCl2 treatment induced G2 cell cycle arrest and the generation of a polyploid cell subpopulation with increased cellular DNA content. Polyploidy of hypoxia-induced PGCCs was confirmed by FISH analysis. Furthermore, CoCl2 treatment effectively induced the stabilization of HIF-1α, the differential expression of a truncated form of p53 (p47 and decreased levels of cyclin D1, indicating molecular mechanisms associated with cell cycle arrest at G2. Generation of PGCCs also contributed to expansion of a cell subpopulation with cancer stem cells (CSCs characteristics, as indicated by colonosphere formation assays, and enhanced chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin. In conclusion, the pharmacological induction of hypoxia in colon cancer cells causes the formation of PGCCs, the expansion of a cell subpopulation with CSC characteristics and chemoresistance. The molecular mechanisms involved, including the stabilization of HIF-1 α, the involvement of p53/p47 isoform and cell cycle arrest at G2, suggest novel targets to prevent tumor relapse and treatment failure in colon cancer.

  12. Impact of precursor purity on optical properties and radiation detection of CsI:Tl scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saengkaew, Phannee; Cheewajaroen, Kulthawat; Yenchai, Chadet; Thong-aram, Decho [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand); Sanorpim, Sakuntam [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Jitpukdee, Manit [Kasetsart University, Department of Applied Radiation and Isotope, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Yordsri, Visittapong; Thanachayanont, Chanchana [Ministry of Science and Technology, National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathumthani (Thailand); Nuntawong, Noppadon [Ministry of Science and Technology, National Electronic and Computer Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    Cesium iodide doped with thallium (CsI:Tl) crystals was grown to develop the gamma-ray detectors by using low-cost raw materials. Effect of impurities on optical properties and radiation detection performance was investigated. By a modified homemade Bridgman-Stockbarger technique, CsI:Tl samples were grown in two levels of CsI and TlI reactant materials, i.e., having as a very high purity of 99.999 % and a high purity of 99.9 %. XRD measurements indicate CsI:Tl crystals having a good quality with a dominant (110) plane. Having a cubic structure, a lattice constant of CsI crystals of 0.4574 nm and a crystallite size of 43.539 nm were obtained. From the lower-purity raw materials, calcite was found in an orange crystal with a lattice constant of 0.4560 nm and a crystallite size of 43.089 nm. By PL measurements, the optical properties of the CsI:Tl crystals were analyzed. ∝540-nm-wavelength PL peak was observed from the colorless high-purity crystal, and ∝600-nm-wavelength PL peak was observed from the orange crystal. The brighter PL emission was obtained from the orange crystals suggesting impurities. CsI:Tl surface morphology by SEM exhibited a smooth surface with some parallel crystal facets. For electrical properties of high-quality CsI:Tl crystals, the electrical resistances were 230 ± 16 MΩ in cross-sectional direction and 714 ± 136 MΩ in vertical direction with respect to more homogeneous crystal quality in cross-sectional direction than that in vertical direction. TEM measurement was applied to evaluate the microstructure of colorless CsI:Tl crystal with different patterns of a cubic structure. Both CsI:Tl crystals show good efficiencies and good resolutions. Maintaining the same electronic conditions and amplifications, the colorless CsI:Tl scintillators represented a higher detection efficiency at 122 keV of Co-57 of 78.4 % and the energy resolution of 23.3 % compared to the detection efficiency of 75.9 % and the energy resolution of 34.6 % of the

  13. A linear description of shortening induced changes in isometric length-force characteristics of rat muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, K; Grootenboer, H.J.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.; Huijing, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Active muscle shortening reduces the isometric force potential of muscle. This observation indicates that the isometric length-force characteristics are altered during muscle shortening. Post-shortening decrease in isometric force depends on starting length, shortening amplitude and shortening velocity. In the present study, post-shortening decrease in isometric force was determined after isokinetic contractions with various shortening amplitudes initiated from different lengths of rat medial...

  14. Distribution of induced electromagnetic fields in the MHD-channel with electrodes and its integral characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrent' yev, I.V.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is provided to the task of distributing electromagnetic fields in the MHD channel with nonconducting partitions of finite length with random magnetic Reynolds numbers. Local and integral characteristics of these channels are obtained. It is indicated that their high effectiveness can be guaranteed only by arranging partitions at the inlet to the channel at a certain distance from the electronic zone which must be greater the greater the magnetic Reynolds number.

  15. Hydraulic mechanism and time-dependent characteristics of loose gully deposits failure induced by rainfall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wu; Siming He

    2015-01-01

    Failure of loose gully deposits under the effect of rainfall contributes to the potential risk of debris flow. In the past decades, researches on hydraulic mechanism and time-dependent characteristics of loose deposits failure are frequently reported, however adequate measures for reducing debris flow are not available practically. In this context, a time-dependent model was established to determine the changes of water table of loose deposits using hydraulic and topographic theories. In addition, the variation in water table with elapsed time was analyzed. The formulas for calculating hydrodynamic and hydrostatic pressures on each strip and block unit of deposit were proposed, and the slope stability and failure risk of the loose deposits were assessed based on the time-dependent hydraulic characteristics of established model. Finally, the failure mechanism of deposits based on infinite slope theory was illustrated, with an example, to calculate sliding force, anti-sliding force and residual sliding force applied to each slice. The results indicate that failure of gully deposits under the effect of rainfall is the result of continuously increasing hydraulic pressure and water table. The time-dependent characteristics of loose deposit failure are determined by the factors of hydraulic properties, drainage area of interest, rainfall pattern, rainfall duration and intensity.

  16. Influences of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features on characteristics of music-induced movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta eBurger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants’ movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics.

  17. Influences of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features on characteristics of music-induced movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Birgitta; Thompson, Marc R; Luck, Geoff; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants' movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics.

  18. Temperature behavior of thermal expansion and birefringence of In x Tl1- x I-substitution solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franiv, A. V.; Stadnyk, V. Y.; Kashuba, A. I.; Brezvin, R. S.; Bovgira, O. V.; Futei, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    Results of studying the optical properties of In x Tl1- x I solid solutions in the concentration domain of 0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.9 are presented. The dependence of relative linear expansion of In x Tl1- x I crystals ( T = 300-520 K) has been obtained. In x Tl1- x I crystals ( T = 300-520 K). Based on this, the temperature dependence of thermal-expansion coefficient α has been found. Dependence of birefringence Δ n i on temperature and concentration of the TlI component in the solid solution has been studied.

  19. Optical second harmonic generation in TlMeX{sub 2} (Me=In,Ga,X=S,Se,Te)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Yoshito; Asaba, Ryo; Wakita, Kazuki [Faculty of Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Shim, YongGu; Mimura, Kojiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuencho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Mamedov, Nazim [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, H. Javid ave. 33, Baku 1143 (Azerbaijan)

    2013-08-15

    Optical second harmonic generation (SHG) has been studied in TlMeX{sub 2} (Me=In,Ga, X=S,Se,Te) compounds with layered and chain crystalline structures. For layered TlInS{sub 2} and TlGaSe{sub 2}, SHG signal has been observed in a range of temperatures below the point of phase transition into ferroelectric phase for which asymmetry is prominent. On the other hand, the chain TlInSe{sub 2} and TlGaTe{sub 2} have shown SHG signal at a temperature above 270 and 293K, respectively. Both the TlInSe{sub 2} and TlGaTe{sub 2} have symmetry centre at room temperature and second order optical non-linearity is an artefact incompatible with their bulk structure. Surface structure is speculated to be responsible for SHG signal observed in these materials for the first time to our knowledge. The details of temperature behaviour of SHG in TlInSe{sub 2} and TlGaTe{sub 2}lead to a phase-transition based model for explanation of the observed phenomenon. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Regional analysis of annual maximum rainfall using TL-moments method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabri, Ani Bin; Daud, Zalina Mohd; Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd

    2011-06-01

    Information related to distributions of rainfall amounts are of great importance for designs of water-related structures. One of the concerns of hydrologists and engineers is the probability distribution for modeling of regional data. In this study, a novel approach to regional frequency analysis using L-moments is revisited. Subsequently, an alternative regional frequency analysis using the TL-moments method is employed. The results from both methods were then compared. The analysis was based on daily annual maximum rainfall data from 40 stations in Selangor Malaysia. TL-moments for the generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized logistic (GLO) distributions were derived and used to develop the regional frequency analysis procedure. TL-moment ratio diagram and Z-test were employed in determining the best-fit distribution. Comparison between the two approaches showed that the L-moments and TL-moments produced equivalent results. GLO and GEV distributions were identified as the most suitable distributions for representing the statistical properties of extreme rainfall in Selangor. Monte Carlo simulation was used for performance evaluation, and it showed that the method of TL-moments was more efficient for lower quantile estimation compared with the L-moments.

  1. Differences in inhibitory avoidance, cortisol and brain gene expression in TL and AB zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, M; Manuel, R; Pelgrim, T N M; Mes, W; de Wolf, M J S; Zethof, J; Flik, G; van den Bos, R

    2015-06-01

    Recently, we established an inhibitory avoidance paradigm in Tupfel Long-Fin (TL) zebrafish. Here, we compared task performance of TL fish and fish from the AB strain; another widely used strain and shown to differ genetically and behaviourally from TL fish. Whole-body cortisol and telencephalic gene expression related to stress, anxiety and fear were measured before and 2 h post-task. Inhibitory avoidance was assessed in a 3-day paradigm: fish learn to avoid swimming from a white to a black compartment where a 3V-shock is given: day 1 (first shock), day 2 (second shock) and day 3 (no shock, sampling). Tupfel Long-Fin fish rapidly learned to avoid the black compartment and showed an increase in avoidance-related spatial behaviour in the white compartment across days. In contrast, AB fish showed no inhibitory avoidance learning. AB fish had higher basal cortisol levels and expression levels of stress-axis related genes than TL fish. Tupfel Long-Fin fish showed post-task learning-related changes in cortisol and gene expression levels, but these responses were not seen in AB fish. We conclude that AB fish show higher cortisol levels and no inhibitory avoidance than TL fish. The differential learning responses of these Danio strains may unmask genetically defined risks for stress-related disorders.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and TL properties of SrSO4:Dy,Tb nanocrystalline phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khadijeh Rezaee Ebrahim Saraee; Amin Aghay Kharieky; Maryam Erfani

    2014-01-01

    SrSO4:Dy,Tb nanocrystalline with crystalline size in the range of 44-54 nm was prepared by co-precipitation method fol-lowed by thermal treatment and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and UV-visible spectrometry. Our results provided direct evidence of incorporation of impurities into nanocrystalline SrSO4. The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of SrSO4:Dy,Tb nanocrystalline pellets irradiated with gamma rays at different doses were studied. The TL glow curve of SrSO4:Dy,Tb nanocrystalline pellets had a prominent peak at around 490 K and a small peak at around 430 K. The major peak in the TL glow curve was almost resolved from other peaks, which was analyzed using Chen’s peak shape method to determine the TL kinetic parameters such as activation energy, E and kinetic order, b. The intensity of main dosimetric peak of SrSO4:Dy,Tb nanocrystalline pellets at around 490 K increased linearly with the increase in gamma dose. The TL response was linear in the range of 0.1-7 kGy. These properties made it a candidate as a dosimeter to be used for estimating the high dose of gamma rays.

  3. Dielectric function spectra and inter-band optical transitions in TlGaS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Toshiyuki [Department of Physics and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Shim, YongGu, E-mail: shim@pe.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Wakita, Kazuki [Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino 275-0016 (Japan); Mamedov, Nazim [Department of Ellipsometry, Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, H. Javid Ave. 33, Baku AZ-1143 (Azerbaijan)

    2014-11-28

    TlGaS{sub 2} with a quasi-two-dimensional structure has been accessed by spectroscopic ellipsometry over the 1.5–6.0 eV spectral range. A uniaxial approach applicable to monoclinic TlGaS{sub 2} at room temperature has been employed for ellipsometric data treatment. Principal components of the dielectric function tensor have then been retrieved. Inter-band optical transitions associated with the obtained dielectric function have been determined by using standard critical point analysis. The transitions have been assigned within the electronic band structure obtained for TlGaS{sub 2} from calculations based on density functional theory. - Highlights: • We investigate the dielectric function spectra of TlGaS{sub 2}. • Inter-band optical transition energies are extracted by critical point analysis. • The electronic band structure and the dielectric functions of TlGaS{sub 2} are calculated. • The electronic band states related to the optical transitions are assigned.

  4. Determination of the response of a NaI(Tl) detector; Determinacion de la respuesta de un detector de NaI(Tl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Chacon R, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    By means of Monte Carlo calculations it was determined the response of a scintillator of NaI (Tl) of 7.62 {phi} x 7.62 cm to monoenergetic gamma rays of 0.2 to 3.5 MeV. The response allows to determine the spectra of height of pulses of the monoenergetic photons. This type of calculations was also carried out for photons emitted by sources of Cs-137, Co-60, Na-22, Na-24 and {sup 239} PuBe, with the purpose of reproducing the gamma spectra obtained with this type of detecting. In the calculations the detector was modelled as a NaI cylinder with Al cover and the base of lucite; due to the absence of reliable information on the quantity of thallium in the calculations this information was omitted: for photons whose energy is greater to 1.022 MeV the presence of the gamma peak of the simple escape and twice is observed. The source was modelled as punctual and was located to 5 cm along the axial axis of the detector. To verify the calculations its were carried out measurements with a spectrometer with a scintillator of 7.62 {phi} x 7.62 cm. In the measured spectra the sum peak is observed, while in those calculated it doesn't appear; because the simultaneous detection of photons of different energy doesn't happen each photon since, in single form, it is followed until its complete absorption in the scintillator or when it escapes from the volume of the detector. To reproduce the sum peak and to obtain height spectra of pulses similar to those measured, the sum photons were introduced in the calculations. With the purpose of that Monte Carlo calculation it reproduces the scattering around the photopeak it was used a gaussian function in each photopeak whose characteristics were obtained starting from the experimental data. The calculation of the response of a scintillator allows to establish the capacity of the measurement of the gamma radiation as well as to distinguish the real events of those that appear by the limitations of the detection process. (Author)

  5. Emission Characteristics of Laser-Induced Plasma Using Collinear Long and Short Dual-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Liu, Renwei; Ikutomo, Akihiro; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Chong, Daotong; Yan, Junjie; Liu, Jiping; Shiou, Fang-Jung

    2017-09-01

    Collinear long and short dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) was employed to clarify the emission characteristics from laser-induced plasma. The plasma was sustained and became stable by the long pulse-width laser with the pulse width of 60 μs under free running (FR) conditions as an external energy source. Comparing the measurement results of stainless steel in air using single-pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS) and DP-LIBS, the emission intensity was markedly enhanced using DP-LIBS. The temperature of plasma induced by DP-LIBS was maintained at a higher temperature under different gate delay time and short pulse-width laser power conditions compared with those measured using short SP-LIBS. Moreover, the variation rates of plasma temperatures measured using DP-LIBS were also lower. The superior detection ability was verified by the measurement of aluminum sample in water. The spectra were clearly detected using DP-LIBS, whereas it cannot be identified using SP-LIBS of short and long pulse widths. The effects of gate delay time and short pulse-width laser power were also discussed. These results demonstrate the feasibility and enhanced detection ability of the proposed collinear long and short DP-LIBS method.

  6. Terahertz Optoelectronic Property of Graphene: Substrate-Induced Effects on Plasmonic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Tan Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The terahertz plasmon dispersion of a multilayer system consisting of graphene on dielectric and/or plasma thin layers is systematically investigated. We show that graphene plasmons can couple with other quasiparticles such as phonons and plasmons of the substrate; the characteristics of the plasmon dispersion of graphene are dramatically modified by the presence of the coupling effect. The resultant plasmon dispersion of the multilayer system is a strong function of the physical parameters of the spacer and the substrate, signifying the importance of the substrate selection in constructing graphene-based plasmonic devices.

  7. The Characteristics of Amiodarone-induced Thyrotoxicosis in a Moderate Iodine Deficit Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuța-Elena Cota

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amiodarone (AMI, a class III anti-arrhythmic drug, is associated with a number of side effects, including thyroid dysfunction (both hypo- and hyperthyroidism, which is due to amiodarone's high iodine content and its direct toxic effect on the thyroid. Objective: To evaluate the incidence of Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT (type, rate of occurrence and to identify the risk factors involved in its occurrence. Material and method: We examined patients treated with amiodarone, between January 2002 and December 2011, who presented to our Department of Endocrinology Târgu Mures for thyroid dysfunctions. Results: The retrospective study included 87 patients with thyroid dysfunctions; 58 (66.7% patients had AIT and 29 (33.3% had Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism (AIH. In the AIT group: 35 were women (60.3%, 23 were men (39.7%; the average age was 61.60 ± 12.39 years. Risk factors identified for the AIT group were male gender (RR = OR = 3.8; Chi-squer = 5.7, p = 0.004 and pre-existing thyroid abnormalities (RR = 2.5, Chi-square = 4.1, p = 0.005. The thyroid dysfunction occurrence was heterogeneous (0.2-183 months. The patients with previous thyroid abnormalities developed earlier thyroid dysfunction compared to those with an apparently normal thyroid gland (22.25 ± 4.14 months versus 32.09 ± 7.69 months, p = 0.02, T test. Conclusion: In the context of the specific iodine geoclimatic intake and the area of origin, amiodarone - induced thyroid dysfunction spectrum is dominated by thyrotoxicosis. Screening and monitoring of thyroid function for patiens under chronic amiodarone treatment is necessary

  8. Bulk NaI(Tl) scintillation low energy events selection with the ANAIS-0 module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, C. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Canfranc Estacion, Huesca (Spain); University of Washington, Department of Physics, Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, Seattle, WA (United States); Amare, J.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Ginestra, C.; Olivan, M.A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Solorzano, A.O. de; Puimedon, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Villar, J.A.; Villar, P. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Canfranc Estacion, Huesca (Spain); Martinez, M. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Canfranc Estacion, Huesca (Spain); Fundacion ARAID, Zaragoza (Spain); Pobes, C. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Canfranc Estacion, Huesca (Spain); Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Dark matter particles scattering off target nuclei are expected to deposit very small energies in form of nuclear recoils (below 100 keV). Because of the low scintillation efficiency for nuclear recoils as compared to electron recoils, in most of the scintillating targets considered in the search for dark matter, the region below 10 keVee (electron equivalent energy) concentrates most of the expected dark matter signal. For this reason, very low energy threshold (at or below 2 keVee) and very low background are required to be competitive in the search for dark matter with such detection technique. This is the case of Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators (ANAIS), which is an experiment to be carried out at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. A good knowledge of the detector response function for real scintillation events in the active volume, a good characterization of other anomalous or noise event populations contributing in that energy range, and the development of convenient filtering procedures for the latter are mandatory in order to achieve the required low background at such a low energy. In this work we present the characteristics of different types of events observed in large size NaI(Tl) detectors, and the event-type identification techniques developed. Such techniques allow distinguishing among events associated with bulk NaI scintillation, and events related to muon interactions in the detectors or shielding, photomultiplier origin events, and analysis event fakes. We describe the specific protocols developed to build bulk scintillation events spectra from the raw data and we apply them to data obtained with one of the ANAIS prototypes, ANAIS-0. Nuclear recoil type events were also explored using data from a neutron calibration; however pulse shape cuts were found not to be effective to discriminate them from electron recoil events. The effect of the filtering procedures developed in this nuclear recoils population has been analyzed in order to

  9. Fabrication and characteristics of self-assembly nano-polystyrene films by laser induced CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Tingting [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Cai, Congzhong [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Peng, Liping [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Wu, Weidong, E-mail: wuweidongding@163.com [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2013-10-01

    The self-assembly nano-polystyrene (PS) films have been prepared by laser induced CVD at room temperature. The XPS, Raman and UV–vis absorption spectra all indicated that the films were PS. The optical properties, microstructure and controllable nanostructure of PS films have been investigated. Dewetting-like microstructure in PS films was investigated and uniform island structures with a diameter of about 200 nm were observed at the deposition pressure of 14 Pa. The films possess good toughness and precisely controlled thicknesses. The free-standing PS films with thickness of 10 nm could be obtained by this method though a series of process.

  10. Pharmaco-epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics of drug-induced liver injury in tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Koroleva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: improving the efficiency of pharmacotherapy of drug-induced liver injury in tuberculosis by clarifying pharmaco-epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features.Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of primary medical records of 250 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, patients «Volgograd Regional Clinical TB Dispensary № 1». We evaluated the dynamics of biochemical parameters characterizing the development of hepatic cytolytic syndrome, examined the impact of gender and age on the incidence of liver damage, we investigated the relationship of clinical tuberculosis and chemotherapy regimen with the incidence of drug-induced liver injury, examined the clinical manifestations of liver disease.Results: Drug-induced liver injury as a complication of a specific anti-TB treatment was diagnosed in 67 patients (26,8%. In 170 patients (68,0% showed increase in alanine aminotransferase and asparaginaminotrasferazy. Hepatotoxicity significantly more common in patients with disseminated tuberculosis with the collapse of the lung tissue, smear, and a high degree of disease severity. Risk factors for drug liver damage were female gender and age older than 50 years. Women develop liver disease at an earlier date, and displays it harder than men. The earliest and most informative routine biochemical tests, reflecting the state of the liver in the dynamics are ALT and AST. It was found that the mode of the standard anti-TB treatment determines the type of liver injury: the first, 2a and 3rd modes prevails cytolytic hepatocellular type, with 2b mode – combined (mixed type 4th – type of cholestatic liver damage. It was found that repeated, after the development of hepatotoxic reactions, the appointment of anti-TB drugs without gepatoprotektsii in 94% of patients leads to repeated drug-induced liver damage. Cancel specific therapy against the background of cytolytic syndrome promotes the formation of

  11. Locomotion Characteristics and Match-Induced Impairments in Physical Performance in Male Elite Team Handball Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, L B; Aagaard, Peter; Madsen, Klavs

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physical demands and match-induced impairments in physical performance in male elite Team Handball (TH) players in relation to playing position. Male elite TH field players were closely observed during 6 competitive seasons. Each player (wing players......: WP, pivots: PV, backcourt players: BP) was evaluated during match-play using video recording and subsequently performing locomotion match analysis. A total distance of 3 627±568 m (group means±SD) was covered per match with a total effective playing time (TPT) of 53:51±5:52 min:s, while full...

  12. Investigation on flow and mixing characteristics of supersonic mixing layer induced by forced vibration of cantilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Tan, Jianguo; Lv, Liang

    2015-12-01

    The mixing process has been an important issue for the design of supersonic combustion ramjet engine, and the mixing efficiency plays a crucial role in the improvement of the combustion efficiency. In the present study, nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering (NPLS), particle image velocimetry (PIV) and large eddy simulation (LES) are employed to investigate the flow and mixing characteristics of supersonic mixing layer under different forced vibration conditions. The indexes of fractal dimension, mixing layer thickness, momentum thickness and scalar mixing level are applied to describe the mixing process. Results show that different from the development and evolution of supersonic mixing layer without vibration, the flow under forced vibration is more likely to present the characteristics of three-dimensionality. The laminar flow region of mixing layer under forced vibration is greatly shortened and the scales of rolled up Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices become larger, which promote the mixing process remarkably. The fractal dimension distribution reveals that comparing with the flow without vibration, the turbulent fluctuation of supersonic mixing layer under forced vibration is more intense. Besides, the distribution of mixing layer thickness, momentum thickness and scalar mixing level are strongly influenced by forced vibration. Especially, when the forcing frequency is 4000 Hz, the mixing layer thickness and momentum thickness are 0.0391 m and 0.0222 m at the far field of 0.16 m, 83% and 131% higher than that without vibration at the same position, respectively.

  13. Surface transfer doping induced effective modulation on ambipolar characteristics of few-layer black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Du; Han, Cheng; Wu, Jing; Zhong, Shu; Liu, Yiyang; Lin, Jiadan; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Ping Hu, Wen; Özyilmaz, Barbaros; Neto, A. H. Castro; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Chen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Black phosphorus, a fast emerging two-dimensional material, has been configured as field effect transistors, showing a hole-transport-dominated ambipolar characteristic. Here we report an effective modulation on ambipolar characteristics of few-layer black phosphorus transistors through in situ surface functionalization with caesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3), respectively. Cs2CO3 is found to strongly electron dope black phosphorus. The electron mobility of black phosphorus is significantly enhanced to ~27 cm2 V-1 s-1 after 10 nm Cs2CO3 modification, indicating a greatly improved electron-transport behaviour. In contrast, MoO3 decoration demonstrates a giant hole-doping effect. In situ photoelectron spectroscopy characterization reveals significant surface charge transfer occurring at the dopants/black phosphorus interfaces. Moreover, the surface-doped black phosphorus devices exhibit a largely enhanced photodetection behaviour. Our findings coupled with the tunable nature of the surface transfer doping scheme ensure black phosphorus as a promising candidate for further complementary logic electronics.

  14. Laser-Induced Thermal-Mechanical Damage Characteristics of Cleartran Multispectral Zinc Sulfide with Temperature-Dependent Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yajing; Jiang, Yanxue; Yang, Yanqiang

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced thermal-mechanical damage characteristics of window materials are the focus problems in laser weapon and anti-radiation reinforcement technology. Thermal-mechanical effects and damage characteristics are investigated for cleartran multispectral zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin film window materials irradiated by continuous laser using three-dimensional (3D) thermal-mechanical model. Some temperature-dependent parameters are introduced into the model. The temporal-spatial distributions of temperature and thermal stress are exhibited. The damage mechanism is analyzed. The influences of temperature effect of material parameters and laser intensity on the development of thermal stress and the damage characteristics are examined. The results show, the von Mises equivalent stress along the thickness direction is fluctuant, which originates from the transformation of principal stresses from compressive stress to tensile stress with the increase of depth from irradiated surface. The damage originates from the thermal stress but not the melting. The thermal stress is increased and the damage is accelerated by introducing the temperature effect of parameters or the increasing laser intensity.

  15. Calibration of TL detectors for skin entrance dose postal quality control in dental radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Luiz A.R. da; Marechal, Maria H.H.; Feital, Joao C.S. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Medica; Carlos, Marcia T. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN) started its postal programme of dose assessment in dental radiology in Rio de Janeiro State in 1980. This programme is based on a kit containing two TLD-100 thermoluminescent (TL) chip detectors positioned on both sides of an aluminium foil with a thickness of 3 mm and a radiograph film. It is able to estimate the entrance exposure, the total filtration of the X-rays equipment and the irradiation field size. Since 1998 the new regulation on radiation protection requires the evaluation of the entrance skin dose (ESD) to be compared with the diagnostic reference levels. This work describes the calibration of 1000 new TLD-100 TL chips detectors for the IRD programme of dental radiology, including the determination of entrance skin dose calibration factors in order to implement this new quantity. A TL system quality control programme, that is going to be implemented, is also presented. (author)

  16. Correlation between TL and OSL properties of CaF{sub 2}:N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polymeris, George S. [Cultural and Educational Technology Institute (CETI), R.C. ' Athena' , Archaeometry Laboratory, Tsimiski 58, GR-67100 Xanthi (Greece) and Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)]. E-mail: polymers@auth.gr; Kitis, George [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsirliganis, Nestor C. [Cultural and Educational Technology Institute (CETI), R.C. ' Athena' , Archaeometry Laboratory, Tsimiski 58, GR-67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2006-09-15

    Natural CaF{sub 2} is very well known thermoluminescent (TL) material, since it has been extensively used as a dosimeter. Its basic advantage is the exhibited high TL sensitivity. In the present work, the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) sensitivity of this material was studied by exposing it to environmental radiation for time intervals of few hours up to a few days, and was found to be very high. By analyzing the TL glow curves and the OSL decay curves into their individual glow-peaks and components respectively, a relation between specific glow-peaks and OSL components was established. An intense thermal transfer effect occurring during optical stimulation at high temperature was observed and an explanation is offered according to existing models.

  17. Dating archeological ceramics from the Valley of Vitor, Arequipa by the TL method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, N. F.; Arizaca, E. C.; Yauri, J. M.; Arenas, J. S. A.; Watanabe, S.

    The age of some ancient pottery from the Valley of Vitor in the region of Arequipa, Peru, is determined by the thermoluminescence (TL) method. For dating, a 325 °C TL peak was used and irradiation with γ-dose from 5 to 50 Gy was carried out for the additive method, and from 0.4 to 5 Gy for the regeneration method. For these dose values, the TL intensity is observed to grow linearly, obtaining an accumulated dose of 1.62±0.09 Gy and 1.36±0.03 Gy for the additive and regeneration methods, respectively. The age (A) of the sample was calculated by the two methods, being A=867±195 years after Christ (AC) for the additive method and A=1050±157 years AC for the regeneration method. Both results are within 800-1200 years AC, which is the period of the Wari culture.

  18. 201Tl+-labelled Prussian blue nanoparticles as contrast agents for SPECT scintigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, M.; Busson, M.; Massasso, G.; Long, J.; Boudousq, V.; Pouget, J.-P.; Peyrottes, S.; Perigaud, Ch.; Porredon-Guarch, C.; de Lapuente, J.; Borras, M.; Larionova, J.; Guari, Y.

    2014-10-01

    Prussian blue (PB) and its analogues on the nanometric scale are exciting nano-objects that combine the advantages of molecular-based materials and nanochemistry. Herein, we demonstrate that ultra-small PB nanoparticles of 2-3 nm can be easily labelled with radioactive 201Tl+ to obtain new nanoprobes as radiotracers for 201-thallium-based imaging.Prussian blue (PB) and its analogues on the nanometric scale are exciting nano-objects that combine the advantages of molecular-based materials and nanochemistry. Herein, we demonstrate that ultra-small PB nanoparticles of 2-3 nm can be easily labelled with radioactive 201Tl+ to obtain new nanoprobes as radiotracers for 201-thallium-based imaging. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and procedures, toxicological data, PXRD, TEM images, kinetics and adsorption isotherms, SPECT/CT images, Tl+ captation profiles. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03044c

  19. Study of the continuous internal bremsstrahlung spectrum from (204)Tl by using singular value decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaz, Ekrem

    2015-05-01

    Internal bremsstrahlung (IB) accompanying the β(-) decay of (204)Tl was measured using a 5.08×5.08cm(2) NaI(Tl) detector employing a magnetic deflection method in the range of 10-760keV. A novel approach, the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), is applied to unfold the raw detector spectrum of (204)Tl. Unfolded IB spectrum is compared with the KUB theory. The measured spectrum is found to show fairly good agreement with the KUB theory in the energy range of 100-600keV. The distribution beyond the 600keV takes a positive deviation from the theory. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. TL and CD8αα: Enigmatic Partners in Mucosal Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Villagómez, Danyvid; Van Kaer, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa represents a large surface area that is in contact with an immense antigenic load. The immune system associated with the intestinal mucosa needs to distinguish between innocuous food antigens, commensal microorganisms, and pathogenic microorganisms, without triggering an exaggerated immune response that may lead to excessive inflammation and/or development of inflammatory bowel disease. The thymus leukemia (TL) antigen and CD8αα are interacting surface molecules that are expressed at the frontline of the mucosal immune system: TL is expressed in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) whereas CD8αα is expressed in lymphocytes, known as intraepithelial lymphocytes, that reside in between the IEC. In this review we discuss the significance of the interaction between TL and CD8αα in mucosal immunity during health and disease. PMID:20850477

  1. Radiation dosimetry using decreasing TL intensity in a few variety of silicate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigueo; Cano, Nilo F; Gundu Rao, T K; Oliveira, Letícia M; Carmo, Lucas S; Chubaci, Jose F D

    2015-11-01

    This study shows that there are some ionic crystals which after irradiation with high gamma dose Dm and subsequent irradiation with low doses ranging up to 500Gy present a decreasing TL intensity as dose increases. This interesting feature can be used as a calibration curve in radiation dosimetry. Such behavior can be found in green quartz, three varieties of beryl and pink tourmaline. In all these silicate crystals it can be shown that irradiation with increasing γ-dose there is a dose Dm for which the TL intensity is maximum. Of course, Dm varies depending on the crystal and irradiated crystal with the dose Dm is stable. If one of these crystals is taken and irradiated with doses from low values up to 400-500Gy, a curve of decreasing TL intensity is obtained; such a curve can be used as a calibration curve. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The crystal structure of Tl 0.84V 5Se 8 and magnetic bulk properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, W.; Polborn, K.; Amberger, E.; Steurer, W.; Abart, J.

    1984-11-01

    While the antiferromagnetic binary compound V 5Se 8 ( Y. KITAOKA AND H. YASUOKA, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.48, 1460, 1980) of which the measured magnetic susceptibility above 27 K cannot be fitted to a Curie-Weiss law and a Curie-Weiss law with a term for the temperature-independent paramagnetism, the ternary compound Tl 0.84V 5Se 8 exhibits paramagnetism. The measured susceptibility fits the equation χ = χ 0 + {C}/{(T - θ)}. In comparison to Tl 0.96V 5S 8 ( W. BENSCH, E. AMBERGER, AND J. ABART, in press) with shorter VV distances than in Tl 0.84V 5Se 8, the magnetic moment attributed to V(3) in the selenide is markedly higher.

  3. A tunneling model for afterglow suppression in CsI:Tl,Sm scintillation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappers, L.A., E-mail: lawrence.kappers@uconn.ed [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, 2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States); Bartram, R.H.; Hamilton, D.S. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, 2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States); Lempicki, A.; Brecher, C. [ALEM Associates, 303 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Gaysinskiy, V.; Ovechkina, E.E.; Thacker, S.; Nagarkar, V.V. [Radiation Monitoring Devices (RMD) Inc., 44 Hunt St., Watertown, MA 02472 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Combined radioluminescence, afterglow and thermoluminescence experiments on single-crystal samples of co-doped CsI:Tl,Sm suggest that samarium electron traps scavenge electrons from thallium traps and that electrons subsequently released by samarium recombine non-radiatively with trapped holes, thus suppressing afterglow. Experiments on single crystals support the inference that electrons tunnel freely between samarium ions and are trapped preferentially as substitutional Sm{sup +} near V{sub KA}(Tl{sup +}) centers where non-radiative recombination is the rate-limiting step. Afterglow in microcolumnar films of CsI:Tl,Sm is enhanced by inhomogeneities which impede tunneling between samarium ions, but is partly suppressed by annealing.

  4. Identification of intruder πi13/2 state in 197Tl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The high-spin states in 197Tl were studied by populating them using the 197Au(α, 4n197 Tl reaction at 48 MeV of beam energy. γ−γ coincidence data were taken using a combination of clover, LEPS (low energy photon spectrometer and single crystal HPGe detectors. The polarization and DCO measurements were performed for definite spin and parity assignment of the excited states. The πi13/2 intruder state has been identified for the first time in this nucleus. The total Routhian surface calculations have been performed to study the shape and deformation of 197Tl for different configurations.

  5. Characteristics of LDPE and Oriented Montmorillonite Nanocomposites Produced by Electric Field-inducement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Ge; LIAO Ruijin; YANG Lijun; YUAN Yuan; GU Jia

    2013-01-01

    In order to make montmorillonite (MMT) nanosheets disperse in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) with highly homogeneous orientation,altemating voltage is applied to molten LDPE with MMT nanosheets.The effect of electric field on the dispersion of MMT in the solidified LDPE is studied.X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses suggest that the MMT nanosheets are aligned with high anisotropy to the electric field direction,which is perpendicular to the LDPE film plane.Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results reveal that the crystallization degree of the oriented LDPE/MMT composite increases.Moreover,through a broadband dielectric spectroscopy analyzer,it is found that MMT manifests a significantly influence in the dielectric property of the oriented composite:the dielectric constant and loss tangent of the composite both become larger.Analysis shows that the electric field-induced torque caused by the polarization of MMT flakes is the main force inducing the orientation of the MMT flakes.

  6. Prevalence and Gene Characteristics of Antibodies with Cofactor-induced HIV-1 Specificity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerf, Maxime; Scheel, Tobias; Pashov, Anastas D.; Jarossay, Annaelle; Ohayon, Delphine; Planchais, Cyril; Mesnage, Stephane; Berek, Claudia; Kaveri, Srinivas V.; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastien; Dimitrov, Jordan D.

    2015-01-01

    The healthy immune repertoire contains a fraction of antibodies that bind to various biologically relevant cofactors, including heme. Interaction of heme with some antibodies results in induction of new antigen binding specificities and acquisition of binding polyreactivity. In vivo, extracellular heme is released as a result of hemolysis or tissue damage; hence the post-translational acquisition of novel antigen specificities might play an important role in the diversification of the immunoglobulin repertoire and host defense. Here, we demonstrate that seronegative immune repertoires contain antibodies that gain reactivity to HIV-1 gp120 upon exposure to heme. Furthermore, a panel of human recombinant antibodies was cloned from different B cell subpopulations, and the prevalence of antibodies with cofactor-induced specificity for gp120 was determined. Our data reveal that upon exposure to heme, ∼24% of antibodies acquired binding specificity for divergent strains of HIV-1 gp120. Sequence analyses reveal that heme-sensitive antibodies do not differ in their repertoire of variable region genes and in most of the molecular features of their antigen-binding sites from antibodies that do not change their antigen binding specificity. However, antibodies with cofactor-induced gp120 specificity possess significantly lower numbers of somatic mutations in their variable region genes. This study contributes to the understanding of the significance of cofactor-binding antibodies in immunoglobulin repertoires and of the influence that the tissue microenvironment might have in shaping adaptive immune responses. PMID:25564611

  7. Acute cold hypersensitivity characteristically induced by oxaliplatin is caused by the enhanced responsiveness of TRPA1 in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Meng

    2012-07-01

    . Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that a brief treatment with oxaliplatin or its metabolite oxalate is sufficient to enhance the responsiveness of TRPA1 but not that of TRPM8 and TRPV1 expressed by DRG neurons, which may contribute to the characteristic acute peripheral neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin.

  8. TL-118-anti-angiogenic treatment in pancreatic cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Shani; Maimon, Ofra; Appelbaum, Liat; Peretz, Tamar; Hubert, Ayala

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive malignant tumors. In recent years, little progress has been made in understanding and treatment of the disease. The two most commonly used chemotherapy drugs approved for the treatment of pancreatic cancer are gemcitabine and fluorouracil. Anti-angiogenic treatment is one of the current promising approaches in cancer translational research. Its aim is to inhibit development of new blood vessels and thereby prevent further tumor growth. We present a first description of a pancreatic cancer patient treated with standard chemotherapy and TL-118, an anti-angiogenic combination of 4 drugs that target non-overlapping aspects of the angiogenic process (Provided by Tiltan Pharma Ltd for compassionate use). Our patient, treated with standard chemotherapy combined with TL-118, was diagnosed about 16 months ago and is still considered progression free, while being treated with that combination. Moreover, when the treatment with TL-118 was stopped, there was a clear elevation of tumor marker which dropped again with the renewal of TL-118. This effect was not achieved by gemcitabine treatment alone. Recently, a phase II clinical trial of TL-118 for pancreatic cancer patients that have not yet been treated with chemotherapy was initiated. (Tiltan Pharma Ltd). The study objective is to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of TL-118 in gemcitabine-treated metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. This report describes a new approach in treating pancreatic cancer, enabling patients to obtain a longer progression-free survival using this new anti-angiogenic drug combination, added on standard chemotherapy.

  9. Isolation of a lead tolerant novel bacterial species, Achromobacter sp. TL-3: assessment of bioflocculant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta, Neha; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Lal, Banwari; Devi, Arundhuti

    2013-11-01

    Lead is one of the four heavy metals that has a profound damaging effects on human health. In the recent past there has been an increasing global concern for development of sustainable bioremediation technologies for detoxification of lead contaminant. Present investigation highlights for lead biosorption by a newly isolated novel bacterial species; Achromobacter sp. TL-3 strain, isolated from activated sludge samples contaminated with heavy metals (collected from oil refinery, Assam, North-East India). For isolation of lead tolerant bacteria, sludge samples were enriched into Luria Broth medium supplemented separately with a range of lead nitrate; 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 and 1500 ppm respectively. The bacterial consortium that could tolerate 1500 ppm of lead nitrate was selected further for purification of lead tolerant bacterial isolates. Purified lead tolerant bacterial isolates were then eventually inoculated into production medium supplemented with ethanol and glycerol as carbon and energy source to investigate for bioflocculant production. Bioflocculant production was estimated by monitoring the potential of lead tolerant bacterial isolate to flocculate Kaolin clay in presence of 1% CaCl2. Compared to other isolates, TL-3 isolate demonstrated for maximum bioflocculant activity of 95% and thus was identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. TL3 isolate revealed maximum homology (98%) with Achromobacter sp. and thus designated as Achromobacter sp. TL-3. Bioflocculant activity of TL-3 isolate was correlated with the change in pH and growth. Achromobacter sp. TL-3 has significant potential for lead biosorption and can be effectively employed for detoxification of lead contaminated waste effluents/waste waters.

  10. Room-temperature photoluminescence in quasi-2D TlGaSe{sub 2} and TlInS{sub 2} semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grivickas, Vytautas; Gulbinas, Karolis; Gavryushin, Vladimir; Bikbajevas, Vitalijus [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio av. 10, 10223 Vilnius (Lithuania); Korolik, Olga V.; Mazanik, Alexander V.; Fedotov, Alexander K. [Department of Energy Physics, Belarusian State University, 220030 Minsk (Belarus)

    2014-07-15

    We reveal the intrinsic band-to-band photoluminescence (PL) in Tl-based anisotropic semiconductors by means of confocal spectroscopy. The PL achieves largest value for k perpendicular to c, where c is the layers stacking axis, and is dependent on polarization. In TlGaSe{sub 2}, the band edge absorption spectra were determined at different excitation geometry by using techniques of depth-resolved free-carrier absorption (FCA) and photoacoustic response (PAR). A strong absorption enhancement is detected in a large spectral area in the near-surface region lateral to ab plane. The band-to-band absorption enhancement is the most probable cause for high PL intensity. The near-surface behavior, different from the bulk, might implement useful photonic functionality at room temperature (RT). (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. [Experiment results of conduction, spectral induced polarization and dielectric characteristics for chrome-contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Chang-Xin; Liu, Yu-Qiang; Liu, Hao-Rui; Dong, Lu

    2011-03-01

    The resistivity, complex resistivity and complex permittivity of the chrome-contaminated soil were studied. Under the different pollution concentration and water content in the soil samples conditions, the relations between the resistivity, complex resistivity and complex permittivity of the chrome-contaminated soil and water content and the concentration of pollution were analyzed. When adding chrome pollution with different concentrations and water content, the experimental results show that the resistivity and complex resistivity of all the soil samples decreased with the pollution concentration and water content increased; but the phase of complex resistivity, which reflects the soil's capacitance, decreased below the 20 kHz and increase above the 20 kHz frequency. The real part and imaginary part of complex resostivity increased with the increase of pollution concentration and water content. The concentration of chrome pollutions and water content were the two main factor to determine the soil electrical characteristics.

  12. Tl2LaCl5:Ce, high performance scintillator for gamma-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrami, R.; Ariesanti, E.; Wei, H.; Finkelstein, J.; Glodo, J.; Shah, K. S.

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on a new Ce-doped Tl-based scintillator, Tl2LaCl5 (TLC), for gamma-ray detection. 10 mm diameter crystals have been successfully grown using the vertical Bridgman method. The emission peak of TLC is detected at 383 nm under X-ray excitation. The light yield of TLC is 76,000 ph/MeV. The samples show excellent energy resolution of 3.4% (FWHM) at 662 keV. The non-proportionality is less than 1%, from 32 keV to 1275 keV. The major scintillation decay time is 36 ns.

  13. Nuclear levels and structure from the decays of 213Bi and 209Tl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardisson, G.; Barci, V.; El Samad, O.

    1998-02-01

    Direct γ and γ-γ coincidence spectra of pure 209Tl and 213Bi sources obtained by radiochemical continuous separation were measured with coaxial and planar HPGe detectors. In 209Tl the half-life was measured, the β-decay energies and intensities of 11 γ transitions were reported, and a new decay scheme was proposed. In 213Bi β decay 22 transitions were observed, of which 18 were assigned to a new 213Po level scheme accounting for 9 excited states.

  14. Beyond Boyer: SoTL in the Context of Interesting Scholarly Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce B. Henderson, PhD

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The positive effects of Ernest Boyer’s broader definition of scholarship have been attenuated by stress on published outcomes as indicators of all his scholarships, including the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL. At universities outside the research university sector, we need to find ways to recognize and reward a wide variety of interesting scholarly things related to teaching that are not likely to meet the formal assessment criteria that have come to define the SoTL category of scholarship. The faculty’s scholarliness in teaching should be recognized and evaluated directly.

  15. Beyond Boyer: SoTL in the Context of Interesting Scholarly Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce B. Henderson, PhD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The positive effects of Ernest Boyer’s broader definition of scholarship have been attenuated by stress on published outcomes as indicators of all his scholarships, including the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL. At universities outside the research university sector, we need to find ways to recognize and reward a wide variety of interesting scholarly things related to teaching that are not likely to meet the formal assessment criteria that have come to define the SoTL category of scholarship. The faculty’s scholarliness in teaching should be recognized and evaluated directly.

  16. Optical characterization of TlBr single crystals for radiation detection applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Joon Ho; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Han Soo; Lee, Seung Hee; Ha, Jang Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    TlBr is of considerable technological importance for radiation detection applications where detecting high-energy photons such as X-rays and γ-rays are of prime importance. However, there were few reports on investigating optical properties of TlBr itself for deeper understandings of this material and for making better radiation detection devices. Thus, in this paper, we report on the optical characterizations of TlBr single crystals. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements at RT were performed for this work. A 2-inch TlBr single crystalline ingot was grown by using the vertical Bridgman furnace. SE measurements were performed at RT within the photon energy range from 1.1 to 6.5 eV. PL measurements were performed at RT by using a home-made PL system equipped with a 266 nm-laser and a spectrometer. Dielectric responses from SE analysis were shown to be slightly different among the different samples possibly due to the different structural/optical properties. Also from the PL measurements, it was observed that the peak intensities of the middle samples were significantly higher than those of the other two samples. With the given values for permittivity of free space (ε0 = 8.854x10{sup -1}2 F·m{sup -1}), thickness (d = 1 mm), and area (A = 10x10 mm{sup 2}) of the TlBr sample, capacitances of TlBr were 6.9 pF (at hν = 3 eV) and 4.4 pF (at hν = 6 eV), respectively. SE and PL measurement and analysis were performed to characterize TlBr samples from the optical perspective. It was observed that dielectric responses of different TlBr samples were slightly different due to the different material properties. PL measurements showed that the middle sample exhibited much stronger PL emission peaks due to the better material quality. From the SE analysis, optical, dielectric constants were extracted, and calculated capacitances were in the few pF range.

  17. Search for WIMPs dark matter by means of thin NaI(Tl) scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Ken-Ichi

    2009-10-01

    The segmented detector system made of inorganic crystal is applied to serach for WIMPs dark matter. The NaI(Tl) crystal has great advantages to search for WIMPs dark matter;. *100% of natural abundance of odd A nuclei (^23Na and ^127I). *^127I has a low energy excited state at 57.6keV which is excited by spin-dependent interaction. The prototype detector of thin NaI(Tl) was tested. The energy resolution and the low energy threshold will be reported. The future prospect of WIMPs dark matter search by various detector will be discussed.

  18. A new luminescence detection and stimulation head for the Risø TL/OSL reader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapp, Torben; Kook, Myung Ho; Murray, Andrew Sean

    2015-01-01

    A new automated Detection And Stimulation Head (DASH) has been developed for the Risø TL/OSL luminescence reader to provide easy access to new technologies, new signals and new measurement methods. The automated DASH includes a filter changer and a detector changer that makes it possible to change...... stimulation filters (4×4 filter combinations possible) and detectors (3 detectors possible) as part of a measurements sequence. The new automated DASH with dedicated driver electronics does not affect the use of other attachments, and can be retrospectively fitted to existing Risø TL/OSL readers....

  19. Processing and properties of silver-clad Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O wires and tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goretta, K. C.; Wu, C. T.; Lanagan, M. T.; Boling, M. A.; Shi, D.; Miller, D. J.; Chen, Nan; Hanewald, W. G.; Sengupta, S.; Wang, Z.

    1992-03-01

    TlBa2Ca2Cu3O(sub x) and Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O(sub x) powders were synthesized, loaded into Ag tubes, and worked into wires and tapes by drawing and rolling. All processing outside of furnaces was in a dry-N2 glovebox. All heat treatments were performed in O2. The Ag-clad wires fabricated from these powders exhibited onset of superconductivity at approx. 18 K and critical current densities at 77 K of 2 x 10(exp 3) to 4 x 10(exp 3) A/sq cm.

  20. On the 9/2$^{-}$ level excitation energy of odd Tl, Au and Ir isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Dionisio, J S; De Wieclawik, W; Foucher, R; Larsson, S E; Leander, G; Ragnarsson, I; Vieu, C

    1976-01-01

    A semi-empirical method inspired by Blomqvist previous calculations of the excitation energy of the lowest 9/2/sup -/ state of /sup 201/Tl is applied to similar calculations in different Tl, Au and Ir isotopes. These semi-empirical estimates agree well with the experimental values of these excitation energies as well as with the energy differences deduced from the analysis of the total potential energy surfaces calculated microscopically with Nilsson's model. The same excitation energies are computed with a spherical HFBCS model which does not reproduce so well the available experimental data. An interpretation of these deviations is attempted.

  1. Characteristics of solid aerosols produced by optical catapulting studied by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, F. J.; Laserna, J. J.

    2010-08-01

    Optical catapulting (OC) constitutes an effective method to transport small amounts of different materials in the form of a solid aerosol. In this report, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used for the analysis of those aerosols produced by OC. For this purpose, materials were catapulted using a Q-switch Nd:YAG laser. A second Q-switch Nd:YAG laser was used for LIBS analysis of the ejected particles. Data processing of aerosols was conducted using conditional data analysis. Also, the standard deviation method was used for the qualitative identification of the ejected particles. Two modes of interaction in OC (OC with focused or defocused pulses) have been evaluated and discussed. LIBS demonstrates that the distribution (spreading) of the ejected particles along the propagation axis increased as a function of the interpulse delay time. The mass density and the thickness of the target also play an important role in OC-LIBS.

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF STRESS-INDUCED TRANSFORMATION AND MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION IN Cu-BASED SMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Peng; Xingyao Wang; Yongzhong Huo

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of shape memory alloys (SMAs) is closely related to the formation and evolution of its microstructures. Through theoretical analysis and experimental ob-servations, it was found that the stress-induced martensitic transformation process of single crys-tal Cu-based SMA under uniaxial tension condition consisted of three periods: nucleation, mixed nucleation and growth, and merging due to growth. During the nucleation, the stress dropped rapidly and the number of interfaces increased very fast while the phase fraction increased slowly.In the second period, both the stress and the interface number changed slightly but the phase fraction increased dramatically. Finally, the stress and the phase fraction changed slowly while the number of interfaces decreased quickly. Moreover, it was found that the transformation could be of multi-stage: sharp stress drops at several strains and correspondingly, the nucleation and growth process occurred quasi-independently in several parts of the sample.

  3. Optimal electron, phonon, and magnetic characteristics for low energy thermally induced magnetization switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atxitia, U., E-mail: Unai.Atxitia@uni-konstanz.de [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Zukunftskolleg, Universität Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Ostler, T. A., E-mail: t.ostler@exeter.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO105DD (United Kingdom); College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon EX4 4SB (United Kingdom); Chantrell, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO105DD (United Kingdom); Chubykalo-Fesenko, O. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-11-09

    Using large-scale computer simulations, we thoroughly study the minimum energy required to thermally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) after the application of a femtosecond heat pulse in transition metal-rare earth ferrimagnetic alloys. We find that for an energy efficient TIMS, a low ferrimagnetic net magnetization with a strong temperature dependence is the relevant factor for the magnetic system. For the lattice and electron systems, the key physics for efficient TIMS is a large electron-phonon relaxation time. Importantly, we show that as the cooling time of the heated electrons is increased, the minimum power required to produce TIMS can be reduced by an order of magnitude. Our results show the way to low power TIMS by appropriate engineering of magnetic heterostructures.

  4. Radiation-Induced Organizing Pneumonia: A Characteristic Disease that Requires Symptom-Oriented Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Keisuke; Seo, Yuji; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-27

    Radiation-induced organizing pneumonia (RIOP) is an inflammatory lung disease that is occasionally observed after irradiation to the breast. It is a type of secondary organizing pneumonia that is characterized by infiltrates outside the irradiated volume that are sometimes migratory. Corticosteroids work acutely, but relapse of pneumonia is often experienced. Management of RIOP should simply be symptom-oriented, and the use of corticosteroids should be limited to severe symptoms from the perspective not only of cost-effectiveness but also of cancer treatment. Once steroid therapy is started, it takes a long time to stop it due to frequent relapses. We review RIOP from the perspective of its diagnosis, epidemiology, molecular pathogenesis, and patient management.

  5. Radiation-Induced Organizing Pneumonia: A Characteristic Disease that Requires Symptom-Oriented Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Keisuke; Seo, Yuji; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced organizing pneumonia (RIOP) is an inflammatory lung disease that is occasionally observed after irradiation to the breast. It is a type of secondary organizing pneumonia that is characterized by infiltrates outside the irradiated volume that are sometimes migratory. Corticosteroids work acutely, but relapse of pneumonia is often experienced. Management of RIOP should simply be symptom-oriented, and the use of corticosteroids should be limited to severe symptoms from the perspective not only of cost-effectiveness but also of cancer treatment. Once steroid therapy is started, it takes a long time to stop it due to frequent relapses. We review RIOP from the perspective of its diagnosis, epidemiology, molecular pathogenesis, and patient management. PMID:28134830

  6. Trace element geochemistry and thermoluminescence (TL) of quartz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *

    Key words: Cyprinoid otoliths, thermoluminescence, water environment, typomorphic mineral. .... times) with water, and dried under a laminar flow hood at 70°C for 48 h, then .... distribution and partitioning characteristics of polycyclic aromatic.

  7. Characteristics of myogenic response and ankle torque recovery after lengthening contraction-induced rat gastrocnemius injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Hongsun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although muscle dysfunction caused by unfamiliar lengthening contraction is one of most important issues in sports medicine, there is little known about the molecular events on regeneration process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal and spatial expression patterns of myogenin, myoD, pax7, and myostatin after acute lengthening contraction (LC-induced injury in the rat hindlimb. Methods We employed our originally developed device with LC in rat gastrocnemius muscle (n = 24. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with isoflurane (aspiration rate, 450 ml/min, concentration, 2.0%. The triceps surae muscle of the right hindlimb was then electrically stimulated with forced isokinetic dorsi-flexion (180°/sec and from 0 to 45°. Tissue contents of myoD, myogenin, pax7, myostatin were measured by western blotting and localizations of myoD and pax7 was measured by immunohistochemistry. After measuring isometric tetanic torque, a single bout of LC was performed in vivo. Results The torque was significantly decreased on days 2 and 5 as compared to the pre-treatment value, and recovered by day 7. The content of myoD and pax7 showed significant increases on day 2. Myogenin showed an increase from day 2 to 5. Myostatin on days 5 and 7 were significantly increased. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that myoD-positive/pax7-positive cells increased on day 2, suggesting that activated satellite cells play a role in the destruction and the early recovery phases. Conclusion We, thus, conclude that myogenic events associate with torque recovery after LC-induced injury.

  8. Portable energy spectrometer using CsI (Tl) detector with photodiode; Espectrometro de energia portatil utilizando detector de CsI (Tl) com fotodiodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, F.E. da; Pereira, M.C.C.; Hamada, M.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    An energy spectrometer from 150 keV to 1300 keV with 256 channels was developed , using a PIN photodiode with CsI(Tl) crystal as detector. The equipment must be used with a computer; the best option being a Lap Top or Note Book for constituting a portable spectrometer. The parallel port is used to access the computer, therefore no additional interface is necessary. The monocanal technology controlled by computer is used to simplify the electronic circuits. (author)

  9. Optical properties of tellurite glasses elaborated within the TeO{sub 2}–Tl{sub 2}O–Ag{sub 2}O and TeO{sub 2}–ZnO–Ag{sub 2}O ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda, D. [Laboratoire de Sciences des Procédés Céramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR 7315 CNRS, Université de Limoges, Centre Européen de la Céramique, 12, rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Laboratoire des Sciences des Matériaux et d’Environnement, Sfax University, Route de Soukra km 4, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Duclère, J.-R., E-mail: jean-rene.duclere@unilim.fr [Laboratoire de Sciences des Procédés Céramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR 7315 CNRS, Université de Limoges, Centre Européen de la Céramique, 12, rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Hayakawa, T. [Field of Advanced Energy Conversion, Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Dutreilh-Colas, M. [Laboratoire de Sciences des Procédés Céramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR 7315 CNRS, Université de Limoges, Centre Européen de la Céramique, 12, rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Cardinal, T. [Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux, UPR 9048 CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, 87 avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac (France); and others

    2013-06-05

    Highlights: ► Nonlinear optical properties of TeO{sub 2}–Tl{sub 2}O glasses containing silver are presented. ► The evolution of the linear optical properties with Ag{sub 2}O content is discussed. ► The photoluminescence properties of new TeO{sub 2}–ZnO–Ag{sub 2}O glasses are reported. -- Abstract: The optical properties of glasses elaborated within the TeO{sub 2}–Tl{sub 2}O–Ag{sub 2}O and TeO{sub 2}–ZnO–Ag{sub 2}O ternary systems are presented. The paper is articulated in two parts. The first part concerns the TeO{sub 2}–Tl{sub 2}O–Ag{sub 2}O system, where the linear refractive index, the absorption coefficient and the optical band gap are measured as a function of the Ag{sub 2}O content. From ellipsometry measurements, it is noticed that the linear refractive index n{sub 0} remains constant up to 5 mol% in AgO{sub 0.5} and then slightly increases at higher concentrations (10 mol%). Such evolution of the refractive index was related to the higher electronic polarizability of Ag{sup +} cations compared to that of Te{sup 4+} cations, assuming that the electronic polarizability of O{sup 2−} anions remains constant. The reduction in the optical band gap value is attributed for some part to the higher quantity of non-bridging oxygen atoms induced by the depolymerization of the glass. The third order non-linear optical properties (γ and Re(χ{sup (3)}) values) of these TeO{sub 2}–Tl{sub 2}O–Ag{sub 2}O glasses are then extracted from Z-scan measurements. For glass compositions ranging from 0 to 10 mol% in AgO{sub 0.5}, the Re(χ{sup (3)}) value shifts from roughly 60 to more than 80 times that of silica, which testify to the excellent non-linear optical properties of such TeO{sub 2}–Tl{sub 2}O glasses containing silver (tellurite glasses possess intrinsic high optical non-linearity). The addition of Tl{sub 2}O induces the depolymerization of the glass framework but, on the other hand, helps to maintain the amplitude of the optical non

  10. Atomic positional disorder, phonon spectrum, and molecular-dynamics simulation of Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 and Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplot, S. L.

    1992-03-01

    The nature of the atomic positional disorder in the high-temperature superconducting ceramic oxides Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 (Tl 2:1:2:2) and Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10 (Tl 2:2:2:3) is studied with the help of an ionic-type interatomic potential and molecular-dynamics computer simulations. The pair distribution function and the phonon spectrum are calculated using this model and compared with results of neutron-scattering experiments on Tl 2:1:2:2. Calculated results on the partial pair distribution function, partial phonon density of states, mean square atomic vibrational amplitudes, and lattice specific heat are also presented.

  11. The Circuit-Level Decoupling Modulation Strategy for Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped (TL-NPC) Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a circuit-level decoupling modulation strategy is proposed for the three-level (TL) neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverters. With the proposed modulation scheme, the TL-NPC inverter can be decoupled into two three-level Buck converters in each defined operating section, which makes...... without any feedback control. The simulation results show the validity of theoretical analysis....

  12. The Circuit-Level Decoupling Modulation Strategy for Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped (TL-NPC) Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a circuit-level decoupling modulation strategy is proposed for the three-level (TL) neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverters. With the proposed modulation scheme, the TL-NPC inverter can be decoupled into two three-level Buck converters in each defined operating section, which makes...

  13. Changes in mean-squared charge radii and magnetic moments of Tl-184179 measured by in-source laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzakh, A. E.; Andreyev, A. N.; Cocolios, T. E.; de Groote, R. P.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Ferrer, R.; Fink, D. A.; Ghys, L.; Huyse, M.; Köster, U.; Lane, J.; Liberati, V.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Procter, T. J.; Rapisarda, E.; Rothe, S.; Sandhu, K.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sjödin, A. M.; Van Beveren, C.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Veselský, M.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts have been measured for the ground and isomeric states in the neutron-deficient isotopes Tl-184179 using the 276.9-nm transition. The experiment has been performed at the CERN-Isotope Separator On-Line facility using the in-source resonance-ionization laser spectroscopy technique. Spins for the ground states in 179,181,183Tl have been determined as I =1 /2 . Magnetic moments and changes in the nuclear mean-square charge radii have been deduced. By applying the additivity relation for magnetic moments of the odd-odd Tl nuclei the leading configuration assignments were confirmed. A deviation of magnetic moments for isomeric states in Tl,184182 from the trend of the heavier Tl nuclei is observed. The charge radii of the ground states of the isotopes Tl-184179 follow the trend for isotonic (spherical) lead nuclei. The noticeable difference in charge radii for ground and isomeric states of Tl,184183 has been observed, suggesting a larger deformation for the intruder-based 9 /2- and 10- states compared to the ground states. An unexpected growth of the isomer shift for 183Tl has been found.

  14. The Performance of the Thin NaI(Tl) Detector Pico-Lon for Dark Matter Search

    CERN Document Server

    Harada, K; Nakayama, S; Orito, R; Iida, S; Ito, S; Ejiri, H; Shima, T; Hazama, R; Matsumoto, E; Ito, H; Imagawa, K

    2012-01-01

    Thin and large area NaI(Tl) scintillator to search for WIMPs dark matter was developed. The performance of thin and wide area NaI(Tl) showed good enough to search for dark matter. The energy threshold was as low as 2keV and the energy resolution was about 24% in FWHM at 60keV.

  15. The Role of SoTL in the Academy: Upon the 25th Anniversary of Boyer's "Scholarship Reconsidered"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Beth; Mettetal, Gwendolyn; Dixson, Marcia D.; Morgan, Robin K.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we explore definitions and taxonomies of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) and present a model of the Dimensions of Activities Related to Teaching (DART) which provides a context for SoTL along two dimensions: public/private and systematic/informal. The four quadrants: practice of teaching, sharing about teaching,…

  16. Model of interatomic interaction and dynamic and thermodynamic properties of Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belosludov, V. R.; Lavrent'ev, M. Yu.; Syskin, S. A.

    1991-12-01

    A model of interatomic interactions in Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8, which takes into account Coulombic interaction and covalent bonds, is presented. Using this model, calculations of lattice dynamics and lattice specific heat of Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8 are performed.

  17. Thallium chloride 201Tl combined with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the evaluation of vestibular schwannoma growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charabi, Samih Ahmed; Lassen, N A; Thomsen, J

    1997-01-01

    Thallium chloride 201Tl combined with SPECT was performed in a series of 29 patients with neuroradiological evidence of vestibular schwannoma (VS). The relative tumor uptake (U) and relative tumor concentration (C) of the radiotracer 201Tl was determined, and the cerebellum served as a reference....

  18. Source characteristics and geological implications of the January 2016 induced earthquake swarm near Crooked Lake, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruijia; Gu, Yu Jeffrey; Schultz, Ryan; Zhang, Miao; Kim, Ahyi

    2017-08-01

    On 2016 January 12, an intraplate earthquake with an initial reported local magnitude (ML) of 4.8 shook the town of Fox Creek, Alberta. While there were no reported damages, this earthquake was widely felt by the local residents and suspected to be induced by the nearby hydraulic-fracturing (HF) operations. In this study, we determine the earthquake source parameters using moment tensor inversions, and then detect and locate the associated swarm using a waveform cross-correlation based method. The broad-band seismic recordings from regional arrays suggest a moment magnitude (M) 4.1 for this event, which is the largest in Alberta in the past decade. Similar to other recent M ˜ 3 earthquakes near Fox Creek, the 2016 January 12 earthquake exhibits a dominant strike-slip (strike = 184°) mechanism with limited non-double-couple components (˜22 per cent). This resolved focal mechanism, which is also supported by forward modelling and P-wave first motion analysis, indicates an NE-SW oriented compressional axis consistent with the maximum compressive horizontal stress orientations delineated from borehole breakouts. Further detection analysis on industry-contributed recordings unveils 1108 smaller events within 3 km radius of the epicentre of the main event, showing a close spatial-temporal relation to a nearby HF well. The majority of the detected events are located above the basement, comparable to the injection depth (3.5 km) on the Duvernay shale Formation. The spatial distribution of this earthquake cluster further suggests that (1) the source of the sequence is an N-S-striking fault system and (2) these earthquakes were induced by an HF well close to but different from the well that triggered a previous (January 2015) earthquake swarm. Reactivation of pre-existing, N-S oriented faults analogous to the Pine Creek fault zone, which was reported by earlier studies of active source seismic and aeromagnetic data, are likely responsible for the occurrence of the January

  19. Snag characteristics and dynamics following natural and artificially induced mortality in a managed loblolly pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarnoch, Stanley J.; Vukovich, Mark A.; Kilgo, John C.; Blake, John I.

    2013-09-01

    A 14-year study of snag characteristics was established in 41- to 44-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands in southeastern USA. During the initial 5.5 years, no stand manipulation or unusually high-mortality events occurred. Afterwards, three treatments were applied consisting of trees thinned and removed, trees felled and not removed, and artificial creation of snags produced by girdling and herbicide injection. The thinned treatments were designed to maintain the same live canopy density as the snag-created treatment, disregarding snags that remained standing.We monitored snag height, diameter, density, volume, and bark percentage; the number of cavities was monitored in natural snags only. During the first 5.5 years, recruitment and loss rates were stable, resulting in a stable snag population. Large snags (≥25 cm diameter) were common, but subcanopy small snags (10 to <25 cm diameter) dominated numerically. Large natural snags survived (90% quantile) significantly longer (6.0–9.4 years) than smaller snags (4.4–6.9 years). Large artificial snags persisted the longest (11.8 years). Cavities in natural snags developed within 3 years following tree death. The mean number of cavities per snag was five times greater in large versus small snags and large snags were more likely to have multiple cavities, emphasizing the importance of mature pine stands for cavity-dependent wildlife species.

  20. Gamma-radiation-induced dielectric relaxation characteristics of layered crystals of phlogopite mica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Navjeet [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Singh, Mohan, E-mail: mohansinghphysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Singh, Lakhwant [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143005 (India); Awasthi, A.M.; Kumar, Jitender [Thermodynamics Laboratory, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452001 (India)

    2013-12-01

    Highlights: • Phlogopite mica was used in the present investigation. • Dielectric relaxation of gamma irradiated phlogopite mica was analyzed. • The data have also been fitted with the Havriliak-Negami function. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, the influence of gamma irradiation on the dielectric relaxation characteristics of phlogopite mica was studied over the frequency range of 0.1 Hz–10 MHz and in the temperature range of 593–813 K by measuring the dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and conductivity. By comparing the dielectric spectra obtained for pristine and irradiated samples, it was observed that gamma irradiation significantly enhances the dielectric constants (ε′ and ε″) of phlogopite mica because of the production of defects and lattice disorder by the gamma irradiation. The values of the activation energy for pristine and irradiated mica (determined from the electric modulus and the conductivity) were found to be substantially similar, suggesting that the same types of charge carriers are involved in the relaxation mechanism. The experimentally measured electric modulus and conductivity data could be well interpreted by the Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation function. The scaling of the electric-modulus spectra of both pristine and irradiated mica results in a master curve, which indicates that the relaxation mechanism is independent of temperature. Cole–Cole plots were also employed to analyze the non-Debye relaxation mechanism. This research will boost the reader’s interest concerning the emerging contributions of irradiation and materials such as mica in electrical engineering.

  1. Excess iron-induced changes in the photosynthetic characteristics of sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, Janete M; Peters, José A; Danieloski, Rodrigo; Bacarin, Marcos A

    2011-11-15

    Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for plant growth and development. In plant tissues, approximately 80% of Fe is found in photosynthetic cells. This study was carried out to determine the effect of different iron concentrations on the photosynthetic characteristics of sweet potato plants. The fluorescence transient of chlorophyll a (OJIP), chlorophyll index and gas exchange were measured in plants grown for seven days in Hoagland solution containing an iron concentration of 0.45, 0.90, 4.50 or 9.00 mM Fe (as Fe-EDTA). The initial and maximum fluorescence increased in the plants receiving 9.00 mM Fe. In the analysis of the fluorescence kinetic difference, L- and K-bands appeared in all of the treatments, but the amplitude was higher in plants receiving 4.50 or 9.00 mM Fe. In plants grown in 9.00 mM Fe, the parameters of the JIP-Test indicated a better efficiency in the capture, absorption and use of light energy, and although the chlorophyll index was higher, the net photosynthesis was lower. The overall data showed that sweet potato plants subjected to high iron concentrations may not exhibit the toxicity symptoms, but the light reactions of photosynthesis can be affect, which may result in a declining net assimilation rate.

  2. Snag characteristics and dynamics following natural and artificially induced mortality in a managed loblolly pine forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarnoch, Stanley J. [USDA Forest Service; Vukovich, Mark A. [USDA Forest Service; Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service; Blake, John I. [USDA Forest Service

    2013-06-10

    A 14-year study of snag characteristics was established in 41- to 44-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands in southeastern USA. During the initial 5.5 years, no stand manipulation or unusually high-mortality events occurred. Afterwards, three treatments were applied consisting of trees thinned and removed, trees felled and not removed, and artificial creation of snags produced by girdling and herbicide injection. The thinned treatments were designed to maintain the same live canopy density as the snag-created treatment, disregarding snags that remained standing.We monitored snag height, diameter, density, volume, and bark percentage; the number of cavities was monitored in natural snags only. During the first 5.5 years, recruitment and loss rates were stable, resulting in a stable snag population. Large snags (≥25 cm diameter) were common, but subcanopy small snags (10 to <25 cm diameter) dominated numerically. Large natural snags survived (90% quantile) significantly longer (6.0–9.4 years) than smaller snags (4.4–6.9 years). Large artificial snags persisted the longest (11.8 years). Cavities in natural snags developed within 3 years following tree death. The mean number of cavities per snag was five times greater in large versus small snags and large snags were more likely to have multiple cavities, emphasizing the importance of mature pine stands for cavity-dependent wildlife species.

  3. Magnetism and thermal induced characteristics of Fe2O3 content bioceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Shiang; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Wang, Moo-Chin; Chen, Yung-Sheng

    2012-11-01

    Magnetic properties of Li2O-MnO2-CaO-P2O5-SiO2 (LMCPS) glasses doped with various amounts of Fe2O3 were investigated. There is a dramatic change in the magnetic property of pristine LMCPS after the addition of Fe2O3 and crystallized at 850 °C for 4 h. Both the electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetic susceptibility measurements showed that the glass ceramic with 4 at% Fe2O3 exhibited the coexistence of superparamagnetism and ferromagnetism at room temperature. When the Fe2O3 content was higher than 8 at%, the LMCPS glasses showed ferromagnetism behavior. The complex magnetic behavior is due to the distribution of (Li, Mn)ferrite particle sizes driven by the Fe2O3 content. The thermal induced hysteresis loss of the crystallized LMCPS glass ceramics was characterized under an alternating magnetic field. The energy dissipations of the crystallized LMCPS glass ceramics were determined by the concentration and Mn/Fe ratios of Li(Mn, Fe)ferrite phase formed in the glass ceramics.

  4. Characteristics and classification of hippocampal θ rhythm induced by passive translational displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kangning; Yan, Yili; Fang, Xiaolei; Gao, Shangkai; Hong, Bo

    2012-04-25

    Theta rhythms in the hippocampus are believed to be the "metric" relating to various behavior patterns for free roaming rats. In this study, the theta rhythms were studied while rats either walked or were passively translated by a toy car on a linear track (referred to as WALK and TRANS respectively). For the similar running speeds in WALK and TRANS conditions, theta frequency and amplitude were both reduced during TRANS. Theta modulation of pyramidal cells during TRANS was reduced compared to that during WALK. Theta frequency was positively correlated with translation speed during TRANS. Theta rhythm remained apparent during TRANS and WALK after large dose of atropine sulfate (blocking the cholinergic pathway) was injected compared to still states. The present study demonstrated the patterns of theta rhythm induced by passive translation in rats and suggested that the Type I theta rhythm could occur during non-voluntary locomotion. We further argued that the perception of actual self-motion may be the underlying mechanism that initiates and modulates type I theta.

  5. Characteristics of Ion Activation and Collision Induced Dissociation Using Digital Ion Trap Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuxing; Dang, Qiankun; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ding, Li; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2016-08-01

    Collision induced dissociation (CID) is one of the most established techniques for tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The CID of mass selected ion could be realized by ion resonance excitation with a digital rectangular waveform. The method is simple, and highly efficient CID result could be obtained by optimizing the experimental parameters, such as digital waveform voltage, frequency, and q value. In this work, the relationship between ion trapping waveform voltage and frequency at preselected q value, the relationship between waveform frequency and the q value at certain ion trapping voltage for optimum CID efficiency were investigated. Experiment results showed that the max CID efficiency of precursor reserpine ions can be obtained at different trapping waveform voltage and frequency when q and β are different. Based on systematic experimental analysis, the optimum experimental conditions for high CID efficiency can be calculated at any selected β or q. By using digital ion trap technology, the CID process and efficient fragmentation of parent ions can be realized by simply changing the trapping waveform amplitude, frequency, and the β values in the digital ion trap mass spectrometry. The technology and method are simple. It has potential use in ion trap mass spectrometry.

  6. Gait Characteristics Associated with Trip-Induced Falls on Level and Sloped Irregular Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Merryweather

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Same level falls continue to contribute to an alarming number of slip/trip/fall injuries in the mining workforce. The objective of this study was to investigate how walking on different surface types and transverse slopes influences gait parameters that may be associated with a trip event. Gait analysis was performed for ten subjects on two orientations (level and sloped on smooth, hard surface (control and irregular (gravel, larger rocks surfaces. Walking on irregular surfaces significantly increased toe clearance compared to walking on the smooth surface. There was a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in cadence (steps/min, stride length (m, and speed (m/s from control to gravel to larger rocks. Significant changes in external rotation and increased knee flexion while walking on irregular surfaces were observed. Toe and heel clearance requirements increased on irregular surfaces, which may provide an explanation for trip-induced falls; however, the gait alterations observed in the experienced workers used as subjects would likely improve stability and recovery from a trip.

  7. Amorphous Indium Selenide Thin Films Prepared by RF Sputtering: Thickness-Induced Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myoung Yoo; Park, Yong Seob; Kim, Nam-Hoon

    2016-05-01

    The influence of indium composition, controlled by changing the film thickness, on the optical and electrical properties of amorphous indium selenide thin films was studied for the application of these materials as Cd-free buffer layers in CI(G)S solar cells. Indium selenide thin films were prepared using RF magnetron sputtering method. The indium composition of the amorphous indium selenide thin films was varied from 94.56 to 49.72 at% by increasing the film thickness from 30 to 70 nm. With a decrease in film thickness, the optical transmittance increased from 87.63% to 96.03% and Eg decreased from 3.048 to 2.875 eV. Carrier concentration and resistivity showed excellent values of ≥1015 cm(-3) and ≤ 10(4) Ω x cm, respectively. The conductivity type of the amorphous indium selenide thin films could be controlled by changing the film-thickness-induced amount of In. These results indicate the possibility of tuning the properties of amorphous indium selenide thin films by changing their composition for use as an alternate buffer layer material in CI(G)S solar cells.

  8. Self-absorption characteristics of measured laser-induced plasma line shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parigger, C. G.; Surmick, D. M.; Gautam, G.

    2017-02-01

    The determination of electron density and temperature is reported from line-of-sight measurements of laser-induced plasma. Experiments are conducted in standard ambient temperature and pressure air and in a cell containing ultra-high-pure hydrogen slightly above atmospheric pressure. Spectra of the hydrogen Balmer series lines can be measured in laboratory air due to residual moisture following optical breakdown generated with 13 to 14 nanosecond, pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation. Comparisons with spectra obtained in hydrogen gas yields Abel-inverted line shape appearances that indicate occurrence of self-absorption. The electron density and temperature distributions along the line of sight show near-spherical rings, expanding at or near the speed of sound in the hydrogen gas experiments. The temperatures in the hydrogen studies are obtained using Balmer series alpha, beta, gamma profiles. Over and above the application of empirical formulae to derive the electron density from hydrogen alpha width and shift, and from hydrogen beta width and peak-separation, so-called escape factors and the use of a doubling mirror are discussed.

  9. Characteristics of a streak disturbance induced by an isolated roughness element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Kyle; Naguib, Ahmed

    2012-11-01

    A detailed description of a streak disturbance introduced in a Blasius boundary layer by an isolated roughness element will be presented. This work is motivated by the desire to understand the dependence of the evolution/instability of streamwise-oriented streaks (which play a key role in bypass transition) on the method by which they are generated. The proper scaling of the streamwise evolution of the streak disturbance energy is examined. This expands upon established Rek2scaling (White et al., Physics of Fluids, 2005) of streak disturbances induced by spanwise-periodic roughness element arrays. Examining different roughness heights, k, and employing a method that accounts for the streamwise growth of the streak's wall-normal and spanwise scales, it is found that the streak energy density scales with Rek7/ 3 , in the case of an isolated roughness element. The data used in the analysis are acquired using hotwire anemometry throughout a three-dimensional domain located downstream of a single cylindrical roughness element. These measurements are complemented by smokewire visualizations, which capture clearly three distinct disturbance states, dependent upon roughness element height; namely, stable streaks, streaks with intermittent turbulent bursts, and turbulent disturbances. Correspondence is established between these states and the streamwise evolution of the streak energy and the cross-stream disturbance profiles. NSF Grant: CMMI 0932546.

  10. Effect of laser-induced temperature field on the characteristics of laser-sintered silver nanoparticle ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D G; Kim, D K; Moon, Y J; Moon, S-J

    2013-07-05

    Laser sintering of metal nanoparticles is a key technology for high-performance printed electronics fabricated on heat-sensitive substrates such as glass or plastic. Although laser-sintered electronic devices have been successfully fabricated, the role of the induced temperature field in the laser sintering process has not been reported thus far. In this work, the effect of temperature on the laser sintering process is described for the first time using a two-dimensional transient heat conduction equation for inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink. The in situ electrical resistance was measured to estimate the transient thermal conductivity and hence the temperature of the sintered ink during the laser sintering process. To verify the estimated laser sintering temperature, the morphology of furnace-sintered silver nanoparticle ink was compared with that of laser-sintered ink. The electrical characteristics and surface morphology of laser-sintered ink are found to be related to the process temperature.

  11. Non-gated laser induced breakdown spectroscopy provides a powerful segmentation tool on concomitant treatment of characteristic and continuum emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myakalwar, Ashwin Kumar; Dingari, Narahara Chari; Dasari, Ramachandra Rao; Barman, Ishan; Gundawar, Manoj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of non-gated laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for characterization and classification of organic materials with similar chemical composition. While use of such a system introduces substantive continuum background in the spectral dataset, we show that appropriate treatment of the continuum and characteristic emission results in accurate discrimination of pharmaceutical formulations of similar stoichiometry. Specifically, our results suggest that near-perfect classification can be obtained by employing suitable multivariate analysis on the acquired spectra, without prior removal of the continuum background. Indeed, we conjecture that pre-processing in the form of background removal may introduce spurious features in the signal. Our findings in this report significantly advance the prior results in time-integrated LIBS application and suggest the possibility of a portable, non-gated LIBS system as a process analytical tool, given its simple instrumentation needs, real-time capability and lack of sample preparation requirements.

  12. Non-gated laser induced breakdown spectroscopy provides a powerful segmentation tool on concomitant treatment of characteristic and continuum emission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar Myakalwar

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the application of non-gated laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS for characterization and classification of organic materials with similar chemical composition. While use of such a system introduces substantive continuum background in the spectral dataset, we show that appropriate treatment of the continuum and characteristic emission results in accurate discrimination of pharmaceutical formulations of similar stoichiometry. Specifically, our results suggest that near-perfect classification can be obtained by employing suitable multivariate analysis on the acquired spectra, without prior removal of the continuum background. Indeed, we conjecture that pre-processing in the form of background removal may introduce spurious features in the signal. Our findings in this report significantly advance the prior results in time-integrated LIBS application and suggest the possibility of a portable, non-gated LIBS system as a process analytical tool, given its simple instrumentation needs, real-time capability and lack of sample preparation requirements.

  13. [Incidence of the characteristics of induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro in administrative regime of their lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo-Ruiz, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Recently achieved techniques in the field of stem cell research have permitted the development of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). The characteristics of these cells and their appearance after the passage of Order SCO/393/2006, of 8 February, on Functioning and Organization of a National Bank of Cell Lines and Act 14/2007, of 3 July, on Biomedical Research raise the questions of the legal regime of their deposition at the National Bank of Cell Lines and their control by the Commission of Guarantees for the Donation and Use of Human Cells and Tissues. Drawing on a wider legal frame, the author defends these requirements on the grounds that the legal classification comes from the origin and potentiality of the cells rather than from the techniques employed to obtain them.

  14. An Interconnected Wind Driven SEIG System Using SVPWM Controlled TL Z-Source Inverter Strategy for Off-Shore WECS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajin Sekhar CS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about  the interconnection of wind driven SEIG for drive applications by using TL Z-source inverter strategy .TL Z-source consists of two coupled inductors having turns ratio γTL and four diodes are used . The wind energy system uses a two Self Excited Induction generator (SEIG connected parallel in order to increase the reliability. The proposed system components like wind turbine SEIG, rectifier, SVM Controlled TL Z-source inverter, are modeled by matlab Simulink. The maximum power can be extracted and supplied to the load efficiently by using TL Z-source inverter with a proper value of modulation index. The simulation output is analysed experimentally using 500 W experimental setup.

  15. Activity determination of a {sup 201}Tl solution by 4πβ-γ and sum-peak coincidence methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzzarin, Anelise; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: aruzzarin@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Cursos de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (LIN/PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Silva, Monica A. L. da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Iwahara, Akira; Silva, Ronaldo L. da; Filho, Octavio L.T.; Poledna, Roberto [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    2015-07-01

    {sup 201}Tl is used in nuclear medicine in cardiac imaging for evaluating the injury level in cardiac muscle at rest and exercise. In this work the activity concentration of a {sup 201}Tl radioactive solution has been absolutely determined using the 4πβ-γ coincidence and sum-peak coincidence methods. The presence of {sup 202}Tl radioactive impurity that imposes some difficult in the activity measurements was taken into account in the measurements. In the sum-peak method a planar germanium detector was used. The half-lives were evaluated by the reference source method and the results obtained were (3.033 ± 0.004) d and (12.320 ± 0.163) d, respectively, for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 202}Tl. (author)

  16. Luminescence and scintillation properties of Tl- and Ce-doped Cs2HfCl6 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Keiichiro; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Koshimizu, Masanori; Nakauchi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Hironori; Yanagida, Takayuki; Asai, Keisuke

    2017-02-01

    The luminescence and scintillation properties of Tl- and Ce-doped Cs2HfCl6 crystals were investigated by photoluminescence and radioluminescence spectroscopy. In the photoluminescence spectra, emission bands of the activators were observed at 500 nm for Tl-doped Cs2HfCl6, and at 340 and 380 nm for Ce-doped Cs2HfCl6. The radioluminescence bands were observed at 405 and 430 nm for Tl- and Ce-doped Cs2HfCl6, respectively. Scintillation decay time constants for the Tl- and Ce-doped Cs2HfCl6 were smaller than those for the corresponding undoped crystals. Scintillation light yields for Tl- and Ce-doped Cs2HfCl6 were estimated to be 23,700 and 15,700 photons/MeV, respectively.

  17. Activity determination of a 201Tl solution by 4πβ-γ and sum-peak coincidence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzarin, A.; da Silva, M. A. L.; Iwahara, A.; da Silva, R. L.; Filho, O. L. T.; Poledna, R.; Lopes, R. T.

    2016-07-01

    201Tl is used in nuclear medicine in cardiac imaging for evaluating the injury level in cardiac muscle at rest and exercise. In this work the activity concentration of a 201 Tl radioactive solution has been absolutely determined using the 4πβ-γ coincidence and sum-peak coincidence methods. The presence of 202Tl radioactive impurity that imposes some difficult in the activity measurements was taken into account in the measurements. In the sum-peak method a planar germanium detector was used. The half-lives were evaluated by the reference source method and the results obtained were (3.033 ± 0.004) d and (12.320 ± 0.163) d, respectively, for 201Tl and 202Tl.

  18. Spectrum-dose conversion operator of NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl) scintillation detectors for air dose rate measurement in contaminated environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Shuichi; Saito, Kimiaki

    2017-01-01

    Spectrum-dose conversion operators, the G(E) functions, for common NaI(Tl) scintillation survey meters and CsI(Tl) detectors are obtained for measurements in a semi-infinite plane of contaminated ground field by photon-emitting radionuclides (ground source). The calculated doses at a height of 100 cm from the ground in (137)Cs-contaminated environments by the Monte Carlo simulation technique are compared with those obtained using the G(E) functions by assuming idealized irradiation geometries such as anterior-posterior or isotropic. The simulation reveals that one could overestimate air dose rates in the environment by a maximum of 20-30% for NaI(Tl) detectors and 40-50% for CsI(Tl) detectors depending on photon energy when using the G(E) functions assuming idealized irradiation geometries for ground source measurements. Measurements obtained after the nuclear accident in Fukushima reveal that the doses calculated using a G(E) function for a unidirectional irradiation geometry are 1.17 times higher than those calculated using a G(E) function for the ground source in the case of a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector, which has a rectangular parallelepiped crystal (13 × 13 × 20 mm(3)). However, if a G(E) function is used assuming irradiation to a surface of the detector, the doses agree with those of the ground source within 2%. These results indicate that in contaminated environments, the commonly used scintillation-based detectors overestimate doses within the acceptable limit. In addition, the degree of overestimation depends on the irradiation direction of each detector assumed for developing the G(E) function. With regard to directional dependence of the detectors, reliable air dose rates in the environment can be obtained using the G(E) function determined in unidirectional irradiation geometry, provided that the irradiation surface of the crystal is determined properly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics of dewatering induced drawdown curve under blocking effect of retaining wall in aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong-Xia; Shen, Shui-Long; Yuan, Da-Jun

    2016-08-01

    For deep excavation pits that require the pumping of confined groundwater, a combination of a retaining wall and dewatering with large-diameter wells is usually adopted during excavation to improve safety. Since a retaining wall has a much lower hydraulic conductivity than the surrounding material in the aquifer, blocking of seepage to prolong the seepage path of the groundwater outside of the pit is effective. The retaining walls used during excavation dewatering cause hydraulic head drawdown inside the pit much faster than outside the pit. Thus, difference in hydraulic head between inside and outside of the pit increases. To investigate the mechanism of the blocking effect, numerical simulation using the finite difference method (FDM) was conducted to analyze the effects of pumping in the pit. The FDM results show that drawdown varies along the depth of the confined aquifer. The influence factors of drawdown inside and outside the pit include insertion depth of retaining walls, anisotropy of a confined aquifer and screen length of pumping wells. In addition, FDM results also show that the drawdown-time curve can be divided into four stages: in Stage I, drawdown inside the pit is very small and outside the pit it is almost zero; in Stage II, drawdown increases quickly with time; in Stage III, the drawdown curve is parallel to the Cooper-Jacob curve on semi-log axes; and in Stage IV, the drawdown becomes constant. These characteristics of the drawdown curve under the blocking effect of a retaining wall in an aquifer provide a way of estimating hydrogeological parameters according to pumping test results.

  20. Soaking Induced Changes in Chemical Composition, Glycemic Index and Starch Characteristics of Basmati Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Kale

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to determine the qualitative changes in basmati rice (Pusa Basmati 1121, PB1121 during soaking at 40 °C to 80 °C. Soaking temperature had significant effect (α = 0.01 on chemical composition, glycemic index and starch characteristics of rice. Starch content, apparent amylose content, crude protein content and crude fat content in un-soaked rice were found to be 73.24%, 27.26%, 8.79% and 2.56%, respectively, but differences in these traits were observed after soaking. Amylose to amylopectin ratio (Am/Ap decreased from 0.59 to 0.52 (soaked at 80 °C. Crude fibre and crude ash contents increased after soaking. The mineral composition (K, P, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in soaked rice was found to be 16.46% higher than un-soaked rice at the same degree of polishing. Glycemic index of un-soaked rice was found to be 58.41, but decreased to 54.31 after soaking at 80 °C. Pasting properties, scanning electron microscope images, and X-ray diffractograms suggested partial gelatinization of starch in the temperature range of 60 °C to 80 °C. Based on qualitative changes in rice (apparent amylose content, Am/Ap ratio and crystallinity rate, it was concluded that intermediate soaking temperatures (60 °C to 70 °C would be useful for soaking of PB1121.